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Sample records for occupational lifestyle diseases

  1. Occupational lifestyle diseases: An emerging issue.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Majumdar, P K

    2009-12-01

    populations might partly determine their rates of cancer, and the basis for this hypothesis was strengthened by results of studies showing that people who migrate from one country to another generally acquire the cancer rates of the new host country, suggesting that environmental [or lifestyle factors] rather than genetic factors are the key determinants of the international variation in cancer rates. Some of the common diseases encountered because of occupational lifestyle are Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis, cancer, chronic liver disease/cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, nephritis/CRF, and stroke. Occupational lifestyle diseases include those caused by the factors present in the vicinity like heat, sound, dust, fumes, smoke, cold, and other pollutants. These factors are responsible for allergy, respiratory and hearing problems, and heat or cold shock. So, A healthy lifestyle must be adopted to combat these diseases with a proper balanced diet, physical activity and by giving due respect to biological clock. Kids spending too much time slouched in front of the TV or PCs, should be encourage to find a physical sport or activity they enjoy. Fun exercises should be encouraged into family outings. A pizza-and-video evening should be replaced for a hike and picnic. Kids who do participate in sport, especially at a high competitive level, can find the pressure to succeed very stressful. To decrease the ailments caused by occupational postures, one should avoid long sitting hours and should take frequent breaks for stretching or for other works involving physical movements.

  2. A Simultaneous Evaluation of Occupational Stress and Depression in Patients with Lifestyle-related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Nobutaka; Otsui, Kazunori; Yoshioka, Takayuki; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ozawa, Toru; Iwata, Sachiyo; Takei, Asumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Karoshi, which is the Japanese term for death from over-work, is usually the extreme result of cardiovascular diseases, and occupational stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis. Depression is closely associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between occupational stress and depression. Methods We enrolled 231 consecutive outpatients with lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension were enrolled. Occupational stress was measured by qualitative constructs assessing job control, job demands, and worksite social support using a job content questionnaire (JCQ). The job strain index measured by the ratio of job demands to job control was used as an indicator of the occupational stress. Depression was evaluated by the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). Results A univariate linear regression analysis showed the SDS scores to be positively correlated with job demands and the job strain index and negatively correlated with job control and worksite social support. Multiple regression analyses to predict the SDS scores demonstrated that job demands were positively associated with SDS scores and job control and worksite social support were negatively associated with SDS scores after controlling for other variables. The job strain index was positively related to SDS scores. Conclusion Occupational stress expressed as the job strain index was strongly associated with depression. By simultaneously using the SDS and JCQ, the health conditions of patients could be classified based on occupational stress and mental stress, and this classification could help to promote a healthy work environment and guide individual workers.

  3. [Lifestyle diseases in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Harth, W; Hillert, A

    2007-10-01

    Psychosocial disorders and lifestyle trends have become more important in dermatology. Lifestyle diseases are a biopsychosocial phenomenon that can only be diagnosed and treated by paying attention to the quickly changing sociocultural aspects. The naming and popularization of the particular lifestyle diseases takes place by the media, but there is only an imprecise medical classification of these phenomena. This article gives an overview of the current situation and medical conditions of lifestyle diseases and try to assign them to an established psychosomatic diagnosis, based on the clinical symptomatic. Most often somatoform disorders, somatization disorders with a repeated presentation of physical symptoms which cannot be medically objectified or depressive disturbances are found.

  4. Lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetic risk in a sedentary occupational group: the Galway taxi driver study.

    PubMed

    Martin, W P; Sharif, F; Flaherty, G

    2016-05-01

    Taxi drivers are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), something which persists after correcting for the overrepresentation of traditional risk factors for CVD in this cohort. The contribution of lifestyle risk factors to this residually elevated CVD risk remains under-evaluated. We aimed to determine the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for CVD, self-reported medical risk factors for CVD, and future risk of type 2 diabetes amongst Irish taxi drivers. Male taxi drivers with no history of CVD and type 2 diabetes and working in Galway city in the west of Ireland were invited to participate. Physical activity levels, dietary patterns, anthropometry, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) values were recorded in a cross-sectional manner. 41 taxi drivers (mean age 56.7 ± 9.8 years) participated. 37 % were insufficiently active based on self-report, although only 8 % objectively achieved 10, 000 steps per day. Mean modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was 4.6 ± 2.2, and only 13 % of participants had a normal body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Those who worked for taxi companies tended to have a higher BMI (p = .07) and WC (p = .04) by multivariable regression. 22 % were current smokers, although a quit rate of 72 % was observed amongst the 78 % of taxi drivers who had ever smoked. 25 % were at high or very high risk of future type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD and dysglycaemia are prevalent amongst Irish taxi drivers.

  5. [Tuberculosis as occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related.

  6. Occupational Respiratory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... other particles. Types of occupational respiratory disease include: coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, also known as Black Lung Disease ... include: Dust from things such as wood, cotton, coal, asbestos, silica, and talc. Pesticides, drug or enzyme ...

  7. Sustainable occupational responses to climate change through lifestyle choices.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Clare; Kroksmark, Ulla

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Occupational therapists and occupational scientists are increasingly aware of the relationship between occupation and global climate change, with some working to raise awareness of the issues and others proposing that an occupational perspective can make a valuable contribution to understanding and addressing the issues. In this discussion paper the United Nations Global Survey on Sustainable Lifestyles ( 1 ), which reports young adults' beliefs about everyday occupations that have a substantial impact on the environment (food, housekeeping, and transportation) is introduced. The authors argue that the survey findings are a valuable resource for occupational therapists who are concerned about global climate change and work with young adults (age 18-35), providing valuable insights into their concerns and preferences in relation to sustainability. To illustrate the insights contained in the reports, findings from four countries are presented: New Zealand and Sweden, the authors' countries of origin, and the Philippines and Lebanon which have people living in New Zealand and Sweden. Application to individual and community-based interventions to promote more sustainable lifestyles is suggested, along with studies to examine the perspectives of young adults with a disability, as their concerns and sustainability preferences might differ due to the barriers that limit their participation in educational and vocational occupations.

  8. Occupational lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography are indispensable tools in the detection, classification and characterization of occupational lung diseases that are caused by inhaling mineral particles such as asbestos, silicon-containing rock dust and other tissue-damaging antigens, nanomaterials and toxins. Radiographic evidence of occupational lung disease is interpreted with a patient's clinical signs and symptoms and a detailed occupational history in mind because of high variability in radiographic findings. This Directed Reading reviews the history, epidemiology, functional anatomy, pathobiology and medical diagnostic imaging of occupational lung diseases associated with inhalation of fine particulates in the workplace. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your CE preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store.

  9. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  10. Occupational skin diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-12-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group.

  11. Lifestyle, Genetics, and Disease in Sami

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Alastair B.; Johansson, Åsa; Ingman, Max; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the lifestyle, genetic origin, diet, and disease in the population of Sami, indigenous people of northern Fennoscandia. Method A survey of the available scientific literature and preliminary results from our own study of the Swedish Sami population. Results The Sami probably have a heterogeneous genetic origin, with a major contribution of continental or Eastern European tribes and a smaller contribution from Asia. The traditional Sami diet, high in animal products, persists in Sami groups still involved with reindeer herding, but others have adopted a diet typical of Western cultures. Early reports indicated a lower prevalence of heart disease and most cancers, except stomach cancer. Recent studies have not found a lower risk of heart disease, but have consistently shown an overall reduced cancer risk. Sami have been reported to share some specific health-related genetic polymorphisms with other European populations, but none that would explain the observed differences in disease risk. Conclusion The genetic structure of the Sami population makes it suitable for studies of the genetic and environmental factors influencing the development of common diseases. The difference in incidence of heart disease between studies may reflect the ongoing transition from a traditional to a more Westernized lifestyle. The ability to compare population segments with different lifestyles, combined with the genetic structure of the population, creates unusual possibilities for studies of the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of common disease. PMID:16909452

  12. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Skin cancer as occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Bauer, A

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of epithelial skin neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is significantly increasing worldwide. Leisure time solar UV exposure is causative in the overwhelming majority of cases in the general population; however, occupational exposure is responsible for a certain percentage of cases. Employees with a relevant exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances, to sunlight in outdoor occupations as well as to arsenic and ionizing radiation have a significantly increased risk to develop occupational skin cancer compared to the general population. In the official occupational disease list in the appendix of the German by-law on occupational diseases, the following occupational diseases concerning skin cancer are listed: BK 5102 "skin cancer and carcinoma in situ caused by soot, raw paraffin, coal tar, anthracene, pitch or similar substances" (e.g. various solid paraffins, asphalt and mazut as well as mineral oils, grease, cylinder and drilling oils), BK 5103 "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis caused by natural UV radiation", BK 1108 "diseases caused by arsenic and its compounds" and BK 2402 "diseases caused by ionizing radiation". For further occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances and potential occupationally acquired skin tumors, no official lists are currently available. These cancers might be considered under a special opt out paragraph in the German Social Law (§ 9 para 2 SGB VII). Tumors in scars after occupational skin trauma or occupational burns are compensated as consequences of work accidents. The current official list of occupational skin cancers and new developments for expert opinions are described in this article.

  14. Occupational lung diseases in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Ryan F; Brims, Fraser

    2017-11-20

    Occupational exposures are an important determinant of respiratory health. International estimates note that about 15% of adult-onset asthma, 15% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10-30% of lung cancer may be attributable to hazardous occupational exposures. One-quarter of working asthmatics either have had their asthma caused by work or adversely affected by workplace conditions. Recently, cases of historical occupational lung diseases have been noted to occur with new exposures, such as cases of silicosis in workers fabricating kitchen benchtops from artificial stone products. Identification of an occupational cause of a lung disease can be difficult and requires maintaining a high index of suspicion. When an occupational lung disease is identified, this may facilitate a cure and help to protect coworkers. Currently, very little information is collected regarding actual cases of occupational lung diseases in Australia. Most assumptions about many occupational lung diseases are based on extrapolation from overseas data. This lack of information is a major impediment to development of targeted interventions and timely identification of new hazardous exposures. All employers, governments and health care providers in Australia have a responsibility to ensure that the highest possible standards are in place to protect workers' respiratory health.

  15. Non-specific low back pain: occupational or lifestyle consequences?

    PubMed

    Stričević, Jadranka; Papež, Breda Jesenšek

    2015-12-01

    Nursing occupation was identified as a risk occupation for the development of low back pain (LBP). The aim of our study was to find out how much occupational factors influence the development of LBP in hospital nursing personnel. Non-experimental approach with a cross-sectional survey and statistical analysis. Nine hundred questionnaires were distributed among nursing personnel, 663 were returned and 659 (73.2 %) were considered for the analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistics for LBP risk was calculated by the binary logistic regression. The χ(2), influence factor, 95 % confidence interval and P value were calculated. Multivariate binary logistic regression was calculated by the Wald method to omit insignificant variables. Not performing exercises represented the highest risk for the development of LBP (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7-4.4; p < 0.001). The second and third ranked risk factors were frequent manual lifting > 10 kg (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-3.8; p < 0.001) and duration of employment ≥ 19 years (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.6-3.7; p < 0.001). The fourth ranked risk factor was better physical condition by frequent recreation and sports, which reduced the risk for the development of LBP (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.3-0.7; p = 0.001). Work with the computer ≥ 2 h per day as last significant risk factor also reduced the risk for the development of LBP (OR 0.6, 95 % CI 0.4-0.1; p = 0.049). Risk factors for LBP established in our study (exercises, duration of employment, frequent manual lifting, recreation and sports and work with the computer) are not specifically linked to the working environment of the nursing personnel. Rather than focusing on mechanical causes and direct workload in the development of non-specific LBP, the complex approach to LBP including genetics, psychosocial environment, lifestyle and quality of life is coming more to the fore.

  16. Occupational and environmental lung disease.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging of Occupational Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Champlin, Jay; Edwards, Rachael; Pipavath, Sudhakar

    2016-11-01

    Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mediterranean lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Mellor, Duane D.; Naumovski, Nenad; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Sidossis, Labros

    2017-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. Methods During 2005–2015, 2,749 older (aged 65–100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study. Dietary habits, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleep, smoking habits, social life and educational status) and clinical profile aspects were derived through standard procedures. Results The overall prevalence of the traditional CVD risk factors were 62.3% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes mellitus (type 2) and 47.7% for hypercholesterolemia. The presence of diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) [odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.25] and by an urban residential environment (OR =2.57, 95% CI: 1.10–6.06) after adjusting for several confounders. Presence of hypertension was predicted by increasing age (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 1.02–1.12), increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR =1.12, 95% CI: 1.04–1.21), the habit of midday sleep (OR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.07–4.02) and inversely predicted by the frequency of socializing with friends (OR =0.767, 95% CI: 0.616–0.955). The estimated score in the GDS was the only independent positive predictor for the presence of hypercholesterolemia (OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–1.21). Conclusions Lifestyle parameters such as social life, midday sleep (siesta) and residential environment are strongly associated with the presence of CVD risk factors in elderly and

  19. Mediterranean lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Mellor, Duane D; Naumovski, Nenad; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Sidossis, Labros; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. During 2005-2015, 2,749 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study. Dietary habits, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleep, smoking habits, social life and educational status) and clinical profile aspects were derived through standard procedures. The overall prevalence of the traditional CVD risk factors were 62.3% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes mellitus (type 2) and 47.7% for hypercholesterolemia. The presence of diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) [odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.25] and by an urban residential environment (OR =2.57, 95% CI: 1.10-6.06) after adjusting for several confounders. Presence of hypertension was predicted by increasing age (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12), increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR =1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21), the habit of midday sleep (OR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.07-4.02) and inversely predicted by the frequency of socializing with friends (OR =0.767, 95% CI: 0.616-0.955). The estimated score in the GDS was the only independent positive predictor for the presence of hypercholesterolemia (OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21). Lifestyle parameters such as social life, midday sleep (siesta) and residential environment are strongly associated with the presence of CVD risk factors in elderly and should be part of broader CVD prevention strategies to

  20. Why the concept ''lifestyle diseases'' should be avoided.

    PubMed

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2011-11-01

    The concept lifestyle disease is used about a number of different diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, lung cancer etc. The concept indicates that people's behaviours cause the diseases. This is only partly true. All diseases, both so-called lifestyle diseases and infectious diseases, have multiple causes. Singling out only one type of causes, such as is implied in the concept of lifestyle diseases can lead prevention to focus only on changing people s behaviours or lifestyles, and thus to neglect other possibilities to improve health. Mortality due to chronic diseases has increased during the last century and the main cause behind this is the decrease in the mortality in infectious diseases among younger people. More people live long enough to develop the chronic diseases. The concept lifestyle disease gives a too narrow picture of causes death and should be abandoned and give place for a broader understanding of causes and preventive options.

  1. [INAIL recourse in occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Zavallonil, Marco; Astengo, Rossana; Battaglia, Alessandra; Lenzi, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The following paper examines the issue of the specific action of recourse brought by the National Insurance Accidents at work (INAIL) for occupational diseases by examining the regulatory framework and the diachronic evolution of the Court's legitimacy in the matter. The authors focus on the most frequent cases and highlight the orientation adopted by the administrative office in the matter.

  2. Fatalities from occupational diseases in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Morse, T; Storey, E

    1999-08-01

    Occupational diseases in Connecticut were identified using reports to the Workers' Compensation Commission, Connecticut OSHA, Vital Statistics, and the Tumor Registry. There were 93 identified fatalities from occupational disease in 1995, and 90 in 1994, approximately three times the number of traumatic occupational fatalities. Identified fatalities were predominantly from asbestos-related diseases, including mesothelioma and asbestosis. Most occupational diseases are not readily identifiable with current reporting mechanisms. Based on national estimates, these figures are considered to be an underestimate of the true burden of occupational disease. Increased awareness and reporting of occupational diseases is needed to properly identify and prevent these common conditions.

  3. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  4. Lifestyles/Personal Health Care in Different Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stuart A.

    1981-01-01

    The American Academy of Family Physicians initiated a study to identify and examine certain life-style patterns in representative groups of people. This article presents the responses from teachers, including their perceptions of factors contributing to stress, problems at home, and allocation of time. (WD)

  5. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1±4.60 (SD) to 24.8±4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8±23.02 (SD) to 123.8±21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1,210 persons) from 79.8±12.7 (SD) to 77.5±11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86±0.95 (SD) to 4.32±0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31±1.59 (SD) to 3.88±1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  6. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Lifestyle medicine: the future of chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Robert F; Sorensen, Kirsten Webb

    2013-10-01

    Lifestyle medicine is a new discipline that has recently emerged as a systematized approach for management of chronic disease. The practice of lifestyle medicine requires skills and competency in addressing multiple health risk behaviours and improving self-management. Targets include diet, physical activity, behaviour change, body weight control, treatment plan adherence, stress and coping, spirituality, mind body techniques, tobacco and substance abuse. This review focuses on the impact of a healthy lifestyle on chronic disease, the rarity of good health and the challenges of implementing a lifestyle medicine programme. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are at the root of the global burden of noncommunicable diseases and account for about 63% of all deaths. Over the past several years, there has been an increased interest in evaluating the benefit of adhering to 'low-risk lifestyle' behaviours and ideal 'cardiovascular health metrics'. Although a healthy lifestyle has repeatedly been shown to improve mortality, the population prevalence of healthy living remains low. Lifestyle medicine presents a new and challenging approach to address the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, the most important and prevalent causes for increased morbidity and mortality worldwide.

  8. Occupational Mental Health, Labor Accidents and Occupational Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naveillan, F. Pedro

    1973-01-01

    The article discusses the relationship between mental health and labor accidents as it pertains to accident prevention, treatment of accident victims, and their rehabilitation. It also comments briefly on mental health and occupational diseases and the scope of the field of occupational mental health from a Chilean perspective. (AG)

  9. Effort/reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30,433 women and 7718 men aged 17-64 were used (n = 35,918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as <2.00 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours/day. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used as an analysis method to include both individual and work unit level predictors in the models. Adjustments were made for age, marital status, occupational status, job contract, smoking, and heavy drinking. Twenty five per cent of women and 27% of men had a sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak.

  10. The Global Burden of Occupational Disease.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley

    2017-09-01

    Burden of occupational disease estimation contributes to understanding of both magnitude and relative importance of different occupational hazards and provides essential information for targeting risk reduction. This review summarises recent key findings and discusses their impact on occupational regulation and practice. New methods have been developed to estimate burden of occupational disease that take account of the latency of many chronic diseases and allow for exposure trends and workforce turnover. Results from these studies have shown in several countries and globally that, in spite of improvements in workplace technology, practices and exposures over the last decades, occupational hazards remain an important cause of ill health and mortality worldwide. Major data gaps have been identified particularly regarding exposure information. Reliable data on employment and disease are also lacking especially in developing countries. Burden of occupational disease estimates form an important part of decision-making processes.

  11. Chronic Inflammatory Disease, Lifestyle and Treatment Response

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-25

    Autoimmune Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Crohn Disease (CD); Colitis, Ulcerative (UC); Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA); Spondylarthropathies; Arthritis, Psoriatic (PsA); Psoriasis; Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS); Uveitis

  12. [Scabies as an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Lukács, J; Schliemann, S; Elsner, P

    2015-03-01

    Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). It is mainly transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact. The spread of scabies can cause major difficulties in healthcare institutions, particularly in residential homes for the elderly. The disease is characterized by intense nocturnal itching, erythematous papules arranged in a linear order, and scratching resulting in excoriations. The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of the mite or by finding one or more mite tunnels in the skin. An individually occurring case does not need to be reported. If two or more cases occur in the same institution, the company physician and the appropriate public health department are to be informed in Germany. In case of a suspected scabies infection in medical personnel due to exposure in their work setting, medical notification to the statutory occupational accidents' insurance (Nr. 3101) is to be issued in accordance with § 202, Volume VII of the German Social Code. First line treatment is topical therapy with 5 % permethrin. If scabies control is required in an institution, systemic treatment with ivermectin may be considered. In the case of a scabies outbreak, all patients, contact persons, and staff must be treated simultaneously.

  13. Occupational Disease Registries-Characteristics and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniat; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Hosseini, Narges Shams; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Due to growth of occupational diseases and also increase of public awareness about their consequences, attention to various aspects of diseases and improve occupational health and safety has found great importance. Therefore, there is the need for appropriate information management tools such as registries in order to recognitions of diseases patterns and then making decision about prevention, early detection and treatment of them. These registries have different characteristics in various countries according to their occupational health priorities. Aim of this study is evaluate dimensions of occupational diseases registries including objectives, data sources, responsible institutions, minimum data set, classification systems and process of registration in different countries. In this study, the papers were searched using the MEDLINE (PubMed) Google scholar, Scopus, ProQuest and Google. The search was done based on keyword in English for all motor engines including "occupational disease", "work related disease", "surveillance", "reporting", "registration system" and "registry" combined with name of the countries including all subheadings. After categorizing search findings in tables, results were compared with each other. Important aspects of the registries studied in ten countries including Finland, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Czech Republic, Malaysia, United States, Singapore, Russia and Turkey. The results show that surveyed countries have statistical, treatment and prevention objectives. Data sources in almost the rest of registries were physicians and employers. The minimum data sets in most of them consist of information about patient, disease, occupation and employer. Some of countries have special occupational related classification systems for themselves and some of them apply international classification systems such as ICD-10. Finally, the process of registration system was different in countries. Because occupational diseases are often

  14. Sedentary lifestyle and state variation in coronary heart disease mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, K K; Anda, R F; Macera, C A; Donehoo, R S; Eaker, E D

    1995-01-01

    Using linear regression, the authors demonstrated a strong association between State-specific coronary heart disease mortality rates and State prevalence of sedentary lifestyle (r2 = 0.34; P = 0.0002) that remained significant after controlling for the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension, smoking, and overweight among the State's population. This ecologic analysis suggests that sedentary lifestyle may explain State variation in coronary heart disease mortality and reinforces the need to include physical activity promotion as a part of programs in the States to prevent heart disease. PMID:7838933

  15. Effort/reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Methods Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30 433 women and 7718 men aged 17–64 were used (n = 35 918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as <2.00 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours/day. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used as an analysis method to include both individual and work unit level predictors in the models. Adjustments were made for age, marital status, occupational status, job contract, smoking, and heavy drinking. Results Twenty five per cent of women and 27% of men had a sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. Conclusions A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak. PMID:16497854

  16. Occupational, Environmental, and Lifestyle Factors and their Contribution to Preterm Birth – An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Surendra; Thaker, Riddhi

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a significant public health concern and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide and often contributes to various health complications later in life. More than 60% of PTBs occur in Africa and south Asia. This overview discusses the available information on occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors and their contribution to PTB and proposes new etiological explanations that underlie this devastating pregnancy complication. Several factors such as emotional, stress, social, racial, maternal anxiety, multiple pregnancies, infections during pregnancy, diabetes and high blood pressure, and in-vitro fertilization pregnancy have been shown to be associated with PTB. Data are emerging that occupational, environmental exposure and lifestyle factors might also be associated in part with PTB, however, they are at best limited and inconclusive. Nevertheless, data on heavy metals such as lead, air pollutants and particulate matters, bisphenol A, phthalate compounds, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are promising and point to higher incidence of PTB associated with exposure to them. Thus, these observations can be used to advise pregnant women or women of reproductive age to avoid such exposures and adopt positive lifestyle to protect pregnancy and normal fetal development. There is a need to conduct well-planned epidemiological studies that include all the pathology causing factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB. PMID:29391742

  17. Occupational, Environmental, and Lifestyle Factors and their Contribution to Preterm Birth - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Surendra; Thaker, Riddhi

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a significant public health concern and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide and often contributes to various health complications later in life. More than 60% of PTBs occur in Africa and south Asia. This overview discusses the available information on occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors and their contribution to PTB and proposes new etiological explanations that underlie this devastating pregnancy complication. Several factors such as emotional, stress, social, racial, maternal anxiety, multiple pregnancies, infections during pregnancy, diabetes and high blood pressure, and in-vitro fertilization pregnancy have been shown to be associated with PTB. Data are emerging that occupational, environmental exposure and lifestyle factors might also be associated in part with PTB, however, they are at best limited and inconclusive. Nevertheless, data on heavy metals such as lead, air pollutants and particulate matters, bisphenol A, phthalate compounds, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are promising and point to higher incidence of PTB associated with exposure to them. Thus, these observations can be used to advise pregnant women or women of reproductive age to avoid such exposures and adopt positive lifestyle to protect pregnancy and normal fetal development. There is a need to conduct well-planned epidemiological studies that include all the pathology causing factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including PTB.

  18. Spousal correlations for lifestyle factors and selected diseases in Chinese couples.

    PubMed

    Jurj, Adriana L; Wen, Wanqing; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2006-04-01

    Spouses usually are genetically unrelated and share a common living environment. Thus, concordance of diseases in spouses reflects mainly environmental etiologic contributors. The purpose of this study is to investigate spousal associations for selected lifestyle characteristics and common medical conditions. Baseline information from 66,130 married couples participating in the Shanghai Women's Health Study was used in this analysis. Husband-wife associations were evaluated by means of logistic regression, using women's lifestyle and medical conditions as dependent variables. Adjustments were made for women's age, education, occupation, and family income in all models. Women were more than twice as likely to be current or former smokers; be regular consumers of alcohol, tea, and ginseng; and exercise regularly if their husbands had the same habit. A statistically significant husband-wife disease association was found for tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, chronic gastritis, chronic hepatitis, ulcerative colitis, cholelithiasis, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Spouses share common lifestyle habits and health risks. This study supports the hypothesis that the shared marital environment may contribute to similarities in lifestyle and morbidity in spouses and provides a basis for health promotion and prevention strategies that target the spouses of patients.

  19. Lifestyle Medicine and the Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Kimberly N; Del Pilar, Nelson X; Audette, Amanda; Katz, David L

    2017-10-04

    Evidence has clearly demonstrated the importance of lifestyle factors (e.g., diet, physical activity, smoking) in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Interventions targeting these behaviors may improve outcomes for CVD patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of lifestyle interventions in individuals with established CVD. Most recent trials focused on diet, physical activity, stress reduction, or a combination of these. Findings were mixed, but most interventions improved at least some markers of cardiovascular risk. Few studies measured long-term clinical outcomes, but some suggested a possible benefit of stress reduction and multifaceted interventions on cardiovascular events. The benefits of lifestyle change for CVD patients have been established by decades of evidence. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal intensity, duration, and mode of delivery for interventions. Additional studies with long-term follow-up and measurement of clinical outcomes are also needed.

  20. The relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to exhibit sickness presenteeism than other health professional groups or other high-income earners and less likely to take sick leave. This study aims to examine the relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst GPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst GPs in 2011. Logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism. Whilst adjusting for age and gender, exercising 1 to 3 times a week (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), not having a good work-life balance (OR = 4.2), work-related sleep problems (OR = 2.55), moderate psychological distress (OR = 3.94), and poor or fair health (OR = 6.22) were associated with presenteeism. Increased burnout and reduced job satisfaction and workability due to the physical demands of the job were also associated with presenteeism. In conclusion, presenteeism amongst GPs can be addressed by implementing interventions in relation to physical activity, stress reduction, and sleep hygiene and improving work-life balance and the physical demands of the job.

  1. Reported occupational respiratory diseases in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Orriols, R; Costa, R; Albanell, M; Alberti, C; Castejon, J; Monso, E; Panades, R; Rubira, N; Zock, J-P

    2006-04-01

    A voluntary surveillance system was implemented in Catalonia (Spain) to ascertain the feasibility, incidence, and characteristics of occupational respiratory diseases and compare them with those of the compulsory official system. In 2002, in collaboration with the Occupational and Thoracic Societies of Catalonia, occupational and chest physicians and other specialists were invited to report, on a bimonthly basis, newly diagnosed cases of occupational respiratory diseases. Information requested on each case included diagnosis, age, sex, place of residence, occupation, suspected agent, and physician's opinion on the likelihood that the condition was work related. Compulsory official system data derived from statistics on work related diseases for possible disability benefits declared by insurance companies, which are responsible for declaring these diseases to the Autonomous Government of Catalonia. Of 142 physicians seeing patients with occupational respiratory diseases approached, 102 (74%) participated. Three hundred and fifty nine cases were reported, of which asthma (48.5%), asbestos related diseases (14.5%), and acute inhalations (12.8%) were the most common. Physicians rated 63% of suspected cases as highly likely, 28% as likely, and 8% as low likelihood. The most frequent suspected agents reported for asthma were isocyanates (15.5%), persulphates (12.1%), and cleaning products (8.6%). Mesothelioma (5.9%) was the most frequent diagnosis among asbestos related diseases. The number of acute inhalations reported was high, with metal industries (26%), cleaning services (22%), and chemical industries (13%) being the most frequently involved. The frequency of occupational respiratory diseases recorded by this voluntary surveillance system was four times higher than that reported by the compulsory official system. The compulsory scheme for reporting occupational lung diseases is seriously underreporting in Catalonia. A surveillance programme based on voluntary

  2. Reported occupational respiratory diseases in Catalonia

    PubMed Central

    Orriols, R; Costa, R; Albanell, M; Alberti, C; Castejon, J; Monso, E; Panades, R; Rubira, N; Zock, J‐P

    2006-01-01

    Objectives A voluntary surveillance system was implemented in Catalonia (Spain) to ascertain the feasibility, incidence, and characteristics of occupational respiratory diseases and compare them with those of the compulsory official system. Methods In 2002, in collaboration with the Occupational and Thoracic Societies of Catalonia, occupational and chest physicians and other specialists were invited to report, on a bimonthly basis, newly diagnosed cases of occupational respiratory diseases. Information requested on each case included diagnosis, age, sex, place of residence, occupation, suspected agent, and physician's opinion on the likelihood that the condition was work related. Compulsory official system data derived from statistics on work related diseases for possible disability benefits declared by insurance companies, which are responsible for declaring these diseases to the Autonomous Government of Catalonia. Results Of 142 physicians seeing patients with occupational respiratory diseases approached, 102 (74%) participated. Three hundred and fifty nine cases were reported, of which asthma (48.5%), asbestos related diseases (14.5%), and acute inhalations (12.8%) were the most common. Physicians rated 63% of suspected cases as highly likely, 28% as likely, and 8% as low likelihood. The most frequent suspected agents reported for asthma were isocyanates (15.5%), persulphates (12.1%), and cleaning products (8.6%). Mesothelioma (5.9%) was the most frequent diagnosis among asbestos related diseases. The number of acute inhalations reported was high, with metal industries (26%), cleaning services (22%), and chemical industries (13%) being the most frequently involved. The frequency of occupational respiratory diseases recorded by this voluntary surveillance system was four times higher than that reported by the compulsory official system. Conclusions The compulsory scheme for reporting occupational lung diseases is seriously underreporting in Catalonia. A

  3. [Health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of teachers in a city in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcio Neres; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde

    2013-03-01

    Various health complications have been identified among teachers and there is little information available about their lifestyle habits. The scope of this study was to investigate health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of municipal teachers in Bagé in the south of Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving 414 teachers was conducted by asking the teachers to fill out a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis techniques were employed. Most teachers were females (96.1%) and the mean age was 40.1 years (SD 9.4). Average teaching experience was 12.4 years (SD 9.5); 59% of the teachers had a degree; they taught many working hours per week (31.7 hours, SD 10.5) and 62% were absent from work at least once in the last 12 months. Self-rated heath was good (38.5%); 62.5% of them were physically active; 32.3% were overweight and 14.4% obese. They consumed hardly any fruit and vegetables (79.6%), had average stress levels of 14.9 points (SD 6.6) and 20.3% reported hypertension. Self-reported health was associated with teaching time, absenteeism, physical activity, number of meals per day, stress levels and hypertension. The prevalence of teachers who rated their health negatively was low, however several lifestyle issues were identified, which can be prejudicial to the health of these individuals.

  4. Are occupational, hobby, or lifestyle exposures associated with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, J; Albin, M; Welinder, H; Tinnerberg, H; Mauritzson, N; Kauppinen, T; Stromberg, U; Johansson, B; Billstrom, R; Mikoczy, Z; Ahlgren, T; Nilsson, P; Mitelman, F; Hagmar, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate a broad range of occupational, hobby, and lifestyle exposures, suggested as risk factors for Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).
METHODS—A case-control study, comprising 255 Ph+CML patients from southern Sweden and matched controls, was conducted. Individual data on work tasks, hobbies, and lifestyle exposures were obtained by telephone interviews. Occupational hygienists assessed occupational and hobby exposures for each subject individually. Also, occupational titles were obtained from national registries, and group level exposure—that is, the exposure proportion for each occupational title—was assessed with a job exposure matrix. The effects of 11 exposures using individual data and two exposures using group data (organic solvents and animal dust) were estimated.
RESULTS—For the individual data on organic solvents, an effect was found for moderate or high intensity of exposure (odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 11) and for long duration (15-20 years) of exposure (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.0). By contrast, the group data showed no association (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.8; moderate or high intensity versus no exposure). For extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), only individual data were available. An association with long occupational exposure to EMFs was found (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.5). However, no effect of EMF intensity was indicated. No significant effects of benzene, gasoline or diesel, or tobacco smoking were found. OR estimates below unity were suggested for personal use of hair dye and for agricultural exposures.
CONCLUSIONS—Associations between exposure to organic solvents and EMFs, and Ph+CML were indicated but were not entirely consistent.


Keywords: risk factors; epidemiology; case-control study PMID:11600728

  5. Occupational Disease Registries–Characteristics and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniat; Kalhori, Sharareh Rostam Niakan; Hosseini, Narges Shams; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Due to growth of occupational diseases and also increase of public awareness about their consequences, attention to various aspects of diseases and improve occupational health and safety has found great importance. Therefore, there is the need for appropriate information management tools such as registries in order to recognitions of diseases patterns and then making decision about prevention, early detection and treatment of them. These registries have different characteristics in various countries according to their occupational health priorities. Aim: Aim of this study is evaluate dimensions of occupational diseases registries including objectives, data sources, responsible institutions, minimum data set, classification systems and process of registration in different countries. Material and Methods: In this study, the papers were searched using the MEDLINE (PubMed) Google scholar, Scopus, ProQuest and Google. The search was done based on keyword in English for all motor engines including “occupational disease”, “work related disease”, “surveillance”, “reporting”, “registration system” and “registry” combined with name of the countries including all subheadings. After categorizing search findings in tables, results were compared with each other. Results: Important aspects of the registries studied in ten countries including Finland, France, United Kingdom, Australia, Czech Republic, Malaysia, United States, Singapore, Russia and Turkey. The results show that surveyed countries have statistical, treatment and prevention objectives. Data sources in almost the rest of registries were physicians and employers. The minimum data sets in most of them consist of information about patient, disease, occupation and employer. Some of countries have special occupational related classification systems for themselves and some of them apply international classification systems such as ICD-10. Finally, the process of registration system was

  6. Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ornish, D; Scherwitz, L W; Billings, J H; Brown, S E; Gould, K L; Merritt, T A; Sparler, S; Armstrong, W T; Ports, T A; Kirkeeide, R L; Hogeboom, C; Brand, R J

    1998-12-16

    The Lifestyle Heart Trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle changes may lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year. To determine the feasibility of patients to sustain intensive lifestyle changes for a total of 5 years and the effects of these lifestyle changes (without lipid-lowering drugs) on coronary heart disease. Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1986 to 1992 using a randomized invitational design. Forty-eight patients with moderate to severe coronary heart disease were randomized to an intensive lifestyle change group or to a usual-care control group, and 35 completed the 5-year follow-up quantitative coronary arteriography. Two tertiary care university medical centers. Intensive lifestyle changes (10% fat whole foods vegetarian diet, aerobic exercise, stress management training, smoking cessation, group psychosocial support) for 5 years. Adherence to intensive lifestyle changes, changes in coronary artery percent diameter stenosis, and cardiac events. Experimental group patients (20 [71%] of 28 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made and maintained comprehensive lifestyle changes for 5 years, whereas control group patients (15 [75%] of 20 patients completed 5-year follow-up) made more moderate changes. In the experimental group, the average percent diameter stenosis at baseline decreased 1.75 absolute percentage points after 1 year (a 4.5% relative improvement) and by 3.1 absolute percentage points after 5 years (a 7.9% relative improvement). In contrast, the average percent diameter stenosis in the control group increased by 2.3 percentage points after 1 year (a 5.4% relative worsening) and by 11.8 percentage points after 5 years (a 27.7% relative worsening) (P=.001 between groups. Twenty-five cardiac events occurred in 28 experimental group patients vs 45 events in 20 control group patients during the 5-year follow-up (risk ratio for any event for the control group, 2.47 [95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.20]). More regression

  7. NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ohtake, Kazuo; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability due to obesity and endothelial dysfunction might be causally related to the development of lifestyle-related diseases such as insulin resistance, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension. In such situations, instead of impaired NO synthase (NOS)-dependent NO generation, the entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway might serve as a backup system for NO generation by transmitting NO activities in the various molecular forms including NO and protein S-nitrosothiols. Recently accumulated evidence has demonstrated that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables rich in nitrate/nitrite is an inexpensive and easily-practicable way to prevent insulin resistance and vascular endothelial dysfunction by increasing the NO availability; a NO-rich diet may also prevent other lifestyle-related diseases, including osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cancer. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of NO generation through the entero-salivary pathway and discusses its safety and preventive effects on lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:26091235

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. A Nutritarian Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Lifestyle Changes in Chronic Disease Prevention, Especially Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-17

    Chronic Disease; Cancer; Cardiovascular Diseases; Diabetes Mellitus; Lifestyle-related Condition; Mental Health Wellness 1; Sleep; Nutritional and Metabolic Disease; Nutrition Related Cancer; Nutritional Imbalance; Thyroid

  10. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. [Occupational injuries and diseases in transport industry].

    PubMed

    Parrini, L

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify the specific risk and injury factors related to rail freight/transport, road haulage/transport, and business conveyance, the INAIL data/memory bank was searched for occupational diseases and injuries/accidents. In road haulage and business conveyance, osteoarticular diseases prevail, while in rail freight asbestos diseases are predominant. The permanent disability is more severe in road haulage than in business conveyance. Occupational injuries are more frequent in road transport and business conveyance in northern regions of Italy and consisted mainly in sprains/strains and dislocations. More frequently the workers recovered without serious hangovers.

  12. Bisphenol A and Metabolic Diseases: Challenges for Occupational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Caporossi, Lidia; Papaleo, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic diseases has markedly increased worldwide during the last few decades. Lifestyle factors (physical activity, energy-dense diets), together with a genetic predisposition, are well known factors in the pathophysiology of health problems. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound used for polycarbonate plastics, food containers, epoxy resins coating metallic cans for food and beverage conservation. The ability of BPA to act as an endocrine disruptor—xenoestrogen in particular—is largely documented in literature, with numerous publications of in vivo and in vitro studies as well as epidemiological data on humans. Recently, different researchers studied the involvement of BPA in the development of insulin resistance; evidences in this way showed a potential role in etiology of metabolic disease, both for children and for adults. We review the epidemiological literature in the relation between BPA exposure and the risk of metabolic diseases in adults, with a focus on occupational exposure. Considering published data and the role of occupational physicians in promoting Workers’ Health, specific situations of exposure to BPA in workplace are described, and proposals for action to be taken are suggested. The comparison of the studies showed that exposure levels were higher in workers than in the general population, even if, sometimes, the measurement units used did not permit rapid comprehension. Nevertheless, occupational medicine focus on reproductive effects and not metabolic ones. PMID:28841159

  13. Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight and physical inactivity. Increasing awareness and risk stratification of individuals with prediabetes may help physicians understand potential interventions that may help decrease the percentage of patients in their panels in whom diabetes develops. If untreated, 37% of the individuals with prediabetes may have diabetes in 4 years. Lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of prediabetic patients in whom diabetes develops to 20%. Long-term data also suggest that lifestyle intervention may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as 10 years. To prevent 1 case of diabetes during a 3-year period, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program. In addition, recent data suggest that the difference in direct and indirect costs to care for a patient with prediabetes vs a patient with diabetes may be as much as $7000 per year. Investment in a diabetes prevention program now may have a substantial return on investment in the future and help prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25102521

  14. [Status quo of lifestyle among women of five occupations in six provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Li, Ying-hua; Yang, Chong; Nie, Xue-qiong; Tao, Mao-xuan

    2012-10-01

    To learn the status quo of lifestyle among women of five occupations in six provinces of China. A questionnaire was administered among 7416 women from five occupations (civil servants, teachers of elementary and high schools, technical staff, enterprise managers and physical laborers) in Beijing, Hebei, Jilin, Hubei, Ningxia and Gansu of China. The sample was selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from December 2009 to June 2010. The questionnaire information included demographic characteristics, diet, sleep habit, smoking, physical exercise. The χ(2) test was used to analyze the different in life style of different occupations. There were 7416 valid questionnaires received, and the valid rate of the questionnaires was 97.58% (7416/7682). About 38.00% (2818/7416) respondents preferred to bland diet and 28.44% (2109/7416) preferred to salty and oily food and 33.56% (2489/7416) had no preference. The proportion of sleep time between seven and eight hours per day was highest (accounting for 56.23%, 4154/7416), 25.27% (1867/7416) with sleep time less than seven hours. Among the population who had the sleep time less seven hours, teacher that had the highest rate accounted for 33.19% (531/1607) and technical staff had the lowest rate accounted for 21.05% (301/1401) (P < 0.01). Most of respondents were non-smokers, accounting for 93.10% (6869/7416). 22.73% (1671/7416) respondents passively smoked. The proportion of always passive smoking was highest among civil servants and lowest among teachers, accounting for 26.60% (404/1531) and 18.71% (298/1607), respectively. The proportion of having no physical exercises was highest, accounting for 62.87% (4637/7416). The proportion of having three times physical exercises per week was 12.68% (935/7416). The proportion of having no physical exercises among physical laborers (66.42%, 912/1386), enterprise managers (66.64%, 987/1491) and teachers (62.40%, 999/1607) were higher than others and the

  15. Chronic Inflammatory Disease, Lifestyle and Risk of Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-06

    Autoimmune Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Crohn Disease (CD); Ulcerative Colitis (UC); Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA); Spondylarthropathies; Arthritis, Psoriatic (PsA); Psoriasis (PsO); Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  16. Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakara, Ajaikumar B.; Sundaram, Chitra; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Tharakan, Sheeja T.; Lai, Oiki S.; Sung, Bokyung

    2008-01-01

    This year, more than 1 million Americans and more than 10 million people worldwide are expected to be diagnosed with cancer, a disease commonly believed to be preventable. Only 5–10% of all cancer cases can be attributed to genetic defects, whereas the remaining 90–95% have their roots in the environment and lifestyle. The lifestyle factors include cigarette smoking, diet (fried foods, red meat), alcohol, sun exposure, environmental pollutants, infections, stress, obesity, and physical inactivity. The evidence indicates that of all cancer-related deaths, almost 25–30% are due to tobacco, as many as 30–35% are linked to diet, about 15–20% are due to infections, and the remaining percentage are due to other factors like radiation, stress, physical activity, environmental pollutants etc. Therefore, cancer prevention requires smoking cessation, increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables, moderate use of alcohol, caloric restriction, exercise, avoidance of direct exposure to sunlight, minimal meat consumption, use of whole grains, use of vaccinations, and regular check-ups. In this review, we present evidence that inflammation is the link between the agents/factors that cause cancer and the agents that prevent it. In addition, we provide evidence that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. PMID:18626751

  17. Occupational Factors, Fatigue, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Briefly identify the epidemiological evidence, propose pertinent mechanisms, and discuss physical therapy practice as well as research implications of a causal association between occupational factors and cardiovascular disease. Summary of Key Points: There is evidence that occupational metabolic demands and work organizations characterized by reduced worker control are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is biologically plausible that these two factors interact to create a preclinical, intermediate state of fatigue (burnout) that is a critical component in the causal path from occupational factors to CVD. Physical therapists are uniquely qualified to contribute to an understanding of these mechanisms and their resultant implications for work organization, rehabilitation, and health promotion. Statement of Recommendations: Physical therapists engaged in ergonomic job analysis should consider work related metabolic demands, worker control, and fatigue in their assessment of risk for injury and illness, in recommendations for return to work, and in the prescription of health promotion leisure time physical activity PMID:20467535

  18. Occupational and Lifestyle Determinants of Blood Lead Levels among Men in Madras, India.

    PubMed

    Potula; Hu

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this epidemiologic study was to assess the relationship of blood lead levels to occupational exposure to the combustion products of leaded gasoline and to several lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet) among men from four occupational groups in Madras, India. Blood lead was measured using graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The mean (SD) blood lead levels in 129 blood samples collected from traffic police, bus drivers, and auto-shop workers were 11.2 (8.8), 12 (11.1), and 17.5 (8.4) µg/dL, respectively; the corresponding value for urban controls (office workers) was 4.1 (2.1) µg/dL. In a final multivariate regression model, a non-vegetarian diet and job category remained the strongest predictors of blood lead level (p < 0.05), while smoking, alcohol consumption, and duration of employment were not significantly correlated with blood lead levels. The authors conclude that continued use of leaded gasoline probably plays a dominant role in determining blood lead levels in Madras.

  19. Occupational rhinitis and occupational asthma; one airway two diseases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, M. J.; Gittins, M.; DeVocht, F.; Agius, R. M.

    2009-02-01

    The concept of 'one airway, one disease' refers to the frequent comorbidity of asthma and rhinitis. However, only limited research has been done on this association for the diverse range of occupational respiratory sensitisers. The relative frequency of rhinitis was determined for the 15 respiratory sensitisers reported to cause at least 10 cases of rhinitis or asthma to The Health and Occupation Reporting (THOR) network between 1997 and 2006. Of 1408 cases, 1190 were sole diagnoses of asthma, 138 sole diagnoses of rhinitis and in 80 cases asthma coexisted with rhinitis. The six sensitisers for which rhinitis featured in over 15% of cases were all particulates and known to cause release of mast cell mediators, either directly or through IgE antibodies. Four of the other nine sensitisers often exist as vapours and only two have been consistently associated with IgE-mediated disease mechanisms. Particle size did not appear to correlate with the relative frequency of rhinitis. Despite its limitations this study would support the hypothesis that there are at least two mechanistic categories of respiratory sensitisation with rhinitis being relatively more common where the mechanism is IgE-mediated. Particulate nature may be another important factor to consider in future studies.

  20. Defining the Path Between Social and Economic Factors, Clinical and Lifestyle Determinants, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Kalantzi, Kallirroi; Nikolaou, Vassilios; Vemmos, Konstantinos N; Goudevenos, John A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2015-12-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with poorer cardiovascular health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate how social and economic factors influence modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and thus, acute coronary syndrome or ischemic stroke presence. One thousand participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first acute coronary syndrome (83% were male, 60 ± 12 years old) and 250 control subjects, as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke (56% were male, 77 ± 9 years old) and 250 control subjects. The control subjects were population-based and age-sex matched with the patients. Detailed information regarding their medical records, lifestyle characteristics, education level, financial status satisfaction, and type of occupation were recorded. After controlling for potential confounding factors, significant inverse associations were observed regarding financial status satisfaction and sedentary/mental type occupation with acute coronary syndrome or stroke presence, but not with the educational level. Nevertheless, further evaluation using path analysis, revealed quite different results, indicating that the education level influenced the type of occupation and financial satisfaction, hence affecting indirectly the likelihood of developing a cardiovascular disease event. Social and economic parameters interact with modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors through multiple pathways. Copyright © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in preventable, non-smoking causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), among which are chronic exposures to respiratory irritants in the workplace. Reviews of occupational COPD in specific occupations and industries and in general populations; supplemented with other or more recently published material. There is good evidence for an increased risk of COPD from certain specific exposures (coal mine dust, silica, welding fume, textile dust, agricultural dust, cadmium fume). Less clear is the causal role of non-specific dusts or fumes/gases in general populations where the available literature is notably uncritical. Other specific exposures, such as diesel fume; interactions between specific exposures and cigarette smoking; the development of safe working limits. Occupations with large numbers of exposed employees, particularly in low-income countries.

  2. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  3. Occupational skin disease in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Jennifer L; Williams, Jason D; Matheson, Melanie C; Palmer, Amanda M; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with occupational skin disease (OSD) in a tertiary referral clinic in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective review was conducted of records from patients seen at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne, Australia between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010. Of the 2894 people assessed in the clinic during the 18-year period, 44% were women and 56% were men. In all, 2177 (75%) were diagnosed with occupational skin disease (OSD). Of the patients with a work-related skin condition, 45% (n = 979) were considered to be atopic. The most common diagnosis in those with OSD was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (44%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (33%) and endogenous eczema (11%). Women were significantly more likely to have soaps and detergents (P < 0.001) and water/wet work (P < 0.001) as causes of their ICD than men. Men were significantly more likely to have oils and coolants (P < 0.001) and solvent exposures (P < 0.001) as causes of their ICD. Occupational groups with the highest incidence of OSD were the hair and beauty professions (70 per 100 000), followed by machine and plant operators (38 per 100 000) and health-care workers (21 per 100 000). We confirm the importance of occupational contact dermatitis as the most common cause of OSD, with ICD being the most common diagnosis. There are differences in the causes of ICD between our group of male and female workers. For the first time in Australia, rates of OSD in certain industries have been calculated. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Health surveillance for occupational respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L; Fishwick, D

    2013-07-01

    Occupational lung diseases remain common, and health surveillance is one approach used to assist identification of early cases. To identify areas of good practice within respiratory health surveillance and to formulate recommendations for practice. Published literature was searched since 1990 using a semi-systematic methodology. A total of 561 documents were identified on Medline and Embase combined. Other search engines did not identify relevant documents that had not already been identified by these two main searches. Seventy-nine of these were assessed further and 36 documents were included for the full analysis. Respiratory health surveillance remains a disparate process, even within disease type. A standard validated questionnaire and associated guidance should be developed. Lung function testing was common and generally supported by the evidence. Cross-sectional interpretation of lung function in younger workers needs careful assessment in order to best identify early cases of disease. More informed interpretation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, for example by using a lower limit of normal for each worker, and of longitudinal lung function information is advised. Immunological tests appear useful in small groups of workers exposed to common occupational allergens. Education, training and improved occupational health policies are likely to improve uptake of health surveillance, to ensure that those who fail health surveillance at any point are handled appropriately.

  5. Occupational risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Leso, V; Ricciardi, W; Iavicoli, I

    2015-08-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the aetiology of IBD is not completely understood, an interaction between genetic and environmental factors has been proposed. In this context, however, environmental epidemiology lacks a comprehensive evaluation of the possible role of occupational exposures in IBD development and progression. Therefore, aim of our review was to evaluate how certain occupational risk factors may affect IBD pathogenesis, clinical history and severity of disease manifestations. A critical revision of available literature concerning exposure to groups of potential workplace hazardous agents and IBD, as it appears in Medline and Web of knowledge, was performed. The role of workplace exposures to chemical and biological agents, ionizing or non-ionizing radiations, shift-works, indoor, and sedentary works as well as job strain on IBD has been critically revised. However, the limited number of studies addressing these issues prevented us from extrapolating definite conclusions. Our review pointed out some critical aspects concerning the relationship between occupational factors and IBD, in terms of causative pathways, hazardous exposure, susceptibility and consequences of IBD functional limitations on career choice and fitness for work that need future investigations. Overall, this seems a challenging public health issue, considering the strong IBD impact on patients' quality of life, work productivity and costs to society. Moreover, this review may encourage concerted actions of health care specialists, occupational physicians, employers and IBD workers to plan preventive and protective measures for "healthier patterns of work" for IBD and to develop innovative perspectives for an integrated management of "IBD at work".

