Science.gov

Sample records for occupational medical aspects

  1. [The notion of occupational skin disease. Medical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P; Schliemann, S

    2015-03-01

    The different definitions of skin disease in medicine and in law are frequently confusing for dermatologists. While a skin disease may be defined medically referring to the definition of health by the WHO as a pathological condition of the skin leading to a disruption of the physical, mental and social well-being of the individual, legal definitions vary depending on the field of insurance law that is referred to. In the law of private health insurance, a skin disease is defined as an anomalous condition of the skin requiring medical treatment that exists independently of the subjective judgement of the insured person and needs to be objectively confirmed by a medical evaluation. In contrast, in the law of the social health insurance, the Federal Court of Social Justice defines disease as irregular physical or mental condition, deviating from the perception of a healthy human being that requires medical treatment or leads to inability to work. Substantial bodily disfigurement may be regarded as an irregular physical condition. In the law of the statutory accident insurance, occupational skin diseases are defined under clause 5101 of the occupational disease regulation as serious or repeatedly relapsing skin diseases that have forced a person to refrain from any work activities causal for the development, the aggravation or the recurrence of the disease. The Federal Court of Social Justice interprets the term "skin disease" from the protective purpose of the law, i.e. the protection against the economic and health consequences of the exposure to harmful agents and a thereby forced change of profession. This broad interpretation of the term "skin disease" leads to the recognition of diseases of the conjunctiva of the eye or diseases of the blood vessels of the skin due to cold damage as skin diseases according to clause 5101. For the correct treatment and possibly notification of occupational skin diseases in collaboration with various insurance carriers

  2. [Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects].

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Aneta; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented.

  3. Fibromyalgia: clinical and occupational aspects.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein Jr, Milton; Goldenfum, Marco Aurélio; Siena, César Augusto Fávaro

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome commonly observed in daily medical practice and its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. As it is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with several symptoms, FM may be confused with several other rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases when they course with pictures of diffuse pain and chronic fatigue. FM treatment should be multidisciplinary, individualized, count on active participation of the patient, and based on combined pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities. It is found both in work and non-work settings, and there is no scientific evidence in the literature showing that FM might be caused by occupation. FM seldom leads to incapacity to work. In cases where pain or fatigue do not respond to appropriate treatment, reaching significant levels, a short period away from work can be considered. As FM is a relevant subject, this review article was based on exploratory, qualitative, and bibliographic investigation, aiming to study the main clinical and occupational aspects of FM, emphasizing the theoretical-conceptual background and the experience of specialists.

  4. Permanent employment but not in a preferred occupation: psychological and medical aspects, research implications.

    PubMed

    Aronsson, G; Göransson, S

    1999-04-01

    In a representative sample from Statistics Sweden's Labor Market Survey (N = 1,564), it was found that 28% of permanent employees were not in their preferred occupation. In part, this is attributable to prevailing conditions in the labor market, with a lack of jobs, and to the insecurity of time-restricted employment contracts. In this study, the work conditions and health of persons in such a "locked-in" position were investigated. Participants reported significantly more headaches and greater fatigue and slight depression than did those in comparison groups. Results are discussed in relation to psychological theories of control and to a model of individual action strategies. Proposals are made to guide further studies in an area in which research so far has been sparsely conducted.

  5. [Aspects of occupational disability in psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Huber, M

    2000-06-01

    In 1997, 30% of the persons going into early retirement because of occupational disability and received pensions were psychosomatically ill. An additional large number of retirees suffered from untreatable pain such as chronic low back pain, some of them might as well have a chronic somatoform pain disorder. The article describes frequent psychosomatic diseases like somatization disorder, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome with respect to their pathophysiology and psychological aspects as well as therapeutic advancements. It is postulated that an interdisciplinary access to these patients early in the course of their illness involving both somatic medical and psychiatric competence is the most promising means to tackle this enormous medical and health protection problem.

  6. Discriminatory aspects of medical screening.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, M A

    1986-10-01

    Presently, there are few legal restrictions on the use of medical screening of workers. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) requires that certain medical tests be performed when workers will be exposed to specific toxic substances. The OSH Act does not, however, prohibit the use of any medical screening measure nor does it indicate what actions an employer may or may not take as a result of such information. (A notable exception is the medical removal provision of the Lead Standard). This paper discusses that protection afforded under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This paper will demonstrate that the law has, in general, failed to take into account the discriminatory aspects of medical screening.

  7. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  8. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  9. [Allergies in occupational health. Prevention aspects].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Iñiguez de la Torre, M V Ramírez; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, A A; Terradillos García, M J

    2012-04-01

    The concern in all countries of occupational health has led to the study of occupational risk factors and their impact on health. But maintaining the health of workers is increasingly complex, especially in occupational allergic diseases, which have increased in parallel with the increased use in industries of potentially irritating chemicals or allergens, leading to skin or respiratory sensitization. Diseases arising from these immunological substances are classified by Spanish Legislation as occupational diseases, as set out in Royal Decree 1299/2006, of November 10, 2006 (Group 1, Group 4 and Group 5). The most important ones in occupational medicine are allergic respiratory diseases and dermatological allergic diseases, although there are other allergies of interest, such as those involving mucous membranes (allergic eye diseases). A joint collaboration between the different medical disciplines involved to improve prevention at work is highly desirable.

  10. [Psychophysiologic aspects of occupational flying].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with advanced research on psychophysiology of flying activity to solve a triune task: to humanize the character and means of labour, to maintain a high level of working capacity and to develop professionally important psychophysiological features of flying personnel. The solution of the first task is associated with consecutive realization of the principle of actualization, an increase of psychophysiological capabilities of a man with the use of technical means in designing aeronautical engineering. Assurance of high functional reliability of flying personnel requires the development of the methods to evaluate and predict the state of psychophysiologic reserves during flying activities; the refinement of the norms of flight load on the basis of determining the quantitative interactions between a complexity level of flight assignments and a degree of decrease in reserve capabilities; the search for means and methods of correcting functional state directly in flight and accelerated recovery of performance postflight. The solution of psychophysiologic aspects of the professional reliability of pilot should be the development of a flight capabilities theory and theory-based improvement of estimation methods, development of methods and technical means for their improvements.

  11. [Anxiety--medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Dosiak, M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the author presented themes connected with anxiety disorder in general medical practice. Pathogenesis, classification, dependence between anxiety and somatic and psychical diseases were described there.

  12. Occupational allergy in medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Suganuma, Narufumi; Nagasawa, Sumio; Deguchi, Yoji

    2004-03-01

    Allergic diseases have increased in many developed countries including Japan. Doctors are also at risk for allergic diseases from exposure to allergens in working conditions and hospital environments. We investigated the factors relating to occupational allergy in doctors. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to all doctors (n=895) who had previously graduated from School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University. Data from 307 responders (response rate: 34.3%, male 241, female 66, mean age +/- S.D., 30.8 +/- 4.2) were analyzed. Eighty-nine doctors stated that they had occupational allergy including contact dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Fifty-four had contact dermatitis caused by surgical gloves; 77 had contact dermatitis from disinfectants, e.g. 23 from chlorhexidine gluconate; 21 from povidone iodine; and 15 from ethanol. Fifteen doctors experienced allergic rhinitis and/or asthma caused by handling laboratory animals. Univariate analysis showed that profession (surgical doctors) and past histories of allergic diseases (rhinitis, sinusitis, or atopic dermatitis) were significantly related to occupational allergy in doctors, but that gender, smoking or physical exercise were not significantly related to it. A logistic regression analysis showed that past histories of allergic diseases and the profession of surgical doctors were significantly related to occupational allergy, but that gender, age or smoking were not significantly related to it. The results of the present study suggest that past history of allergic diseases is a factor predisposing to occupational allergy in doctors. It is necessary and possible to extend more prophylactic measures for doctors, especially for surgeons, because exposure to responsible agents and materials for them can be more frequent.

  13. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  14. [Legal aspects of networking of medical activities].

    PubMed

    Preissler, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    Medical networks lack a legal definition. From the viewpoint of social law, this term means a form of organization of joint-service providers in a non-specified composition for the undertaking of medical care activities; from the point of view of occupational law, this consists of a loose form of joint practice. Such medical network can conclude treatment contracts with the patients and exchange patients' medical records. A practice network can take over services as contract partner of hospitals or other institutions, in the interest of improved competition chances within the integrated care system. The joining of a third partner is basically left open by the MBO, however according to SGB V this is possible only after approval by all contract partners. In advance of a planned medical care center, is it recommended to found a physician network as starting model. Before single practices fuse into a single enterprise, management-, tax-, legal-, as well as psychological aspects must be considered.

  15. Medical aspects of euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Pollard, B J

    1991-05-06

    The practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is often cited as an example of progressive social reform. While the Dutch penal code outlaws active euthanasia, the courts have interpreted the law in such a way as to allow doctors to kill their patients under certain conditions, chiefly when the patient has asked to die in preference to enduring unbearable suffering. Current practice in the Netherlands now includes the killing of patients who do not have a terminal disease, the killing of older children without the consent of their parents, and the killing of patients without their consent in circumstances where consent could have been sought. Estimates of the number of euthanasia killings range up to 20,000 per year, but there is no accurate information because of the common medical practice of falsely certifying the cause of death to avoid the need to justify euthanasia. Euthanasia in the Netherlands is now an alarming practice that oversteps ethical bounds and administrative controls, compromising doctors' moral commitment to healing by allowing them to become medical killers.

  16. [Scientometric aspects of medical eponyms].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2014-09-07

    Eponyms, scientific concepts named after persons, have a long tradition in medical sciences. Their emergence and use are rather instructive from the aspects of scientometrics, as well. Using a medical sample it is shown that although references to publications giving origin to the eponyms inevitably get obliterated, their citation rate is still many times higher than that of other publications of the same age.

  17. Analysis of the Medical Assisting Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keir, Lucille; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description, presenting for the occupation of medical assistant 113 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety consideration/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills (science, mathematics/number…

  18. [Epidemiological aspects in occupational neurology. Investigational methodology

    PubMed

    Solé-García, M D

    In the working population, unsatisfactory working conditions (in the broadest sense) may cause effects whose gravity depends mainly on the characteristics of exposure and the general condition of the individual. These effects may, in practice, be classified as occupational accidents and professional illness (both legal concepts), illnesses related to work, diminished quality of life and effects on offspring. Agents as varied as head injuries and metals are known to cause from loss of memory or behavior disorders to chronic toxic encephalopathy or Parkinsonism. There is little data on exposure to neurotoxic agents or disorders of the central nervous system caused by work and what there is not reliable. Therefore it is necessary to facilitate and encourage collaboration between neurologists and occupational medicine specialists so as to determine the importance/extent of the problem, undertake investigation as to aetiology and develop methods for early detection of these disorders.

  19. Medical Laboratory Assistant. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for medical laboratory assistant is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each…

  20. Medical Laboratory Assistant. Laboratory Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for medical laboratory assistant is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each…

  1. [Occupational medical counseling in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Schian, H M

    1991-04-01

    The present contribution seeks to outline the counselling possibilities on the part of the industrial medical service. Starting out from the legal bases (the Act concerning safety at work), the scope for action available internally and externally is examined. Towards the background of the assertion (which is in agreement with numerous other authors) that rehabilitation invariably means teamwork, the author seeks to describe the internally competent authorities and departments in terms of internal team, and to contrast it with the external team involved. A number of opportunities for cooperation are outlined, and already implemented practical approaches are pointed out. The company services are viewed in a community based rehabilitation context, and the relationships with the financially responsible administrations and their facilities in respect of vocational and medical rehabilitation are set out. Systematic in-plant procedures are explained by a conceptual model, practical implementations (for ex. in the EAM system) are touched on.

  2. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Medical Assisting. Occupation: Medical Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    Task analyses are provided for two duty areas for the occupation of medical assistant in the medical assisting cluster. Five tasks for the duty area "providing therapeutic measures" are as follows: assist with dressing change, apply clean dressing, apply elastic bandage, assist physician in therapeutic procedure, and apply topical…

  3. Task Analysis for Health Occupations. Cluster: Medical Assisting. Occupation: Medical Assistant. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    Task analyses are provided for two duty areas for the occupation of medical assistant in the medical assisting cluster. Five tasks for the duty area "providing therapeutic measures" are as follows: assist with dressing change, apply clean dressing, apply elastic bandage, assist physician in therapeutic procedure, and apply topical…

  4. Medical aspects of spider bites.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2008-01-01

    Spiders have been incriminated as causes of human suffering for centuries, but few species worldwide cause medically significant envenomation. Widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) occur worldwide and cause latrodectism, which is characterized by pain (local and generalized) associated with nonspecific systemic effects, diaphoresis, and less commonly other autonomic and neurological effects. Recluse spiders (Loxosceles spp.) are distributed mostly through the tropical and subtropical Western Hemisphere and can cause severe skin lesions and rarely systemic effects; most bites are unremarkable. Highly dangerous spiders in South America (armed spiders) and Australia (funnel-web spiders) cause rare but severe envenomation requiring medical intervention and sometimes antivenom. Most other spiders involved in verified bites cause minor, transient effects. Many spiders blamed for causing medical mischief have been elevated to medical significance via circumstantial evidence, poor reporting, and repetitive citation in the literature; several species have been shown to be harmless with more stringent scientific evidence involving verified bites in humans.

  5. Medical aspects of global warming.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, D; Rom, W N

    2001-08-01

    Global warming is caused by increased carbon dioxide (CO2)resulting in a greenhouse effect with enhanced warming of the earth. Measurements of CO2 show a steady increase over the past 30 years caused by the burning of fossil fuels and from the loss of natural CO2 sinks. A 100-year increase in global temperature by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C is reflected in atmospheric warming, glacier shrinkage, and rising sea levels. Planetary ecosystem dynamics are being altered, challenging public health. It is predicted that morbidity and mortality will increase as a result of heat stress, as seen in recent heat waves in the U.S. Weather disaster effects will increase in number and magnitude, and both noninfectious and infectious diseases may flourish. A significant challenge will be the changes in life cycles of microbial species due to the warmer environs. Specific increases in incidence have been noted for vector-borne diseases, in addition to pulmonary findings, cardiovascular morbidity, neurological diseases, and occupational diseases. Warming can be demonstrated by the observed changes that have already occurred in the environment, particularly the thinning of polar ice caps. The United States Global Research Program has been established to coordinate research activities, which responds to issues deemed important by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Research issues pertain to the scientific uncertainties in the greenhouse effect, temperature measurements at various atmospheric levels and latitudes, and impact on biota redistribution. The Kyoto Protocol has mandated specific solutions, e.g., a 7% reduction in CO2 levels within 10 years. Future recommendations involve supporting new technologies that are available to decrease emissions as well as understanding the role that occupational and environmental specialists have in global warming recognition. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [The teaching of occupational medicine in Mexican medical schools].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Román, Francisco Raúl; Medina-Figueroa, Alda María; Rangel-Zertuche, Ricardo Alfonso; Sánchez-Ramos, Apolinar

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the current situation of teaching occupational medicine (OM) in academic programs and medical schools in Mexico. A descriptive survey was conducted and schools were identified through the main directories of medical schools. For the analysis of information descriptive and inferential statistics were used. A total of 75 medical schools were identified. In 39 (52%) the subject is mandatory, with a predominance in public schools (p< 0.02). Among the schools that offer the subject, only 15 (38%) have professors specialized in OM. Disparity in teaching basic aspects of OM in medical schools explains the little development and social and professional recognition of the specialty; it also highlights serious problems for public health, derived from the lack of prevention of risks in work environments.

  7. Legal aspects of medication administration.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-01-01

    The author reviews several cases involving medication errors and advises that one way to make a malpractice case worse is to be accused of delay in informing the patient or family of the circumstances. If fraud or intentional concealment is established, punitive damages may be awarded--which are not covered by malpractice insurance policies since this is an intentional act.

  8. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  9. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  10. Attitudes of medical faculty physicians about taking occupational history.

    PubMed

    Cimrin, A H; Sevinc, C; Kundak, I; Ellidokuz, H; Itil, O

    1999-06-01

    To evaluate occupational history taking, as a detailed occupational history is the most effective means for proper diagnosis of occupational illness. In order to determine the attitudes of 66 physicians working in Dokuz Eylül Medical Faculty Hospital about taking occupational history, 269 patient records were examined. It was detected that 43.9% of physicians took no occupational history from any of their patients. Occupational history was obtained from 81.8% of the patients in clinics where standard examination forms were in regular use. We found that physicians were not in the habit of taking occupational histories.

  11. 10 CFR 712.34 - Site Occupational Medical Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site Occupational Medical Director. 712.34 Section 712.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HUMAN RELIABILITY PROGRAM Medical Standards § 712.34 Site Occupational Medical Director. (a) The SOMD must nominate a physician to serve as the Designated Physician and...

  12. 10 CFR 712.34 - Site Occupational Medical Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site Occupational Medical Director. 712.34 Section 712.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HUMAN RELIABILITY PROGRAM Medical Standards § 712.34 Site Occupational Medical Director. (a) The SOMD must nominate a physician to serve as the Designated Physician and a...

  13. 10 CFR 712.34 - Site Occupational Medical Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site Occupational Medical Director. 712.34 Section 712.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HUMAN RELIABILITY PROGRAM Medical Standards § 712.34 Site Occupational Medical Director. (a) The SOMD must nominate a physician to serve as the Designated Physician and a...

  14. 10 CFR 712.34 - Site Occupational Medical Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site Occupational Medical Director. 712.34 Section 712.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HUMAN RELIABILITY PROGRAM Medical Standards § 712.34 Site Occupational Medical Director. (a) The SOMD must nominate a physician to serve as the Designated Physician and a...

  15. [Characteristics of occupational medical service development at JSC "Kamaz"].

    PubMed

    Nagimzianov, A A; Zakirova, A B; Glushkov, G N

    2011-01-01

    The authors formulated concept on development of occupational medical service of JSC Medical Society "Salvation" for its accomplishment on enterprises of JSC "Kamaz" Group. The concept is based on united technologic line of diagnosis and treatment, including primary care, establishments for specialized medical care and rehabilitation. Within the concept, medical departments, occupational safety protection, staff management and trade union organizing health centers on industrial enterprizes are organized for cooperation, and partnerships between medical professionals and the enterprise staffers are established.

  16. Current aspects of hearing loss from occupational and leisure noise

    PubMed Central

    Plontke, S.; Zenner, H.-P.

    2004-01-01

    Hearing loss from occupational and leisure noise numbers amongst the most frequent causes of an acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Here we present a review of up-to-date findings on the pathophysiology of acoustic injury to the inner ear, with special attention being paid to its molecular-biological and genetic aspects. Epidemiological aspects shall also be dealt with, as shall the roles of lacking recovery from occupational noise due to additional exposure by leisure noise and the combined exposure of noise and chemicals. Based on the epidemiological and pathophysiological findings and against the background of published animal-experimental, pre-clinical and clinical findings, the various approaches for prevention, protection and therapeutic intervention with acoustic trauma are discussed. Pharmacological strategies involving anti-oxidative, anti-excitotoxic and anti-apoptotic substances as well as non-pharmacological strategies like "sound conditioning" are given attention. Furthermore, systemic and local substance application as well as the therapy of acute acoustic trauma and chronic hearing problems (including modern therapy forms for comorbidities such as tinnitus) shall be delved into. PMID:22073048

  17. [Problems of occupational fitness conclusion on periodic medical examination].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, V B; Vlasova, E M; Nosov, A E; Ponomareva, T A; Kostarev, V G

    2014-01-01

    Additional examination in Occupational Pathology Center are economic loss both for employer and employee, as the employee receives payment for those days when in the examination. Analysis of over 600 cases of occupational fitness examination in Occupational Pathology Center according to referrals given by medical institutions providing periodic medical examination shows that in most cases the conclusion was possible during periodic medical examination. Difficulties in conclusion on workers' fitness for occupation during periodic medical examination, according to our viewpoint, result not from limited diagnostic facilities for adequate examination and unfitness disclosure, but from lack of information in primary medical documentation and inadequacy of occupational factor and work characteristics presented by employer to actual working conditions.

  18. [Taking Care of Asylum Seekers: Occupational Health Aspects with a Special Focus on Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Kolb, S; Hörmansdorfer, S; Ackermann, N; Höller, C; Brenner, B; Herr, C

    2016-04-01

    Employees and volunteers often feel insecure about the potential transmission of infectious diseases when taking care of asylum seekers. It could be shown that overall only a minor risk of infection emanates from asylum seekers. However, aspects of occupational health and vaccination should be kept in mind.Besides the standard vaccination the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends for occupational indication, which is given for employees and volunteers in asylum facilities, vaccination against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio (if the last vaccination was more than 10 years before) as well as influenza (seasonal).According to the German Occupational Safety and Health Act taking care of the employer has to determine which exposures might occur at the workplace (risk assessment) and define necessary protection measures. Depending on task and exposure when taking care of asylum seekers different acts (e. g. biological agents regulation) and technical guidelines for the handling biological agents (e. g. TRBA 250 or TRBA 500) have to be applied.The Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) has published several information sheets regarding "asylum seekers and health management" for employees and volunteers from the non-medical as well as the medical area (www.lgl.bayern.de search term "Asylbewerber"). With theses publications insecurities in taking care of asylum seekers should be prevented. Furthermore the employer gets support in the implementation of legal obligations to ensure occupational safety for the employees.

  19. Medical Assistant. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  20. An Analysis of the Medical Records Clerking Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridener, Norma A.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the medical records clerk occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Nine duties are broken down into a…

  1. Medical graduates' knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; Vujovic, Olga; Dendle, Claire; McMenamin, Christine

    2014-02-01

    A survey of medical graduates commencing employment as junior doctors was performed to investigate knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposure management, coupled with their experience of occupational exposures. There was a mismatch between general knowledge (excellent) and knowledge of postexposure management (poor), and graduates had commonly experienced an occupational exposure and not reported it. The knowledge deficit regarding postexposure management and history of poor practice (ie, nonreporting) following an exposure implies that the transition period from student to junior doctor may be associated with increased occupational health and safety risk.

  2. Aspects of Young Children's Perceptions of Gender-Typed Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gary D.; Sadovsky, Adrienne L.; Troseth, Georgene L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated young children's perceived competencies of men and women in gender-typed occupations, perceptions about how much money they earn in gender-typed occupations, and affective reactions regarding growing up to have gender-typed occupations. Children perceived differential competencies of men and women regarding gender-typed occupations…

  3. Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO). Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gloria

    A partnership was formed to address the crisis that rural health care facilities in rural Nebraska face in attracting and hiring trained health care workers. The Rural Allied Medical Business Occupations (RAMBO) project trained economically disadvantaged individuals in high technology medical fields. Five objectives were outlined in the project:…

  4. Occupational Analysis of Computers in Medical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann

    Electronic computers have caused numerous changes in medical health sciences, and the abilities of the computer are so great that much research thinking, administrative planning, and other medical activities are controlled largely by what the machine can do. However, developments in computer technology have occurred in different areas with little…

  5. Medical Physicists and Health Physicists: Radiation Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Physics is the study of matter and energy and the ways in which the two interact. Some physicists use their expertise in physics to focus on radiation. These specialists, called medical physicists and health physicists, work to help people or protect the environment. Medical physicists work with physicians, assisting patients who need imaging…

  6. Exposure limits and medical surveillance in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, J; Aitio, A; Hemminki, K; Järvisalo, J; Lindström, K; Tossavainen, A; Vainio, H

    1982-01-01

    The standards for pollutants in workplace air constitute a social consensus or agreement about acceptable levels of occupational hygiene. This agreement to exposures up to these limits inevitably includes a finite risk to the health of the workers. The numeric values of standards are needed to assess the requirements for ventilation and other occupational hygiene conditions. Planning and everyday practice in industry also need hygienic standards so that practical hygienic and safety measures can be maintained. These standards are not, however, levels below which there is no risk to health. While the hygienic standard itself carries acceptance of a certain risk, doctors cannot ethically accept any health risk to workers whatever the source of exposure. Thus personnel working in occupational health have to think about the risks of ill health even when the hygienic standards are met. The physician in occupational health has to be especially concerned to discover and estimate the risks to anyone particularly susceptible to exposures within the hygienically acceptable conditions. To do this, the occupational health physician uses medical examinations and specific investigations. In the follow-up of workers, health occupational health personnel use medical examinations in order to detect possible risks or to assess the general health status of individual workers. Health examinations are also used to detect specific injuries caused by the agents to which workers are known to be exposed in their work.

  7. [Medical and behavioural aspects of Angelman syndrome].

    PubMed

    Artigas-Pallarés, J; Brun-Gasca, C; Gabau-Vila, E; Guitart-Feliubadaló, M; Camprubí-Sánchez, C

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetically-based disorder that is characterised by a physical and behavioural phenotype. Additionally, it presents a number of different systemic conditions that must also be taken into account. To evaluate the symptomatic spectrum of AS, we sought the aid of families linked to AS associations by sending them a questionnaire designed to investigate the clinical characteristics of AS. The families were sent a questionnaire aimed at determining the medical and behavioural characteristics of AS. Results from 68 patients were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 years. The first symptoms that called parents' attention were feeding problems, followed by gastroesophageal reflux and hypotonia. The mean age at which patients were capable of maintaining a sitting posture was 18 months, while autonomous walking was not achieved until 43 months. Epilepsy, which was present in 91% of cases, began with febrile seizures in 55% of patients. In this study we found that a high percentage of patients with AS have a high resistance to pain (67%), a very common symptom in Prader-Willi syndrome, but little known in AS. This study offers a wide array of information about the clinical spectrum of AS obtained from an extensive populational sample. Some highly prevalent clinical aspects, such as the relative insensitivity to pain, have not been reported in previous publications as a symptom that is typical of AS.

  8. Planned and Unplanned Aspects of Occupational Choices by Youth. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; And Others

    This document includes reports on four subjects relevant to planned and unplanned aspects of occupational choices by youth. (1) "Toward a Morphology of Occupational Choice," by Robert A. Ellis and others, discusses intrinsic features and extrinsic rewards of work, extra-role considerations, and goal perception as major influences on occupational…

  9. [Social and medical problems of occupational health of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, O N

    2000-01-01

    The article "Social and medical problems of healthcare in railway transport" presents principal factors influencing railway workers' health. The factors are those of social importance and influencing occupational suitability, general morbidity and morbidity with transitory disablement, disability in railway transport and its causes. The article shows therapeutic, sanitary and epidemiologic, social measures of prophylaxis for better work conditions and preservation of railway workers' health.

  10. Higher inpatient medical surgical bed occupancy extends admitted patients' stay.

    PubMed

    Krall, Scott; O'Connor, Robert E; Maercks, Lisa

    2009-05-01

    Determine the effect that increased medical surgical (med/surg) bed occupancy has on the time interval from admission order to arrival in the bed for the patients admitted from the emergency department (ED). This retrospective observational study compares the total hospital bed occupancy rate and the medical surgical inpatient bed occupancy rate to daily averages for the time interval from admission order (patient posting for admission) to the patient's arrival in the inpatient bed. Medical surgical inpatient bed occupancy of 92% was chosen because beyond that rate we observed more frequent extended daily transfer times. The data is from a single large tertiary care institute with 590 beds and an annual ED census of 80,000. Group 1 includes 38 days with (med/surg) inpatient bed occupancy rate of less than 92%, with an average ED daily wait of 2.5 hrs (95% confidence interval 2.23-2.96) for transfer from the ED to the appropriate hospital bed. Group 2 includes 68 days with med/surg census greater than 92% with an average ED daily wait of 4.1 hours (95% confidence interval 3.7-4.5). Minimum daily average for the two groups was 1.2 hrs and 1.3 hrs, respectively. The maximum average was 5.6 hrs for group 1 and 8.6 hrs for group 2. Comparison of group 1 to 2 for wait time to hospital bed yielded p <0.01. Total reported hospital occupied capacity shows a correlation coefficient of 0.16 to transfer time interval, which indicates a weak relationship between total occupancy and transfer time into the hospital. Med/surg occupancy, the beds typically used by ED patients, has a 0.62 correlation coefficient for a moderately strong relationship. Med/surg bed occupancy has a better correlation to extended transfer times, and occupancy over 92% at 5 AM in our institution corresponds to an increased frequency of extended transfer times from the ED. The process of ED evaluation, hospital admission, and subsequent transfer into the hospital are all complex processes. This study

  11. Higher Inpatient Medical Surgical Bed Occupancy Extends Admitted Patients’ Stay

    PubMed Central

    Krall, Scott; O’Connor, Robert E.; Maercks, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Determine the effect that increased medical surgical (med/surg) bed occupancy has on the time interval from admission order to arrival in the bed for the patients admitted from the emergency department (ED). Methods: This retrospective observational study compares the total hospital bed occupancy rate and the medical surgical inpatient bed occupancy rate to daily averages for the time interval from admission order (patient posting for admission) to the patient’s arrival in the inpatient bed. Medical surgical inpatient bed occupancy of 92% was chosen because beyond that rate we observed more frequent extended daily transfer times. The data is from a single large tertiary care institute with 590 beds and an annual ED census of 80,000. Results: Group 1 includes 38 days with (med/surg) inpatient bed occupancy rate of less than 92%, with an average ED daily wait of 2.5 hrs (95% confidence interval 2.23–2.96) for transfer from the ED to the appropriate hospital bed. Group 2 includes 68 days with med/surg census greater than 92% with an average ED daily wait of 4.1 hours (95% confidence interval 3.7–4.5). Minimum daily average for the two groups was 1.2 hrs and 1.3 hrs, respectively. The maximum average was 5.6 hrs for group 1 and 8.6 hrs for group 2. Comparison of group 1 to 2 for wait time to hospital bed yielded p <0.01. Total reported hospital occupied capacity shows a correlation coefficient of 0.16 to transfer time interval, which indicates a weak relationship between total occupancy and transfer time into the hospital. Med/surg occupancy, the beds typically used by ED patients, has a 0.62 correlation coefficient for a moderately strong relationship. Conclusions: Med/surg bed occupancy has a better correlation to extended transfer times, and occupancy over 92% at 5 AM in our institution corresponds to an increased frequency of extended transfer times from the ED. The process of ED evaluation, hospital admission, and subsequent transfer into the

  12. Medical imaging in occupational and environmental lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christian W; Lynch, David A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date summary of developments in medical imaging in the diagnosis, surveillance, treatment, and screening of occupational and environmental lung diseases, focusing on articles published within the past 2 years. Many new exposures resulting in lung disease have been described worldwide; medical imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT), is often pivotal in recognition and characterization of these new patterns of lung injury. Chest radiography remains important to surveillance studies tracking the long-term evolution of disease and effectiveness of air quality regulation. Finally, studies are proving the utility of screening with low-dose CT, and technical advances offer the prospect of further CT dose reduction with ultra-low-dose CT. In understanding the best practices and new developments in medical imaging, the occupational and environmental medicine clinician can optimize diagnosis and management of related lung diseases.