  6. Cancer incidence in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: disentangling the effect of occupational versus lifestyle exposures.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  7. The correlations of work conditions with unhealthy lifestyles and occupational health problems of casino croupiers in Macau.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sydney X; Luk, Andrew; Leong, Carmen; U, Cecilia; Van, Florence

    2013-06-01

    The Macau economy and employment of residents rely heavily on the gaming industry. It is important that the working conditions in casinos are not harmful to the health of the casino employees. This study examines the correlations between work conditions, unhealthy lifestyles and occupational health problems amongst casino croupiers in Macau. Its findings will provide casino managers and policy makers with evidence and awareness of the workplace health risks for the casino workers. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 1,042 croupiers, which represents roughly 5 % of the croupier population in Macau. Work conditions were measured by worker satisfaction towards the biological, chemical and physical elements in their work environments. Unhealthy lifestyles were measured by practices of excessive drinking, smoking, electronic game playing and addictive substance use as well as gambling. Occupational health problems were measured by experiences of work related illnesses or symptoms. Results showed that high percentages of respondents were dissatisfied with the work conditions. On average each croupier experienced 10 work related health problems in the past 7 days. Over 5 % of the respondents drank more than three glasses of alcohol a day, 24 % smoked cigarettes, 12 % took addictive substances, 14 % gambled in the past 7 days. The analysis showed that dissatisfaction with work conditions did not correlate with unhealthy lifestyles but were strongly and significantly correlated with stress-related occupational health problems (R = 0.377-0.479, P < 0.001) and other occupational health problems (R = 0.348-0.461, P < 0.001). Casino workers in Macau experience a variety of problems associated with their work conditions that can be hazardous to their health. The working conditions in casinos need to be regularly monitored and improvements such as occupational health training and enhanced health related policies can be introduced.

  8. Lifestyle-related risk factors, smoking status and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Renata; Izzo, Raffaele; Manzi, Maria Virgina; Pagnano, Giampiero; Santoro, Mario; Rao, Maria Assunta Elena; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; De Luca, Nicola; Trimarco, Valentina

    2012-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease represents one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in highly developed countries and is known to be associated with some lifestyle-related risk factors (e.g. alcohol consumption, smoking status, diet, physical activity, bodyweight). There is still incomplete information about their combined effect on cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with optimal pharmacological blood pressure control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation of some lifestyle behaviours, using a specific questionnaire, with development of cardiovascular disease in treated hypertensive patients. 617 hypertensive, non-diabetic participants (aged 53.1 ± 7.6 years, 44.9% male; mean age 53.1 ± 7.6 years) free of prevalent cardiovascular disease, cancer, liver cirrhosis and/or failure, chronic kidney disease more than grade 3 (glomerular filtration rate by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) were analysed. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined when left ventricular mass index was >51 g/m2. Carotid artery atherosclerosis was assessed as an increased intima medial thickness (IMT) by B-mode ultrasonography. IMT values between 0.9 and 1.3 mm were defined as 'thickening' and those >1.3 mm as 'plaque'. Assessment of smoking status, dietary and non-dietary factors was established by administration of a specific questionnaire. In the initial population of examined patients, 288 were smokers and 329 were non-smokers. At baseline, the patients belonging to smoking group were less often overweight than those belonging to the non-smoking group, showing a lower initial body mass index (BMI) [27.54 ± 4.0 vs 28.28 ± 4.3; p < 0.029], lower plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) [48.14 ± 12.6 vs 51.39

  9. A framework for supervising lifestyle diseases using long-term activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongkoo; Han, Manhyung; Lee, Sungyoung; Sarkar, A M Jehad; Lee, Young-Koo

    2012-01-01

    Activity monitoring of a person for a long-term would be helpful for controlling lifestyle associated diseases. Such diseases are often linked with the way a person lives. An unhealthy and irregular standard of living influences the risk of such diseases in the later part of one's life. The symptoms and the initial signs of these diseases are common to the people with irregular lifestyle. In this paper, we propose a novel healthcare framework to manage lifestyle diseases using long-term activity monitoring. The framework recognizes the user's activities with the help of the sensed data in runtime and reports the irregular and unhealthy activity patterns to a doctor and a caregiver. The proposed framework is a hierarchical structure that consists of three modules: activity recognition, activity pattern generation and lifestyle disease prediction. We show that it is possible to assess the possibility of lifestyle diseases from the sensor data. We also show the viability of the proposed framework.

  10. Chapter 17: Occupational immunologic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Bradley R; Grammer, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    Occupational immunologic lung disease is characterized by an immunologic response in the lung to an airborne agent inhaled in the work environment and can be subdivided into immunologically mediated occupational asthma (OA) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Irritant-induced OA, a separate nonimmunologic entity, can be caused by chronic exposure to inhaled irritants or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome, defined as an asthma-like syndrome that persists for >3 months and occurs abruptly after a single exposure to a high concentration of an irritating industrial agent. High-risk fields for OA include farmers, printers, woodworkers, painters, plastic workers, cleaners, spray painters, electrical workers, and health care workers. OA can be triggered by high molecular weight (HMW) proteins that act as complete allergens or low molecular weight (LMW) sensitizers that act as haptens. HMW proteins (>10 kDa) are generally derived from microorganisms (such as molds and bacteria, including thermophilic actinomycetes), plants (such as latex antigens and flour proteins), or animals (such as animal dander, avian proteins, and insect scales) and are not specifically regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). LMW haptens that bind to proteins in the respiratory mucosa include some OSHA-regulated substances such as isocyanates, anhydrides, and platinum. HP can present in an acute, a chronic, or a subacute form. The acute, subacute, and early chronic form is characterized by a CD4(+) T(H)1 and CD8(+) lymphocyte alveolitis. Classically, the bronchoalveolar lavage will show a CD4/CD8 ratio of <1.

  11. Advances in environmental and occupational diseases 2004.

    PubMed

    Frew, Anthony J

    2005-06-01

    2004 was another good year for publications on environmental and occupational disorders in our journal. The major focus is clearly on the environment and particularly on environmental risk factors for sensitization and asthma. There is a growing consensus that exposure to pets is good, provided there is enough of it. Low levels enhance sensitization, and higher levels protect against the consequences of that sensitization. Following on from previous work on cockroaches, we now see allergy to feral mice as an emergent problem--at least we now have the tools to study this properly. Emphasis seems to be swinging away from the outdoor environment as a cause of allergic disease and toward the indoor environment, which is, after all, where most of us spend most of our lives. New techniques for studying isocyanate allergy might kindle a revival of interest in the mechanisms of occupational asthma caused by low-molecular-weight compounds. But for all types of occupational allergy, prevention remains key, and it is good to see that comprehensive programs of allergen reduction can pay off in reduced rates of latex allergy in health care workers. Further work in the area of recombinant allergens is welcome but needs soon to be translated into new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This sector of allergy research remains vibrant, and the editors will continue to welcome outstanding contributions in this area.

  12. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease among adults in the UK.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Waller, Jo; Jarvis, Martin J; Humphries, Steve E; Wardle, Jane

    2009-02-01

    To examine and compare awareness of lifestyle risk factors for cancer and heart disease in a single UK representative sample. Two open-ended questions about cancer and heart disease risk factors were included in a population-based survey of 1747 adults. Responses were coded for four lifestyles with established links to both diseases: smoking, eating an unhealthy diet, drinking excessive alcohol and physical inactivity. Awareness of lifestyle risk factors was low for both diseases, although higher for heart disease than cancer. The average number identified by respondents was 2.1 (heart disease) and 1.4 (cancer). The strongest predictor was education (both p<0.001). Awareness that physical inactivity is a cancer risk factor was particularly low at 7%. These findings suggest that public awareness of the impact of lifestyle on commonly feared diseases, especially cancer, is low. Unhealthy lifestyles make a significant contribution to ill health and mortality. Increased public awareness of the links between lifestyles and commonly feared diseases might help people understand the potential health consequences of their actions and encourage them to make much-needed lifestyle changes. Efforts are needed to improve public health messages about how lifestyle risk factors impact on the chances of developing these important diseases.

  13. Diet, lifestyle and gender in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Fraley, Ken; Pedroni, Antonietta; Tadeu, Vincenza; Realdi, Giuseppe; Graham, David Y; Delitala, Giuseppe; Malaty, Hoda M

    2008-08-01

    Studies indicate that gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with obesity, smoking, esophagitis, diet, and lifestyle. To identify risk factors associated with GERD among patients presenting to a tertiary GI clinic in Italy. Patients with a first diagnosis of GERD based on heartburn and/or regurgitation and/or esophagitis at the endoscopic examination were enrolled. A control group with neither GERD symptoms nor esophagitis was enrolled from the same hospital. Each subject completed a questionnaire including demographic information, lifestyle (e.g., exercise, alcohol, coffee, chocolate, and soda consumption, smoking, having large meals), and frequency of bowel movement. For each participant the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Five hundred subjects were enrolled including 300 GERD patients and 200 controls. Females had significantly higher prevalence of GERD than males (66 vs. 48%, P = 0.001, OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.5-3.1). There was an inverse relationship between the level of education and presence of GERD (76% of GERD patients has completed only elementary school (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.7-4.9). Obesity (BMI of > or =95th percentile for their age/gender specific) was significantly related to GERD (OR = 1.8, P = 0.01). None of the other variables studied showed significant associations with GERD. Logistic regression analysis showed that BMI > or =95th percentile, gender, and low education level were significant risk factors for GERD. Understanding the epidemiology and risk factors for GERD in a region is the first step in designing prevention and treatment strategies.

  14. Social media use for occupational lung disease.

    PubMed

    Harber, Philip; Leroy, Gondy

    2017-04-01

    Social media have great impact on all aspects of life throughout the world. The utilization of social media for occupational lung disease, however, has been much more limited. This article summarizes recent literature concerning social media for occupational lung disease and identifies areas for additional use. Social media are used in six relevant areas: information dissemination, peer-to-peer communication, survey research data collection, participatory research and exposome data acquisition, assessing public concerns, and knowledge generation. There are very clear advantages for information dissemination from experts to workers and on a peer-to-peer basis, although variable credibility and accuracy concerns persist. For research, social media have been used for acquiring data posted for nonresearch purposes and for efficiently collecting information specifically for research. The benefits of efficiency, democracy, and very large data sources may counterbalance concerns about inadequate specification of recruitment strategies and limited control over data quality. The potential benefits of using social media for lung health-workplace interactions are much greater than the very limited current utilization.

  15. The impact of occupational therapy and lifestyle interventions on older persons' health, well-being, and occupational adaptation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann; Björklund, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a four-month occupational based health-promoting programme for older persons living in community dwellings could maintain/improve their general health and well-being. Further, the aim was to explore whether the programme facilitated the older persons' occupational adaptation. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with a non-equivalent control group combined with semi-structured interviews. The intervention group comprised 22 participants, and the control group 18. Outcomes were measured using the Short Form 36, Life Satisfaction Index-Z and Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment. Content analysis, based on concepts from the Model of Occupational Adaptation, was used to analyse the interviews. The intervention group showed statistically significant improvements in general health variables such as vitality and mental health, and positive trends for psychological well-being. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group, but the groups were not fully matched. The qualitative analysis based on Occupational Adaptation pointed out social aspects as a compliment to the overall results. Participating in meaningful, challenging activities in different environments stimulates the occupational adaptation process; this is something occupational therapists could use to empower older persons to find their optimal occupational lives.

  16. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among US Health Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Dayoub, Elias; Jena, Anupam B

    2015-12-01

    Although health care professionals may be assumed to make healthier lifestyle choices and have better health outcomes than others because of their greater health literacy, little is known about how actual health outcomes of health care professionals compare with those of the overall population. We analyzed how trends in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease prevalence as well as several health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and exercise) varied between health care professionals and the general US population from 2002 to 2013, using nationally representative data collected by the National Health Interview Survey. We estimated multivariate logistic regressions of each disease and behavior adjusted for age, race, sex, geographic region, and year. Although rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension were lower among health care professionals compared with the overall population, disease was still common among health care professionals and increased over time at a rate similar to that of the overall population. For example, obesity prevalence was lower among health care professionals but increased similarly from 2002 to 2013 (health care professionals, 20.5% in 2002 to 22.1% in 2013; other occupations, 28.4% to 31.7%; P=.64 for difference in trend). Diabetes prevalence was modestly lower among health care professionals but increased at a similar rate (health care professionals, 7.4% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2013; other occupations, 8.7% to 9.9%; P=.67 for difference in trend). Similar patterns were noted in hypertension. Coronary artery disease prevalence declined over time among health care professionals but increased for others. Health care professionals reported better health behaviors than others in smoking and physical activity but not in moderate to heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Occupational Health and Safety on Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of Workers Employed in a Private Company in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ulutasdemir, Nilgun; Kilic, Meryem; Zeki, Özge; Begendi, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that inappropriate working conditions and unsafe environments at construction sites, longer working hours, and inadequate workplaces adversely affect the health behaviors of workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of occupational health and safety (OHS) practices on healthy lifestyle behaviors of workers employed at a construction site of a private company in Gaziantep, Turkey. The sampling size of this descriptive study consisted of 400 employees working at the construction site between December 2014 and January 2015. In all, 341 employees still working or participating in the study during the period of this questionnaire study were included in the sampling. Data from the survey were derived from responses to questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, OHS applications, health state, and working conditions, as well as to the questions in on the Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Scale (HLBS), under direct surveillance. Male workers with a mean age of 30.61 ± 8.68 years constituted the study population. Of the workers, 41.9% had a primary school education. The majority received professional and OHS training (65.7% and 79.2%, respectively). Although 83.9% reported using personal protective equipment (PPE), only 2.1% said they had experienced an occupational accident. Total mean score of HLBS scale was 116.91 ± 25.62 points. Workers who had positive thoughts about their jobs demonstrated healthy lifestyle behaviors (P = .0001). A positive direct correlation was detected between the training the workers received and the use of PPE (P = .0001). In all, 38.1% of the workers reported experiencing work stress at the time of the study. Mean HLBS scores of those experiencing work stress were lower than the scores for workers not experiencing stress (P < .05). Receiving OHS and professional training and using of PPE favorably affect healthy lifestyle behaviors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Cardiovascular disease prevention and lifestyle interventions: effectiveness and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Haskell, William L

    2003-01-01

    Over the past half century scientific data support the strong relationship between the way a person or population lives and their risk for developing or dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD). While heredity can be a major factor for some people, their personal health habits and environmental/cultural exposure are more important factors. CVD is a multifactor process that is contributed to by a variety of biological and behavioral characteristics of the person including a number of well-established and emerging risk factors. Not smoking, being physically active, eating a heart healthy diet, staying reasonably lean, and avoiding major stress and depression are the major components of an effective CVD prevention program. For people at high risk of CVD, medications frequently need to be added to a healthy lifestyle to minimize their risk of a heart attack or stroke, particularly in persons with conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or hyperglycemia. Maintaining an effective CVD prevention program in technologically advanced societies cannot be achieved by many high-risk persons without effective and sustained support from a well-organized health care system. Nurse-provided or nurse-coordinated care management programs using an integrated or multifactor approach have been highly effective in reducing CVD morbidity and mortality of high-risk persons.

  19. The emergence of "lifestyle medicine" as a structured approach for management of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Egger, Garry J; Binns, Andrew F; Rossner, Stephan R

    2009-02-02

    Chronic diseases with a lifestyle-based aetiology currently make up a significant proportion of primary care consultations, but management often falls between the demands of public and clinical health. A modified clinical approach, based around the concept of "lifestyle medicine", helps fill the gap by adding behavioural, motivational and environmental skills to conventional medical practice. When used in a multidisciplinary setting, lifestyle medicine offers potential cost and effectiveness benefits, which are beginning to be realised.

  20. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  1. Lifestyle Habits among Adult Congenital Heart Disease Patients in Malta.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Maryanne; Grech, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Adult congenital heart disease patients are prone to health risk behaviors like their peers. Such behaviors can have serious implications, particularly in patients with complex congenital lesions. We investigated patterns in tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, substance misuse, dental reviews, and physical activity in Maltese patients. A questionnaire modeled on the 2008 European Health Interview Survey was offered to consecutive adult congenital heart disease outpatients, aged 16 years and over, between May 2013 and May 2014. Foreigners and patients with learning difficulties or cognitive impairment were excluded. Data on these habits was compared with that from 372 age-matched and sex-matched 2008 survey responders (general population cohort). There were 125 patient responders (65 males; mean age 30.64, SD 12.80 years). Adult congenital heart disease patients smoked less (patients 18.4%, general 32.0% P = .004) and had more regular dental reviews (patients 60.9%, general 45.2% P = .003) but were less physically active than the general population cohort (patients 30.6%, general 62.9% P < .001). The difference in smoking was only significant in patients born after the mid-1970s (younger) and females, while dental reviews were only better in younger and male patients. Male patients consumed alcohol more frequently (38.1%) than general population males (23.3%, P = .02). In the patient cohort, smoking was more likely with milder congenital lesions (OR 4.689, P = .007), substance misuse more likely in males (OR 5.703, P = .036) and with milder lesions (OR 5.405, P = .030) and alcohol consumption more likely in males (OR 11.697, P < .001). Although there is an overall lower uptake of some unhealthy habits by Maltese adult congenital heart disease patients, this is not consistent between sexes or age groups. Male and older patients and those with milder lesions might need more reinforcement of the advice given regarding lifestyle habits

  2. [Developing Exercise-mimicking Drugs toward Realization of Preemptive Medicine for Lifestyle-related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iwabu, Masato; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Okada-Iwabu, Miki; Kadowaki, Takashi

    Modern society is characterized by an explosion of lifestyle-related diseases that have, as their basis, obesity due to lack of exercise, which include the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. While exercise is known to be a definitive preventive or therapeutic measure against these diseases, it is clear that contemporary lifestyles tend to make exercise rather difficult to continue. Thus, there are mounting expectations worldwide for exercise-mimicking drugs that activate exercise-mediated signaling pathways. Therefore, this review discusses the mechanisms through which the adiponectin receptor(AdipoR)likely mimics exercise as a key molecule in lifestyle-related diseases, as well as the prospects for emerging small-molecule AdipoR-activating compounds that contribute toward realization of preemptive medicine for lifestyle-related diseases.

  3. [Differences of perceived health and lifestyle by occupational groups in the Italian ISTAT (Central Statistic Institute) health survey].

    PubMed

    Vannoni, Francesca; Demaria, M; Quarta, D; Gargiulo, Lidia; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution by occupation of chronic illness, disability, morbidity, and lifestyles which put health at risk. To provide a map of the social inequalities in various dimensions of health and lifestyle by social class and for specific occupational groups. To formulate a hypothesis about the mechanisms which generate these inequalities. Prevalence rate ratios and prevalence odds ratios of perceived health, chronic illness, disability, absenteeism, trauma, smoking, and obesity calculated with data from the 1999-2000 Italian ISTAT (Central Statistics Institute) health survey; the study population includes adults (aged over 18 years) employed, or searching for a job, or withdrawn from the workforce. Among workers in manual unskilled labour, construction and agriculture are noted for worse health and more unhealthy lifestyles than average. For example, perceived bad health is more widespread among agricultural labourers (OR = 1.63), masons and construction machine operators (OR = 1.75), transport drivers (OR = 1.40), male caretakers, custodians, janitors and domestic help (OR = 1.46), electro-technicians (OR = 1.44), leatherworkers and shoemakers (OR = 3.58), miners and quarrymen (OR = 2.60), earthenware and stone workers (OR = 2.14), garment and furnishings workers (OR = 1.86); in female workers excess risk for perceived bad health was present among agricultural labourers (OR = 2.08), caretakers, custodians, janitors and domestic helpers (OR = 1.49), waitresses, cooks and bartenders, (OR = 1.44), and textile workers (OR = 1.67). Smoking was more widespread among chemical workers (OR = 1.41), and in miners and quarrymen (OR = 1.30). An excess risk of smoking of 20-25% was evident in spinners, weavers and finishers; masons, (and) builders; waiters, cooks and bartenders; garment and furnishings workers; porters and warehouse workers. The risk was 10% higher among foundry workers and forgers, plumbers, carpenters and welders, and transport drivers

  4. Qatari women living with cardiovascular diseases-challenges and opportunities to engage in healthy lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Al Enazi, Noora Rashid; Idris, Zeinab; Albulushi, Asma Mohammad; Yassin, Khadra; Rehman, Asma Mohammad; Hassan, Asma Hassan Abu

    2012-01-01

    In Qatar, cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented and controlled by modifying lifestyle risk behaviors. In this qualitative study, we investigate ways to increase participation in physical activity, and to promote a healthy diet, and nonsmoking behavior in Qatari women. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 50 Arabic women. Participation in physical activity, observing a healthy diet, and abstinence from smoking are desirable lifestyle practices among Qatari women. Social support networks, cultural values, religion, changing sociodemographic and economic conditions, heart disease, and a harsh climate affect the ability of these women to pursue a healthy lifestyle.

  5. Occupational skin disease in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Bock, M; Schmidt, A; Bruckner, T; Diepgen, T L

    2003-12-01

    Construction workers have a substantial risk of developing irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis. Unfortunately, however, there is little population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational skin diseases (OSD) in the European construction industry that allow assessment of preventive measures. In this investigation, the yearly incidence rates and causes of OSD in the construction industry were analysed on the basis of our register in Northern Bavaria. From 1990 until 1999, all incidences of OSD in the construction industry were recorded prospectively. This enables the calculation of incidence rates of OSD in relation to the employed population in Northern Bavaria as recorded by the German Federal Employment Office. In the construction industry, a total of 335 OSD were registered. These comprise 9.0% of all OSD in the register. We classified them into four relevant groups: (A) tile setters and terrazzo workers (incidence per 10 000 employees = 19.9); (B) painters (7.8); (C) construction and cement workers (5.2); and (D) wood processors (2.6). The overall incidence was 5.1 per 10 000 employees over 10 years, which is a little below average for the entire register (6.7). Of these, 43.6% were at least 40 years old. Allergic contact dermatitis (61.5%) occurred more often than irritant contact dermatitis (44.5%). Potassium dichromate caused roughly half of all cases of sensitization found to be occupationally relevant in the construction industry (152 cases) followed by epoxy resin (40) and cobalt chloride (32). The results indicate that potassium dichromate is still the most important allergen in the construction industry of Northern Bavaria; there has been no significant decline during the 1990s. This contrasts with the Scandinavian countries, where the prevalence of potassium dichromate sensitization declined following the reduction of chromium VI levels resulting from the addition of ferrous sulphate to cement. Within the construction industry, tile

  6. Associations of smoking status with other lifestyle behaviors are modified by sex and occupational category among urban civil servants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Higashibata, Takahiro; Wakai, Kenji; Okada, Rieko; Nakagawa, Hiroko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of current smoking with five other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among urban civil servants in Japan according to sex and occupational category. The study included 10,232 urban civil servants in Japan who presented for a health check-up in 2011. We analyzed data on anthropometric measurements and self-reported lifestyle factors. Current smokers had a higher BMI than never smokers in white-collar workers, but not in blue-collar workers of both sexes. There were strong associations of current smoking with irregular breakfasting regardless of sex and occupational category. In males, current smokers were less likely to take exercise than ex-smokers in both occupational categories. The associations of current smoking with other unhealthy behaviors were modified by sex and occupational category. These results are useful for understanding the health risks among smokers according to sex and occupational category.

  7. Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002): a new tool for surveying occupational skin diseases and exposure.

    PubMed

    Susitaival, P; Flyvholm, M-A; Meding, B; Kanerva, L; Lindberg, M; Svensson, A; Olafsson, J H

    2003-08-01

    Occupational skin diseases are among the most frequent work-related diseases in industrialized countries. Good occupational skin disease statistics exist in few countries. Questionnaire studies are needed to get more data on the epidemiology of occupational skin diseases. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire Group has developed a new questionnaire tool - Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) - for surveys on work-related skin disease and exposures to environmental factors. The 2 NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled by using existing questionnaires and experience. NOSQ-2002/SHORT is a ready-to-use 4-page questionnaire for screening and monitoring occupational skin diseases, e.g. in a population or workplace. All the questions in the short questionnaire (NOSQ-2002/SHORT) are included in the long version, NOSQ-2002/LONG, which contains a pool of questions to be chosen according to research needs and tailored to specific populations. The NOSQ-2002 report includes, in addition to the questionnaires, a comprehensive manual for researchers on planning and conducting a questionnaire survey on hand eczema and relevant exposures. NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled in English and translated into Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic. The use of NOSQ-2002 will benefit research on occupational skin diseases by providing more standardized data, which can be compared between studies and countries.

  8. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2017-10-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.

  9. Current and new challenges in occupational lung diseases.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Sara; Heederik, Dick; Burdorf, Alex; Colosio, Claudio; Cullinan, Paul; Henneberger, Paul K; Olsson, Ann; Raynal, Anne; Rooijackers, Jos; Santonen, Tiina; Sastre, Joaquin; Schlünssen, Vivi; van Tongeren, Martie; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2017-12-31

    Occupational lung diseases are an important public health issue and are avoidable through preventive interventions in the workplace. Up-to-date knowledge about changes in exposure to occupational hazards as a result of technological and industrial developments is essential to the design and implementation of efficient and effective workplace preventive measures. New occupational agents with unknown respiratory health effects are constantly introduced to the market and require periodic health surveillance among exposed workers to detect early signs of adverse respiratory effects. In addition, the ageing workforce, many of whom have pre-existing respiratory conditions, poses new challenges in terms of the diagnosis and management of occupational lung diseases. Primary preventive interventions aimed to reduce exposure levels in the workplace remain pivotal for elimination of the occupational lung disease burden. To achieve this goal there is still a clear need for setting standard occupational exposure limits based on transparent evidence-based methodology, in particular for carcinogens and sensitising agents that expose large working populations to risk. The present overview, focused on the occupational lung disease burden in Europe, proposes directions for all parties involved in the prevention of occupational lung disease, from researchers and occupational and respiratory health professionals to workers and employers. The content of this work is not subject to copyright. Design and branding are copyright ©ERS 2017.

  10. [Rotator cuff diseases in occupational medicine between occupational diseases and accidents: medical-legal considerations].

    PubMed

    Spigno, F; Galli, R; Casali, C; Lagattolla, N; De Lucchi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors have gone through the complaints concerning all the cases of shoulder accidents at work filed by the Genoa office of the Italian Workers' National compensation Agency (INAIL) during the two years' period 2006-2007, reviewing in particular those somehow affecting rotator components. The aim of this paper is to assess the real role played by the occupational trauma in the rotator cuff tear. The data gathered so far have shown, on the one hand, a high prevalence of pre-existing inflammatory and degenerative diseases and, on the other, a rather modest influence of the trauma which, for this reason, has usually borne, as an immediate medico-legal consequence, the rejection of a cause-effect relationship between the accident and the rotator cuff lesion, without taking into any account whether the worker was likely to be affected by an occupational disease (ex table Ministerial Decree n. 81 April 9th 2008- item 78). In such cases a systematic and in-depth investigation of the occupational case history is suggested, in order to highlight the possible pre-existence of a former biomechanical overload of the upper limbs, so as to allow the physician to detect a pathology often misdiagnosed.

  11. [Occupational diseases in the petrochemical sector: types and temporal trends].

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, the archives of the National Institute for the Insurance of Workplace Accidents and Occupational Diseases (INAIL) are supported from several years by a second source of data on occupational diseases, the MALPROF system, based on data from the prevention units of the local health services (ASL). Integrating these two data flows allows connecting diseases and the occupations at the onset of the disease itself. The 2009-10 data from 12 Italian regions currently participating in the MALPROF system show that noise-induced hearing loss represents the relatively most frequent occupational disease (25.3%) in the petrochemical industry, followed by the musculoskeletal diseases (22.9%). Malignant tumors of the pleura and peritoneum follow with a proportional rate of 19%, six times higher than that recorded for the total industrial sectors (3.6%). Diseases of the respiratory system are clearly proportionally more frequent (16.5%) compared to data reported to the total industrial sectors (6%).

  12. Communication between Dutch rheumatologists and occupational physicians in the occupational rehabilitation of patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    de Buck, P D M; van Amstel, R J; Buijs, P C; Maasen, J H W; van Dijk, F J H; Hazes, J M W; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases are a major cause of permanent work disability. In the process of occupational rehabilitation several health professionals may have a role. To assess the quality and quantity of communication and cooperation between Dutch rheumatologists and occupational physicians. A postal survey among 187 Dutch rheumatologists. 153/187 rheumatologists (82%) returned the questionnaire. They considered reducing pain and fatigue to be their major responsibility in the process of occupational rehabilitation, followed by improving work participation (68/153 (44%)) and quality of work (55/153 (36%)). Although 112/153 (73%) of the rheumatologists judged the communication and cooperation with occupational physicians as reasonable to good, 119/153 (78%) of them were willing to improve the collaboration. Perceived bottlenecks mentioned were a lack of clarity about the occupational physician's position and activities, and the absence of practice guidelines. The most important prerequisites for improvement were found to be guarantees about the occupational physician's professional independence and more clarity about the competence of the occupational physicians and how they used the information provided. Dutch rheumatologists are willing to improve cooperation and communication with occupational physicians. The perceived lack of clarity about their mutual tasks appears to be a major obstacle. Thus the development of a joint education programme and a guideline for occupational rehabilitation in rheumatic diseases may be appropriate first steps towards improvement.

  13. The surveillance of occupational diseases in Italy: the MALPROF system.

    PubMed

    Campo, G; Papale, A; Baldasseroni, A; Di Leone, G; Magna, B; Martini, B; Mattioli, S

    2015-11-01

    Occupational diseases data can guide efforts to improve worker's health and safety. To describe MALPROF, the Italian system for surveillance of work-related diseases collected by the subregional Department of Prevention. The MALPROF system started in 1999 with contributions from Lombardy and Tuscany and spread in the following years to collect contributions from 14 out of the 20 Italian regions. MALPROF data were explored to follow-up work-related diseases and to detect emerging occupational health risks by calculating proportional reporting ratio (PRR), as in pharmacosurveillance. It classified work-related diseases according to economic sector and job activity in which the exposure occurred. Occupational physicians of the Italian National Health Service evaluate the possible causal relationship with occupational exposures and store the data in a centralized database. From 1999 to 2012, the MALPROF system collected about 112000 cases of workers' diseases. In 2010, more than 13000 cases of occupational diseases were reported. The most frequently reported diseases were hearing loss (n = 4378, 32%), spine disorders (n = 2394, 17%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 1560, 11%). The PRR calculated for cervical disc herniation, a disease whose occupational origin has to be studied, in 1999-2010 was 2.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76-3.47] for drivers and 36.64 (95% CI 22.03-60.93) for air transport workers. MALPROF is a sensitive system for identifying possible associations between occupational risks and diseases, it can contribute to the development of preventive measures, to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions and to stimulate research on new occupational risks and diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Occupational diseases in an airline company].

    PubMed

    Lie, A

    1998-06-30

    617 cases of occupational health disorders in an average population of approximately 4,400 were reported by the Occupational Health Services of the Norwegian section of SAS during the period 1985 to 1996. Musculoskeletal disorders accounted for approximately 75% of all registered disorders. Wherever possible, occupational disorders should be registered and preventive measures initiated by the company. It is therefore of great importance that a registration system should include all occupational disorders. If we compare our figures with the official Norwegian figures from the Labour Inspectorate, we may conclude that only 3-4% of occupational disorders are reported to the Authorities. In particular it seems that many disorders which do not yield economic compensation (musculoskeletal disorders, and mental stress and burnout syndromes) are not reported at all, making it less likely that preventive measures are implemented. The Nordic figures indicate that inadequate reporting occurs more frequently in Norway than in Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

  15. Advances in environmental and occupational respiratory diseases in 2009.

    PubMed

    Peden, David B; Bush, Robert K

    2010-03-01

    The year 2009 led to a number of significant advances in environmental and occupational allergic diseases. The role of exposure to environmental pollutants, respiratory viruses, and allergen exposure showed significant advances. New allergens were identified. Occupational asthma and the relationship of complementary and alternative medicine to allergic diseases were extensively reviewed. New approaches to immunotherapy, novel vaccine techniques, and methods to reduce risks for severe allergic disease were addressed.

  16. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Gastric Disease in Male Workers.

    PubMed

    Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Jung-Won

    2012-09-01

    Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P < 0.05). Analysis on educational background showed that the scores of the three sub-factors were lower in subjects who's highest level of education was high school (P < 0.01). This study suggests that it is necessary to improve the culture of Korean collectivism in the workplace and to manage the occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture.

  17. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Gastric Disease in Male Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lihm, Ho-Seob; Park, Sang-Hyun; Gong, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical and mental health of workers is threatened due to various events and chronic occupational stress. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease in male workers of the shipbuilding industry. Methods Occupational stress measured among a total of 498 workers of a shipbuilding firm who visited the hospital for health examination using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS)-short form, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, occupational stress, and gastric disease, and the distribution of occupational stress by sociodemographic factors in the gastric disease group was examined. Results There was no significant association between gastric disease and total occupational stress score and its seven sub-factors. The analysis showed that risk of gastric disease was significantly higher in the Q1 group in which the stress caused by occupational discomfort among seven sub-factors was lowest than that in the Q4 group (odds ratio, 2.819; 95% confidence interval, 1.151 to 6.908). Analysis only on the gastric disease group showed that the stress score of laborers was higher in the four sub-factors than that of office workers (P < 0.05). Analysis on educational background showed that the scores of the three sub-factors were lower in subjects who's highest level of education was high school (P < 0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that it is necessary to improve the culture of Korean collectivism in the workplace and to manage the occupational stress in the low-educated and laborers. It is recommended for future studies to confirm the causal relationship between occupational stress and gastric disease by large scale studies using a KOSS which appropriately reflects workplace culture. PMID:23115706

  18. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras

    2016-12-01

    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  19. Characterizing the burden of occupational injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A

    2005-06-01

    To review the literature on the burden of occupational disease and injury and to provide a comprehensive characterization of the burden. The scientific and governmental literature from 1990 to the present was searched and evaluated. Thirty-eight studies illustrative of the burden of occupational disease were reviewed for findings, methodology, strengths, and limitations. Recent U.S. estimates of occupational mortality and morbidity include approximately 55,000 deaths (eighth leading cause) and 3.8 million disabling injuries per year, respectively. Comprehensive estimates of U.S. costs related to these burdens range between dollar 128 billion and dollar 155 billion per year. Despite these significant indicators, occupational morbidity, mortality, and risks are not well characterized in comparative burden assessments. The magnitude of occupational disease and injury burden is significant but underestimated. There is a need for an integrated approach to address these underestimates.

  20. [Analysis of 2 patients with occupational hard mental lung disease].

    PubMed

    Ding, Bangmei; Ding, Lu; Yu, Bin; Fan, Cunhua; Han, Lei; Hu, Jinmei; Zhu, Baoli

    2015-01-01

    We sought to master the clinical characteristics and prognosis of hard mental lung disease, improving this disease's diagnosis and treatment quality. We recruited two suspected patients with hard mental lung disease and collected their occupational history, examination results of occupational health, and past medical records. By virtue of laboratory tests, high Kv chest radiography, CT and HRCT of chest, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and ECG examination, diagnostic report was synthesized respectively by respiratory physicians and pathologist from three different agencies. Then the report was submitted to diagnosis organizations of occupational disease, and diagnostic conclusion of occupational disease was drawn after discussion by at least three diagnosticians of occupational disease. We found that both of the two suspected patients were exposed to dusts of hard metal, and length of exposure service ranged from 8 to 9 years. Clinical manifestations were dominated by dry cough, wheezing after activities, and pathological manifestation was characteristic giant cell interstitial pneumonia. The prognosis and outcome of the disease were different. According to exact occupational exposure history, clinical manifestations, combined with the results of high Kv chest radiography, CT of chest and pathological manifestation, it can be diagnosed with hard mental lung disease.

  1. [Exercise for prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takao

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia (hyperlipidemia) and diabetes increases with aging, and all these conditions are risk factors of arteriosclerotic diseases such as cerebrovascular event (stroke) and myocardial infarction. The term "metabolic domino" has been used to describe the collective concept of the development and progression of these lifestyle-related diseases, the sequence of events, and the progression process of complications. Like the first tile of a domino toppling game, undesirable lifestyle such as overeating and underexercising first triggers obesity, and is followed in succession by onset of an insulin resistance state (underlied by a genetic background indigenous to Japanese) , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and further postprandial hyperglycemia (the pre-diabetic state) , the so-called metabolic syndrome, at around the same time. On the other hand, apart from the other lifestyle-related diseases, the prevalence of osteoporosis also increases rapidly accompanying aging. Osteoporosis is known to be strongly related to disorders due to the metabolic domino such as arteriosclerosis and vascular calcification, and a new disease category called "osteo-vascular interaction" has attracted attention recently. Regarding "osteo-vascular interaction" , a close relation between bone density loss or osteoporotic changes and vascular lesion-associated lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes has been reported. Therefore, as a common preventive factor for bone mass loss or osteoporosis and lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (osteo-vascular interaction) , exercise has been recognized anew as an important non-pharmaceutical therapy that should take top priority. This article overviews the evidence of exercise therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases, from the viewpoint of health promotion, especially of

  2. Cultural Systems and Lifestyles: The Impact of the Occupation of Shrimping on Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumrine, Janice G.; Nix, Harold L.

    The findings of this second phase of a four-phase study of shrimp fishing focus on the effect of this occupation upon the family. Data were collected from a random sample of 87 boat captains, 73 wives, community personnel, and high school students in two Georgia coastal counties. The family structure reveals a traditional conception of male and…

  3. Occupational disease surveillance of an aircraft rework facility.

    PubMed

    Fung, F; Bundy, M; Kennon, R

    1990-11-01

    Analysis of the 1987-1988 morbidity data of an aircraft rework facility's 6,672 employees identified 118 patients with occupational diseases. In our study, 61 cases (52%) involved eye and skin conditions. This was comparable to the State of California occupational diseases report. However, systemic conditions appeared to be higher (24% vs. 7%) in the study group, and this finding may need further investigation to clarify its significance. Patients employed as craftworkers accounted for nearly half of all reported occupational diseases. Federal workers in this facility appeared to have a higher percentage (70%) of "no time lost" when compared with that of the State of California report (54%). The utility of morbidity data in the prevention of occupational diseases is discussed.

  4. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; van Duivenbooden, Cor; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost-) effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA) and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS), and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI). Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588 PMID:18173844

  5. Occupational Therapy Interventions for People With Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Piersol, Catherine Verrier; Jensen, Lou; Lieberman, Deborah; Arbesman, Marian

    Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice Project. In this Evidence Connection article, we describe a case report of a person with Alzheimer's disease. The occupational therapy assessment and intervention process in the home setting is described. Findings from the systematic reviews on this topic were published in the November/December 2017 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and in AOTA's Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders. Each article in this series summarizes the evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case. Evidence Connection articles illustrate how the research evidence from the reviews can be used to inform and guide clinical reasoning. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Difficulty accepting lifestyle limitations after the abrupt onset of end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Strong, C; Hamel, K; Cummings-Cosgrove, M; Brown, R

    1995-07-01

    Adjustment to the lifestyle changes imposed by end-stage renal disease is particularly difficult when the onset is abrupt and unheralded. A case of atheroembolism is presented in which living situation, dietary compliance, and family involvement are particularly problematic for the dialysis staff. Discussion by team members focuses on the evolution of a reasonable disposition through diligence and persistence, recognizing the need to compromise medical indications with individual lifestyle and available family support.

  7. Beyond Obesity and Lifestyle: A Review of 21st Century Chronic Disease Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, John

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic and associated chronic diseases are often attributed to modern lifestyles. The term “lifestyle” however, ignores broader social, economic, and environmental determinants while inadvertently “blaming the victim.” Seen more eclectically, lifestyle encompasses distal, medial, and proximal determinants. Hence any analysis of causality should include all these levels. The term “anthropogens,” or “…man-made environments, their by-products and/or lifestyles encouraged by these, some of which may be detrimental to human health” provides a monocausal focus for chronic diseases similar to that which the germ theory afforded infectious diseases. Anthropogens have in common an ability to induce a form of chronic, low-level systemic inflammation (“metaflammation”). A review of anthropogens, based on inducers with a metaflammatory association, is conducted here, together with the evidence for each in connection with a number of chronic diseases. This suggests a broader view of lifestyle and a focus on determinants, rather than obesity and lifestyle per se as the specific causes of modern chronic disease. Under such an analysis, obesity is seen more as “a canary in a mineshaft” signaling problems in the broader environment, suggesting that population obesity management should be focused more upstream if chronic diseases are to be better managed. PMID:24804239

  8. [A quality assessment of notified occupational diseases submitted to the National Occupational Environment Service].

    PubMed

    Lander, F; Bach, B; Laursen, P

    1999-08-09

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of a consecutive sample of occupational disease notifications submitted to the National Working Environment Service during 1994. The sample consisted of 860 notifications describing occupational diseases among persons working in companies situated in the county of Vejle. The data information e.g. company name and address, time of employment, harmful exposure and disease, were registered. An overall data quality assessment was performed including evaluation of the etiological connection between described occupational exposure and disease and potential preventive perspectives. The study showed that the notified informations in general were adequate, but doctors need to pay more attention to dose description of the harmful exposure. About 80% of the notifications presented an adequate connection between occupational exposure and disease. Only half of the notifications described preventable and recent (less than five years) harmful exposure. In conclusion, the Danish occupational disease notification system is in general of a high standard, and the National Working Environment Service could make more use of doctors' information provided in these notifications.

  9. Occupational skin hazards and prevalence of occupational skin diseases in shoe manufacturing workers in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2014-02-01

    Shoe manufacturing workers are exposed daily to an extensive range of potential physical and chemical occupational hazards. Shoe manufacturing in Indonesia is one of the industrial sectors that has shown sustained growth amongst the newly industrialized countries (NICs). In this study, we investigated the possible potential exposure of the workers to physical and occupational hazards and determined the prevalence of occupational skin diseases at a shoe manufacturing factory in Indonesia. A cross-sectional study on the observation of the working process and an inventory and risk assessment of exposure to the chemicals used. Classification of chemicals as potential sensitizers/irritants and qualitative assessments of these chemicals were done. Workers were examined and interviewed using the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire-2002/LONG. The risk of Occupational skin diseases (OSD) at the shoe factory was mainly related to the exposure of the workers' skin to potential physical and chemical hazards in hot and humid environmental conditions. From a total of 514 workers, 8.5 % reported current OSD and 4.8 % reported a history of OSD. Occupational skin diseases were diagnosed in 29 % of the workers by dermatologists and 7.6 % had an occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Of the 39 workers with contact dermatitis, 33 consented to being patch tested, 14 (3 %) workers showed a positive results and considered as having an occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and 25 (4.9 %) had an occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD). We observed a repeated and prolonged exposure of the workers to numerous physical and chemical skin hazards at this factory.

  10. Automated lifestyle coaching for cerebro-cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Spassova, Lübomira; Vittore, Debora; Droste, Dirk; Rösch, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    As soon as telemedicine aims at supporting the prevention of ischemic events (e.g., stroke and myocardial infarction), the mere monitoring of vital parameters is not sufficient. Instead, the patients should be supported in their efforts to actively reduce their individual risk factors and to achieve and maintain a healthier lifestyle. The Luxembourg-based CAPSYS project (Computer-Aided Prevention System) aims at combining the advantages of telephone coaching with those of home telemonitoring and with methods of computer-aided decision support in direct contact with the patients. The suitability and user acceptance of the system is currently being evaluated in a first pilot study.

  11. Communication between Dutch rheumatologists and occupational physicians in the occupational rehabilitation of patients with rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    de Buck, P D M; van Amstel, R J; Buijs, P; Maasen, J; van Dijk, F J H; Hazes, J; Vlieland, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality and quantity of communication and cooperation between Dutch rheumatologists and occupational physicians. Methods: A postal survey among 187 Dutch rheumatologists. Results: 153/187 rheumatologists (82%) returned the questionnaire. They considered reducing pain and fatigue to be their major responsibility in the process of occupational rehabilitation, followed by improving work participation (68/153 (44%)) and quality of work (55/153 (36%)). Although 112/153 (73%) of the rheumatologists judged the communication and cooperation with occupational physicians as reasonable to good, 119/153 (78%) of them were willing to improve the collaboration. Perceived bottlenecks mentioned were a lack of clarity about the occupational physician's position and activities, and the absence of practice guidelines. The most important prerequisites for improvement were found to be guarantees about the occupational physician's professional independence and more clarity about the competence of the occupational physicians and how they used the information provided. Conclusion: Dutch rheumatologists are willing to improve cooperation and communication with occupational physicians. The perceived lack of clarity about their mutual tasks appears to be a major obstacle. Thus the development of a joint education programme and a guideline for occupational rehabilitation in rheumatic diseases may be appropriate first steps towards improvement. PMID:11779762

  12. Occupational versus environmental and lifestyle exposures of children and adolescents in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-02-28

    There is recent international concern about specific exposures of children and adolescents to toxicants. In general, the situation within the European Union appears as follows. (i) OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE: Due to regulatory measures, there are almost no toxicologically significant occupational exposure situations of children to chemical toxicants. This contrasts to the situation in developing countries. There is also strict regulation of occupational exposure of adolescents (aged under 18). In consequence, the number of potentially exposed adolescents has been minimised. (ii) ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE: Specific concern is directed towards exposures of infants, especially to neurotoxic heavy metals and carcinogens, and there is much regional differentiation of environmental exposures. (iii) FOOD: Recent research results are indicative of the general progress made in the field of food safety. (iv) INCIDENTAL ACUTE EXPOSURE: Besides drugs, household chemicals are a source of incidental acute intoxications in children. In Germany, there has been a particular focus on ingestion of lamp petroleum oils since 1989. (v) Paramount problems are associated with increasing consumption of tobacco (mean age of starting smoking in Germany: 13.6 years), alcohol (percentage of addicts at ages 12-24 in Germany 6%) and cannabis among adolescents, calling for new ways of risk communication. In general, it will be necessary to consider children of different ages as separate risk groups.

  13. Do practitioners and friends support patients with coronary heart disease in lifestyle change? a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cole, Judith A; Smith, Susan M; Hart, Nigel; Cupples, Margaret E

    2013-08-28

    Healthy lifestyles help to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD) but outcomes from secondary prevention interventions which support lifestyle change have been disappointing. This study is a novel, in-depth exploration of patient factors affecting lifestyle behaviour change within an intervention designed to improve secondary prevention for patients with CHD in primary care using personalised tailored support. We aimed to explore patients' perceptions of factors affecting lifestyle change within a trial of this intervention (the SPHERE Study), using semi-structured, one-to-one interviews, with patients in general practice. Interviews (45) were conducted in purposively selected general practices (15) which had participated in the SPHERE Study. Individuals, with CHD, were selected to include those who succeeded in improving physical activity levels and dietary fibre intake and those who did not. We explored motivations, barriers to lifestyle change and information utilised by patients. Data collection and analysis, using a thematic framework and the constant comparative method, were iterative, continuing until data saturation was achieved. We identified novel barriers to lifestyle change: such disincentives included strong negative influences of social networks, linked to cultural norms which encouraged consumption of 'delicious' but unhealthy food and discouraged engagement in physical activity. Findings illustrated how personalised support within an ongoing trusted patient-professional relationship was valued. Previously known barriers and facilitators relating to support, beliefs and information were confirmed. Intervention development in supporting lifestyle change in secondary prevention needs to more effectively address patients' difficulties in overcoming negative social influences and maintaining interest in living healthily.

  14. Lifestyle factors and subsequent ischemic heart disease risk after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leger, Kasey J; Baker, K Scott; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Flowers, Mary E D; Leisenring, Wendy M; Martin, Paul J; Mendoza, Jason A; Reding, Kerryn W; Syrjala, Karen L; Lee, Stephanie J; Chow, Eric J

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether modifiable cardiovascular risk conditions and lifestyle factors were temporally associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease and overall mortality in a cohort of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors. HCT recipients who had survived for ≥1 year, were ≥20 years old, and had undergone transplantation between 1970 and 2010 at a transplant referral center were surveyed in 2010-2011 about cardiovascular health and lifestyle factors (n = 3833). Respondents (n = 2360 [61.6%]) were followed to 2016 for incident ischemic heart disease and overall mortality. Among the 2360 transplant survivors (median age at the baseline survey, 55.9 years; median time since transplantation, 10.8 years), 162 (6.9%) reported ischemic heart disease at the baseline survey. Among those without ischemic heart disease at the baseline survey (n = 2198), the 5-year cumulative incidence of subsequent ischemic heart disease was 4.3%. Obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and physical inactivity at baseline were associated with an increased risk for subsequent ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio [HRs] ≥ 1.8). Greater physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline were associated with subsequent lower overall mortality (HRs ≤ 0.7). When jointly considered, each additional cardiovascular risk condition and each adverse lifestyle factor were independently associated with subsequent ischemic heart disease (HR for risk conditions, 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.9; HR for lifestyle factors, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), and adverse lifestyle factors remained associated with overall mortality (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3). These results support strong efforts to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors and to treat cardiovascular risk factors aggressively in HCT survivors. This may reduce future ischemic heart disease and overall mortality in this high-risk population. Cancer 2018;124:1507-15. © 2018 American Cancer

  15. Disease prevention--should we target obesity or sedentary lifestyle?

    PubMed

    Charansonney, Olivier L; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Obesity is a major health challenge facing the modern world. Some evidence points to obesity itself as the main driver of premature mortality. We propose that this view is oversimplified. For example, high levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower mortality, even in those who are overweight or obese. To address this issue, we combine epidemiological and physiological evidence in a new paradigm that integrates excess calorie intake, sedentary behavior, and a maladaptive response to stress. Human physiology is optimized to allow large distances to be covered on foot every day in order to find enough food to sustain brain metabolism. Furthermore, when the body is immobilized by an injury, it triggers efficient life-saving metabolic and inflammatory responses. Both these critical adaptations are, however, confounded by a sedentary lifestyle. The implications of these issues for clinical trial design and epidemiologic data analysis are discussed in this article.

  16. Differences in stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality by occupation and industry among Japanese working-aged men.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Eguchi, Hisashi; Prieto-Merino, David

    2016-12-01

    Occupation- and industry-based risks for stroke and ischemic heart disease may vary among Japanese working-aged men. We examined the differences in mortality rates between stroke and ischemic heart disease by occupation and industry among employed Japanese men aged 25-59 years. In 2010, we obtained occupation- and industry-specific vital statistics data from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare dataset. We analyzed data for Japanese men who were aged 25-59 years in 2010, grouped in 5-year age intervals. We estimated the mortality rates of stroke and ischemic heart disease in each age group for occupation and industry categories as defined in the national census. We did not have detailed individual-level variables. We used the number of employees in 2010 as the denominator and the number of events as the numerator, assuming a Poisson distribution. We conducted separate regression models to estimate the incident relative risk for stroke and ischemic heart disease for each category compared with the reference categories "sales" (occupation) and "wholesale and retail" (industry). When compared with the reference groups, we found that occupations and industries with a relatively higher risk of stroke and ischemic heart disease were: service, administrative and managerial, agriculture and fisheries, construction and mining, electricity and gas, transport, and professional and engineering. This suggests there are occupation- and industry-based mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease for Japanese working-aged men. These differences in risk might be explained to factors associated with specific occupations or industries, such as lifestyles or work styles, which should be explored in further research. The mortality risk differences of stroke and ischemic heart disease shown in the present study may reflect an excessive risk of Karoshi (death from overwork).

  17. Occupational lung diseases and the mining industry in Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Lkhasuren, O.; Takahashi, K.; Dash-Onolt, L.

    Mining production has accounted for around 50% of the gross industrial product in Mongolia since 1998. Dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis currently account for the largest relative share (67.8%) of occupational diseases in Mongolia, and cases are increasing annually. In 1967-2004, medically diagnosed cases of occupational diseases in Mongolia numbered 7,600. Of these, 5,154 were confirmed cases of dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Lung diseases and other mining-sector health risks pose major challenges for Mongolia. Gold and coal mines, both formal and informal, contribute significantly to economic growth, but the prevalence of occupational lung diseases is high and access tomore » health care is limited. Rapid implementation of an effective national program of silicosis elimination and pneumoconiosis reduction is critical to ensure the health and safety of workers in this important sector of the Mongolian economy.« less

  18. Sleights of Hand: South Africa's Gold Mines and Occupational Disease.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Jock

    2016-02-01

    South Africa's gold mines were the first to compensate silicosis and tuberculosis as occupational diseases. They were also the first mines to introduce a state-sanctioned regime of medical surveillance. Despite those innovations, the major mining houses are currently facing class actions by former miners with occupational lung disease. The obvious reason for this medical and legislative failure is to be found in the economic fabric of South Africa's gold industry. In this article, I will argue that it is also found in the system of mine medicine, which was designed to hide rather than reveal the actual disease rates. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Riha, Johanna; Karabarinde, Alex; Ssenyomo, Gerald; Allender, Steven; Asiki, Gershim; Kamali, Anatoli; Young, Elizabeth H; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Seeley, Janet

    2014-07-01

    Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24), low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23), and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77). This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  20. Workplace stressors and lifestyle-related cancer risk factors among female physicians: assessment using the Occupational Stress Index.

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Nedic, Olesja

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between work stressors and lifestyle-related cancer risk factors (LRCRF): smoking, obesity, sedentariness and alcohol consumption, among 112 female physicians in Novi Sad, a region of high LRCRF prevalence. The participation rate was 92.6%. Participants completed the physician-specific version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI). Self-reported data concerning LRCRF and working conditions were cross-validated with medical records, as well as with worksite measurements and expert observations. A total of 35 (31.3%) of the physicians were current smokers and 10 (8.9%) were heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day); 23 (20.5%) had a body mass index (BMI) of 28 or more, and 11 (9.8%) were obese (BMI> or =30). Only 27 (24.1%) regularly engaged in recreational physical activity (PA). Slightly over 5% consumed alcohol daily. Altogether 15 (13.4%) had a low lifestyle-related cancer risk profile (not a current smoker, BMI<28, regular recreational PA and no daily alcohol consumption). Total OSI and several OSI aspects, particularly threat avoidance alone or in combination, showed significant multivariate associations with LRCRF, as did individual OSI elements. The latter included long work hours, restricted problem-solving strategy, insufficient help with clinical difficulties and supervisory responsibility (obesity and/or sedentariness) and problems hampering patient care (smoking). There is an urgent need to lower the LRCRF among female physicians in this high risk region. Our findings suggest that diminishing the work stressor burden should be considered when developing intervention strategies aimed at these risk factors.

  1. Obesity-related inflammation & cardiovascular disease: efficacy of a yoga-based lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is a global health burden and its prevalence is increasing substantially due to changing lifestyle. Chronic adiposity is associated with metabolic imbalance leading to dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ releasing several adipocytokines, and is associated with increased levels of tissue and circulating inflammatory biomolecules causing vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Further, inflammation is also associated independently with obesity as well as CVD. Keeping this in view, it is possible that a reduction in weight may lead to a decrease in inflammation, resulting in CVD risk reduction, and better management of patients with CVD. Lifestyle intervention has been endorsed by several health authorities in prevention and management of chronic diseases. A yoga-based lifestyle intervention appears to be a promising option in reducing the risk for CVD as well as management of patients with CVD as it is simple to follow and cost-effective with high compliance. The efficacy of such lifestyle intervention programmes is multifaceted, and is achieved via reduction in weight, obesity-related inflammation and stress, thereby culminating into risk reduction towards several chronic diseases including CVD. In this review, the association between obesity-related inflammation and CVD, and the role of yoga-based lifestyle intervention in prevention and management of CVD are discussed.

  2. Occupational exposure to solvents, metals and welding fumes and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between occupational exposure to solvents, metals and/or welding fumes and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Data of a hospital based case-control study including 444 PD patients and 876 age and sex matched controls was used. Occupational histories and lifestyle information of cases and controls were collected in a structured telephone interview. Exposures to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents and metals were estimated by linking the ALOHA+ job-exposure matrix to the occupational histories. Exposure to welding fumes was estimated using self-reported information on welding activities. No statistically significant associations with any of the studied metal and solvent exposures were found. However, for self-reported welding activities we observed non-statistically significant reduced risk estimates (third tertile cumulative exposure: OR = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.21-1.24)). The results of our study did not provide support for an increased chance on developing PD after occupational exposure to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents or exposure to metals. The results showed reduced risk estimates for welding, which is in line with previous research, but no clear explanation for these findings is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational risk factors for chronic respiratory disease in a New Zealand population using lifetime occupational history.

    PubMed

    Hansell, Anna; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Poole, Suzanne; Zock, Jan-Paul; Weatherall, Mark; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Travers, Justin; Beasley, Richard

    2014-03-01

    To investigate associations between respiratory disease and occupational exposures in a New Zealand urban population, the Wellington Respiratory Survey. Multiple regression analyses in a population sample of 1017 individuals aged 25 to 74 years with spirometry and questionnaire information, including a lifetime occupational history. Chronic bronchitis symptoms were associated with self-reported exposure to hairdressing, paint manufacturing, insecticides, welding, detergents and with ALOHA Job Exposure Matrix-assessed gases/fumes exposure. The strongest association was for hairdressing (odds ratio 6.91; 95% confidence interval: 2.02 to 23.70). Cumulative exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher FEV₁% (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration) predicted. Analyses were limited by relatively small numbers of cases. Increased risks of objectively defined respiratory disease, which have been previously documented, were not seen. Nevertheless, the study suggested increased risk of respiratory symptoms with various occupational exposures as well as likely healthy worker effect.

  4. [Work-related rhinitis - Is it always an occupational disease?

    PubMed

    Salski, Witold; Wiszniewska, Marta; Salska, Agata; Tymoszuk, Diana; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2016-12-22

    Rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis. Work-related rhinitis (WRR) can be divided into occupational rhinitis (OR) and work-exacerbated rhinitis (WER). It is not only considered as a disease entity but also in the context of medical certification as the allergic disease associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology of work-related rhinitis has been found to vary depending on the occupation and specific exposure, on the other hand the prevalence data may be underestimated due to the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews the issues comprising the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with work-related rhinitis. It also discusses the significance of the disease in occupational medicine, particularly in terms of preventive worker care, general principles of good practice in primary and secondary WRR prevention and the necessary directions of changes in medical certification in the cases of occupational rhinitis. Med Pr 2016;67(6):801-815. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. [Diagnosis and insurance compensation of occupational diseases in construction industry].

    PubMed

    Bresciani, M; Riva, M M; Giorgi, M; Ghezzi, L; Sidoti, C; Mosconi, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of 302 occupational diseases in building workers detected by UOOML Ospedali Riuniti of Bergamo and notified to INAIL from 2000 to 2005. The 41.3% of cases were accepted as work-related. Among remaining cases (58.7%), INAIL rejected 40.9% for lack or absence of documentation. 59.1% for no adhesion to legal medicine criteria. By analysis of occupational diseases detected in the last 5 years, we found an increase of muscle-skeletal disorders, for which, now, diagnostic procedure and insurance evaluation are difficult. This work shows a wide gap between reported occupational diseases of buildings workers and compensation given by INAIL. These results underlines the need of comparison among involved institutions in order to standardize statistical and diagnostic instruments.

  6. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation workers in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuehua; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Li

    2015-09-01

    Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. To study the incidence of dermatoses and the relevance with occupational exposure, protection awareness and protective measures among sanitation workers for better management and protection of the sanitation workers. 273 sanitation workers and 113 administrative staff from 11 streets of Wuhan were recruited. Dermatological problems were evaluated and recorded by physical examination. Occupational exposure, protection awareness, the use of protective equipments and personal history of skin disease were assessed by questionnaires. Compared with administrative staff, sanitation workers had much more occupational dermatological problems and had a much higher rate of harmful ultraviolet ray exposure. Young sanitation workers were more aware of occupational self-protection and a relatively higher rate of them using protective equipments compared with old ones. Exposure to multiple health hazards and the poor use of protective equipments are related to skin diseases in sanitation workers. Prejob training of self-protection and the use of protective equipments are recommended.

  7. Lifestyle Factors and Alzheimer's Disease in People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenshole, Athena V.; Gallichan, Deanna; Pahl, Sabine; Clibbens, John

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle has previously been associated with the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the typically developing population, but research investigating this association in Down syndrome (DS) is limited. Method: Adults with DS and AD (n = 27) were compared to adults with DS without AD (n = 30) on physical activity, diet, weight, where…

  8. The Effect of Interdisciplinary Interventions on Risk Factors for Lifestyle Disease: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapsell, Linda C.; Neale, Elizabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions that comprise interdisciplinary collaboration including behavioral elements are effective in addressing lifestyle disease risk factors. However, it is not known how best to conduct this collaboration for sustainable change. The aim of this study was to systematically examine the evidence for the effects of interdisciplinary…

  9. Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Among Indian Males

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neetu; Bhati, Divya K.; Gupta, Shiv D.; Kundu, Azad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable diseases account for a significant disease burden in the South East Asia region. India is facing an increased incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Socioeconomic and lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been under investigated in India. This study was designed to explore risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease among Indian males. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,235 males in the age group of 18–60 years across three states of India. A household survey was used to collect demographic and socioeconomic status information in addition to lifestyle-related attributes such as smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to identify the role of various factors that may be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in this population. Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease among the male respondents contacted through a household survey was reported to be 9.8%. Logistic regression revealed that males with higher education and higher income were more likely to report CVD. With age as a strong predictor of CVD, the risk of CVD was found to be five times higher in the older age group. Current smokers were 1.3 times more likely to have CVD compared to those who never smoked. Those who were engaged in physical activity were less likely to have CVD; however, the adverse effects of smoking and excessive consumption of red meat showed a stronger association with CVD than the protective effects of physical activity. Conclusion: In developing countries, where the increase in earning capacity and change in lifestyle has been found to be accompanied by substantial risk of heart disease for males, public health measures like health promotion programs need to be implemented to decrease CVD burden. PMID:29138722

  10. Occupational diseases in Murmansk Oblast: 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Talykova, Liudmila V; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-01-01

    Official statistics tend to underestimate the incidence of occupational disease (OD) nationally and regionally in Russia. The general aim was to obtain an accurate estimate of ODs in Murmansk Oblast in 1980-2010 and to determine the rate of specific types of ODs among cohorts of workers who had been exposed to the hazardous factors causing the disease. Data were retrieved from the Murmansk Oblast ODs database for the oblast and 2 enterprises--Apatite JSC and Kolskaya MSC--which contributed to more than half of the ODs in the oblast in 1980-2010. The total number of ODs and 5 specific categories (musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease) were analysed. THE TOTAL RATE OF ODS AMONG WORKERS OF MAIN SHOPS IN BOTH ENTERPRISES WHO WERE ACTUALLY EXPOSED TO HARMFUL FACTORS WERE EXTREMELY HIGH: the rate for Apatite JSC was 25 times higher than in Russia and 15 times higher than in Murmansk Oblast, while the rate for Kolskaya MSC was about 30 and 20 times greater than in Russia and in Murmansk Oblast, respectively; in the 2000s the difference reached 100-150 times. The rise in reported ODs in both enterprises corresponded to the time when intensive medical examinations were conducted by the Kola Research Laboratory for Occupational Health (KRLOH) in Kirovsk. A similar pattern was also observed for the sub-categories of musculoskeletal, respiratory, nervous diseases, hearing loss and vibration disease. It is likely that the true burden of OD is even higher due to misdiagnosis, reluctance of workers concerned about job security to present for care and the lack of reliable information on working conditions needed to establish a causal link between disease and occupational exposure. As with many other regions across Russia, ODs in Murmansk Oblast are grossly underestimated. Serious problems exist in the Russian occupational health care system and the collection of occupational health statistics that require urgent, fundamental reform.

  11. Impact of lifestyle intervention on dry eye disease in office workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Motoko; Sano, Kokoro; Takechi, Sayuri; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-04-04

    To evaluate the effects of a 2-month lifestyle intervention for dry eye disease in office workers. Prospective interventional study (randomized controlled study). Forty-one middle-aged Japanese office workers (men, 22; women, 19; 39.2 ± 8.0 years) with definite and probable dry eye disease were enrolled and randomized to an intervention group (n = 22) and a control group (n = 19). The intervention aimed at modifying diet, increasing physical activity, and encouraging positive thinking. The primary outcome was change in dry eye disease diagnoses. Secondary outcome was change in disease parameters, including dry eye symptoms, as assessed using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score, corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear break-up time, and Schirmer test results. A total of 36 participants (intervention group, 17; control group, 19) completed the study. The number of definite dry eye disease diagnoses decreased from four to none (p =.05), and the dry eye symptom score showed a significant decrease in the intervention group (p =.03). In contrast, the corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear break-up time, and Schirmer test results did not differ significantly between groups. The 2-month lifestyle intervention employed in this study improved dry eye disease status among office workers, with a considerable decrease in subjective symptoms. Lifestyle intervention may be a promising management option for dry eye disease, although further investigation of long-term effects are required.

  12. Occupational and recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate

    2017-05-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information. Results No association was found for occupational PA alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj ) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj 0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj 0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure and occupational PA combined. Conclusions We observed gender-specific inverse associations between occupational and leisure-time PA and PD risk; however, we cannot preclude reverse causation especially in older ages since PD has a long prodromal stage that might lead to a reduction of PA years before motor symptom onset and PD diagnosis.

  13. Global perspectives of emerging occupational and environmental lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Subhabrata; Puri, Rajan; Paul, Devon; Huang, Yuh-Chin T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies continue to be introduced into the workplace and the environment. These novel technologies also bring in new hazards leading to evolving patterns of established occupational and environmental diseases, as well as novel conditions never before encountered. Many of these emerging conditions have appeared in media outlets or in the literature as case reports. These sentinel cases often serve as a warning sign for subsequent outbreaks. This review will discuss environmental and occupational lung diseases and exposures from a global perspective. These diseases and exposures include environmental exposure to asbestos and lung diseases, accelerated silicosis in sandblasting jean workers, coal worker's pneumoconiosis in surface coal miners, health effects of indoor air pollution from burning of biomass fuels and exposures to heavy metals and potential health effects from hydraulic fracturing (fracking). Other emerging conditions are also discussed, including smog in developing countries, sand storms in Asia and the Middle East and respiratory illnesses from nanoparticles and man-made fibres. Clinicians must remain vigilant for potential occupational and environmental exposures, especially when evaluating patients with unusual and unique presentation, so that occupational and environmental risk factors may be identified, and monitoring and preventive measures can be implemented early.

  14. Is carpal tunnel syndrome an occupational disease? A review.

    PubMed

    Zyluk, Andrzej

    2013-05-27

    In many countries, including Poland, carpal tunnel syndrome is considered to be a disease of possible occupational etiology. This review presents information about work-related risk-factors which comprise the use of handheld vibrating machinery, forceful gripping of objects with hands, repetitive and frequent manual tasks and forced postures of the wrist (flexion/extension). However, the character of the job is only one of possible several factors leading to the development of the disease, as its etiology is multifactorial. Conditions to be taken into consideration when recognizing a case as occupational carpal tunnel syndrome were shown to include: coexistence of predisposing diseases (diabetes), constitutional factors (obesity), character, level and duration of the exposure to harmful stimuli during the workday as well as total duration of work upon exposure. Consideration of these circumstances provides adequate ground for recognizing a particular case as occupational. Nonetheless, even accepting the disease as occupational should be temporary, as surgical carpal tunnel release is an effective method of treatment and should allow the patient to return to previously performed work.

  15. Adherence to Healthy Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Diseases in the Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Tang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Weiyuan; Qian, Yijian; Huang, Yuelong; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Qi, Lu; Li, Liming

    2017-03-07

    Adherence to a combination of healthy lifestyle factors has been related to a considerable reduction of cardiovascular risk in white populations; however, little is known whether such associations persist in nonwhite populations like the Asian population. This study aimed to examine the associations of a combination of modifiable, healthy lifestyle factors with the risks of ischemic cardiovascular diseases and estimate the proportion of diseases that could potentially be prevented by adherence to these healthy lifestyle patterns. This study examined the associations of 6 lifestyle factors with ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke (IS) in the China Kadoorie Biobank of 461,211 participants 30 to 79 years of age who did not have cardiovascular diseases, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. Low-risk lifestyle factors were defined as nonsmoking status or having stopped smoking for reasons other than illness, alcohol consumption of <30 g/day, a median or higher level of physical activity, a diet rich in vegetables and fruits and limited in red meat, a body mass index of 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m 2 , and a waist-to-hip ratio <0.90 for men and <0.85 for women. During a median of 7.2 years (3.3 million person-years) of follow-up, this study documented 3,331 incident major coronary events (MCE) and 19,348 incident ISs. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, current nonsmoking status, light to moderate alcohol consumption, high physical activity, a diet rich in vegetables and fruits and limited in red meat, and low adiposity were independently associated with reduced risks of MCE and IS. Compared with participants without any low-risk factors, the hazard ratio for participants with ≥4 low-risk factors was 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.34 to 0.52) for MCE and 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.56 to 0.66) for IS. Approximately 67.9% (95% confidence interval: 46.5% to 81.9%) of the MCE and 39.1% (95% confidence interval: 26.4% to 50.4%) of the IS cases were attributable to

  16. Examination of lifestyle factors and diseases in teaching periodontology in dental education in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Fiehn, N-E; Christensen, L B

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle and general diseases are important for the development of periodontitis and other diseases in the oral cavity. Therefore, knowledge on lifestyle factors must be part of the dental curriculum. However, a search for information in the literature databases gave meagre results. The aim of this study was to describe education of lifestyle in relation to diseases in the oral cavity with focus on periodontitis and to elucidate how education is practiced and reflected in dental education in the Nordic countries. A questionnaire, which consisted of 18 questions, was sent to the chairs of the departments of periodontology in the Nordic countries. The questions concerned extent, curriculum structure, educational method, content, assessment and evaluation of the education. Education on lifestyle factors took place at all dental schools, but the extent, content and placement in the curriculum varied. In some schools, more than 10 lessons were scheduled; two schools had only 3-5 lessons. The education of lifestyle factors was prioritised highest in the departments of periodontology followed by cariology and general health. Despite differences in the content across the dental schools, there were also similarities. So, at all schools smoking, medication, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2 had a high priority. Education of other factors such as alcohol, psychological stress, oral hygiene habits, hypotension and obesity varied. Despite the general view that understanding of odontology is considered to be rather homogenous in the Nordic countries, the education varies across the dental schools. This variation may inspire dental educators in the future planning dental curricula. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of changes on body weight and lifestyle in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayako; Lindor, Keith; St Saver, Jenny; Lymp, James; Mendes, Flavia; Muto, Ayako; Okada, Toshihide; Angulo, Paul

    2005-12-01

    The effects of lifestyle modifications in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are incompletely defined. We aimed at determining the association of changes in body weight and lifestyle with changes in serum ALT levels. We analyzed annual health checkup data from 1546 employees. Of 469 subjects with elevated ALT, we selected 348 male subjects by excluding those who had other causes of liver disease. They were followed for one year to assess the association of change in lifestyle with change in serum ALT. The 136 subjects who had ALT normalization were followed for two years to assess the association between lifestyle management and persistently normal ALT. In adjusted analysis, weight loss and regular exercise were significantly associated with improvement in serum ALT and increased the odds of ALT normalization, while starting smoking was significantly associated with deterioration in serum ALT. Subjects achieving > or = 5% weight reduction showed improvement in serum ALT. Reduction in alcohol consumption was not associated with changes in serum ALT. Maintaining reduced weight (<5% gain) was significantly associated with persistently normal ALT. Reducing weight by at least 5% with subsequent weight control and exercising regularly may be beneficial in treating NAFLD.

  18. Lifestyle Interventions including Nutrition, Exercise, and Supplements for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Africa, Jonathan A.; Newton, Kimberly P.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements, however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date, and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD. PMID:27041377

  19. Influence of selection versus lifestyle on risk of fatal cancer and cardiovascular disease among Seventh-day Adventists.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R L; Kuzma, J W; Beeson, W L; Lotz, T

    1980-08-01

    The authors examine the influence of selection versus life-style on mortality from various causes for a population of 23,000 California Seventh-Day Adventists. The data are compared with data from a control group of 112,726 other Californians. The selective factors considered include education, occupation, and marital status

  20. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Brøvig; Blanc, Paul; Brisman, Jonas Brisman; Miller, Martin Reginald; Pedersen, Ole Find; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Viskum, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures. We used PubMed and Embase to identify relevant original epidemiological peer-reviewed articles, supplemented with citations identified from references in key review articles. This yielded 4528 citations. Articles were excluded for lack of lung function measurement, insufficient occupational exposure classification, lack of either external or internal referents, non-accounting of age or smoking effect, or major analytic inadequacies preventing interpretation of findings. A structured data extraction sheet was used for the remaining 147 articles. Final inclusion was based on a positive qualitative Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) score (≥2+) for study quality, yielding 25 population-wide and 34 industry/occupation-specific studies, 15 on inorganic and 19 on organic dust exposure, respectively. There was a consistent and predominantly significant association between occupational exposures and COPD in 22 of 25 population-based studies, 12 of 15 studies with an inorganic/mineral dust exposure, and 17 of 19 studies on organic exposure, even though the studies varied in design, populations, and the use of measures of exposure and outcome. A nearly uniform pattern of a dose-response relationship between various exposures and COPD was found, adding to the evidence that occupational exposures from vapors, gas, dust, and fumes are risk factors for COPD. There is strong and consistent evidence to support a causal association between multiple categories of occupational exposure and COPD, both within and across industry groups.

  2. Gaps in Workplace Education For Prevention of Occupational Skin Disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tanya; Arrandale, Victoria H; Kudla, Irena; Holness, D Linn

    2018-02-13

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease. Evidence suggests that education and training are effective prevention strategies. In spite of these known prevention strategies, workers continue to develop OCD. Little is reported regarding the actual training experience of workers. To examine the training experience of workers with contact dermatitis to identify areas for improvement. Participants were workers being assessed for contact dermatitis in an occupational health clinic. The anonymous survey collected demographics, workplace characteristics, and education and prevention practices. Approximately 80% reported general occupational health and safety training; however, only 49% reported skin-specific training (SST). For workers reporting SST, most received information regarding exposure avoidance, hand washing, and glove use. This content was reported as helpful by at least 50%. Workers who did not receive SST indicated the most important content would be warning signs of skin problems, how to avoid exposure and skin care while using gloves. While the study was anonymous and used self-reported of training experience, the study suggests there are gaps in skin protection training. Addressing these gaps may lead to improved prevention and reduction in OCD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-24

    Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease.

  4. Occupational respiratory diseases in the South African mining industry

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background Crystalline silica and asbestos are common minerals that occur throughout South Africa, exposure to either causes respiratory disease. Most studies on silicosis in South Africa have been cross-sectional and long-term trends have not been reported. Although much research has been conducted on the health effects of silica dust and asbestos fibre in the gold-mining and asbestos-mining sectors, little is known about their health effects in other mining sectors. Objective The aims of this thesis were to describe silicosis trends in gold miners over three decades, and to explore the potential for diamond mine workers to develop asbestos-related diseases and platinum mine workers to develop silicosis. Methods Mine workers for the three sub-studies were identified from a mine worker autopsy database at the National Institute for Occupational Health. Results From 1975 to 2007, the proportions of white and black gold mine workers with silicosis increased from 18 to 22% and from 3 to 32% respectively. Cases of diamond and platinum mine workers with asbestos-related diseases and silicosis, respectively, were also identified. Conclusion The trends in silicosis in gold miners at autopsy clearly demonstrate the failure of the gold mines to adequately control dust and prevent occupational respiratory disease. The two case series of diamond and platinum mine workers contribute to the evidence for the risk of asbestos-related diseases in diamond mine workers and silicosis in platinum mine workers, respectively. The absence of reliable environmental dust measurements and incomplete work history records impedes occupational health research in South Africa because it is difficult to identify and/or validate sources of dust exposure that may be associated with occupational respiratory disease. PMID:23364097

  5. Risk of peripheral artery disease according to a healthy lifestyle score: The PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    López-Laguna, Nieves; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Toledo, Estefania; Babio, Nancy; Sorlí, José V; Ros, Emilio; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Estruch, Ramon; Lapetra, José; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; González, José I; Fitó, Montse; Basora, Josep; Arós, Fernando; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel

    2018-05-31

    The PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) is a multicentre trial analyzed as a prospective cohort study. A total of 7122 participants (aged 55-80 years) at high risk of cardiovascular disease in the PREDIMED trial were recruited in 11 centres in Spain. The prevalence of subjects with type 2 diabetes was 50%. Our objective was to determine the contribution of lifestyle factors to the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Incident clinical PAD in relation to a healthy lifestyle 5-point score defined as adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), moderate alcohol intake, regular physical activity, normal weight (BMI<25) and non-smoking was measured. Eighty-seven incident PAD cases were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Compared with participants with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factor, the multivariable hazard ratio for PAD was 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 1.14) for 2 factors, and 0.40 (0.22-0.72) for 3 or more. Moderate alcohol consumption, non-smoking, physical activity and following a MedDiet were significantly inversely associated with PAD whereas no association was found for normal weight (BMI<25 kg/m 2 ). PAD risk monotonically decreased with an increasing number of lifestyle factors, and the greatest reduction was found for a score combining moderate alcohol consumption, MedDiet and physical activity or non-smoking. The multivariable-adjusted population attributable risk percent for the combination of these 4 factors was 80.5% (95% CI: 21.3%-95.1%). Our results demonstrate that a simple healthy lifestyle score is associated with a substantially reduced risk of PAD in a high cardiovascular risk population with a high prevalence (50%) of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Diseases of poverty and lifestyle, well-being and human development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.WE THUS REALISE THAT MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, AND DEATH ASSAIL ALL THREE SOCIETIES: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in

  7. Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2008-01-01

    The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres. While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type. The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well. While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research. The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight. We thus realise that morbidity, disability, and death assail all three societies: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in

  8. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs Peña, Melissa S.; Patel, Dhaval; Rodríguez Leyva, Delfin; Khan, Bobby V.; Sperling, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES), 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba. PMID:22203917

  9. Is Male Rheumatoid Arthritis an Occupational Disease? A Review

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dan; Hutchinson, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory disease with an estimated global prevalence of 0.3–1.0%. An unexplained association exists between low formal education and the development of RA independent of smoking. It is established that RA is initiated in the lungs and that various occupations associated with dust, fume and metal inhalation can increase the risk of RA development. Objective: The objective of this review is to evaluate published clinical reports related to occupations associated with RA development. We highlight the concept of a “double-hit” phenomenon involving adsorption of toxic metals from cigarette smoke by dust residing in the lung as a result of various work exposures. We discuss the relevant pathophysiological consequences of these inhalational exposures in relation to RA associated autoantibody production. Method: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases including Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane database to cover all relative reports, using combinations of keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibody silica, dust, fumes, metals, cadmium, cigarette smoking, asbestos, mining, bronchial associated lymphoid tissue, heat shock protein 70, and adsorption. Conclusion: We postulate that the inhalation of dust, metals and fumes is a significant trigger factor for RA development in male patients and that male RA should be considered an occupational disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of occupations as a risk factor for RA in relation to the potential underlying pathophysiology. PMID:28932330

  10. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle characteristics on cardiovascular disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric J; Baker, K Scott; Lee, Stephanie J; Flowers, Mary E D; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Khera, Nandita; Leisenring, Wendy M; Syrjala, Karen L; Martin, Paul J

    2014-01-20

    To determine the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of cardiovascular disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). HCT survivors of ≥ 1 year treated from 1970 to 2010 (n = 3,833) were surveyed from 2010 to 2011 on current cardiovascular health and related lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, recreational physical activity). Responses (n = 2,362) were compared with those from a matched general population sample (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]; n = 1,192). Compared with NHANES participants, HCT survivors (median age, 55.9 years; median 10.8 years since HCT; 71.3% allogeneic) had higher rates of cardiomyopathy (4.0% v 2.6%), stroke (4.8% v 3.3%), dyslipidemia (33.9% v 22.3%), and diabetes (14.3% v 11.7%; P < .05 for all comparisons). Prevalence of hypertension was similar (27.9% v 30.0%), and survivors were less likely to have ischemic heart disease (6.1% v 8.9%; P < .01). Among HCT survivors, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were independent risk factors for ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, and smoking was associated with ischemic heart disease and diabetes (odds ratios [ORs], 1.8 to 2.1; P = .02). Obesity was a risk factor for post-transplantation hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes (ORs ≥ 2.0; P < .001). In contrast, lower fruit/vegetable intake was associated with greater risk of dyslipidemia and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.8; P ≤ .01), and lower physical activity level was associated with greater risk of hypertension and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.5; P < .05). Healthier lifestyle characteristics among HCT survivors attenuated risk of all cardiovascular conditions assessed. Attention of clinicians to conventional cardiovascular risk factors and modifiable lifestyle characteristics offers hope of reducing serious cardiovascular morbidity after HCT.

  12. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the...

  13. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the...

  14. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the...

  15. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist for...

  16. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist for...

  17. [The importance of upper limb diseases in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Riva, Matteo Marco; Santini, Marisa; Mosconi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In this work the authors analyse the results of the clinical evaluation of patients affected by suspected work related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), observed throughout 2008-2009 in the specific ambulatory of Occupational Medicine Division of Ospedali Riuaniti di Bergamo. The aim is to illustrate the epidemiological relevance of upper limb (UL) WMSDs. We observed 430 patients (mean age 46,9 years, DS 9,3; mean working seniority 29 years, DS 10,4), investigating 600 disorders in diferent musculoskeletal segments. Most of the patients (66%) got to the division for a clinical consultation requested by general practitioners, 29,8% by occupational physicians, 4,2% by national insurance for occupational injuries and diseases (INAIL). Most of the patients (38,4%) were employed in construction industry. Among the 600 disorders investigated, 34,5% was at lumbar spine, 74,5% was at upper limb. The clinical diagnosis was already clear at the first consultation for 81,6% of subjects with low back pain and for 56,5% of patients with upper limb disorders; for the others was necessary to prescribe some instrumental exams or specialistic (neurologic, physiatric, orthopaedic) medical examination. We concluded for a diagnosis of WMSDs in 48,3% of the 600 cases: the percentage is 50,2% if we consider only disorders at lumbar spine and 52,5% among disorders at upper limb. The most frequent reason of refusing occupational aetiology, in the cases of low back pain, was the concomitant presence of other diseases at the segment; on the contrary, for the cases of upper limb disorders, was the lack of correlation between type of disease and professional exposure. All physicians demonstrate a high attention about upper limb disorders, topical subject of great epidemiological interest. General practitioners and occupational physicians have to take more advantage of diagnostic support and clinical evaluations offered by Occupational Medicine Divisions an Universities about WMSDs. In

  18. [The notion of occupational skin disease. Medical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P; Schliemann, S

    2015-03-01

    The different definitions of skin disease in medicine and in law are frequently confusing for dermatologists. While a skin disease may be defined medically referring to the definition of health by the WHO as a pathological condition of the skin leading to a disruption of the physical, mental and social well-being of the individual, legal definitions vary depending on the field of insurance law that is referred to. In the law of private health insurance, a skin disease is defined as an anomalous condition of the skin requiring medical treatment that exists independently of the subjective judgement of the insured person and needs to be objectively confirmed by a medical evaluation. In contrast, in the law of the social health insurance, the Federal Court of Social Justice defines disease as irregular physical or mental condition, deviating from the perception of a healthy human being that requires medical treatment or leads to inability to work. Substantial bodily disfigurement may be regarded as an irregular physical condition. In the law of the statutory accident insurance, occupational skin diseases are defined under clause 5101 of the occupational disease regulation as serious or repeatedly relapsing skin diseases that have forced a person to refrain from any work activities causal for the development, the aggravation or the recurrence of the disease. The Federal Court of Social Justice interprets the term "skin disease" from the protective purpose of the law, i.e. the protection against the economic and health consequences of the exposure to harmful agents and a thereby forced change of profession. This broad interpretation of the term "skin disease" leads to the recognition of diseases of the conjunctiva of the eye or diseases of the blood vessels of the skin due to cold damage as skin diseases according to clause 5101. For the correct treatment and possibly notification of occupational skin diseases in collaboration with various insurance carriers

  19. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  20. The role of worker education in preventing occupational lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J D; Rosenstock, L

    1991-01-01

    Training and education of workers in order to prevent occupational lung diseases represent a challenge to employers, unions, clinicians, and other interested groups. Programs attempting to meet this need range from simple programs in respiratory protection fundamentals and smoking cessation to programs that teach workers to understand and demand their right to a safe and healthful workplace. Support for educational programs has come from diverse sources, including government, labor, business, and independent organizations. In some cases nonprofit organizations have developed innovative programs, but it is important that the burden of preventing occupational lung disease through education not be carried by charitable organizations alone. The role of the clinician in this effort is to educate workers at every opportunity regarding lung hazards and to use early evidence of respiratory damage as a lever to increase the worker's understanding of his or her role in health protection.

  1. Compensation for occupational diseases by chemical agents in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Chan; Roh, Soo-Yong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Eun-A

    2014-06-01

    Investigation into the frequency of compensation for occupational diseases (ODs) caused by hazardous chemicals revealed an important opportunity for the improvement and further development of occupational health and safety systems in Korea. In response to concerns after outbreaks of disease due to chemical exposure, specific criteria for recognition of ODs were established and included in the Enforcement Decree of the Labor Standard Act (LSA) and the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA) on June 28, 2013. However, the original versions of the LSA and IACIA contain several limitations. First, the criteria was listed inconsistently according to the symptoms or signs of acute poisoning. Second, all newly recognized hazardous chemicals and chemicals recognized as hazardous by the International Labor Organization (ILO) were not included in the LSA and IACIA. Although recent amendments have addressed these shortcomings, future amendments should strive to include all chemicals listed by the ILO and continuously add newly discovered hazardous chemicals as they are introduced into the workplace.

  2. Occupational Skin Diseases in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Gellin, Gerald A.; Wolf, C. Richard; Milby, Thomas H.

    1970-01-01

    From answers by one-third of the practicing dermatologists in the San Francisco Bay Area to a questionnaire on occupational skin diseases, contact dermatitis due to irritants and sensitizers was found to rank first. Poison oak, which is the leading reported cause on “Doctor's First Report of Work Injury” received by the California Department of Industrial Relations, was sixth on the list of the survey, trailing solvents, cleansing agents, petroleum products and epoxy resins. A history of atopic dermatitis was often noted in current cases of occupational diseases of the skin. Avoidance of exposure or limiting the contact with pathogenic substances—through engineering changes, observation of working conditions by physicians, education of workers—appeared to be the best preventive measures. PMID:4255687

  3. [An investigation of prevalence of occupational diseases and treatment implementation in migrant workers in Hunan, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, L H; Xiao, Y L; Chen, B L; Tang, H Q; Lvqiu, S J; Xia, G H

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of occupational diseases and treatment implementation in migrant workers in Hunan, China, and to provide a scientific basis for related departments to develop preventive and treatment measures and social security system for migrant workers. Methods: A retrospective investigation was performed in 2015 to collect the information of occupational diseases in migrant workers, and age, type of work, type of occupational disease, and implementation of employment injury insurance for occupation diseases were analyzed. Results: The migrant workers with occupational diseases accounted for 50.43% (11 280/22 368) of all patients with occupational diseases in Hunan, among whom 99.4% (11 212/11 280) were male workers. The mean age of migrant workers with occupational diseases was 55 years. The types of occupational diseases involved 6 categories such as occupational pneumoconiosis and occupational skin diseases, totaling 42 legal occupational diseases; 98.31% of all migrant workers (11 089/11 280) had occupational pneumoconiosis. The main types of work were underground coal miners (62.42%) , heading drivers (29.79%) , and haulage workers (2.20%) in coal mines and non-coal mines. A total of 27.25% migrant workers with occupational diseases (2 072/7 605) enjoyed employment injury insurance, and 20.84% (1 585/7 605) did not receive any medical or life compensations. Conclusion: The occupational diseases in migrant workers in Hunan are mainly pneumoconiosis, and a large proportion of those with occupational diseases do not enjoy implementation of treatment. Coal mines and non-coal mines are the high-risk areas for occupational diseases in migrant workers and should be the focus of prevention and control.

  4. Use of court records for supplementing occupational disease surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, E; Landrigan, P

    1987-01-01

    To conduct surveillance of occupationally related health events, the New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services analyzes death certificates and workers' compensation claims. In an effort to bolster these limited data sources, a previously unrecognized data-set comprised of court records was explored. Court records obtained from the Federal District Court proved to be a readily accessible and detailed source of information for identifying suspected cases of asbestos-related disease and potential sources of asbestos exposure. PMID:2959164

  5. Cardiovascular disease prevention at the workplace: assessing the prognostic value of lifestyle risk factors and job-related conditions.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Borchini, Rossana; Landsbergis, Paul; Iacoviello, Licia; Gianfagna, Francesco; Tayoun, Patrick; Grassi, Guido; Cesana, Giancarlo; Ferrario, Marco Mario

    2018-05-25

    The prognostic utility of lifestyle risk factors and job-related conditions (LS&JRC) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification remains to be clarified. We investigated discrimination and clinical utility of LS&JRC among 2532 workers, 35-64 years old, CVD-free at the time of recruitment (1989-1996) in four prospective cohorts in Northern Italy, and followed up (median 14 years) until first major coronary event or ischemic stroke, fatal or non-fatal. From a Cox model including cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, occupational and sport physical activity and job strain, we estimated 10-year discrimination as the area under the ROC curve (AUC), and clinical utility as the Net Benefit. N = 162 events occurred during follow-up (10-year risk: 4.3%). The LS&JRC model showed the same discrimination (AUC = 0.753, 95% CI 0.700-0.780) as blood lipids, blood pressure, smoking and diabetes (AUC = 0.753), consistently across occupational classes. Among workers at low CVD risk (n = 1832, 91 CVD events), 687 were at increased LS&JRC risk; of these, 1 every 15 was a case, resulting in a positive Net Benefit (1.27; 95% CI 0.68-2.16). LS&JRC are as accurate as clinical risk factors in identifying future cardiovascular events among working males. Our results support initiatives to improve total health at work as strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  6. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    PubMed

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Prospective histopathologic evaluation of lifestyle modification in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Eckard, Carly; Cole, Renee; Lockwood, Joshua; Torres, Dawn M.; Williams, Christopher D.; Shaw, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognized as part of the metabolic syndrome, and is specifically related to obesity and insulin resistance. Lifestyle modification is advocated for the treatment of NAFLD, but few studies have evaluated its impact on liver histology. The purpose of this study was to investigate which, if any, specific diet and exercise recommendations are associated with histopathologic changes. Methods: A total of 56 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 lifestyle modification subgroups for 6 months: standard care, low-fat diet and moderate exercise, moderate-fat/low-processed-carbohydrate diet and moderate exercise, or moderate exercise only. All subjects had biopsy-proven NAFLD, to include nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and received a repeat 6-month biopsy to detect histopathologic changes. Other measures included blood assay of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid panel, body weight, dietary intake, fat mass, and fitness level. Results: Among the 41 participants who completed the study (88% with NASH), a significant change was found in pre- to post-NAFLD activity score in the group as a whole (p < 0.001) with no difference detected between subgroups (p = 0.31). Our results confirm that lifestyle modification is effective in improving NAFLD and NASH. Conclusions: Regardless of intervention group, lifestyle modification improved liver histology, as verified by repeat biopsy, after a 6-month intervention. This study reinforces the importance of lifestyle modification as the primary treatment strategy for patients with NAFLD. PMID:23814606

  8. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for mantle cell lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    PubMed

    Smedby, Karin E; Sampson, Joshua N; Turner, Jennifer J; Slager, Susan L; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M; Flowers, Christopher R; Berndt, Sonja I; Bracci, Paige M; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Morton, Lindsay M

    2014-08-01

    The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%-10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case-control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  9. Occupational disease and workers' compensation: coverage, costs, and consequences.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Robbins, John A

    2004-01-01

    Most of the costs of occupational disease are not covered by workers' compensation. First, the authors estimated the deaths and costs for all occupational disease in 1999, using epidemiological studies. Among the greatest contributors were job-related cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and circulatory disease. Second, the authors estimated the number of workers' compensation cases, costs, and deaths for 1999, using data from up to 16 states representing all regions of the country. Unlike the epidemiological studies that emphasized fatal diseases, the workers' compensation estimates emphasized nonfatal diseases and conditions like tendonitis and hernia. Comparisons of the epidemiological and workers' compensation estimates suggest that in 1999, workers' compensation missed roughly 46,000 to 93,000 deaths and 8 billion US dollars to 23 billion US dollars in medical costs. These deaths and costs represented substantial cost shifting from workers' compensation systems to individual workers, their families, private medical insurance, and taxpayers (through Medicare and Medicaid). Designing policies to reduce the cost shifting and its associated inefficiency will be challenging.

  10. Occupational Disease and Workers’ Compensation: Coverage, Costs, and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J Paul; Robbins, John A

    2004-01-01

    Most of the costs of occupational disease are not covered by workers’ compensation. First, the authors estimated the deaths and costs for all occupational disease in 1999, using epidemiological studies. Among the greatest contributors were job-related cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and circulatory disease. Second, the authors estimated the number of workers’ compensation cases, costs, and deaths for 1999, using data from up to 16 states representing all regions of the country. Unlike the epidemiological studies that emphasized fatal diseases, the workers’ compensation estimates emphasized nonfatal diseases and conditions like tendonitis and hernia. Comparisons of the epidemiological and workers’ compensation estimates suggest that in 1999, workers’ compensation missed roughly 46,000 to 93,000 deaths and $8 billion to $23 billion in medical costs. These deaths and costs represented substantial cost shifting from workers’ compensation systems to individual workers, their families, private medical insurance, and taxpayers (through Medicare and Medicaid). Designing policies to reduce the cost shifting and its associated inefficiency will be challenging. PMID:15595947

  11. Mindfulness-based lifestyle programs for the self-management of Parkinson's disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Brooke E; Advocat, Jenny; Hassed, Craig; Hester, Jennifer; Enticott, Joanne; Russell, Grant

    2018-04-11

    Despite emerging evidence suggesting positive outcomes of mindfulness training for the self-management of other neurodegenerative diseases, limited research has explored its effect on the self-management of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to characterize the experiences of individuals participating in a facilitated, group mindfulness-based lifestyle program for community living adults with Stage 2 PD and explore how the program influenced beliefs about self-management of their disease. Our longitudinal qualitative study was embedded within a randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of a 6-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program on patient-reported function. The study was set in Melbourne, Australia in 2012-2013. We conducted semi-structured interviews with participants before, immediately after, and 6 months following participation in the program. Sixteen participants were interviewed prior to commencing the program. Of these, 12 were interviewed shortly after its conclusion, and 9 interviewed at 6 months. Prior to the program, participants felt a lack of control over their illness. A desire for control and a need for alternative tools for managing the progression of PD motivated many to engage with the program. Following the program, where participants experienced an increase in mindfulness, many became more accepting of disease progression and reported improved social relationships and self-confidence in managing their disease. Mindfulness-based lifestyle programs have the potential for increasing both participants' sense of control over their reactions to disease symptoms as well as social connectedness. Community-based mindfulness training may provide participants with tools for self-managing a number of the consequences of Stage 2 PD.

  12. [Chronic kidney disease - The relevant information for an occupational physician].

    PubMed

    Renke, Marcin; Parszuto, Jacek; Rybacki, Marcin; Wołyniec, Wojciech; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Rutkowski, Bolesław; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Dębska-Ślizień, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    For a number of years chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been listed in the group of lifestyle diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It is estimated that in Poland more than 4 million people may suffer from various stages of CKD. Chronic kidney disease may also be a consequence of all the other civilization diseases. At the same time it is worth noting that nephrological problems are increasingly being taken into account in modern medical certification. The aim of this work is, among other things, to improve safe access to the labor for patients with kidney diseases. In the legislation existing in our country since 2014 it is stated that chronic renal failure is a potential health contraindication to driving. Also in the annex to the Regulation of the Minister of Health dated 9 December 2015 on health conditions required for seafarers to work on a seagoing ship, it is said that ICD-10 codes (International Classification of Diseases) corresponding to acute and chronic renal failure (N17-N19) should be taken into account when qualifying employees to work at sea. Med Pr 2018;69(1):67-75. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers’ diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen’s compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker’s compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440

  14. Effect of Exceptional Parental Longevity and Lifestyle Factors on Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Gubbi, Sriram; Schwartz, Elianna; Crandall, Jill; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Atzmon, Gil; Braunstein, Rebecca; Barzilai, Nir; Milman, Sofiya

    2017-12-15

    Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) manifest lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of lifestyle factors in this unique cohort is not known. Our study tested whether OPEL have lesser prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle factors. Prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors was assessed in a population of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 to 94 years. Participants included OPEL (n = 395), defined as having at least 1 parent living past the age of 95 years, and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS, n = 450), defined as having neither parent survive to 95 years. Medical and lifestyle information was obtained using standardized questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was defined based on validated classification scores. Dietary intake was evaluated with the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (2000) in a subgroup of the study population (n = 234). Our study found no significant differences in the prevalence of obesity, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, social strata scores, and dietary intake between the 2 groups. After adjustment for age and gender, the OPEL demonstrated 29% lower odds of having hypertension (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53 to 0.95), 65% lower odds of having had a stroke (95% CI 0.14 to 0.88), and 35% lower odds of having CVD (95% CI 0.43 to 0.98), compared with OPUS. In conclusion, exceptional parental longevity is associated with lower prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and nutrition, thus highlighting the potential role of genetics in disease-free survival among individuals with exceptional parental longevity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifestyle Factors in Late Adolescence Associate With Later Development of Diverticular Disease Requiring Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Järbrink-Sehgal, M Ellionore; Schmidt, Peter T; Sköldberg, Filip; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Hagström, Hannes; Andreasson, Anna

    2018-04-12

    The burden of diverticular disease on society is high and is increasing with an aging population. It is therefore important to identify risk factors for disease development or progression. Many lifestyle behaviors during adolescence affect risk for later disease. We searched for adolescent lifestyle factors that affect risk of diverticular disease later in life. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men (age, 18-20 y) conscripted to military service in Sweden from 1969 through 1970, with a follow-up period of 39 years. All conscripts underwent an extensive mental and physical health examination and completed questionnaires covering alcohol consumption, smoking, and use of recreational drugs; cardiovascular fitness was assessed using an ergometer cycle at the time of conscription. Outcome data were collected from national registers to identify discharge diagnoses of diverticular disease until the end of 2009. We performed Cox regression analysis to determine whether body mass index, cardiovascular fitness, smoking, use of recreational drugs, alcohol consumption, and risky use of alcohol, at time of conscription are independent risk factors for development of diverticular disease. Overweight and obese men had a 2-fold increased risk of diverticular disease compared to normal-weight men (hazard ratio, 2.00; P < .001). A high level of cardiovascular fitness was associated with a reduced risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .009). Smoking (P = .003), but not use of recreational drugs (P = .11), was associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization. Risky use of alcohol, but not alcohol consumption per se, was associated with a 43% increase in risk of diverticular disease requiring hospitalization (P = .007). In a retrospective analysis of data from 43,772 men in Sweden, we associated being overweight or obese, a smoker, a high-risk user of alcohol, and/or having a low level of

  16. Artificial intelligence-assisted occupational lung disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Harber, P; McCoy, J M; Howard, K; Greer, D; Luo, J

    1991-08-01

    An artificial intelligence expert-based system for facilitating the clinical recognition of occupational and environmental factors in lung disease has been developed in a pilot fashion. It utilizes a knowledge representation scheme to capture relevant clinical knowledge into structures about specific objects (jobs, diseases, etc) and pairwise relations between objects. Quantifiers describe both the closeness of association and risk, as well as the degree of belief in the validity of a fact. An independent inference engine utilizes the knowledge, combining likelihoods and uncertainties to achieve estimates of likelihood factors for specific paths from work to illness. The system creates a series of "paths," linking work activities to disease outcomes. One path links a single period of work to a single possible disease outcome. In a preliminary trial, the number of "paths" from job to possible disease averaged 18 per subject in a general population and averaged 25 per subject in an asthmatic population. Artificial intelligence methods hold promise in the future to facilitate diagnosis in pulmonary and occupational medicine.

  17. Data warehouse for detection of occupational diseases in OHS data.

    PubMed

    Godderis, L; Mylle, G; Coene, M; Verbeek, C; Viaene, B; Bulterys, S; Schouteden, M

    2015-11-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) services collect a wide range of data during health surveillance. To build a 'data warehouse' to make OHS data available for research and to investigate sector-specific health problems. Medical data were extracted, transformed and loaded into the data warehouse. After validation, data on lifestyle, categorized medication use, ICD-9-CM encoded sickness absences and health complaints, collected between 2010 and 2014, were analysed with logistic regression to compare proportions between employment sectors, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and year of examination. The data set comprised 585000 employees. Average age and employment seniority were 39 ± 12 and 8 ± 9 years, respectively. BMI was 26 ± 5 kg/m(2). Health complaints, medication use and sickness absence significantly increased with BMI and age. The proportion of employees with health problems was highest in health care (64%), government (61%) and manufacturing (60%) and lowest in the service sector. In all sectors, 10% of workers reported locomotor health problems, apart from the service sector (8%) with similar results for medication consumption. Neuropsychological drugs were more frequently used by health care workers (8%). The transport sector contained the highest proportion of cardiological medication users (12%). Finally, 30-59% of employees reported at least one sickness absence episode. Sickness absence due to locomotor issues was highest in manufacturing (11%) and health care (10%), followed by government (9%) and construction (9%). Significant differences in indices of workers' health were observed between sectors. This information is now being used in the implementation of a sector-oriented health surveillance programme. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Awareness of occupational skin disease in the service sector.