  13. Aspects of occupational health in the sugar cane industry.

    PubMed

    Phoolchund, H N

    1991-01-01

    Workers in developing countries face as many, if not more, work-related health problems as their counterparts in industrialized nations. This paper concentrates on occupational health problems in the sugar industry, which exists in 40 countries, mostly in the Third World. Sugar cane workers have a high level of occupational accidents and are exposed to the high toxicity of pesticides. They may also have an increased risk of lung cancer, possibly mesothelioma. This may be related to the practice of burning foliage at the time of cane-cutting. Bagassosis is also a problem specific to the industry as it may follow exposure to bagasse (a by-product of sugar cane). The workers may also be affected by chronic infections which reduce their productivity. The legal framework for their protection is often inadequate. In conclusion, areas of future research are suggested.

  14. An assessment of the occupational hazards related to medical lasers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John E; Colvard, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Occupational hazards associated with medical laser applications remain poorly understood and uncharacterized. A literature search was performed using PubMed, and all articles relevant to beam and nonbeam medical laser hazards were reviewed. The Rockwell Laser Industries Laser Accident Database was searched for medical laser injuries and abstracted. Eye injuries, skin burns, injuries related to the onset of fires, and electric shock have been reported in relation to medical laser use. It is probable that both acute and chronic health effects have been experienced by medical personnel as the result of exposure to laser generated air contaminants. Because of the clinical benefits they provide, the growth of laser technologies and applications are anticipated to result in an increase in the number and type of medical personnel with future exposure to laser hazards.

  15. Agreement of medical decisions in occupational health as a quality requirement.

    PubMed

    Franco, Giuliano

    2006-08-01

    Workers' medical examination by the occupational physician (OPs) is a decision-making process whose output consists of a variety of evaluations, including assessment of fitness for work. The medical literature reports that there is no complete agreement among OPs assessing the same workers, evidencing a critical aspect of professional performance. This study aims at evaluating the inter-individual variability of medical decisions by different occupational physicians. Four specialists in occupational medicine participated in the study. Each specialist examined 100 records of subjects with different medical conditions selected from about 2,500 health care workers. Each physician completed a form including the following items: assessment of fitness for work, advice to workers, need of further investigations, report of occupational disease, recommendation for the general practitioner. To assess the inter-individual variability the percent agreement and the agreement strength or Cohen's kappa were measured. The study shows a variable agreement in the assessment of fitness for work among different professionals, with percent agreement ranging from 58% for the whole group to an average of 77% for physicians' pairs. By taking into account the variability expected by chance, the agreement ranged from fair to substantial. The agreement of other decisions (workers' advice, referral to other specialists, request of further investigation, report of occupational disease, recommendation for the general practitioner) was more variable. The study shows that an inter-individual variability exists for some decisions taken by OPs. According to the need to continuously improve professional practice, in the absence of qualitative standards based on the outcome, reduction of inter-individual variability that should be considered as a quality requirement of the performance of the occupational physician.

  16. [Sociomedical aspects of reduction of risk in the development of occupational diseases and industrial trauma in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Ivanov, V K; Kutovoĭ, V S

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the main constituents of occupational risk in railway workers, which are based on the sanitary and biomedical criteria of injury safety. Sociomedical aspects of the incidence of railway occupational diseases and injuries are discussed. A list of major occupational factors and causes that determine a high occupational risk in railway workers is given.

  17. DrivAbility: teaching medical aspects of driving.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jeremy; Whiteman, Liz

    2012-06-01

    Teaching medical aspects of fitness to drive (FTD) is currently inconsistent across UK medical schools, with almost one-third of UK medical schools offering no tuition on medical aspects of FTD. It is, therefore, not surprising to find that medical students and doctors tend to lack confidence regarding the medical aspects of FTD and Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) medical standards. In response to this inconsistency we developed an innovative new learning module to teach our medical students the importance of giving appropriate advice to patients about driving, the role of the DVLA regarding medical aspects of FTD, how to recognise when patients should be referred to a driving assessment centre and what adaptations are available to allow patients with physical disabilities to drive safely. As far as we are aware Derby is the first centre in the world to incorporate the practical experience of driving adapted vehicles (at a driving assessment centre) into the undergraduate medical curriculum as an aid to teaching medical aspects of FTD. This practical learning module has proven popular with the students. Driving these adapted vehicles has allowed our students to appreciate some of the practical difficulties disabled drivers experience when learning new driving techniques. However, as only 18 driving assessment centres exist within the UK, an exact replication of this learning module will be limited elsewhere. Nevertheless, we would encourage other medical schools to evaluate the local resources that could enhance the delivery of their undergraduate curricula. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  18. Sociological aspects of permanent manned occupancy of space.

    PubMed

    Bluth, B J

    1981-01-01

    The author examines human experiences with isolation and confined groups to determine the sociological aspects of social isolation in space. Precedent experiences include Antarctic stations, oceanographic research vessels, submarines, undersea laboratories, and space simulators. The Soviet experience with multiple-person crews on the Salyut 6 space station is explored. Sociological aspects of isolation and confinement aboard a space station include physiological stress, social and psychological stress, group size and composition, group organization, architectural programming, privacy, and work/rest scheduling.

  19. [A rare case of tubercular tenosynovitis in hospital surgeon as a result of an occupational accident caused by puncture with an infected needle. Prevention aspects and legal-medical evaluation].

    PubMed

    Delli Carri, R; Piscozzi, Paola; Massimelli, M; Falcetta, R

    2010-01-01

    The subject was a hospital surgeon who, in the course of routine outpatient surgery with aspiration to collect right lumbar material in a patient with suspected TB infection, accidentally punctured the fifth finger of the left hand with the needle used for this procedure. This led to involvement of the fifth finger of the left hand restricted to the soft tissue with preservation of joint and bone and tenosynovial involvement of the entire extremity. To draw attention to the repercussions for insurance with resulting absence from work for 126 days and an assessment of biological impairment of 2% by the Insurance Institute (INAIL). A case report is described of rare occupational tubercular synovitis. A rare event is reported that occurred in a senior staff member with particular insurance repercussions.

  20. Recent aspects of uranium toxicology in medical geology.

    PubMed

    Bjørklund, Geir; Albert Christophersen, Olav; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Selinus, Olle; Aaseth, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities. This paper highlights different health and environmental aspects of U as well as uptake and intake. It discusses levels of U in soil and water and the related health issues. Also described are different issues of U pollution, such as U and fertilizers, occupational exposure in miners, use and hazards of U in weapons (depleted U), U and plutonium as catalysts in the reaction between DNA and H2O2, and recycling of U from groundwater to surface soils in irrigation. For use in medical geology and U research, large databases and data warehouses are currently available in Europe and the United States. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical aspects of medication overuse headaches.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Arnaldo Neves; Lake, Alvin E

    2014-01-01

    Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a subset of chronic daily headache, occurring from overuse of 1 or more classes of migraine abortive medication. Acetaminophen, combination analgesics (caffeine combinations), opioids, barbiturates (butalbital), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and triptans are the main classes of drugs implicated in the genesis of MOH. Migraine seems to be the most common diagnosis leading to MOH. The development of MOH is associated with both frequency of use of medication and behavioral predispositions. MOH is not a unitary concept. The distinction between simple (type 1) vs complex (type 2) forms is based on both the class of overused medication and behavioral factors, including psychopathology and psychological drug dependence. MOH is a challenging disorder causing decline in the quality of life and causing physical symptoms, such as daily and incapacitating headaches, insomnia, and non-restorative sleep, as well as psychological distress and reduced functioning. MOH is associated with biochemical, structural, and functional brain changes. Relapse after detoxification is a challenge, but can be addressed if the patient is followed over a prolonged period of time with a combination of prophylactic pharmacotherapy, use of abortive medication with minimal risk of MOH, withholding previously overused medication, and providing psychological (cognitive-behavioral) therapy.

  2. Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Edema agudo del pulmon [Acute mountain sickness: Acute edema of the lungs]. An Fac Med (Lima). 1955;38:244. 9. Hurtado A. Pathological aspects of life...recommendations for career dose lim- its, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and gender. The ca- reer

  3. [Ethics, medical ethics, and occupational medicine: is their dialogue possible?].

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Elisa

    2016-01-20

    Today's medicine faces some critical moral challenges, yet the medical class suffers from an increasingly evident malaise: a growing dissatisfaction with an ethical demand often perceived as a cumbersome burden of rules and prohibitions, which risk to erode the fiduciary relations with patients. Such a negative appraisal is partly due to a narrow interpretation of the meaning of ethics, a misconception whose roots are in the positivistic stance that permeates our culture, and in its almost exclusively technological bent. This radical orientation of our culture shows itself in the vanishing of the idea of an intrinsic ethical dimension of medicine and consequent eclipse of traditional medical ethics, currently all but assimilated by bioethics. Maintaining a clear distinction between medical ethics and bioethics is a fundamental condition for guaranteeing an original ethical reflection in medicine, thereby fostering a constructive dialogue between philosophical and medical ethics. In this sense, occupational medicine holds a very propitious position, at the cross-roads to some of the most important dimensions in human life and society: health, work, environment. In a milieu which is too often inclined to efface the living human being and the deepest needs of humanity, the moral commitment of medical profession to the care of the integral reality of the embodied human person is one of the most important ethical challenges facing occupational medicine and a most valuable contribution to the current ethical debate.

  4. Medical surveillance for the emerging occupational and environmental respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To highlight the important issues to consider in deciding whether to pursue and how to conduct medical surveillance for the emerging occupational and environmental respiratory diseases. It provides several recent examples illustrating implementation and usefulness of medical surveillance and the lessons learned from these experiences. Recent findings Medical surveillance conducted after sentinel outbreaks of constrictive bronchiolitis in microwave popcorn and flavoring production plants have shown the usefulness of this approach in documenting the burden of disease, identifying particular problem areas as targets for preventive interventions, and in tracking the progress. They have also identified the usefulness of longitudinal spirometry, which allows comparison of the individuals’ results to their own previous tests. The importance of recognizing a sentinel outbreak needing greater investigation is demonstrated by the cluster of cases of constrictive bronchiolitis recognized in military veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. The World Trade Center disaster has demonstrated the importance of having baseline lung function data for future comparison and the importance of rapidly identifying exposed populations at greatest risk for health effects, and thus potentially having the greatest benefit from medical surveillance. Summary When used appropriately, medical surveillance is a useful tool in addressing the emerging occupational and environmental respiratory diseases by facilitating improvements in primary prevention and enabling interventions to help individuals through secondary prevention. PMID:24500294

  5. [Medical professionalism: historical and religious aspects].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez P, José Adolfo

    2006-03-01

    The essence of the medical profession resides in the medical act, whereupon a sick human being meets another with the power to heal him or her. The source of this power has evolved from the divinity itself through magic to science or acquired knowledge. This power implies acknowledgement of values that are inherent to the profession as well as responsibility toward one's own conscience and toward society, elements considered constitutive of what we now call professionalism. From antiquity these principles have evolved into behavioral codes containing variable components according to the different ages and cultures, but also permenent core values such as respect for life, altruism, and honesty, among others. Scientific and technological advances have magnified medical power but at the same time they have required that the philosophical and ethical principles that ought to inform professional practice be made explicit. This happens at a time when certitudes are questioned or abandoned, relativism and secularism pervade culture, and traditional medical values are challenged. Therefore, consensus attainment appears for some as the only legitimation of the ethics of professional medical acts, while for others the ancestral principles and values of medicine have permanent validity as objective goods based on the dignity of the human person.

  6. Structuring group medical practices: tax planning aspects.

    PubMed

    Gassman, A S; Conetta, T F

    1992-01-01

    This article is the first in a series addressing the structuring of group medical practice entities, shareholder relationships, and general representation factors. In this article, a general background in federal tax planning is provided, including strategies for minimization of income tax payment and the potential problems that may be encountered when a group practice is not carefully structured.

  7. Medical and Scientific Aspects of Cycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund R., Ed.; Newsom, Mary M., Ed.

    The 24 contributions to this volume were written by coaches, sport scientists, and medical authorities who surveyed recent research on biomechanics, physiology, psychology, nutrition, treatment of injuries, and training techniques for cyclists. There are four sections: (1) biomechanics and physiology; (2) research: techniques and results; (3)…

  8. Medical and Scientific Aspects of Cycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund R., Ed.; Newsom, Mary M., Ed.

    The 24 contributions to this volume were written by coaches, sport scientists, and medical authorities who surveyed recent research on biomechanics, physiology, psychology, nutrition, treatment of injuries, and training techniques for cyclists. There are four sections: (1) biomechanics and physiology; (2) research: techniques and results; (3)…

  9. [Etiological aspects of occupational cancer in printing industry].

    PubMed

    Il'icheva, S A; Zaridze, D G

    2004-01-01

    Research of oncology lethality from workplace exposures is one of the most effective approaches to studying the etiology of malignant neoplasms. However, certain problems of methodology compromise the informative value of such research whose purpose is to identify the carcinogens. Addition of data on morbidity and lethality in heterogeneous industrial categories, whose typical feature are inhomogeneous exposures, is a major methodological problem. The fact that the studied occupational populations are limited to male subjects is another important problem. The most adequate epidemiological study projects were analyzed and compared with the results of our own case study, which dealt, for the first time in the history of our country, with investigating the lethality causes of 1552 males and 3473 females occupied as compositors, printers and bookbinders at two major printing enterprises in the city of Moscow. According to the authors, an exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. benzopirin, could be a reliably higher risk of mortality of melanoma and of ovarian cancer among female press operators. With regard for experimental and epidemiological research, the authors believe it appropriate to put forward the below hypothesis: a many-year exposure to minimal quantities of asbestos contained in the paper dust was the key trigger inducing the malignant mesothelioma and ovarian cancer in bookbinders and printers.

  10. Medical surveillance for occupational asthma-how are cases detected?

    PubMed

    Suojalehto, H; Karvala, K; Haramo, J; Korhonen, M; Saarinen, M; Lindström, I

    2017-03-01

    In Finland, medical surveillance, including spirometry, is periodically performed for workers who are exposed to agents capable of causing occupational asthma (OA). Although it has been shown that surveillance can detect OA at an early stage, few studies have assessed its benefits or the role of surveillance spirometry. To assess the role of surveillance and spirometry in detecting OA and to evaluate the quality of spirometry. We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of patients in health surveillance programmes who were diagnosed with sensitizer-induced OA at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 2012‒14. We collected information on work exposure, respiratory symptoms, healthcare visits that initiated the diagnostic process, first spirometry and other diagnostic tests. Sixty files were reviewed. Medical surveillance detected 11 cases (18%) and 49 cases (82%) were detected at doctors' appointments that were not related to surveillance. The median delay from the onset of asthma symptoms to diagnosis was 2.2 years. Delay did not differ between these groups. No cases were detected on the basis of abnormal spirometry without respiratory symptoms. However, five patients (8%) initially reported solely work-related rhinitis symptoms. Spirometry was normal in half of the cases and quality criteria were fulfilled in 86% of the tests. Fewer than one in five OA cases were detected through medical surveillance. Investigations were initiated by respiratory symptoms. No asymptomatic worker was referred because of abnormal spirometry. Our results highlight the importance of work-related nasal symptoms in detecting OA.

  11. [Aspects of communication regarding medical malpractice suits].

    PubMed

    Pilling, János; Erdélyi, Kamilla

    2016-04-24

    Due to problems experienced in health care, there is an increased amount of malpractice suits nowadays. Nevertheless, some physicians are more likely to be sued, or more frequently sued, than others. Numerous studies indicate that this phenomenon fundamentally results from a lack of interpersonal and communication skills on the part of the sued doctor, namely, deficiencies in questioning the patient, listening, conveying information, etc. Communication is of pivotal importance in patient care vis-à-vis medical errors as well. The majority of physicians aim to conceal the error, albeit this may lead to further deterioration of the patient's condition. In institutions where open communication regarding errors was introduced within the medical team and toward the patient and their family alike, the number of malpractice suits decreased. It is crucial to establish a means of support for doctors, and to promote communication trainings, as well as a supportive legal environment.

  12. [Six cases of occupational skin diseases caused by cement: considerations from the aspect of occupational dermatology].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, O; Nishio, D; Tokui, N

    2001-06-01

    Cement, in particular Portland cement, is now widely used in the field of civil engineering and the construction industry. High alkalinity of wet cement and its tiny content of water-soluble chromate can cause occupational skin diseases. In this paper, we report four cases of contact dermatitis by cement and two cases of cement burn. The occupation of the patients included two plasterers, a truck driver, a manufacturer of cement ware and two construction workers. Skin of the hands and fingers of the cement dermatitis cases was dry and fissured, and had hyperkeratotic papules and erythemas or acute exudative eczematous lesions. In one of these cases, the eczematous lesions spread to the face, extremities and trunk. All cases resulted in a positive patch testing for sodium dichromate. The cement burn cases developed severe necrotic ulcers on the leg and/or foot following prolonged contact with wet cement inside their boots. Patch testing was negative for chromate. A field trip to a construction worksite showed that method of working as well as worker's clothing at present could not thoroughly protect the skin. Therefore we concluded that better protective clothing and gloves should be used and that working conditions be improved. Most skin diseases caused by cement occur among workers at small-scale enterprises. Therefore it is desirable that regional occupational health centers, which were established to promote the health care system for workers at small-scale enterprises, take prompt measures to avoid the skin diseases.

  13. Work Unit Determination for Staffing Requirements in Occupational Therapy within Army Medical Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    As an indicator of manpower productivity in Occupational Therapy clinics at Army MTFs, the clinic visit has been used. However, in recent years...medical records, chart audits, peer review, and the need for additional records and reports have all impacted on the occupational therapist’s time. Thus...Medical Treatment Facility); Manpower utilization; Health care, Occupational therapy clinic manpower staffing.

  14. MEDICAL ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL JET AIR TRAVEL

    PubMed Central

    Leeds, M. Frederick

    1959-01-01

    Jet aircraft will further enhance the medically safe and comfortable transportation of persons with disease. Experience in military medicine, substantiated by civilian commercial air travel experience, has already proved that transportation of sick or disabled persons in propeller-driven planes is essentially benign. Certain restrictions are necessary regarding carriage of sick passengers on commercial aircraft whether jet-propelled or of propeller type. These restrictions are primarily related to the comfort of fellow passengers and to the nonmedical environment of commercial airliners rather than to any risk of air travel per se. PMID:13638839

  15. [The new seniors. Sociological and medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Mermet, G

    2005-11-01

    Medical progress has led to a spectacular increase in life expectancy. The world population is ageing in a context of rapid technological change destabilizing individuals and societies in their values and functions to such a point that it is Leading to a true change in civilization. Seniors have become important socio-economic players with a feeling of prolonged youth and autonomy. Globalization has generated a feeling of insecurity and a constantly growing need for more information. In the face of these changes, adaptation in rhythm ranges, according to the individual, from reticence in its extreme form, the principle of precaution, through fatalistic passivity to opportunistic enthusiasm. In the medical field, patients have access to all modern means of information, and the most well-informed tend to behave more or less consciously as healthcare consumers, modifying the relationship with doctors which may become a service provider-client type relationship. A new relation to the body and with others has appeared with desires and also performance obligations. The difficulties of adaptation to this complex and socially anxiogenic world are expressed by permanent social conflicts and the increasing recourse to individual psychotherapeutic support.

  16. [Commercial sex work: psychiatric and medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Ben-Zion, Itzhak Z; Zudakov, Bella; Zwikel, July; Belmaker, Haim R

    2004-01-01

    Commercial sex work has many medical and psychiatric implications. In recent years many papers on this matter have been published. However, many of these articles are based on opinions rather then on empiric fieldwork. Sex workers in the western world are not a major source of spread of venereal diseases. Nonetheless, it is important for medical decision makers to be aware of the health risks related to commercial sex work habits: for example. avoidance of condoms for oral sex, might be a risk factor for gonorrhea transmission. In field studies in Israel and abroad, it has been shown that sex workers are not always drug addicts or mentally ill; many of them see it as a legitimate form of work that is dictated by their needs, their social, personal and familial background. Commercial sex workers frequently suffer from emotional and somatic health problems that are often neglected. This review intends to examine the few empirical works that have been conducted on commercial sex workers. including our recent study performed in Israel.

  17. Laser safety aspects for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Shimon

    2003-12-01

    Most applications of lasers in medicine are based on the producing of a controlled thermal damage into a preferably tissue location. Laser safety deals with non controlled damage (thermal or other) that could be randomly produced into a non preferable tissue locations. This kind of damage is not allowed and the laser safety material is designed to provide the user with a knowledge and with sufficient safety instructions and means to prevent such damage. Following the laser safety instructions is especially important for the medical applications because in these applications the laser beam is brought in a close proximity to the patient's body and non-desired damage can be easily produced. Most medical lasers are classified as Class 4 laser products, the highest hazard class. Direct laser beam of class 4 is capable to produce skin burns and to ignite flammable materials, and even its scattered beam may produce severe eye damage. The paper presents the nature of the skin and eye damage for different spectral range, and the state of the art rules in preventing such damage. The safety means that should be implemented in, and around, the laser clinique and in the laser surgery room will also be highlighted.

  18. [[Selected legal aspects related to medical practice].

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, M

    1998-01-01

    The question of the physician's liability, both that of civil as well as penal law nature--is always emotionally approached. Dynamic development of medical and biological sciences as well as technics is the cause of progress but it also gives rise to the increase of hazards or abuses in medical therapy. If we speak of the therapeutic intervention being originally legal we mean that it is carried out in compliance with the principles of medical art. In such circumstances, even though the intervention resulted in negative effects, the intervening physician cannot be made penally liable. Civil law liability, in its turn, may have either ex contractu or ex delictu basis. When the general prerequisites of this kind of liability are present, the intervening physician (Art. 353 or 415 of Civil Code) or the State Treasury (Art. 417 of Civil Code) may be made liable for causing damage, joint and several liability of the physician and the Treasury being also possible (Art. 420 of Civil Code). The carrying out of therapeutic intervention without the law required consent of the patient may lead--on the basis of Polish law--to the physician's civil law liability for the infringement of the patient's personal interests even though the intervention ended in success (Articles 23 and 24 of Civil Code). From the point of view of Polish penal law such situation may cause the physician's penal liability for the offence against freedom (Art. 192 of Penal Code). The euthanatic homicide should be, and in Polish law, is an offence. Considering the potential abuses arising from making the euthanasia legal, penal law whose major function is that of the guarantee nature, must ensure safeguards vis-à-vis life to the utmost limit. Polish Legislator shows, however, full understanding of the extremely difficult and conflict-generating situation in which the individual committing euthanatic homicide may find himself. Hence, in section 2 of Art. 150 of Penal Code the Legislator declared that "in

  19. [Assisted suicide - medical, legal, and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Bosshard, G

    2012-02-01

    Unlike in most European countries, assisted suicide is not illegal in Switzerland. The number of assisted suicides procured by right-to-die organisations such as Exit or Dignitas has sharply increased in the last twenty years. Central part of the doctor's involvement is the prescription of a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital. In doing so, the doctor has to apply to the rules of medical due care. A proper examination of the patient is required, who must be informed about his diagnosis, about the expected prognosis, and about different treatment options. Verification of the patient's decisional capacity is crucial. In general, a staff member of the organisation but not the doctor is present during suicide. Following death, the assisted suicide has to be reported to the police as an extraordinary death case.

  20. Workers' medication as occupational risk at construction site with formworks.

    PubMed

    López-Arquillos, Antonio; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; López-Arquillos, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Accidents in the construction sector are a cause for concern. The influence of many different factors in construction accidents have been studied (age, company size, length of service, deviation, drugs or alcohol consumption, etc.) but the influence of medicinal substances in specific construction activities has not been evaluated until now. The aim of the research presented here is to identify the effect of different medicinal substances on the occupational risk levels of construction activities with formworks. An expert panel was selected in order to quantify the individual risk of each medication for each individual construction activity. Results showed that narcotics, antipsychotics, and hypnotics had the highest risk values, and the use of cranes and cutting materials were considered the most dangerous activities for a medicated worker. Data obtained in this research can help reduce the negative effects of the substances studied on the occupational safety of construction workers. A better knowledge of the risk levels according to the current capabilities of workers under the effects of medication is a powerful tool in planning safer construction activities.

  1. Occupational Medical Trends in the 70's from Industrial View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Industrial health measures to ensure worker productivity constitute physical examinations as well as environmental control systems. Considered are automatic record keeping facilities for case histories, preventive medical and mental counselling, development of safety standards, and health insurance and disability benefit plans. Cooperation of industry health programs with community health aspects is required to eliminate the loss of manpower capability through alcoholism or mental disease.

  2. Occupational Medical Trends in the 70's from Industrial View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Industrial health measures to ensure worker productivity constitute physical examinations as well as environmental control systems. Considered are automatic record keeping facilities for case histories, preventive medical and mental counselling, development of safety standards, and health insurance and disability benefit plans. Cooperation of industry health programs with community health aspects is required to eliminate the loss of manpower capability through alcoholism or mental disease.

  3. The History, Biology and Medical Aspects of Leprosy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Presents information about the history, biology, and medical aspects of leprosy, including its description in historical documents, its cause and effects, statistics on its prevalence, and various attempts at treatment. Notes that leprosy is one of the few infectious diseases that, although treatable with medication, remains incurable. Contains 30…

  4. The History, Biology and Medical Aspects of Leprosy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Presents information about the history, biology, and medical aspects of leprosy, including its description in historical documents, its cause and effects, statistics on its prevalence, and various attempts at treatment. Notes that leprosy is one of the few infectious diseases that, although treatable with medication, remains incurable. Contains 30…

  5. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  6. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  7. [Occupational aspects of epidemiology of overweight: contemporary tendencies and prospects of prophylaxis (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The review article covers occupational aspects of overweight as one of the major behavioral risk factors in many diseases. As this topic is undercovered by the national studies, the review considers the foreign works more. The authors present main concepts of work process influence on overweight and of prophylactic leverages on this influence.

  8. [FREQUENCY AND MEDICAL SOCIAL ASPECTS PREMATURE BIRTH].

    PubMed

    Sandeva, M; Uchikova, E

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth (PB) remains an unresolved problem, despite progress in prenatal medicine and the introduction of new methods and techniques of prolonged respiratory resuscitation in recent decades. Premature birth is the cause of 70% of neonatal mortality and 50% of long-term neurological complications in newborns, many of whom debilitating. Notwithstanding the significant progress prenatal care in the last twenty years in developed countries is a trend towards a gradual and continuous increase in premature births. PB is not only medical but also social problem. Despite the efforts of the scientific and practical obstetrics and modern tocolytic therapy, the rate of premature births in the last decade reduced. The causes of preterm birth are multifactorial and vary depending on gestational age, genetic factors and environmental factors. The long-term consequences of premature birth bear behind not only economic but also social problems. In many developing countries, premature birth is a major cause of disability. Clinical studies in recent years have been aimed at creating a comprehensive therapeutic algorithm behavior in premature births in order to reduce their frequency, especially for those born weighing less than 1000g.