    PubMed

    Holness, D L; Kudla, I; Brown, J; Miller, S

    2017-06-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is a common occupational disease. Although primary prevention strategies are known, OSDs remain prevalent in a variety of work environments including the service sector (restaurant/food services, retail/wholesale, tourism/hospitality and vehicle sales and service). To obtain information about awareness and prevention of OSD in the service sector. Focus groups and a survey were conducted with two groups. The first consisted of staff of the provincial health and safety association for the service sector and the second group comprised representatives from sector employers. Focus groups highlighted key issues to inform the survey that obtained information about perceptions of awareness and prevention of OSD and barriers to awareness and prevention. Both provincial health and safety association staff and sector employer representatives highlighted low awareness and a low level of knowledge of OSD in the sector. Barriers to awareness and prevention included a low reported incidence of OSD, low priority, lack of training materials, lack of time and cost of training, lack of management support and workplace culture. A starting point for improving prevention of OSD in the service sector is increased awareness. Identification of the barriers to awareness and prevention will help to shape an awareness campaign and prevention strategies. Building on existing experience in Europe will be important. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Occupational Noise and Ischemic Heart Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dzhambov, Angel M; Dimitrova, Donka D

    2016-01-01

    Noise exposure might be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Unlike residential exposure, however, evidence for occupational noise is limited. Given that high-quality quantitative synthesis of existing data is highly warranted for occupational safety and policy, we aimed at conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risks of IHD morbidity and mortality because of occupational noise exposure. We carried out a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and on the Internet since April 2, 2015, in English, Spanish, Russian, and Bulgarian. A quality-scoring checklist was developed a priori to assess different sources of methodological bias. A qualitative data synthesis was performed. Conservative assumptions were applied when appropriate. A meta-analysis was not feasible because of unresolvable methodological discrepancies between the studies. On the basis of five studies, there was some evidence to suggest higher risk of IHD among workers exposed to objectively assessed noise >75–80 dB for <20 years (supported by one high, one moderate, and one low quality study, opposed by one high and one moderate quality study). Three moderate and two low quality studies out of six found self-rated exposure to be associated with higher risk of IHD, and only one moderate quality study found no effect. Out of four studies, a higher mortality risk was suggested by one moderate quality study relying on self-rated exposure and one of high-quality study using objective exposure. Sensitivity analyses showed that at higher exposures and in some vulnerable subgroups, such as women, the adverse effects were considerably stronger. Despite methodological discrepancies and limitations of the included studies, occupational noise appeared to be a risk factor for IHD morbidity. Results suggested higher risk for IHD mortality only among vulnerable subgroups. Workers exposed to high occupational noise should be considered at higher overall risk of IHD. PMID:27569404

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Personalized Lifestyle Management Strategies for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Paula; Pandya, Ankur; Salomon, Joshua A; Goldie, Sue J; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2016-03-29

    Evidence shows that healthy diet, exercise, smoking interventions, and stress reduction reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of these lifestyle interventions for individual risk profiles and determine their rank order in reducing 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. We computed risks using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations for a variety of individual profiles. Using published literature on risk factor reductions through diverse lifestyle interventions-group therapy for stopping smoking, Mediterranean diet, aerobic exercise (walking), and yoga-we calculated the risk reduction through each of these interventions to determine the strategy associated with the maximum benefit for each profile. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results. In the base-case analysis, yoga was associated with the largest 10-year cardiovascular disease risk reductions (maximum absolute reduction 16.7% for the highest-risk individuals). Walking generally ranked second (max 11.4%), followed by Mediterranean diet (max 9.2%), and group therapy for smoking (max 1.6%). If the individual was a current smoker and successfully quit smoking (ie, achieved complete smoking cessation), then stopping smoking yielded the largest reduction. Probabilistic and 1-way sensitivity analysis confirmed the demonstrated trend. This study reports the comparative effectiveness of several forms of lifestyle modifications and found smoking cessation and yoga to be the most effective forms of cardiovascular disease prevention. Future research should focus on patient adherence to personalized therapies, cost-effectiveness of these strategies, and the potential for enhanced benefit when interventions are performed simultaneously rather than as single measures. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Association of TSH With Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Overweight and Obese Children During Lifestyle Intervention.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Jesse M; Plat, Jogchum; Dorenbos, Elke; Penders, Bas; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obese children have an increased risk to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in which thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) has been suggested as an intermediary factor. However, results of cross-sectional studies are inconclusive, and intervention studies investigating changes in TSH concentrations in association with changes in cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children are scarce. To gain insight in associations of circulating TSH concentrations and cardiovascular risk parameters in overweight and obese children. Nonrandomized lifestyle intervention. Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Three hundred thirty euthyroid overweight and obese children. Long-term lifestyle intervention. TSH concentrations, pituitary TSH release in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and cardiovascular risk parameters. At baseline, serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 concentrations were significantly associated with serum TSH concentrations. TSH release by the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH was not associated with cardiovascular risk parameters. During lifestyle intervention, several cardiovascular risk parameters significantly improved. In children whose body mass index z score improved, changes in TSH concentrations were significantly associated with changes in TC, LDL-C, and TAG concentrations. In euthyroid overweight and obese children, circulating TSH concentrations are positively associated with markers representing increased CVD risk. Changes in TSH concentrations are also associated with changes in lipid concentrations in children with successful weight loss, which is consistent with TSH being an intermediary factor in modulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome in globalizing India: An ecosocial perspective on an emerging lifestyle disease.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Gauri; Nichter, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder linked to type II diabetes and the leading cause of female infertility worldwide. Despite being considered a "lifestyle" disease, PCOS has received scant attention in the social science literature. In India, media accounts citing prominent doctors have expressed concern that the syndrome affects a growing number of urban middle-class Indian women. The general public, doctors, and afflicted women all attribute the condition to stress, lifestyle changes, "Westernization," modernization, and disrupted circadian rhythms. These factors are associated with changes in diets, gender roles, and aspirations since 1991, when the introduction of neoliberal reforms opened up the country to processes of globalization. Women with PCOS have come to be seen as living embodiments of the biosocial stresses associated with modern urban middle-class living, and discourse about PCOS serves as commentary indexing anxieties about social and political-economic shifts in the country. In this paper, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Mumbai, India, with 141 participants from 2012 to 2014, we point to local understanding of PCOS as corresponding to an ecosocial perspective that highlights the structural vulnerabilities of urban middle-class women. Whereas most research on structural vulnerabilities and health has centered on economically and otherwise disadvantaged groups, we use PCOS as a case study to draw attention to the rise of lifestyle disorders linked to the impact of globalization and the pressures of "modern" identities and aspirations among middle-class populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Better knowledge improves adherence to lifestyle changes and medication in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alm-Roijer, Carin; Stagmo, Martin; Udén, Giggi; Erhardt, Leif

    2004-12-01

    Many patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are not managed adequately, and we often fail to reach treatment targets. To investigate if knowledge of risk factors for CHD, measured by a questionnaire, would show any relation to advice to compliance to lifestyle changes to attain treatment goals and adherence to drug therapy. Men and women <71 years who had had a cardiac event were screened consecutively (509) from the medical records. Responders (392) were interviewed, examined and received a questionnaire. Three hundred and forty-seven patients answered the questionnaire regarding their general knowledge of risk factors for CHD, compliance to lifestyle changes to attain treatment goals and adherence to drug therapy. There were statistically significant correlations between general knowledge about risk factors for CHD and compliance to certain lifestyle changes: weight, physical activity, stress management, diet, attainment of lipid level goals and the likelihood of taking prescribed blood pressure-lowering drugs. General knowledge of risk factors had no correlation to blood glucose or blood pressure levels nor on smoking habits or treatment patterns for prescribed lipid- and blood glucose-lowering drugs. Knowledge correlates to patient behaviour with respect to some risk factors, which should be recognised in preventive programs.

  4. Heath beliefs of UK South Asians related to lifestyle diseases: a review of qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther; Kinra, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals.

  5. Heath Beliefs of UK South Asians Related to Lifestyle Diseases: A Review of Qualitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. Methods. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. Results. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. Conclusions. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals. PMID:23476751

  6. PNPLA3 gene polymorphism and response to lifestyle modification in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiayun; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Chan, Ruth Suk-Mei; Chan, Hoi-Yun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Cheung, Bernice Ho-Ki; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Li, Liz Sin; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone for the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and patatin-like phospholipase 3 (PNPLA3) is one of the most important genetic determinants of NAFLD. We aimed to investigate the effect of PNPLA3 gene polymorphism on the response to lifestyle modification in NAFLD patients. This was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial on a lifestyle modification program in community NAFLD patients. The PNPLA3 rs738409 gene polymorphism was correlated with changes in metabolic profile and intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. One hundred and fifty-four patients were equally randomized into the intervention and control groups. The presence of G allele was associated with greater reduction in IHTG (CC: 3.7 ± 5.2%, CG: 6.5 ± 3.6%), and GG: 11.3 ± 8.8% (Spearman's correlation, 0.34; P = 0.002), body weight (P = 0.030), waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.024), total cholesterol (P = 0.031), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.009) in the intervention group. In contrast, PNPLA3 polymorphism had no impact on IHTG changes in the control group. By multivariable analysis, PNPLA3 genotype and body mass index (BMI) change were independently associated with IHTG reduction in the intervention group. Only BMI change was associated with IHTG reduction in the control group. Although the PNPLA3 rs738409 GG genotype confers a higher risk of NAFLD, these patients are more sensitive to the beneficial effects of lifestyle modification and should be encouraged to do so. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The correlates of social capital and adherence to healthy lifestyle in patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Li, Hua; Shao, Chunhai

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlates of social capital and adherence to healthy lifestyle in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods This register-based, cross-sectional study consisted of individuals diagnosed with CHD at four community health service centers, Shanghai, China, between April and July 2016 (n=609). The sociodemographic characteristics, social capital, adherence to physical activity, and nutrition data were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Social capital was assessed by social participation, social networking, social support, social trust, and sense of belonging. Physical activity and nutrition were measured with the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. The independent two-sample t-test and Pearson’s correlations were used to analyze associations among variables. Hierarchical multiple regression models were used to evaluate effects of social capital on adherence to physical activity and nutrition. Results The average age of the sample was 60.87 (standard deviation [SD] =6.91), with 54.4% being male and 45.6% female. The average score of physical activity and nutrition were 2.38 (SD =0.59) and 2.78 (SD =0.50), respectively. The final model significantly explained 28.9% of variance in physical activity (F=34.96, P<0.001) and 30.5% of variance in nutrition (F=37.73, P<0.001). Most of the subdimensions of social capital were significantly associated with physical activity and nutrition, after controlling for marital status and education level. Conclusion The results suggested that social capital was the correlate of adherence to long-term healthy lifestyle, including physical activity and nutrition. These findings highlight the need to take into account social capital in developing intervention strategies to improve the adherence to the long-term healthy lifestyle for patients with CHD. PMID:29033557

  8. The correlates of social capital and adherence to healthy lifestyle in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jialie; Wang, Ji-Wei; Li, Jiang; Li, Hua; Shao, Chunhai

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the correlates of social capital and adherence to healthy lifestyle in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This register-based, cross-sectional study consisted of individuals diagnosed with CHD at four community health service centers, Shanghai, China, between April and July 2016 (n=609). The sociodemographic characteristics, social capital, adherence to physical activity, and nutrition data were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Social capital was assessed by social participation, social networking, social support, social trust, and sense of belonging. Physical activity and nutrition were measured with the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. The independent two-sample t -test and Pearson's correlations were used to analyze associations among variables. Hierarchical multiple regression models were used to evaluate effects of social capital on adherence to physical activity and nutrition. The average age of the sample was 60.87 (standard deviation [SD] =6.91), with 54.4% being male and 45.6% female. The average score of physical activity and nutrition were 2.38 (SD =0.59) and 2.78 (SD =0.50), respectively. The final model significantly explained 28.9% of variance in physical activity ( F =34.96, P <0.001) and 30.5% of variance in nutrition ( F =37.73, P <0.001). Most of the subdimensions of social capital were significantly associated with physical activity and nutrition, after controlling for marital status and education level. The results suggested that social capital was the correlate of adherence to long-term healthy lifestyle, including physical activity and nutrition. These findings highlight the need to take into account social capital in developing intervention strategies to improve the adherence to the long-term healthy lifestyle for patients with CHD.

  9. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in older people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hindle, John V; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Martyr, Anthony; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C; Thomas, Enlli M; Clare, Linda

    2017-12-01

    Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD. Sixty-nine people diagnosed with early PD without dementia were recruited as part of the Bilingualism as a protective factor in Age-related Neurodegenerative Conditions study. Participants completed a battery of tests of executive function. The Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire was completed as a comprehensive assessment of lifelong cognitive lifestyle. Non-parametric correlations compared clinical measures with executive function scores. Cross-sectional analyses of covariance were performed comparing the performance of low and high cognitive reserve groups on executive function tests. Correlational analyses showed that better executive function scores were associated with younger age, higher levodopa dose and higher Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire scores. Higher cognitive reserve was associated with better motor function, but high and low cognitive reserve groups did not differ in executive function. Cognitive reserve, although associated with global cognition, does not appear to be associated with executive function. This differential effect may reflect the specific cognitive profile of PD. The long-term effects of cognitive reserve on executive function in PD require further exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Acroosteolysis in PVC autoclave cleaners: history of an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C; Osculati, A; Colosio, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of an occupational disease which has now disappeared: acroosteolysis of manual tank cleaners in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is a rare disease characterized by destructive alterations of the distal phalanges of the hands. All the available literature on this disease was examined. The history of acroosteolysis was studied within the general framework of the history of the discovery of adverse health effects of exposure to vinyl chloride, and this history was studied up to the end of the 1960's. The disease was observed for the first time in mid-1963 in Belgium (Jemeppe) in a chemical plant operated by Solvay, and affected two workers whose job was the manual cleaning of vessels used for the polymerization of vinyl chloride; similar cases occurred in almost all PVC production plants all over the world, but not in the plants where the main activity was the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Little more than one hundred cases are described in the scientific literature, and this number increases by a few dozen if we consider known but unpublished cases. These figures confirm the rarity of the disease, which peaked at the end of the 1960's and disappeared during the 1970's, probably due to the complete elimination of manual reactor cleaning. Observation of the disease lasted no more than fifteen years and the disease was not replicated in experimental conditions on animals. The disease was clinically characterized, had a short latency (from several months to several years), was rare and unequivocally linked to the manual cleaning of PVC polymerization tanks. However many questions still remain open: the period when the disease first appeared (many years after the start of PVC production in the world), the etiology of the disease (the most accredited hypothesis considers three concomitant factors: a chemical factor--one of the many substances used during polymerization, and particularly vinyl chloride monomer

  11. Health-related variables and predictors of Health-promoting Lifestyle in cardiovascular disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mohsenipouya, Hossein; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Shojaeizadeh, Davood; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Ghafari, Rahman; Habibi, Vali; Makrani, Azam Seyfi

    2016-04-01

    The principal cause for death in the world is cardiovascular disease. Poor lifestyle is a contributing element in this regard. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of health-related variables and lifestyle variables on the results of exercise stress tests in patients with cardiovascular disease in Iran. The study population in this case-control study was 220 patients who were candidates for exercise stress tests in Mazandaran Province (Iran) in 2015. The patients were divided randomly into two groups based on the results of their exercise stress tests, i.e., positive (110 patients) and negative (110 patients). The data collection tool was a standard questionnaire entitled "Health promotion lifestyle profile-II." The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, the chi-squared test, and logistic regression by SPSS version 22 software. The risk of a positive exercise stress test increases with age. The age group above 65 was 1.049 times more at risk of a positive exercise stress test than the age group of less than 45. The people with dyslipidemia had 1.635 times greater risk of positive exercise stress tests than the group without dyslipidemia. In addition, patients with hypertension had 1.579 times greater risk of positive exercise stress tests than the group without hypertension. The lack of individual health responsibility (Odds ratio (OR): 1.622), stress management (OR: 1.592), and physical activity (OR: 1.245) contributed more to positive exercise tests than the other risk factors. Educational interventions can improve the responsibility for health, physical activity, and stress management among people with the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Respiratory disease caused by synthetic fibres: a new occupational disease.

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, J C; Avila, R; Lourenço, A G

    1975-01-01

    Seven patients exposed to the inhalation of synthetic fibres presented with various bronchopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, chronic bronchitis with bronchiectasis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and chronic pneumonia. The histological features are described and an attempt has been made to set up immunological techniques for the diagnosis. A series of histochemical techniques, based on textile chemistry, are proposed for the identification of the inclusions found in bronchopulmonary lesions. The results of the experimental production of the disease in guinea-pigs by the inhalation of synthetic fibre dusts are presented. The prognosis of these cases is good in the acute or recently established cases but is poor when widespread and irreversible fibrosis has set in. The authors consider that pulmonary disease due to inhaled particles is probably set off by an individual factor, possibly immunological. Images PMID:1179318

  13. [Field investigation of occupational disease diagnosis in Guangdong Provincial Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment from 2009 to 2014: an analysis of 136 cases].

    PubMed

    Fan, C Y; Li, X D; Wen, W; Wang, Y Y; Zhang, Y; Lang, L

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the characteristics of 136 patients with occupational diseases, to summarize key techniques used in field investigation, and to provide a scientific basis for the development of standard operating procedures for field investigation of occupational disease diagnosis. Field investigation and routine data analysis were performed to analyze the cases diagnosed by Guangdong Provincial Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment from January 2009 to December 2014. A total of 136 cases of occupational diseases were diagnosed by Guangdong Provincial Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment from 2009 to 2014, and there were 66 cases of leukemia, 18 cases of suspected occupational benzene poisoning, 12 cases of suspected occupational handarm vibration disease, and 11 cases of suspected pneumoconiosis. Of all these patients, 41.91% were engaged in at least three types of work, 70.59% were exposed to at least three types of chemicals, 25.74% experienced changes in technical processes and chemicals, and 47.06% had disputes on the chemicals they were exposed to during verification by both parties. Occupational hazard factors were detected. Most samples (358)were used to measure benzene concentration in workplace air, among which 11.7% had a benzene concentration of >6.00 mg/m(3)(exceeding standard), 13.41% had a benzene concentration of 3.26~6.00 mg/m(3), 75.42% had a benzene concentration of<0.03 to <3.25 mg/m(3). The samples of suspected occupational hand-arm vibration disease, suspected pneumoconiosis, and suspected occupational noiseinduced hearing loss had high overstandard rates (100%, 93.8%, and 83.3%, respectively). Field investigation of occupational disease diagnosis reveals large numbers of cases of leukemia, suspected occupational benzene poisoning, suspected occupational hand-arm vibration disease, and suspected pneumoconiosis. The key aspects of field investigation include confirmation of the history of occupational

  14. Interrupting the natural history of diabetes mellitus: lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical strategies targeting disease progression.

    PubMed

    Khavandi, Kaivan; Brownrigg, Jack; Hankir, Mohammed; Sood, Harpreet; Younis, Naveed; Worth, Joy; Greenstein, Adam; Soran, Handrean; Wierzbicki, Anthony; Goldsmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades we have seen a surge in the incidence of diabetes in industrialized nations; a threat which has now extended to the developing world. Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant microvascular and macrovascular disease, with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has cast uncertainty on the benefits of very tight glycaemic goals in these individuals. The natural history of disease follows an insidious course from disordered glucose metabolism in a pre-diabetic state, often with metabolic syndrome and obesity, before proceeding to diabetes mellitus. In the research setting, lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical intervention targeted against obesity and glycaemia has shown that metabolic disturbances can be halted and indeed regressed if introduced at an early stage of disease. In addition to traditional anti-diabetic medications such as the glinides, sulphonylureas and the glitazones, novel therapies manipulating the endocannabinoid system, neurotransmitters, intestinal absorption and gut hormones have shown dual benefit in weight loss and glycaemic control normalisation. Whilst these treatments will not and should not replace lifestyle change, they will act as invaluable adjuncts for weight loss and aid in normalising the metabolic profile of individuals at risk of diabetes. Utilizing novel therapies to prevent diabetes should be the focus of future research, with the aim of preventing the challenging microvascular and macrovascular complications, and ultimately cardiovascular death.

  15. Barriers to lifestyle changes for prevention of cardiovascular disease - a survey among 40-60-year old Danes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dort E; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2017-09-12

    Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle changes to medication. Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between barriers to lifestyle changes and relevant covariates. A total of 45% of respondents were identified with at least one barrier to introducing 30 min extra exercise daily, 30% of respondents reported at least one barrier to dietary change, and among smokers at least one barrier to smoking cessation was reported by 62% of the respondents. The perception of specific barriers to lifestyle change depended on sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. We observed a considerable heterogeneity between different social groups in the population regarding a number of barriers to lifestyle change. Our study demonstrates that social inequality exists in the ability to take appropriate preventive measures through lifestyle changes to stay healthy. This finding underlines the challenge of social inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives.

  16. Occupational lung disease survey of respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    McKeagney, T F P; Addley, K; Asanati, K

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory physicians are likely to encounter occupational lung disease (OLD) in their daily practice. To assess the profile of cases being encountered by general respiratory physicians in Northern Ireland (NI) and determine satisfaction with training, confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD. An online survey of all consultant respiratory physicians currently practising in NI. Questions assessed the numbers of new cases seen over the preceding year, case type, satisfaction with specialist registrar training in OLD and degree of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. Of the 40 consultants identified, the response rate was 80% (n = 32) with 94% of respondents (n = 30) indicating they had dealt with patients suspected of having occupation-related respiratory symptoms. The most commonly encountered OLDs were pleural plaques (91% of respondents), occupational asthma (88%), asbestosis (84%), non-asbestosis pulmonary fibrosis (76%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (67%) and mesothelioma (66%). Just over one third of consultants (36%, n = 10) indicated a lack of confidence in diagnosis and management of OLD with almost half (48%) dissatisfied with OLD training as a registrar and a further 78% (n = 25) indicating they would value additional training in OLD as a consultant. The majority of respiratory consultants in NI encountered OLD in their day to day practice and half were dissatisfied with their specialist registrar training in OLD and express a lack of confidence in the diagnosis and management of these conditions. This highlights the need for additional training at both registrar and consultant level. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Correlation of regional cardiovascular disease mortality in India with lifestyle and nutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Misra, Anoop; Pais, Prem; Rastogi, Priyanka; Gupta, V P

    2006-04-14

    There is a wide disparity in prevalence and cardiovascular disease mortality in different Indian states. To determine significance of various nutritional factors and other lifestyle variables in explaining this difference in cardiovascular disease mortality we performed an analysis. Mortality data were obtained from the Registrar General of India. In 1998 the annual death rate for India was 840/100,000 population. Cardiovascular diseases contribute to 27% of these deaths and its crude mortality rate was 227/100,000. Major differences in cardiovascular disease mortality rates in different Indian states were reported varying from 75-100 in sub-Himalayan states of Nagaland, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim to a high of 360-430 in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Goa. Lifestyle data were obtained from national surveys conducted by the government of India. The second National Family Health Survey (26 states, 92,447 households, 301,984 adults) conducted in 1998-1999 reported on various demographic and lifestyle variables and India Nutrition Profile Study reported dietary intake of 177,841 adults (18 states, 75,229 men, 102,612 women). Cardiovascular disease mortality rates were correlated with smoking, literacy levels, prevalence of stunted growth at 3-years (as marker of fetal undernutrition), adult mean body mass index, prevalence of overweight and obesity, dietary consumption of calories, cereals and pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots, tubers and other vegetables, milk and milk products, fats and oils, and sugar and jaggery. As a major confounder in different states is poverty, all the partial correlation coefficients were adjusted for illiteracy, fertility rate and infant mortality rate. There was a significant positive correlation of cardiovascular disease mortality with prevalence of obesity (R=0.37) and dietary consumption of fats (R=0.67), milk and its products (R=0.27) and sugars (R=0.51) and negative correlation with green leafy vegetable intake

  18. Understanding The Relationships Between Noncommunicable Diseases, Unhealthy Lifestyles, And Country Wealth.

    PubMed

    Bollyky, Thomas J; Templin, Tara; Andridge, Caroline; Dieleman, Joseph L

    2015-09-01

    The amount of international aid given to address noncommunicable diseases is minimal. Most of it is directed to wealthier countries and focuses on the prevention of unhealthy lifestyles. Explanations for the current direction of noncommunicable disease aid include that these are diseases of affluence that benefit from substantial research and development into their treatment in high-income countries and are better addressed through domestic tax and policy measures to reduce risk-factor prevalence than through aid programs. This study assessed these justifications. First, we examined the relationships among premature adult mortality, defined as the probability that a person who has lived to the age of fifteen will die before the age of sixty from noncommunicable diseases; the major risk factors for these diseases; and country wealth. Second, we compared noncommunicable and communicable diseases prevalent in poor and wealthy countries alike, and their respective links to economic development. Last, we examined the respective roles that wealth and risk prevention have played in countries that achieved substantial reductions in premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases. Our results support greater investment in cost-effective noncommunicable disease preventive care and treatment in poorer countries and a higher priority for reducing key risk factors, particularly tobacco use. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Fatty liver disease and lifestyle in youngsters: diet, food intake frequency, exercise, sleep shortage and fashion.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver is associated with alcohol habits and/or overweight/obesity. We challenged several lifestyle features associated with fatty liver and, particularly, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among them, sleep shortage as a result of nightlife habits and a preference for plus-size fashion were assessed. The latter consists of fashionable plus-sized clothing for actual individuals' size and reflects a frequent attitude of some social or age groups, conceivably indicating more global and widespread trend and behaviour. We studied a group of 708 non-diabetic youngsters, 458 women and 250 men, 21.72 ± 3.71 years old (range 15-35 years), referred for minor digestive ailments for clinical assessment, ultrasound detection of fatty liver and nutritional counselling. Details of personal history regarding lifestyle, food intake frequency and alcohol intake, dietary and physical exercise profile, sleep duration and clothing preferences were recorded. The prevalence of NAFLD in this cohort of youngsters is 67/708 (9.4%). Even if it is quantitatively very low in both groups, the average alcohol intake, always below 20 g/day, is greater in NAFLD subjects (5.83 ± 4.32 g) vs. subjects with normal liver (2.02 ± 3.20 g). The number of meals/day and adherence to a Mediterranean diet profile are smaller in NAFLD subjects. By multiple regression, BMI, sedentary life, plus-sized clothing for their actual size, sleep shortage and lower frequency of daily food intake are associated with the presence of NAFLD. Onset and continuation of fatty liver disease, beyond food and exercise quantity and quality, with their effects on obesity, may also be associated with other aspects of lifestyle. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p < 0.05). Under the combined action of hazardous substances, the incidence of digestive diseases was 1.7-fold greater (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects and 1.2-fold greater in those under isolated action. The odd ratio and relative risk for digestive diseases in the workers exposed to a combination of noxious substances were 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  1. Studies on possibility for alleviation of lifestyle diseases by low-dose irradiation or radon inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Sakoda, Akihiro; Yoshimoto, Masaaki; Nakagawa, Shinya; Toyota, Teruaki; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Yamato, Keiko; Ishimori, Yuu; Kawabe, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2011-07-01

    Our previous studies showed the possibility that activation of the antioxidative function alleviates various oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases. Results showed that, low-dose X-ray irradiation activated superoxide dismutase and inhibits oedema following ischaemia-reperfusion. To alleviate ischaemia-reperfusion injury with transplantation, the changes of the antioxidative function in liver graft using low-dose X-ray irradiation immediately after exenteration were examined. Results showed that liver grafts activate the antioxidative function as a result of irradiation. In addition, radon inhalation enhances the antioxidative function in some organs, and alleviates alcohol-induced oxidative damage of mouse liver. Moreover, in order to determine the most effective condition of radon inhalation, mice inhaled radon before or after carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) administration. Results showed that radon inhalation alleviates CCl(4)-induced hepatopathy, especially prior inhalation. It is highly possible that adequate activation of antioxidative functions induced by low-dose irradiation can contribute to preventing or reducing oxidative damages, which are related to lifestyle diseases.

  2. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND THE ROLE OF DIETARY LIFESTYLES IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Eberstein, Jacqueline A.

    2008-01-01

    Since Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has no cure or preventive treatment, an urgent need exists to find a means of preventing, delaying the onset, or reversing the course of the disease. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that lifestyle factors, especially nutrition, may be crucial in controlling AD. Unhealthy lifestyle choices lead to an increasing incidence of obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension — components of the metabolic syndrome. These disorders can also be linked to AD. Recent research supports the hypothesis that calorie intake, among other nongenetic factors, can influence the risk of clinical dementia. In animal studies, high calorie intake in the form of saturated fat promoted AD-type amyloidosis, while calorie restriction via reduced carbohydrate intake prevented it. Pending further study, it is prudent to recommend to those at risk for AD — e.g., with a family history or features of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, insulin insensitivity, etc. — to avoid foods and beverages with added sugars; to eat whole, unrefined foods with natural fats, especially fish, nuts and seeds, olives and olive oil; and to minimize foods that disrupt insulin and blood sugar balance. PMID:18466323

  3. [UV-irradiation-induced skin cancer as a new occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Drexler, H; Elsner, P; Schmitt, J

    2015-03-01

    With the revision of the German Ordinance on Occupational Diseases, skin cancer due to UV irradiation was amended as a new occupational disease to the list of occupational diseases in Germany. The new occupational disease BK 5103 has the following wording: "Squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". Actinic keratoses are to be considered as multiple according to this new occupational diseases if they occur as single lesions of more than five annually, or are confluent in an area > 4 cm(2) (field cancerization). It is estimated that more than 2.5 million employees are exposed to natural UV irradiation due to their work (outdoor workers) in Germany and therefore have an increased risk of skin cancer. In this article the medical and technical prerequisites which have to be fulfilled for this new occupational disease in Germany are introduced.

  4. The art and science of chronic disease management come together in a lifestyle-focused approach to primary care.

    PubMed

    Egger, G; Katz, D; Sagner, M; Dixon, J; Stevens, J

    2014-12-01

    Changes in patterns of living result in changes in the nature and causes of disease. The industrial revolution of the late 18th century, and the technological revolution of the late 20th century are cases in point. The former was associated with a decline in infectious diseases; the latter with an increase in lifestyle and environmentally induced chronic diseases . Health practices are typically modified to deal with such changes, hence the recent rise in interest in lifestyle-oriented forms of clinical practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Research colloquium on occupational respiratory diseases: a conference in Cuba (1984)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstock, L.; Orris, P.

    At an international conference in Havana, Cuba, March 19-21, 1984, health professional from the US, Canada, and Cuba participated in a research colloquium on occupational lung diseases. Participants and speakers discussed the state of the art of knowledge, research, and management of key occupational lung diseases, and suggested directions for future efforts. Differences among the three countries in terms of the medical, economic, and social aspects of defining, treating, and compensating occupational diseases were also considered.

  6. Effect of e-health on medical expenditures of outpatients with lifestyle-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Minetaki, Kazunori; Akematsu, Yuji; Tsuji, Masatsugu

    2011-10-01

    We analyzed the effect of e-health on medical expenditures in Nishi-aizu Town, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, using panel data of medical expenditures for about 400 residents from 2002 to 2006. The Nishi-aizu Town system was introduced in 1994 and is still successfully operating as one of the longest running implementations of e-health in Japan. The town office maintains a register of receipts for medical expenditures paid by the National Health Insurance system and provides data on e-health users, allowing users and nonusers of e-health and their respective costs to be distinguished. Here, we focus on patients with lifestyle-related diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke, heart failure, etc. This article postulates that e-health reduces medical expenditures via two mechanisms, decreasing travel expenses and preventing symptoms from worsening. The former implies that e-health monitoring allows patients at home to visit medical institutions less frequently, and the latter that the symptoms experienced by e-health users are less severe than those experienced by nonusers. We termed these the travel cost effect and opportunity cost effect, respectively. Chronic conditions tend not to occur singly, and many patients have more than one; for example, patients with high blood pressure or diabetes also likely have heart disease at the same time. This multiplicity of conditions hampers cost analysis. Among methodological issues, a number of recent empirical health analyses have focused on the endogenous problem of explanatory variables. Here, we solved this problem using the generalized method moments (GMM) system, which allows treatment of not only the endogenous problem of explanatory variables but also the dynamic relationship among variables, which arise due to the chronic time-lagged effect of lifestyle-related diseases on patients. We also examined a second important methodological problem related to reverse correlation between the medical expenditures of

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure.

  8. Association between Social Network Characteristics and Lifestyle Behaviours in Adults at Risk of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Bot, Sandra D; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Nijpels, Giel; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    In this exploratory study we examined the associations between several social network characteristics and lifestyle behaviours in adults at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we explored whether similarities in lifestyle between individuals and their network members, or the level of social support perceived by these individuals, could explain these associations. From the control group of the Hoorn Prevention Study, participants with high and low educational attainment were approached for a structured interview between April and August 2010. Inclusion was stopped when fifty adults agreed to participate. Participants and a selection of their network members (e.g. spouses, best friends, neighbours, colleagues) completed a questionnaire on healthy lifestyle that included questions on fruit and vegetable intake, daily physical activity and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. We first examined associations between network characteristics and lifestyle using regression analyses. Second, we assessed associations between network characteristics and social support, social support and lifestyle, and compared the participants' lifestyles to those of their network members using concordance correlation coefficients. Fifty adults (50/83 x 100 = 62% response) and 170 of their network members (170/192 x 100 = 89% response) participated in the study. Individuals with more close-knit relationships, more friends who live nearby, and a larger and denser network showed higher levels of vegetable consumption and physical activity, and lower levels of sedentary behaviour. Perceived social norms or perceived support for behavioural change were not related to healthy lifestyle. Except for spousal concordance for vegetable intake, the lifestyle of individuals and their network members were not alike. Study results suggest that adults with a larger and denser social network have a healthier lifestyle. Underlying mechanisms for these associations should be

  9. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease.

    PubMed

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti

    2013-10-01

    Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases.

  10. The Role of Spirituality in Lifestyle Changing Among Patients with Chronic Cardiovascular Diseases: A Literature Review of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Janssen-Niemeijer, A J; Visse, M; Van Leeuwen, R; Leget, C; Cusveller, B S

    2017-08-01

    Chronic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are diseases with marked morbidity. Patients are often advised to change their lifestyle to prevent complications and impairment of their diseases. Compliance, however, is influenced by multiple factors. Initial studies show that spirituality is an important aspect in health behavior and lifestyle changing, but to health professionals like nurses this is unknown. The aim of this review is to investigate and synthesize evidence about the role of spirituality in lifestyle changing in patients with chronic CVD. A comprehensive search was conducted in electronic databases Academic Search Premier, E-journals, Medline and PubMed, published between the years 2000-2015. After selection based on pre-set inclusion criteria, studies were retrieved and evaluated on quality using the criteria of the QOREC. Twelve studies with a qualitative empirical design and mixed methods were included. This review shows that spirituality, is related to the self-management of patients with chronic diseases. For instance, lifestyle changes are experienced as a continuous inner battle. Religion gives strength, but is also experienced as a struggle. Feelings of guilt and becoming a victim influence patients' experience. For effectively advising patients with CVD on lifestyle changes, nurses cannot ignore this factor but further investigation is required.

  11. Current trends in lifestyle-related disease management by general practitioners: a report from the "Heart Care Network" groups.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, it is believed that guidelines for lifestyle-related disease are used in routine clinical practice, however, there are few reports on the actual rate of healthcare conducted in accordance with these guidelines by general practitioners and on their usefulness in preventing cardiovascular events. Therefore, the Heart Care Network (HCN) groups were organized mainly by general practitioners treating lifestyle diseases in 62 areas of Japan. The HCN has collected data on lifestyle diseases in high-risk patients in routine practices and investigated management conditions, guideline target achievement rates and medication. Additionally, the incidence of cardiovascular events was assessed. We analyzed 14,064 cases. The lipid profile, blood pressure, glycemic control were significantly improved over the 3 years. The incidence of cardiovascular events were significantly reduced by the achievement of target LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and hemoglobin A1c and even after adjustment for age, gender, history of myocardial infarction, the reduction of these lifestyle-related parameters remains significant. These results revealed the current trends in the healthcare activities of general practitioners, the management conditions for lifestyle diseases in CHD high-risk patients and their effects on reducing cardiovascular events.

  12. Neglected features of lifestyle: Their relevance in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Francesca M; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Brischetto, Daniela; Trovato, Guglielmo; Catalano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigated in non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD), with ultrasound (US)-detected fatty liver, and in a group of non-alcoholic and otherwise healthy subjects, relationship of neglected features of lifestyle with NAFLD and obesity. METHODS Five hundred and thirty-two NAFLD and 667 non-NAFLD healthy subjects, age 21-60 years were studied. Severity of liver steatosis was assessed by US bright liver score. The adherence to mediterranean diet score (AMDS) was assessed on the basis of a 1-wk recall computerized questionnaire which included a detailed physical activity reports (Baecke questionnaire). The western dietary profile score, as a simplified paradigm of unhealthy diet, a questionnaire quantifying sun exposure score and a sleep habits questionnaires provided a further comprehensive lifestyle assessment. RESULTS Body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance (HOMA), and triglycerides, poorer adherence to a mediterranean diet profile, sedentary habits, minor sun exposure and use of “western diet” foods are greater in NAFLD. Multiple linear regression analysis, weighted by years of age, displays BMI, HOMA and AMDS as the most powerful independent predictors of fatty liver severity; however, also the physical activity score, the western diet habit and the sun exposure score are acting inside the model with significant independent effects. CONCLUSION Articulated clinical intervention, according to our results, are justified in NAFLD and can be pursued addressing by focused intervention nutritional profile, physical exercise mainly in open-air subsets for enhancing sun exposure and healthier sleep duration and rhythm. PMID:27957244

  13. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease and lifestyle changes - the Doetinchem cohort study.

    PubMed

    Manschot, A; van Oostrom, S H; Smit, H A; Verschuren, W M M; Picavet, H S J

    2014-02-01

    To study whether being diagnosed with a cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with improvements in lifestyles. We used data from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a prospective study among 6386 Dutch men and women initially aged 20-59years who were examined four times over 15years (1987-2007). Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the effect of a self-reported diagnosis of CVD (n=403) or DM (n=221) on smoking, alcohol consumption, weight, diet and physical activity. Self-reported diagnosis of CVD increased rates of smoking cessation (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.6 - 3.1). Adults reporting a diagnosis of DM (relatively) decreased weight (3.2%, 95%CI 2.2 - 4.2), (relatively) decreased energy intake (4.2%, 95%CI 0.7 - 7.7), decreased energy percentage from saturated fat (0.4%, 95%CI 0.0 - 0.9) and increased fish consumption (2.8 g/day, 95%CI 0.4 - 5.1). A self-reported diagnosis of CVD or DM was not associated with changes in physical activity. A diagnosis of CVD or DM may act, along with possible effects of medical treatment, as a trigger to adopt a healthier lifestyle in terms of smoking cessation, healthier diet and weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Model Programs to Address Obesity and Cardiometabolic Disease: Interventions for Suboptimal Nutrition and Sedentary Lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Nash, Mark S; Kressler, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    Problems posed by obesity-related endocrine diseases embody a national health crisis. Caloric excess and sedentary lifestyle from which they develop also pose significant challenges for rehabilitation providers. Almost two thirds of the U.S. population are currently overweight or obese, a number that has increased by >10% within the last decade and is expected to grow. An overweight body habitus is strongly associated with clinical hazards, including cardiometabolic syndrome, diabetes hypertension, and coronary artery disease. The component health risks of the cardiometabolic syndrome include coalescing of risk factors that predict a health calamity unless effective interventions can be developed and widely adopted. Obesity by itself is now considered an American Diabetes Association-qualified disability, but it is also disturbingly prevalent in other physical disability groupings of adults and children. This monograph describes successes of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a National Institutes of Health multisite randomized controlled trial that reported significant weight reduction and a 58% decreased incidence of type-2 diabetes accompanying 1 year of structured lifestyle intervention. This treatment benefit (1) exceeded that of metformin pharmacotherapy, (2) was so powerful that the trial was closed before reaching endpoints, and (3) was judged cost-effective for the patient and society. The DPP roadmap incorporating physical activity, diet, and behavioral approaches has been widely adapted to specific community, faith, racial, ethnic, school, and national populations with excellent outcomes success. The lockstep physical activity approach, activity prescription, and long-term success of the program are described and compared with other programs to illustrate effective countermeasures for the pandemics of obesity and obesity-related cardioendocrine disease. We will illustrate adaptation of the DPP for a cohort of persons with disability from spinal cord

  15. Longitudinal Changes in Cholesterol Efflux Capacities in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Lifestyle Modification Therapy.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Marjorie; Lévesque, Valérie; Poirier, Paul; Marette, André; Mitchell, Patricia L; Mora, Samia; Mathieu, Patrick; Després, Jean-Pierre; Larose, Éric; Arsenault, Benoit J

    2018-06-01

    Our objective was to identify the determinants of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity (HDL-CEC) changes in patients with coronary artery disease who participated in a lifestyle modification program aimed at increasing physical activity levels and improving diet quality. A total of 86 men with coronary artery disease aged between 35 and 80 years participated in a 1-year lifestyle modification program that aimed to achieve a minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic physical activity weekly and improve diet quality. HDL-CECs were measured before and after the 1-year intervention using 3 H-cholesterol-labeled J774 and HepG2 cells. Visceral, subcutaneous, and cardiac adipose tissue levels were assessed before and after the intervention using magnetic resonance imaging. Lipoprotein particle size and concentrations were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a complete lipoprotein-lipid profile was obtained. At baseline, the best correlate of HDL-CECs were apolipoprotein AI ( R 2 =0.35, P <0.0001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( R 2 =0.21, P <0.0001) for J774-HDL-CECs and HepG2-HDL-CECs, respectively. Baseline and longitudinal changes in HDL-CECs were associated with several lipoprotein size and concentration indices, although high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the best predictor of longitudinal changes in J774-HDL-CECs ( R 2 =0.18, P =0.002) and apolipoprotein AI was found to be the best predictor of longitudinal changes in HepG2 cholesterol efflux capacities ( R 2 =0.21, P =0.002). Results of this study suggest that increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels typically observed in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing healthy lifestyle modification therapy may be indicative of higher plasma concentrations of functional high-density lipoprotein particles. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.

    PubMed

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases.

  17. [Development of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on prevention and control of occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Feng, Yuchao; Wang, Min; Su, Yiwei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Zhi; Tang, Shihao

    2015-04-01

    To develop the knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups, and to provide a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect. The initial questionnaire which was evaluated by the experts was used to carry out a pre-survey in Guangzhou, China. The survey results were statistically analyzed by t test, identification index method, correlation analysis, and Cronbach's a coefficient method. And then the questionnaire was further modified, and the content of the questionnaire was determined finally. After modification, there were 18 items on knowledge, 16 items on attitude, and 12 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for enterprise managers"; there were 19 items on knowledge, 10 items on attitude, and 11 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for workers". The knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups is developed successfully, and it is a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect.

  18. Enabling Work: Occupational Therapy Interventions for Persons with Occupational Injuries and Diseases: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Blas, Alexa Jane T; Beltran, Kenneth Matthew B; Martinez, Pauline Gail V; Yao, Daryl Patrick G

    2018-06-01

    Purpose This review aims to map the scope of published research on occupational therapy (OT) interventions and pertinent work and work-related outcomes for persons with occupational injuries and diseases. Methods The scoping review adapted Arksey and O'Malley's framework. Six electronic databases were searched. Ancestral search was also done on five systematic reviews. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2015. Interventions and outcomes were coded using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation to plot trends. Results Forty-six articles were included in the review. The top five intervention approaches included: acquiring skills (12.27%), health services, systems, and policies (10.43%), products and technology for employment (9.20%), handling stress and other psychological demands (7.98%), and apprenticeship (6.74%). The top five outcomes targeted included: remunerative employment (15.71%); sensation of pain (10.99%); emotional functions (5.76%); handling stress and other psychological demands (5.76%); economic self-sufficiency (4.71%); muscle endurance functions (4.71%); exercise tolerance functions (4.71%); undertaking multiple tasks (4.19%); acquiring, keeping, and terminating a job (4.19%); and looking after one's health (4.19%). Conclusion The trend in interventions show the use of activities and environment facilitators which are attuned to the conceptual nature of OT. Furthermore, the trend in outcomes show that there is substantial evidence that supports the use of OT to target work. This review may provide a platform for collaboration with other professionals and also help identify research directions to strengthen the evidence base for OT in work-related practice.

  19. Cryptosporidiosis - an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-06-05

    Cases of cryptosporidiosis have not been officially reported in Estonia after the year 2000, and the disease appears to be either under-diagnosed or under-reported. Based on a human case of cryptosporidiosis contracted during faecal sampling in dairy farms, cattle considered to be sources of infection were analysed for Cryptosporidium spp. by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique and molecular typing. C. parvum subtype IIaA16G1R1 was detected from the human case and from calves from one of nine farms enrolled in the study providing strong circumstantial evidence of zoonotic transmission from calves to humans. Cryptosporidiosis presents an occupational risk to people with cattle contact, and may also be a risk to the human population in general. Thus increased public and medical awareness is warranted.

  20. Behavioral and psychosocial effects of intensive lifestyle management for women with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Toobert, D J; Glasgow, R E; Nettekoven, L A; Brown, J E

    1998-11-01

    Females, especially older women, historically have been excluded from coronary heart disease (CHD) studies. The PrimeTime program was a randomized clinical trial designed to study the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle management program (very low-fat vegetarian diet, smoking cessation, stress-management training, moderate exercise, and group support) on changes in behavioral risk factors among postmenopausal women with CHD. The study also explored program effects on four psychosocial clusters: coping with stress, distress, social support, and self-efficacy. The program produced significant behavioral improvements in 4- and 12-months adherence to diet, physical activity, and stress-management in the PrimeTime women compared to the Usual Care (UC) group. In addition, the PrimeTime participants demonstrated improvements relative to UC on psychosocial measures of self-efficacy, perceived social support, and ability to cope with stress. Strengths and weaknesses of the study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Lifestyle measures in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clinical and pathophysiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Kang, J H-E; Kang, J Y

    2015-03-01

    Several lifestyle and dietary factors are commonly cited as risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and modification of these factors has been advocated as first-line measures for the management of GORD. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 2005 to the present relating to the effect of these factors and their modification on GORD symptoms, physiological parameters of reflux as well as endoscopic appearances. Conflicting results existed for the association between smoking, alcohol and various dietary factors in the development of GORD. These equivocal findings are partly due to methodology problems. There is recent good evidence that weight reduction and smoking cessation are beneficial in reducing GORD symptoms. Clinical and physiological studies also suggest that some physical measures as well as modification of meal size and timing can also be beneficial. However, there is limited evidence for the role of avoiding alcohol and certain dietary ingredients including carbonated drinks, caffeine, fat, spicy foods, chocolate and mint.

  2. Personality, depression, and premorbid lifestyle in twin pairs discordant for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Heberlein, I.; Ludin, H.; Scholz, J.; Vieregge, P.

    1998-01-01

    Present personality traits (Freiburg personality inventory, FPI-R), depression (von Zerssen's depression scale), and self assessed state of health were evaluated in 15 twin pairs (six monozygotic and nine dizygotic; mean age 62.5 years) discordant for idiopathic Parkinson's disease and in 17 unrelated healthy control subjects. The twins had additional questionnaire based interviews on premorbid lifestyle.
For disability, twins with Parkinson's disease scored lower on FPI-R than controls in "achievement orientation" and "extraversion", higher in "inhibitedness", "somatic complaints", and "emotionality". They scored higher for depression and for state of health than unaffected twins and controls. For zygosity, monozygotic twins scored lower than dizygotic twins in "achievement orientation", "aggressiveness", and "strain". Monozygotic twins had less "achievement orientation" and "extraversion" and more "somatic complaints" than controls. Monozygotic twins had a lower within pair difference than dizygotic twins in "social orientation". During premorbid times the affected twin with later Parkinson's disease was estimated to have been "less often the leader" in the twin pair.
Although small in sample size, this twin study indicates a genetic impact for some personality features beyond the Parkinson's disease motor syndrome.

 PMID:9489545

  3. The social context of occupational disease: asbestos and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myers, J

    1981-01-01

    General issues of industrial health are raised in relation to the production of asbestos and asbestos-related diseases in South Africa., A historical analysis of these diseases and their control in Britain demonstrates some general problems of occupational diseases with long incubation periods and their implications for capital and labor. In order to understand the role of the research establishment, an attempt is made to situate the state in the conflict between capital and labor. The terms and weapons of this ideological arena are investigated. The South African situation is then discussed. Its evident weaknesses--the lack of statutory limits on exposure, capital's responsibility for monitoring exposure and health, the inefficiency of the state inspection, and the meagerness and racial disparities in compensation--are related to the weakness of organized labor. These weaknesses are linked to the movement of certain industrial processes, finally acknowledged as unsafe by most academic research, away from the developed countries. In these countries, the strength of labor and environmental organizations has caused a decline in capitalist productivity.

  4. Obliterative bronchiolitis in fibreglass workers: a new occupational disease?

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Paul; McGavin, Clive R; Kreiss, Kathleen; Nicholson, Andrew G; Maher, Toby M; Howell, Tim; Banks, John; Newman Taylor, Anthony J; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Burge, P Sherwood

    2013-05-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a rare disease with a small number of established occupational aetiologies. We describe a case series of severe OB in workers making glass-reinforced plastics. Workplace exposures were the likely cause after the independent diagnosis of OB in two workers laying up the fibreglass hulls of yachts; the second worker took over the job of the first after he left following a lung transplant. Presentation of these two cases at international meetings led to others identifying similar workers. We identified six workers with good evidence of OB. All were involved in preparing fibreglass with styrene resins, five as boat builders laying up fibreglass hulls and one during cooling-tower fabrication. The disease came on rapidly without unusual acute exposures. Two patients had lung transplants, while another died while waiting for one. Histology confirmed OB in the four with biopsies/post-mortem examinations or explanted lungs. A rare, potentially fatal disease occurring in six workers laying up fibreglass with styrene resins from five different worksites suggests that work exposures were the cause of their OB. The precise agent responsible awaits identification.

  5. Sociocultural tailoring of a healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos.

    PubMed

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C

    2013-11-27

    Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community-academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. The community-based participatory research was conducted with communities in Kentucky, which has a rapidly growing Latino population. This growth underscores the need for socioculturally appropriate health resources. Su Corazon, Su Vida (Your Heart, Your Life) is a Spanish-language, healthy lifestyle educational program to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. Twenty natural leaders from an urban Latino community in Kentucky participated in sociocultural tailoring of the program and development of a genomics and family history module. The tailored program was presented to 22 participants to explore implementation feasibility and assess appropriateness for community use. Preintervention and postintervention assessments of genomic knowledge and lifestyle behaviors and qualitative postintervention evaluations were conducted. Postintervention improvements in health-promoting lifestyle choices and genomic knowledge specific to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes suggested that the program may be effective in reducing risk. Feedback indicated the program was socioculturally acceptable and responsive to community needs. These findings indicated that a tailored healthy lifestyle program integrating genomics and family history education was socioculturally appropriate and may feasibly be implemented to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in a Latino community with limited health care resources. The project highlights contributions of community-based processes in tailoring

  6. Sociocultural Tailoring of a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Among Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Maria C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community–academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Community Context The community-based participatory research was conducted with communities in Kentucky, which has a rapidly growing Latino population. This growth underscores the need for socioculturally appropriate health resources. Methods Su Corazon, Su Vida (Your Heart, Your Life) is a Spanish-language, healthy lifestyle educational program to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. Twenty natural leaders from an urban Latino community in Kentucky participated in sociocultural tailoring of the program and development of a genomics and family history module. The tailored program was presented to 22 participants to explore implementation feasibility and assess appropriateness for community use. Preintervention and postintervention assessments of genomic knowledge and lifestyle behaviors and qualitative postintervention evaluations were conducted. Outcomes Postintervention improvements in health-promoting lifestyle choices and genomic knowledge specific to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes suggested that the program may be effective in reducing risk. Feedback indicated the program was socioculturally acceptable and responsive to community needs. Interpretation These findings indicated that a tailored healthy lifestyle program integrating genomics and family history education was socioculturally appropriate and may feasibly be implemented to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in a Latino community with limited health care resources. The project highlights

  7. Nocturnal Polyuria and Hypertension in Patients with Lifestyle Related Diseases and Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu; Homma, Yukio; Takeda, Masayuki; Gotoh, Momokazu; Kakizaki, Hidehiro; Akino, Hironobu; Hayashi, Koichi; Yonemoto, Koji

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship of nocturnal polyuria in patients with common lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder, with special attention to hypertension. After baseline assessment, patients recorded 24-hour urinary frequency/volume, blood pressure and heart rate for 3 days. They were stratified into 4 groups based on mean blood pressure, including no hypertension, and controllable, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension, respectively. The 2,353 eligible patients, who had urinary urgency once or more per week and 1 or more nocturnal toilet visits, were enrolled from 543 sites in Japan. Of these patients complete data, including the 24-hour frequency volume chart, were collected from 1,271. Multivariable analyses showed a statistically significant association of nocturnal polyuria with increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05, p <0.001) and gender (women vs men OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96, p = 0.02), and for controllable (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.83-1.460), untreated (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.55-4.45) and uncontrolled (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81-1.62) hypertension vs no hypertension (p = 0.005). However, when assessed separately in men and women, hypertension and heart rate were significantly associated with nocturnal polyuria in women alone (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia were significantly associated with nocturnal polyuria in men alone (p <0.001). The current study demonstrates that nocturnal polyuria was significantly associated with age, male gender, and untreated hypertension in patients with lifestyle related diseases and overactive bladder. The association between hypertension and nocturnal polyuria was significant in women alone. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [A study of relationship between occupational stress and diseases in secondary school teachers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Tao; Tang, Liu; Li, Jian; Lan, Yajia

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the relationship between occupational stress and diseases in secondary school teachers in a city of Sichuan Province, and to provide a basis for the evaluation of the long-term effects of occupational stress in teachers. With secondary school teachers as the target population, the stratified cluster sampling was adopted to conduct three studies among 780, 119, and 689 secondary school teachers in a city of Sichuan Province in 1999, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and working ability index (WAI) were used to investigate occupational stress and diseases in secondary school teachers. The variation of occupational stress in secondary school teachers was compared between different periods and the relationship between the intensity of stress and diseases was evaluated, on the basis of which the variation of the relationship over time was analyzed. There were significant differences in occupational stress in secondary school teachers between different periods (P<0.05). The incidence rates of medium and high physiological stress and psychological stress were significantly higher in 2009 than in 1999 (P<0.05). Compared with the year of 1999, the intensity of occupational stress in 2009 changed with cardiovascular, respiratory, and mental diseases. The incidence of abnormal psychological stress was a risk factor for all chronic, respiratory, and mental diseases (OR: 1.88, 2.25, and 5.91). The time dependence of odds ratio was only found in the risk of respiratory diseases: occupational stress resulted in a significant increase in the risk of respiratory diseases over time (P<0.05). Physiological stress was a risk factor for mental diseases (OR=2.31). The intensity of occupational stress in secondary school teachers changes over time. Occupational stress elevates the risks of certain diseases and has a time-dependent effect on the risk of respiratory diseases. Occupational stress in secondary school teachers

  9. The relationship between occupational sun exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer: clinical basics, epidemiology, occupational disease evaluation, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Schmitt, Jochen; Drexler, Hans

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative effect of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for the worldwide increase in non-melanoma skin cancer, a category that includes squamous cell carcinoma and its precursors (the actinic keratoses) as well as basal-cell carcinoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in areas of the world with a light-skinned population. The occupational exposure to UV radiation is high in many outdoor occupations; recent studies suggest that persons working in such occupations are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer. On the basis of a selective review of the literature, we present the current state of knowledge about occupational and non-occupational UV exposure and the findings of meta-analyses on the association of outdoor activity with non-melanoma skin cancer. We also give an overview of the current recommendations for prevention and for medicolegal assessment. Recent meta-analyses have consistently documented a significantly higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin among persons who work outdoors (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-2.22, p<0.001). There is also evidence for an elevated risk of basal-cell carcinoma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.23-1.66, p = 0.0001), but the effect is of lesser magnitude and the study findings are not as uniform. The association of occupational exposure to solar UV radiation with squamous cell carcinoma, including actinic keratosis, has been conclusively demonstrated. It follows that, in Germany, suspected non-melanoma skin cancer in persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation should be reported as an occupational disease under § 9, paragraph 2 of the Seventh Book of the German Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch, SGB VII). Preventive measures are urgently needed for persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation.

  10. Associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Karasek, Robert; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari B.; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J.M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether a healthy lifestyle mitigates the adverse effects of job strain on coronary artery disease. We examined the associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with the risk of coronary artery disease. Methods: We pooled individual-level data from 7 cohort studies comprising 102 128 men and women who were free of existing coronary artery disease at baseline (1985–2000). Questionnaires were used to measure job strain (yes v. no) and 4 lifestyle risk factors: current smoking, physical inactivity, heavy drinking and obesity. We grouped participants into 3 lifestyle categories: healthy (no lifestyle risk factors), moderately unhealthy (1 risk factor) and unhealthy (2–4 risk factors). The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease (defined as first nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac-related death). Results: There were 1086 incident events in 743 948 person-years at risk during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. The risk of coronary artery disease among people who had an unhealthy lifestyle compared with those who had a healthy lifestyle (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.98; population attributable risk 26.4%) was higher than the risk among participants who had job strain compared with those who had no job strain (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06–1.47; population attributable risk 3.8%). The 10-year incidence of coronary artery disease among participants with job strain and a healthy lifestyle (14.7 per 1000) was 53% lower than the incidence among those with job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle (31.2 per 1000). Interpretation: The risk of coronary artery disease was highest among participants who reported job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle; those with job strain and a healthy lifestyle had half the rate of disease. A healthy lifestyle may substantially reduce disease risk among people with job strain. PMID:23670152

  11. Associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Karasek, Robert; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G David

    2013-06-11

    It is unclear whether a healthy lifestyle mitigates the adverse effects of job strain on coronary artery disease. We examined the associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with the risk of coronary artery disease. We pooled individual-level data from 7 cohort studies comprising 102 128 men and women who were free of existing coronary artery disease at baseline (1985-2000). Questionnaires were used to measure job strain (yes v. no) and 4 lifestyle risk factors: current smoking, physical inactivity, heavy drinking and obesity. We grouped participants into 3 lifestyle categories: healthy (no lifestyle risk factors), moderately unhealthy (1 risk factor) and unhealthy (2-4 risk factors). The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease (defined as first nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac-related death). There were 1086 incident events in 743,948 person-years at risk during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. The risk of coronary artery disease among people who had an unhealthy lifestyle compared with those who had a healthy lifestyle (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.98; population attributable risk 26.4%) was higher than the risk among participants who had job strain compared with those who had no job strain (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.47; population attributable risk 3.8%). The 10-year incidence of coronary artery disease among participants with job strain and a healthy lifestyle (14.7 per 1000) was 53% lower than the incidence among those with job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle (31.2 per 1000). The risk of coronary artery disease was highest among participants who reported job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle; those with job strain and a healthy lifestyle had half the rate of disease. A healthy lifestyle may substantially reduce disease risk among people with job strain.

  12. Mitigating preventable chronic disease: Progress report of the Cleveland Clinic's Lifestyle 180 program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle choices are key in development and progression of preventable chronic diseases. The purpose of the study was to design and test a program to mitigate the physical and fiscal consequences of chronic diseases. Methods Here we report the outcomes for 429 participants with one or more chronic conditions, including obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus, many of whom had failed traditional disease management programs, who enrolled into a comprehensive lifestyle intervention. The Lifestyle 180 program integrates nutrition, physical activity and stress management interventions and was conducted at the Wellness Institute of the Cleveland Clinic, United States. An intensive 6 week immersion course, with 8 hours of group instruction per week, was followed by 3 follow-up, 4 hour-long sessions over the course of 6 months. Results Changes in biometric (weight, height, waist circumference, resting heart rate and blood pressure) and laboratory variables (fasting lipid panel, blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, ultra sensitive C-reactive protein) at 6 months were compared with baseline (pre-post analysis). At week 30, biometric and laboratory data were available for 244 (57%) and 299 (70%) participants, respectively. These had a mean ± SD reduction in weight (6.8 ± 6.9 kg, P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.1 ± 7.3 cm, P < 0.001), glucose (4.5 ± 29.6 mg/dL or 0.25 ± 1.64 mmol/L, P = 0.009), triglycerides (26.4 ± 58.5 mg/dL or 0.30 ± 0.66 mmol/L, P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (7.9 ± 25.1 mg/dL or 0.2 ± 0.65 mmol/L, P < 0.001), hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) (0.20 ± 0.64%, P = 0.001), insulin (3.8 ± 11 microU/ml or 26.6 ± 76.4 ρmol, P < 0.001) and ultra sensitive C-reactive protein (US - CRP) (0.9 ± 4.8 mg/dL or 7.3 ± 40.2 nmol/L, P = 0.012), an increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (3.7 ± 8.4 mg/dL or 0.1 ± 0.22, P < 0.001), and decreased use of medications. Conclusion

  13. Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Torén, Kjell; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Nilsson, Tohr; Järvholm, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A growing number of epidemiological studies are showing that ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether occupational exposure increases this risk is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether occupational exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Methods The study population was a cohort of 176 309 occupationally exposed Swedish male construction workers and 71 778 unexposed male construction workers. The definition of exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man‐made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, fumes (metal fumes, asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust) and gases and irritants (organic solvents and reactive chemicals) was based on a job‐exposure matrix with focus on exposure in the mid‐1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2002 with regard to mortality to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RR) were obtained by the person‐years method and from Poisson regression models adjusting for baseline values of blood pressure, body mass index, age and smoking habits. Results Any occupational particulate air pollution was associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19), but there was no increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.07). There was an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease and exposure to inorganic dust (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and exposure to fumes (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), especially diesel exhaust (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24). There was no significantly increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and exposure to inorganic dust, fumes or wood dust. Conclusions Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution, especially diesel exhaust, among construction workers increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease. PMID

  14. Job-related diseases and occupations within a large workers' compensation data set.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J P; Miller, T R

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this report is to describe workers' job-related diseases and the occupations associated with those diseases. The methods include aggregation and analysis of job-related disease and occupation data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Supplementary Data System (SDS) for 1985 and 1986--the last years of data available with workers' compensation categories: death, permanent total, permanent partial, and temporary total and partial. Diseases are ranked according to their contribution to the four workers' compensation (WC) categories and also ranked within occupations according to the number of cases. Occupations are ranked according to their contribution to specific diseases within one of the four categories. The following diseases comprise the greatest numbers of deaths: heart attacks, asbestosis, silicosis, and stroke. Within the permanent total category, the diseases with the greatest contributions are heart attack, silicosis, strokes, and inflammation of the joints. For the permanent partial category, they are hearing loss, inflammation of joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, and heart attacks. For the temporary total and partial category, they are: inflammation of joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, dermatitis, and toxic poisoning. Hearing loss or inflammation of joints are associated with more than 300 occupations. Circulatory diseases comprise a larger share of job-related diseases than is generally acknowledged. Occupations contributing the most heart attack deaths are truck drivers, managers, janitors, supervisors, firefighters, and laborers. Ratios of numbers of deaths to numbers of disabilities are far higher for illnesses than injuries. Occupations that are consistent in their high ranking on most lists involving a variety of conditions include nonconstruction laborers, janitors, and construction laborers. The large SDS, though dated, provides a tentative national look at the broad spectrum of occupational diseases as defined by WC and the

  15. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training Projects Grants, Request for Applications (RFA) 06-484; and Occupational Safety and Health Educational...

  16. The Dark Side of Workers' Compensation: Burdens and Benefits in Occupational Disease Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robblee, Richard

    1978-01-01

    The imposition of legal proof requirements to detect occupational disease and the burden that this places on compensation claimants and the medical profession are examined, along with various court decisions, present legislation, and revision proposals to improve disease diagnosis and the legal treatment of occupationally disabled workers. (MF)

  17. 20 CFR 702.212 - Notice; when given; when given for certain occupational diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice; when given; when given for certain... AND PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.212 Notice; when given; when given for certain occupational diseases. (a) For other than occupational diseases described in (b), the employee must give notice...

  18. 20 CFR 702.212 - Notice; when given; when given for certain occupational diseases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice; when given; when given for certain... AND PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.212 Notice; when given; when given for certain occupational diseases. (a) For other than occupational diseases described in (b), the employee must give notice...

  19. [Risk assessment for the development of occupational diseases among railroad workers].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Pankova, V B; Stepanov, S A; Belikova, N A

    1998-01-01

    An attempt was made to asses the actual risk of occupational diseases among various railway specialists having harmful and adverse working conditions. The risk was found to be high, suggesting that there are harmful and extremely harmful working conditions and high undetection of patients with occupational diseases.

  20. 76 FR 28789 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...), announces the availability of a draft Alert entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from.../niosh/docket/review/docket238/default.html . The purpose of this Alert is to provide workers and...

  1. Cardiometabolic risks, lifestyle health behaviors and heart disease in Filipino Americans.

    PubMed

    Bayog, Maria Lg; Waters, Catherine M

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among all racial and ethnic populations in the USA. Cardiovascular risks and cardioprotective factors have been disparately estimated among Asian American subpopulations. The study's purpose was to describe the cardiometabolic risks and lifestyle health behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease, considering age and gender, in Filipinos, the second largest Asian American population. Secondary analysis was conducted of behavioral (smoking, walking, body mass index and soda, fast food and fruit/vegetable consumption), cardiometabolic (hypertension and diabetes) and heart disease variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. The metropolitan sample of Filipino American adults included 57.3% women and had a mean age of 47.9 ± 18.3 years ( n = 555). Among the sample, 7.4% had heart disease, 38.9% had hypertension, 16.6% had diabetes, 12.4% smoked cigarettes, 83.2% were insufficiently active, 54.2% were overweight/obese, 21.8% routinely ate fast food, 13.2% routinely drank soda and 90.3% did not meet the fruit/vegetable consumption recommendation. Age (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.0, p < 0.0001), hypertension (unadjusted OR = 4.8, p < 0.0001) and diabetes (unadjusted OR = 3.3, p = 0.001) were associated with heart disease. Hypertension was the single greatest heart disease risk, controlling for diabetes, age and gender (adjusted OR = 3.1, p = 0.006). Primary and secondary prevention and treatment of hypertension should be paramount, along with promotion of glucose control, regular moderate-intensity physical activity, weight management and increased fruit and vegetable consumption in the Filipino American population. A multidisciplinary, chronic care model that is population-specific, emphasizes integrated, comprehensive care and provides linkages between primary healthcare and community resources is recommended for practice.

  2. [Incidence and trend of occupational diseases in Ningbo, China, from 2006 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Li, X H; Wang, A H; Leng, P B; Bian, G L

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the incidence, distribution features, and incidence trend of occupational diseases in Ningbo, China, from 2006 to 2015. Methods: In February 2016, the data on occupational disease report cards in the occupational disease and occupational health information system from 2006 to 2015 were collected to perform a comprehensive analysis of the types, incidence trend, population characteristics, and enterprise characteristics of occupational diseases. Results: There were 845 new cases of occupational diseases in Ningbo from 2006 to 2015, among which 596 (70.53%) were pneumoconiosis; there were 445 (74.66%) cases of stage I pneumoconiosis, 73 (12.25%) cases of stage II pneumoconiosis, and 78 (13.09%) cases of stage III pneumoconiosis; silicosis (59.76%) was the most common type of pneumoconiosis. Of all patients with occupational diseases, 84.97% were male, 64.50%were aged 35-55 years, and 63.67% had 5-20 working years. Most of the patients with occupational diseases worked in small and medium-sized private (or foreign) enterprises; the most common industries were black metal smelting and rolling (38.76%) , construction (17.11%) , and non-metallic ore mining (13.09%) . A total of 51.28%, 10.26%, and 7.69% of the patients with occupational poisoning worked in the electric apparatus manufacturing industry, furniture manufacturing industry, and chemical raw material and chemical product manufacturing industry, respectively. The cases of occupational diseases are mainly distributed in Yuyao City (24.62%) , Yinzhou District (23.91%) , and Ninghai County (15.62%) . Conclusion: Pneumoconiosis is the most common type of occupational disease in Ningbo and most of these patients work in small and medium-sized private (or foreign) enterprises. The supervision of small and medium-sized private enterprises should be enhanced to protect workers' health.

  3. Lifestyle Choices Fuel Epidemics of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Among Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Evan L; DiNicolantonio, James J; Patil, Harshal; Helzberg, John H; Lavie, Carl J

    2016-01-01

    Within the next 15years, India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation. Due to the rapid pace of urbanization and modernization fueling population growth, in conjunction with a genetic predisposition to insulin resistance, India is suffering a rising epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and stroke. In addition to the genetic predisposition, major negative lifestyle factors are contributing to the alarming outbreak of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the Asian Indian population; these factors include: 1) a diet high in added sugar, refined grains and other processed foods, 2) physical inactivity, 3) vitamin D deficiency (VDD), and 4) smoking/pollution. These risk factors are all highly modifiable, and steps to improve these issues should be taken urgently to avoid a worsening NCD crisis among the inhabitants of the South Asian subcontinent as well as for people with Asian Indian ethnicity worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational and genetic risk factors associated with intervertebral disc disease.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Iita M; Karppinen, Jaro; Taimela, Simo; Ott, Jürg; Barral, Sandra; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Heikkilä, Olli; Mutanen, Pertti; Noponen, Noora; Männikkö, Minna; Tervonen, Osmo; Natri, Antero; Ala-Kokko, Leena

    2007-05-01

    Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. To evaluate the interaction between known genetic risk factors and whole-body vibration for symptomatic intervertebral disc disease (IDD) in an occupational sample. Risk factors of IDD include, among others, whole-body vibration and heredity. In this study, the importance of a set of known genetic risk factors and whole-body vibration was evaluated in an occupational sample of train engineers and sedentary controls. Eleven variations in 8 genes (COL9A2, COL9A3, COL11A2, IL1A, IL1B, IL6, MMP-3, and VDR) were genotyped in 150 male train engineers with an average of 21-year exposure to whole-body vibration and 61 male paper mill workers with no exposure to vibration. Subjects were classified into IDD-phenotype and asymptomatic groups, based on the latent class analysis. The number of individuals belonging to the IDD-phenotype was significantly higher among train engineers (42% of train engineers vs. 17.5% of sedentary workers; P = 0.005). IL1A -889T allele represented a significant risk factor for the IDD-phenotype both in the single marker allelic association test (P = 0.043) and in the logistic regression analysis (P = 0.01). None of the other allele markers was significantly associated with symptoms when analyzed independently. However, for all the SNP markers considered, whole-body vibration represents a nominally significant risk factor. The results suggest that whole-body vibration is a risk factor for symptomatic IDD. Moreover, whole-body vibration had an additive effect with genetic risk factors increasing the likelihood of belonging to the IDD-phenotype group. Of the independent genetic markers, IL1A -889T allele had strongest association with IDD-phenotype.

  5. Translating a heart disease lifestyle intervention into the community: the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study; a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Namratha R; Dave, Swapna; De Chavez, Peter John; Bharucha, Himali; Patel, Yasin; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2015-10-16

    South Asians (Asian Indians and Pakistanis) are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.) and have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-salient, community-based healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce ASCVD risk among South Asians. Through an academic-community partnership, medically underserved South Asian immigrants at risk for ASCVD were randomized into the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study. The intervention group attended 6 interactive group classes focused on increasing physical activity, healthful diet, weight, and stress management. They also received follow-up telephone support calls. The control group received translated print education materials about ASCVD and healthy behaviors. Primary outcomes were feasibility and initial efficacy, measured as change in moderate/vigorous physical activity and dietary saturated fat intake at 3- and 6-months. Secondary clinical and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. Participants' (n = 63) average age was 50 (SD = 8) years, 63 % were female, 27 % had less than or equal to a high school education, one-third were limited English proficient, and mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (SD ± 5). There were no significant differences in change in physical activity or saturated fat intake between the intervention and control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant weight loss (-1.5 kg, p-value = 0.04) and had a greater sex-adjusted decrease in hemoglobin A1C (-0.43 %, p-value <0.01) at 6 months. Study retention was 100 %. This pilot study suggests that a culturally-salient, community-based lifestyle intervention was feasible for engaging medically underserved South Asian immigrants and more effective at addressing ASCVD risk factors than print health education materials. NCT01647438, Date of Trial Registration: July 19, 2012.

  6. Lifestyle interventions for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yi-Fan; Han, Yi-Jing; Xiong, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Xi-Xi; Chen, Yong-Ping; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2018-04-20

    Lifestyle interventions remain the first-line therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aims to evaluate the individual impact of exercise and/or dietary interventions on the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and BMI. Randomized-controlled trials from patients diagnosed with NAFLD were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the associations between changes in ALT, AST, HOMA-IR, or BMI and types of lifestyle interventions. Nineteen eligible articles were included. Compared with observation, aerobic exercise training (AEx) plus diet [weighted mean difference (WMD)=-25.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): -43.90 to -7.80], AEx (WMD=-8.81; 95% CI: -20.22-2.60) and diet (WMD=-11.85; 95% CI: -47.65-24.95) showed significant efficacy in the improvement of ALT levels. Also AST, AEx plus diet showed a significant tendency to reduce AST levels. In addition, progressive resistance training (WMD=-1.70; 95% CI: -5.61-2.21) led to the most obvious reduction in HOMA-IR compared with observation, but appeared to show no significant effect in BMI (WMD=0.27; 95% CI: -0.48 to -0.07), whereas AEx plus diet (WMD=-0.96; 95% CI: -1.54 to -0.38 and WMD=-1.96; 95% CI: -2.79 to -1.12) showed great efficacy both in the improvement of HOMA-IR and BMI. AEx plus diet is the most effective intervention in the management of patients with NAFLD. Dietary intervention may be more effective in the improvements of aminotransferases, whereas exercise shows superiority in improving insulin sensitivity and reduction of BMI.

  7. Social Integration and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women: The Role of Lifestyle Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Glymour, Maria; Cornelis, Marilyn; Walter, Stefan; Rimm, Eric B.; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Higher social integration is associated with lower cardiovascular mortality; however, whether it is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), especially in women, and if associations differ by case fatality is unclear. Objectives This study sought to examine the associations between social integration and risk of incident CHD in a large female prospective cohort. Methods and Results 76,362 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), free of CHD and stroke at baseline (1992), were followed until 2014. Social integration was assessed by a simplified Berkman-Syme Social Network Index every 4 years. Endpoints included nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and fatal CHD. 2,372 incident CHD events occurred throughout follow-up. Adjusting for demographic, health/medical risk factors and depressive symptoms, being socially integrated was significantly associated with lower CHD risk, particularly fatal CHD. The most socially integrated women had a hazard ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.73) of developing fatal CHD compared to those least socially integrated (p-for-trend < 0.0001). When additionally adjusting for lifestyle behaviors, findings for fatal CHD were maintained but attenuated (p-for-trend = 0.02) whereas the significant associations no longer remained for nonfatal MI. The inverse associations between social integration and nonfatal MI risk were largely explained by health-promoting behaviors, particularly through differences in cigarette smoking; however, the association with fatal CHD risk remained after accounting for these behaviors and thus may involve more direct biological mechanisms. Conclusions Social integration is inversely associated with CHD incidence in women, but is largely explained by lifestyle/behavioral pathways. PMID:28373350

  8. Stage of change and motivation to healthier lifestyle in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Centis, Elena; Moscatiello, Simona; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Bellentani, Stefano; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Calugi, Simona; Petta, Salvatore; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    Healthy diet and physical activity are the treatment cornerstones of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); their effectiveness is however limited by difficulties in implementing lifestyle changes. We aimed at determining the stage of change and associated psychological factors as a prerequisite to refine strategies to implement behavior changes. We studied 138 consecutive NAFLD patients (73% male, age 19-73 years). The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy in 64 cases (steatohepatitis, 47%). All cases completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments (for diet and physical activity, respectively) and providing stages of change according to transtheoretical model. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with stages making behavioral changes more demanding. The individual profiles were variable; for diet, no cases had precontemplation as prevalent stage of change (highest score in individual profiles); 36% had contemplation. For physical activity, 50% were classified in either precontemplation or contemplation. Minor differences were recorded in relation to associated metabolic complications or steatohepatitis. Logistic regression identified male sex (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-12.08) and age (1.70; 1.20-2.43 per decade) as the independent parameters predicting precontemplation or contemplation for diet. No predictors were identified for physical activity. NAFLD cases have scarce readiness to lifestyle changes, particularly with regard to physical activity. Defining stages of change and motivation offers the opportunity to improve clinical care of NAFLD people through individual programs exploiting the powerful potential of behavioral counseling, an issue to be tested in longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic basis of inter-individual variability in the effects of exercise on the alleviation of lifestyle-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masayuki; Higuchi, Keiichi; Sakurai, Akihiro; Tabara, Yasuharu; Miki, Tetsuro; Nose, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Habitual exercise training, including a high-intensity interval walking programme, improves cardiorespiratory fitness and alleviates lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. However, the extent of improvement has been shown to differ substantially among individuals for various exercise regimens. A body of literature has demonstrated that gene polymorphisms could account for the inter-individual variability in the improvement of risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases following exercise training. However, the fractions of the variability explained by the polymorphisms are small (∼5%). Also, it is likely that the effects of gene polymorphisms differ with exercise regimens and subject characteristics. These observations suggest the necessity for further studies to exhaustively identify such gene polymorphisms. More importantly, the physiological and molecular genetic mechanisms by which gene polymorphisms interact with exercise to influence the improvements of risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases differentially remain to be clarified. A better understanding of these issues should lead to more effective integration of exercise to optimize the treatment and management of individuals with lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:19736300

  10. [Differences in the recognition of occupational diseases by sex, occupation and business activity in Spain (1990-2009)].

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Montserrat; Castañeda López, Rosario; Herrador Ortiz, Zaida; Simón Soria, Fernando

    2017-01-09

    According to official statistics, men suffer more occupational diseases (OD) than women. Nevertheless, the unequal distribution and participation in the labor markets between men and women should be kept in mind. The purpose was to assess the gender impact in the recognition of OD in Spain, examining interaction and confounding factors. An incidence study of the occupational diseases declared through the official OD reporting forms from 1999 to 2009, provided by the General Subdirectorate of Social and Labor Statistics of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, was conducted. The variables included were: reporting year, sex, age, occupation and economic activity of the company. Rates and crude relative risks (cRR) by these variables were calculated. Adjusted RR were also computed by using multivariate Poisson regression. During the study period a total of 243,310 OD were reported in Spain, with a sex ratio of men to women of 1.07. Correlation existed between occupation and business activity, thus the OD rates and RR were computed by these variables separately. By occupation, men had a crude RR of 1.067 (95%CI:1.058 to 1.076) versus women, while wen the analysis was adjusted by all the variables, the RR was 0.507 (95%CI:0.502 to 0.512). By economic activity of the company, the sense of risk was reversed too in the adjusted analysis (cRR=1.065, 95%CI:1.056 to 1.074 versus 0.632, 95%CI:0.626 to 0.638). Although crude OD rates were lower in women than in men during the period 1999-2009 in Spain, when these rates were adjusted by company activity or worker occupation, age and year of OD declaration, RRs become almost 50% higher in women than in men for the majority of occupations and types of company activity.

  11. [Occupational exposure investigation and protective measures in a tertiary infectious disease hospital].

    PubMed

    Ding, H M; Zhou, X P; Huang, J Z

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the cause of occupational exposure among 136 nurses in a tertiary infectious disease hospital, and puts forward the prevention strategy. Methods: A total of 136 nurses exposed to occupational exposure between 2014 and 2016 were included in the study. Analysis was conducted from the years of work of nurses, exposure routes, and the pathogens. Results: The nurses suffer from the highest risk of occupational exposures (73.91%) .Nurses working for less than 5 years and interns are most likely to suffer occupational exposure (45.59% and 35.29% respectively) . Occupational exposure was mainly caused by needle injuries, in which infusion was the main route of occupational exposure (36.76%) . The improper treatment of needle pulling after infusion is the main link of needle puncture (36.76%) . Occupational exposure pathogens were mainly HBV (63.24%) . Conclusion: Nursing staff is the high-risk group of occupational exposure. Irregular operation, lack of awareness of protection, improper disposal after the needle withdrawal and poor safety assessment of the operating environment are the main causes of occupational exposure. It is suggested to strengthen the training of occupational safety and protection, enhance clinical nurses occupational safety protection consciousness, standardize medical operation, so as to prevent the occurrence of occupational exposure.

  12. Effect of screening and lifestyle counselling on incidence of ischaemic heart disease in general population: Inter99 randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Toft, Ulla; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-06-09

    To investigate the effect of systematic screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease followed by repeated lifestyle counselling on the 10 year development of ischaemic heart disease at a population level. Randomised controlled community based trial. Suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. 59,616 people aged 30-60 years randomised with different age and sex randomisation ratios to an intervention group (n = 11,629) and a control group (n = 47,987). The intervention group was invited for screening, risk assessment, and lifestyle counselling up to four times over a five year period. All participants with an unhealthy lifestyle had individually tailored lifestyle counselling at all visits (at baseline and after one and three years); those at high risk of ischaemic heart disease, according to predefined criteria, were furthermore offered six sessions of group based lifestyle counselling on smoking cessation, diet, and physical activity. After five years all were invited for a final counselling session. Participants were referred to their general practitioner for medical treatment, if relevant. The control group was not invited for screening. The primary outcome measure was incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the intervention group compared with the control group. Secondary outcome measures were stroke, combined events (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, or both), and mortality. 6091 (52.4%) people in the intervention group participated at baseline. Among 5978 people eligible at five year follow-up (59 died and 54 emigrated), 4028 (67.4%) attended. A total of 3163 people died in the 10 year follow-up period. Among 58,308 without a history of ischaemic heart disease at baseline, 2782 developed ischaemic heart disease. Among 58,940 without a history of stroke at baseline, 1726 developed stroke. No significant difference was seen between the intervention and control groups in the primary end point (hazard ratio for ischaemic heart disease 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0

  13. [Good practice in occupational health services: prophylactic care and occupational activation of people with disabilities due to respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, Marta; Tymoszuk, Diana; Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a cause of long-term sickness absence, and even of partial or complete inability to work. This paper presents the first in Poland description of principles of good practice in occupational health service provided for people with respiratory diseases. The issues concerning the certification of the ability to work in this group of patients are discussed. The key-principles of preventive care of workers with obstructive and interstitial lung diseases with particular attention paid to the control of major risk factors are also presented. The importance of possible contraindications for job performance by workers affected by these diseases, as well as the responsibilities of occupational health physicians were highlighted. M

  14. [A cost-benefit analysis of occupational disease reporting in China].

    PubMed

    Tang, X Z; Zeng, Q; Liu, D S

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To perform a cost-benefit analysis of the occupational disease reporting system in China, and to provide a basis for effective resource allocation. Methods: The data on the cost of occupational diseases were collected from China Health Statistics Yearbook 2013, the estimated benefit data were collected from published articles in China and foreign countries, and the probability data were collected from the occupational diseasereports published by health and family planning administrative departments. Adecision-making tree was used for the cost-benefit analysis. Results: The estimated cost of occupational disease reporting was about 102.47 million yuan/year, consisting of a cost of reporting in national medical institutions of 1.25 million yuan/year, a management cost of 30.35 million yuan/year, a management cost in local public health institutions of 69.80 million yuan/year, a management cost in national public health institutions of 370 thousand yuan/year, and a cost of construction and maintenance of reporting system of 700 thousand yuan/year. The results of the decision tree analysis showed that when an occupational disease monitoring system was established, the incremental input for occupational disease monitoring and prevention/control was 2.1 billion yuan/year, the output was 6.5 billion yuan/year, and the benefit of occupational disease reporting system was 4.4 billion yuan/year. Conclusion: The benefit of occupational disease reporting system depends on the cost-benefit of occupational disease prevention and control measures, and proper prevention and control measures are extremely important for improving the benefit of occupational disease reporting system.

  15. Multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention in the obese: its impact on patients' perception of the disease, food and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Piana, N; Battistini, D; Urbani, L; Romani, G; Fatone, C; Pazzagli, C; Laghezza, L; Mazzeschi, C; De Feo, P

    2013-04-01

    To be successful, lifestyle intervention in obesity must take into account patients' views. The aim of the present study, conducted using a narrative-autobiographical approach, was to report on the perception of disease, food and physical exercise in a group of 80 obese patients during a structured multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. Patients underwent lifestyle intervention, of three months' duration, structured in the following steps: 1) an initial medical examination; 2) an interview by a psychologist; 3) an assessment by a dietician, 4) a physical examination by a specialist in sports medicine; 5) an individualized program consisting of 24 sessions (two per week) of structured indoor exercise 6) eight sessions of group therapeutic education; 7) Nordic walking activity combined with walking excursions during weekends. All the narrative autobiographic texts obtained during the lifestyle intervention were submitted for content analysis; data were analysed according to the ''grounded theory'' method. According to patients' descriptions at the end of the intervention, lifestyle intervention resulted in enhanced self-efficacy and a reduction in their dependency on food and people; their fear of change was also diminished because, by undergoing intervention, they had experienced change. The findings made in the present qualitative analysis suggest that whenever multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention is planned for patients with obesity, it is of the utmost importance to tailor the approach while taking the following key aspects into account: motivation, barriers and/or facilitators in lifestyle change, patients' perceptions of obesity and relationship with food, diet and exercise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Risk and features of occupational diseases in nonferrous metallurgy workers of Kolsky Transpolar area].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Chashchin, V P; Frolova, N M

    2015-01-01

    The study covered data on 977 cases of occupational diseases in 615 workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area. Findings are high risk of occupational diseases in workers engaged into electrolysis production of aluminium, all nickel reprocessing and pyrometallic copper reprocessing (GR 7.02-10.0). Electrolysis operators and anode operators of aluminium production are more prone to occupational diseases, with bone and muscular disorders (46.8%) prevalent in the morbidity structure. Respiratory diseases are more prevalent (68.2-100%) in the occupational morbidity structure of copper-nickelindustry workers. Conclusion is made on mandatory improvement of the work conditions and more effective individual protective means against occupational hazards in workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area.

  17. Occupational skin diseases in Czech healthcare workers from 1997 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Machovcová, A; Fenclová, Z; Pelclová, D

    2013-04-01

    The healthcare sector ranked in second place among economic sectors in the Czech Republic, with about 11.4 % of all occupational diseases in 2009. Skin diseases constituted about 20 % of all occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the causes and trends in allergic and irritant-induced skin diseases in the healthcare sector. The data concerning occupational skin diseases (Chapter IV of the Czech List of Occupational Diseases, non-infectious skin illnesses) in the healthcare sector were analyzed from the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases from 1997 until 2009. The trends in the total counts and most frequent causes were evaluated. During the past 13 years, a total of 545 skin diseases were acknowledged in healthcare workers. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 464 (85 %), irritant contact dermatitis in 71 (13 %) and contact urticaria in 10 subjects (2 %). Ninety-five percent of the patients were females. The overall incidence in individual years varied between 1.0 and 2.9 cases per 10,000 full-time employees per year. Disinfectants were the most frequent chemical agents causing more than one third of all allergic skin diseases (38 %), followed by rubber components (32 %) and cleaning agents (10 %). A general downward trend of diagnosed cases of occupational skin diseases in heath care workers in the Czech Republic over the past 13 years was demonstrated.

  18. Surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome in relation to occupational exposures, lifestyle factors and diabetes mellitus: a nationwide nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the risk of surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) in relation to occupational exposures, lifestyle factors and diabetes mellitus. We conducted a case-control study nested in a register-based cohort study of the Danish working population. For each of 3000 first-time cases of surgery for SIS, two age-matched and sex-matched controls were drawn. Cases and controls received a questionnaire on job history and other factors. Job histories were combined with a psychosocial job exposure matrix (JEM) and the updated Shoulder JEM, which provided exposure intensities on measurement scales. Ten-year cumulative exposures to upper arm elevation >90°, repetitive shoulder movements, forceful shoulder exertions and hand-arm vibrations (HAVs) were estimated. We used conditional logistic regression. There were 5396 persons (60%) who answered the questionnaire. For occupational mechanical exposures, the adjusted OR (OR adj ) ranged from 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.5 for HAVs) to 2.5 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.5 for force) among men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.5 for HAVs) to 2.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.9 for force) among women. No statistically significant associations were found for occupational psychosocial factors. Body mass index (BMI) and pack-years of smoking showed OR adj up to 2.0. Diabetes mellitus showed OR adj of 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) for men and 2.2 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.4) for women. Our findings add to the evidence of an increased risk of surgery for SIS in relation to occupational cumulative mechanical exposures, even when an increased risk in relation to BMI, smoking and diabetes mellitus is taken into account. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Occupation is related to Weight and Lifestyle Factors among Employees at Worksites Involved in a Weight Gain Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Kim M.; Salkeld, Judith; Risica, Patricia Markham; Lenz, Erin; Burton, Deborah; Mello, Jennifer; Bell, Johanna P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between job type, weight status and lifestyle factors that are potential contributors to obesity including, diet, physical activity and perceived stress among employees enrolled in the Working on Wellness (WOW) project. Methods Randomly selected employees at 24 worksites completed a baseline survey (n=1700); some also an in-person survey and anthropometric measures (n=1568). Employees were classified by US Labor standards as: white collar (n=1297), blue collar (n=303), or service worker (n=92), 8 unknown. Associations were analyzed using Chi-Square, GLM procedures, and adjusted for demographics using Logistic Regression. Results In unadjusted models, BMI of service workers was higher than white collar workers; F&V intake was higher for service and blue collar than white collar; white collar workers reported highest stress levels in job and life. However, in models adjusted for demographics, the only significant difference was to physical activity (i.e., MET/min per week), with blue collar workers reporting higher levels of physical activity than service workers, who reported higher levels than the white collar workers. Conclusions Future research should further examine the relationship between health and job status to corroborate the results of the current study and to consider designing future worksite health promotion interventions that are tailored by job category. PMID:26461872

  20. Occupation Is Related to Weight and Lifestyle Factors Among Employees at Worksites Involved in a Weight Gain Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Gans, Kim M; Salkeld, Judith; Risica, Patricia Markham; Lenz, Erin; Burton, Deborah; Mello, Jennifer; Bell, Johanna P

    2015-10-01

    To examine the relationship between job type, weight status, and lifestyle factors that are potential contributors to obesity including, diet, physical activity (PA), and perceived stress among employees enrolled in the Working on Wellness project. Randomly selected employees at 24 worksites completed a baseline survey (n = 1700); some also an in-person survey and anthropometric measures (n = 1568). Employees were classified by US labor standards as white collar (n = 1297), blue collar (n = 303), or service worker (n = 92), and 8 unknown. Associations were analyzed using chi-square and general linear model procedures and adjusted for demographics using logistic regression. In unadjusted models, body mass index of service workers was higher than white collar workers; fruit and vegetable intake was higher for service and blue collar than white collar; white collar workers reported highest stress levels in job and life. Nevertheless, in models adjusted for demographics, the only significant difference was for PA (ie, metabolic equivalent [MET]/min/wk), with blue collar workers reporting higher levels of PA than service workers, who reported higher levels than the white collar workers. Future research should further examine the relationship between health and job status to corroborate the results of the current study and to consider designing future worksite health promotion interventions that are tailored by job category.

  1. Benefits and costs of intensive lifestyle modification programs for symptomatic coronary disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-05-01

    This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P < .01). Program costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational pesticide use and Parkinson's disease in the Parkinson Environment Gene (PEG) study.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2017-10-01

    To study the influence of occupational pesticide use on Parkinson's disease (PD) in a population with information on various occupational, residential, and household sources of pesticide exposure. In a population-based case control study in Central California, we used structured interviews to collect occupational history details including pesticide use in jobs, duration of use, product names, and personal protective equipment use from 360 PD cases and 827 controls. We linked reported products to California's pesticide product label database and identified pesticide active ingredients and occupational use by chemical class including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. Employing unconditional logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PD and occupational pesticide use. Ever occupational use of carbamates increased risk of PD by 455%, while organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide use doubled risk. PD risk increased 110-211% with ever occupational use of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Using any pesticide occupationally for >10years doubled the risk of PD compared with no occupational pesticide use. Surprisingly, we estimated higher risks among those reporting use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Our findings provide additional evidence that occupational pesticide exposures increase PD risk. This was the case even after controlling for other sources of pesticide exposure. Specifically, risk increased with occupational use of carbamates, OPs, and OCs, as well as of fungicides, herbicides, or insecticides. Interestingly, some types of PPE use may not provide adequate protection during pesticide applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 20 CFR 702.603 - Determining the payrate for compensating occupational disease claims which become manifest after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.603 Section 702.603 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not Immediately Result in Death or Disability § 702.603 Determining the payrate for compensating occupational disease...

  4. 20 CFR 702.604 - Determining the amount of compensation for occupational disease claims which become manifest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.604 Section 702.604 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not Immediately Result in Death or Disability § 702.604 Determining the amount of compensation for occupational disease...

  5. Work-related accidents and occupational diseases in veterinarians and their staff.

    PubMed

    Nienhaus, Albert; Skudlik, Christoph; Seidler, Andreas

    2005-04-01

    We assessed the occupational hazards in veterinary practice by analysing accident insurance data in order to stimulate strategies to prevent occupational accidents and diseases in veterinarians and their staff. Approximately 10,000 veterinary practices comprising about 27,500 veterinarians and their staff are covered by the Institution of Statutory Accident Insurance of the Health and Welfare Service (BGW). Each year about 2,000 accident and occupational disease claims are filed by these veterinarians and their staff. The claims for the 5-year period from 1998 to 2002 are analysed in this paper. For 2002, the incidence rate for accidents in the workplace was 105.4 per 1,000 full-time workers, a rate 2.9-times higher than for general practitioners of human medicine. When only severe accidents resulting in a loss of work time of more than 3 days were analysed, the relative risk increased to 9.2. Approximately 66% of the reported accidents are due to scratches, bites, or kicks from animals. Claims of occupational disease are filed 2.7-times more often by veterinarians and their staff than by general practitioners and their staff. The occupational diseases filed most often concern the skin (39%), followed by allergic respiratory diseases (30.5%), and infectious diseases (19.1%). Prevention strategies for veterinarians should focus on accidents caused by animals. The prevention of occupational diseases should focus on skin diseases, respiratory disease, and infections.

  6. Evaluation of the patient with an exposure-related disease: the occupational and environmental history.

    PubMed

    Papali, Alfred; Hines, Stella E

    2015-03-01

    Although the process of taking an occupational and environmental history has remained largely the same, the context in which it is done has changed dramatically over recent years. This review examines the role of the occupational and environmental history in the context of the changing nature of medical practice and discusses methods for evaluating patients with contemporary exposure-related respiratory illnesses. Surveillance for occupational lung disease using mnemonic devices, screening questions and the use of structured questionnaires can significantly increase the likelihood and accuracy of detection. Electronic health records likewise can be adapted to include the most important elements of the occupational and environmental history. The emergence of new technologies and industries will lead to respiratory diseases in novel occupational and environmental contexts. Using the methods described herein can make detecting these diseases easier and less time-consuming.

  7. High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weston, Kassia S; Wisløff, Ulrik; Coombes, Jeff S

    2014-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Lifestyle measures in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clinical and pathophysiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J.H.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Several lifestyle and dietary factors are commonly cited as risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and modification of these factors has been advocated as first-line measures for the management of GORD. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 2005 to the present relating to the effect of these factors and their modification on GORD symptoms, physiological parameters of reflux as well as endoscopic appearances. Conflicting results existed for the association between smoking, alcohol and various dietary factors in the development of GORD. These equivocal findings are partly due to methodology problems. There is recent good evidence that weight reduction and smoking cessation are beneficial in reducing GORD symptoms. Clinical and physiological studies also suggest that some physical measures as well as modification of meal size and timing can also be beneficial. However, there is limited evidence for the role of avoiding alcohol and certain dietary ingredients including carbonated drinks, caffeine, fat, spicy foods, chocolate and mint. PMID:25729556

  9. [The accident at work and the occupational diseases in the construction industry: the experience of Inail].

    PubMed

    Clemente, M; Goggiamani, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the budget accident at work and occupational diseases in the construction industry through the data banks Inail. This analysis is carried out by comparing the data for this sector of economic activity (classification of economic activities ATECO 2002) with those general with particular attention to how an event, occurrence, mortality, by plotting the trends of this phenomenon than in previous years. It also analyzes the phenomenon of the complaints of occupational diseases with the comparison with the general data as well as with the analysis of the most frequent types of occupational diseases in this sector in the last two years.

  10. 20 CFR 10.101 - How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... disease filed? 10.101 Section 10.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS..., Disease, and Death-Employee Or Survivor's Actions § 10.101 How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed? (a) To claim benefits under the FECA, an employee who has a disease which he or she...

  11. 20 CFR 10.101 - How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... disease filed? 10.101 Section 10.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS..., Disease, and Death-Employee Or Survivor's Actions § 10.101 How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed? (a) To claim benefits under the FECA, an employee who has a disease which he or she...

  12. 20 CFR 10.101 - How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... disease filed? 10.101 Section 10.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS..., Disease, and Death-Employee Or Survivor's Actions § 10.101 How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed? (a) To claim benefits under the FECA, an employee who has a disease which he or she...

  13. 20 CFR 10.101 - How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... disease filed? 10.101 Section 10.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS..., Disease, and Death-Employee Or Survivor's Actions § 10.101 How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed? (a) To claim benefits under the FECA, an employee who has a disease which he or she...

  14. 20 CFR 10.101 - How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... disease filed? 10.101 Section 10.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS..., Disease, and Death-Employee Or Survivor's Actions § 10.101 How and when is a notice of occupational disease filed? (a) To claim benefits under the FECA, an employee who has a disease which he or she...

  15. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    PubMed

    Slager, Susan L; Benavente, Yolanda; Blair, Aaron; Vermeulen, Roel; Cerhan, James R; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Monnereau, Alain; Nieters, Alexandra; Clavel, Jacqueline; Call, Timothy G; Maynadié, Marc; Lan, Qing; Clarke, Christina A; Lightfoot, Tracy; Norman, Aaron D; Sampson, Joshua N; Casabonne, Delphine; Cocco, Pierluigi; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases. We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects. We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  16. [Sociomedical aspects of reduction of risk in the development of occupational diseases and industrial trauma in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Ivanov, V K; Kutovoĭ, V S

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the main constituents of occupational risk in railway workers, which are based on the sanitary and biomedical criteria of injury safety. Sociomedical aspects of the incidence of railway occupational diseases and injuries are discussed. A list of major occupational factors and causes that determine a high occupational risk in railway workers is given.

  17. Environmentally induced, occupational diseases with emphasis on chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin affecting tropical countries.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Shehani A; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally induced, occupational diseases are increasing worldwide, especially in rural agricultural communities. Poverty-associated malnutrition, environmental hazards and pollution, and lack of access to clean water, safe sanitation, and modern healthcare facilities are often associated with these chronic illnesses. The authors systematically reviewed occupational public health issues that have been related to the environment. General interpretations of results were included as per the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Pertinent publications from research databases were reviewed on (A) the risk-benefits, (B) the prevalence of risk factors for various diseases, (C) the benefits of not ignoring the risk factors (i.e., broader evidence), and (D) the risks, effects, and outcomes of different types of interventions. The authors used chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo) as an example to explore the theme. Emphasis was given to the regions with emerging economies and developing countries located in the vicinity of the equator. Geographical, socio-economic and aetiological similarities exist for many chronic non-communicable diseases that are affecting tropical countries around the equator. The authors identified manufacturing, mining, and agriculture as the biggest polluters of the environment. In addition, deforestation and associated soil erosion, overuse of agrochemicals, and irresponsible factory discharge (e.g., chemicals and paint, from rubber and textile factories, etc.), all contribute to pollution. To decrease the escalating incidences of environmentally induced diseases, governments should work proactively to protect the environment, especially watersheds, and take steps to minimise harmful occupational exposures and strictly enforce environmental regulations. Creating public awareness of environmental issues and their relationship to public health is essential. This includes

  18. Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Occupational Activities Industries Job Tasks Processes Symptoms/Findings Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Specialized Information Services ... Health Disclaimer Notice Privacy Last Updated: October 2017 Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Specialized Information Services ...

  19. [Lifestyle medicine: the importance of considering all the causes of disease].

    PubMed

    Mora Ripoll, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    The enormous potential effects of health behavior change on mortality, morbidity, and health care costs provide ample motivation for the concept of lifestyle medicine. Lifestyle medicine involves the therapeutic use of lifestyle interventions on health and quality of life, and considers not only risk factors and markers, but also a range of antecedent factors from all levels of causality. Treatment would ultimate employ a combination of clinical (patient-centered) and public-health interventions. Examples of target patient behaviors include, but are not limited to, eliminating tobacco use, moderating alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, improving diet, sleep, and emotional and mental well-being. The effective implementation of lifestyle medicine should be a priority within the necessary changes in current healthcare systems and public health policies. Copyright © 2010 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for adult acute lymphocytic leukemia: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    PubMed

    Skibola, Christine F; Slager, Susan L; Berndt, Sonja I; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2014-08-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case-control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Susan L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. Methods We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case–control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). Conclusions The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. PMID:25174033

  2. Management System of Occupational Diseases in Korea: Statistics, Report and Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seong Weon

    2010-01-01

    The management system of occupational diseases in Korea can be assessed from the perspective of a surveillance system. Workers' compensation insurance reports are used to produce official statistics on occupational diseases in Korea. National working conditions surveys are used to monitor the magnitude of work-related symptoms and signs in the labor force. A health examination program was introduced to detect occupational diseases through both selective and mass screening programs. The Working Environment Measurement Institution assesses workers' exposure to hazards in the workplace. Government regulates that the employer should do health examinations and working conditions measurement through contracted private agencies and following the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It is hoped that these institutions may be able to effectively detect and monitor occupational diseases and hazards in the workplace. In view of this, the occupational management system in Korea is well designed, except for the national survey system. In the future, national surveys for detection of hazards and ill-health outcomes in workers should be developed. The existing surveillance system for occupational disease can be improved by providing more refined information through statistical analysis of surveillance data. PMID:21258584

  3. Management system of occupational diseases in Korea: statistics, report and monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyung Yong; Choe, Seong Weon

    2010-12-01

    The management system of occupational diseases in Korea can be assessed from the perspective of a surveillance system. Workers' compensation insurance reports are used to produce official statistics on occupational diseases in Korea. National working conditions surveys are used to monitor the magnitude of work-related symptoms and signs in the labor force. A health examination program was introduced to detect occupational diseases through both selective and mass screening programs. The Working Environment Measurement Institution assesses workers' exposure to hazards in the workplace. Government regulates that the employer should do health examinations and working conditions measurement through contracted private agencies and following the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It is hoped that these institutions may be able to effectively detect and monitor occupational diseases and hazards in the workplace. In view of this, the occupational management system in Korea is well designed, except for the national survey system. In the future, national surveys for detection of hazards and ill-health outcomes in workers should be developed. The existing surveillance system for occupational disease can be improved by providing more refined information through statistical analysis of surveillance data.