  9. Aspects of coverage in medical DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wendl, Michael C; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA sequencing is now emerging as an important component in biomedical studies of diseases like cancer. Short-read, highly parallel sequencing instruments are expected to be used heavily for such projects, but many design specifications have yet to be conclusively established. Perhaps the most fundamental of these is the redundancy required to detect sequence variations, which bears directly upon genomic coverage and the consequent resolving power for discerning somatic mutations. Results We address the medical sequencing coverage problem via an extension of the standard mathematical theory of haploid coverage. The expected diploid multi-fold coverage, as well as its generalization for aneuploidy are derived and these expressions can be readily evaluated for any project. The resulting theory is used as a scaling law to calibrate performance to that of standard BAC sequencing at 8× to 10× redundancy, i.e. for expected coverages that exceed 99% of the unique sequence. A differential strategy is formalized for tumor/normal studies wherein tumor samples are sequenced more deeply than normal ones. In particular, both tumor alleles should be detected at least twice, while both normal alleles are detected at least once. Our theory predicts these requirements can be met for tumor and normal redundancies of approximately 26× and 21×, respectively. We explain why these values do not differ by a factor of 2, as might intuitively be expected. Future technology developments should prompt even deeper sequencing of tumors, but the 21× value for normal samples is essentially a constant. Conclusion Given the assumptions of standard coverage theory, our model gives pragmatic estimates for required redundancy. The differential strategy should be an efficient means of identifying potential somatic mutations for further study. PMID:18485222

  10. Intercountry adoptions: medical aspects for the whole family.

    PubMed

    Grogg, Stanley E; Grogg, Barbara C

    2007-11-01

    In the United States, the number of intercountry adoptions has steadily increased in the past 15 years. Healthcare providers should understand the medical aspects of such adoptions in order to better advise families and aid them in making an informed decision when adopting a foreign-born child. Pretravel consultation is addressed, including immunizations, safety issues, and how to create a personalized prophylactic medical travel kit. Review of pictures, videos, and the medical history of the potential adoptive child is also discussed, as is air travel with children. Postemigration medical examinations-including developmental and psychosocial evaluations, general work-up with laboratory studies, and immunizations-are outlined. This article reviews the medical aspects of intercountry adoption for adoptive parents in the United States. The osteopathic approach of caring for the whole family lends itself to advising families on intercountry adoptions.

  11. A Primer on Aspects of Cognition for Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vimla L.; Arocha, José F.; Kaufman, David R.

    2001-01-01

    As a multidisciplinary field, medical informatics draws on a range of disciplines, such as computer science, information science, and the social and cognitive sciences. The cognitive sciences can provide important insights into the nature of the processes involved in human– computer interaction and help improve the design of medical information systems by providing insight into the roles that knowledge, memory, and strategies play in a variety of cognitive activities. In this paper, the authors survey literature on aspects of medical cognition and provide a set of claims that they consider to be important in medical informatics. PMID:11418539

  12. [Terminal medical interventions: psychosocial, medical, ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Englert, M; Ronson, A; Lossignol, D; Body, J J

    2001-04-01

    We give an overview of the available medical solutions to help a patient with refractory symptoms at the end of his life. Patient "competence" must first be evaluated and, even if their diagnosis is difficult, organic mental disorders and depression must be diagnosed and adequately treated to allow a real, personal and honest dialog. Administration of high doses of morphine is frequently used at the end of life not only to fully relieve pain but also to accelerate death, even if this is not clearly stated. This technique is not devoid of hypocrisy and high doses of morphine can have quite unpleasant side effects. Treatment withdrawal or withholding is generally not sufficient to allow a correct end of life. The arrest of ventilation, dialysis, artificial nutrition and even more hydration must often be coupled with techniques inducing unconsciousness, which makes imprecise the limits between such a "passive" ending of life and "active" euthanasia. The technique of terminal sedation, frequently based on the use of midazolam, has been more recently introduced in some palliative care units. Such a "controlled sedation" is supposed to allow a "natural" death by inducing a profound sleep. In opposition with active euthanasia, which allows a quiet and rapid death at a moment chosen by the patient himself, this technique of "sedation" has an undetermined duration, has legal implications which could be viewed as quite similar as the ones of euthanasia, and, moreover, this prolonged agony can be extremely stressful and distressing for the family. Medical-assisted suicide is allowed in The Netherlands under the same conditions as euthanasia. Death is generally obtained after a few hours but the technique is not always successful and the process of death can sometimes be prolonged and uncomfortable. This technique can nevertheless be preferred by some physicians and patients. As compared to active euthanasia, the proportion of medically-assisted suicides (1/6) is low in The

  13. [Telematics--a challenge for the medical occupational law].

    PubMed

    Nitz, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    Telematics offer new possibilities to all fields of medical activity. This has numerous legal implications. From the point of view of occupational law, the prohibition of remote treatment and the doctor-patient confidentiality are of particular interest. An analysis of paragraph 7 subparagraph 3 of the Physicians' Professional Ordinance (MBO) shows that the prohibition of remote treatment is no obstacle to applications of telemedicine, as long as there is at least one personal contact between a physician and the patient (including an adequate physical examination during a multistage treatment) and an assessment of remote treatment shows no medical shortcomings. Doctor-patient confidentiality and data protection law (section 9 MBO and section 203 StGB) safeguard the informational self-determination of the patient. Before transferring patient health data to a third party, the physician has to check whether an anonymous or pseudonymous transfer is possible. The transfer requires a preferably written consent of the patient. In case personal data transfer between physicians is necessary for medical purposes, the legal preconditions correspond to those of doctor-patient confidentiality. It is controversial in which cases the patient's consent has to be declared in written form. For documentation purposes, however, the written form is recommended. Transfer of patient data has to be effected using technical data protection means such as up-to-date encryption and electronic signatures.

  14. Progeria: Medical Aspects, Psychosocial Perspectives, and Intervention Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses progeria (or Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome), a rare childhood disorder that invariably results in death during adolescence. Describes the major medical aspects of progeria, and discusses the psychosocial implications of the disorder with particular emphasis on grief-triggered reactions. Presents an overview of psychosocial intervention…

  15. Medical and Sociocultural Aspects of Disability. Section III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Herbert L.; And Others

    This document contains four papers, discussing medical and sociocultural aspects of disability, presented at a national conference on the nonwhite disabled. In "Some Observations on Blacks and Physical Disability," Thornhill and Torres note the higher prevalence of physical disability among blacks and cite the example of more frequent lower…

  16. Medical and Sociocultural Aspects of Disability. Section III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Herbert L.; And Others

    This document contains four papers, discussing medical and sociocultural aspects of disability, presented at a national conference on the nonwhite disabled. In "Some Observations on Blacks and Physical Disability," Thornhill and Torres note the higher prevalence of physical disability among blacks and cite the example of more frequent lower…

  17. Progeria: Medical Aspects, Psychosocial Perspectives, and Intervention Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses progeria (or Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome), a rare childhood disorder that invariably results in death during adolescence. Describes the major medical aspects of progeria, and discusses the psychosocial implications of the disorder with particular emphasis on grief-triggered reactions. Presents an overview of psychosocial intervention…

  18. An occupational preference model of turnover behaviour: the case of Israel's medical sector employees.

    PubMed

    Mano-Negrin, R

    2001-01-01

    Occupational preferences and subsequent turnover behaviour are part of a complex relationship between employees and their occupational and organizational labour markets. Both markets contribute to matching skills and jobs. Differences in individual and occupational attributes can predict the direction and intensity of preferences for alternative organizations, occupations and job locations. Occupational preferences, which reflect the attractiveness of alternative positions within and outside the employing organization, are examined as central antecedents of occupation-specific turnover behaviour. The results of a logistic regression analysis, based on a cross-sectional occupational representative data set of 700 medical sector employees and a follow-up sample of 81 "quitters" suggest that turnover behaviour is influenced by organizational and occupational employment opportunities and occupational preferences.

  19. [Legal and social aspects of voluntary medical insurance].

    PubMed

    Lindenbraten, A L; Dubodelova, N K; Timofeeva, T A; Parfenov, E O

    2005-01-01

    The structure and functions of voluntary medical insurance (VMI) as observed in Orenburg Region are analyzed in the paper. The held marketing research pointed at problematic aspects of VMI as well as at short-comings in information support; besides, potential sectors of the market of medical services were defined, which are rendered on the basis of VMI contracts--they should be considered in the development of complex and individual VMI programs for the purpose of meeting, as full as possible, the demands of potential consumers as well as for the purpose of optimizing the financial and price policy of insurance medical organizations (IMO) in the market etc. Data that were obtained in the course of complex multi-field research served as a basis for elaborating advanced programs for the promotion of VMI in the territory of Orenburg Region as well as for working out proposals targeted at optimizing the VMI performance in the market of medical services.

  20. Occupational Safety and Health Symposia (37th American Medical Association Congress on Occupational Health. St. Louis, Missouri, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Bruce E.; And Others

    The papers compiled here were presented at the fourth symposium in a series designed to provide a continuing introduction to current aspects of occupational safety and health. The papers represent eight topics: (1) special health programs, (2) degenerative disease and injury of the back, (3) job stress and work performance, (4) role of industry in…

  1. Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"

    PubMed Central

    Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline. PMID:22953225

  2. Reduction of farmers' postural load during occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nevala-Puranen, N

    1995-12-01

    Farmers' back problems may be associated with the amount of back flexion and the handling of heavy loads. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation courses on female farmers' postural load. Twenty seven female farmers (aged from 32 to 52 years) took part in four rehabilitation courses at one rehabilitation centre in Finland. The subjects suffered from various musculoskeletal symptoms, which decreased their work ability. The rehabilitation courses included two periods: the first lasted for 3 weeks and the latter for 1 week, organized 6 months after the first period. The work postures and their load on the musculoskeletal system were classified by the computerized OWAS method in three daily work phases. During the 3-week periods new work techniques were learned, and simultaneous bent and twisted postures for the back decreased from 34 to 4% of all studied work postures. Similarly, postures with one or both arms above shoulder level were reduced from 44 to 24%. Rechecking after the 6-month period confirmed that the adoption of new work techniques was consistent. The study showed that female farmers could change their work techniques during this kind of intensive rehabilitation period, and the changes were seen 6 months later in the follow-up.

  3. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in a medical center autopsy service

    SciTech Connect

    Coldiron, V.R.; Ward, J.B. Jr.; Trieff, N.M.; Janssen, H.E. Jr.; Smith, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    The formaldehyde exposures occurring in the autopsy service of a medical complex were evaluated as part of a study to detect genetically harmful effects of chemical exposures. Determination of time-weighted average (TWA) exposures and characterization of the patterns of exposure experienced by individuals with different work responsibilities in this occupational setting were sought. Both general area and breathing zone samples were evaluated. Estimated weekly time-weighted average exposures for pathologists, residents and technicians were determined to be between 0.61 and 1.32 parts per million with little difference between work roles. While the averages were similar, the patterns of exposure of technicians and physicians were different. Technicians were exposed to a baseline level of formaldehyde for a prolonged period of time. In contrast, physicians were exposed for shorter times but experienced higher levels during specific tasks, particularly tissue-sectioning and examination. Evaluations of work procedures and environmental conditions in autopsy services are recommended to reduce personnel exposure to formaldehyde vapor.

  4. [Medical and psychological aspects of safety measures maintenance among nuclear and power station personnel].

    PubMed

    Ipatov, P L; Sorokin, A V; Basov, V I

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with 15-year experience of medical and psychophysiologic service in Medical and Sanitary Establishment No. 156 and Balakovo nuclear power station on providing reliability of occupational activities for the station personnel.

  5. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  6. Medical ethics, clinical research, and special aspects in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Corrao, S; Arnone, G; Arnone, S; Baldari, S

    2004-09-01

    Medical ethics is the science of survival. It studies the working out of judgments on right or wrong referred to the human being as a biological entity interacting with the whole ecosystem. Medical ethics in clinical research raises numerous moral and technical issues. Methodological aspects are essential for carrying out the aim of clinical research. Medical ethics documents are inspired by the Nuremberg Code and culminate in the recently updated Helsinki Declaration of 1964. In Italy 2 ministerial decrees in 1997 and 1998 laid the basis for the work of a medical ethics committee. They acknowledge the European Good Clinical Practice Guidelines and set professional needs within ethical committees. In clinical research the use of ionising radiation merits special consideration. In the recent past, serious human rights abuses in radiation experiments of the 1950s and 1960s have been found. As regards research in this field we can refer to the publication of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and to the report of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Legislative decree no. 187 of May 26, 2000, which transposed the 97/43/ EURATOM Directive represents the most comprehensive and recent normative reference to clinical research using ionising radiation. However, law no. 39 of March 1, 2002 is important for the partial modifications of previous decrees (art. 108 of L.D. no. 230 of March 17, 1995 and, art. 4 and attachment III of L.D. no. 187 of May 26). In this paper medical ethics, research, methodological issues and aspects of ionizing radiation are discussed.

  7. [Scientific activities of Occupational Medicine Department with St Petersburg Medical Academy for Postgraduate Education].

    PubMed

    Retnev, V M; Shliakhetskiĭ, N S; Ivanova, F A; Petruk, Iu A; Dedkova, L E; Boĭko, I V; Milutka, E V; Karulina, O A; Shimanskaia, T G

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with materials devoted to 80th anniversary of scientific activities of Occupational Medicine Department with St Petersburg Medical Academy for Postgraduate Education. Theoretic, scientifical and practical data on achievements on various stages of longstanding history are presented. The authors prove the research carried by the Department to be important and promising for occupational hygiene and industrial medicine.

  8. [Niccolo Paganini: medical aspects of his life and work].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo; Navarrete T, Luz; Zúñiga N, Gonzalo

    2008-07-01

    Niccolo Paganini is the most virtuous violinist of the history of music. He even received the nick name of "the violinist of the evil" for his outstanding skills on stage performance. It has been suggested that he had syphilis and tuberculosis, the commonest diseases of that time, but this hypothesis remains speculative. There are suggestions that he was the victim of iatrogenic mercurial poisoning. Furthermore, his body build suggests the presence of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome which could give him special anatomical conditions allowing him to achieve an amazing level of vírtuousness in his art. We herein review the medical aspects of this brilliant musician's life.

  9. Incorporating an environmental/occupational medicine theme into the medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Goldman, R H; Rosenwasser, S; Armstrong, E

    1999-01-01

    Medical schools have been slow in teaching students how to recognize and intervene in occupationally and environmentally related illnesses. In this article, we report on the efforts at one medical school, in which an occupational medicine physician teamed with medical school educators developed, implemented, and evaluated an environmental/occupational medicine (EOM) curriculum that was introduced in several locations, using a thematic approach. This effort resulted in new EOM content being added to eight core courses in a developmental sequence and the creation of several elective experiences. We describe techniques and strategies that might be useful at other institutions in promoting the EOM theme and improving communication. Occupational/environmental physicians and educators can play leadership roles in raising interest in EOM within the medical school setting and in developing and implementing an EOM curriculum.

  10. Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, G.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation.

  11. Operational and design aspects of accelerators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Seidel, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Originally, the typical particle accelerators as well as their associated beam transport equipment were designed for particle and nuclear physics research and applications in isotope production. In the past few decades, such accelerators and related equipment have also been applied for medical use. This can be in the original physics laboratory environment, but for the past 20 years also in hospital-based or purely clinical environments for particle therapy. The most important specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational, and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the technical requirements, safety aspects, and required reliability of the accelerated beam differ substantially from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. It will be shown that this difference has significant implications on the safety and interlock systems. The operation of such a medical facility should be possible by nonaccelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). The organization and role of the control and interlock systems can be considered as being the most crucially important issue, and therefore a special, dedicated design is absolutely necessary in a facility providing particle therapy.

  12. [Monitoring of hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in infectious disease hospital].

    PubMed

    Xie, Manxia; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Yimei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the status and risk factors for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in an infectious disease hospital, and to provide a scientific basis for targeted preventive and control measures. The occupational exposure of 395 medical workers in our hospital was monitored from January 2012 to December 2014, among whom 79 individuals with occupational exposure were subjected to intervention and the risk factors for occupational exposure were analyzed. The high-risk group was mainly the nursing staff (69.6%). The incidence of hematogenous occupational exposure was high in medical personnel with a working age under 3 years, aged under 25 years, and at the infection ward, accounting for 63.3%, 72.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Treponema pallidum, and human immunodeficiency virus were the primary exposure sources. Sharp injury was the major way of injury (91.1%), with needle stick injury accounting for the highest proportion (86.1%). Injury occurred on the hand most frequently (91.1%). The high-risk links were improper disposal during or after pulling the needle, re-capturing the needle, and processing waste, accounting for 46.8%, 17.7%, and 12.7%, respectively. Seventy-nine professionals with occupational exposure were not infected. The main risk factor for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in the infectious disease hospital is needle stick injury. Strengthening the occupational protection education in medical staff in infectious disease hospital, implementing protective measures, standardizing operating procedures in high-risk links, and enhancing the supervision mechanism can reduce the incidence of occupational exposure and infection after exposure.

  13. Workers are people too: societal aspects of occupational health disparities--an ecosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2010-02-01

    Workers are people too. What else is new? This seemingly self-evident proposition, however, takes on new meaning when considering the challenging and deeply important issue of occupational health disparities--the topic that is the focus of 12 articles in this special issue of the American Journal of Industrial Medicine. In this commentary, I highlight some of the myriad ways that societal determinants of health intertwine with each and every aspect of occupation-related health inequities, as analyzed from an ecosocial perspective. The engagement extends from basic surveillance to etiologic research, from conceptualization and measurement of variables to analysis and interpretation of data, from causal inference to preventive action, and from the political economy of work to the political economy of health. A basic point is that who is employed (or not) in what kinds of jobs, with what kinds of exposures, what kinds of treatment, and what kinds of job stability, benefits, and pay-as well as what evidence exists about these conditions and what action is taken to address them-depends on societal context. At issue are diverse aspects of people's social location within their societies, in relation to their jointly experienced-and embodied-realities of socioeconomic position, race/ethnicity, nationality, nativity, immigration and citizen status, age, gender, and sexuality, among others. Reviewing the papers' findings, I discuss the scientific and real-world action challenges they pose. Recommendations include better conceptualization and measurement of socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity and also use of the health and human rights framework to further the public health mission of ensuring the conditions that enable people-including workers-to live healthy and dignified lives.

  14. Occupational Health Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Medical Training Inst., Bethesda, MD.

    This manual is designed to be used for "Administrative Aspects of Occupational Medicine," one of two officer correspondence courses offered by the Naval Medical Training Institute. Part one comprises guidelines for setting up occupational health clinics, covering the areas of staffing, layout, equipment, other services, and records…

  15. [Occupational risk factors and medical prevention in corrections officers].

    PubMed

    Mennoial, Nunzio Valerio; Napoli, Paola; Battaglia, Andrea; Candura, Stefano M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the Law n. 395/1990 defines the tasks and attributions of prison officers. According to the article 25 of the Legislative Decree n. 81/2008, the occupational physician should participate to risk assessment, and carry out the sanitary surveillance. This report analyzes the various tasks of prison staff, identifies the risk factors, and discusses the preventive strategies, including workers formation and education. Biological agents and work-related stress are the main risk factors, as a consequence of prison overcrowding, personnel shortage and work organization complexity. In his preventive action, and particularly in formulating the judgment on work fitness, the occupational physician often clashes with inadequate ministerial funding.

  16. Medical Laboratory Services. Student's Manual. Cluster Core for Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Catherine

    This student's manual on medical laboratory services is one of a series of self-contained, individualized materials for students enrolled in training within the allied health field. It includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills common to several occupations in the medical laboratory. The material is intended for use…

  17. Navy Occupational Health Information Management System (NOHIMS). Medical Exam Scheduling Module. Users’ Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-16

    Management System (HOHIMS) Industrial Hygiene (IH) Component database in order to perform these functions: (1) enroll and remove employees from Medical...The Medical Examination Scheduling (MES) module consists of a list of options that allow users to access the Navy Occupational Health Information

  18. Navy Occupational Health Information Management System (NOHIMS). Medical Exam Scheduling Module. Operators’ Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-16

    Management System (NOHIMS) Industrial Hygiene (IH) Component database in order to perform these functions: (1) enroll and remove employees from Medical...The Medical Examination Scheduling (MES) module consists of a list of options that allow users to access the Navy Occupational Health Information

  19. The Marei Ika Daigaku (Syonan Medical College) during the Japanese occupation of Singapore (1942-1945).

    PubMed

    Cheah, J S; Tay, G

    1997-12-01

    During the Japanese Occupation of Singapore (1942-1945), Singapore was renamed Syonan (or Syonanto). The Japanese Military Administration established The Medical College on 27 April 2603 (1943) and it was known as The Marei Ika Daigaku or Syonan Medical College. It was sited at the Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Hakua Byoin). The Ika Daigaku relocated to the General Hospital, Malacca in February 2604 (1944) where it functioned till the end of the Japanese Occupation in September 1945. About 200 students from Singapore, Malaya, Sumatra and Java attended the Syonan Medical College; the students were taught mainly Japanese language and culture.

  20. Philip King Brown and Arequipa Sanatorium: early occupational therapy as medical and social experiment.

    PubMed

    Harley, Lilas; Schwartz, Kathleen Barker

    2013-01-01

    Historical inquiry enriches occupational therapy practice by identifying enduring values and inspiring future excellence. This study presents for the first time the pioneering life and work of Philip King Brown, a San Francisco physician who used occupation to treat the physical, mental, and social effects of tuberculosis (TB) at Arequipa Sanatorium, the institution he founded in 1911. Through textual analysis of the Arequipa Sanatorium Records, this article evaluates and defends Brown's assertion that his institution was medically and socially experimental. The Arequipa Sanatorium promoted occupational therapy by demonstrating its viability in the treatment of TB, the era's most critical health threat. It also put into practice the ideals of holism, humanism, and occupational justice that resonate within the profession today. Finally, Arequipa provided an example of how an occupation program can change the public perception of disability.

  1. [Rotator cuff diseases in occupational medicine between occupational diseases and accidents: medical-legal considerations].

    PubMed

    Spigno, F; Galli, R; Casali, C; Lagattolla, N; De Lucchi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors have gone through the complaints concerning all the cases of shoulder accidents at work filed by the Genoa office of the Italian Workers' National compensation Agency (INAIL) during the two years' period 2006-2007, reviewing in particular those somehow affecting rotator components. The aim of this paper is to assess the real role played by the occupational trauma in the rotator cuff tear. The data gathered so far have shown, on the one hand, a high prevalence of pre-existing inflammatory and degenerative diseases and, on the other, a rather modest influence of the trauma which, for this reason, has usually borne, as an immediate medico-legal consequence, the rejection of a cause-effect relationship between the accident and the rotator cuff lesion, without taking into any account whether the worker was likely to be affected by an occupational disease (ex table Ministerial Decree n. 81 April 9th 2008- item 78). In such cases a systematic and in-depth investigation of the occupational case history is suggested, in order to highlight the possible pre-existence of a former biomechanical overload of the upper limbs, so as to allow the physician to detect a pathology often misdiagnosed.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  3. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  4. [The social and medicolegal aspects of maternal request or non-medically indicated cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Fisher, Menachem; Shrem, David; Solt, Ido

    2013-07-01

    Patient choice cesarean or cesarean by maternal request/ demand is a controversial issue. The medical literature contains evidence based data on the medical aspects of patient choice cesarean, risks and benefits to the mother and her newborn. Fewer studies focused on the social and legal aspects of patient choice cesarean. This opinion paper discusses the social and legal aspects of patient choice cesarean.

  5. Medical Error Disclosure and Patient Safety: Legal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Guillod, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the number of preventable adverse events has become a public health issue. The paper discusses in which ways the law can contribute to that goal, especially by encouraging a culture of safety among healthcare professionals. It assesses the need or the usefulness to pass so-called disclosure laws and apology laws, to adopt mandatory but strictly confidential Critical Incidents Reporting Systems in hospitals, to change the fault-based system of medical liability or to amend the rules on criminal liability. The paper eventually calls for adding the law to the present agenda of patient safety. Significance for public health The extent of preventable adverse events and the correlative need to improve patient safety are recognized today as a public health issue. In order to lower the toll associated with preventable adverse events, the former culture of professionalism (based on the premise that a good physician doesn’t make mistakes) must be replaced by a culture of safety, which requires a multi-pronged approach that includes all the main stakeholders within the healthcare system. A number of legal reforms could help in prompting such a change. This contribution stresses the need to include legal aspects when trying to find appropriate responses to public health issues. PMID:25170502

  6. An ecological perspective on medical care: environmental, occupational, and public health impacts of medical supply and pharmaceutical chains.

    PubMed

    Vatovec, Christine; Senier, Laura; Bell, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Healthcare organizations are increasingly examining the impacts of their facilities and operations on the natural environment, their workers, and the broader community, but the ecological impacts of specific healthcare services provided within these institutions have not been assessed. This paper provides a qualitative assessment of healthcare practices that takes into account the life-cycle impacts of a variety of materials used in typical medical care. We conducted an ethnographic study of three medical inpatient units: a conventional cancer ward, palliative care unit, and a hospice center. Participant observations (73 participants) of healthcare and support staff including physicians, nurses, housekeepers, and administrators were made to inventory materials and document practices used in patient care. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into common practices. We identified three major domains that highlight the cumulative environmental, occupational health, and public health impacts of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals used at our research sites: (1) medical supply procurement; (2) generation, handling, and disposal of medical waste; and (3) pharmaceutical handling and disposal. Impacts discovered through ethnographic inquiry included occupational exposures to chemotherapy and infectious waste, and public health exposures to pharmaceutical waste. This study provides new insight into the environmental, occupational, and public health impacts resulting from medical practices. In many cases, the lack of clear guidance and regulations regarding environmental impacts contributed to elevated harms to the natural environment, workers, and the broader community.

  7. [Rehabilitation after occupational accidents in professional dancers: advice with due regard to dance specific aspects].

    PubMed

    Wanke, E M; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

    2012-08-01

    The highly specialized occupation of professional dancers is a combination of sport and artistic expression. The exertion is only possible with a fully operative body. Although professional dancers may be compared with elite athletes and acute injuries frequently happen, dancers do not seem to be granted an appropriate therapy after accidents as compared with athletes. Although even minor injuries may potentially endanger the career of a professional dancer, physiotherapeutic or physical treatment methods are applied in every tenth case only. Alternative and holistic concepts such as Pilates or dance-specific re-integration that proved successful in professional dancers, are used in even fewer instances. The aim of this study is to develop a rehabilitation concept for professional dancers focusing on dance-medicine aspects. It has been taken into account that the best physical outcomes are reflected in an optimized, holistic, dance-specific therapy and rehabilitation. Intensifying and exploiting dance-specific methods of treatment can not only reduce costs in the end but can even contribute to reducing the duration of rehabilitation after injuries of dancers. Preconditions for realization of the rehabilitative model are a high qualification of all persons working in the rehabilitative field as well as a marked willingness to cooperate in the various dance fields. Both gender-specific and dance-style particularities are to be taken into account to ensure a successful rehabilitation.

  8. Skylab mission report, second visit. [postflight analysis of engineering, experimentation, and medical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the second Skylab flight. Other areas described include: the performance of experimental hardware; the crew's evaluation of the flight; medical aspects; and hardware anomalies.

  9. Medical expenditures associated with nonfatal occupational injuries among immigrant and U.S.-born workers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Huiyun; Shi, Junxin; Lu, Bo; Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Wilkins, J R; Smith, Gary A

    2012-08-20

    No national study has investigated whether immigrant workers are less likely than U.S.-workers to seek medical treatment after occupational injuries and whether the payment source differs between two groups. Using the 2004-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, we estimated the annual incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries per 100 workers. Logistic regression models were fitted to test whether injured immigrant workers were less likely than U.S.-born workers to seek professional medical treatment after occupational injuries. We also estimated the average mean medical expenditures per injured worker during the 2 year MEPS reference period using linear regression analysis, adjusting for gender, age, race, marital status, education, poverty level, and insurance. Types of service and sources of payment were compared between U.S.-born and immigrant workers. A total of 1,909 injured U.S.-born workers reported 2,176 occupational injury events and 508 injured immigrant workers reported 560 occupational injury events. The annual nonfatal incidence rate per 100 workers was 4.0% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.3%) for U.S.-born workers and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.6%-3.3%) for immigrant workers. Medical treatment was sought after 77.3% (95% CI: 75.1%-79.4%) of the occupational injuries suffered by U.S.-born workers and 75.6% (95% CI: 69.8%-80.7%) of the occupational injuries suffered by immigrant workers. The average medical expenditure per injured worker in the 2 year MEPS reference period was $2357 for the U.S.-born workers and $2,351 for immigrant workers (in 2009 U.S. dollars, P = 0.99). Workers' compensation paid 57.0% (95% CI: 49.4%-63.6%) of the total expenditures for U.S.-born workers and 43.2% (95% CI: 33.0%-53.7%) for immigrant workers. U.S.-born workers paid 6.7% (95% CI: 5.5%-8.3%) and immigrant workers paid 7.1% (95% CI: 5.2%-9.6%) out-of-pocket. Immigrant workers had a statistically significant lower incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries than U

  10. An Occupational Health Nursing Computer Application in Medical Care: An Army Approach

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Mary K.

    1983-01-01

    Occupational health nursing has become an increasingly important specialty in the field of nursing during this century. In the broadest concept, occupational health is concerned with all factors which influence the health of people at work. Nurses, as well as other health care professionals, are attempting to apply the evolving technology of the computer to direct client care applications in the workplace. One such relevant use of the computer has been that of targeted disease surveillance in an occupational health setting. This paper will address the process utilized by community health nurses to assess, plan, implement and evaluate a computerized disease surveillance program in an occupational health setting. The program was a joint effort between the United States Army Medical Department Activity, Fort Irwin, California and the Epidemiology Consultant Service of the Division of Preventive Medicine, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC. (WRAIR).

  11. [The physiological aspects of the occupational orientation of adolescents mastering the job of printer].

    PubMed

    Iamshchikova, N L; Kuchma, V R

    1995-01-01

    The study covered occupation of printer and revealed the leading psychophysiologic functions and features resulting in successful mastering the occupation and the efficient future work. The evaluation also involved influence of the professional training schedule and conditions on health state and intellect of the trainees. The authors established methodic approaches to forecast progress of teenagers, training for being printer and some recommendations to orientate adolescents to the occupation.

  12. [Legal aspects of selling medical products by gynecologists].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Monika; Spaczyński, Robert Z

    2013-07-01

    Sales and distribution of medical products and drugs in Poland remains under strict regulations, especially legal regulation contained in the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act, that banned sales of medical products by doctors. It needs to be emphasized that currently doctors are allowed to sell drugs and medical products only in rigorously specified situations. Knowledge of current legal regulations concerning sales of medical products by gynecologists allows to conform with the law and to distribute drugs and medical products under special and predefined conditions.

  13. Calling Orientations of Junior Doctors and Medical Interns in India: Cultural, Occupational and Relational Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factors that shape calling orientations within the Indian context. Based on the narratives of 72 junior doctors and medical interns, it is found that participants identify with harbouring a calling both prior and subsequent to occupational entry. Although factors such as self-recognition of talent and sensemaking of work as…

  14. Allied Health Occupations II. Medical Laboratory Assistant Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is intended to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by medical laboratory technicians and technologists. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the value of…

  15. Allied Health Occupations II. Medical Laboratory Assistant Component. Student Learning Guide. Middletown Public Schools Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middletown Public Schools, CT.

    This volume outlines the requirements and content of a second-year course in allied health occupations education that is intended to provide students with a practical understanding of the work done by medical laboratory technicians and technologists. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the value of…

  16. Common Intra-Cluster Competencies Needed in Selected Occupational Clusters. Final Report. Supplemental Volume XI: Nuclear Medical Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClurg, Ronald B.

    An analysis of survey responses from a sample of nuclear medical technicians on competency characteristics for their occupation is presented in this document. (Nuclear medical technician is one of seventeen occupation groups included in this research.) The competencies are reported in five categories: (1) those competencies selected by the…

  17. Common Intra-Cluster Competencies Needed in Selected Occupational Clusters. Final Report. Supplemental Volume X: Medical Lab Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClurg, Ronald B.

    An analysis of survey responses from a sample of medical laboratory technicians on competency characteristics for their occupation is presented in this document. (Medical laboratory technician is one of seventeen occupation groups included in this research.) The competencies are reported in five categories: (1) those competencies selected by the…

  18. [Clinical and hygienic aspects of occupational neurosensory deafness in civil aviation flight personnel].

    PubMed

    Kruglikova, N V; Romeiko, V L; Bekeneva, T I; Kharitonova, O I

    2015-01-01

    The article covers implementation of regulatory and legal concepts in prevention of risk caused by hazardous effects of noise in civil aviation flight personnel. The authors analyzed case histories of civil aviation flight personnel patients examined in occupational diseases clinic, with first diagnosed occupational neurosensory deafness.

  19. A Study to Determine Relationships between Vocational Education Curricular Evolution and Some Aspects of Occupational Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenholtz, Gerald Severn

    This study was concerned with occupational trends in relation to the growth of vocational education endeavors to define the nature of the problem, assess trends, and examine major implications. The study consists primarily of an analysis of occupational data and vocational enrollment trends between 1950-51 and 1959-60. In addition, supplementary…

  20. Do workers' health surveillance examinations fulfill their occupational preventive objective? Analysis of the medical practice of occupational physicians in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jareño, Mari Cruz; Molinero, Emilia; de Montserrat, Jaume; Vallès, Antoni; Aymerich, Marta

    2017-10-06

    Although routine workers' health examinations are extensively performed worldwide with important resource allocation, few studies have analyzed their quality. The objective of this study has been to analyze the medical practice of workers' health examinations in Catalonia (Spain) in terms of its occupational preventive aim. A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of an online survey addressed to occupational physicians who were members of the Catalan Society of Safety and Occupational Medicine. The questionnaire included factual questions on how they performed health examinations in their usual practice. The bivariate analysis of the answers was performed by type of occupational health service (external/internal). The response rate was 57.9% (N = 168), representing 40.3% of the reference population. A high percentage of occupational physicians had important limitations in their current medical practice, including availability of clinical and exposure information, job-specificity of tests, and early detection and appropriate management of suspected occupational diseases. The situation in external occupational health services - that covered the great majority of Catalan employees - was worse remarkably in regard to knowledge of occupational and nonoccupational sickness absence data, participation in the investigation of occupational injuries and diseases, and accessibility for workers to the occupational health service. This study raises serious concerns about the occupational preventive usefulness of these health examinations, and subsequently about our health surveillance system, based primarily on them. Professionals alongside health and safety institutions and stakeholders should promote the rationalization of this system, following the technical criteria of need, relevance, scientific validity and effectiveness, whilst ensuring that its ultimate goal of improving the health and safety of workers in relation to work is fulfilled. Other countries with

  1. Medical Aspects of Sickle Hemoglobin in Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Brodine, C. E.; Uddin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) will soon issue a directive to test all incoming military personnel for the presence of hemoglobin S. The military testing program for hemoglobin S is an occupational medicine program. This report includes a discussion of armed services physical standards, a description of the Navy effort to evaluate an automated system for detection of hemoglobin S, and the proposed DOD directive. PMID:833894

  2. Medical aspects of sickle hemoglobin in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Brodine, C E; Uddin, D E

    1977-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) will soon issue a directive to test all incoming military personnel for the presence of hemoglobin S. The military testing program for hemoglobin S is an occupational medicine program. This report includes a discussion of armed services physical standards, a description of the Navy effort to evaluate an automated system for detection of hemoglobin S, and the proposed DOD directive.

  3. [Multi-occupational description of medical cooperation during a disaster].

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    On April 10, 2011, the author was sent to Yugakukan, a general shelter in Ishinomaki, as member of the first Primary Care for All Team (PCAT) mission, which was composed of medical and welfare service-specialists. Although various volunteers, government officials, and local organizations were gathered there, the situation was under control, and individuals cooperated under common goals. In order for all the organizations to cooperate and unify their purpose, PCAT identified all the key individuals and established the importance of conducting advanced meetings. The target of PCAT was to provide continued support until the shelter regained its capabilities as a local medical, welfare, and healthcare facility. We helped convert Yugakukan into a welfare shelter from a general one, with consideration for the needs of the entire disaster-stricken area. Likewise, we planned for the reduction of incidence by the local staff. As a team of pharmacists, we cooperated with the local key pharmacist, Mr. Yoshirou Tanno, to plan how the local pharmacy could be made more useful for revival. I concentrated on the production of a system for three weeks. During this period, I probed into the importance of the connection among people. Sharing information, building cooperation, and organization collaboration facilitated the smooth operations and development of the shelter. The experience of serving at Yugakukan can be used as indicator of pharmacists' role in the comprehensive care system, including supporting the elderly, whose population is currently rising.

  4. Certain aspects on medical devices software law regulation.

    PubMed

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Harkusha, Andrii

    some kind of easiness of entry in creating software products on various computing platforms has led to such products being made available perhaps without due consideration of potential risks to users and patients and the most valuable reason for this have been lack of regulatory clarity. Some key points on legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. Ukrainian legislation, European Union`s Guidelines on the qualification and classification of standalone software; Guidance for the Content of Premarket Submissions for Software Contained in Medical Devices that works in United States of America. Article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. in accordance with Ukrainian legislation, software that has a medical purpose could be a medical device. Ukrainian legislation which is established on European Union Medical Devices Directives divide all medical devices on classes. But there aren't any special recommendations or advices on classifications for software medical devices in Ukraine. It is necessary to develop and adopt guidelines on the qualification and classification of medical device software in Ukraine especially considering the harmonization of Ukrainian legislation with the EU legislation, develop special rules for the application of the national mark of conformity for medical device software and defined the « responsible organization » for the medical device software approval process.

  5. [About economic aspects of provision of medical services].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, P A

    2014-01-01

    The contradiction between economic and social components of medical services is present in any state. Initially, the state undertakes the commitment no provide citizen with equal access to medical services. However, this means to provide social equity between all members of society which not always is effective from economic point of view. The article analyzes the problems originated in public system of provision of medical services. These problems are determined by service specificity itself model of provision of medical services and public priorities in social sector.

  6. Occupational health practice and exposure to nanoparticles: reconciling scientific evidence, ethical aspects, and legal requirements.

    PubMed

    Franco, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at focusing the relationship between scientific evidence and ethical values' issues of occupational health practice according to the new Italian law 81/2008 stating that the occupational health physician (OHP) is required to act according to the Code of Ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The code itself emphasizes that (i) the practice should be relevant, knowledge-based, sound, and appropriate to the occupational risks and (ii) the objectives and methods of health surveillance must be clearly defined. Because exposure to nanoparticles involves several uncertainties about health effects and may limit the effectiveness of workers' health surveillance, OHPs face a several ethical dilemmas, involving different stakeholders. The dilemmas arising from the practice should be dealt with according to the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, and justice in order to take a decision.

  7. TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS--EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MEDICAL ASPECTS OF PREVENTION.

    PubMed

    WILLIAMS, N

    1964-05-09

    Injuries and deaths from traffic accidents are a public health problem of epidemic proportions and justify intensive epidemiological research. The human factor is responsible for the majority of traffic accidents. The literature concerning the human factor is reviewed, and it is concluded that psychosocial influences are most important, though medical conditions may be responsible for 3 to 4% of accidents. Problems concerning the medical examination of drivers are discussed and the need is emphasized to find some means of removing from the road those drivers who continue to drive in spite of repeated medical advice not to do so. Some of the medical conditions influencing driver safety are discussed. It is recommended that each Division of The Canadian Medical Association should publish a guide for physicians who examine drivers. The advantages of a uniform guide in Canada are stressed.

  8. Environmental isocyanate-induced asthma: morphologic and pathogenetic aspects of an increasing occupational disease.

    PubMed

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Bartsch, Holger; Zinsky, Rica; Schirren, Joachim

    2011-09-01

    Occupational diseases affect more and more people every year. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), in 2000 an estimated amount of at least 160 million people became ill as a result of occupational-related hazards or injuries. Globally, occupational deaths, diseases and injuries account for an estimated loss of 4% of the Gross Domestic Product. Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products. These substances, which are used in a lot of different industrial processes, are not only toxic and irritant, but also allergenic. Although the exposure to higher concentrations could be monitored and restricted by technical means, very low concentrations are difficult to monitor and may, over time, lead to allergic reactions in some workers, ending in an occupational disease. In order to prevent the people from sickening, the mechanisms underlying the disease, by patho-physiological and genetical means, have to be known and understood so that high risk groups and early signs in the development of an allergic reaction could be detected before the exposure to isocyanates leads to an occupational disease. Therefore, this paper reviews the so far known facts concerning the patho-physiologic appearance and mechanisms of isocyanate-associated toxic reactions and possible genetic involvement that might trigger the allergic reactions.

  9. Occupational, social and medical characteristics of early prenatal leave in France.

    PubMed

    Vigoureux, Solène; Blondel, Béatrice; Ringa, Virginie; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-12-01

    In France, most women of childbearing age work. The prenatal leave law in France protects women during pregnancy and their employment. We aimed to describe how long before delivery women stopped working and analyse the association between occupational, social and medical factors and early prenatal leave (before 24 weeks' gestation). The sample was extracted from the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey. Women were interviewed in French maternity units during a 1-week period. We focused on all women with a singleton live birth who were working during pregnancy (n = 10 149). Women were interviewed between delivery and discharge to collect information on employment, date of leave, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Among women who worked during pregnancy, 27.5% reported early occupational leave (before 24 weeks' gestation). Early occupational leave was more frequent among women with unstable jobs (fixed-term vs. non-fixed-term contract: adjusted odds ratio aOR = 1.60 [95% confidence interval 1.40-1.84]) and with less-qualified occupational categories (manual workers vs. managers and upper-intellectual positions: aOR = 2.96 [2.30-3.82]), even after adjusting for sociodemographic and other employment characteristics. Women with a pathological or at risk pregnancy left work earlier than other women. After stratification on type of pregnancy there was still a higher rate of early leave for women with less qualified occupational group. In France, social vulnerability of pregnant women, linked to low sociodemographic situation or low occupational categories, is associated with early leave during pregnancy, even after stratification on type of pregnancy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. THE MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CIVIL DEFENSE IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1952-01-01

    Medical care for persons injured in atomic bomb attack or other far-reaching enemy action occupies an important place in civil defense plans that have been set up in California. Preparations have been made on the basis of suppositions as to where attacks might occur and estimates of the number of casualties. State and federal funds have been allocated for aid station equipment, antibiotics, plasma, blankets and litters. In the table of organization, use of all physicians, nurses and hospitals in the state is contemplated. Communities at the center of attacks would borrow facilities and medical personnel from areas not directly affected. County medical societies in California have appointed civil defense committees to work out local plans. Each physician has a part in these plans. If he does not know what his assignment is, be ought to get in touch with his county medical society headquarters immediately. PMID:14886752

  11. Social, Psychological, and Medical Aspects of Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Jayne A.; Clark, Donald W.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses certain factors that contribute to the development of chronic pain. Psychosocial factors are explored with a summary of their implications for treatment. Medical treatment for chronic pain is reviewed and holistic treatment is surveyed. (Author)

  12. [Forensic-medical aspects of injuries inflicted by nonlethal arms].

    PubMed

    Babakhanian, A R; Babakhanian, R B; Isakov, V D

    2005-01-01

    Special literature (surgical, forensic-medical and criminalistic) is reviewed on classification, mechanisms of a harmful action and characteristics of injuries inflicted by non-lethal arms. Some details of such arms construction and damaging action are given.

  13. The medical aspects of civil defense in California.

    PubMed

    STEIN, J J

    1952-01-01

    Medical care for persons injured in atomic bomb attack or other far-reaching enemy action occupies an important place in civil defense plans that have been set up in California. Preparations have been made on the basis of suppositions as to where attacks might occur and estimates of the number of casualties. State and federal funds have been allocated for aid station equipment, antibiotics, plasma, blankets and litters. In the table of organization, use of all physicians, nurses and hospitals in the state is contemplated. Communities at the center of attacks would borrow facilities and medical personnel from areas not directly affected.County medical societies in California have appointed civil defense committees to work out local plans. Each physician has a part in these plans. If he does not know what his assignment is, be ought to get in touch with his county medical society headquarters immediately.

  14. Medical Aspects of the Westward Migrations, 1830-60 *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1965-01-01

    The exodus to the West which occurred in 1830-60, partly due to the discovery of gold in California in 1849, is examined from a medicohistorical viewpoint. The motivations of the emigrants, their medical emergencies, problems, and practices, and the state of the medical arts in the Western settlements are discussed in terms of the prevailing systems of therapeutics, the availability of supplies and equipment, and the presence or absence of professional doctors. Images PMID:14223735

  15. [Attitude of medical students to the preventive and social aspects of medical education and practice].

    PubMed

    González Carbajal, E; Gutiérrez Avila, J H; Aguilar De La Garza, J; García Medrano, J

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out in the Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous National University of Mexico to discover the attitudes of a group of students toward the preventive and social aspects of medicine, and their own professional aspirations. It was found that these students were aware of the importance of these aspects, and that they inclined by preference to the practice of a clinical specialty. No correlation was found between the patterns of the students' professional aspirations and their attitudes. The authors feel this could mean that attitudes are determined by the overall influence of the society, but the aspirations by the structure of the labor market and the prevailing medical practice model. It is suggested that a similar survey be done of the same group of students at the completion of their studies to determine the possible effects of the educational process on their attitudes. Comments are made and recommendations put forward for solving methodological problems that arise in studies of this type.

  16. Medical Students' Opinions on Economic Aspects of the Health Care System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Mary W.

    1985-01-01

    Responses of 423 freshmen and 410 seniors at Jefferson Medical College to 15 questions on economic aspects of health care were compared. A majority of students considered major problems to be costs of medical care and medical education, malpractice claims, and patients' failure to assume responsibility for their health. (Author/SW)

  17. Occupational medical prophylaxis for the musculoskeletal system: A function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system in occupational medicine (fokus(C))

    PubMed Central

    Spallek, Michael; Kuhn, Walter; Schwarze, Sieglinde; Hartmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Occupational physicians are very often confronted with questions as to the fitness of the postural and locomotor systems, especially the spinal column. Occupational medical assessment and advice can be required by patients with acute symptoms, at routine check-ups, by persons who have problems doing certain jobs, and for expert medical reports as to the fitness of persons with chronic disorders or after operations. Therefore, for occupational medical purposes a physical examination must aim primarily to investigate functions and not structures or radiologic evidence. The physical examination should be structured systematically and according to regions of the body and, together with a specific (pain) anamnesis should provide a basis for the medical assessment. This paper presents a function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system, named fokus(C) (Funktionsorientierte Koerperliche Untersuchungssystematik, also available on DVD). fokus(C) has been developed with a view to its relevance for occupational medical practice and does not aim primarily to provide a precise diagnosis. Decisive for an occupational medical assessment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system is rather information about functional disorders and any impairment of performance or mobility which they can cause. The division of the physical examination into a rapid screening phase and a subsequent more intensive functional diagnostic phase has proved its practicability in many years of day-to-day use. Here, in contrast to the very extensive measures recommended for orthopaedic and manual diagnosis, for reasons of efficiency and usability of the system in routine occupational medical examinations the examination is structured according to the findings. So it is reduced to that which is most necessary and feasible. PMID:17967167

  18. Occupational medical prophylaxis for the musculoskeletal system: A function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system in occupational medicine (fokus(C)).

    PubMed

    Spallek, Michael; Kuhn, Walter; Schwarze, Sieglinde; Hartmann, Bernd

    2007-10-29

    Occupational physicians are very often confronted with questions as to the fitness of the postural and locomotor systems, especially the spinal column. Occupational medical assessment and advice can be required by patients with acute symptoms, at routine check-ups, by persons who have problems doing certain jobs, and for expert medical reports as to the fitness of persons with chronic disorders or after operations. Therefore, for occupational medical purposes a physical examination must aim primarily to investigate functions and not structures or radiologic evidence. The physical examination should be structured systematically and according to regions of the body and, together with a specific (pain) anamnesis should provide a basis for the medical assessment.This paper presents a function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system, named fokus(C) (Funktionsorientierte Koerperliche Untersuchungssystematik, also available on DVD). fokus(C) has been developed with a view to its relevance for occupational medical practice and does not aim primarily to provide a precise diagnosis. Decisive for an occupational medical assessment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system is rather information about functional disorders and any impairment of performance or mobility which they can cause. The division of the physical examination into a rapid screening phase and a subsequent more intensive functional diagnostic phase has proved its practicability in many years of day-to-day use. Here, in contrast to the very extensive measures recommended for orthopaedic and manual diagnosis, for reasons of efficiency and usability of the system in routine occupational medical examinations the examination is structured according to the findings. So it is reduced to that which is most necessary and feasible.

  19. Estimation of annual occupational effective doses from external ionizing radiation at medical institutions in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korir, Geoffrey; Wambani, Jeska; Korir, Ian

    2011-04-01

    This study details the distribution and trends of doses due to occupational radiation exposure among radiation workers from participating medical institutions in Kenya, where monthly dose measurements were collected for a period of one year ranging from January to December in 2007. A total of 367 medical radiation workers were monitored using thermoluminescent dosemeters. They included radiologists (27%), oncologists (2%), dentists (4%), Physicists (5%), technologists (45%), nurses (4%), film processor technicians (3%), auxiliary staff (4%), and radiology office staff (5%). The average annual effective dose of all categories of staff was found to range from 1.19 to 2.52 mSv. This study formed the initiation stage of wider, comprehensive and more frequent monitoring of occupational radiation exposures and long-term investigations into its accumulation patterns in our country.

  20. Variation of the Occupancy of Two Medical Units with the Amount of Sharing Between the Units

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Rodger D.

    1968-01-01

    Prediction of gain in occupancy and reduction of overflow effected by sharing beds between two previously disjoint medical units is related to the number of beds in each unit and to a variable number of beds that each unit makes available to the other when not in use. The methodology, here applied to two wards at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, is applicable wherever it is desired to estimate the effect of making beds interchangeable between wards or services. PMID:5701983

  1. [Global aspects of medical ethics: conditions and possibilities].

    PubMed

    Neitzke, G

    2001-01-01

    A global or universal code of medical ethics seems paradoxical in the era of pluralism and postmodernism. A different conception of globalisation will be developed in terms of a "procedural universality". According to this philosophical concept, a code of medical ethics does not oblige physicians to accept certain specific, preset, universal values and rules. It rather obliges every culture and society to start a culture-sensitive, continuous, and active discourse on specific issues, mentioned in the codex. This procedure might result in regional, intra-cultural consensus, which should be presented to an inter-cultural dialogue. To exemplify this procedure, current topics of medical ethics (spiritual foundations of medicine, autonomy, definitions concerning life and death, physicians' duties, conduct within therapeutic teams) will be discussed from the point of view of western medicine.

  2. Antecedents of the People and Organizational Aspects of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Nancy M.; Riley, Robert T.; Blyth, Andrew J. C.; Southon, Gray; Dixon, Bradley J.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area—like medical informatics itself—is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with research with significant potential to ease the introduction and on-going use of information technology in today's complex health systems. These academic areas contribute research data and core information for better understanding of such issues as the importance of and processes for creating future direction; managing a complex change process; effective strategies for involving individuals and groups in the informatics effort; and effectively managing the altered organization. This article reviews the behavioral and business referent disciplines that can potentially contribute to improved implementations and on-going management of change in the medical informatics arena. PMID:9067874

  3. [Psychological aspects of spinal anesthesia. Vasovagal syncope and anxiolytic medication].

    PubMed

    Tolksdorf, W; Merkel, G; Rehder, H; Rey, E R; Berlin, J

    1984-07-01

    In 61 male and female patients, the influence of the preoperative emotional state on vasovagal syncopes and anxiolytic medication during spinal anaesthesia for elective orthopaedic surgery was investigated. Male patients pretended to feel emotionally better than female patients, but had higher rates of anxiolytic medication and vasovagal syncopes. Patients in a bad (n = 8) and in a good emotional state (n = 3) received more anxiolytic medication than those with a mean emotional state. Vasovagal syncopes were registered in patients who pretended to feel good (n = 6), in those who felt bad (n = 4) and only in one patient of the mean group. The factors anxiety and depression were the most responsible for this result. The importance of coping-mechanisms for the development of psychological and psychophysiological reactions is discussed. Vasovagal syncope is interpreted as a psychophysiological reaction. In consequence it needs psychoprophylaxis.

  4. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  5. [Medical counseling of public health-insurances in questions of occupational diseases in regard to economical benefits--project of cooperation between AOK Hesse and the Medical Advisory and Expertising Service Hesse].

    PubMed

    Löffler, M; Glake, R; Hack, H P; Schaller, H

    2003-07-01

    Since September 1998 exists a project of cooperation and consultation between the AOK Hesse and the Medical Advisory and Expertising Service Hesse with the aim to identify occupational diseases and to survey decisions of the Employer's Liability Insurance Association. The procedure is based on a computer-added recognition-system, a profound preparation of the single cases by the employees of the health-insurance and a very intensively carried out deliberation by Medical Doctors of occupational medicine. In a period of four and a half year 8391 cases have been reviewed of which 4859 have already been determined. An approval as occupational disease by the Employer's Liability Insurance Association has been determined in 1954 cases, in 2905 cases the acknowledgement has not been determined. Regarding the determined cases a recourse of 10,078,922.27 EUR has been realized. In regard to the invested small resources of personnel the procedure has proved itself as highly effective to discover and to assert recourses. Beside the economical aspects for the public health-insurance, other results of the project were the assurance of the entitlement to benefits of people coming down with occupational diseases or their relatives. New insights about the actual development of occupational diseases in Germany als well as their prevention can be proceeded.

  6. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

  7. Elder Specialists: Psychosocial Aspects of Medical Education in Geriatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.; Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an Elder Specialist Program developed by one school of medicine to sensitize medical students to geriatric psychosocial issues. Elder Specialists participate in panel discussions as part of each geriatric session. As an alternative to traditional senior mentoring programs, the Elder Specialist Program provides all students a…

  8. Psychological Aspects of Patient Education for Stressful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Kendall, Philip C.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes many of the issues relevant to patient education programs concerning psychological preparation for stressful medical procedures. Individual differences among patients and their differential responses to types of intervention are emphasized, and descriptions of information provision, skills training, relaxation training/desensitization,…

  9. Elder Specialists: Psychosocial Aspects of Medical Education in Geriatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.; Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an Elder Specialist Program developed by one school of medicine to sensitize medical students to geriatric psychosocial issues. Elder Specialists participate in panel discussions as part of each geriatric session. As an alternative to traditional senior mentoring programs, the Elder Specialist Program provides all students a…

  10. Seizures and Teens: The Practical Aspects of Managing Seizure Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne; Israel, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Medications are the primary treatment for epilepsy, yet many teens and their families have problems managing seizure medicines. Fear of side effects, difficulties remembering to take medicines and figuring out how to take them are common challenges. Unfortunately, not taking medicine as prescribed can lead to breakthrough seizures, which in turn…

  11. Occupational Safety and Health Administration--Access to employee exposure and medical records. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1980-05-23

    This final occupational safety and health standard, promulgated today as a revised 29 CFR 1910.20, provides for employee, designated representative, and OSHA access to employer-maintained exposure and medical records relevant to employees exposed to toxic substances and harmful physical agents. Access is also assured to employer analyses using exposure and medical records. The final standard requires long term preservation of these records, contains provisions concerning informing employees of their rights under the standard, and includes provisions protective of trade secret information.

  12. [Medical occupational law--limits of medical duties from a legal viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Ratzel, Rudolf

    2005-04-01

    The medical profession is not a trading business. The privileged position that society concedes to the medical professionals has a price: responsibility. The responsible professional can demand freedom as long as he does not abuse this freedom. Professional rules mark the border. These, however, are not only a tie, but also a protection against interference with medical independence.

  13. [Work capacity evaluation in occupational disability (supplementary) insurance. What should the medical expert know about industrial practice?].

    PubMed

    Hochheim, S

    1995-02-01

    Up to now it has often been the responsibility of physicians to assess whether an insured person qualifies for disability benefits, although the insurance conditions in fact state that the problem is not purely a medical one. Indeed, it is advisable to take advantage of the expertise available in the field of Occupational Studies when assessing elibility for benefits. The spectrum of occupations is subject to constant change. The "classification of Occupations" published by the Federal Employment Agency in Nuremberg lists some 25,000 occupational designations. Further, several thousand agreements are concluded each year between employers and employees' representatives at various levels and these may need to be taken into account when assessing claims for disability benefits. Occupational Studies is a specialist area in its own right, requiring specific training and experience. The assessment of disability claims calls for close cooperation and teamwork: doctors, insurers and occupational consultants must each contribute their own particular skills to the decision-making process. In the final analysis, however, it is the insurer alone who must take responsibility for accepting or rejecting the disability claim. The present paper starts by discussing the term "Occupational Studies" and goes on to explain the tasks of the occupational consultant. Finally, reference is made to descriptions of occupations as well as workplace features and requirements which the medical expert should take into account when assessing and insured's ability to work in a given occupation.

  14. Epidemiological and medical aspects of canyoning rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Soteras, Inigo; Subirats, Enric; Strapazzon, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    To describe the characteristics of canyoning rescue operations (CRO), type and severity of injuries or illnesses, and on-site medical procedures. A retrospective analysis of all CRO data from an emergency medical rescue team in Aragon, Spain, between 1 August 1999 and 31 July 2009. A total of 520 patients were identified, with a male to female ratio of 1.4. The median age was 32 years (range 10-73 years). The median time from the emergency call to admission to an acute care facility (or evacuation for uninjured patients) was 90 min (range 10-860 min). In 329 (63.3%) cases technical skills or ability in the terrain with some grade of difficulty was required. Accessibility of the incident site was associated with type of rescue (p<0.0001), where patients in incident sites with moderate to extremely difficult access were more often rescued by ground rescue alone or supported by air rescue than by air rescue alone. 419 (80.6%) patients had trauma-related injuries. The most common injuries involved the lower extremities (74%). The percentage of patients with a NACA score ≥4 was higher for medical/environmental illnesses than traumatic injuries (p<0.0001), despite that the total number was smaller. 175 (33.7%) patients received analgesics. 370 (71.2%) patients required splinting/immobilization. Major life-saving medical interventions were rarely performed on-site. The length and exposure to environmental factors validates the importance of emergency physicians and paramedics in CRO. Physicians and paramedics should be familiar with Pre-hospital Trauma Life Support, medical procedures related to environmental, topographical and logistical conditions, and helicopter rescue operations including winch operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational health aspects of the arsenic extractive industry in Britain (1868-1925).

    PubMed Central

    Harper, M

    1988-01-01

    A historical survey into the occupational hazards of mining and refining arsenic is presented together with the measures adopted for their control. The industry is placed in the social perspective of its time and it is suggested that this experience could be of value to those who may encounter similar problems where arsenic is extracted elsewhere in the world. PMID:3052570

  16. Survey on low-dose medical radiation exposure in occupational workers: the effect on hematological change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, J. K.; Cho, S. M.; Cho, J. H.; Dong, K. R.; Chung, W. K.; Lee, J. W.