  4. Examining lung cancer risks across different industries and occupations in Ontario, Canada: the establishment of the Occupational Disease Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, James K H; Feinstein, Saul G; Palma Lazgare, Luis; Macleod, Jill S; Arrandale, Victoria H; McLeod, Christopher B; Peter, Alice; Demers, Paul A

    2018-05-07

    The Occupational Disease Surveillance System (ODSS) was established in Ontario, Canada by linking a cohort of workers with data created from Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims to administrative health databases. The aim of this study was to use ODSS to identify high-risk industry and occupation groups for lung cancer in Ontario. Workers in the WSIB lost time claims database were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry using subjects' health insurance numbers, name, sex, birthdate and death date (if applicable). Several occupations and industries known to be at increased risk were outlined a priori to examine whether ODSS could replicate these associations. Age-adjusted, sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard models compared the risk of lung cancer within one industry/occupation versus all other groups in the cohort. Workers with a lung cancer diagnosis prior to cohort entry were excluded for analysis, leaving 2 187 762 workers for analysis. During the 1983 to 2014 follow-up, 34 661 workers in the cohort were diagnosed with lung cancer. Among expected high-risk industries, elevated risks were observed among workers in quarries/sand pits and construction industries for both sexes, and among males in metal mines, iron foundries, non-metallic mineral products industries and transportation industries. Excess risk was also observed among occupations in drilling/blasting, other mining/quarrying, mineral ore treating, excavating/grading/paving, truck driving, painting, bus driving and construction. This current surveillance system identified several established high-risk groups for lung cancer and could be used for ongoing surveillance of occupational lung cancer in Ontario. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Welding occupations and mortality from Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases among United States men, 1985-1999.

    PubMed

    Stampfer, Meir J

    2009-05-01

    Metal welding produces gaseous fumes that contain manganese, resulting in potential occupational exposure to welders. It has been hypothesized that occupational exposure among welders could increase risk of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. The present study examines welding occupation and mortality from neurodegenerative diseases among men in the United States using the National Cause of Death databases 1985 to 1999. Information was abstracted from death certificates for states that collected data on occupation. Of 4,252,490 men who died during the study period, 107,773 had welding-related occupations. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate mortality odds ratios (MOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for odds of dying from Parkinson's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases among men who were welders as compared with men of other occupations, adjusting for attained age, race, region of residence, and year of death. During the study period, 49,174 deaths were attributed to Parkinson's disease, 54,892 to Alzheimer's disease, and 19,018 to presenile dementia. There was no evidence of an increased odds of Parkinson's disease mortality among welders as compared with men with other occupations (MOR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.88). Furthermore, welding occupation was unrelated to the odds of mortality from Alzheimer's disease (MOR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-1.00) or presenile dementia (MOR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06). Earlier research suggested that welding exposures could predispose individuals to earlier onset Parkinson's disease. However, there was no evidence in this data of an increased mortality odds ratio associated with welding occupations among men younger than 65 (MOR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.74-1.44); while there was a suggestion of a lower odds Parkinson's disease death among men age 65 years and older (MOR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.88). Data from this large study do not support an association between welding occupations and death

  6. The Effect of Lifestyle Food on Chronic Diseases: A Comparison between Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alrabadi, Nizar Issa

    2013-01-01

    Foods do certainly play an important role in human health. This cross sectional study investigated the effect of lifestyle food on chronic diseases. In specific, it compared these diseases between vegetarians and non- vegetarians in Jordan in 2012. Questionnaires were distributed and the responses of 97 vegetarians and 97 non-vegetarians were analyzed. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. In particular, chronic diseases including Diabetes, Hypertension, and Obesity were more prevalence among non-vegetarians compared to vegetarian respondents. PMID:23283037

  7. Adherence index based on the American Heart Association 2006 diet and lifestyle recommendations: associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Boston Puerto Rican health study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, the AHA released diet and lifestyle recommendations (AHA-DLR) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. The effect of adherence to these recommendations on CVD risk is unknown. Our objective was to develop a unique diet and lifestyle score based on the AHA-DLR and to evaluate this sc...

  8. A systematic review and appraisal of methods of developing and validating lifestyle cardiovascular disease risk factors questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Nse, Odunaiya; Quinette, Louw; Okechukwu, Ogah

    2015-09-01

    Well developed and validated lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors questionnaires is the key to obtaining accurate information to enable planning of CVD prevention program which is a necessity in developing countries. We conducted this review to assess methods and processes used for development and content validation of lifestyle CVD risk factors questionnaires and possibly develop an evidence based guideline for development and content validation of lifestyle CVD risk factors questionnaires. Relevant databases at the Stellenbosch University library were searched for studies conducted between 2008 and 2012, in English language and among humans. Using the following databases; pubmed, cinahl, psyc info and proquest. Search terms used were CVD risk factors, questionnaires, smoking, alcohol, physical activity and diet. Methods identified for development of lifestyle CVD risk factors were; review of literature either systematic or traditional, involvement of expert and /or target population using focus group discussion/interview, clinical experience of authors and deductive reasoning of authors. For validation, methods used were; the involvement of expert panel, the use of target population and factor analysis. Combination of methods produces questionnaires with good content validity and other psychometric properties which we consider good.

  9. Medical opinion and sociopolitical control in the case of occupational diseases in the late nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Milles, D

    1993-01-01

    The identification of hazards to the life and health of industrial workers will be presented in the context of statutory accident insurance in Germany at the turn of the century. From the interplay of industrial and socio-political developments the question arose of how long term risks and illnesses, in particular poisoning, were to be defined. The inclusion of occupational diseases in accident insurance certainly emphasized the biographical dimension of illness, but complicated the preventative function of the 1925 Occupational Disease Ordinance.

  10. Infectious respiratory disease outbreaks and pregnancy: occupational health and safety concerns of Canadian nurses.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Karen P; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Dow, Darcie; Amaratunga, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers. Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006. Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data. Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.

  11. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A; Daviglus, Martha L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-01-13

    The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifestyle remains unclear. We quantified the association of changes in lifestyle profiles over 5 years with risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. Lifestyle factors (ie, diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption) and body mass index were assessed and dichotomized as healthy/unhealthy among 5263 adults ages 26 to 66 in 1993-1997 and 5 years later (1998-2002). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to quantify associations of change in lifestyle with fatal/nonfatal CVD and all-cause mortality that occurred 8 to 15 years after 1998-2002. Independent of baseline lifestyles, each decrement in number of healthy lifestyle factors was, on average, associated with 35% higher risk of CVD (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.63) and 37% higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.70); no association was noted with increase in the number of healthy lifestyle factors (P>0.5). Individuals who maintained 4 to 5 healthy lifestyle factors had 2.5 times lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.63) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.22-0.73) than those who maintained only 0 to 1 healthy lifestyle factor. Our findings suggest that the benefits of healthy lifestyles may be easier lost than gained over a 5-year period. This underscores the need for efforts to promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles throughout the life course. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Disease activity and lifestyle influence comorbidities and cardiovascular events in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Chiara; Cappellani, Daniele; Urbani, Claudio; Manetti, Luca; Marconcini, Giulia; Tomisti, Luca; Lupi, Isabella; Rossi, Giuseppe; Scattina, Ilaria; Lombardi, Martina; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Marcocci, Claudio; Martino, Enio; Bogazzi, Fausto

    2016-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to identify the predictors of comorbidities and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) that can develop after diagnosis of acromegaly. The role of therapy for acromegaly in the event of such complications was also evaluated. Retrospective cohort study was conducted on 200 consecutive acromegalic patients in a tertiary referral center. The following outcomes were evaluated: diabetes, hypertension and MACE. Each patient was included in the analysis of a specific outcome, unless they were affected when acromegaly was diagnosed, and further classified as follows: (i) in remission after adenomectomy (Hx), (ii) controlled by somatostatin analogues (SSA) (SSAc) or (iii) not controlled by SSA (SSAnc). Data were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. After diagnosis of acromegaly, diabetes occurred in 40.8% of patients. The SSAnc group had a three-fold higher risk of diabetes (HR: 3.32, P = 0.006), whereas the SSAc group had a 1.4-fold higher risk of diabetes (HR: 1.43, P = 0.38) compared with the Hx group. Hypertension occurred in 35.5% of patients, after diagnosis. The determinants of hypertension were age (HR: 1.06, P = 0.01) and BMI (HR: 1.05, P = 0.01). MACE occurred in 11.8% of patients, after diagnosis. Age (HR: 1.09, P = 0.005) and smoking habit (HR: 5.95, P = 0.01) were predictors of MACE. Conversely, therapy for acromegaly did not influence hypertension or MACE. After diagnosis of acromegaly, control of the disease (irrespective of the type of treatment) and lifestyle are predictors of comorbidities and major adverse cardiovascular events. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Occupational disease among non-governmental employees in Malaysia: 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Said, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Bin Aziz; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of systematic occupational disease surveillance, other data collected by governmental agencies or industry is useful in the identification of occupational diseases and their control. We examined data on occupational diseases reported by non-governmental employees to the national workers' social security organization in Malaysia, 2002-2006. The overall incidence rate of occupational disease was 2.8 per 100,000 workers. There was an increase in the annual number and rates of occupational disease over time. The most frequently reported conditions were hearing impairment (32%) and musculoskeletal disorders (28%). Workers in the non-metallic manufacturing industry had the highest average incidence rate of hearing impairment (12.7 per 100,000 workers) and musculoskeletal disorders (3.5 per 100,000 workers), compared to all other industries. Preventive measures should focus on safety education, engineering control and workplace ergonomics. Enforcing workplace standards and incorporating an ongoing surveillance system will facilitate the control and reduction of occupational disease.

  14. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases. PMID:24604929

  15. Characteristics of metabolic and lifestyle risk factors in young Japanese patients with coronary heart disease: a comparison with older patients.

    PubMed

    Azegami, Masako; Hongo, Minoru; Yanagisawa, Setsuko; Yamazaki, Akie; Sakaguchi, Kesami; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is recognized as a lifestyle-related disease and is the second leading cause of death in Japan. However, the cardiac risk factor profile of young patients with CHD has not been clarified in suburban areas of Japan. Our study aimed to determine metabolic and lifestyle risk factors in young patients and compare them with older patients living in suburban areas of Nagano Prefecture. A multicenter study was conducted in 86 young (aged less than 40 years) and 91 older (aged 50 years and over) patients diagnosed with CHD from 1992 to 2002. There was a strong association between obesity and the occurrence of CHD events in young patients (odds ratio = 3.61, P = 0.006). Lifestyle in the young patients was characterized by a lack of physical activity and regular physical activity was found to decrease the risk of the CHD events in these patients (odds ratio = 0.31, P = 0.030). In older patients, hypertension was identified as an independent risk factor for CHD events. The results of the present study have demonstrated that obesity and a lack of regular physical exercise are independent risk factors for CHD events in younger patients. Thus, the data may be useful for the effective screening of high-risk individuals and the development of educational programs for the prevention of CHD, especially in younger Japanese.

  16. Modifiable lifestyle and social factors affect chronic kidney disease in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dunkler, Daniela; Kohl, Maria; Heinze, Georg; Teo, Koon K; Rosengren, Annika; Pogue, Janice; Gao, Peggy; Gerstein, Hertzel; Yusuf, Salim; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mann, Johannes F E

    2015-04-01

    This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.

  17. Notification of occupational and work-related diseases and poisonings in Malaysia, 1997-1998.

    PubMed

    Sirajuddin, H; Roslinah, A; Rampal, K G; Kuppusamy, I; Rohna, R; Aziz, M; Aw, T C; Beach, J R

    2001-03-01

    In 1997, the Ministry of Health Malaysia introduced a surveillance programme for occupational and work-related diseases including poisonings for cases seen in government health facilities. Between June 1997 and November 1998, there were 36 cases of respiratory disease and 95 cases of poisoning by chemicals and pesticides notified while skin diseases were 108 cases. Respiratory diseases reported were predominantly occupational asthma (25%), pneumoconiosis (17%) and infections (39%). The commonest reported skin disease was contact dermatitis (87%). The commonest causes of occupational poisonings were paraquat (19%), organo-phosphates (16%), agro-chemicals excluding pesticides (15%) and gases (10%). The number of cases reported is still relatively few compared to data from other countries, suggesting that there is still considerable under reporting.

  18. Lifestyle changes for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a review of observational studies and intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Godos, Justyna; Salomone, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a major public health problem because of its association with increased cardiovascular and liver-related morbidity and mortality. Both genetic factors and lifestyle contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lifestyle, including dietary habits and physical activity, is a modifiable risk factor and thus represents the main target for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the evidence regarding nutritional aspects (i.e. total energy intake, saturated fat and carbohydrates intake, certain foods or drinks and dietary patterns as a whole) in the treatment of NAFLD. In addition, we analyze the evidence concerning the independent effect of physical activity, including aerobic and resistance training, in the treatment of NAFLD. A therapeutic algorithm according to results from intervention trials is also provided for clinicians and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of NAFLD.

  19. An after-school dance and lifestyle education program reduces risk factors for heart disease and diabetes in elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Jeannette; Diaz, Alejandro; Cid, Margareth Del; Mueller, Charles; Lipman, Elizabeth Grace; Cheruvu, Sunita; Chiu, Ya-lin; Vogiatzi, Maria; Nimkarn, Saroj

    2013-01-01

    Background Forty-three percent of New York City's (NYC) school-age children are overweight or obese, placing them at risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective The objective of this study was to determine if an intensive after-school dance and lifestyle education program would reduce risk factors for heart disease, T2DM, and improve lifestyle choices. Subjects Subject include 64 fourth- and fifth-grade students at an elementary school in NYC. Methods Students received freestyle dance and lifestyle classes for 16 weeks and were evaluated for changes in body composition, endurance, biochemical measurements, and lifestyle choices. Results Significant improvements in BMI percentiles were found among children in the overweight and obese categories as well as in endurance and biochemical measurements that reflect heart disease and diabetes risk. Improvement was also reported in lifestyle choices. Conclusion An intensive after-school dance and lifestyle education program can reduce risk factors for heart disease and T2DM and improve lifestyle choices among elementary school children. PMID:22876547

  20. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for sporadic Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia: the Interlymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Morton, Lindsay M; Sampson, Joshua N; Chang, Ellen T; Costas, Laura; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kelly, Jennifer; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Cozen, Wendy; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Slager, Susan L; Birmann, Brenda M; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2014-08-01

    The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age. We investigated risk factors for sporadic BL in 295 cases compared with 21818 controls in a pooled analysis of 18 case-control studies in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Cases were defined to include typical BL or Burkitt-like lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations were calculated separately for younger (<50 years) and older (≥ 50 years) BL using multivariate logistic regression. Cases included 133 younger BL and 159 older BL (age was missing for three cases) and they were evenly split between typical BL (n = 147) and Burkitt-like lymphoma (n = 148). BL in younger participants was inversely associated with a history of allergy (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.05), and positively associated with a history of eczema among individuals without other atopic conditions (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.20 to 5.40), taller height (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.36), and employment as a cleaner (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.13 to 10.7). BL in older participants was associated with a history of hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.05 to 16.6) based on three exposed cases. Regardless of age, BL was inversely associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with height. Our data suggest that BL in younger and older adults may be etiologically distinct. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  1. Remote Lifestyle Counseling Influences Cardiovascular Health Outcomes in Youth with Overweight or Obesity and Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Altamirano-Diaz, Luis; Rombeek, Meghan; De Jesus, Stefanie; Welisch, Eva; Prapavessis, Harry; Dempsey, Adam A; Fraser, Douglas; Miller, Michael R; Norozi, Kambiz

    2017-01-01

    Children with overweight/obesity and congenital heart disease (CHD) are at increased cardiovascular risk. A lifestyle intervention may help reduce these risks. We sought to determine the feasibility of a smartphone-based lifestyle intervention to improve cardiovascular health outcomes in children with overweight/obesity and CHD. We examined the effect of bi-weekly nutrition and fitness counseling delivered via smartphone over 12 months. Thirty-four youth, previously diagnosed with CHD and with overweight or obesity, participated in the intervention. They were divided into two groups depending on whether the heart disease required surgical correction (operated, n  = 19) or not (non-operated, n  = 15). Anthropometry, body composition cardiorespiratory exercise capacity, and cardio-metabolic risk factors were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Statistically significant decreases in waist circumference (WC), body mass index z -score, WC z -score, and waist to height ratio z -score were observed at 6 and 12 months in the operated group. A significant linear increase in lean body mass was observed in both groups. The study also had a high retention rate and a low attrition rate. The observed changes in anthropometry were positive with significant improvement to some cardiovascular and metabolic risk indicators. However, this was only observed in the operated group suggesting that other factors, such as perception of condition and self-efficacy, may influence lifestyle behaviors. The results from this pilot study clearly demonstrate the feasibility to perform a larger controlled study on remote lifestyle intervention in children with congenital heart defects and overweight or obesity.

  2. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evidence for associations between occupational factors and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) is inconsistent. We assessed the risk of PD associated with various occupational factors in Japan. Methods We examined 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD. Control subjects were 369 inpatients and outpatients without neurodegenerative disease. Information on occupational factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Relative risks of PD were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on logistic regression. Adjustments were made for gender, age, region of residence, educational level, and pack-years of smoking. Results Working in a professional or technical occupation tended to be inversely related to the risk of PD: adjusted OR was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.32-1.06, P = 0.08). According to a stratified analysis by gender, the decreased risk of PD for persons in professional or technical occupations was statistically significant only for men. Adjusted ORs for a professional or technical occupation among men and women were 0.22 (95% CI: 0.06-0.67) and 0.99 (0.47-2.07), respectively, and significant interaction was observed (P = 0.048 for homogeneity of OR). In contrast, risk estimates for protective service occupations and transport or communications were increased, although the results were not statistically significant: adjusted ORs were 2.73 (95% CI: 0.56-14.86) and 1.74 (95% CI: 0.65-4.74), respectively. No statistical significance was seen in data concerning exposure to occupational agents and the risk of PD, although roughly a 2-fold increase in OR was observed for workers exposed to stone or sand. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that occupational factors do not play a substantial etiologic role in this population. However, among men, professional or technical occupations may decrease the risk of PD. PMID:21733194

  3. Cost of compensated injuries and occupational diseases in agriculture in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Risto H; Ohsfeldt, Robert; Sprince, Nancy L; Donham, Kelley J; Burmeister, Leon F; Reynolds, Stephen J; Saarimäki, Pentti; Zwerling, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Although agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries, the costs of agricultural injuries and illnesses are not well known. This study aimed to determine the cost burden from compensated injuries and occupational diseases in Finnish agriculture using workers compensation records. The incidence rates in 1996 were 7.4/100 for injuries and 0.61/100 for occupational diseases. Men had a higher risk of injury (RR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.81-1.97), but a lower risk of an occupational disease (RR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.60-0.78), compared to women. The total cost burden was 75 (Euros) per person in 1983, increasing to 215 in 1999. The total insurance cost in 1996 was 23.5 million consisting of medical care (16%), per diem (lost time compensation within one year from the incident) (37%), pension (lost time compensation after one year from the incident) (23%), survivors pension (3%), impairment allowance (7%), rehabilitation (6%), and other costs (9%). The total cost was 0.7% of the national gross farm income and 2.2% of the net farm income. The mean cost of 1996 cases was 1340 for injuries and 6636 for occupational diseases. Injuries represented 92% of the claims and 71% of the total costs. Occupational diseases represented 8% of the claims and 29% of the costs. Twenty percent of the most severe claims represented 79.5% of the total insurance costs. Injuries and occupational diseases result in significant costs in agriculture. Lost time was the largest cost item. Overall, injuries were more costly than occupational diseases. This study indicates that the 20%-80% rule applies to agricultural injury and illness costs, and from the cost standpoint, it is important to focus prevention efforts on the most severe incidents.

  4. Women and Cardiovascular Disease: Learning Communities and Experiences that Influence Lifestyle Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Carrie Lenora

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined women's learning in making healthy lifestyle changes after a cardiac event. The study examined how and what learning women identified as important to learning behavioral change and the meaning making experiences that influenced changes in self-perception and outlook. The study also focused on the role of the cardiac…

  5. Artistic occupations are associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Haaxma, Charlotte A; Borm, George F; van der Linden, Dimitri; Kappelle, Arnoud C; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is preceded by a premotor phase of unknown duration. Dopaminergic degeneration during this phase may lead to subtle cognitive and behavioural changes, such as decreased novelty seeking. Consequently, premotor subjects might be most comfortable in jobs that do not require optimal dopamine levels, leading to an overrepresentation in structured and predictable occupations, or an underrepresentation in artistic occupations. In a case-control study, 750 men with PD (onset ≥40 years) and 1300 healthy men completed a validated questionnaire about their lifetime occupational status. Occupations were classified using the RIASEC model. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the conventional and artistic categories, both for the most recent occupation before symptom onset, and for the very first occupation. Because farming has been associated with a PD risk, ORs were calculated separately for farming. A reduced risk of PD was found for men with an artistic occupation late in life (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.53), while an artistic first occupation did not prevent PD (OR 0.72, CI 0.32-1.59). Conventional occupations showed no increased risk (recent: OR 1.07, CI 0.70-1.64; first: OR 1.14, CI 0.77-1.71). In support of previous reports, farming was associated with an increased risk of PD (recent: OR 2.6, CI 1.4-4.6; first: OR 2.7, CI 1.6-4.5). PD patients were older than controls, but various statistical corrections for age all lead to similar results. Artistic occupations late in life are associated with a reduced risk of subsequent PD, perhaps because this reflects a better preserved dopaminergic state. No initial occupation predicted PD, suggesting that the premotor phase starts later in life.

  6. Caregiver burden and nonachievement of healthy lifestyle behaviors among family caregivers of cardiovascular disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Mosca, Lori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether caregiver burdens are associated with lifestyle behaviors 1 year following the hospitalization of a family member with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prospective follow-up study of National Heart Lung and Blood Institute sponsored Family Intervention Trial for Heart Health participants. Hospital-based recruitment/baseline visit with 1-year follow-up. Family members of hospitalized CVD patients (N  =  423; 67% female; 36% racial/ethnic minority; mean age 49 years). Systematic evaluation at 1 year to determine heart-healthy diet (defined as <10% kcal from saturated fat; Block 98 Food Frequency Questionnaire) and physical activity (defined as ≥4 d/wk; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey) behaviors and caregiver burdens (five domains: employment, financial, physical, social, and time; Caregiver Strain Questionnaire). Logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Heart-healthy diet was less frequent among caregivers citing feeling overwhelmed (odds ratio [OR]  =  .50; 95% confidence interval [CI]  =  .26-.97), sleep disturbance (OR  =  .51; 95% CI  =  .27-.96), financial strain (OR  =  .41; 95% CI  =  .20-.86), upsetting behavior (OR  =  .48; 95% CI  =  .25-.92), and/or time demands (OR  =  .47; 95% CI  =  .26-.85) as burdens. Physical activity was less frequent among caregivers reporting financial strain (OR  =  .32; 95% CI  =  .13-.81) or upsetting patient behavior (OR  =  .33; 95% CI  =  .15-.76) as burdens. The most commonly cited caregiver burdens included changes in personal plans (39%), time demands (38%), and sleep disturbance (30%). Caregiver burdens were associated with nonachievement of heart-healthy diet and physical activity behaviors among family caregivers 1 year after patient discharge. When developing heart-health promotion interventions, caregiver burden should be considered as a possible barrier to prevention among family members of CVD patients.

  7. The impact of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; Graff, Maud J; Borm, George F; Veenhuizen, Yvonne; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial including process and potential impact of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease. Process and outcome were quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated in an exploratory multicentre, two-armed randomized controlled trial at three months. Forty-three community-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease and difficulties in daily activities, their primary caregivers and seven occupational therapists. Ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to the Dutch guidelines of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease versus no occupational therapy in the control group. Process evaluation measured accrual, drop-out, intervention delivery and protocol adherence. Primary outcome measures of patients assessed daily functioning: Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Primary outcome for caregivers was caregiver burden: Zarit Burden Inventory. Participants' perspectives of the intervention were explored using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Inclusion was 23% (43/189), drop-out 7% (3/43) and unblinding of assessors 33% (13/40). Full intervention protocol adherence was 74% (20/27), but only 60% (71/119) of baseline Canadian Occupational Performance Measure priorities were addressed in the intervention. The outcome measures revealed negligible to small effects in favour of the intervention group. Almost all patients and caregivers of the intervention group were satisfied with the results. They perceived: 'more grip on the situation' and used 'practical advices that make life easier'. Therapists were satisfied, but wished for a longer intervention period. The positive perceived impact of occupational therapy warrants a large-scale trial. Adaptations in instructions and training are needed to use the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure as primary outcome measure.

  8. [Monitoring of hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in infectious disease hospital].

    PubMed

    Xie, Manxia; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Yimei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the status and risk factors for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in an infectious disease hospital, and to provide a scientific basis for targeted preventive and control measures. The occupational exposure of 395 medical workers in our hospital was monitored from January 2012 to December 2014, among whom 79 individuals with occupational exposure were subjected to intervention and the risk factors for occupational exposure were analyzed. The high-risk group was mainly the nursing staff (69.6%). The incidence of hematogenous occupational exposure was high in medical personnel with a working age under 3 years, aged under 25 years, and at the infection ward, accounting for 63.3%, 72.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Treponema pallidum, and human immunodeficiency virus were the primary exposure sources. Sharp injury was the major way of injury (91.1%), with needle stick injury accounting for the highest proportion (86.1%). Injury occurred on the hand most frequently (91.1%). The high-risk links were improper disposal during or after pulling the needle, re-capturing the needle, and processing waste, accounting for 46.8%, 17.7%, and 12.7%, respectively. Seventy-nine professionals with occupational exposure were not infected. The main risk factor for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in the infectious disease hospital is needle stick injury. Strengthening the occupational protection education in medical staff in infectious disease hospital, implementing protective measures, standardizing operating procedures in high-risk links, and enhancing the supervision mechanism can reduce the incidence of occupational exposure and infection after exposure.

  9. Worker Protection: Notifying Workers at Risk of Occupational Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-11

    on legislative proposals to establish a federal health risk notification program for workers exposed to hazardous substances. Under such a program the... employee populations and individuals found to be at risk, and (3) provide medical and support information and services to notified workers .) Similar...chemicals be evaluated and information about the hazards be made available to workers in the manufacturing industry. Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health

  10. The effect of occupational therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Unni; Bentzen, Hege; Holter, Morag Kelly; Nilsen, Tove; Skullerud, Hallvard; Mowinckel, Petter; Kjeken, Ingvild

    2017-03-01

    Aim The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of individualized occupational therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Additionally, the authors wanted to explore the occupational problems experienced in daily life by individuals with COPD. Methods A total of 52 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (occupational therapy) or control group (treatment as usual). The primary outcome was assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and participants were assessed at baseline and after four and 12 months. Results There were no treatment effects on occupational performance or satisfaction with performance, as measured by the COPM. However, we found a significant effect in favour of the intervention group at exertion when performing an individually chosen activity, and in the activity dimension of St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. A total of 595 occupational problems were reported, most frequently within mobility, active recreation, and household management. Conclusions The results show that, compared with the usual care, individualized occupational therapy did not improve occupational performance or satisfaction with performance. Small but significant changes in activity performance in favour of the intervention group were found in some of the secondary outcomes.

  11. What is the role of lifestyle behaviour change associated with non-communicable disease risk in managing musculoskeletal health conditions with special reference to chronic pain?

    PubMed

    Dean, Elizabeth; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-04-13

    Other than activity and exercise, lifestyle practices such as not smoking and healthy nutrition, well established for preventing and managing lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (i.e., heart disease, cancer, hypertension, stroke, obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and obesity), are less emphasized in the physical therapy guidelines for addressing chronic pain, e.g., back pain. This state-of-the-art review examines the relationships between lifestyle behaviours and musculoskeletal health, with special reference to chronic pain, and their clinical and research implications. A state-of-the-art review was conducted to synthesize evidence related to lifestyle factors (not smoking, healthy diet, healthy weight, optimal sleep and manageable stress, as well as physical activity) and musculoskeletal health, with special reference to chronic pain. The findings support that health behaviour change competencies (examination/assessment and intervention/treatment) may warrant being included in first-line management of chronic pain, either independently or in conjunction with conventional physical therapy interventions. To address knowledge gaps in the literature however three lines of clinical trial research are indicated: 1) to establish the degree to which traditional physical therapy interventions prescribed for chronic pain augment the benefits of lifestyle behaviour change; 2) to establish the degree to which adopting healthier lifestyle practices, avoids or reduces the need for conventional physical therapy; and 3) to establish whether patients/clients with healthier lifestyles and who have chronic pain, respond more favourably to conventional physical therapy interventions than those who have less healthy lifestyles. Lifestyle behaviour change is well accepted in addressing lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases. Compelling evidence exists however supporting the need for elucidation of the role of negative lifestyle behaviours on the incidence of chronic

  12. Occupational obstructive airway diseases in Germany: Frequency and causes in an international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Latza, U.; Baur, X.

    2005-08-01

    Occupational inhalative exposures contribute to a significant proportion of obstructive airway diseases (OAD), namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. The number of occupational OAD in the German industrial sector for the year 2003 are presented. Other analyses of surveillance data were retrieved from Medline. Most confirmed reports of OAD are cases of sensitizer induced occupational asthma (625 confirmed cases) followed by COPD in coal miners (414 cases), irritant induced occupational asthma (156 cases), and isocyanate asthma (54 cases). Main causes of occupational asthma in Germany comprise flour/flour constituents (35.9%), food/feed dust (9.0%), and isocyanates (6.5%). Flour and grainmore » dust is a frequent cause of occupational asthma in most European countries and South Africa. Isocyanates are still a problem worldwide. Although wide differences in the estimated incidences between countries exist due to deficits in the coverage of occupational OAD, the high numbers necessitate improvement of preventive measures.« less

  13. Occupational risk and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study in the United States adult population.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Sofia; Wang, Chengwei; Qu, Wenchun

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on occupational risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) have analyzed a limited range of occupations and focused on nephrotoxins. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relative risk for the occurrence of CKD between different occupations in the US adult population. This was a population-based survey study of 91,340 participants in the US, who completed the National Health Interview Survey, 2004 through 2008. The outcome variable, CKD, was defined as having weakening/failing kidneys in the past 12 months, as diagnosed by a physician. The predictor variable, occupation, was obtained using the census occupational codes, regrouped according to North American Industrial Classification System. After controlling for age, gender, hypertension, and education, and with the category Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations as a reference group, the likelihood of developing CKD was 4.3 times higher in respondents working in Building, Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance Occupations, 4.4 times higher in Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations, 4.7 times higher in Transportation and Material Moving Occupations and in Computer and Mathematical Occupations, 4.8 times higher in Production Occupations, 5.3 times higher in Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations, and 6.1 times higher in Healthcare Support Occupations and in Legal Occupations. This study identified occupation groups in US adult population with increased risk for CKD. Alleviation of workplace stress is suggested as a goal for behavioral intervention in high-risk occupations.

  14. Occupational contact urticaria: lessons from the French National Network for Occupational Disease Vigilance and Prevention (RNV3P).

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Telle-Lamberton, M; Faye, S; Bourrain, J-L; Crépy, M-N; Lasfargues, G; Choudat, D; Momas, I

    2015-12-01

    Occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is an occupational contact dermatitis that can cause serious health consequences and disability at work. To describe OCU and its temporal trends by the main causal agents and activity sectors in a nationwide scheme in France. Using data from the French National Network for Occupational Disease Vigilance and Prevention (RNV3P), we described OCU reported during the period 2001-10 and analysed the temporal trends of OCU and OCU attributed to the most frequent agents over the study period. Trends analyses were supported by reporting odds ratios using a logistic regression model with reference to 2001, or with time as a continuous variable. During the study period, 251 cases of OCU were reported in RNV3P, half of which were due to natural rubber latex, in particular in the health and social work activity sector (HSW). The number of these cases declined significantly over the study period (19% per year), and particularly after 2006. Conversely, the other causes of OCU did not decrease. Using surveillance data from a French national network, this study has found that there was a significant decline in OCU due to natural rubber latex, particularly in the HSW, when powdered latex gloves were banned from French hospitals. Our results show the effectiveness of this preventive measure, and suggest that this practice should be extended to other sectors. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Occupational skin disease among Australian healthcare workers: a retrospective analysis from an occupational dermatology clinic, 1993-2014.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Claire L; Palmer, Amanda M; Cahill, Jennifer L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-10-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of developing occupational skin disease (OSD). To ascertain the causes of OSD in Australian HCWs in a tertiary referral clinic. A retrospective review was performed of patients assessed at the Occupational Dermatology Clinic in Melbourne from 1993 to 2014. Of 685 HCWs assessed in the clinic over a period of 22 years, 555 (81.0%) were diagnosed with OSD. The most common diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (79.1%), followed by allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) (49.7%). Natural rubber latex allergy was also relatively frequent (13.0%). The major substances causing ACD were rubber glove chemicals (thiuram mix and tetraethylthiuram disulfide), preservatives (formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and isothiazolinones), excipients in hand cleansers, which are hard-to-avoid weak allergens, and antiseptics. ACD caused by commercial hand cleansers occurred more frequently than ACD caused by alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs). Occupational ICD was mostly caused by water/wet work and hand cleansers, and environmental irritants such as heat and sweating. Understanding the causes of OSD in HCWs is important in order to develop strategies for prevention. We suggest that skin care advice should be incorporated into hand hygiene education. The use of ABHRs should be encouraged, weak allergens in skin cleansers should be substituted, and accelerator-free gloves should be recommended for HCWs with OSD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Community-based lifestyle modification of cardiovascular disease risks in middle-aged Japanese: a 27-month update.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroko; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Nakade, Makiko; Kobayashi, Emiko; Ishisaki, Kaori; Yamasaki, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of preventive management for people with cardiovascular disease risks, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. This study investigated the effect of a 27-month community-based lifestyle intervention on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risks in middle-aged Japanese. Of 549 participants with cardiovascular disease risk factors of overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes enrolled in this non-randomized controlled study, 397 participants aged 39-71 years old completed all 3 serial surveys at baseline, 15 months and 27 months. For the intervention group (39 males and 174 females), 31 specific interventions including individual counselling and group sessions were conducted. The control group (64 males and 120 females) only received 7 newsletters providing health information and results of health checkups. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, each baseline risk category and age category showed that the proportion of those who were overweight or showed dyslipidemia risk were significantly lower in the intervention group only at 27 months [Odds ratio (OR): 0.43 (95% CI 0.20-0.94), OR: 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.87), respectively] and the proportion of those showing diabetes risk was significantly lower in the intervention group at both 15 months [OR: 0.42 (95% CI 0.18-0.97)] and 27 months [OR: 0.56 (95% CI 0.32-0.99)]. In conclusion, the 27-month community-based lifestyle modification of cardiovascular disease risks shows significant reductions in risks of diabetes, overweight and dyslipidemia in middle-aged Japanese.

  17. Predictors of primary care referrals to a vascular disease prevention lifestyle program among participants in a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Laws, Rachel A; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; McKenzie, Suzanne; Powell-Davies, Gawaine; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F

    2012-08-03

    Cardiovascular disease accounts for a large burden of disease, but is amenable to prevention through lifestyle modification. This paper examines patient and practice predictors of referral to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) offered as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of prevention of vascular disease in primary care. Data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 36 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organisations were used. In each practice, 160 eligible high risk patients were invited to participate. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention practice staff were trained in screening, motivational interviewing and counselling and encouraged to refer high risk patients to a LMP involving individual and group sessions. Data include patient surveys; clinical audit; practice survey on capacity for preventive care; referral records from the LMP. Predictors of referral were examined using multi-level logistic regression modelling after adjustment for confounding factors. Of 301 eligible patients, 190 (63.1%) were referred to the LMP. Independent predictors of referral were baseline BMI ≥ 25 (OR 2.87 95%CI:1.10, 7.47), physical inactivity (OR 2.90 95%CI:1.36,6.14), contemplation/preparation/action stage of change for physical activity (OR 2.75 95%CI:1.07, 7.03), rural location (OR 12.50 95%CI:1.43, 109.7) and smaller practice size (1-3 GPs) (OR 16.05 95%CI:2.74, 94.24). Providing a well-structured evidence-based lifestyle intervention, free of charge to patients, with coordination and support for referral processes resulted in over 60% of participating high risk patients being referred for disease prevention. Contrary to expectations, referrals were more frequent from rural and smaller practices suggesting that these practices may be more ready to engage with these programs. ACTRN12607000423415.

  18. A survey of occupational skin disease in UK health care workers.

    PubMed

    Campion, K M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational skin disease is a common problem among health care workers (HCWs). The prevalence of occupational skin disease in HCWs has been reported in several international studies, but not in the UK. To estimate the prevalence of occupational skin disease in a population of UK HCWs and to explore possible causative factors. Clinical and non-clinical HCWs attending for an influenza vaccine during October and November 2013 were invited to complete a brief skin questionnaire. Data from staff who stated their skin had suffered as a result of work were compared with data from staff who did not, to explore differences in potential causative factors. A total of 2762 questionnaires were analysed. The estimated prevalence of occupational skin disease was 20% for clinical and 7% for non-clinical staff. In total, 424 clinical staff stated their skin had been made worse by work. There were statistically significant differences between clinical staff with and without reported skin symptoms regarding a history of eczema, frequent hand washing and moisturizer use but no statistically significant difference in the relative proportions of soap and alcohol hand gel use. Non-clinical staff reported significantly more use of soap relative to alcohol gel than clinical staff. This study demonstrated the prevalence of occupational skin disease in a population of UK HCWs. More work is indicated to explore if the ratio of soap and alcohol gel reported in this study are typical and whether this has any impact on the development of occupational skin disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Occupational exposures are associated with worse morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura M; Diette, Gregory B; Blanc, Paul D; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D; Kanner, Richard E; Belli, Andrew J; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R Graham; Hansel, Nadia N

    2015-03-01

    Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (-26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (-3.3; P < 0.0001); and greater odds of exacerbation requiring health care utilization (odds ratio, 1.55; P = 0.03). Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may influence disease burden.

  20. [Reflexions on the aspects characterizing the new INAIL tables regarding occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Fucci, P; Anselmi, E; Sacchetti, G

    1995-01-01

    The AA examine the new Tables for occupational diseases in industry and agriculture, which have recently approved with the Presidential Decree n.336, april 13, 1994. The main innovations are analysed, like the elimination of some too generic terms, which had often allowed contrasting interpretations and a non univocal jurisprudence. Other innovative aspects regard the new acquisitions of occupational medicine and strengthen, in the new formulation, the principles of the presumption of law in establishing a relation of cause and effect.

  1. Evaluation of a short Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess cardiovascular disease-related diet and lifestyle factors

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Karianne; Henriksen, Hege Berg; Østengen, Beate; Jacobs, David R.; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H.; Carlsen1, Monica H.; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2018-01-01

    Background The Vascular lifestyle-Intervention and Screening in phArmacies (VISA) study investigates diet and lifestyle factors associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As part of the study methodology, a short Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), the VISA-FFQ, was adapted from the Norwegian NORDIET-FFQ. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the VISA-FFQ and its ability to estimate intakes of foods and lifestyle factors in screening for elevated risk of CVD. The evaluation included assessment of relative validity of intake of milk fat and assessment of reproducibility of several foods and lifestyle factors. Design Relative validity of milk fat estimated from the VISA-FFQ was assessed in 307 participants by comparing estimated dietary intake of the fatty acids pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), from milk fat with whole blood biomarkers 15:0 and 17:0. Reproducibility was evaluated in 122 participants by comparing consistency in intakes of different foods and lifestyle factors reported by the VISA-FFQ and administered twice with a 4-week interval. Results Dietary 15:0 milk fat estimated from the VISA-FFQ correlated positively with whole blood 15:0 (r = 0.32, P < 0.05). Men presented higher correlations than women did. Acceptable and consistent reproducibility (r = 0.44–0.94 and no large difference between test and retest) was observed for most beverages, milk products, spreads on bread and meat (all of which included food items categorised into at least two fat categories) and also for eggs, fruits and vegetables, nuts, pasta and rice, dessert/sweets, smoking and physical activity. Reproducibility did not consistently meet a satisfactory standard (r ≤ 0.41 or large difference between test and retest) for unsweetened cereals, fatty fish, cakes, oils, white-, bread, crispbread and rice. Conclusion The validity of the VISA-FFQ was acceptable for intake of milk fat, and there was an overall satisfactory, though variable

  2. Ischemic cardiovascular disease in workers occupationally exposed to urban air pollution - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Paola; Verso, Maria Gabriella; Tramuto, Fabio; Amodio, Emanuele; Picciotto, Diego

    2018-03-14

    Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among several known risk factors, researchers also focus their attention on the chronic exposure to air pollution. There is much evidence that exposure to air pollution, especially to ultrafine particles, can damage the endothelium and can favour cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Occupational exposition could be an additive risk factor for the cardiovascular system. This article presents a scientific review of the linkage between occupational exposure to air pollution and ischemic heart disease. A scientific review was undertaken, followed by PRISMA Statements. Observational studies were selected from several scientific databases, likesuch as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Nioshtic-2 and Reserchgate, searching for selected key words: police workers, professional drivers, mail carriers, filling station attendants, road cleaners, garage workers, motor vehicles and engine maintenance. All the key words were combined with "Boolean Operators" with the following words: cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease, cardiovascular function, cardiovascular system, ischemic heart disease, coronary disease, myocardial infarction. During the systematic research, the focus was on retrospective and prospective studies from January 1990 - December 2014. Both the retrospective and prospective studies showed an increased risk of ischemic heart disease in occupationally occupied people exposed to air pollution. Only one study presented a ly minor risk. The findings of this systematic review suggest a possible linkage between occupational exposure to urban air pollution, especially to motor exhaust and particulate, and ischemic heart disease.

  3. 76 FR 30366 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office Buildings, Schools, and Other Nonindustrial Buildings;'' Correction A notice of draft document for public...

  4. [Obligation to report occupational diseases. Importance of external post-mortem examinations before cremation].

    PubMed

    Verhoff, M A; Risse, M; Alles, J-U; Müller, K-M; Stachetzki, U

    2004-05-01

    The practical use of the legally required documentation of occupational diseases is demonstrated by a case of asbestos-related pleural mesothelioma. During the mandatory inquest before cremation, information of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been relayed to the widow of the patient, and an investigation for a possible occupational disease was performed. Reconstruction of the case showed that in the course of 3 months at least 13 physicians had been involved in in-hospital as well as ambulatory therapeutic measures. Until death, none of them informed the trade association about a suspected occupational disease in accordance with BK 4105 of the codex of occupational diseases, although the diagnosis of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been histologically confirmed already 10 weeks prior to the death of the patient. This case demonstrates obvious and evident deficiencies in applying the Code of Social Law VII, which requires physicians to report occupational diseases. In addition, it shows the importance of the post-mortem examination as a control function before cremation.

  5. Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCT) that met the following inclusion criteria: (i) targeted at workers; (ii) aimed at increasing physical activity and/or improving diet; and (iii) measured body weight, body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids and/or blood glucose. We used a nine-item methodological quality list to determine the quality of each study. A best-evidence system was applied, taking into account study quality and consistency of effects. Our review included 31 RCT, describing a diversity of interventions (eg counseling, group education, or exercise). Of these studies, 18 were of high quality. Strong evidence was found for a positive effect on body fat, one of the strongest predictors of CVD risk. Among populations "at risk", there was strong evidence for a positive effect on body weight. Due to inconsistencies in results between studies, there was no evidence for the effectiveness of interventions on the remaining outcomes. We found strong evidence for the effectiveness of workplace lifestyle-based interventions on body fat and, in populations at risk for CVD, body weight. Populations with an elevated risk of CVD seemed to benefit most from lifestyle interventions; supervised exercise interventions appeared the least effective intervention strategy. To gain better insight into the mechanisms that led to the intervention effects, the participants' compliance with the intervention and the lifestyle changes achieved should be reported in future studies.

  6. [Relationship between quality of life and disability level in patients with occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Lin, Mingjing; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Zou, Jianfang

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the quality of life (QOL) and disability level in patients with occupational disease and to investigate the influencing factors for QOL. A total of 255 patients with occupational disease were selected from three specialized hospitals dedicated to occupational disease and the department of occupational medicine of one comprehensive hospital using cluster sampling from December 2013 to May 2014. A survey was carried out using WHOQOL-BREF and general questionnaire (including disability level), and statistical analysis was also performed using t test, F test, analysis of variance, and multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The QOL scores of patients with occupational diseases, from high to low, were social domain (11.48 ± 2.86), psychological domain (10.60 ± 2.28), physiological domain (10.54 ± 1.65), and environmental domain (10.50 ± 2.55), scores of which were significantly lower than the normal levels (P<0.05). QOL showed no significant differences between patients with occupational diseases of different disability levels (P>0.05). Also, QOL showed no significant differences between stage I, II and III patients with pneumoconiosis (P>0.05). The patients with pneumoconiosis were divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups, and the QOL scores of patients with mild pneumoconiosis in psychological and environmental domains were significantly higher than those of the patients with moderate or severe pneumoconiosis (P< 0.05). Patients with occupational poisoning was divided into mild, moderate and severe groups, and the three groups showed no significant differences in QOL score (P>0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the QOL score of each domain was mainly influenced by the degree of lung injury, complications, course of disease, age of onset, income, and employment status. The QOL of patients with occupational disease is significantly reduced, and disability level cannot accurately reflect their QOL. The

  7. 20 CFR 702.603 - Determining the payrate for compensating occupational disease claims which become manifest after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.603 Section 702.603 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the time of injury occurs within the first...

  8. 20 CFR 702.604 - Determining the amount of compensation for occupational disease claims which become manifest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.604 Section 702.604 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the claim is for disability benefits and the...

  9. 20 CFR 702.603 - Determining the payrate for compensating occupational disease claims which become manifest after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.603 Section 702.603 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the time of injury occurs within the first...

  10. 20 CFR 702.603 - Determining the payrate for compensating occupational disease claims which become manifest after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.603 Section 702.603 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the time of injury occurs within the first...

  11. 20 CFR 702.604 - Determining the amount of compensation for occupational disease claims which become manifest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.604 Section 702.604 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the claim is for disability benefits and the...

  12. 20 CFR 702.604 - Determining the amount of compensation for occupational disease claims which become manifest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.604 Section 702.604 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the claim is for disability benefits and the...

  13. 20 CFR 702.604 - Determining the amount of compensation for occupational disease claims which become manifest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.604 Section 702.604 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the claim is for disability benefits and the...

  14. 20 CFR 702.603 - Determining the payrate for compensating occupational disease claims which become manifest after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... occupational disease claims which become manifest after retirement. 702.603 Section 702.603 Employees' Benefits...' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Occupational Disease Which Does Not... disease claims which become manifest after retirement. (a) If the time of injury occurs within the first...

  15. Awareness, knowledge, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and their correlates to coronary heart disease among working women in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Hadassah Joann; Wu, Vivien Xi; He, Hong-Gu; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Wenru

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate awareness, knowledge, healthy lifestyle behaviors, and their correlates to coronary heart disease (CHD) among working women in Singapore. CHD is the leading cause of death for women globally, yet women are unaware of this or the associated risk factors that make them vulnerable to CHD. A cross-sectional descriptive study with a quota sample of 200 working women was conducted in Singapore. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, including the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire-2, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and a section on Awareness of CHD. Participants demonstrated suboptimal awareness of CHD being the leading cause of death among women and the risk factors associated with morbidity. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were found to be affected by age, ethnicity, marital status, income status, presence of chronic diseases, and working groups. Health care providers should systematically evaluate women at risk for CHD and provide both gender-sensitive and age-specific education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Motivations and obstacles to occupational disease claims in lung cancer patients: an exploratory psychosocial study].

    PubMed

    Britel, Manon; Pérol, Olivia; Blois Da Conceiçao, Stéphanie; Ficty, Manon; Brunet, Houria; Avrillon, Virginie; Charbotel, Barbara; Fervers, Béatrice

    2017-10-02

    The proportion of lung cancers with an occupational origin has been estimated to be between 10 and 20%. They are largely under-reported, as 60% are not compensated as occupational disease. Although most patients are not familiar with the process of compensation, other factors could explain this under-reporting. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that could impact patients with occupational lung cancer to claim for compensation. We conducted a case study involving semi-structured interviews with eight lung cancer patients enrolled in a cohort designed to systematically screen occupational exposures and propose claims for compensation to work-related cancer patients. Seven interviewed patients were familiar with occupational cancers, but most of them did not believe that past exposure could be related to their current disease. Patients associated compensation claims with a long and complex procedure for an abstract purpose. Several patients expressed a certain attachment to their employers. Interviewed patients often considered compensation claims to be a grievance procedure against the employers whom they did not consider to be responsible for their disease. Lung cancer is itself an obstacle to compensation considering the aggressive treatments and related adverse events, the poor medium-term prognosis and the predominant role of smoking in the etiology of the disease. Patients mentioned the financial compensation and the role of healthcare professionals as key elements to motivate them to claim for compensation.

  17. Designing exposure registries for improved tracking of occupational exposure and disease.

    PubMed

    Arrandale, Victoria H; Bornstein, Stephen; King, Andrew; Takaro, Timothy K; Demers, Paul A

    2016-06-27

    Registries are one strategy for collecting information on occupational exposure and disease in populations. Recently leaders in the Canadian occupational health and safety community have shown an interest in the use of occupational exposure registries. The primary goal of this study was to review a series of Canadian exposure registries to identify their strengths and weaknesses as a tool for tracking occupational exposure and disease in Canada. A secondary goal was to identify the features of an exposure registry needed to specifically contribute to prevention, including the identification of new exposure-disease relationships. A documentary review of five exposure registries from Canada was completed. Strengths and limitations of the registries were compared and key considerations for designing new registries were identified. The goals and structure of the exposure registries varied considerably. Most of the reviewed registries had voluntary registration, which presents challenges for the use of the data for either surveillance or epidemiology. It is recommended that eight key issues be addressed when planning new registries: clear registry goal(s), a definition of exposure, data to be collected (and how it will be used), whether enrolment will be mandatory, as well as ethical, privacy and logistical considerations. When well constructed, an exposure registry can be a valuable tool for surveillance, epidemiology and ultimately the prevention of occupational disease. However, exposure registries also have a number of actual and potential limitations that need to be considered.