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the changes in the hematological index caused by low-dose medical radiation exposure in workers in a medical radiation-exposed environment. The cumulative dose was obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters over a 9-year period, and the changes in hematological index count (red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) were examined in both the occupational workers and controls. In total, 370 occupational workers and 335 controls were compared. The analysis led to the following observations: (1) The average cumulative dose in males and females was 9.65±15.2 and 4.82±5.55 mSv, respectively. (2) In both males and females, there was a very low correlation between the occupation period and the cumulative dose (r<±0.25). (3) When the occupation period was longer, the WBC counts both decreased and increased in the male workers and the RBC counts were lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.05). In females, the WBC counts both decreased and increased in the workers and the eosinophil counts were lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.01). (4) When the cumulative dose was large, the lymphocyte counts decreased in male workers and the platelet count was lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.05). In females, the lymphocyte count and RBC count were lower in the workers than in the control group (p<0.05). Abnormal distributions of some blood indices were observed in the occupational radiation workers compared with the controls. Attempts were made to limit radiation exposure to personnel, but the employees did not always follow the preset rules. Actually, the adverse effects of low-level radiation were attributed to probability. Overall, workers should obey the radiation protection regulations provided by the government and a national system of radiation protection is needed.

  17. [Medical aspects of common non-lethal weapons].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Grove, Christina; Monticelli, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    The development and provision of non-lethal weapons (NLW) allow military and law enforcement personnel to exploit gradual engagement in countering potentially hazardous threats. Chemical, kinetic and electrical weapons systems are used to curb violence in civilian crowds. With inappropriate usage, these technologies can cause potentially fatal injuries that are not only of clinical, but also of legal relevance. In this context, the practicing physician is faced with treatment as well as assessment issues of new forms of injuries. In order to assure medical care and to be able to draw competent expert's conclusions, a detailed knowledge of the medical effects of these NLW is necessary. The review at hand presents today's most popular NLW and gives an overview of their possible injury potential and required treatments.

  18. [Preventive and social aspects in medical education, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tapia Juayek, R; de la Garza, M A; Carrillo Farga, A M

    1986-01-01

    The subject of the article is medical education in Mexico, particularly in the area of preventive and social medicine. It emphasizes the impact on this instruction of the country's economic and cultural dependence. It then presents some important qualitative data such as those on the existence of the administrative academic body responsible for the area, the names of the academic subjects in the area of preventive and social medicine, the educational objectives and study plan of this area; its connection with undergraduate internship and social service; agreements with other institutions for instructions; the semester in which the subjects in the area are taught and the faculty members teaching them. Finally, on the basis of the information presented, several conclusions are reached which make it possible to asseverate that the teaching of preventive and social medicine is not given the importance it merits, in the study plan of any medical school in the country.

  19. [Psychological aspects of public activity of a forensic medical examiner].

    PubMed

    Bashkireva, E A; Buromskiĭ, I V

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, professional activity of forensic medical examiners has been gaining publicity which necessitates knowledge of individual psychologic personality traits, the ability to effectively communicate, and high vocational culture on the part of each specialist. The specific character of professional contacts of a forensic medical expert is self-evident taking into consideration that he (she) has to deal with a great variety of persons including law enforcement officials, law breakers and criminal offence victims, men and women, young and aged people, representatives of different social groups, subjects in a specific emotional state, etc. In order to organize efficacious cooperation with all these individuals, the expert must develop high communicative competence, possess knowledge of psychology of communication, abilities and skills necessary for the establishment and maintenance of professional and business contacts.

  20. [Intercultural aspects of medical care for undocumented migrants].

    PubMed

    Cerda-Hegerl, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    In view of the cultural diversity in German society today, the time has long since come when medical care must adjust to its new clientele. This article provides an overview for doctors, medical personnel and psychologists of approaches, backgrounds and networks of migration to Germany, in particular over the little known undocumented migration. This migration has steadily increased in recent years. The author deals with the circumstances which create psychological problems for migrants and what happens when migrants living in this shadow world fall ill. In addition, the article offers an agenda for interculturally competent action in caring for documented and undocumented migrants. Dimensions of cultural differences such as collectivism versus individualism (most of the countries of origin of these migrants in Germany with or without documents are collectivistic) are explained along with differences in styles of communication. The following styles with their impact in actual practice are analyzed: indirect versus direct communication; emotional control versus expressiveness; functionalism versus relationship orientation.

  1. Doctor-patient dialogue--basic aspect of medical consultation.

    PubMed

    Murariu-Brujbu, Isabella Cristina; Macovei, Luana Andreea

    2013-01-01

    Family medicine is the specialty that provides ongoing primary medical care and improves the health status of the individual, of the family and of the community through preventive, educational, therapeutic and rehabilitation measures. The family doctor often makes the interdisciplinary synthesis, in a flexible manner, either alone or in most cases with interdisciplinary consultation. In the latter case, the family doctor initiates the team work and makes the final evaluation by using the longitudinal follow-up of the disease. The doctor-patient encounter represents the "confrontation" with the greatest moral weight, due to the complexity of the values involved, the status of the doctor in a society, and patient's involvement in decision making. The patient is a person who should be treated with respect, honesty, professionalism and loyalty, whatever the clinical status, severity of illness, mental competence or incompetence. A focus, on an international scale, is represented by the characteristics of a good doctor, family physician included, as the latter is the first link in the network of health services. Each model of consultation varies in a more or less subtle way in priorities assignment, and suggests slight differences regarding the role played by doctor and patient in their collaboration. The qualities of a good family physician include not only the strictly professional competences, that also apply to other medical specialties, but also duties, such as, clearly explaining to patients issues concerning their health, informing them about all the possible preventive measures of diseases, making a diagnosis, initiating and supervising a therapy. Medical responsibility lies at the crossroads between medical science and the conscience of the doctor.

  2. Human Genetics and Islam: Scientific and Medical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Bilal A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To relate diverse aspects of genetics and its applications to concepts in the Glorious Qur’an and the ḥadīth. Study Design: The author compared passages from the Glorious Qur’an and ḥadīth with modern concepts in genetics, such as recessive inheritance, genetic counseling, genetic variation, cytoplasmic inheritance, sex chromosomes, genetics-environment interactions, gender determination, and the hypothesis of “pairing in the universe.” Conclusions: A fresh understanding of Islamic scripture reveals references to principles of genetics that predate contemporary discoveries. This highlights the need for further exploration of possible links between science and religion. PMID:23610491

  3. [Analysis of qualifications of medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-qiang; Li, Tao; Qi, Fang; Wu, Rui; Nie, Wu; Yu, Chen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the qualifications and current situations of the medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and to provide a reference for developing relevant policies. Work reports and questionnaires survey were used to investigate the qualifications of all medical and health institutions and certified doctors for providing occupational disease diagnosis in China and their acceptance and diagnosis of occupational disease cases from 2006 to 2010. The rate for the work reports was 100%, and the response rate for the questionnaires was 71.0%. By the end of 2010, in the 31 provincial-level regions (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) in China, there had been 503 medical and health institutions which were qualified for providing occupational disease diagnosis, including 207 centers for disease control and prevention, accounting for 41.2%, 145 general hospitals, accounting for 28.8%, 69 enterprise-owned hospitals, accounting for 13.7%, and 64 institutes or centers for occupational disease prevention and control, accounting for 12.7%; 4986 certified doctors got the qualification for providing occupational disease diagnosis, with 9.4 certified doctors on average in each institution, and there was 0.65 certified doctor per 100 000 employees. In addition, 16.5% of the institutions got all the qualifications for diagnosing 9 occupational diseases, and 17.1% of the institutions got the qualification for diagnosing one occupational disease. Each certified doctor accepted diagnosis of 16.8 cases of occupational diseases on average every year. A national occupational disease diagnosis network has been established in China, but the imbalance in regional distribution and specialty programs still exists among the qualified medical and health institutions and certified doctors. It is essential to further strengthen the development of regional qualified medical and health institutions and training of qualified

  4. The Malai Ika Daigaku (Syonan Medical College) in Malacca (1944 to 1945) during the Japanese occupation of Singapore and Malaya.

    PubMed

    Cheah, J S; Tay, G

    1998-01-01

    During the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and Malaya (1941-1945), Singapore was renamed Syonan (or Syonanto) and Malaya was called Malai (or Marai; Marei). On 27 April 2603 (1943) the Japanese Military Administration established. The Marai Ika Daigaku (Syonan Medical College) at the Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Hakuai Byoin), Syonan. The Medical College shifted to the General Hospital, Malacca in February 2604 (1944) where it functioned till the end of the Japanese Occupation in September 2605 (1945).

  5. Occupational diseases in the automotive industry in Czechia - Geographic and medical context.

    PubMed

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel; Pavlínek, Petr; Dzurova, Dagmar

    2017-05-08

    The automotive industry represents the most important industrial sector in Czechia. The objective of this study has been to analyze the occurrence of occupational diseases (OD) in the automotive industry during the period from 2001 till 2014. Data on OD cases was retrieved from the National Registry of OD. Further, we conducted a survey in automotive companies with focus on occupational health services and positions of the companies in global production networks (GPNs). An analysis of OD distribution in the automotive industry was performed (age, gender, company size and its role in GPNs, regional distribution of studied companies, and regional unemployment rate), and was accompanied by assessment of the quality and range of occupational health services. Employees older than 40 years old have nearly 2.5 times higher probability of OD occurrence as compared with employees younger than 40 years old (odds ratio (OR) = 2.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-2.85). Occupational diseases occurrence probability was 3 times higher for women than for men (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 2.55-3.55). Occupational diseases incidence rates increased with the size of the company (0 OD/10 000 employees in micro enterprises to 57 OD/10 000 employees in large enterprises). A particularly steep rise in OD incidents in the automotive industry was observed in the Plzeň Region between 2001 and 2011. An association between OD incidents and the unemployment rate was not statistically confirmed. A statistically significant increase in OD incidents dependent on company size may be arguably attributed to a higher quality of occupational medical services in bigger companies, which ensures better detection and diagnosis of OD. In the Plzeň Region, the rapid increase in OD incidents was mainly caused by a change in the production process of automobile textiles in one factory due to the introduction of a glue containing isocyanates, which are potent allergising agents. This led to an increase in

  6. The medical aspects of the 1565 Great Siege of Malta.

    PubMed

    Savona-Ventura, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The 1565 Siege of Malta served as a turning point in the westward Ottoman advance. The 4-month long siege was resisted by the indomitable belief of the defenders that their cause was just and holy. It also required prior detailed organisation to ensure sufficient war materials and that the overall health of the combatants and non-combatants was maintained throughout the months of the siege. This article reviews the contemporary and historical sources relating to the conflict to identify the medical operational plans used by the military during this historic siege.

  7. Advising Japan on Medical Aspects of Radiation Exposure | ORAU

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, Al; Sugarman, Steve

    2015-03-08

    Because of Japan's March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered catastrophic damage—ultimately leaking dangerously high amounts of radiation that led to the evacuation of more than 80,000 Japanese citizens within a 12-mile radius of the crippled plant. Responding agencies were concerned about the medical impacts of radiation exposure, the effect upon food and water safety and what actions individuals could take to protect themselves. To provide advice and consultation, the physicians and health physicists at REAC/TS were on-call 24/7 and responded to more than 700 inquiries in the days and weeks that followed.

  8. Advising Japan on Medical Aspects of Radiation Exposure | ORAU

    ScienceCinema

    Wiley, Al; Sugarman, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Because of Japan's March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered catastrophic damage—ultimately leaking dangerously high amounts of radiation that led to the evacuation of more than 80,000 Japanese citizens within a 12-mile radius of the crippled plant. Responding agencies were concerned about the medical impacts of radiation exposure, the effect upon food and water safety and what actions individuals could take to protect themselves. To provide advice and consultation, the physicians and health physicists at REAC/TS were on-call 24/7 and responded to more than 700 inquiries in the days and weeks that followed.

  9. [Modern aspects of forensic medical diagnostics of the craniocerebral injury].

    PubMed

    Pigolkina, E Iu; Dorosheva, Zh V; Sidorovich, Iu V; Bychkov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of the investigations of craniocerebral injuries (CCI) including crystallographic studies of brain liquor obtained after the injury and non-traumatic pathological processes. The additional forensic medical criteria for the severity of craniocerebral injuries have been developed and the objective signs of CCI determined to be used for diagnostic purposes in the cases with concomitant diseases and also in the subjects of advanced and declining age. The diagnostic methods for the elucidation of the nature of chronic subdural hematomas and the estimation of the time of their formation have been improved.

  10. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories--physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Limits of pain treatment: medical and judicial aspects].

    PubMed

    Zenz, M; Rissing-van Saan, R

    2011-08-01

    Medical principles of pain treatment are generally in line with the judicial principles. To relieve pain is one of the fundamentals of medicine and this has also been acknowledged by the Federal Court in Germany. It is criminal bodily harm, when a physician denies a possible pain treatment. Whereas courts clearly see an obligation to basic and continuing education in pain diagnosis and therapy, pain is still not represented in the German licensing regulations for physicians. Only palliative medicine has been added to the obligatory curriculum. Very similar pain is not mandatory in many clinical disciplines leaving physicians without the needed knowledge to treat pain. The need for interdisciplinary treatment is not yet acknowledged sufficiently, although meanwhile chronic pain is regarded as a bio-psycho-social illness.Since 2009 the advance directive is regulated by law. However, still many physicians are unaware that not only the position of the patient but also of the relatives have been strengthened. In 2010 the Federal Court has pronounced a judgment allowing "passive euthanasia" in certain conditions but prohibiting any active handling even in line with the patient's will. This is also in line with the European Human Rights Convention. The judicial unpunished assisted suicide has provoked an ethical discussion within the medical profession. However, what is not illegal is not automatically accepted as ethical handling for physicians. Palliative medicine is at least one alternative in this discussion.

  12. Ethical aspects of using medical social media in healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The advances in internet and mobile technologies and their increased use in healthcare led to the development of a new research field: health web science. Many research questions are addressed in that field, starting from analysing social-media data, to recruiting participants for clinical studies and monitoring the public health status. The information provided through this channel is unique in a sense that there is no other written source of experiences from patients and health carers. The increased usage and analysis of health web data poses questions on privacy, and ethics. Through a literature review, the current awareness on ethical issues in the context of public health monitoring and research using medical social media data is determined. Further, considerations on the topic were collected from members of the IMIA Social Media Working group.

  13. Developing a general practice medical workstation: the integration aspect.

    PubMed Central

    Frassine, R.; Bertelli, S.; Innocenti, E. B.

    1993-01-01

    ISAAC (Integrated System Architecture for Advanced Primary Care) is a project aiming at developing information technology and telematic support in the specific field of General Practice--and more broadly in the Primary Health Care sector--within the health care systems of different European Countries. The project aims at improving the work of the General Practitioners through the development of a useful and usable medical workstation for day-to-day patient care. Moreover ISAAC has the goal of prototyping an integration architecture for the improvement of the communications between the ISAAC workstation and heterogeneous application environments, namely other components of the health care system. This paper deals with a general description of the design along with a discussion of the adopted approach to fulfill the integration requirements. PMID:8130469

  14. [Alexander Pushkin's duel--biographic and medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Tangen, J M

    2000-04-10

    The great Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837) died 46 hours after being wounded by a pistol shot in a duel. The bullet penetrated the right pelvic bone, continued through the lower abdomen, and crushed the right part of the sacral bone. Biographical events leading to the duel are presented in the article, which also reviews articles in Russian medical journals describing the extent of the trauma and discussing the treatment possibilities at the time of the duel as well as present-day treatment. It is concluded that death was caused by peritonitis and that only modern extensive abdominal and orthopaedic surgery combined with antibiotic treatment could have saved the poet's life.

  15. Some aspects of doping and medication control in equine sports.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Ed; Maynard, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes that underpin these procedures. The chapter also addresses four specific topics relevant to equestrian sports: substances controlled by threshold values, the approach adopted recently by European racing authorities to control some therapeutic substances, anabolic steroids in the horse and LC-MS analysis in drug testing in animal sports and metabolism studies. The purpose of discussing these specific topics is to emphasise the importance of research and development and collaboration to further global harmonisation and the development and support of international rules.

  16. [Personalized medicine and individual healthcare : Medical and information technology aspects].

    PubMed

    Niederlag, W; Lemke, H U; Rienhoff, O

    2010-08-01

    The individualization of medicine and healthcare appears to be following a general societal trend. The terms "personalized medicine" and "personal health" are used to describe this process. Here it must be emphasized that personalized medicine is not limited to pharmacogenomics, but that the spectrum of personalized medicine is much broader. Applications range from individualized diagnostics, patient-specific pharmacological therapy, therapy with individual prostheses and implants to therapy approaches using autologous cells, and from patient model-based therapy in the operating room, electronic patient records through to the individual care of patients in their home environment with the use of technical systems and services. Although in some areas practical solutions have already been found, most applications will not be fully developed for many years to come. Medical and information technology are essential to personalized medicine and personal health, each driving the other forward.

  17. Sex and gender aspects in anesthetics and pain medication.

    PubMed

    Campesi, Ilaria; Fois, Marco; Franconi, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The influence of sex and gender on anesthesia and analgesic therapy remains poorly understood, nevertheless the numerous physiological and pharmacological differences present between men and women. Although in anesthesiology sex-gender aspects have attracted little attention, it has been reported that women have a greater sensitivity to the non-depolarizing neuroblocking agents, whereas males are more sensitive than females to propofol. It has been suggested that men wake slower than women after general anesthesia and have less postoperative nausea and vomiting. Sexual hormones seem to be of importance in the onset of differences. Nevertheless, in the last years, sex-gender influences on pain and analgesia have become a hot topic and data regarding sex-gender differences in response to pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic pain treatments are still scanty, inconsistent, and non-univocal. In particular, females seem to be more sensitive than males to opioid receptor agonists. Women may experience respiratory depression and other adverse effects more easily if they are given the same doses as males. Evidently, there is an obvious need for more research, which should include psychological and social factors in experimental preclinical and clinical paradigms in view of their importance on pain mechanism, in order to individualize analgesia to optimize pain relief.

  18. [Teaching the legal aspects of medical practice to medical students in Puerto Rico].

    PubMed

    Lugo Vélez, Luis J

    2014-01-01

    Challenges and changes facing modern medicine make it imperative that physicians acquire knowledge of the legal and regulatory framework of medical practice. Despite the importance of this issue, the curriculum in most medical schools do not include courses that offer medical students the necessary information about their legal duties to practice medicine. The trend should be to offer such courses in medical schools and medical residency programs.

  19. Occupational health aspects of unusual work schedules: a review of Exxon's experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Brief, R.S.; Scala, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Today more than 300,000 persons in the US work unusually long shifts (longer than eight hours per day) during which they are exposed to airborne toxicants. This paper reviews Exxon's experience in managing the various potential occupational health problems associated with such work schedules. A review of mathematical approaches to modifying exposure limits for such shifts is included; special emphasis is placed on the potential role of circadian rhythm effects as they serve to affect the physiological adjustment of workers to these schedules. A listing of the kinds of physical ailments which have been associated with unusual work schedules is included also. A fairly thorough list of references accompanies the text.

  20. Manganese in occupational arc welding fumes--aspects on physiochemical properties, with focus on solubility.

    PubMed

    Taube, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, such as particle sizes, composition, and solubility of welding fumes are decisive for the bioaccessibility of manganese and thereby for the manganese cytotoxic and neurotoxic effects arising from various welding fumes. Because of the diverse results within the research on welding fume solubility, this article aims to review and discuss recent literature on physicochemical properties of gas metal arc welding, shielded metal arc welding, and flux-cored arc welding fumes, with focus on solubility properties. This article also presents a short introduction to the literature on arc welding techniques, health effects from manganese, and occupational exposure to manganese among welders.

  1. 1-Dimensional nanoparticles - A brief critical review on biological, medical, and toxicological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, B. M.; Ali, N.; Basturea, G.; Comsa, G. I.; Materon, L. A.; Chipara, M.

    2013-06-01

    A critical review of the biological and medical effects of one dimensional nanoparticles is presented. The review focuses on the toxicity of carbon nanotubes - a subject under strong debate and discusses briefly the most important concepts. It is tentatively suggested that the huge aspect ratio and the high Young modulus of carbon nanotubes are playing an important role in the biological, medical, and toxicological aspects of carbon nanotubes despite their low intrinsic biochemical activity. The most suitable biomedical model for the biological and medical effects of carbon nanotubes is described by the so-called impaling mode which appears to be qualitatively consistent with partial phagocytosis.

  2. Some medical aspects of an 8-month's space flight.

    PubMed

    Atkov OYu

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 a 237-day space flight was performed on board the orbital complex Salyut-7-Soyuz-T with the crew members Leonid D. Kizim (Commander), Vladimnir A. Solovyov (Flight-Engineer), and Oleg Yu. Atkov (Cosmonaut Researcher). The major medical task was to continue the study of the acute stage of adaptation to weightlessness, phenomenology and mechanisms of changes in hemodynamics, metabolism and other functions. During flight, echocardiographic and biochemical measurements, vestibular and sensory studies were conducted extensively. In 1988-1989, the fourth prime crew performed its flight on the Mir orbital station. The crew consisted of: A.A. Volkov (Commander, Cr), S.K. Krikalyov (Flight-Engineer, FE) who were launched together with J.L. Cretien on November 26, 1988 as well as V.V. Polyakov (physician, cosmonaut-researcher, CP) who was in orbit until August 29, 1988 as a member of the third and fourth expeditions. Cr and FE remained in orbit for 151 days and CP for 421 days. Now we have 4 people experiencing 8 months space flight. The countermeasures included regular exercises on a treadmill and bicycle ergometer, use of G-suits and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) training at the final stage. The cosmonauts exercised for a hour twice a day for 3 days on end and then had an "active rest" day. On the recovery day the cosmonauts were recommended to take water-salt supplements according to the following protocol: 2.7 g NaCl in 300 ml liquid during lunch and dinner plus 1.8 g NaCl in 150 ml liquid immediately before they began preparing for the descent (after they donned their space suits). During re-entry the cosmonauts had an anti-G suit on (without bladders).

  3. [Clinical and pathogenetic aspects of the chronic occupational intoxication with fluorine compounds in modern reality].

    PubMed

    Roslaia, N A; Likhacheva, E I; Oranskiĭ, I E; Odinokaia, V A; Plotko, É G; Zhovtiak, E P; Fedorov, A A; Riabko, E V

    2012-01-01

    Multi-year follow-up of 358 workers of aluminum pot rooms, including 165 individuals suffering from fluorosis, has shown significant changes in the clinical picture of the chronic occupational fluorine intoxication, developed under modern conditions of production, at lower concentrations of fluorine compounds in the air of working area. In this connection, the pathology of the musculoskeletal system plays the dominating role in this clinical picture and has the large variability of combinations of the individual sections destructions of the bone tissue. The main criterion to establish the phase of the disease is still the number and severity of the signs of this destruction. The visceral pathology in contemporary production circumstances is registered with less frequency and loses a number of the previously described clinical manifestations, however, is still of some importance to identify the early signs of the disease and to prevent the dental fluorosis on time.

  4. Occupational Burnout and Its Determinants among Personnel of Emergency Medical Services in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khatiban, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Saboor; Bikmoradi, Ali; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Karampourian, Arezou

    2015-11-01

    Several observations have addressed high rates of occupational burnout among personnel of emergency medical services (EMSs) centers. Occupational burnout influences EMS personnel's well-being and quality of life. The main objective of this study was to assess burnout and its determinants among Iranian EMS personnel. This study was carried out at all EMS centers in two provinces of Kermanshah and Hamadan located at the west of Iran. The sample consists of 260 personnel (110 in Hamadan and 150 in Kermanshah) that were consecutively entered. The information was collected by researcher attendance at their workplaces using a self-administered questionnaire. Occupational-burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. An average of 46.54% of personnel displayed high frequency in the subscale emotional exhaustion, 38.85% displayed high frequency in the subscale depersonalization, and only 2.69% of them displayed high frequency in the subscale incompetence/lack of personal accomplishment. Regarding the severity of burnout, severe emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were detected in an average of 25.39% and 37.69 of the personnel, respectively; while, an average of 97.31% expressed a low level of the lack of personal accomplishment. Frequency and severity of burnout were adversely affected by younger age, single status, history of smoking, lower income, higher work experience, longer shifts, and even work status of the spouse. Iranian EMSs personnel considerably suffered from emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This should be effectively managed and improved by organizational supports, psychological consultations, and effective management aimed to improve determinants of appearing occupation-related burnout.

  5. Attitude of medical students towards occupational safety and health: a multi-national study.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, M; Arteta, M; Batmunkh, T; Briceno Leonardo, L; Caraballo, Y; Carvalho, D; Dan, W; Erdogan, S; Brborovic, H; Gudrun, K; Ilse, U; Ingle, G K; Joshi, S K; Kishore, J; Khan, Z; Retneswari, M; Menses, C; Moraga, D; Njan, A; Okonkwo, F O; Ozlem, K; Ravichandran, S; Rosales, J; Rybacki, M; Sainnyambuu, M; Shathanapriya, K; Radon, K

    2015-01-01

    Work-related diseases contribute immensely to the global burden of diseases. Better understanding of attitudes of health care workers towards occupational safety and health (OSH) is important for planning. To assess the attitude of medical students towards OSH around the globe. A questionnaire assessing the attitude towards OSH was administered to medical and paramedical students of 21 Medical Universities across the globe. In the current study 1895 students, aged 18-36 years, from 17 countries were included. After having performed a principal components analysis, the associations of interest between the identified components and other socio demographic characteristics were assessed by multivariate linear regression. Principal component analysis revealed 3 components. Students from lower and lower-middle-income countries had a more positive attitude towards OSH, but the importance of OSH was still rated higher by students from upper-income countries. Although students from Asian and African continents showed high interest for OSH, European and South-Central American students comparatively rated importance of OSH to be higher. Paramedical students had more positive attitude towards OSH than medical students. The attitude of students from lower-income and lower-middle-income towards importance of OSH is negative. This attitude could be changed by recommending modifications to OSH courses that reflect the importance of OSH. Since paramedical students showed more interest in OSH than medical students, modifications in existing health care system with major role of paramedics in OSH service delivery is recommended.

  6. The Family and Medical Leave Act: implications for occupational and environmental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bonnie; Franke, Joanne V; Jeras, JoAnn; Gravitte, Joy T; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2009-06-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) was enacted in 1993 to balance the demands of the workplace with the needs of families. Balancing work and family responsibilities will affect most workers as they experience their own serious illness or care for a child or a parent. The FMLA continues to present challenges regarding medical certifications, recordkeeping, intermittent leave management, and lack of understanding by employees and employers about rights and responsibilities under the law. This article discusses the rights and responsibilities of both parties. It also discusses how the occupational and environmental health nurse can bridge the gap between meeting the needs of the employee and those of the employer by serving as educator, advocate, and liaison/collaborator, leading to measurable cost savings for the employer and immeasurable benefits for the employee.

  7. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Some Non-Occupational Aspects of Sensorineural Loss of Hearing Acuity - A Proposed Design for Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    last twelve months only one person was retired from the U.S. Air Force solely due to hearing loss ( Caraway , Per- sonal interview, 1985). Sensorineural...Loss in Teenage Boys, Scandinavian Audiological Journal 1981; 10 (2): 91-6. Caraway , Rebecca, Captain, USAF, Personal Interview, Division of Medical

  9. Medical aspects of nuclear weapons and their effects on medical operations. Subcourse Med 447

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The subcourse is directed toward the medical effects of nuclear weapons; command guidance on irradiated personnel; medical management of mass casualties with a view toward minimizing manpower damage and preventing unnecessary loss of personnel capable of continuing their military mission; effective command, control, and employment of medical units in the post-attack environment; and actions to be taken by the military, in the case, specifically the medical units, in order to preclude and defend against the tremendous residual effects of nuclear warfare. The ability to perform under such conditions can be attained through effective command, control, and employment of the medical units after the nuclear explosion. The subcourse consists of 5 lessons and an examination. The lessons are: (1) Review of Nuclear Weapon Effects; (2) Ionizing Radiation Injury; (3) Comparative Effects of Nuclear Weapons; Residual Radiation Dose and Decay Calculations; and Management of Mass Casualties; (4) Command Guidance on Irradiated Personnel and Nuclear Accidents and Incidents; and (5) Medical Operations in Fallout.

  10. The physician-administrator as patient: distinctive aspects of medical care.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2011-01-01

    This article examines distinctive aspects of medical care experienced by a 55-year-old hospitalized for quintuple coronary artery bypass surgery who was also a senior physician-administrator (chief of gastroenterology) at the same hospital. The article describes eight distinctive aspects of administrator-physicians as patients, including special patient treatment; exalted patient expectations by hospital personnel; patient suppression of emotions; patient denial; self-doctoring; job stress contributing to disease; self-sacrifice to achieve better health; and rational medical decisions when not under stress. Health-care workers should recognize how these distinctive aspects of medical care and behavior affect administrator-physicians as patients, in order to mitigate their negative effects, potentiate their positive effects, and optimize the care of these patients.

  11. Yesterday's Doctors: The Human Aspects of Medical Education in Britain, 1957-93.

    PubMed

    Bates, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the Second World War there was a movement to counterbalance the apparently increasingly technical nature of medical education. These reforms sought a more holistic model of care and to put people - rather than diseases - back at the centre of medical practice and medical education. This article shows that students often drove the early stages of education reform. Their innovations focused on relationships between doctors and their communities, and often took the form of informal discussions about medical ethics and the social dimensions of primary care. Medical schools began to pursue 'humanistic' education more formally from the 1980s onwards, particularly within the context of general practice curricula and with a focus on individual doctor-patient relationships. Overall from the 1950s to the 1990s there was a broad shift in discussions of the human aspects of medical education: from interest in patient communities to individuals; from social concerns to personal characteristics; and from the relatively abstract to the measurable and instrumental. There was no clear shift from 'less' to 'more' humanistic education, but rather a shift in the perceived goals of integrating human aspects of medical education. The human aspects of medicine show the importance of student activism in driving forward community and ethical medicine, and provide an important backdrop to the rise of competencies within general undergraduate education.

  12. Yesterday’s Doctors: The Human Aspects of Medical Education in Britain, 1957–93

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the Second World War there was a movement to counterbalance the apparently increasingly technical nature of medical education. These reforms sought a more holistic model of care and to put people – rather than diseases – back at the centre of medical practice and medical education. This article shows that students often drove the early stages of education reform. Their innovations focused on relationships between doctors and their communities, and often took the form of informal discussions about medical ethics and the social dimensions of primary care. Medical schools began to pursue ‘humanistic’ education more formally from the 1980s onwards, particularly within the context of general practice curricula and with a focus on individual doctor–patient relationships. Overall from the 1950s to the 1990s there was a broad shift in discussions of the human aspects of medical education: from interest in patient communities to individuals; from social concerns to personal characteristics; and from the relatively abstract to the measurable and instrumental. There was no clear shift from ‘less’ to ‘more’ humanistic education, but rather a shift in the perceived goals of integrating human aspects of medical education. The human aspects of medicine show the importance of student activism in driving forward community and ethical medicine, and provide an important backdrop to the rise of competencies within general undergraduate education. PMID:27998331

  13. [Surveillance groups and occupational phisicians for prevention and security in work environment: legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Aceto, A

    2006-01-01

    Italian jurisdiction, since the setting up of the Republic in 1948, has experienced a real and proper Copernican revolution, not only in the field of prevention of accidents and safety at work, which has meant that at the centre of the system there is no longer a State-finality but the individual person, in the form of inviolable rights that the Democratic Republic-vehicle recognises and guarantees in every place, including all places of occupation. To this end the entrepreneur/employer has become the guarantor of the health of his employees through a complex series of laws and regulations that imposes the adoption of safety measures on an individual, general and organizational level in the company. This guarantee has been reinforced by bringing in penalties for all those evasions or violations of these obligations of the entrepreneur/employer. The centralizing of the culture of prevention has meant that all the controls converge on the judicial police, with the head of the surveillance bodies having the status of officer of the judicial police, and with the adoption of regulations that follow the code of criminal procedures, which, while being binding for the same surveillance bodies is also a guarantee in respecting the right to be defended of the entrepreneur/employer.

  14. Depression as a psychosocial consequence of occupational injury in the US working population: findings from the medical expenditure panel survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence describing the psychosocial consequences of occupational injury is still limited. The effect of occupational injury on depression might pose unique challenges in workers compared with other kinds of injury. This study aimed to assess the differential impact of workplace injury compared with non-workplace injury on depression over time, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with post-injury depression in the US working population. Methods Using pooled panel data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000–2006, a total of 35,155 workers aged 18–64 years who had been followed for about 18 months in each panel were analyzed. Injuries in the 4–5 months before baseline, and subsequent depression incidence during follow-up, were identified using ICD-9 codes for the medical conditions captured in personal interviews. A discrete time-proportional odds model was used. Results A total of 5.5% of workers with occupational injury at baseline reported depression at follow-up, compared with 4.7% of workers with non-occupational injury and 3.1% of workers without injuries. Those with occupational injuries had more severe injuries and required longer treatment, compared with those with non-occupational injuries. Only 39% of workers with workplace injuries were paid Workers’ Compensation (WC). The association between injury and depression appeared to be stronger for workplace injury, and the adjusted odds ratio for depression was 1.72 for those with occupational injury (95% CI: 1.27–2.32), and 1.36 for those with non-occupational injury (95% CI: 1.07–1.65) compared with the no-injury group, after controlling for relevant covariates. Occupational injury was associated with higher odds of developing depression over time. WC as a source of medical payment was associated with 33% higher odds of developing depression (95% CI: 1.01–1.74). Part-time work, shorter job tenure, and long working hours were independently

  15. Professional misconduct: the case of the Medical Board of Australia v Tausif (occupational discipline).

    PubMed

    Colton, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Australian Capital Territory Civil and Administrative Appeals Tribunal (ACAT) made a finding of professional misconduct against a Canberra general practitioner working in two bulk-billing medical practices established by a corporate medical practice service company, Primary Health Care Limited (Medical Board of Australia v Tausif (Occupational Discipline) [2015] ACAT 4). This column analyses that case, particularly in relation to the ACAT finding that the practitioner's professional misconduct was substantially contributed to by an unsafe system of care, specifically, the failure of Primary Health Care to provide supervision and mentoring for clinicians working at its medical centres. The case highlights the professional pressures carried by general practitioners who practise medicine within the framework of corporate bulk-billing business models. The column also examines the related issue of general practitioner co-payments in Australia and their impact on business models built around doctors purportedly characterised as independent contractors, bulk-billing large numbers of patients each day for short consultations.

  16. Child labour in Egypt. I. Occupational and socio-economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Noweir, M H; Oman, H A; Abbas, F I; Abou-Taleb, A M; Mansour, T A

    1993-01-01

    The present study comprised 1000 child and young workers in small and medium-size industries in Alexandria, as well as 250 control subjects. Almost all young workers work for more than 40 hours/week and suffer from fatigue. Workers' family needs rather than the lack of family care is the responsible factor for sending the child to work, and the economic problems seem to be the underlying factor for all other problems of child labour. Work improves labourers' socio-economic status and smoking habit, and provides a chance for their personal contacts and interactions, which are reflected on their level of intellectual capabilities; however, it has some impact on their food habits affecting their achievement of balanced diet; and no drug addiction exists among all the studied subjects. Noise and dust represent the main occupational exposures (84.4% and 55.8% respectively), followed by exposure to heat (25.3%), vapors and gases (10.4%) and biological materials (9.0%), and nearly 2/3 of the workers have combined exposures. Work injuries occurred to 18.4% of the workers and 7.4% had more than one injury during employment; however, nearly 1/3 of the injuries required absenteeism off work and/or hospitalization. The injuries have been typically related to industrial operations, occurring mostly to hands and fingers (80.4%), and are mainly attributed to lack of training (63.0%). The health services presented to the workers are very poor. The study has been concluded by recommending making the work safe, free from hazards, and ergonomically fit to children, providing educational and training services, covering young workers by social security, and revising legislation of child labour.

  17. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility reporting in Japan from 2004 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Nakata, Akinori; Mori, Koji; Maruyama, Takashi; Kawashita, Futoshi; Nagata, Masako

    2017-05-02

    A number of companies publish corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting in booklets and other publicly available formats. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nine-year (2004-2012) trend of occupational safety and health (OSH) activities as described in CSR reporting (by industry sector and company size). We investigated CSR reporting on the website in all Japanese companies listed on the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The data were extracted from CSR reporting of each company every year from 2004 to 2012. We counted the pages dedicated to information on OSH activities by industry sector and company size and calculated the rate of OSH divided by total CSR-related activities. The number of companies publishing CSR reports increased in all industry sectors, although the rate of inclusion of OSH activity within CSR reports increased only among sectors such as construction, manufacturing, transportation, and commerce. Among all company size, CSR reporting increased constantly throughout all observed years. The proportion of companies that had described OSH in CSR reporting increased from 2004 to 2012, and 76.5% companies had described OSH activities in 2012. The average number of pages of CSR-related report was 34.2 in 2004, increasing to 43.1 in 2012. The proportion of described pages of OSH activities in total CSR reporting increased gradually, and 2.7% in 2012. The focus of CSR reporting gradually shifted from 'environment' to 'social activity including OSH'. Majority of companies are putting more emphasis on OSH in CSR reporting in Japan.

  18. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Occupational Medicine and Medical Surveillance 1995--1997 triannual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    From 1995 through 1997 the Office of Occupational Medicine and Medical Surveillance (EH-61) has made numerous achievements that have enhanced the performance of the office and more importantly, the Department of Energy (DOE). This report provides specific information about program activities and accomplishments, as well as individual contacts for each program. The mission of EH-61 is the prevention of worker illness by fostering outstanding occupational medicine and medical surveillance programs within the DOE complex. This mission is being realized as a result of efforts in four main business lines: (1) Surveillance; (2) Research, (3) Policy/Technical Support; and (4) Information/Communication.

  20. The Surgeon General's Policy Statement on Medical Aspects of Childhood Lead Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Jesse L.

    This document is a policy statement written by the Bureau of Community Environmental Management and approved by the Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose is to assist in the development and implementation of programs for the control of lead poisoning in children. Information included covers the medical aspects of…

  1. ACCUMULATION AND DISPOSAL OF LEFTOVER MEDICATIONS: A KEY ASPECT OF PHARMECOVIGILANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we focus on one of the aspects of pharmEcovigilance that has been receiving growing attention, especially in the U.S. — the accumulation and disposal of unwanted, leftover medications. The magnitude of drug stockpiling and accumulation, and eventual disposal of lef...

  2. ACCUMULATION AND DISPOSAL OF LEFTOVER MEDICATIONS: A KEY ASPECT OF PHARMECOVIGILANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we focus on one of the aspects of pharmEcovigilance that has been receiving growing attention, especially in the U.S. — the accumulation and disposal of unwanted, leftover medications. The magnitude of drug stockpiling and accumulation, and eventual disposal of lef...

  3. [Studies on the development of the medical occupational image in Egypt's early times].

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Heinz; Hallof, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Shamanism in pre-dynastic Egypt, practise by Sem-priests, combines social, psycho-hygienic and para-medical elements of both Near-Eastern and African provenance. These activities, which included health care and medical prophylaxes, were organised by highly qualified advisors of the Pharaoh with the establishment of Egyptian state religion. Their aim was to protect the rulers against his "enemies". These enemies included illnesses of all kinds, as well as injuries to health caused by impure food. The importance of this task is emphasised by the fact that it was usually the eldest son of the Pharoah who was responsible for the correct performance of the royal rituals, which included these medical aspects. Changes in religious concepts made these special advisors and priests superfluous. They took over other tasks in the funeral service of the Pharaoh or were included in the professional group of physicians, known from the time of the pyramids as "Sahkmet-priests", i.e. medical specialists. They were particularly responsible for precautionary measures against epidemics and for curing snake and scorpion bites. They created the first medical papyri and established the legal foundation for the medical care of the inhabitants of Egypt by royal order.

  4. An integrated occupational health consultation model for the medical supply manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Sheu, Shey-Huei

    2010-01-01

    In this research, we designed a three-stage consultation procedure and eight major consultation items in order to construct an integrated occupational health consultation model that emphasizes both inspection and consultation. The main characteristics of the proposed model include cooperation among governmental departments, combining non-governmental professional consulting organizations, and establishing partnerships with industrial associations. This model has clear active and passive performance indicators and includes technical guidance during consultation as well as the exit mechanism after consultation. This consultation model enables small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve environmental improvements with minimum investment. Companies that improved after consultation have a mean ethylene oxide exposure concentration, for the time weighted average, that dropped from 7.36 ± 16.88 ppm to 0.76 ± 1.35 ppm (p<0.01). In addition, the overall company compliant item ratio for regulations increased from 34.1% to 89.7%. The above results demonstrate the integrated occupational health consultation model assists small- and medium-sized enterprises in reducing exposure concentrations at operational sites. Our results further demonstrate the feasibility of successfully implementing the proposed consultation model within Taiwan's medical supply manufacturing industry.

  5. [Reform of occupational insurance medical treatment from the perspective of an accident insurance consultant].

    PubMed

    Kalbe, P

    2016-11-01

    The reform of occupational insurance medical treatment in 2011 also resulted in many changes for occupational insurance consultants in private practice. The transformation of the physicians participating in treatment status (H-Arzt) to accident insurance consultant status (D-Arzt) has resulted in a significant increase in numbers in outpatient fields, which in some cases leads to increased competition. The tentative flexibilization of the conditions for participation of a D‑Arzt is welcomed but must be broadened to safeguard the future. The relaxation of obligatory attendance of a D‑Arzt is contemporary and is welcomed. The regularly checked obligation for further education initially led to irritation but has now been extensively coordinated with the mandatory further education for contract physicians. As from 1 January 2016 many smaller alterations and specifications in the implementation regulations have been undertaken. The scale of charges for physicians in invoicing with accident insurance companies as with other scales of charges is urgently in need of reform with respect to the performance rating and in particular to the classification.

  6. Use of nanomaterials in the European construction industry and some occupational health aspects thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Cornelissen, Ralf; Reijnders, Lucas

    2011-02-01

    In the European construction industry in 2009, the use of engineered nanoparticles appears to be confined to a limited number of products, predominantly coatings, cement and concrete. A survey among representatives of workers and employers from 14 EU countries suggests a high level of ignorance about the availability and use of nanomaterials for the construction industry and the safety aspects thereof. Barriers for a large-scale acceptance of products containing engineered nanoparticles (nanoproducts) are high costs, uncertainties about long-term technical material performance, as well as uncertainties about health risks of nanoproducts. Workplace measurements suggest a modest exposure of construction workers to nanoparticles (NPs) associated with the use of nanoproducts. The measured particles were within a size range of 20-300 nm, with the median diameter below 53 nm. Positive assignment of this exposure to the nanoproduct or to additional sources of ultrafine particles, like the electrical equipment used was not possible within the scope of this study and requires further research. Exposures were below the nano reference values proposed on the basis of a precautionary approach.

  7. Caffeine enhances the physiological response to occupational stress in medical students.

    PubMed

    Pincomb, G A; Lovallo, W R; Passey, R B; Brackett, D J; Wilson, M F

    1987-01-01

    Caffeine (3.3 mg/kg) was tested against a placebo in 20 male medical students during periods of low (no exams) versus high (final exams) work stress. On each of 8 test days, heart rate and blood pressure were measured at baseline and over a 40-min postdrug interval; immediately afterward, blood was drawn to test plasma cortisol and serum lipid concentrations. Exams increased heart rate (p less than .005) and systolic blood pressure (p less than .02). Caffeine decreased heart rate (p less than .0001) and increased systolic blood pressure (p less than .005), diastolic blood pressure (p less than .0001), plasma cortisol levels (p less than .01), and serum cholesterol levels (p less than .02). Caffeine effects were additive with those of exams, and together they increased the number of men showing systolic blood pressures in the borderline hypertensive range. Thus, caffeine use during periods of increased occupational stress may enhance the cumulative stress response.

  8. Occupational health and safety aspects of animal handling in dairy production.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Hagevoort, G Robert; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Douphrate, David I; Pinzke, Stefan; Grandin, Temple

    2013-01-01

    Livestock handling in dairy production is associated with a number of health and safety issues. A large number of fatal and nonfatal injuries still occur when handling livestock. The many animal handling tasks on a dairy farm include moving cattle between different locations, vaccination, administration of medication, hoof care, artificial insemination, ear tagging, milking, and loading onto trucks. There are particular problems with bulls, which continue to cause considerable numbers of injuries and fatalities in dairy production. In order to reduce the number of injuries during animal handling on dairy farms, it is important to understand the key factors in human-animal interactions. These include handler attitudes and behavior, animal behavior, and fear in cows. Care when in close proximity to the animal is the key for safe handling, including knowledge of the flight zone, and use of the right types of tools and suitable restraint equipment. Thus, in order to create safe working conditions during livestock handling, it is important to provide handlers with adequate training and to establish sound safety management procedures on the farm.

  9. [Social inequality as a predictor of occupational reintegration of chronic back pain patients following medical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Hofreuter, K; Koch, U; Morfeld, M

    2008-03-01

    The question of which factors influence return to work following medical rehabilitative measures in the case of chronic back pain is, in a social political context, of international significance. While psychosocial, socio-economic and demographic factors as well as subjective perceptions of working conditions are individually discussed, the role of social inequality has thus far received little attention. The present paper focuses on the occupational reintegration of patients with chronic dorsopathies following a medical rehabilitative intervention and aims to investigate the influence of predictor variables on successful reintegration. The re-analysis conducted was based on a three-year prospective controlled intervention study with three measurement sessions. The study comprised a sample of 289 patients aged 20 to 64 years who had undergone first-time intervertebral disc operations in the lumbar spine region. Data were collected between March 2002 and February 2005 using a standardized written questionnaire. Winkler's (1998) composite index comprising indicators of occupational position, income and education was employed as a measure of social inequality. Age and sex were also included as independent variables in a binary logistic regression analysis. Of individuals undergoing rehabilitation, those from lower social classes returned to work later than those from higher social classes. Age and sex did not prove to be significant predictors of successful return to work. The probability of successful reintegration into working life increases according to the position within the vertical structure of social class. In light of this result, it can be assumed that not only differential allocation of patients to rehabilitation interventions but also the specific contents of these interventions should be modeled on the basis of economic criteria.

  10. [The medical social aspects of ambulatory medical care to victims of road traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Gorbunkov, V Ia; Bugaev, D A; Derevianko, D V

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of the organization of medical care to victims of road traffic accidents. The analysis of primary appealability of patients to the first-aid center of Stavropol and Novorossiysk during 2008-2010 is presented. The sampling consisted of 904 cases of this kind of trauma. It is established that among victims of road traffic accident appealed to first-aid centers the pedestrians consist the major part. The traumas of limbs are among the most frequently occurred cases. The victims with cranio-cerebral injuries are among those who appealed most frequently for medical aid. Besides that in most cases (63.4%) the victims with cranio-cerebral injuries were transported not to the neurologic surgery clinic but to the first-aid center This action increased the number of transport stages and duration of time gap before specialized medical care was applied. The conclusion is made concerning the need of further development of out-patient urgent medical care to victims of road traffic accidents.

  11. [Association between occupational stress and presenteeism among medical staff at grade A tertiary hospitals in Shanghai, China].

    PubMed

    Dai, Junming; Hua, Yujie; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Li; Fu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the current status of occupational stress and presenteeism among medical staff at grade A tertiary hospitals in Shanghai, China, and to analyze the association between occupational stress and presenteeism. A total of 2356 healthcare workers from eight grade A tertiary hospitals in Shanghai were investigated by stratified random sampling. All the subjects were asked to complete self-administered questionnaires with informed consent. The occupational stress was assessed by the occupational stress core questionnaire. The presenteeism was evaluated by the Stanford Presenteeism Scale. In all subjects, the average score of presenteeism was 15.23 ± 3.89, and 72.5% felt occupational stress in self-evaluation. There were significant differences in the score of presenteeism between subjects with different ages, education levels, occupations, lengths of service, job titles, and shifts (all P<0.05). There were significant differences in the score of presenteeism and the rate of high presenteeism between subjects with different indices of occupational stress, including job demand, control, social support, and demand-control ratio (P<0.01). High job demand and high demand-control ratio were risk factors for high presenteeism (OR=2.56, 95% CI=2.01~3.27; OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.23~1.90). High social support was a protective factor for high presenteeism (OR=0.23, 95% CI=0.18~0.29). The intensity of occupational stress in medical staff from grade A tertiary hospitals is positively correlated with the level of presenteeism. It is important to promote social support to reduce the loss of work efficiency due to presenteeism.

  12. Swedish women's satisfaction with medical and emotional aspects of antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Rådestad, Ingela

    2005-11-01

    This paper reports a study to investigate how satisfied Swedish women are with their antenatal care. Medical care is of high priority, but other aspects, such as psychosocial support are also important for women during pregnancy. Identifying women who are dissatisfied with their antenatal care could help us to improve this. Methods. A national cohort of 2746 Swedish-speaking women completed a questionnaire in early pregnancy and at 2 months postpartum. The data were collected in 1999-2000. The majority of participants were satisfied with their antenatal care, but 23% were dissatisfied with the emotional aspects and 18% with the medical aspects. The strongest predictors of dissatisfaction were women's opinions that midwives had not been supportive and had not paid attention to their partners' needs. If the women believed that there were not enough antenatal visits or had met three or more midwives during their antenatal visits, they were more likely to be dissatisfied with the care received. Those with low levels of education were more likely to be dissatisfied with both medical and emotional aspects of antenatal care. Midwives working in antenatal care should support pregnant women and their partners in a professional and friendly way in order to increase satisfaction with care. Organizing teamwork with no more than two midwives taking care of a woman during a normal pregnancy could make women feel more supported by their midwives.

  13. [The use of medical equipment in medical rehabilitation: evidence and therapeutic aspects of security].

    PubMed

    Sgalambro, Maria Luisa; Nataletti, Pietro; Ioppolo, Francesco; Bernetti, Andrea; Santilli, Valter

    2012-01-01

    Electro-medical equipment is widely used in order to treat bony and muscular disorders and some neurological disease in rehabilitation. However, the scientific evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of this equipment is meagre and contradictory. We have studied the subject, taking into account current regulations for the management and use of this electro-medical equipment. Following the criteria for Evidence Based Medicine, we have analysed the international literature so as to evaluate the evidence for physical energy in different clinical applications. Because the vast quantity of publications dealing with this material, priority was given to peer-reviewed articles and randomised trials. The publications were divided into categories according to disorder, so as to illustrate how some may provide positive proof whereas others require further study.

  14. [Asylum Law and Mental Health: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of the Coaction of Medical and Legal Aspects].

    PubMed

    Hanewald, Bernd; Gieseking, Janina; Vogelbusch, Oliver; Markus, Inessa; Gallhofer, Bernd; Knipper, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Interdisciplinary analysis of the consequences of laws and legal practice for mental health conditions of asylum seekers and psychiatric care. Based on the case study of a Kurdish woman with complex trauma-related psychiatric disorder, who had been in psychiatric hospital care for 25 months, the legal and medical facts are exposed, followed by a discussion referring to theoretical approaches from medical anthropology. Immigration laws and legal practice can have harmful consequences, which can be interpreted as "structural violence". In case of traumatized refugees, the coaction of legal and medical aspects has to be acknowledged seriously by the medical, legal and political parts involved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. [Occupational health of endoscope sterilization workers in medical institutions in Osaka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Keiko; Tabuchi, Takeo; Kumagai, Shinji

    2006-09-01

    To clarify the actual condition of endoscope sterilization work and the adverse health effects of disinfectants on personnel, a questionnaire was sent to 173 medical institutions in Osaka Prefecture. Glutaraldehyde (GA), ortho-phtalaldehyde (OPA), and hyperacetic acid were used as disinfectants of endoscopes by 55.5%, 32.4%, and 8.7% of the medical institutions respectively. The kind of disinfectant used had been changed in 57.8% of these institutions during the past five years, and it was confirmed that the use of substitutes for GA, such as OPA and hyperacetic acid, has increased. Personnel in 35.8% of the institutions complained about symptoms during sterilization work. The kind of disinfectant being used when they complained was GA in many cases and OPA in others. A general ventilation system has now been installed in 72.3% of the institutions; local exhaust systems have been installed in fewer, only 23.4%. Protective gloves were used at about half of the institutions, but protective masks and glasses were seldom used. This study shows that the occupational health problems of endoscope sterilization work have not been resolved. Consequently, it is necessary to promote the installation of ventilation systems and the use of protective devices in all institutions. Health education in regard to the handling of disinfectants is also necessary. Because little information is available about the toxic effects of OPA and hyperacetic acid, epidemiological studies must be conducted to clarify the human health effect of these disinfectants.

  16. [Bernardino Ramazzini--founder of occupational safety and health as a branch of medical pathology].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskiĭ, L N

    2011-01-01

    The article presents information about the outstanding Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini and scientist. Considered its contribution to the development of occupational hygiene and occupational diseases as a branch of medicine.

  17. An observational study of shift length, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Patterson, P. Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Songer, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep, and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational injury while controlling for relevant shift work and teamwork factors. Methods We obtained three years of shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports were from 14 large EMS agencies. We abstracted shift length and additional scheduling and team characteristics from shift schedules. We matched occupational injury and illness reports to shift records and used hierarchical logistic regression models to test the relationship between shift length and occupational injury and illness while controlling for teammate familiarity. Results The cohort contained 966,082 shifts, 4,382 employees, and 950 outcome reports. Risk of occupational injury and illness was lower for shifts ≤8 hours in duration (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51–0.96) compared to shifts >8 & ≤12 hours. Relative to shifts >8 & ≤12 hours, risk of injury was 60% greater (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.22–2.10) for employees that worked shifts >16 and ≤24 hours. Conclusions Shift length is associated with increased risk of occupational injury and illness in this sample of EMS shift workers. PMID:26371071

  18. A systematic review of social, economic and diplomatic aspects of short-term medical missions.

    PubMed

    Caldron, Paul H; Impens, Ann; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2015-09-15

    Short-term medical missions (STMMs) represent a grass-roots form of aid, transferring medical services rather than funds or equipment. The objective of this paper is to review empirical studies on social, economic and diplomatic aspects of STMMs. A systematic literature review was conducted by searching PubMed and EBSCOhost for articles published from 1947-2014 about medical missions to lower and middle income countries (LMICs). Publications focused on military, disaster and dental service trips were excluded. A data extraction process was used to identify publications relevant to our objective stated above. PubMed and EBSCOhost searches provided 4138 and 3262 articles respectively for review. Most articles that provide useful information have appeared in the current millennium and are found in focused surgical journals. Little attention is paid to aspects of volunteerism, altruism and philanthropy related to STMM activity in the literature reviewed (1 article). Evidence of professionalization remains scarce, although elements including guidelines and tactical instructions have been emerging (27 articles). Information on costs (10 articles) and commentary on the relevance of market forces (1 article) are limited. Analyses of spill-over effects, i.e., changing attitudes of physicians or their communities towards aid, and characterizations of STMMs as meaningful foreign aid or strategic diplomacy are few (4 articles). The literature on key social, economic and diplomatic aspects of STMMs and their consequences is sparse. Guidelines, tactical instructions and attempts at outcome measures are emerging that may better professionalize the otherwise unregulated activity. A broader discussion of these key aspects may lead to improved accountability and intercultural professionalism to accompany medical professionalism in STMM activity.

  19. The challenge of teaching occupational medicine to medical students: the Université de Montréal experience.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Martine; Maheux, Brigitte; Gilbert, Andrée

    2011-11-01

    Nonrecognition and mismanagement of work-related diseases is often linked to inadequate medical training. However, undergraduate training in occupational medicine faces many challenges, including lack of student interest and limited curriculum time. The purpose of this article is to present an undergraduate training program developed in one medical school to ensure that all medical students acquire the basic knowledge to recognize work-related health conditions and understand the fundamental principles of workers' comprehensive care. The program involves various learning methods including case studies, small-group learning, interactive large-group teaching, field activities, and e-learning. It has resulted in improving students' attitudes and competencies in occupational medicine and requires little curriculum time.

  20. [Social medicine in medical faculties: realisation of the topic in the specialty "social medicine, occupational health"].

    PubMed

    Behmann, M; Bisson, S; Walter, U

    2011-12-01

    The 9 (th) Revision of German Medical Licensing Regulations for Physicians has come into effect on October 1 (st) 2003. Social medicine was separated into the fields "occupational health, social medicine" and the various cross-sectional modules: epidemiology, biometry, medical computer science; health economics, health-care system, public health; prevention, health promotion; rehabilitation, physical medicine, naturopathic treatment. This paper studies the realisation of teaching in the field social medicine at German medical faculties. The survey was conducted in collaboration with the German Association for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). A survey was conducted at 38 institutes of 36 German medical faculties. The written questionnaire contained mostly selection items in which chances and barriers of the field were queried with supply items. Information about time scale, general conditions and resources was aked for. On the basis of the guidelines of the DGSMP, the topics to be taught were evaluated concerning their relevance and integration into education. The response rate was 68% (n=26). Social insurance, basic principles, responsibility in the Social Security Code and the different providers were judged as the most important topics. There was a strong demand for lecturing material. 82% (n=18) of the faculties wished to have specific material, for example e-learning, examples, lesson plans, curricula and also textbooks. 91% (n=19) of the faculties requested an exchange of information between the faculties concerning educational contents, motivation of students and e-learning. The realisation of teaching is different between the faculties concerning the number of hours, teaching methods and number of students per year. The motivation of the students is one of the problems, but also the lack of acceptance within the clinic. Specific resources and exchange between the faculties are necessary concerning e-learning, which is offered at only few faculties so

  1. The Relevance of Occupational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    1982-01-01

    As the burden-of-illness profile has shifted significantly in recent years, more attention is focused on occupational factors in disease, not only because of past developments and future aspects but mainly because of the numerous practical and theoretical implications and the involvement of many medical and social features. PMID:7120472

  2. Botanical geographical aspects of plants cultivated in Medea's garden of medical plants in Colchis.

    PubMed

    Gagnidze, R; Khelaia, N; Margalitadze, N; Batsatsashvili, K; Churadze, M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to make a detailed investigation of the dissemination and dispersion of the plants which were cultivated in Medea's garden of medical plants in Colchis. It was found that the plants in the Medea's garden were highly heterogeneous from the point of plant geography. Plants from humid and arid Mediterranean basin, Near, Minor and East Asia zones were found in Medea's garden. Among the most important were the plants of floristic centers of Mediterranean basin. Study of the botanical geographical aspects of medical plants gave us opportunities to establish optimal time of dissemination of medical plants diasporas in Colchis; this process is associated with climate oscillations of Holocene and intensive migrations of peoples of Mediterranean.

  3. [Studies of cellular immunity in medical workers with occupational asthma and obstructive bronchitis in health care institutions of Primorsky Krai].