  18. Predictors for return to work for those with occupational respiratory disease: clinical and structural factors.

    PubMed

    Zoeckler, Jeanette M; Cibula, Donald A; Morley, Christopher P; Lax, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    Few occupational researchers have examined "return to work" among patients with work-related respiratory diseases. In addition, prior studies have emphasized individual patient characteristics rather than a more multi-dimensional approach that includes both clinical and structural factors. A retrospective chart review identified patients with occupational respiratory diseases in the Occupational Health Clinical Center, Syracuse, NY between 1991 and 2009. We assessed predictors of work status using an exploratory, sequential mixed methods research design, multinomial (n = 188) and Cox regressions (n = 130). The findings suggest that patients with an increased number of diagnoses, non-union members, and those who took more than a year before clinical presentation had significantly poorer work status outcomes, after adjusting for age, education level, and relevant diagnoses. Efforts to prevent slow return to work after developing occupational respiratory disease should recognize the importance of timely access to occupational health services, disease severity, union membership, and smoking status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Occupational Skin Disease Prevention: An Educational Intervention for Hairdresser Cosmetology Students.

    PubMed

    Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia

    2017-11-01

    Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.

  20. [Occupational risk for development of respiratory diseases in foundry shop workers at machinery industries].

    PubMed

    Khamitova, R Ia; Loskutov, D V

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the results of assessment of prior and posterior occupational risks and those of questionnaire analysis in foundry shop workers from machinery enterprises. According to the data of attestation of job places, the working conditions of major foundry occupations were ascertained to correspond to class 3, grades 1 to 3. The prior risk for occupational respiratory diseases (RD) was defined as moderate whereas the posterior risk was high. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, more than half of the workers sought medical advice for bronchopulmonary pathology. Determination of whether there is, in terms of the etiological share, a cause-and-effect relationship between RDs and working conditions has shown that the occupation was highly responsible, which suggests that harmful industrial factors make a considerable contribution to the development of RDs in the workers of the enterprises under study.

  1. [Mathematic analysis of risk factors influence on occupational respiratory diseases development].

    PubMed

    Budkar', L N; Bugaeva, I V; Obukhova, T Iu; Tereshina, L G; Karpova, E A; Shmonina, O G

    2010-01-01

    Analysis covered 1348 case histories of workers exposed to industrial dust in Urals region. The analysis applied mathematical processing of survival theory and correlation analysis. The authors studied influence of various factors: dust concentration, connective tissue dysplasia, smoking habits--on duration for diseases caused by dust to appear. Findings are that occupational diseases develop reliably faster with higher ambient dust concentrations and with connective tissue dysplasia syndrome. Smoking habits do not alter duration of pneumoconiosis development, but reliably increases development of occupational dust bronchitis.

  2. [Malignant diseases of the inner nose--epidemiology and occupational medicine aspects].

    PubMed

    Hartung, M

    1989-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas are the most frequent malignancies of the inner nose, followed by adenocarcinomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and other malignant neoplasms. Carcinomas of the nose can be recognized as occupational diseases if there has been a professional exposition to ionizing rays, certain arsenic compounds, hexavalent chrome compounds, nickel, oak or beech wood dust. The sources of danger relevant in industrial medicine are indicated. At present, adenocarcinomas induced by dust of wood are of special significance: 16 out of 22 carcinomas of the nose recognized as occupational diseases between 1978 and 1986 are due to oak and beech wood dust.

  3. Relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular diseases risk factors in drivers.

    PubMed

    Biglari, Hamed; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi, Maryam; Poursadeghiyan, Mohsen; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Abbasi, Milad

    2016-11-18

    Of all work stressors, occupational stress is the leading cause of many disorders among workers. Drivers are classified as a high risk group for work related stress. This study set out to determine the relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among drivers. Two hundred and twenty two Ilam's intercity drivers were selected for the study. For measuring work stress, the Osipow work stress questionnaire was used. After a 10-h fasting period, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded. Intravenous blood samples were taken to determine cholesterol, triglyceride and blood glucose levels. The independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation test were used to assess the relationship between variables and occupational stress. Seventy-one percent of the intercity drivers suffered from average to acute stress, and 3.1% of them suffered from acute stress. There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.254) among the drivers. Nevertheless, the Pearson's correlation test demonstrated a strong relationship between work stress and blood glucose (p < 0.01), while no strong correlation was found for blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Based on the results, high rates of occupational stress were observed in the Ilam's intercity drivers. Occupational stress may have effect on blood glucose levels but the results did not suggest a considerable relationship between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and occupational stress among intercity drivers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):895-901. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Occupational Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Danish Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, < 5, 5-14, and ≥ 15 years in the job, respectively. Data was analysed by a mixed random effect logistic regression model. The age-standardised COPD study prevalence was 5.0%. Of 372 DISCO-88 codes 72 were identified with relevant exposure to VGDF. 46% of the participants reported at least one occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.

  5. Creating a pro-active health care system to combat chronic diseases in Sri Lanka: the central role of preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sagner, Michael; Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Hills, Andrew P; De Silva, H Janaka; Karunapema, R P Palitha; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Arambepola, Carukshi; Puska, Pekka

    2016-10-01

    The current burden and future escalating threat of chronic diseases, constitutes the major global public health challenge. In Sri Lanka, cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of annual deaths. Data from Sri Lanka also indicate a high incidence and prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes; 1 in 5 adults have elevated blood sugar in Sri Lanka. It is well established that chronic diseases share four primary behavioral risk factors: 1) tobacco use; 2) unhealthy diet; 3) physical inactivity; and 4) harmful use of alcohol. Evidence has convincingly shown that replacing these behavioral risk factors with the converse, healthy lifestyle characteristics, decrease the risk of poor outcomes associated with chronic disease by 60 to 80%. In essence, prevention or reversal of these behavioral risk factors with effective healthy lifestyle programing and interventions is the solution to the current chronic disease crisis. Expert commentary: Healthy lifestyle is medicine with global applicability, including Sri Lanka and the rest of the South Asia region. This policy statement will discuss the chronic disease crisis in Sri Lanka, its current policies and action implemented to promote healthy lifestyles, and further recommendations on preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle initiatives that are needed to move forward.

  6. International legal regulation of impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health.

    PubMed

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Batyhina, Olena M; Trotska, Maryna V

    Agricultural workers' health depends on many factors: working conditions, security arrangements, medicine, quality of drugs, the environment, etc. Occupational injuries and diseases are also among the factors that can negatively affect their health. To analyze provisions of the international legislation and scientific literature concerning existence of restrictions on impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health. International acts, data of international organizations and conclusions of scientists have been examined and used in the study. The article also integrates information from scientific journals and monographs from a medical and legal point of view with scientific methods. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. Impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health has been studied within the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis. The level of occupational morbidity, traumatism and above all standard of agricultural workers' health depends on the way of occupational safety organization. Working conditions and safety in agricultural industry and therefore the appropriate standard of health remain unsatisfactory in many countries.

  7. A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20617059

  8. Effectiveness of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Graff, Maud J; Borm, George F; Adang, Eddy M M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Munneke, Marten

    2013-02-02

    Occupational therapists may have an added value in the care of patients with Parkinson's disease whose daily functioning is compromised, as well as for their immediate caregivers. Evidence for this added value is inconclusive due to a lack of rigorous studies. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of occupational therapy in improving daily functioning of patients with Parkinson's disease. A multicenter, assessor-blinded, two-armed randomized controlled clinical trial will be conducted, with evaluations at three and six months. One hundred ninety-two home-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease and with an occupational therapy indication will be assigned to the experimental group or to the control group (2:1). Patients and their caregivers in the experimental group will receive ten weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to recent Dutch guidelines. The intervention will be delivered by occupational therapists who have been specifically trained to treat patients according to these guidelines. Participants in the control group will not receive occupational therapy during the study period. The primary outcome for the patient is self-perceived daily functioning at three months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Secondary patient-related outcomes include: objective performance of daily activities, self-perceived satisfaction with performance in daily activities, participation, impact of fatigue, proactive coping skills, health-related quality of life, overall quality of life, health-related costs, and effectiveness at six months. All outcomes at the caregiver level will be secondary and will include self-perceived burden of care, objective burden of care, proactive coping skills, overall quality of life, and care-related costs. Effectiveness will be evaluated using a covariance analysis of the difference in outcome at three months. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective will be conducted, as

  9. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto products on symptoms caused by blood flow disturbance in female patients with lifestyle diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Hamada, Katsuo; Misaka, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The fermented soybean product natto is a popular traditional food in Japan and is considered a health supplement. NKCP®, a natto-derived dietary food supplement whose main component is bacillopeptidase F, has antithrombotic, fibrinolytic, and blood pressure-lowering effects. We examined whether daily intake of NKCP® effectively improves subjective symptoms in patients with lifestyle diseases in this cross-over, double-blind study. Fermented soya extract with subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) as the main component was used as an active placebo. A 4-week course of NKCP® significantly decreased the visual analog scale (VAS) score for shoulder stiffness from 42.3 to 32.4 (P=0.009), the VAS score for low back pain from 25.5 to 18.8 (P=0.02), and the VAS score for coldness of the extremities from 33.1 to 25.7 (P=0.002). However, no significant difference was found in the VAS score for headache. After a 4-week course of active placebo, no significant changes in the VAS score were found for any symptoms. The significant improvement in the symptoms secondary to blood flow disturbance was caused by the improvement in blood flow by NKCP®. The use of dietary supplements based on the Japanese traditional food natto helps to relieve subjective symptoms for patients with lifestyle diseases receiving medical care. PMID:25653551

  10. [Interterritorial inequalities in compensation for occupational diseases in Spain from 1990-2007].

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Montserrat; Castañeda López, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    To determine the reporting pattern and trends for occupational diseases by autonomous communities in Spain between 1990 and 2007. Cases were obtained from the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, and the number of workers was obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. A principal components analysis was used to explain the data structure. Adjusted annual incidence rates were computed and relative risk is shown in maps. The number of reported occupational diseases remained constant from 1990 to 2005 in all the autonomous communities, except for minor occupational diseases not leading to sick leave (accounting for 99% of the total), which increased. From 2006-07, reported rates decreased to almost half: 17,061 cases in 2007 versus 30,030 in 2005. Both the increase and the decrease in incidence were observed in all autonomous communities, but with distinct values and slopes. As revealed by the principal components analysis, all the autonomous communities showed the same time pattern, except Asturias. Northern Spain showed the highest rates, which cannot be explained by factors such as age, sex, economic activity or occupation. The social security system is not compensating the complex and chronic diseases that are prevalent today. Despite improvements in disease reporting from 1990-2005, the decrease observed from 2006-07 and, above all, the gap among autonomous communities show that provision is not working with equity, generating inequality and lack of cohesion and posing a challenge for the definition of efficient prevention policies.

  11. Elemental analysis of occupational and environmental lung diseases by electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Takada, Toshinori; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Occupational and environmental lung diseases are a group of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of harmful particles, mists, vapors or gases. Mineralogical analysis is not generally required in the diagnosis of most cases of these diseases. Apart from minerals that are encountered rarely or only in specific occupations, small quantities of mineral dusts are present in the healthy lung. As such when mineralogical analysis is required, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods must be employed. An electron probe microanalyzer with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPMA-WDS) enables analysis of human lung tissue for deposits of elements by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. Since 1993, we have analyzed 162 cases of suspected occupational and environmental lung diseases using an EPMA-WDS. Our institute has been accepting online requests for elemental analysis of lung tissue samples by EPMA-WDS since January 2011. Hard metal lung disease is an occupational interstitial lung disease that primarily affects workers exposed to the dust of tungsten carbide. The characteristic pathological findings of the disease are giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) with centrilobular fibrosis, surrounded by mild alveolitis with giant cells within the alveolar space. EPMA-WDS analysis of biopsied lung tissue from patients with GIP has demonstrated that tungsten and/or cobalt is distributed in the giant cells and centrilobular fibrosing lesion in GIP. Pneumoconiosis, caused by amorphous silica, and acute interstitial pneumonia, associated with the giant tsunami, were also elementally analyzed by EPMA-WDS. The results suggest that commonly found elements, such as silicon, aluminum, and iron, may cause occupational and environmental lung diseases. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [KAP research and intervention effects of health education on prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups in Jinzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, D H; Liu, X L; Quan, J K

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP)on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups in Jinzhou, China, and to evaluate the intervention effects of health education. Using the cluster random sampling method, 1000 workers who underwent occupational health examination in Jinzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention from September 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled in this study. They were equally and randomly divided into intervention group and control group. The intervention group received health education for 6 months through bulletin board, promotion materials, expert lecture, Q&A session, and other relevant educational events. The questionnaire survey was performed before and after intervention. The control group received the questionnaire survey but not the health education. The overall awareness rate of prevention and control knowledge was 75.34% in 990 workers in Jinzhou, China. After the intervention, the intervention group had a significantly higher awareness rate of prevention and control knowledge than the control group (89.87%~98.86% vs 71.25%~80.82%, P<0.05); the intervention group had a significantly higher attitude accuracy for" whether occupational health examination is necessary or not" and " is willing to received the training on occupational health knowledge" than the control group(χ(2)=57.857, P<0.05; χ(2)=70.683, P<0.05); and the intervention group had a significantly higher rate of correct behavior for" whether help the business management personnel to carry out the prevention and control of occupational diseases or not" and"whether actively understand the occupational hazards of job" (χ(2)=102.186, P<0.05; χ(2)=91.159, P<0.05). Health education can significantly increase the awareness rate of prevention and control knowledge on occupational diseases in occupational groups in Jinzhou, China. However, the more structured and longterm comprehensive intervention is

  13. Surveillance of work-related diseases by occupational physicians in the UK: OPRA 1996-1999.

    PubMed

    Cherry, N M; Meyer, J D; Holt, D L; Chen, Y; McDonald, J C

    2000-09-01

    The Occupational Physicians' Reporting Activity (OPRA) surveillance scheme for occupational physicians has now been in place for 4 years. During this period, an estimated 43,764 new cases of work-related disease have been reported. Musculoskeletal conditions make up nearly half (49%) of all cases; mental ill-health and skin disease account for 20% each, with respiratory conditions (8%) and hearing loss (5%) seen in lower proportions. Overall, eight of 42 diagnoses made up four-fifths of the new cases reported by occupational physicians. These were hand and arm disorders (8052 estimated cases), contact dermatitis (7104), disorders of the lumbar spine (6000), anxiety and depression (4788), work-related stress (3336), hearing loss (2100), elbow disorders (2040), and asthma (1680). Dermatitis and hearing loss were most frequent in manufacturing industries, lower back complaints in health care, and upper limb disorders in automotive manufacture. Psychiatric illnesses presented a different pattern, mainly affecting those in health, education and social service.

  14. Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E

    2015-03-01

    Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. © 2013 APJPH.

  15. Geographic dimensions of a health network dedicated to occupational and work related diseases.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Marie; Godard, Vincent; Le Barbier, Mélina; Gilg Soit Ilg, Annabelle; Aubert, Cédric; Maître, Anne; Barbeau, Damien; Bonneterre, Vincent

    2016-09-27

    Although introduced nearly 40 years ago, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) have never been used to study Occupational Health information regarding the different types, scale or sources of data. The geographic distribution of occupational diseases and underlying work activities were always analyzed independently. Our aim was to consider the French Network of Occupational Disease (OD) clinics, namely the "French National OD Surveillance and Prevention Network" (rnv3p) as a spatial object in order to describe its catchment. We mapped rnv3p observations at the workplace level. We initially analyzed rnv3p capture with reference to its own data, then to the underlying workforce (INSEE "Employment Areas"), and finally compared its capture of one emblematic occupational disease (mesothelioma) to an external dataset provided by a surveillance system thought to be exhaustive (PNSM). While the whole country is covered by the network, the density of observations decreases with increase in the distance from the 31 OD clinics (located within the main French cities). Taking into account the underlying workforce, we show that the probability to capture and investigation of OD (assessed by rates of OD per 10,000 workers) also presents large discrepancies between OD clinics. This capture rate might also show differences according to the disease, as exemplified by mesothelioma. The geographic approach to this network, enhanced by the possibilities provided by the GIS tool, allow a better understanding of the coverage of this network at a national level, as well as the visualization of capture rates for all OD clinics. Highlighting geographic and thematic shading zones bring new perspectives to the analysis of occupational health data, and should improve occupational health vigilance and surveillance.

  16. Global trend according to estimated number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases at region and country level.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Päivi; Leena Saarela, Kaija; Takala, Jukka

    2009-01-01

    Although occupational accidents and work-related diseases have been of interest for a long time, due to lack of proper recording and notification systems the official numbers of occupational accidents and work-related diseases are missing for many countries. Presently, the demand for effectiveness and an interest in the economic aspects of accidents have increased prevention activities at company and country levels. Occupational accident data of selected countries and of World Health Organization regional divisions together with the global burden of disease were used in estimating global occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases. The trend of global occupational accidents and work-related diseases is presented at region and country levels. The years 1998, 2001, and 2003 are compared in the case of occupational accidents and the years 2000 and 2002 in the case of work-related diseases. The total number of occupational accidents and fatal work-related diseases has increased, but the fatality rates per 100,000 workers have decreased. There were almost 360,000 fatal occupational accidents in 2003 and almost 2 million fatal work-related diseases in 2002. Every day more than 960,000 workers get hurt because of accidents. Each day 5,330 people die because of work-related diseases. Information on occupational accidents and work-related diseases is needed so that countries may understand better the importance of occupational health and safety at country and company level. Especially companies in developing countries are not familiar with occupational safety and health. Statistical data is essential for accident prevention; it is a starting point for the safety work.

  17. Therapeutic window of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy to treat psychosis in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Suzanne; McLachlan, Emma; Bertrand, Julie; Antonio, Fabrizia D; Brownings, Stuart; Nair, Akshay; Greaves, Suki; Smith, Alan; Taylor, David; Dunn, Joel; Marsden, Paul; Kessler, Robert; Howard, Robert

    2017-04-01

    See Caravaggio and Graff-Guerrero (doi:10.1093/awx023) for a scientific commentary on this article.Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to describe pharmacokinetic-occupancy curves in caudate, putamen and thalamus. Model outputs were used to estimate threshold steady state blood concentration and occupancy required to elicit a clinically relevant response (>25% reduction in scores on delusions, hallucinations and agitation domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and extrapyramidal side effects (Simpson Angus Scale scores > 3). Average steady state blood levels were low (71 ± 30 ng/ml), and associated with high D2/3 occupancies (65 ± 8%, caudate; 67 ± 11%, thalamus; 52 ± 11%, putamen). Antipsychotic clinical response occurred at a threshold concentration of 20 ng/ml and D2/3 occupancies of 43% (caudate), 25% (putamen), 43

  18. Respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation to hop (Humulus lupulus) during harvest and processing.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K

    2014-11-01

    There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes to lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease amongst South Asians in Leicester: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, A; Nagra, D; Edgar, T; Khunti, K

    2000-08-01

    South Asians have a significantly higher risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with the general population in the UK. There is a lack of evidence on attitudes to and knowledge of risk factors for CHD amongst South Asians. Such information is important for the provision of effective health promotion services. The aim of the study was to identify key issues relating to knowledge of and attitudes to lifestyle risk factors for CHD amongst South Asians aged over 40 years in Leicester, UK. A qualitative focus group analysis was carried out using randomly selected South Asians from GP lists and South Asians attending community centres. Group discussions were taped, translated and transcribed. The transcripts were analysed using qualitative methodology to identify key issues and themes. Participants expressed a range of attitudes to and different levels of knowledge of lifestyle risk factors for CHD. Barriers to improving lifestyle with respect to diet and exercise were identified; these included lack of information (e.g. of how to cook traditional Indian food more healthily) and cultural barriers, such as lack of women-only exercise facilities. Participants perceived stress as an important cause of CHD, and stress directly related to ethnic minority status was described frequently. Language was identified as a key barrier to accessing health services. Health professionals need to provide individually tailored health promotion for South Asians which avoids stereotyping, but recognizes potential cultural obstacles to change. The issue of stress amongst South Asians requires more research and needs to be recognized as an important issue by health professionals. South Asians still face problems accessing health and leisure services due to language and cultural issues.

  20. Search strings for the study of putative occupational determinants of disease

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Zanardi, Francesca; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Cooke, Robin MT; Mancini, Gianpiero; Fierro, Mauro; Santangelo, Chiara; Farioli, Andrea; Fucksia, Serenella; Curti, Stefania; Verbeek, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify efficient PubMed search strategies to retrieve articles regarding putative occupational determinants of conditions not generally considered to be work related. Methods Based on MeSH definitions and expert knowledge, we selected as candidate search terms the four MeSH terms describing ‘occupational disease’, ‘occupational exposure’, ‘occupational health’ and ‘occupational medicine’ (DEHM) alongside 22 other promising terms. We first explored overlaps between the candidate terms in PubMed. Using random samples of abstracts retrieved by each term, we estimated the proportions of articles containing potentially pertinent information regarding occupational aetiology in order to formulate two search strategies (one more ‘specific’, one more ‘sensitive’). We applied these strategies to retrieve information on the possible occupational aetiology of meningioma, pancreatitis and atrial fibrillation. Results Only 20.3% of abstracts were retrieved by more than one DEHM term. The more ‘specific’ search string was based on the combination of terms that yielded the highest proportion (40%) of potentially pertinent abstracts. The more ‘sensitive’ string was based on the use of broader search fields and additional coverage provided by other search terms under study. Using the specific string, the numbers of abstracts needed to read to find one potentially pertinent article were 1.2 for meningioma, 1.9 for pancreatitis and 1.8 for atrial fibrillation. Using the sensitive strategy, the numbers needed to read were 4.4 for meningioma, 8.9 for pancreatitis and 10.5 for atrial fibrillation. Conclusions The proposed strings could help health care professionals explore putative occupational aetiology for diseases that are not generally thought to be work related. PMID:19819858

  1. [Educational status and occupational training, occupational status and ischemic heart diseases: a prospective study with data from statutory health insurance in Germany].

    PubMed

    Peter, Richard; Yong, Mai; Geyer, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    To study associations between education, occupational position, and incidence of ischemic heart disease (ICD-9 410-414). A cohort of 151,471 male and female members of a German statutory health insurance company aged between 25 and 65 years was investigated. The cohort comprised all members between 1987 and 1996. Information on ischemic heart disease was derived from clinical diagnosis. Education, training, and occupational position according to the British Registrar General defined the indicators of social status. After adjustment for age and length of observation period, education and training as well as occupational position were associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in both men and women. Whereas a gradient was observed in men regarding education and training (odds ratios (OR): 3.41-6.02) men with lower occupational position had higher risk estimates as compared to the highest occupational status group (OR: 1.73-3.05). Among women a gradient was observed concerning education and training (OR: 1.75-3.78). With regard to occupational status position female members of the highest group showed the lowest risk as compared to the lower status groups (OR: 1.58-2.19). Social inequality in ischemic heart disease morbidity was observed among male and female members of a German statutory health insurance. Findings are of importance for health policy and call for preventive action.

  2. The administrative process for recognition and compensation for occupational diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Chan; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kwon, Young-Jun

    2014-06-01

    In the Workers' Compensation Insurance (WCI) system in Korea, occupational diseases (ODs) are approved through deliberation meetings of the Committee on Occupational Disease Judgment (CODJ) after disease investigations when workers or medical institutions requested the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) for medical care benefits. Insufficient data presented by employers or workers or lack of objective evidence may increase the possibility of disapproval. The expertise of accident investigation staff members should be reinforced and employers' and related institutions' obligations to cooperate and submit data should be specified under the law. The deliberation meetings of the CODJ are held separately for musculoskeletal, cerebro-cardiovascular, and medical diseases, and the judgments of ODs are made by the chairperson of COMWEL and six committee members by majority vote by issue. To reinforce the expertise of the members of the CODJ, periodic education and a system to accredit the committee members after appropriate education should be introduced. To fairly and quickly compensate for diseases that occur in workers, the criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases should be continuously amended and the systems for disease investigations and judgments should be continuously improved.

  3. [Spatial distribution of occupational disease prevalence in Guangzhou and Foshan city by geographic information system].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Tu, H W; Gu, C H; Li, X D; Li, R Z; Wang, M; Chen, S G; Cheng, Y J; Liu, Y M

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To explore the occupational disease spatial distribution characteristics in Guangzhou and Foshan city in 2006-2013 with Geographic Information System and to provide evidence for making control strategy. Methods: The data on occupational disease diagnosis in Guangzhou and Foshan city from 2006 through 2013 were collected and linked to the digital map at administrative county level with Arc GIS12.0 software for spatial analysis. Results: The maps of occupational disease and Moran's spatial autocor-relation analysis showed that the spatial aggregation existed in Shunde and Nanhai region with Moran's index 1.727, -0.003. Local Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis pointed out the "positive high incidence re-gion" and the "negative high incidence region" during 2006~2013. Trend analysis showed that the diagnosis case increased slightly then declined from west to east, increase obviously from north to south, declined from? southwest to northeast, high in the middle and low on both sides in northwest-southeast direction. Conclusions: The occupational disease is obviously geographical distribution in Guangzhou and Foshan city. The corresponding prevention measures should be made according to the geographical distribution.

  4. [The contribution of surveillance systems of occupational diseases and mesothelioma in environmental health studies].

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, A; Binazzi, A; Di Marzio, D; Massari, S; Scarselli, A; Iavicoli, S

    2011-01-01

    National surveillance systems of occupational diseases may contribute to evaluate the work-related component of diseases investigated in SENTIERI Project. For a description of SENTIERI, refer to the 2010 Supplement of Epidemiology & Prevention devoted to SENTIERI Project. The National Workers Compensation Authority (INAIL) archives all occupational diseases claims (more than 230 000 in the period 2000-2007) and is in charge of their compensation. The Italian National Mesothelioma Register (ReNaM) and the Sinonasal Cancer Register (ReNaTuNS) record high occupational etiological fraction neoplasms (i.e. mesothelioma and sinonasal cancers). The former has identified more than 10 000 mesothelioma cases until now, and covers almost the whole country; the latter is active only in three Italian regions, Piemonte, Lombardia and Toscana. The monitoring of cancer sites at lower occupational etiological fraction is based on a record-linkage procedure between population-based cancer registries and employment history data, available at the Italian National Institute for Social Security (INPS). Finally, the informative system Mal.Prof collects and classifies all the diseases possibly related to the work environment reported by the Prevention Services of the Local Health Units.

  5. [Evaluation and analysis of monitoring and early warning functions of the occupational disease reporting system in China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Li, Tao; Liu, Mengxuan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the monitoring and early warning functions of the occupational disease reporting system right now in China, and to analyze their influencing factors. An improved audit tool (ODIT) was used to score the monitoring and early warning functions with a total score of 10. The nine indices were completeness of information on the reporting form, coverage of the reporting system, accessibility of criteria or guidelines for diagnosis, education and training for physicians, completeness of the reporting system, statistical methods, investigation of special cases, release of monitoring information, and release of early warning information. According to the evaluation, the occupational disease reporting system in China had a score of 5.5 in monitoring existing occupational diseases with a low score for release of monitoring information; the reporting system had a score of 6.5 in early warning of newly occurring occupational diseases with low scores for education and training for physicians as well as completeness of the reporting system. The occupational disease reporting system in China still does not have full function in monitoring and early warning. It is the education and participation of physicians from general hospitals in the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases and suspected occupational diseases that need to be enhanced. In addition, the problem of monitoring the incidence of occupational diseases needs to be solved as soon as possible.

  6. [Early detection of occupational skin diseases in sewer workers].

    PubMed

    Lang, V; Lauffer, F; Fincan, Y; Biedermann, T; Zink, A

    2018-04-25

    Skin diseases affect 30-70% of the world population, and globally, skin cancer rates are continuously increasing. In this respect, prevention programs and early detection of skin diseases are of particular importance. To screen sewer workers for skin diseases with regard to their work-related risk. Employees of the municipal utilities in Munich (Münchner Stadtentwässerung) underwent a whole-body examination of the skin, conducted by two dermatologists. In addition, all employees completed a paper-based questionnaire on risk behavior and preventive measures. We examined 81 employees (79 men, 2 women, mean age 45.7 ± 9.5 years). Skin lesions in need of treatment were found in 30.9% (n = 25): the most frequent diagnosis was mycosis pedis (16.1%). In addition, one employee was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and two with actinic keratoses. According to the questionnaire, 43.5% of the employees had undergone a physician-led skin cancer screening in the past, whereas sun-protection practices were rarely applied. According to our findings, employee skin cancer screening seems to be beneficial for the detection of work-related skin diseases and is associated with a high participation rate. Furthermore, the study suggests that sewer workers have a high rate of mycosis pedis, possibly a work-related effect.

  7. [Analysis of qualifications of medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-qiang; Li, Tao; Qi, Fang; Wu, Rui; Nie, Wu; Yu, Chen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the qualifications and current situations of the medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and to provide a reference for developing relevant policies. Work reports and questionnaires survey were used to investigate the qualifications of all medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and their acceptance and diagnosis of occupational disease cases from 2006 to 2010. The rate for the work reports was 100%, and the response rate for the questionnaires was 71.0%. By the end of 2010, in the 31 provincial-level regions (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) in China, there had been 503 medical and health institutions which were qualified for providing occupational disease diagnosis, including 207 centers for disease control and prevention, accounting for 41.2%, 145 general hospitals, accounting for 28.8%, 69 enterprise-owned hospitals, accounting for 13.7%, and 64 institutes or centers for occupational disease prevention and control, accounting for 12.7%; 4986 certified doctors got the qualification for providing occupational disease diagnosis, with 9.4 certified doctors on average in each institution, and there was 0.65 certified doctor per 100 000 employees. In addition, 16.5% of the institutions got all the qualifications for diagnosing 9 occupational diseases, and 17.1% of the institutions got the qualification for diagnosing one occupational disease. Each certified doctor accepted diagnosis of 16.8 cases of occupational diseases on average every year. A national occupational disease diagnosis network has been established in China, but the imbalance in regional distribution and specialty programs still exists among the qualified medical and health institutions and certified doctors. It is essential to further strengthen the development of regional qualified medical and health institutions and training of qualified

  8. Could occupational physical activity mitigate the link between moderate kidney dysfunction and coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Esquirol, Yolande; Tully, Mark; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Fogarty, Damian; Ferrieres, Jean; Quinn, Michael; Hughes, Maria; Kee, Frank

    2014-12-20

    Chronic kidney disease is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The impact of occupational or non-occupational physical activity (PA) on moderate decreases of renal function is uncertain. We aimed to identify the potential association of PA (occupational and leisure-time) on early decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to determine the potential mediating effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease. From the PRIME study analyses were conducted in 1058 employed men. Energy expended during leisure, work and commuting was calculated. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the link between types of PA and moderate decrements of eGFR determined with the KDIGO guideline at the baseline assessment. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to explore the potential effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease, ascertained during follow-up over 10 years. For these employed men, and after adjustment for known confounders of GFR change, more time spent sitting at work was associated with increased risk of moderate decline in kidney function, while carrying objects or being active at work was associated with decreased risk. In contrast, no significant link with leisure PA was apparent. No potential mediating effect of occupational PA was found for the relationship between eGFR and coronary heart disease. Occupational PA (potential modifiable factors) could provide a dual role on early impairment of renal function, without influence on the relationship between early decrease of e-GFR and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing participation in a vascular disease prevention lifestyle program among participants in a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Laws, Rachel A; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Jayasinghe, Upali W; McKenzie, Suzanne; Passey, Megan; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F

    2013-05-31

    Previous research suggests that lifestyle intervention for the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are effective, however little is known about factors affecting participation in such programs. This study aims to explore factors influencing levels of participation in a lifestyle modification program conducted as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of CVD prevention in primary care. This concurrent mixed methods study used data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 30 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organizations. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 16) and control (n = 14) groups. In each practice up to 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years old, were invited to participate. Intervention practice staff were trained in lifestyle assessment and counseling and referred high risk patients to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) consisting of two individual and six group sessions over a nine month period. Data included a patient survey, clinical audit, practice survey on capacity for preventive care, referral and attendance records at the LMP and qualitative interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the LMP. Multi-level logistic regression modelling was used to examine independent predictors of attendance at the LMP, supplemented with qualitative data from interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the program. A total of 197 individuals were referred to the LMP (63% of those eligible). Over a third of patients (36.5%) referred to the LMP did not attend any sessions, with 59.4% attending at least half of the planned sessions. The only independent predictors of attendance at the program were employment status - not working (OR: 2.39 95% CI 1.15-4.94) and having high psychological distress (OR: 2.17 95% CI: 1.10-4.30). Qualitative data revealed that physical access to the program was a barrier, while GP/practice endorsement of the program and

  10. Systematic Review of the Effect of Diet and Exercise Lifestyle Interventions in the Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Judith A.; Smith, Susan M.; Hart, Nigel; Cupples, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions within secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine their effectiveness and included randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, in primary care or community settings, with a minimum follow-up of three months, published since 1990. 21 trials with 10,799 patients were included; the interventions were multifactorial (10), educational (4), psychological (3), dietary (1), organisational (2), and exercise (1). The overall results for modifiable risk factors suggested improvements in dietary and exercise outcomes but no overall effect on smoking outcomes. In trials that examined mortality and morbidity, significant benefits were reported for total mortality (in 4 of 6 trials; overall risk ratio (RR) 0.75 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.65, 0.87)), cardiovascular mortality (3 of 8 trials; overall RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.47, 0.84)), and nonfatal cardiac events (5 of 9 trials; overall RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.55, 0.84)). The heterogeneity between trials and generally poor quality of trials make any concrete conclusions difficult. However, the beneficial effects observed in this review are encouraging and should stimulate further research. PMID:21197445

  11. Lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease by family origin among children in multiethnic, low-income, urban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Meshefedjian, Garbis; Eppel, Ayelet; Belbraouet, Slimane; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (LRF) for chronic disease by family origin (FO) among children in multiethnic, low-income, urban neighborhoods. Cross-sectional analysis. 16 elementary schools located in disadvantaged, multiethnic neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. 4659 schoolchildren aged 9-12 in grades 4-6. Smoking, level of physical activity, dietary habits, body mass index, sedentary behavior. Subjects completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors; height and weight were measured in a standardized protocol. Fourteen FO groupings were identified based on language(s) spoken and countries of birth of both subjects and parents. We tested FO as an independent correlate of having 2 or more LRF, using the generalized estimating equations method. Relative to Canadian children, a higher proportion of Haitian, Portuguese, and other Central American/Caribbean children had 2 or more LRF, the proportion was similar among Cambodian, Vietnamese, Chinese, South American, East European, Arabic, Italian, and South Asian children, and lower among Salvadorean children. Prevention programs for youth should take differential distribution of LRF by ethnicity into account.

  12. The association between changes in lifestyle behaviors and the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older men.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle behaviors are correlated with the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The subjects consisted of 316 men without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or renal dysfunction or dialysis treatment. The following lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire: habitual moderate exercise, daily physical activity, walking speed, eating speed, late-night dinner, bedtime snacking, skipping breakfast, and drinking and smoking habits. The subjects were divided into four categories according to the change in each lifestyle behavior from baseline to the end of follow-up (healthy-healthy, unhealthy-healthy, healthy-unhealthy and unhealthy-unhealthy). A multivariate analysis showed that, with respect to habitual moderate exercise and late-night dinner, maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle resulted in a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for the incidence of CKD than maintaining a lifestyle (OR 8.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-15.40 for habitual moderate exercise and OR 4.00; 95% CI, 1.38-11.57 for late-night dinner). In addition, with respect to bedtime snacking, the change from a healthy to an unhealthy lifestyle and maintaining an unhealthy lifestyle resulted in significantly higher OR for incidence of CKD than maintaining a healthy lifestyle (OR 4.44; 95% CI, 1.05-13.93 for healthy-unhealthy group and OR 11.02; 95% CI, 2.83-26.69 for unhealthy-unhealthy group). The results of the present study suggest that the lack of habitual moderate exercise, late-night dinner, and bedtime snacking may increase the risk of CKD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship of Sleep Duration with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, Mental Health, and Chronic Diseases in a Large Chinese Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S.; Ng, Chee H.; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. Methods: This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short (< 7 h per day), long (> 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7–9 h per day). Results: The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Conclusion: Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. Citation: Wang S, Li B, Wu Y, Ungvari GS, Ng CH, Fu Y, Kou C, Yu Y, Sun HQ, Xiang YT. Relationship of sleep duration with sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, mental health and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017;13(3):377–384. PMID

  14. Occupational Exposures Are Associated with Worse Morbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Blanc, Paul D.; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D.; Kanner, Richard E.; Belli, Andrew J.; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P.; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. Objectives: To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. Methods: A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. Measurements and Main Results: An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (−26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (−3.3; P < 0.0001); and greater odds of exacerbation requiring health care utilization (odds ratio, 1.55; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may

  15. Efficacy of occupational therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Graff, Maud J L; Hendriks, Jan C M; Veenhuizen, Yvonne; Munneke, Marten; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W

    2014-06-01

    There is insufficient evidence to support use of occupational therapy interventions for patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy of occupational therapy in improving daily activities of patients with Parkinson's disease. We did a multicentre, assessor-masked, randomised controlled clinical trial in ten hospitals in nine Dutch regional networks of specialised health-care professionals (ParkinsonNet), with assessment at 3 months and 6 months. Patients with Parkinson's disease with self-reported difficulties in daily activities were included, along with their primary caregivers. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to the intervention or control group by a computer-generated minimisation algorithm. The intervention consisted of 10 weeks of home-based occupational therapy according to national practice guidelines; control individuals received usual care with no occupational therapy. The primary outcome was self-perceived performance in daily activities at 3 months, assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (score 1-10). Data were analysed using linear mixed models for repeated measures (intention-to-treat principle). Assessors monitored safety by asking patients about any unusual health events during the preceding 3 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01336127. Between April 14, 2011, and Nov 2, 2012, 191 patients were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=124) or the control group (n=67). 117 (94%) of 124 patients in the intervention group and 63 (94%) of 67 in the control group had a participating caregiver. At baseline, the median score on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was 4·3 (IQR 3·5-5·0) in the intervention group and 4·4 (3·8-5·0) in the control group. At 3 months, these scores were 5·8 (5·0-6·4) and 4·6 (4·6-6·6), respectively. The adjusted mean difference in score between groups at 3 months was in favour of the intervention group (1·2; 95% CI 0·8-1·6; p

  16. Occupational diseases in the automotive industry in Czechia - Geographic and medical context.

    PubMed

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel; Pavlínek, Petr; Dzurova, Dagmar

    2017-05-08

    The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in Czechia. The objective of this study has been to analyze the occurrence of occupational diseases (OD) in the automotive industry during the period from 2001 till 2014. Data on OD cases was retrieved from the National Registry of OD. Further, we conducted a survey in automotive companies with focus on occupational health services and positions of the companies in global production networks (GPNs). An analysis of OD distribution in the automotive industry was performed (age, gender, company size and its role in GPNs, regional distribution of studied companies, and regional unemployment rate), and was accompanied by assessment of the quality and range of occupational health services. Employees older than 40 years old have nearly 2.5 times higher probability of OD occurrence as compared with employees younger than 40 years old (odds ratio (OR) = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-2.85). Occupational diseases occurrence probability was 3 times higher for women than for men (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 2.55-3.55). Occupational diseases incidence rates increased with the size of the company (0 OD/10 000 employees in micro enterprises to 57 OD/10 000 employees in large enterprises). A particularly steep rise in OD incidents in the automotive industry was observed in the Plzeň Region between 2001 and 2011. An association between OD incidents and the unemployment rate was not statistically confirmed. A statistically significant increase in OD incidents dependent on company size may be arguably attributed to a higher quality of occupational medical services in bigger companies, which ensures better detection and diagnosis of OD. In the Plzeň Region, the rapid increase in OD incidents was mainly caused by a change in the production process of automobile textiles in one factory due to the introduction of a glue containing isocyanates, which are potent allergising agents. This led to an increase in

  17. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  18. Hospital admissions for neurological and renal diseases among dentists and dental assistants occupationally exposed to mercury.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanehøj, Kirsten; Kjuus, Helge; Juel, Knud

    2011-12-01

    For many years an amalgam containing metallic mercury, which has been associated with neurological and renal diseases, has been used in dentistry. In this nationwide study we compared hospital admissions due to neurological and renal diseases among dentists and dental assistants to admissions in controls. This register-based cohort study included all Danish workers employed in dental clinics, general practitioners' clinics or lawyers' offices between 1964 and 2006. We compared dentists with general practitioners and lawyers, and dental assistants with medical secretaries, nurses and legal secretaries. We also compared dentists and dental assistants employed during periods with high occupational mercury exposure with dentists and dental assistants employed during periods with less mercury exposure. We followed all subjects in a nationwide register of hospital admissions. We analysed risk of neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease and renal diseases using a Cox regression model. The cohort consisted of 122,481 workers including 5371 dentists and 33,858 dental assistants. For neurological diseases, no association was observed for dental assistants, while for dentists an increasing risk for periods with less mercury exposure was observed. Among dental assistants, a negative association between employment length and risk of neurological disease was observed. Admissions for renal disease among dental assistants were increased during periods with less mercury exposure compared with controls. For dentists a non-significant increased risk was observed between employment length and renal disease risk. Our nationwide study does not indicate that occupational exposure to mercury increases the risk of hospital admissions for neurological, Parkinson's or renal diseases.

  19. Investigating relationships between ancestry, lifestyle behaviors and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer among Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Kimberley D; Berry, Tanya R; Courneya, Kerry S; McGannon, Kerry R; Norris, Colleen M; Rodgers, Wendy M; Spence, John C

    2018-04-01

    Ethnic minority groups including Asians in Canada have different knowledge and perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer compared with the ethnic majority group. Examine relationships between perceptions of heart disease and breast cancer, and lifestyle behaviors for Canadian women with British and with South Asian ancestry. Women with South Asian ( n = 170) and with British ( n = 373) ancestry ( M age = 33.01, SD = 12.86) reported leisure time physical activity, intended fruit and vegetable consumption, disease perceptions (ability to reduce risk, control over getting the diseases, and influence of family history), and demographic information. Mann-Whitney tests and multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between lifestyle behaviors and disease perceptions, with ancestry explored as a possible moderator. Participants with South Asian ancestry believed they had greater ability to reduce their risk and have control over getting breast cancer than participants with British ancestry. Family history influences on getting either disease was perceived as higher for women with British ancestry. Age was positively related to all three perceptions in both diseases. Intended fruit and vegetable consumption was positively related to perceptions of ability to reduce risk and control of both diseases, but was stronger for women with South Asian ancestry regarding perceptions of breast cancer. Leisure time physical activity was positively related to perceptions of control over getting heart disease for women with British ancestry. Women's disease perceptions can vary by ancestry and lifestyle behaviors. Accurate representation of diseases is essential in promoting effective preventative behaviors.

  20. Supporting Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders and Their Caregivers: Effective Occupational Therapy Interventions.

    PubMed

    Smallfield, Stacy

    Occupational therapy practitioners play a significant role in supporting adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders, as well as their caregivers, through all phases of the disease process. This editorial highlights the systematic reviews completed in collaboration with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project that summarize the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for this population. Readers are encouraged to translate and integrate this updated knowledge into everyday practice. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. [Risk, cause and disease in the occupational environment. Neurologic risk factors].

    PubMed

    Maqueda-Blasco, J

    In this paper we study the epidemiological criteria and those of etiological investigation which should be considered when analysing and investigating problems with health due to exposure to occupational hazards, with special attention to neurological damage due to chemical or physical contamination or to the ergonometric requirements of the task. We define the part played by occupational hazards in causing disease both professional and related to other occupations. The different preventive models used in the history of prevention of professional hazards are analysed. Particular attention is paid to the so-called socio-technical model which considers illness as dysfunction of the relation man/work. The neurological risk factors are analysed separately; therefore we emphasize the different neurotoxic chemicals, physical and ergonomic agents (the latter may be considered a pandemic in the workplace), and we establish the relationships with the main clinical and functional disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the musculoskeletal system.

  2. From awareness to action: Sudbury, mining and occupational disease in a time of change

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Desre M.; Holness, D. Linn; Haynes, Emily; McMillan, Keith; Berriault, Colin; Kalenge, Sheila; Lightfoot, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Miners work in highly hazardous environments, but surprisingly, there are more fatalities from occupational diseases, including cancers, than from fatalities from injuries. Over the last few decades, the mining environment has become safer with fewer injuries and less exposure to the toxins that lead to occupational disease. There have been improvements in working conditions, and a reduction in the number of workers exposed, together with an overall improvement in the health of miners. OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the impetus for change to reduce occupational exposures or toxins at the industry level. It focuses on one mining community in Sudbury, Ontario, with a high cancer rate, and its reduction in occupational exposures. It explored the level of awareness of occupational exposures from the perspective of industry and worker representatives in some of the deepest mines in the world. Although awareness may be necessary, it is often not a sufficient impetus for change, and it is this gap between awareness and change that this study explored. It examined the awareness of occupational disease as an impetus to reducing toxic exposures in the mining sector, and explores other forces of change at the industrial and global levels that have led to an impact on occupational exposures in mining. METHODS: From 2014 and 2016, 60 interviews were conducted with individuals who were part of, or witness to the changes in mining in Sudbury. From these, 12 labour and 10 industry interviews and four focus groups were chosen for further analysis to gain a deeper understanding of industry and labour’s views on the changes in mining and the impact on miners’ health from occupational exposures. The results from this subsection of the data is the focus for this paper. RESULTS: The themes that emerged told a story about Sudbury. There is awareness of occupational exposures, but this awareness is dwarfed in comparison to the attention

  3. From awareness to action: Sudbury, mining and occupational disease in a time of change.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Desre M; Holness, D Linn; Haynes, Emily; McMillan, Keith; Berriault, Colin; Kalenge, Sheila; Lightfoot, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Miners work in highly hazardous environments, but surprisingly, there are more fatalities from occupational diseases, including cancers, than from fatalities from injuries. Over the last few decades, the mining environment has become safer with fewer injuries and less exposure to the toxins that lead to occupational disease. There have been improvements in working conditions, and a reduction in the number of workers exposed, together with an overall improvement in the health of miners. This study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the impetus for change to reduce occupational exposures or toxins at the industry level. It focuses on one mining community in Sudbury, Ontario, with a high cancer rate, and its reduction in occupational exposures. It explored the level of awareness of occupational exposures from the perspective of industry and worker representatives in some of the deepest mines in the world. Although awareness may be necessary, it is often not a sufficient impetus for change, and it is this gap between awareness and change that this study explored. It examined the awareness of occupational disease as an impetus to reducing toxic exposures in the mining sector, and explores other forces of change at the industrial and global levels that have led to an impact on occupational exposures in mining. From 2014 and 2016, 60 interviews were conducted with individuals who were part of, or witness to the changes in mining in Sudbury. From these, 12 labour and 10 industry interviews and four focus groups were chosen for further analysis to gain a deeper understanding of industry and labour's views on the changes in mining and the impact on miners' health from occupational exposures. The results from this subsection of the data is the focus for this paper. The themes that emerged told a story about Sudbury. There is awareness of occupational exposures, but this awareness is dwarfed in comparison to the attention that is given to the tragic fatal injuries

  4. Increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with occupational stress in Chinese policemen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Xing, Jing-Jing; Shan, An-Qi; Leng, Ling; Liu, Jin-Chuan; Yue, Song; Yu, Hao; Chen, Xi; Tian, Feng-Shi; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and occupational stress have been recognized as major public health concerns. We aimed to explore whether occupational stress was associated with NAFLD in a police population. A total of 6559 male police officers were recruited for this prospective study in April 2007. Among them, 2367 eligible subjects participated in follow-up from 2008 to 2011. NAFLD was diagnosed based on standard criteria. Occupational stress was evaluated by Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised scores. The incidence of NAFLD was 31.2% in the entire police. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, moderate occupational stress (MOS), high occupational stress (HOS), and high personal strain (HPS) were risk factors (MOS: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.049–1.460; HOS: HR = 1.727, 95% CI = 1.405–2.124; HPS: HR = 3.602, 95% CI = 1.912–6.787); and low occupational stress (LOS) and low personal strain (LPS) were protective factors (LOS: HR = 0.366, 95% CI = 0.173–0.776; LPS: HR = 0.490, 95% CI = 0.262–0.919) for NAFLD in the entire police cohort. HOS and HPS remained robust among traffic police. HOS and HPS were independent predictors for the development of NAFLD in a Chinese police population. Additional future prospective investigations are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:27861366

  5. Assessing dietary and lifestyle risk factors and their associations with disease comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia: A case-control study from Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Jahrami, Haitham Ali; Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam Ezzat; Saif, Zahraa Qassim; Hammad, Laila Habib

    2017-08-01

    Acquired dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors of patients with schizophrenia may affect their life expectancy, disease complications and prognosis. The objectives of the current study were to assess the dietary habits and other lifestyle behaviors for Bahraini patients with schizophrenia, and to determine their associations with different medical comorbidities. A case-control study was conducted during the period of March to December 2016. A sample of 120 cases were recruited from the Psychiatric Hospital, Bahrain and age-sex-matched with 120 controls. Controls were recruited from primary health centres, and were free from serious mental illness. Dietary habits and lifestyle behaviors including smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were assessed using a questionnaire. All medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify dietary and lifestyle risk factors that are associated with one or more disease comorbidities. Cases had higher prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake, excessive dietary intake, and decreased physical activity (all P<0.05) compared with controls. Cases appeared to be at higher risk for developing chronic medical conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cases were three times more likely to have up to three or more medical comorbidities compared with controls. Excessive dietary intake and decreased physical activity were identified as the main risk factors. Excessive caloric intake and decreased physical activity represent the main dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with comorbidities among patients with schizophrenia in Bahrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tracking and detecting occupational diseases for teachers with infrared imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-wang; An, Sheng-biao; Wang, Shu-hai

    2009-05-01

    Most academic teachers are chairborne and often revise the exercises for students for a long time, so they often have some occupational diseases, such as sciatica, vertebral ache, and so on. Some early diseases are so difficult to be detected that the patients lose the better curable time. The infrared imaging is a non-touch and harmless method and it is efficient in prophylactic iatrology. The paper introduces a method to track and detect the occupational diseases for academic teachers. The infrared pictures of the same position for the same person are collected at the different period. The position is one of the usually parts of the teacher's occupational diseases, such as the neck, the shoulder, the back, the wrist, and so on. For each position of a certain person, the infrared pictures are collected and saved at different period. The period may be 6 month or one year. Infrared pictures are collected by the infrared imaging device, and a database of the infrared pictures is established. According to the difference of the infrared pictures of the same position at different period, the latent disease part may be found out and the ailing degree can be detected.