    PubMed

    Bektasova, M V; Kaptsov, V A; Sheparev, A A

    2013-01-01

    Research was carried out on the basis of voluntary consent to the study of the characteristics of cellular immunity from the blood samples of the medical staff of health institutions of Primorsky Krai suffered from occupational bronchial asthma and obstructive bronchitis. For this purpose, 23 female patients with a diagnosis of occupational asthma, 100 female cases with obstructive bronchitis were examined. Mean age was 47.9 +/- 3.5 years. The control group was consisted of 30 healthy women, average age of 46.7 +/- 3.7years. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes of cellular immunity in health care workers with occupational asthma and obstructive bronchitis. There is an urgent need to study the dynamics of immunogram for proper interpretation and to take measures to prevent complications timely.

  4. Occupant Injury Severity and Accident Causes in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (1983-2014).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Macchiarella, Nickolas D

    2016-01-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) transport critically ill patients to/between emergency care facilities and operate in a hazardous environment: the destination site is often encumbered with obstacles, difficult to visualize at night, and lack instrument approaches for degraded visibility. The study objectives were to determine 1) HEMS accident rates and causes; 2) occupant injury severity profiles; and 3) whether accident aircraft were certified to the more stringent crashworthiness standards implemented two decades ago. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident database was used to identify HEMS mishaps for the years spanning 1983-2014. Contingency tables (Pearson Chi-square or Fisher's exact test) were used to determine differences in proportions. A generalized linear model (Poisson distribution) was used to determine if accident rates differed over time. While the HEMS accident rate decreased by 71% across the study period, the fraction of fatal accidents (36-50%) and the injury severity profiles were unchanged. None of the accident aircraft fully satisfied the current crashworthiness standards. Failure to clear obstacles and visual-to-instrument flight, the most frequent accident causes (37 and 26%, respectively), showed a downward trend, whereas accidents ascribed to aircraft malfunction showed an upward trend over time. HEMS operators should consider updating their fleet to the current, more stringent crashworthiness standards in an attempt to reduce injury severity. Additionally, toward further mitigating accidents ascribed to inadvertent visual-to-instrument conditions, HEMS aircraft should be avionics-equipped for instrument flight rules flight.

  5. Using death certificates and medical examiner records for adolescent occupational fatality surveillance and research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Runyan, Carol W; Radisch, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Death certificates and medical examiner records have been useful yet imperfect data sources for work-related fatality research and surveillance among adult workers. It is unclear whether this holds for work-related fatalities among adolescent workers who suffer unique detection challenges in part because they are not often thought of as workers. This study investigated the utility of using these data sources for surveillance and research pertaining to adolescent work-related fatalities. Using the state of North Carolina as a case study, we analyzed data from the death certificates and medical examiner records of all work-related fatalities data among 11- to 17-year-olds between 1990-2008 (N = 31). We compared data sources on case identification, of completeness, and consistency information. Variables examined included those on the injury (e.g., means), occurrence (e.g., place), demographics, and employment (e.g., occupation). Medical examiner records (90%) were more likely than death certificates (71%) to identify adolescent work-related fatalities. Data completeness was generally high yet varied between sources. The most marked difference being that in medical examiner records, type of business/industry and occupation were complete in 72 and 67% of cases, respectively, while on the death certificates these fields were complete in 90 and 97% of cases, respectively. Taking the two sources together, each field was complete in upward of 94% of cases. Although completeness was high, data were not always of good quality and sometimes conflicted across sources. In many cases, the decedent's occupation was misclassified as "student" and their employer as "school" on the death certificate. Even though each source has its weaknesses, medical examiner records and death certificates, especially when used together, can be useful for conducting surveillance and research on adolescent work-related fatalities. However, extra care is needed by data recorders to ensure that

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Healthcare Managers to Medical Waste Management and Occupational Safety Practices: Findings from Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Eze, Justus Ndulue; Mamah, Emmanuel Johnbosco; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ogah, Emeka Onwe; Umezurike, Daniel Akuma; Anozie, Rita Onyinyechi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Awareness of appropriate waste management procedures and occupational safety measures is fundamental to achieving a safe work environment, and ensuring patient and staff safety. Aim This study was conducted to assess the attitude of healthcare managers to medical waste management and occupational safety practices. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 54 hospital administrators in Ebonyi state. Semi-structured questionnaires were used for qualitative data collection and analyzed with SPSS statistics for windows (2011), version 20.0 statistical software (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Two-fifth (40%) of healthcare managers had received training on medical waste management and occupational safety. Standard operating procedure of waste disposal was practiced by only one hospital (1.9%), while 98.1% (53/54) practiced indiscriminate waste disposal. Injection safety boxes were widely available in all health facilities, nevertheless, the use of incinerators and waste treatment was practiced by 1.9% (1/54) facility. However, 40.7% (22/54) and 59.3% (32/54) of respondents trained their staff and organize safety orientation courses respectively. Staff insurance cover was offered by just one hospital (1.9%), while none of the hospitals had compensation package for occupational hazard victims. Over half (55.6%; 30/54) of the respondents provided both personal protective equipment and post exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Conclusion There was high level of non-compliance to standard medical waste management procedures, and lack of training on occupational safety measures. Relevant regulating agencies should step up efforts at monitoring and regulation of healthcare activities and ensure staff training on safe handling and disposal of hospital waste. PMID:28511409

  7. Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro; Takayama, Kaoru

    2017-04-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  8. Japanese Guideline for Occupational Allergic Diseases 2014.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kunio; Akiyama, Kazuo; Usami, Atsushi; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Ikezawa, Zenro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yoichi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Jiro

    2014-09-01

    In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

  9. The association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Patterson, P. Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Songer, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers are shift workers in a high-risk, uncontrolled occupational environment. EMS-worker fatigue has been associated with self-reported injury, but the influence of extended weekly work hours is unknown. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed using historical shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports. Using multilevel models, we examined the association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and injury or illness. Results In total, 966,082 shifts and 950 reports across 14 EMS agencies were obtained over a 1-3 year period. Weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Schedule characteristics that yield decreased exposure to occupational hazards, such as part-time work and night work, conferred reduced risk of injury or illness. Conclusions Extended weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Future work should focus on transient exposures and agency-level characteristics that may contribute to adverse work events. PMID:26391202

  10. The association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew D; Patterson, P Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G; Freiberg, Matthew S; Songer, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers are shift workers in a high-risk, uncontrolled occupational environment. EMS-worker fatigue has been associated with self-reported injury, but the influence of extended weekly work hours is unknown. A retrospective cohort study was designed using historical shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports. Using multilevel models, we examined the association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and injury or illness. In total, 966,082 shifts and 950 reports across 14 EMS agencies were obtained over a 1-3 year period. Weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Schedule characteristics that yield decreased exposure to occupational hazards, such as part-time work and night work, conferred reduced risk of injury or illness. Extended weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Future work should focus on transient exposures and agency-level characteristics that may contribute to adverse work events. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effectiveness of Medical Rehabilitation on Return-to-Work Depends on the Interplay of Occupation Characteristics and Disease.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Anita; Mölders, Christina; Fischer, Sebastian; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Work disability causes high costs for economy, organizations, and employees. However, medical rehabilitation does not always enable employees to return to their old jobs. In the present study, we investigated how disease classification and work characteristics interact in predicting the success of medical rehabilitation in terms of one's ability to return to a former job. Methods To this end, we matched 2009 patient data from the German Statutory Pension Insurance agency with job characteristics data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) 17.0 database. We used a multilevel approach and a sample of N = 72,029, nested in 194 occupational groups. Results We found that workers are less likely to reenter a former job if mental illnesses coincide with emotionally demanding labor and if musculoskeletal diseases coincide with extreme environmental conditions. We did not find different effects between occupational groups for other types of diseases (circulatory system, neoplasms, injuries, others). Conclusion Thus, the contextual overlap of disease and occupational characteristics notably lowers the chances of a successful return-to-work. These findings should be taken into account by physicians when attempting to set realistic goals for rehabilitation in collaboration with the patient and the funding agency.

  12. [Medical assessment of occupational disability (preparation of a list of occupational diseases with the colaboration of scientific societies)].

    PubMed

    Jardón-Dato, E

    Amongst the financial benefits given by the Social Security Service, that of disability benefit is one of the most important. To determine the right to obtain this and the amount due, it is necessary to have administrative certification of the existence of this disability, the cause of it and the degree (partial, total, absolute or great disability). Therefore medical assessment is essential. The medical assessors of the Disability Tribunals of the Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social are responsible for medical assessment. It is necessary for these doctors to understand all types of disorders and useful for them to have methodology at their disposal for each of the different disorders. Also, lack of official criteria for evaluation, due to the variety of situations which may arise, make unification difficult. We aim to devise criteria for evaluation of the diagnosis, by means of the tests and investigations necessary, their evaluation and the symptoms of each disorder which may cause problems (deficiencies) in the individual person, when carrying out his work (determining which tests and investigations allow this to be shown). Neurology is one of the specialities which offers the greatest difficulty to nonspecialists. This is due to the evaluation of complementary tests used and the subjectivity of some defects. In this paper, we aim to report these difficulties in order to promote collaboration between medical assessors and Neurology specialists.

  13. An intervention with third-year medical students to encourage the reporting and management of occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Kobets, Andrew J; Perlotto, James; Angoff, Nancy R

    2012-09-01

    Medical students are particularly vulnerable to occupational exposures to blood-borne pathogens because of their inexperience. Although exposure rates for medical students remain high, they often do not report such incidents or seek the proper medical care. The authors describe and evaluate an intervention at the Yale University School of Medicine to prevent and manage occupational exposures among medical students. Since 2001, students have met with key faculty during orientation and again before clinical clerkships to discuss the circumstances under which most exposures occur, examine the equipment used to draw blood and start IVs, and review instructions about postexposure management. They are also given a laminated card summarizing this information. In 2010 and 2011, the authors surveyed graduating students about their experiences. Two hundred twenty-five of 245 (92%) students responded to the survey, and 82 (36%) had experienced 103 exposures. Forty-seven of those 82 (57%) students reported their exposure, 52 (56%) had the laminated card on them at the time of the incident, and 15 (18%) started postexposure prophylaxis. The most common reasons students cited for not reporting an incident were a low-risk exposure, a sense of embarrassment, or perceived difficulties in getting care. The authors recommend continuing to educate medical students about the importance of reporting exposures and seeking the proper care. They also recommend educating physicians and residents in an attempt to change the environment around exposures so that medical students no longer feel discouraged from reporting incidents.

  14. [Anthropo-ecological aspects of occupational health and various biochemical approaches to the problem of its evaluation in workers in high risk occupations].

    PubMed

    Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Ponomarenko, V A

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of occupational health of man, interpreted as the process of maintenance and development of regulatory properties of the body and his physical, psychic and social well-being, which provide high reliability of his professional activities, professional longevity and maximal lifetime. The paper discusses the main areas of biochemical investigations to evaluate occupational health of the flying personnel, which include identification of correlates between biochemical or immune changes and pathological or premorbid states, that reduce tolerance to environmental effects, as well as study of functional specificities related to the reserves and mechanisms of implementation of adaptive capabilities of the human body. It gives detailed biochemical data derived from pilots with neurotic problems and biochemical indicators of stress tolerance measured during exposure to +Gz acceleration, angular acceleration, hyperthermia, hypoxia, and exercise.

  15. Consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands: demographic and medical genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Ten Kate, Leo P; Teeuw, Marieke E; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the presence of consanguinity and endogamy in the Netherlands, in the past and today, and concludes with a discussion of medical genetic aspects. First geographic characteristics, the demographic history, the genetic make-up of the native population, legal aspects and the public opinion are reviewed. Then data on the prevalence of consanguinity in the native population are presented for marriages since 1840, followed by data on consanguineous marriages among immigrants from countries with a tradition of close-kin marriages. It is estimated that approximately 1% of at-risk consanguineous couples are referred to clinical genetic centres for prospective genetic counselling in the Netherlands. This picture will change dramatically if and when next-generation sequencing is introduced to identify couples at ≥ 25% risk prospectively. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Continuing medical education and accreditation in occupational health: the new context].

    PubMed

    Franco, G; Costa, G

    2008-01-01

    In the future many changes will extensively affect workforce, workplace and work organization. The changes expected in the workforce will be a larger share of workers over 55 years and of women and a larger share of migrants. Two main changes will affect the workplace: the increasing percentage of jobs in the service sector and the decreasing permanent relationship of the worker with the workplace with an increase in temporary work, on-call work and work at home. The evolution of global trade is accelerating the transformation of work organization, with important changes in management systems, production and services processes and their influence on the way work is performed. Although working conditions will continue to improve overall, many matters remain to be resolved due to the increase in workers' health demands and awareness. Old diseases, such as tuberculosis, and new aspects of the more common health disorders, such as stress related-disorders, will represent a challenge for the specialist. In addition, new hazards, such as the exposure to nanoparticles or to static magnetic fields, will be conditions worthy to be considered for the possible implication to health. The workplace will represent a privileged place to promote health and well being of workers aiming at ensuring an effective healthy lifestyle, career and employment security. In this rapidly changing and demanding context, a new challenge for the occupational physicians will start with having a good understanding of the implications for adhering to the ethical principles and to values of quality, equity, relevance and cost-effectiveness and maintaining a balance among them.

  17. Role of the Occupational Physician in Corporate Management of Health Risks: An Important Aspect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

    PubMed

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    There are various risks involved in corporate activities conducted both within and outside the corporation. Among these, health risks are very important and should be managed effectively as an integral part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). A corporation is responsible for health impairments caused by its activities and suffers great moral and economic loss when they occur. It is essential that corporate management takes proper preventive measures against such risks. Occupational physicians possess substantial knowledge of health risks in corporations. In this study, we examine the role of occupational physicians in the management of corporate health risks. Information was obtained from articles in print and on the Internet. Health risks due to corporate activities involve not only the employees of the corporation but also individuals outside the corporation. Each corporation should effectively use available resources to manage health risks. Occupational physicians are one such valuable resource. However, many corporations do not actively involve occupational physicians in health risk management. According to a current Japanese law, health risks for employees in corporations are managed by occupational physicians, but in general, health risks outside corporations are not. The 1984 Bhopal Disaster in India is an example in which physicians of the corporation were only minimally, if at all, involved in assessing and treating impaired health outside the corporation. The role of occupational physicians should be expanded to include management of health risks outside the corporation. This places a greater burden on the physicians and they must make the effort to train in many academic fields in order to better understand the entire context of health risks due to corporate activities. Some occupational physicians may be hesitant to take on such added responsibilities. Some corporations may not recognize the overall health risks due to its activities and do not

  18. Physicians' occupational stress, depressive symptoms and work ability in relation to their working environment: a cross-sectional study of differences among medical residents with various specialties working in German hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Mache, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyse and compare differences in occupational stress, depressive symptoms, work ability and working environment among residents working in various medical specialties. Methods 435 German hospital residents in medical training working in 6 different medical specialties participated in a cross-sectional survey study. Physicians were asked about their working conditions and aspects of mental health and work ability. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Work Ability Index, the ICD-10 Symptom Rating and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire were used to measure working conditions, mental health and work ability. Results Results show that up to 17% of the physicians reported high levels of occupational distress and 9% reported high levels of depressive symptoms. 11% of the hospital physicians scored low in work ability. Significant differences between medical specialties were demonstrated for occupational distress, depressive symptoms, work ability, job demands and job resources. Surgeons showed consistently the highest levels of perceived distress but also the highest levels of work ability and lowest scores for depression. Depressive symptoms were rated with the highest levels by anaesthesiologists. Significant associations between physicians’ working conditions, occupational distress and mental health-related aspects are illustrated. Conclusions Study results demonstrated significant differences in specific job stressors, demands and resources. Relevant relations between work factors and physicians' health and work ability are discussed. These findings should be reinvestigated in further studies, especially with a longitudinal study design. This work suggests that to ensure physicians' health, hospital management should plan and implement suitable mental health promotion strategies. In addition, operational efficiency through resource planning optimisation and work process improvements should be focused by hospital management

  19. Perspective: Malpractice in an academic medical center: a frequently overlooked aspect of professionalism education.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Mark S; Seib, Carolyn D; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra R; Pachter, H Leon

    2011-03-01

    Understanding how medical malpractice occurs and is resolved is important to improving patient safety and preserving the viability of a physician's career in academic medicine. Every physician is likely to be sued by a patient, and how the physician responds can change his or her professional life. However, the principles of medical malpractice are rarely taught or addressed during residency training. In fact, many faculty at academic medical centers know little about malpractice.In this article, the authors propose that information about the inciting causes of malpractice claims and their resolution should be incorporated into residency professionalism curricula both to improve patient safety and to decrease physician anxiety about a crucial aspect of medicine that is not well understood. The authors provide information on national trends in malpractice litigation and residents' understanding of malpractice, then share the results of their in-depth review of surgical malpractice claims filed during 2001-2008 against their academic medical center. The authors incorporated those data into an evidence-driven curriculum for residents, which they propose as a model for helping residents better understand the events that lead to malpractice litigation, as well as its process and prevention.

  20. [Disease versus disorder. Medical and socio-environmental aspects of mental suffering].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    2015-01-01

    A disease concept should be broad enough to provide social protection for all subjects suffering from this malady but at the same time it needs to be narrow enough to avoid pathologization of behavior that is merely socially undesirable. From a medical perspective a"disease" is present if functions are impaired that are relevant for individual survival. In the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy, such medically relevant functions include the ability to be alert and fully oriented, to ascribe one's own intentions to oneself and to modulate affects according to the situation. Beyond such medically relevant symptoms of a disease, any clinically relevant dysfunction should also be harmful for the individual if a mental malady is to be diagnosed. One such harmful consequence of a disease can be that the person feels ill and suffers from this state, another negative consequence for the individual can be due to an impairment of activities of daily living and social participation. These harmful consequences of a disease are usually discussed under the heading of the"illness experience" and the"sickness aspect" of any disorder. Beyond mental maladies characterized by disease symptoms that are accompanied either by an illness experience or impaired activities of daily living and social participation (sickness), there are many states of human suffering which can be objectified and classified but do not constitute a disease in the medical sense and should more aptly be named a disorder.

  1. Occupational health and safety assessment of exposure to jet fuel combustion products in air medical transport.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Russell D; Thomas, Laura; Rusk, Frederick C; Marques, Shauna D; McGuire, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Transport medicine personnel are potentially exposed to jet fuel combustion products. Setting-specific data are required to determine whether this poses a risk. This study assessed exposure to jet fuel combustion products, compared various engine ignition scenarios, and determined methods to minimize exposure. The Beechcraft King Air B200 turboprop aircraft equipped with twin turbine engines, using a kerosene-based jet fuel (Jet A-1), was used to measure products of combustion during boarding, engine startup, and flight in three separate engine start scenarios ("shielded": internal engine start, door closed; "exposed": ground power unit start, door open; and "minimized": ground power unit right engine start, door open). Real-time continuous monitoring equipment was used for oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. Integrated methods were used for aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Samples were taken in the paramedic breathing zone for approximately 60 minutes, starting just before the paramedics boarded the aircraft. Data were compared against regulated time-weighted exposure thresholds to determine the presence of potentially harmful products of combustion. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile organic compounds, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were found at very low concentrations or beneath the limits of detection. There were significant differences in exposures to particulates, carbon monoxide, and total volatile organic compound between the "exposed" and "minimized" scenarios. Elevated concentrations of carbon monoxide and total volatile organic compounds were present during the ground power unit-assisted dual-engine start. There were no appreciable exposures during the "minimized" or "shielded" scenarios. Air medical personnel exposures to jet fuel combustion products were

  2. BED OCCUPANCY RATE AND LENGTH OF STAY OF PATIENTS IN MEDICAL AND ALLIED WARDS OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Usman, Gulzar; Memon, Khalida Naz; Shaikh, Shazia

    2015-01-01

    A good hospital management includes an effective allocative planning for beds in a hospital. Bed-occupancy rates and length of stay are the measures that reflect the functional ability of a hospital. A cross sectional study of two months' duration was carried out in eight medical and allied wards of Liaquat University Hospital (LUH) Jamshoro with objective to estimate the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of patients. Data was collected by filling a predesigned check list and bed occupancy rate and average length of stay were computed. Associations were analysed by using SPSS version 16. The p-value 50.05 Was taken as level of significance. One hundred & seven admissions were recorded against 235 available beds. Average bed occupancy rate was 51.33%. The 51.4% of the patients in medical wards except paediatrics ward were of the age >50 years; the mean age was 45 years and standard deviation +/-6.4 years. Mean age in paediatrics was 3.89 years and standard deviation of +/-0.8 years. 55.1% patients had infectious diseases. The 32.7% patients stayed in hospital for up to 3 days showing significant association between nature of diseases and duration of stay (p=0.03). There was male preponderance, i.e., 54.2% males against 45.8% females. Showing significant association between gender and length of stay (p=0.01). Bed occupancy rate and average stay in hospital were found within recommended range; more improvement may be brought by doing further research on this issue.

  3. TUBERCULOSIS AS OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE OF MEDICAL AND NURSING PERSONNEL AND ITS PREVENTION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MEDICAL PERSONNEL, DISEASES, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS , INFECTIOUS DISEASES, HAZARDS, IMMUNITY, TUBERCULIN, MEDICAL EXAMINATION, PUBLIC HEALTH, GERMICIDES, HOSPITALS, HYGIENE, TRAINING, WEST GERMANY.

  4. An observational study of shift length, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew D; Patterson, P Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G; Freiberg, Matthew S; Songer, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational injury while controlling for relevant shift work and teamwork factors. We obtained 3 years of shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports were from 14 large EMS agencies. We abstracted shift length and additional scheduling and team characteristics from shift schedules. We matched occupational injury and illness reports to shift records and used hierarchical logistic regression models to test the relationship between shift length and occupational injury and illness while controlling for teammate familiarity. The cohort contained 966,082 shifts, 4382 employees and 950 outcome reports. Risk of occupational injury and illness was lower for shifts ≤8 h in duration (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.96) compared with shifts >8 and ≤12 h. Relative to shifts >8 and ≤12 h, risk of injury was 60% greater (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.22 to 2.10) for employees that worked shifts >16 and ≤24 h. Shift length is associated with increased risk of occupational injury and illness in this sample of EMS shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. [Japanese travels of joseon medicine and the aspects of publication of collections of medical written conversations].

    PubMed

    Hur, Kyung Jin

    2010-06-30

    Of the more than two hundred collections of pildamchanghwa scattered around the world that are being catalogued and translated, more than forty are medical in nature. This paper organizes and charts the medical written conversations by their dates of publication and examine the various aspects of their publication. Medical written conversations have been collected since the Fourth Envoy. There are no records of medical written conversations or poetry exchange in Tsushima even though that was the first port of arrival for the Tongsinsa. Instead, sources show that written conversations and poetry exchanges mostly took place in Kyoto, Tokyo, and Osaka; indeed, these three cities, in that order, also have yielded the highest volumes of publication. The first commercially published collection of medical written conversations was Sanghaneuidam, published in 1713 following the Eighth Envoy. Though Gyerimchanghwajip was published two years earlier in 1711, it is clear from the usage of the word changhwa in the title that this collection was not strictly limited to medical written conversations. Sanghaneuidam was an attempt by Japanese medicine to collect questions and answers in order to publish as medical textbooks. The Japanese medicine that was involved in the most written conversations was Kawamura Shunko, who was the editor of Sanghaneuimundap and Joseonpildam following the Tenth Envoy. Publications with titles containing 'eui' explicitly contemplates the targeted readership. Kitao Shunpo was one Japanese medicine who was less interested in meeting a literary scrivener, but instead sought to converse with a respected medicine. When the Eighth Envoy of 1711 arrived in Ogaki, Kitao followed around the Joseon medicines and attempted written conversations. He enlisted the aid of his second son Shunrin in organizing the written conversations, and published the collection, complete with preface, postscript, and appendices-an editorial decision that fully contemplated his

  6. Introduction to grayscale calibration and related aspects of medical imaging grade liquid crystal displays.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Blume, Hartwig R; Flynn, Michael J; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-01

    Consistent presentation of digital radiographic images at all locations within a medical center can help ensure a high level of patient care. Currently, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are the electronic display technology of choice for viewing medical images. As the inherent luminance (and thereby perceived contrast) properties of different LCDs can vary substantially, calibration of the luminance response of these displays is required to ensure that observer perception of an image is consistent on all displays. The digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) grayscale standard display function (GSDF) defines the luminance response of a display such that an observer's perception of image contrast is consistent throughout the pixel value range of a displayed image. The main purpose of this work is to review the theoretical and practical aspects of calibration of LCDs to the GSDF. Included herein is a review of LCD technology, principles of calibration, and other practical aspects related to calibration and observer perception of images presented on LCDs. Both grayscale and color displays are considered, and the influence of ambient light on calibration and perception is discussed.

  7. Development and evaluation of a new occupational medicine teaching module to advance self-efficacy and knowledge among medical students.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Lutgart; De Clercq, Bart; Janssens, Heidi; Gehanno, Jean-François; Bulat, Petar; Pauncu, Elena-Ana; Smits, Paul; van Dijk, Frank; Vanderlinde, Ruben; Valcke, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Self-efficacy is defined as a person's beliefs in his or her abilities to successfully complete a task, and has been shown to influence student motivation and academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a new European teaching module in occupational medicine on undergraduate students' self-efficacy and knowledge in the subject matter. Pre-, in-between, and posttraining tests were used to assess self-efficacy and knowledge building of 261 third-year medical students on occupational health issues. Determinants of self-efficacy and knowledge were also identified. Repeated measurement data were analyzed with multilevel statistical procedures. The level of self-efficacy and knowledge in occupational medicine increased after the training. Students who frequently attended the lectures scored significantly higher than sporadic attendees. There was no relation between the level of self-efficacy and the final knowledge score. Teaching with the new occupational medicine module was effective. Lecture attendance is an important determinant of self-efficacy and performance. Self-efficacy was not associated with knowledge score. Encouraging classroom participation may enhance student achievement.

  8. Development of the SOSS-D: a scale to measure stigma of occupational stress and burnout in medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Clough, Bonnie A; Ireland, Michael J; March, Sonja

    2017-09-04

    Occupational stress and burnout are highly prevalent among doctors, with stigma identified as a barrier to help-seeking in this population. However, there has been a lack of a standardised tool to measure stigma of occupational stress and burnout among doctors. The aim of the current study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Stigma of Occupational Stress Scale for Doctors (SOSS-D). An online questionnaire package was completed by 200 (38 male, 162 female) doctors. Participants completed measures relating to help-seeking intentions, general stigma, and the SOSS-D. Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to refine the scale to an 11-item version. The analysis revealed a three-factor structure, which explained 63.4% of variance. Factors related to perceived structural stigma, personal stigma and perceived other stigma. The internal consistency, convergent, discriminant and criterion validity of the scale were supported. The SOSS-D may assist educators and mental health professionals in measuring and assessing the efficacy of interventions designed to reduce stigma. As such, it is anticipated that the SOSS-D will be a useful instrument for understanding and addressing stigma of occupational stress and burnout among medical doctors, to improve help-seeking behaviours in this population.

  9. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication use: factors involved in prescribing, safety aspects and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Raga, Jose; Ferreros, Amparo; Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Carabal, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    While treatment of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is based on a multimodal approach that combines medication with specific psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy alone is generally considered an essential and cost-effective element. This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review factors involved in prescribing and medication use in individuals diagnosed with ADHD, focusing on the difficulties facing patients with ADHD seeking treatment, as well as the safety and tolerability aspects of ADHD pharmacotherapies, with particular attention on the cardiovascular adverse events and the potential risk of misuse or diversion of ADHD medications. A comprehensive and systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE database was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until 1 August 2016. Children, adolescents and adults often encounter significant difficulties in the process of accessing specialist assessment and treatment for ADHD as a consequence of disparities in service organization and available treatment provision. Despite the well-established efficacy and overall safety profile, ADHD medications are not exempt from adverse events. The cardiovascular safety of pharmacotherapies used for treating individuals with ADHD has raised particular concerns; however there is little evidence of serious cardiovascular adverse events, including no serious corrected QT (QTc) abnormalities associated with stimulants, atomoxetine or α2-adrenergic receptor agonists. Although the abuse of prescription stimulant drugs, particularly, short-acting stimulants is a prevalent and growing problem, nonmedical use of prescription stimulants within the clinical context is very limited. In addition, nonstimulant ADHD medications lack any reinforcing effects and consequently any abuse potential. PMID:28382197

  10. [MEDICAL AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR REDUCING CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONAL RISKS IN THE PRODUCTION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS].

    PubMed

    Bazarova, E L; Osherov, I S; Roslyĭ, O F; Tartakovskaia, L Ia

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach in the prevention and rehabilitation of workers employed in the production of titanium alloys envisages the implementation of targeted multi-stage rehabilitation measures in groups with high occupational risk.

  11. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Use of medical insurance claims for surveillance of occupational disease. An analysis of cumulative trauma in the auto industry.

    PubMed

    Park, R M; Nelson, N A; Silverstein, M A; Mirer, F E

    1992-07-01

    Medical insurance claims, linked with work histories for a large automotive manufacturer over a 3-year period, identified large numbers of cases of potentially work-related diseases, including 30,600 episodes of probable cumulative trauma disorders (CTD). CTD incidence rates were calculated within five plants, and high-risk areas identified, however, unknown differences in medical insurance coverage by exposure group limited interpretation. Case-control analyses, with controls also identified by insurance claims, addressed coverage and produced age-adjusted and sex-adjusted estimates of risks. All five plants had departments with statistically significant, elevated risks for one or more of the diagnoses carpal tunnel syndrome, CTD of other upper extremities, rotator cuff syndrome, CTD of the neck and of the lower back. Medical insurance claim data linked with work history provide the basis for practical and comprehensive surveillance for CTD and potentially a variety of other occupational diseases.