  7. The importance for daily occupations of perceiving good health: Perceptions among women with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ottenvall Hammar, Isabelle; Håkansson, Carita

    2013-03-01

    The purpose was to describe and characterize what women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) perceive as important in considering the performance of daily occupations to perceive good health. By using a phenomenographic research approach with semi-structured interviews with nine women between the ages of 42 and 65 the core category "Being able to be as active as possible in daily occupations" emerged. The women's repertoire of daily occupations had changed as the years had passed. To perceive good health the women expressed the importance of continuing to be active and to perform occupations as independently as possible despite their chronic rheumatic diseases. By adapting to their level of physical function and strength and by compensation with assistive devices, selecting adjusted environment, and by getting support from others, the women perceived good health. The results also suggested that training in different ways, medical treatment, and rheumatologic team care were related to increased performance of daily occupations and the perceptions of good health.

  8. Compensation for Asbestos-Related Diseases in Japan: Utilization of Standard Classifications of Industry and Occupations

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Furuya, Sugio; Park, Eun-Kee; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan Pablo; Chimed Ochir, Odgerel; Takahashi, Ken

    2017-07-27

    Background: Asbestos-related diseases (ARD) are occupational hazards with high mortality rates. To identify asbestos exposure by previous occupation is the main issue for ARD compensation for workers. This study aimed to identify risk groups by applying standard classifications of industries and occupations to a national database of compensated ARD victims in Japan. Methods: We identified occupations that carry a risk of asbestos exposure according to the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC). ARD compensation data from Japan between 2006 and 2013 were retrieved. Each compensated worker was classified by job section and group according to the ISIC code. Risk ratios for compensation were calculated according to the percentage of workers compensated because of ARD in each ISIC category. Results: In total, there were 6,916 workers with ARD who received compensation in Japan between 2008 and 2013. ISIC classification section F (construction) had the highest compensated risk ratio of 6.3. Section C (manufacturing) and section F (construction) had the largest number of compensated workers (2,868 and 3,463, respectively). In the manufacturing section C, 9 out of 13 divisions had a risk ratio of more than 1. For ISIC divisions in the construction section, construction of buildings (division 41) had the highest number of workers registering claims (2,504). Conclusion: ISIC classification of occupations that are at risk of developing ARD can be used to identify the actual risk of workers’ compensation at the national level. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project.

    PubMed

    Cerhan, James R; Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R; Wang, Sophia S; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Dal Maso, Luigino; Kane, Eleanor V; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L; Sampson, Joshua N; Morton, Lindsay M; Skibola, Christine F

    2014-08-01

    Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m(2)), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m(2)), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400 kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs; inflammatory bowel

  10. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Paltiel, Ora; Flowers, Christopher R.; Wang, Sophia S.; Monnereau, Alain; Blair, Aaron; Maso, Luigino Dal; Kane, Eleanor V.; Nieters, Alexandra; Foran, James M.; Miligi, Lucia; Clavel, Jacqueline; Bernstein, Leslie; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Skibola, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for <18.5 vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs

  11. Comparison of healthy lifestyle behaviors among individuals with and without cardiovascular diseases from urban and rural areas in China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuangshi; Li, Wei; Yin, Lu; Bo, Jian; Peng, Yaguang; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the gap of prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors including smoking cessation, quitting drinking, physical activity and healthy eating between Chinese adults with and without cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is a cross-sectional component of Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE)-China study, which recruited ~46,000 participants from 70 rural and 45 urban communities between 2005 and 2009. Participants were divided into disease (with CVDs) and control (without any diseases) groups. The adjusted rates were estimated for different strata by the generalized, linear mixed-effects model, including community as a random effect with additional adjustment for age, sex, education and income. Among 40,490 participants, <10% had all four healthy lifestyle behaviors (disease group versus control group: urban areas: 7.8% versus 8.1%; rural areas: 3.4% versus 3.2%). The rates of smoking cessation and quitting drinking were significantly higher in disease group for both urban and rural residents (P<0.001). In urban areas, higher rates were observed in all other three healthy lifestyle behaviors except physical activity in low-income regions (P<0.05). Similarly, the higher trends were observed for stopping smoking and drinking while opposite trends for healthy eating among rural residents from low-income regions (P<0.05). Our study showed that the prevalence of adopting all four behaviors was low among Chinese adults. Individuals with CVDs were more likely to follow healthy lifestyle behaviors, but it still indicated a large gap between the actual and ideal adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which called for the promotion of population-wide strategies to modify lifestyle behaviors in addition to individual health-care intervention strategies.

  12. Comparison of healthy lifestyle behaviors among individuals with and without cardiovascular diseases from urban and rural areas in China: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuangshi; Yin, Lu; Bo, Jian; Peng, Yaguang; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The study aimed to explore the gap of prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors including smoking cessation, quitting drinking, physical activity and healthy eating between Chinese adults with and without cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Methods This study is a cross-sectional component of Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE)-China study, which recruited ~46,000 participants from 70 rural and 45 urban communities between 2005 and 2009. Participants were divided into disease (with CVDs) and control (without any diseases) groups. The adjusted rates were estimated for different strata by the generalized, linear mixed-effects model, including community as a random effect with additional adjustment for age, sex, education and income. Results Among 40,490 participants, <10% had all four healthy lifestyle behaviors (disease group versus control group: urban areas: 7.8% versus 8.1%; rural areas: 3.4% versus 3.2%). The rates of smoking cessation and quitting drinking were significantly higher in disease group for both urban and rural residents (P<0.001). In urban areas, higher rates were observed in all other three healthy lifestyle behaviors except physical activity in low-income regions (P<0.05). Similarly, the higher trends were observed for stopping smoking and drinking while opposite trends for healthy eating among rural residents from low-income regions (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study showed that the prevalence of adopting all four behaviors was low among Chinese adults. Individuals with CVDs were more likely to follow healthy lifestyle behaviors, but it still indicated a large gap between the actual and ideal adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which called for the promotion of population-wide strategies to modify lifestyle behaviors in addition to individual health-care intervention strategies. PMID:28771516

  13. The integration of school nutrition program into health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Teiji

    2008-01-01

    After World War II, Japan has imported food from other countries to solve malnutrition, and then dietitians provided nutrition education to people for effective food utilization. Flour and skimmed milk imported from the United State were distributed to the school lunch program. Dietitians were trained to encourage the people to adapt western style dietary habits. The western style dietary habit issues have been brought since in 1980's as overeating and obesity have been considered as nation's health problems. In the 1990's, the prevention and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases became key objects for the nation. Government settled on "Healthy Japan 21" as a preventive policy of the lifestyle-related disease in 2000. In 2006, the middle survey for the effectiveness of the campaign was conducted, but it did not bring a good result as expected. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare made the "Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top" for practical and easy mean to improve eating habits. Dietitians are in the process of developing new nutrition education using this tool. In 2005, the nine specific targets' Basic Law on Dietary Education "Shoku-Iku" was enacted to promote childhood dietary education. The Ministry of Education and Science started the new education to become a teacher called "diet and nutrition teacher" on the professional education programs of registered dietitian in university. "Diet and nutrition teachers" have already started teaching in some schools. From now, the roles of dietitians are not only supervising food preparation and planning meals but also nutrition education as teachers.

  14. [Risk factors in cerebrovascular disease. Do transient ischemic attacks lead to changes in lifestyle?].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, F; Aguilar, M; Porta, R; Urbano, F; Martínez, I; Bonaventura, I; Ribó, J M

    1994-01-01

    A minor stroke does not cause sufficient alarm in patients to change their lifestyles. 46 patients who suffered strokes in the previous 2 years were contacted by telephone, recording rehabilitation programs, medical therapy and modification of dietary habits. It was discovered that only 50% of those requiring motor rehabilitation actually received such treatment; and only one of twenty carried on speech exercises. Subsequent ischemic events were reported by 22 patients: 12 of whom had strokes, 8 ischemic myocardial attacks and two patients suffered both conditions. The majority of patients followed the prescribed medical treatment and advice badly. Of the 46 patients reviewed, 31 were hypertensive and only 16 follow recommended diets. Out of 15 smokers only, 6 gave up, and from 21 with dislypemia only 10 modified their diets. Of all patients only the most severely affected complied satisfactorily to medical treatments; a possible explanation for this would be that the contact between patients and physician (neurologist and family doctors) was discontinued immediately after the patients discharge from hospital. It is recommended therefore that steps be taken to insure better communication between neurologist, general practitioner and patient; thereby improving prognosis.

  15. Occupational infections.

    PubMed

    Lim, V K E

    2009-06-01

    Many infections are associated with occupations. Involvement in a particular occupation may place the person at higher direct risk of contracting certain infections. In some instances the life-style associated with the occupation results in a higher risk of exposure to the infection. The link between the infection and the workplace is often missed by the attending physician. This may be due to a lack of awareness on the part of the physician. Sometimes a direct link can be difficult to prove without the use of sophisticated molecular epidemiological tests. This has led to gross under-diagnosis and under-reporting of such cases. It is however important that occupational infections be diagnosed as adequate preventive measures need to be implemented. Furthermore the patient may be eligible for monetary compensation under the relevant occupational safety laws of the country.

  16. Effectiveness of Occupational Therapy Interventions to Enhance Occupational Performance for Adults With Alzheimer's Disease and Related Major Neurocognitive Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Smallfield, Stacy; Heckenlaible, Cindy

    The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions designed to establish, modify, and maintain occupations for adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurocognitive disorders. Titles and abstracts of 2,597 articles were reviewed, of which 256 were retrieved for full review and 52 met inclusion criteria. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force levels of certainty and grade definitions were used to describe the strength of evidence. Articles were categorized into five themes: occupation-based, sleep, cognitive, physical exercise, and multicomponent interventions. Strong evidence supports the benefits of occupation-based interventions, physical exercise, and error-reduction learning. Occupational therapy practitioners should integrate daily occupations, physical exercise, and error-reduction techniques into the daily routine of adults with AD to enhance occupational performance and delay functional decline. Future research should focus on establishing consensus on types and dosage of exercise and cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. The Effectiveness of Smartphone Apps for Lifestyle Improvement in Noncommunicable Diseases: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Pernille; Nilsson, Birgitta Blakstad; Bergland, Astrid; Kværner, Kari Jorunn; Bye, Asta

    2018-05-04

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for 70% of all deaths in a year globally. The four main NCDs are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic pulmonary diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Fifty percent of persons with NCD do not adhere to prescribed treatment; in fact, adherence to lifestyle interventions is especially considered as a major challenge. Smartphone apps permit structured monitoring of health parameters, as well as the opportunity to receive feedback. The aim of this study was to review and assess the effectiveness of app-based interventions, lasting at least 3 months, to promote lifestyle changes in patients with NCDs. In February 2017, a literature search in five databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Research Premier, and Cochrane Reviews and Trials) was conducted. Inclusion criteria was quantitative study designs including randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials that included patients aged 18 years and older diagnosed with any of the four main NCDs. Lifestyle outcomes were physical activity, physical fitness, modification of dietary habits, and quality of life. All included studies were assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration`s risk of bias tool. Meta-analyses were conducted for one of the outcomes (glycated hemoglobin, HbA 1c ) by using the estimate of effect of mean post treatment with SD or CI. Heterogeneity was tested using the I 2 test. All studies included in the meta-analyses were graded. Of the 1588 records examined, 9 met the predefined criteria. Seven studies included diabetes patients only, one study included heart patients only, and another study included both diabetes and heart patients. Statistical significant effect was shown in HbA 1c in 5 of 8 studies, as well in body weight in one of 5 studies and in waist circumference in one of 3 studies evaluating these outcomes. Seven of the included studies were included in the meta-analyses and demonstrated significantly overall effect on HbA 1c on a short

  18. [Applicability of voice acoustic analysis with vocal loading testto diagnostics of occupational voice diseases].

    PubMed

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2006-01-01

    An assessment of the vocal system, as a part of the medical certification of occupational diseases, should be objective and reliable. Therefore, interest in the method of acoustic voice analysis enabling objective assessment of voice parameters is still growing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of acoustic analysis with vocal loading test to the diagnostics of occupational voice disorders. The results of acoustic voice analysis were compared using IRIS software for phoniatrics, before and after a 30-min vocal loading test in 35 female teachers with diagnosed occupational voice disorders (group I) and in 31 female teachers with functional dysphonia (group II). In group I, vocal effort produced significant abnormalities in voice acoustic parameters, compared to group II. These included significantly increased mean fundamental frequency (Fo) value (by 11 Hz) and worsened jitter, shimmer and NHR parameters. Also, the percentage of subjects showing abnormalities in voice acoustic analysis was higher in this group. Conducting voice acoustic analysis before and after the vocal loading test makes it possible to objectively confirm irreversible voice impairments in persons with work-related pathologies of the larynx, which is essential for medical certification of occupational voice diseases.

  19. Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"

    PubMed Central

    Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline. PMID:22953225

  20. [Differential Diagnosis of Mediastinal and Hilar Lymphadenopathy with Focus on Occupational Diseases].

    PubMed

    Lux, H; Cavalcante, L Barreira; Baur, X

    2018-06-01

    Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy may represent a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. This article is intended to facilitate differential diagnosis by a systematic description of relevant pathologies, notably with occupational etiology. Clinical findings of relevant diseases, i. e. of tuberculosis, chronic beryllium disease, sarcoidosis, lung cancer, malignant lymphoma, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and histoplasmosis are compared.Case history, imaging and laboratory tests have important diagnostic impact. But also invasive methods can be necessary in order to exclude and prove malignancy, infection or autoimmune disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The injured and diseased farmer: occupational health, embodiment and technologies of harm and care.

    PubMed

    Lovelock, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Occupational health in agriculture is a significant public health issue in industrialised agricultural nations. This article reports on 26 in-depth interviews with farmers throughout New Zealand. Farmers are exposed to a range of technologies which place them at risk of injury and disease and/or prevent injury and disease. In this article these technologies are respectively conceptualised as technologies of harm and technologies of care. Despite being vulnerable to high rates of injury, fatality and occupationally related diseases the uptake of technologies of care amongst farmers in New Zealand is poor. The analysis draws on body theory to explore the meaning attached to injury and disease and to examine the socio-cultural field of agriculture. It is argued that the key features of subjective embodiment and social, cultural and symbolic capital can undermine the uptake of technologies of care, ensuring poor occupational health outcomes on New Zealand farms. © 2011 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. [Socioeconomic status and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases: How do education, occupation and income operate?].

    PubMed

    Rosenbach, F; Richter, M; Pförtner, T-K

    2015-05-01

    In light of the consistent SES gradient in cardiovascular diseases, current research is focusing on possible pathways through which the socioeconomic status (SES) may impact health. Inflammatory processes play a critical role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and are associated with stress. Therefore, they might be one psychobiological pathway explaining how the SES gets under the skin. Considering the different meanings of education, occupation and income, this article gives an overview of the association between inflammatory biomarkers and socioeconomic status. There is high evidence for associations between indicators of SES - education, occupation and income - and inflammatory biomarkers. Possible pathways are health status, health behavior and psychobiological processes as a result of increased exposure to psychosocial stress. The SES gradient in cardiovascular diseases reflects behavioral as well as physiological pathways and systemic inflammation seems to be involved. Low SES is associated with an increased exposure to adverse circumstances of life, which can trigger biological responses and result in an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Medical history taking in cardiology should focus on socio-structural exposures and thereby reflect the different meanings of education, occupation and income.

  3. The scope and specific criteria of compensation for occupational diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Jaechul; Kim, Inah; Choi, Byung-Soon

    2014-06-01

    The range of diseases covered by workers' compensation is constantly expanding. However, new regulations are required for the recognition of occupational diseases (ODs) because OD types evolve with changes in industrial structures and working conditions. OD criteria are usually based on medical relevance, but they vary depending on the social security system and laws of each country. In addition, the proposed range and extent of work-relatedness vary depending on the socio-economic conditions of each country. The Labor Standards Act (LSA) and the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA) of Korea employ lists based on their requirements without listing causes and diseases separately. Despite a considerable reshuffle in 2003, the basic framework has been maintained for 50 yr, and many cases do not fit into the international disease classification system. Since July 1, 2013, Korea has expanded the range of occupational accidents to include occupational cancers and has implemented revised LSA and IACIA enforcement decrees. There have been improvements to OD recognition standards with the inclusion of additional or modified criteria, a revised and improved classification scheme for risk factors and ODs, and so on.

  4. Healthy lifestyle factors in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease among men: benefits among users and nonusers of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications.

    PubMed

    Chiuve, Stephanie E; McCullough, Marjorie L; Sacks, Frank M; Rimm, Eric B

    2006-07-11

    Healthy lifestyle choices such as eating a prudent diet, exercising regularly, managing weight, and not smoking may substantially reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk by improving lipids, blood pressure, and other risk factors. The burden of CHD that could be avoided through adherence to these modifiable lifestyle factors has not been assessed among middle-aged and older US men, specifically men taking medications for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. We prospectively monitored 42 847 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 40 to 75 years of age and free of disease in 1986. Lifestyle factors were updated through self-reported questionnaires. Low risk was defined as (1) absence of smoking, (2) body mass index <25 kg/m2, (3) moderate-to-vigorous activity > or = 30 min/d, (4) moderate alcohol consumption (5 to 30 g/d), and (5) the top 40% of the distribution for a healthy diet score. Over 16 years, we documented 2183 incident cases of CHD (nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD). In multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, men who were at low risk for 5 lifestyle factors had a lower risk of CHD (relative risk: 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09, 0.19) compared with men who were at low risk for no lifestyle factors. Sixty-two percent (95% CI: 49%, 74%) of coronary events in this cohort may have been prevented with better adherence to these 5 healthy lifestyle practices. Among men taking medication for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, 57% (95% CI: 32%, 79%) of all coronary events may have been prevented with a low-risk lifestyle. Compared with men who did not make lifestyle changes during follow-up, those who adopted > or = 2 additional low-risk lifestyle factors had a 27% (95% CI: 7%, 43%) lower risk of CHD. A majority of CHD events among US men may be preventable through adherence to healthy lifestyle practices, even among those taking medications for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L; Loria, Catherine M; Colangelo, Laura A; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-02-28

    A low cardiovascular disease risk profile (untreated cholesterol <200 mg/dL, untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, never smoking, and no history of diabetes mellitus or myocardial infarction) in middle age is associated with markedly better health outcomes in older age, but few middle-aged adults have this low risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with the presence of the low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study sample consisted of 3154 black and white participants 18 to 30 years of age at year 0 (1985-1986) who attended the year 0, 7, and 20 examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors defined at years 0, 7, and 20 included average body mass index <25 kg/m(2), no or moderate alcohol intake, higher healthy diet score, higher physical activity score, and never smoking. Mean age (25 years) and percentage of women (56%) were comparable across groups defined by number of healthy lifestyle factors. The age-, sex-, and race-adjusted prevalences of low cardiovascular disease risk profile at year 20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2%, and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle factors, respectively (P for trend <0.0001). Similar graded relationships were observed for each sex-race group (all P for trend <0.0001). Maintaining a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is strongly associated with a low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults.

  6. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  7. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  8. Mortality from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Parkinson's Disease Among Different Occupation Groups - United States, 1985-2011.

    PubMed

    Beard, John D; Steege, Andrea L; Ju, Jun; Lu, John; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K

    2017-07-14

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease, both progressive neurodegenerative diseases, affect >1 million Americans (1,2). Consistently reported risk factors for ALS include increasing age, male sex, and cigarette smoking (1); risk factors for Parkinson's disease include increasing age, male sex, and pesticide exposure, whereas cigarette smoking and caffeine consumption are inversely associated (2). Relative to cancer or respiratory diseases, the role of occupation in neurologic diseases is much less studied and less well understood (3). CDC evaluated associations between usual occupation and ALS and Parkinson's disease mortality using data from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS), a population-based surveillance system that includes approximately 12.1 million deaths from 30 U.S. states.* Associations were estimated using proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs), standardizing indirectly by age, sex, race, and calendar year to the standard population of all NOMS deaths with occupation information. Occupations associated with higher socioeconomic status (SES) had elevated ALS and Parkinson's disease mortality. The shifts in the U.S. workforce toward older ages and higher SES occupations † highlight the importance of understanding this finding, which will require studies with designs that provide evidence for causality, detailed exposure assessment, and adjustment for additional potential confounders.

  9. Contesting lifestyle risk and gendering coronary candidacy: lay epidemiology of heart disease in Finland in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Jauho, Mikko

    2017-09-01

    This study addresses two issues currently under critical discussion in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the relative neglect of women and the individualised nature of key risk factors. It focuses on the North Karelia project (NKP), a community programme aimed at coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention in a predominantly rural Finnish region in the early 1970s, that is, during a period when the epidemiological understanding of CVD still was relatively new and actively promoted. Adopting the notions of lay epidemiology and coronary candidacy, culturally mediated explanatory models lay people use to assess who is likely to develop heart disease and why, the study shows that locals targeted by the project critically engaged with both of these bias. Based on the rich materials resulting from project activities the study shows, first, how many locals subsumed the individualised and lifestyle-based approach to CHD prevention promoted by NKP under a more general framework emphasising the health effects of ongoing structural changes in the area, and second, how women constructed themselves as viable coronary candidates. The case supports the position in the current discussions on lay expertise that wants to integrate lay experiences more firmly into epidemiological studies and public health. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  10. Target: Lifestyle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlman, Eric T.

    1985-01-01

    "Target: Lifestyle" is a physical education curriculum adopted by Detroit Country Day School which incorporates instruction in nutrition, physical fitness, first aid, and lifetime sports. This curriculum aims to influence student attitudes and lifestyles in health and physical fitness. Four levels of instruction are described. (DF)

  11. Differences in Lifestyle Improvements With the Intention to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases by Socioeconomic Status in a Representative Japanese Population: NIPPON DATA2010.

    PubMed

    Goryoda, Sayuri; Nishi, Nobuo; Hozawa, Atsushi; Yoshita, Katsushi; Arai, Yusuke; Kondo, Keiko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hayakawa, Takehito; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Okuda, Nagako; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2018-01-01

    The relationships among socioeconomic status and lifestyle improvements have not yet been examined in a representative Japanese population. We analyzed data from 2,647 participants (1,087 men and 1,560 women) who participated in NIPPON DATA2010. This survey inquired about lifestyle improvements and socioeconomic status. Education was categorized as low (≤9 years), middle (10-12 years), and high (≥13 years). Marital status was categorized as married, divorced, widowed, and never married/other. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lifestyle improvements with the intention of preventing cardiovascular diseases for educational attainment and marital status, with adjustments for age and awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Overall, 1,507 (56.9%) participants practiced prevention and improvements in hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome, and the OR of lifestyle improvements was significantly higher with a high education than with a low education in men (OR 2.86; 95% CI, 1.96-4.17) and women (OR 2.36; 95% CI, 1.67-3.33). The number of participants who practiced prevention and improvements in hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in divorced than in married men (OR 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.95) and women (OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.86). Specific differences caused by educational attainment and marital status may exist in lifestyle improvements.

  12. [Evaluation of the usefulness of laryngeal vocal efficiency tests during noise load for diagnosing occupational diseases of the larynx in teachers].

    PubMed

    Loś-Spychalska, T

    1997-01-01

    A growing incidence of the voice organ occupational diseases has recently become one of major health problems. There is a need to objective diagnostic examinations performed in teachers who apply for occupational disease certification. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of larynx vocal efficiency test during noise load in diagnosis of the voice organ occupational diseases in teachers.

  13. [Occupational cancer].

    PubMed

    Mori, Ippei

    2014-02-01

    Occupational cancer is one of the most important topics in occupational health, because it can be avoided by using appropriate risk management strategies at work. However, due to the lack of suitable surveillance systems in Japan, it goes under-recognized. Burden of disease studies conducted elsewhere can be extrapolated to suggest thousands of deaths are attributable to occupational cancer in Japan. By law, about 20 kinds of cancer have been listed as occupational hazards; among those is asbestos related cancer. In fact, in recent years, thousands of asbestos related cancer cases have been compensated by the government run workers' compensation scheme for occupational accidents and diseases. On the other hand, for the other types of occupational cancer, only few cases are reported. To prevent re-emergence of occupational cancer, such as the recently publicized cholangiocarcinoma epidemics, employees, employers, medical institutions and competent authorities are strongly urged to establish better surveillance systems for occupational cancer.

  14. Occupational exposure to asbestos and cardiovascular related diseases: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yi; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Cui, Xiuqing; Liu, Yuewei; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos has become one of the leading causes of death among occupational workers in the world. The association between asbestos and cardiovascular disease is less reported. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the association between asbestos exposure and the mortality of cardiovascular related diseases. We performed a systematic review in the PubMed database before December 2014. All cohort studies citing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of cardiovascular related diseases in workers exposed to asbestos were collected. We then calculated the pooled standardized mortality ratios of such diseases. Sixteen studies were included. The combined results from all studies indicated the pooled SMR estimate for cardiovascular related diseases was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.01–1.22). This meta-analysis showed that asbestos exposure significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular related diseases in exposed workers. PMID:26844169

  15. Occupational skin diseases, United States. Results from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 1973 through 1984.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G; Morrison, J H

    1988-10-01

    The overall incidence rates, numbers, and proportions of occupational skin diseases recorded in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, from 1973 through 1984, were reviewed, and a detailed analysis of occupational skin diseases recorded in the 1984 Annual Survey was performed. Overall incidence rates and numbers of cases declined from 1973 through 1983, but increased slightly in 1984. The major industrial divisions of agriculture and manufacturing have consistently had the highest rates and numbers of cases, respectively; skin diseases have accounted for almost two thirds of all occupational illnesses within agriculture. In the 1984 Annual Survey, 11 industries were ranked in the "Top 15" for both incidence rates and numbers of cases, at the two-digit Standard Industrial Classification level. At the four-digit level for manufacturing, four industries were also ranked in the "Top 15" for both indexes. This analysis has identified industries toward which research efforts should be directed to characterize those occupational activities or exposures most responsible for these higher risks.

  16. Genetic variability in ABCB1, occupational pesticide exposure, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shilpa; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Paul, Kimberly C; Liew, Zeyan; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2015-11-01

    Studies suggested that variants in the ABCB1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein, a xenobiotic transporter, may increase susceptibility to pesticide exposures linked to Parkinson's Disease (PD) risk. To investigate the joint impact of two ABCB1 polymorphisms and pesticide exposures on PD risk. In a population-based case control study, we genotyped ABCB1 gene variants at rs1045642 (c.3435C/T) and rs2032582 (c.2677G/T/A) and assessed occupational exposures to organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on self-reported occupational use and record-based ambient workplace exposures for 282 PD cases and 514 controls of European ancestry. We identified active ingredients in self-reported occupational use pesticides from a California database and estimated ambient workplace exposures between 1974 and 1999 employing a geographic information system together with records for state pesticide and land use. With unconditional logistic regression, we estimated marginal and joint contributions for occupational pesticide exposures and ABCB1 variants in PD. For occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes, we estimated odds ratios of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): (0.87, 4.07)] to 3.71 [95% CI: (1.96, 7.02)], with the highest odds ratios estimated for occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes at both SNPs; but we found no multiplicative scale interactions. This study lends support to a previous report that commonly used pesticides, specifically OCs and OPs, and variant ABCB1 genotypes at two polymorphic sites jointly increase risk of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational exposures and Parkinson's disease mortality in a prospective Dutch cohort.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Maartje; Koeman, Tom; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Leo J; Peters, Susan; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the association between six occupational exposures (ie, pesticides, solvents, metals, diesel motor emissions (DME), extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electric shocks) and Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality in a large population-based prospective cohort study. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer enrolled 58,279 men and 62,573 women aged 55-69 years in 1986. Participants were followed up for cause-specific mortality over 17.3 years, until December 2003, resulting in 402 male and 207 female PD deaths. Following a case-cohort design, a subcohort of 5,000 participants was randomly sampled from the complete cohort. Information on occupational history and potential confounders was collected at baseline. Job-exposure matrices were applied to assign occupational exposures. Associations with PD mortality were evaluated using Cox regression. Among men, elevated HRs were observed for exposure to pesticides (eg, ever high exposed, HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.88) and ever high exposed to ELF-MF (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36). No association with exposure duration or trend in cumulative exposure was observed for any of the occupational exposures. Results among women were unstable due to small numbers of high-exposed women. Associations with PD mortality were observed for occupational exposure to pesticides and ELF-MF. However, the weight given to these findings is limited by the absence of a monotonic trend with either duration or cumulative exposure. No associations were found between PD mortality and occupational exposure to solvents, metals, DME or electric shocks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Motivational reserve: motivation-related occupational abilities and risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Pentzek, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Bickel, Horst; Tebarth, Franziska; Luppa, Melanie; Wollny, Anja; Wiese, Birgitt; Wagner, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Midlife motivational abilities, that is, skills to initiate and persevere in the implementation of goals, have been related to mental and physical health, but their association with risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been directly investigated. This relation was examined with data from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). A total of 3,327 nondemented participants (50.3% of a randomly selected sample) aged 75-89 years were recruited in primary care and followed up twice (after 1.5 and 3 years). Motivation-related occupational abilities were estimated on the basis of the main occupation (assessed at follow-up II) using the Occupational Information Network (O* NET) database, which provides detailed information on worker characteristics and abilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relative risk of developing MCI and AD in relation to motivation-related occupational abilities, adjusting for various covariates. Over the 3 years of follow-up, 15.2% participants developed MCI and 3.0% developed AD. In a fully adjusted model, motivation-related occupational abilities were found to be associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.92). Motivation-related occupational abilities were associated with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers (HR: 0.48; CI: 0.25-0.91), but not in noncarriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.65-1.53). These results suggest that midlife motivational abilities are associated with reduced risk of MCI in general and with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers. Revealing the mechanisms underlying this association may inform novel prevention strategies for decelerating cognitive decline in old age. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Preventable Lifestyle Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in the Pakistan Adolescents Schools Study 1 (PASS-1)

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Saleem; Motwani, Komal; Khoja, Adeel Akbar; Azam, Iqbal Syed; Fatmi, Zafar; Ali, Badar Sabir; Kadir, Muhammad Masood

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The rising burden of preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among adolescents is a major public health challenge worldwide. We identified the preventable risk factors for NCDs in adolescents. Methods In a school-based study, pre-tested structured questionnaires were completed by 414 adolescents (14 to 17 years) at six schools in three cities in Pakistan. The chi-squared test and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated in a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results Over 80% of the adolescents had unhealthy diets, and 54% were physically inactive. Most adolescents were exposed to passive smoking, and 14% were also current smokers. More than one-third of participants chewed betel nut, and one-quarter used oral tobacco. More girls were physically inactive (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.69 to 6.17), whereas a greater proportion of boys were current smokers (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.91), exposed to passive smoking (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.72 to 3.83), and using betel nut (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34 to 3.06). Only 3.1% of the participants were without any preventable lifestyle risk factor for NCDs, and over 80% had ≥2 factors. Co-existence of risk factors was independently associated with fathers being blue-collar workers (aOR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.07 to 11.92) and parents not treating their child fairly (aOR, 5.05; 95% CI, 1.29 to 19.78). Conclusions Most of the adolescents studied had preventable risk factors for NCDs. These results warrant comprehensive and integrated interventions to prevent lifestyle risk factors, and parents are front-line stakeholders. PMID:22020186

  20. Success and Challenges of a Community Healthy Lifestyles Intervention in Merseyside (UK) to Target Families at Risk from Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peerbhoy, D.; Majumdar, A. J.; Wightman, N. A.; Brand, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To document the lifestyle health impacts (activity, diet and physiological), along with the operational success and challenges, of a programme for families presenting one or more coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. Design: Data are based on a wider evaluation of a government-funded community initiative conducted in a deprived area…

  1. Characteristics of national registries for occupational diseases: international development and validation of an audit tool (ODIT).

    PubMed

    Spreeuwers, Dick; de Boer, Angela G E M; Verbeek, Jos H A M; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2009-10-23

    The aim of the study was to develop quality indicators that can be used for quality assessment of registries of occupational diseases in relation to preventive policy on a national level. The research questions were: 1. Which indicators determine the quality of national registries of occupational diseases with respect to their ability to provide appropriate information for preventive policy? 2. What are the criteria that can distinguish low quality from high quality? First, we performed a literature search to assess which output of registries can be considered appropriate for preventive policy and to develop a set of preliminary indicators and criteria. Second, final indicators and criteria were assessed and their content validity was tested in a Delphi study, for which experts from the 25 EU Member States were invited. The literature search revealed two different types of information output to be appropriate for preventive policy: monitor and alert information. For the evaluation of the quality of the monitor and alert function we developed ten indicators and criteria. Sixteen of the twenty-five experts responded in the first round of the Delphi study, and eleven in the second round. Based on their comments, we assessed the final nine indicators: the completeness of the notification form, coverage of registration, guidelines or criteria for notification, education and training of reporting physicians, completeness of registration, statistical methods used, investigation of special cases, presentation of monitor information, and presentation of alert information. Except for the indicator "coverage of registration" for the alert function, all the indicators met the preset requirements of content validity. We have developed quality indicators and criteria to evaluate registries for occupational diseases on the ability to provide appropriate information for preventive policy on a national level. Together, these indicators form a tool which can be used for quality

  2. Accidental discovery of asbestos-related occupational pleural disease in unemployed carpenter: a healthcare safety net that needs mending.

    PubMed

    Manfredo, Irena

    2015-09-01

    Unemployed persons are often on the margins of the healthcare system and under the radar of safety and health organisations, as no systematic records are kept of occupational diseases caused by exposure at previous work place. Law in Slovenia requires that asbestos-related occupational diseases are verified by establishing the causal relationship between exposure at work and its effect on the worker. This report describes a case of verifying occupational pleural disease in an unemployed carpenter who was referred for consultation with occupational health specialist as part of the regular procedure for the unemployed registered at the Employment Service of Slovenia. At the consultation it turned out that the carpenter had been exposed to asbestos when he worked as a teenage apprentice. The diagnosis of the bilateral pleural disease and asbestosis was confirmed by X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Because he had no record of exposure in that period, we analysed his past working environment for minerals and found chrysotile in all asbestos board samples. The case was presented to an interdisciplinary committee, which verified his disease as occupational. This case points to the need of adopting guidelines for occupational health specialists providing counsel to the national employment service so that the number of unrecorded occupational diseases is minimised and their treatment is covered by the state.

  3. Spaced Retrieval Enhances Memory for a Name-Face-Occupation Association in Older Adults with Probable Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Walvoord, Ashley A. G.; Hawley, Karri S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors trained 4 older adults with probable Alzheimer's disease to recall a name-face-occupation association using the spaced retrieval technique. Six training sessions were administered over a 2-week period. On each trial, participants selected a target photograph and stated the target name and occupation at increasingly longer retention…

  4. Economic evaluation of occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sturkenboom, Ingrid H W M; Hendriks, Jan C M; Graff, Maud J L; Adang, Eddy M M; Munneke, Marten; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2015-07-01

    A large randomized clinical trial (the Occupational Therapy in Parkinson's Disease [OTiP] study) recently demonstrated that home-based occupational therapy improves perceived performance in daily activities of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. We performed an economic evaluation over a 6-month period for both arms of the OTiP study. Participants were 191 community-dwelling PD patients and 180 primary caregivers. The intervention group (n = 124 patients) received 10 weeks of home-based occupational therapy; the control group (n = 67 patients) received usual care (no occupational therapy). Costs were assessed from a societal perspective including healthcare use, absence from work, informal care, and intervention costs. Health utilities were evaluated using EuroQol-5d. We estimated cost differences and cost utility using linear mixed models and presented the net monetary benefit at different values for willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life-year gained. In our primary analysis, we excluded informal care hours because of substantial missing data for this item. The estimated mean total costs for the intervention group compared with controls were €125 lower for patients, €29 lower for caregivers, and €122 higher for patient-caregiver pairs (differences not significant). At a value of €40,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained (reported threshold for PD), the net monetary benefit of the intervention per patient was €305 (P = 0.74), per caregiver €866 (P = 0.01) and per patient-caregiver pair €845 (P = 0.24). In conclusion, occupational therapy did not significantly impact on total costs compared with usual care. Positive cost-effectiveness of the intervention was only significant for caregivers. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Burnout syndrome as an occupational disease in the European Union: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lastovkova, Andrea; Carder, Melanie; Rasmussen, Hans Martin; Sjoberg, Lars; Groene, Gerda J de; Sauni, Riitta; Vevoda, Jiri; Vevodova, Sarka; Lasfargues, Gerard; Svartengren, Magnus; Varga, Marek; Colosio, Claudio; Pelclova, Daniela

    2018-04-07

    The risk of psychological disorders influencing the health of workers increases in accordance with growing requirements on employees across various professions. This study aimed to compare approaches to the burnout syndrome in European countries. A questionnaire focusing on stress-related occupational diseases was distributed to national experts of 28 European Union countries. A total of 23 countries responded. In 9 countries (Denmark, Estonia, France, Hungary, Latvia, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia and Sweden) burnout syndrome may be acknowledged as an occupational disease. Latvia has burnout syndrome explicitly included on the List of ODs. Compensation for burnout syndrome has been awarded in Denmark, France, Latvia, Portugal and Sweden. Only in 39% of the countries a possibility to acknowledge burnout syndrome as an occupational disease exists, with most of compensated cases only occurring in recent years. New systems to collect data on suspected cases have been developed reflecting the growing recognition of the impact of the psychosocial work environment. In agreement with the EU legislation, all EU countries in the study have an action plan to prevent stress at the workplace.

  6. Role of illness perception and self-efficacy in lifestyle modification among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne Jr, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-01-01

    AIM To describe the relationships between non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) patient’s disease consequences and treatment perceptions, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle maintenance. METHODS A cross-sectional study among 146 ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD patients who visited the fatty liver clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Eighty-seven of these individuals, participated in a clinical trial of physical activity and underwent fasting blood tests, analyzed at the same lab. Exclusion criteria included positivity for serum HBsAg or anti-HCV antibodies; fatty liver suspected to be secondary to hepatotoxic drugs; excessive alcohol consumption (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) and positive markers of genetic or immune-mediated liver diseases. Patients were asked to complete a self-report structured questionnaire, assembled by the Israeli Center for Disease Control. Nutrition habits were measured using six yes/no questions (0 = no, 1 = yes) adopted from the national survey questionnaire. Participants in the clinical trial completed a detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting their habitual nutritional intake during the past year. Self-efficacy was assessed by the Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire, emotional representation, degree of illness understanding, timeline perception, treatment perception and symptoms were measured by the Brief Illness Perception questionnaire. Illness consequences were measured by the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview questionnaire. A path analysis was performed to describe the interrelationships between the patients’ illness perceptions, and assess the extent to which the data fit a prediction of nutritional habits. RESULTS The study sample included 54.1% men, with a mean age of 47.76 ± 11.68 years (range: 20-60) and mean body mass index of 31.56 ± 4.6. The average perceived nutrition habits score was 4.73 ± 1.45 on a scale between 0-6, where 6 represents the healthiest eating habits

  7. Role of illness perception and self-efficacy in lifestyle modification among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Bord, Shiran; Dror-Lavi, Gali; Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Buch, Assaf; Webb, Muriel; Yeshua, Hanny; Nimer, Assy; Shibolet, Oren

    2017-03-14

    To describe the relationships between non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) patient's disease consequences and treatment perceptions, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle maintenance. A cross-sectional study among 146 ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD patients who visited the fatty liver clinic at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Eighty-seven of these individuals, participated in a clinical trial of physical activity and underwent fasting blood tests, analyzed at the same lab. Exclusion criteria included positivity for serum HBsAg or anti-HCV antibodies; fatty liver suspected to be secondary to hepatotoxic drugs; excessive alcohol consumption (≥ 30 g/d in men or ≥ 20 g/d in women) and positive markers of genetic or immune-mediated liver diseases. Patients were asked to complete a self-report structured questionnaire, assembled by the Israeli Center for Disease Control. Nutrition habits were measured using six yes/no questions (0 = no, 1 = yes) adopted from the national survey questionnaire. Participants in the clinical trial completed a detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reporting their habitual nutritional intake during the past year. Self-efficacy was assessed by the Self-Efficacy Scale questionnaire, emotional representation, degree of illness understanding, timeline perception, treatment perception and symptoms were measured by the Brief Illness Perception questionnaire. Illness consequences were measured by the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview questionnaire. A path analysis was performed to describe the interrelationships between the patients' illness perceptions, and assess the extent to which the data fit a prediction of nutritional habits. The study sample included 54.1% men, with a mean age of 47.76 ± 11.68 years (range: 20-60) and mean body mass index of 31.56 ± 4.6. The average perceived nutrition habits score was 4.73 ± 1.45 on a scale between 0-6, where 6 represents the healthiest eating habits. Most of the study

  8. Of ticks, mice and men: understanding the dual-host lifestyle of Lyme disease spirochaetes

    PubMed Central

    Radolf, Justin D.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Stevenson, Brian; Hu, Linden T.

    2012-01-01

    In little more than 30 years, Lyme disease, which is caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. During this period, there has been an extraordinary accumulation of knowledge on the phylogenetic diversity, molecular biology, genetics and host interactions of B. burgdorferi. In this Review, we integrate this large body of information into a cohesive picture of the molecular and cellular events that transpire as Lyme disease spirochaetes transit between their arthropod and vertebrate hosts during the enzootic cycle. PMID:22230951

  9. Occupational accident and disease claims, work-related stress and job satisfaction of physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Brattig, Birte; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert; Peters, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Physiotherapists are exposed to diverse occupational demands. Until now, little has been known about the interaction between occupational stress and the job satisfaction of physiotherapists. This paper aims to examine their work-related stress and job satisfaction. It will analyse accidents at work and occupational diseases of physiotherapists along with work-related physical and psychosocial stress and job satisfaction. We analysed routine data of the German Institute for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) on accidents at work and occurring en route to/from work as well as occupational diseases of physiotherapists. Work-related stress and job satisfaction were examined in a cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to be completed by subjects themselves. Between 2007 and 2011, 1,229 cases of occupational disease were reported to the BGW. The majority of reports involved skin diseases (73%). Stumbles and falls were the most frequent causes of accidents at work (42.9%). Eighty-five physiotherapists all over Germany took part in the survey. They experience high quantitative demands at work. The main physical demands consist of a torso posture between 45° and 90° and high hand activity. Of the 85 subjects, 51% suffer from complaints of the musculoskeletal system in the neck and thoracic spine area and 24% have skin diseases. Most physiotherapists (88%) are satisfied with their work overall. This is aided by a high degree of influence on their work and breaks, by practical application of skills and expert knowledge, high regard for their profession, varied work and a good atmosphere at work. Reservations tend to be about statutory regulations and the social benefits provided by the German healthcare system. Overall, despite high demands and stress relating to the adequacy of resources, the majority of physiotherapists surveyed seem to be satisfied with their job. The main focus of action to promote the

  10. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractionsmore » of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A

  11. Occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation--Analyses of notified cases as "virtually-certain" occupational disease in Germany between 2005 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2014-06-01

    UV-induced skin cancer is not yet included in the German ordinance on occupational diseases and can only be notified and recognized acknowledged as "virtually-certain" occupational disease. The objective of the study was to analyze notified and acknowledged cases of occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation in Germany between 2005 and 2011. All notified cases of occupational skin cancer due to UV-irradiation have been analyzed which have been registered by the German Statutory accident insurance as of May 2012 were analyzed. The data analyze was descriptive stratified annually for presenting time trends.Data analysis was descriptive, stratified by year to defect time trends. Notified cases have increased annually with a total of 548 registered cases of occupational skin cancer induced by UV-irradiation between 2005 and 2011, and 74 recognized acknowledged cases. In 56 cases the procedure was not yet finished. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease) were most frequent and have been the most frequentlyobserved in 333 notified cases. and between 15.6 % and 24.9 % have been recognizedof cases with SCC and actinic keratosis were recognized, respectively. 184 patients with basal cell carcinoma were notified but only 6.5 % recognized acknowledged and only 3 cases with exclusive basal cell carcinoma. Out of 50 notified patients with Mmelanoma only one was recognizedacknowledged. The results are in good agreement with the proposal of the German Minister of labor to establish UV-induced skin cancer as a new occupational disease. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Occupational physical activity assessment for chronic disease prevention and management: A review of methods for both occupational health practitioners and researchers.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kenneth A; Browning, Raymond C

    2016-01-01

    Occupational physical activity (OPA) is an occupational exposure that impacts worker health. OPA is amenable to measurement and modification through the hierarchy of controls. Occupational exposure scientists have roles in addressing inadequate physical activity, as well as excessive or harmful physical activity. Occupational health researchers can contribute to the development of novel OPA exposure assessment techniques and to epidemiologic studies examining the health impacts of physical activity at work. Occupational health practitioners stand to benefit from understanding the strengths and limitations of physical activity measurement approaches, such as accelerometers in smartphones, which are already ubiquitous in many workplaces and in some worksite health programs. This comprehensive review of the literature provides an overview of physical activity monitoring for occupational exposure scientists. This article summarizes data on the public health implications of physical activity at work, highlighting complex relationships with common chronic diseases. This article includes descriptions of several techniques that have been used to measure physical activity at work and elsewhere, focusing in detail on pedometers, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System technology. Additional subjective and objective measurement strategies are described as well.

  13. [Psychosomatics in patients with hypertensive disease under conditions of occupational stress].

    PubMed

    Enikeev, A Kh; Zamotaev, Iu N; Kolomoets, N M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work--the investigation of peculiarities of psychosomatic relations in patients with different stages of hypertensive disease (HD) in conditions of direct occupation activity. The 225 workers from a number of large pharmaceutical industries, who was engaged in performance of the basic occupation activities in conditions of conveyor manufacture at the alternating working regimen, that seemed to be an origin of stresses. On grounds of blood pressure level the patients were selected into 3 groups. The 65 cases with border arterial hypertension (BAH) were included into the 1st group, 69 patients with stage 1 HB were included into the 2nd group and 61 patient--into the third group. The control group consisted of 30 health volunteers. The results of the study testify that occupational stress results in development of neurosis, stable sympathicotonia with formation of hyperkinetic and in consequent advance--hypokinetic type of circulation, gradual aggravation of changes from heart side, decrease of productiveness of mentality. One of causes of persistence of neurosis is a deficiency of a pragmatic information in conditions of complicate and strenuous process of occupational activity.

  14. Parkinson's disease and occupation: differences in associations by case identification method suggest referral bias.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Kay; Marion, Stephen A; Tsui, Joseph K C; Shen, Hui; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Harris, M Anne

    2014-02-01

    We used a population-based sample of 403 Parkinson's disease cases and 405 controls to examine risks by occupation. Results were compared to a previous clinic-based analysis. With censoring of jobs held within 10 years of diagnosis, the following had significantly or strongly increased risks: social science, law and library jobs (OR = 1.8); farming and horticulture jobs (OR = 2.0); gas station jobs (OR = 2.6); and welders (OR = 3.0). The following had significantly decreased risks: management and administration jobs (OR = 0.70); and other health care jobs (OR = 0.44). These results were consistent with other findings for social science and farming occupations. Risks for teaching, medicine and health occupations were not elevated, unlike our previous clinic-based study. This underscores the value of population-based over clinic-based samples. Occupational studies may be particularly susceptible to referral bias because social networks may spread preferentially via jobs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The role of lymphocyte proliferation tests in assessing occupational sensitization and disease

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Stella E.; Pacheco, Karin; Maier, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Review Lymphocyte proliferation testing (LPT) is used in diagnosing occupationally-acquired delayed-type hypersensitivity. It has been used in beryllium-health effects, and it role is expanding in metal allergy. It may find application in diagnosis of other sensitizers. Recent findings Use of the beryllium LPT (BeLPT) in medical surveillance identifies beryllium sensitization at low exposure with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) that leads to physiologic impairment and need for immunosuppressive medications. New studies indicate that both beryllium exposure and genetic variation are associated with increased risk of CBD. Borderline positive BeLPTs warrant inclusion into diagnostic algorithms. Furthermore, use of LPTs to diagnose metal allergy is being proposed in diagnosis of chromium allergy and hypersensitivity to surgical implants. New occupational sensitizers continue to be identified including metalworking fluids, the sterilizing agent ortho-phthalaldehyde and the solvent parachlorobenzotrifluoride. Use of LPT in occupational surveillance to these agents, and other known sensitizers may play expanding roles. Summary Lymphocyte proliferation testing serves a valuable role in diagnosing occupational sensitization, as demonstrated with beryllium-health effects, as cases continue to be found at low exposure levels. The use of LPTs in diagnosing contact allergy is expanding, and new applications may be identified in human and animal studies. PMID:22306552

  16. Personality characteristics and motor skills attributed to occupations in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicole M; Bordelon, Yvette; Gatz, Margaret; Ritz, Beate

    2011-03-01

    It has previously been speculated that a distinct premorbid personality characterized by introversion, rigidity, and over cautiousness might be associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Only 1 previous study has assessed personality before PD onset, and other data collected retrospectively do not exclude reverse causation. We relied on the longest held job reported in an interview to infer personality traits and motor skills for 355 incident PD patients and 335 population controls enrolled in a PD study in California. Jobs were coded according to the 1980 US Census Occupational Code and assigned scores for various demands, skills, and aptitudes required by the job. None of the occupational temperament or interest factors required, expected, or exhibited by workers were related to statistically significantly higher odds of having PD per unit increase in scores, whereas there was some suggestion of differences when the extremes were examined. Analyses of physical aptitude factors showed that PD cases were less likely to have worked in jobs that involved certain motor skills. This study uses a novel approach to assess personality traits using occupational characteristics. Most job attributes thought to reflect conservativeness; risk taking, stress resistance, and flexibility were not associated with PD in a linear manner. Thus, these occupation-derived traits do not seem to support the existence of a distinct parkinsonian personality. However, the negative associations with jobs requiring certain motor skills are intriguing, and may suggest very early premotor features or a lack of continuous motor training as a risk factor for PD.

  17. Occupational exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.

  18. A "healthy diet-optimal sleep" lifestyle pattern is inversely associated with liver stiffness and insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Katsagoni, Christina N; Papatheodoridis, George V; Papageorgiou, Maria-Vasiliki; Ioannidou, Panagiota; Deutsch, Melanie; Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D

    2017-03-01

    Several lifestyle habits have been described as risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Given that both healthy and unhealthy habits tend to cluster, the aim of this study was to identify lifestyle patterns and explore their potential associations with clinical characteristics of individuals with NAFLD. One hundred and thirty-six consecutive patients with ultrasound-proven NAFLD were included. Diet and physical activity level were assessed through appropriate questionnaires. Habitual night sleep hours and duration of midday naps were recorded. Optimal sleep duration was defined as sleep hours ≥ 7 and ≤ 9 h/day. Lifestyle patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Eight components were derived explaining 67% of total variation of lifestyle characteristics. Lifestyle pattern 3, namely high consumption of low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fish, and optimal sleep duration was negatively associated with insulin resistance (β = -1.66, P = 0.008) and liver stiffness (β = -1.62, P = 0.05) after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, smoking habits, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Lifestyle pattern 1, namely high consumption of full-fat dairy products, refined cereals, potatoes, red meat, and high television viewing time was positively associated with insulin resistance (β = 1.66, P = 0.005), although this association was weakened after adjusting for adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α. A "healthy diet-optimal sleep" lifestyle pattern was beneficially associated with insulin resistance and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients independent of body weight status and energy intake.

  19. Lifestyle Determinants on Prevention and Improveme