  13. [Chronic migraine and work: occupational risks and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Capdevila García, L M; López-González, Á A; Terradillos García, M J

    2013-09-01

    Chronic migraine is a clinically difficult to manage primary headache which affects the quality of life of the patients. This impact is important in the occupational world, where along with the clinical aspects of the disease, the therapies used for the control of the symptoms or preventive aspects, must be assessed. The side effects of the drugs and the limitations associated with their symptoms are aspects to highlight in occupational health, especially in individual workplaces, where there is a high risk of work-related injuries. The medical officer must assess the occupational risks of particular importance in the progression of this disease, as well as preventive actions, within the ambit of the current Spanish legislation, that may be favorable for both the company and the worker. The coordinated medical intervention and knowledge of these occupational aspects can provide clinically relevant tools, andoccupational and social optimization in the use of available resources.

  14. Marines, medics, and machismo: lack of fit with masculine occupational stereotypes discourages men's participation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kim; Ryan, Michelle K; Haslam, S Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Women have made substantial inroads into some traditionally masculine occupations (e.g., accounting, journalism) but not into others (e.g., military, surgery). Evidence suggests the latter group of occupations is characterized by hyper-masculine 'macho' stereotypes that are especially disadvantageous to women. Here, we explore whether such macho occupational stereotypes may be especially tenacious, not just because of their impact on women, but also because of their impact on men. We examined whether macho stereotypes associated with marine commandos and surgeons discourage men who feel that they are 'not man enough'. Study 1 demonstrates that male new recruits' (N = 218) perceived lack of fit with masculine commandos was associated with reduced occupational identification and motivation. Study 2 demonstrates that male surgical trainees' (N = 117) perceived lack of fit with masculine surgeons was associated with reduced identification and increased psychological exit a year later. Together, this suggests that macho occupational stereotypes may discourage the very men who may challenge them.

  15. Civilian nuclear incidents: An overview of historical, medical, and scientific aspects

    PubMed Central

    Rojavin, Yuri; Seamon, Mark J; Tripathi, Ravi S; Papadimos, Thomas J; Galwankar, Sagar; Kman, Nicholas; Cipolla, James; Grossman, Michael D; Marchigiani, Raffaele; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A

    2011-01-01

    Given the increasing number of operational nuclear reactors worldwide, combined with the continued use of radioactive materials in both healthcare and industry, the unlikely occurrence of a civilian nuclear incident poses a small but real danger. This article provides an overview of the most important historical, medical, and scientific aspects associated with the most notable nuclear incidents to date. We have discussed fundamental principles of radiation monitoring, triage considerations, and the short- and long-term management of radiation exposure victims. The provision and maintenance of adequate radiation safety among first responders and emergency personnel are emphasized. Finally, an outline is included of decontamination, therapeutic, and prophylactic considerations pertaining to exposure to various radioactive materials. PMID:21769214

  16. [ISHAM-WG Symposium: Introduction of Medical Phycology, Retrospective Overview, and Prospective Aspect].

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Matsumoto, Tadahiko

    2015-01-01

    Protothecosis is an emerging infectious zoonotic disease caused by species of the genus Prototheca (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), which are classified as achlorophyllous algae closely related to the green algal genus Chlorella. Prototheca lost the ability to photosynthesize and are widely distributed throughout the natural world in sewage, soil, lakes, and marshes. It is therefore necessary to build an interdisciplinary network connecting human medicine, veterinary medicine, microbiological taxonomy, clinical microbiology, and environmental microbiology to increase knowledge in this area. We have established the working group "Medical Phycology : Protothecosis and Chlorellosis" (approved on May 4, 2014) under the umbrella of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) to support all scientific aspects dealing with this topic. We report the current circumstances and future prospects of this working group for the group to become better known by scientists.

  17. Indiana Health Occupations Education: Student Modules for Administration of Medications for Unlicensed Nursing Personnel. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilger, Phyllis; And Others

    These learning modules are designed to provide health care workers involved with medications with basic information about the nature and administration of medications. The 30 modules are organized into six units. An overview of preparation and administration of medicines, principles of medication therapy, and medication fundamentals are presented…

  18. Indiana Health Occupations Education: Student Modules for Administration of Medications for Unlicensed Nursing Personnel. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilger, Phyllis; And Others

    These learning modules are designed to provide health care workers involved with medications with basic information about the nature and administration of medications. The 30 modules are organized into six units. An overview of preparation and administration of medicines, principles of medication therapy, and medication fundamentals are presented…

  19. [The list of the occupational disease and medical surveillance: the function of preventive medicine doctor].

    PubMed

    Giorgianni, C; Paino, E; Mellino, V; Saffioti, G; Brecciaroli, R; Abbate, C

    2008-01-01

    The recent revision of tables of occupational diseases according to the article 3 and 211 of TU 1124/65 is helpful to working physician. This revision established the necessity of explain the link between the causative agent and disease and inserted the disease caused by biomechanics overload of upper limbs. The previous absence of these disease was in contrast to the duty of declaration according to the article 139 of TU 1124/65. The new decree allowed to define better the link between the causative agent and the target organ of neoplastic occupational disease. Even if the decree set in order the duties of working physician a simplification is needed. In short about health supervision, it's necessary to clarify the link between the duty of health supervision and working activities that can cause occupational disease inserted in the tables. For this reason the intervention of the new Consultative Commission, according to article 6 of decree 81/2008, is desirable.

  20. The professional structure of Soviet medical care: the relationship between personal characteristics, medical education, and occupational setting for Estonian physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using the Estonian example, this study provides data to describe the ways in which personal, educational, and occupational factors interacted to determine the professional structure of the Soviet health care system. METHODS. The study analyzes data gathered from a survey of 20% of the physicians in Estonia. It measures the frequencies of pertinent personal and occupational factors, and uses multivariate analysis to explore relationships between these factors. RESULTS. Most physicians in Estonia are women and work in urban settings. About half of the physicians work in hospitals, and one third work in large outpatient clinics called polyclinics. About one third work in primary care. Gender affects education, specialty, type of workplace, and administrative duties; nationality affects education and administrative duties. CONCLUSIONS. The Soviet system of health care derived its professional structure from a combination of personal and occupational factors. Those considering options for reform of the health care systems of the newly independent states that once constituted the Soviet Union should appreciate the nature of these structural forces. PMID:7892922

  1. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care.

    PubMed

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of "family" varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members' lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family.

  2. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care

    PubMed Central

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of “family” varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members’ lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family. PMID:23759884

  3. How sick is the defendant? Forensic and emergency medical aspects at trial.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, C; Peters, M

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of a defendant's ability to stand trial is a core task in the field of legal medicine as a supportive instrument of jurisprudence. Before the trial, the court-appointed expert informs him-/herself regarding existing somatic and psychological illness(-es) within the context of preparing an expert evaluation, then composing the written expert evaluation, which reflects the condition of the subject at the time of the examination and arrives at an assessment of the ability to stand trial. The decompensation or aggravation of illnesses - in particular in stressful situations, as is to be expected for the defendant in the courtroom - can thus be taken into consideration such that alongside the current evaluation of the defendant's health condition, emergency medical treatment may also become necessary in court at times. We present three case reports about forensic and emergency medical aspects at trial, considering how the forensic expert can be able to meet the subsequent challenges. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Emergency procedures for taking care of the victims of bomb attacks: logistical and medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Giard, R W M; Overbeke, A J P M

    2006-07-08

    In The Netherlands the threat of terrorist attacks also exist. Both doctors and hospitals alike should be prepared for such attacks both on the logistical as well as the medical level. Most terrorist attacks are carried out with explosives. This results in many victims and in cases of explosions in closed or semi-closed areas, often results in complex medical problems in many of the victims. An explosion that occurs as the result ofa bomb detonating can result in 4 patterns of injury: the primary explosion injury caused by the pressure of the blast, the secondary injuries caused by flying debris, the tertiary injuries caused by the explosion wind, and the quaternary caused by heat and fire. Common injuries seen following an explosion include: lung damage, neurological damage, abdominal injuries, bone fractures and skeletal damage and crush-syndrome. The triage occurs at the site of the explosion as well as on arrival in hospital. One especially important aspect of this is the sorting and selecting between victims who are likely to develop complex problems and who therefore need to receive aggressive treatment in a specially equipped centre and those patients for whom the nearest emergency department will suffice their needs. The triage should be repeated considering the possibility that initial estimates on these points may have been wrong. Epidemiological research should be carried out for each attack in order to make an inventory of the number of victims, the injuries incurred, the assessment of the effects of the medical help received and an assessment of the effectiveness of the total aid received.

  5. Research priorities in occupational medicine: a survey of United Kingdom medical opinion by the Delphi technique.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J M

    1994-01-01

    An attempt to achieve an agreed set of priorities for research in occupational medicine was undertaken by the Delphi technique. Fifty three senior practitioners of occupational medicine in academe (25) and industry or government (28) were canvassed about their views and choices for priority activity. Forty six (86%) responded to the initial enquiry and 48 (91%) provided rank order choices from a second, more detailed questionnaire. The first priority for more research on the natural history of work related ill health identified musculoskeletal disorders of the back and upper limbs followed by asthma, accidents, skin disorders, vibration induced disease, suicide and depression, and finally hearing loss. The second priority area was audit and particularly the need for its use in occupational health screening procedures. Environmental impact of industrial activity was third with the community health effects being more important than individual health effects. Stress related disease was fourth with emphasis on risk factors. The fifth area was neuropsychological effects of work exposures particularly the need for more research on diagnostic tests. Other assorted areas of concern were the cost effectiveness of occupational health, risk assessment, reproductive hazards, the effects of pharmacological agents, and the development of biomarkers as early evidence of an exposure effect. The remarkable degree of unanimity on the issues and choices and the general agreement between physicians from academe and industry on what constitute the priorities warrants further discussion and positive action. PMID:8199676

  6. Occupational Therapist (medical ser.) 079.128--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  7. Using Career-Related Aspects to Elicit Perspectives and Characterize Occupations for a Better Person-Environment Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar

    1998-01-01

    Defines career-related aspects as all relevant variables of individuals and their career options. Describes this approach to person-environment fit and career decision making through research using it in Israel. (SK)

  8. Geographical and occupational aspects of leptospirosis in the coffee-triangle region of Colombia, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    García-Ramírez, Laura M; Giraldo-Pulgarin, Jasmin Y; Agudelo-Marín, Nelly; Holguin-Rivera, Yeimer A; Gómez-Sierra, Sebastián; Ortiz-Revelo, Paola V; Velásquez-Bonilla, Néstor J; Caraballo-Arias, Yohama; Mondragon-Cardona, Alvaro; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2015-01-01

    There are few studies occupationally profiling as well as using Geographic information system (GIS) to map human leptospirosis. There are no detailed, municipality-level, epidemiological maps in Colombia neither in South America. We developed such maps for the Coffee-triangle region, Colombia and assess some occupational issues. surveillance cases data (2007-2011) were used to estimate the annual incidence rates (cases/100,000 population) of leptospirosis to develop the first maps of disease in the 53 municipalities of the Coffee-triangle region of Colombia. GIS used was Kosmo(®) 3.1. Five thematic maps were developed according to municipalities and years. Using labor official information, analyses between agriculture (harvested areas) with disease occurrence was done (linear regression). Between 2007 and 2011, 786 cases were reported (77.8% from one department, Risaralda), for a cumulated rate of 32.18 cases/100,000 population. The highest rate was reported in the less developed municipality of one department (Pueblo Rico, Risaralda) with 1535.05 cases/100,000 population (187 cases, 2009). Armenia (Quindio department capital city), reported 23.41 cases/100,000pop (2011). In those patients with identified occupations, 33.3% were agriculture workers, finding a significant relationship between the number of cases in 2008 and the harvested area by municipality (r(2)=0.48; p=0.0083). one of the 53 municipalities contributed with almost a quarter of the cases. Agriculture was significantly associated with the incidence. Use of GIS-based epidemiological maps allow to focus actions in prevention and control for risk zones for leptospirosis which still represents a significant issue in the region and Colombia, particularly in agriculture workers.

  9. Vital signs: health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Gwen; Peterson, Cora; Ederer, David; Florence, Curtis; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Xu, Likang

    2014-10-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and injury in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the current health burden and medical and work loss costs of nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in the United States. CDC analyzed data on emergency department (ED) visits resulting from nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in 2012 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System – All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The number and rate of all ED visits for the treatment of crash injuries that resulted in the patient being released and the number and rate of hospitalizations for the treatment of crash injuries were estimated, as were the associated number of hospital days and lifetime medical and work loss costs. In 2012, an estimated 2,519,471 ED visits resulted from nonfatal crash injuries, with an estimated lifetime medical cost of $18.4 billion (2012 U.S. dollars). Approximately 7.5% of these visits resulted in hospitalizations that required an estimated 1,057,465 hospital days in 2012. Nonfatal crash injuries occur frequently and result in substantial costs to individuals, employers, and society. For each motor vehicle crash death in 2012, eight persons were hospitalized, and 100 were treated and released from the ED. Public health practices and laws, such as primary seat belt laws, child passenger restraint laws, ignition interlocks to prevent alcohol impaired driving, sobriety checkpoints, and graduated driver licensing systems have demonstrated effectiveness for reducing motor vehicle crashes and injuries. They might also substantially reduce associated ED visits, hospitalizations, and medical costs.

  10. Association of nursing overtime, nurse staffing and unit occupancy with medical incidents and outcomes of very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Beltempo, M; Lacroix, G; Cabot, M; Blais, R; Piedboeuf, B

    2017-09-21

    To examine the association of nursing overtime, nursing provision and unit occupancy rate with medical incident rates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the risk of mortality or major morbidity among very preterm infants. Single center retrospective cohort study of infants born within 23 to 29 weeks of gestational age or birth weight <1000 g admitted at a 56 bed, level III NICU. Nursing overtime ratios (nursing overtime hours/total nursing hours), nursing provision ratios (nursing hours/recommended nursing hours based on patient dependency categories) and unit occupancy rates were pooled for all shifts during NICU hospitalization of each infant. Log-binomial models assessed their association with the composite outcome (mortality or major morbidity). Of the 257 infants that met the inclusion criteria, 131 (51%) developed the composite outcome. In the adjusted multivariable analyses, high (>3.4%) relative to low nursing overtime ratios (⩽3.4%) were not associated with the composite outcome (relative risk (RR): 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86 to 1.02). High nursing provision ratios (>1) were associated with a lower risk of the composite outcome relative to low ones (⩽1) (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.90). NICU occupancy rates were not associated with the composite outcome (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.07, high (>100%) vs low (⩽100%)). Days with high nursing provision ratios (>1) were also associated with lower risk of having medical incidents (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82 to 0.99). High nursing provision ratio during NICU hospitalization is associated with a lower risk of a composite adverse outcome in very preterm infants.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 21 September 2017; doi:10.1038/jp.2017.146.

  11. Occupationally Oriented Medical Rehabilitation and Hairdressers' Work Techniques--A one-and-a-half-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Arokoski; Nevala-Puranen; Danner; Halonen; Tikkanen

    1998-01-01

    This study examined changes in work techniques and musculoskeletal symptoms after occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation arranged for 21 hairdressers who were experiencing neck-shoulder or back pain but were still able to work. OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System) analyses of working postures and questionnaire data were obtained at the beginning of the courses and one and a half years later. The participants worked with their back bent and twisted or their arms at or over shoulder level more seldom (p <.0001) at the end of the follow-up than at the beginning of the rehabilitation. Subjective work-related physical and mental strain had decreased by 45.4% (p <.001) and 27.1% (p <.05), respectively, and subjective neck and back pain by 40.0% (p <.01) and 45.3% (p <.01), respectively. This study suggests that occupationally oriented medical rehabilitation can have significant and long-lasting effects on the rehabilitee's work techniques and subjective well-being.

  12. Munchausen syndrome by proxy in Mexican children: medical, social, psychological and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Hernández, Jorge; Loredo-Abdalá, Arturo; Orozco-Garibay, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSP), is considered as an unusual less frequent variety of child abuse (CA). In this type of abuse the perpetrators purposely provide factitious information, tamper with specimens or actually induce an illness in a child. Nowadays, it is a clinical entity described in pediatrics as more frequently than before. Despite the fact of its presence worldwide, there are still problems in order to get an appropriate diagnostic. It is also difficult to handle both the clinical and legal aspects in various countries. Make our academic fellows aware of various pediatric, psychological, social and legal aspects of a series of cases attended at the Clínica de Atención Integral al Niño Maltratado from Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (CAINM-INP), Mexico [Integral Clinic of Attention for Abused Children, at National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico]. From a series of 25 cases, 18 minors of age were considered with this syndrome since we found that they shared medical, psychological, social and legal characteristics. 18 minors of age belonged to 14 families. 4 of those families had two affected children each one. These affected children were girls 13/18, predominant in children under six years in 10/18. Syndrome expression was distributed as follows: fever from a non determined origin, seizures, chronic diarrhea, hematuria, and probable sexual abuse. 14 children were hospitalized. In all cases, the aggressor was the mother. The psychological evaluation of six perpetrators revealed psychotic, histrionic, and compulsive-obsessive traits. The socio-economic condition was low in 50% of the cases. A legal demand was posed for seven patients in which all the children remained under the custody of the mother. In Mexico, reports of CA have increased within the last years according to experience. Some complex forms as MSP require the participation of an interdisciplinary team for both diagnosis and integral attention.

  13. [Medical aspect of cosmonauts' safety during emergency landing. Respicere et prospicere].

    PubMed

    Barer, A S

    2008-01-01

    Participating in the comprehensive development of the system for safe emergency landing in space vehicles Voskhod and Soyuz, enterprise "Zvezda" undertook an extensive program of technical and physiological experiments with volunteers, including a group of physicians, in the interest of designing personal protection means for space crew. Over 130 physiological pile-engine experiments with the impact velocity of up to 9 m/s were performed between 1963 and 1967. The article presents medical and biomechanical analysis of the experimental data. The central part of the crew safety system in the event of emergency landing is a shock-absorbing seat with an individually molded support surface. This support surface ensures a uniform load distribution and also attenuates shock hardness by dint of own deformation. The Voskhod seat was outfitted with a pendulum hanger bracket on two shock-absorbers. The Soyuz seat has only one shock-absorber at the head end. The shock-absorber allows seat turns at high angular velocities and, consequently, appearance of additional mechanic and biomechanical reactions. The article attempts to analyze this phenomenon as well as the whole aggregate of human body responses onto the spacecraft impact with ground. To give readers the opportunity of independent conclusions from the data of the unlikely to be replicated experiments, the article is supplemented with graphs visualizing a larger part of the tests data, and their interpretations. It is aimed to help young specialists fill up the gap in knowledge about this medical aspect which remains of high topicality in many fields including safety of future piloted space programs.

  14. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications.

  15. [Occupational selection in industrial medicine].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with contemporary state of occupational selection (educational, social and psychologic, medical) in Russia, its importance in industrial medicine and connection with ethic problems. The author defined topical directions in research of occupational selection and occupational fitness examination.

  16. Technical Aspects: Problems of Scale Development, Norms, Item Differences By Sex, and the Rate of Change in Occupational Group Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Lenore W.

    The paper considers how the technical aspects of interest measurement can contribute to sex bias and suggests guidelines for evaluating interest inventories for sex bias and for developing interest inventories which minimize sex bias. An overview is given of interest measurement techniques: in selecting a pool of items, developing scales, and…

  17. The occupation of trawl fishing and the medical aid available to the Grimsby deep sea fisherman1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S. R. W.

    1969-01-01

    Moore, S. R. W. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 1-24. The occupation of trawl fishing and the medical aid available to the Grimsby deep sea fisherman. The mortality of fishermen is twice that of coalminers. Because of the method of fishing the mortality of the trawlerman is probably higher. Outside the industry little is known about the occupation of trawl fishing. Its size, the number of men employed, and the number and distribution of trawlers are therefore described, with particular reference to the port of Grimsby. As near, middle, and deep water trawlers sail from Grimsby, its industry gives a good representation of conditions in the industry as a whole. The port and the fishing grounds are described. The composition of the trawler crew, their conditions of work, accommodation, and remuneration are explained. A description is given of the trawl apparatus, fishing operations, and the hazards involved, and extracts from the writer's diary of a fishing voyage are appended. The United Kingdom has ratified the Accommodation of Crews (Fishermen) Convention 1966 of the International Labour Organisation, and an informal survey of a modern trawler fleet showed that it fell short of the requirements of this Convention. Accommodation is confined and the crew live and work in close proximity and in conditions of physical discomfort. Trawlermen work for long hours under conditions which would not be tolerated by the shore worker. The method of payment is such that trawlermen may take unnecessary risks. Earnings depend on team work so that illness and injury are often not reported with consequent deterioration of the condition. Physical fatigue and lack of sleep contribute to an increased accident rate. It is therefore recommended that more men per trawler should be employed to allow shorter working hours. As the skipper and mate are paid wholly on a share basis, the remainder of the crew receiving, in addition, a basic wage, it `pays' the trawlermen to take risks. A

  18. History of knowledge and evolution of occupational health and regulatory aspects of asbestos exposure science: 1900-1975.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christy A; Sahmel, Jennifer; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Henshaw, John L

    2017-03-22

    The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health hazard, it was not until the mid-1950s that the carcinogenic nature of asbestos began to be characterized and widespread concern followed. With the introduction of the membrane filter sampling method in the late 1960s and early 1970s, asbestos sampling and exposure assessment capabilities advanced to a degree which allowed industrial hygienists to more precisely characterize the exposure-response relationship. The ability of industrial hygienists, analytical chemists, toxicologists, and physicians to more accurately define this relationship was instrumental to the scientific community's ability to establish Occupational Exposure Levels (OELs) for asbestos. These early developments set the stage for decades of additional study on asbestos exposure potential and risk of disease. This was followed by the application of engineering controls and improved respiratory protection which, over the years, saved thousands of lives. This paper represents a state-of-the-art review of the knowledge of asbestos within the industrial hygiene community from about 1900 to 1975.

  19. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  20. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  1. Men in extreme conditions: some medical and psychological aspects of the Auschwitz concentration camp.

    PubMed

    Radil-Weiss, T

    1983-08-01

    The second world war ended many years ago. Most of those who survived the stay at the German concentration camp at Auschwitz have already died of the consequences of their imprisonment; those still alive are already in the last third of their life. Is there any point in returning to the experiences of those days? Consideration of the mental hygiene of former prisoners cautions us that perhaps we should not do it. But consideration of the general interest holds that we are not entitled to ignore any knowledge that can contribute to social development--including medicine and psychology--even if acquired under unspeakably awful conditions. In addition, since the war new generations have grown up that play an increasingly significant role in various spheres of life but have little concrete information about those events; they can neither rationally nor emotionally understand how the horrors connected with fascism and the war could have happened. In a sense it is encouraging that they cannot grasp such inhuman behavior; nevertheless, we must adhere to the following motto: "Nothing must be forgotten, nobody will be forgotten." We owe it to those millions who did not survive--both the victims of the Holocaust and those who fought against it. These are arguments in favor of returning to the facts that are ineffaceably recorded somewhere in our memories. In doing so, however, we must remember that at times we are revisiting experiences of a boy of 14 as recalled by a 50-year-old man. The material below, examining the medical as well as psychological aspects of imprisonment at Auschwitz, is based on my own memories, as an adolescent imprisoned at Auschwitz. I have tried to move from this individual account to more general statements, although the methodological apparatus on which scientific analysis is usually based is absent.

  2. Occupational Exposure of a Medical School Staff to Formaldehyde in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Parisa; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Soori, Hamid; Hosseini, Vajihe

    2012-01-01

    Background Cadavers are preserved in a fixing solution containing formalin. Formaldehyde (FA) released from formalin is inhaled by the personnel in the anatomy laboratory. Exposed personnel have reported respiratory problems and various symptoms. Due to the toxicity of FA as a strong irritant and carcinogen and also lack of a national study assessing occupational exposure to FA in gross anatomy labs in Iran, the present study aimed at occupational monitoring of personnel exposed to FA and evaluating relevant symptoms in them. Materials and Methods A total of 20 subjects (all the staff) working in a gross anatomy lab and 20 library personnel were considered for occupational monitoring of exposure to FA during three months with various climatic conditions. They were also monitored for respiratory symptoms. Air sampling and analysis of its FA content were conducted according to the NIOSH method No.2016. Symptoms of cases and controls (library personnel) with active and passive exposure to formaldehyde were also studied by a self-report questionnaire. Results In the first stage of monitoring with ventilation (supply-exhaust) system on, the exposure of personnel (Mean± SE) was 306 ± 21ppb. In the second stage of monitoring the personnel's exposure was 317 ± 26ppb with only the ventilation supply system on and in the final monitoring stage this rate was 698 ± 34ppb with the ventilation system (supply and exhaust) off. In this study, personal's exposure level to FA was higher than the indoor concentration, and the individual exposure levels of instructors were higher than those of the students. Exposure of library personnel in the adjacent department (central library) was about 50ppb. Most important complaints reported by actively exposed staff members and library personnel were the unpleasant odor (68%), cough (64%), throat irritation and runny nose (56%), burning and itching of nose (52%) and irritating eyes (48%). Conclusion Considering the level of exposure of all

  3. Use of the Medical Research Council Framework to develop a complex intervention in pediatric occupational therapy: Assessing feasibility.

    PubMed

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah N; Bennett, Sheila; Hecimovich, Catherine; Gaines, Robin; DeCola, Cindy; Cairney, John; Russell, Dianne; Molinaro, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom Medical Research Council recommends use of a conceptual framework for designing and testing complex therapeutic interventions. Partnering for Change (P4C) is an innovative school-based intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that was developed by an interdisciplinary team who were guided by this framework. The goals of P4C are to facilitate earlier identification, build capacity of educators and parents to manage DCD, and improve children's participation in school and at home. Eight occupational therapists worked in school settings during the 2009-2010 school year. Their mandate was to build capacity through collaboration and coaching with the school becoming the "client", rather than any individual student. Over 2600 students and 160 teachers in 11 elementary schools received service during the project. Results from questionnaires and individual interviews indicated that this model was highly successful in increasing knowledge and capacity. P4C intervention holds promise for transforming service delivery in schools.

  4. OSHA to inspect hospitals, medical clinics for use of safer needles. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    1999-11-26

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has notified compliance officers of its intention to start imposing sanctions against health care facilities that do not use safe-needle devices. OSHA also said that facilities need to conduct yearly audits of their bloodborne pathogen programs, and must integrate new technologies wherever possible to protect their employees from exposure. Facilities affected include hospitals, home health service organizations, employment agencies, independent health care professionals, and independent contractors. About 800,000 hospital workers are accidentally punctured by needles each year. HIV is present in about 2 percent of those cases, but only a small number of workers actually contract the virus. The directive is available on the OSHA web site, and contact information is provided.

  5. [Bladder cancer screening with urine-based tumour markers - occupational medical experience].

    PubMed

    Nasterlack, M; Feil, G; Leng, G; Pesch, B; Huber, S; Sievert, K-D; Johnen, G; Taeger, D; Mayer, T; Kluckert, M; Brüning, T; Stenzl, A

    2011-03-01

    Bladder cancer responds favourably to treatment and has a good survival rate, provided it is diagnosed at an early stage. Established methods exist for the early detection, however, their specificity and positive predictive value are not yet satisfactory. Innovative markers have been proposed, but still require validation in prospective studies. We provide a literature-based short overview on the currently available and some proposed markers for the early detection of bladder cancer and evaluate the need for validation in further studies. We further provide some first results of such a recently finished study in an occupational setting. We conducted a prospective screening study over seven years in 1610 males with former occupational exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines. Annual bladder cancer screening according to statutory requirements was offered. In addition to the regularly performed check for hematuria and urine cytology, the markers NMP22, UroVysion™ and survivin were performed in voided urine samples of the participants. Positive findings (not for survivin) were further followed through urethrocystoscopy. A total of 7219 urine samples were screened. During the study period 16 incidental and 4 recurrent bladder tumours, thereof three papillomas, occurred in a total of 19 participants. 14 out of twenty tumours were marker-positive, and all but two were early stage findings. Cell-based markers (cytology, UroVysion™) und molecular markers (NMP22, survivin) were largely complementary, thus acting as a "multi-marker panel". Eight of the tumours were identified by a positive cytology. Six tumours were not detected by any of the tumour markers. The results will be further evaluated through the inclusion of confounding factors, which have so far rarely been examined in other studies. This may lead to the development of tiered diagnostic strategies with the aim to reduce the number of invasive diagnostic procedures in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG

  6. Effects of occupational illness on labor productivity: A socioeconomic aspect of informal sector workers in urban Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ahmed, Sayem; Ahmed, Mohammad Wahid; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Islam, Ziaul; Gazi, Rukhsana; Khan, Jahangir A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The informal sector is the dominant area of employment and the economy for any developing country including Bangladesh. The cost of productivity loss due to absence from work or presenteeism with illness has rarely been examined in the Bangladesh context. This current study, therefore, attempted to examine the impact of ill health of informal sector workers on labor productivity, future earning, and healthcare-related expenditure. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among three occupational groups of informal workers (rickshaw pullers, shopkeepers and restaurant workers) that were generally found in all urban areas in Bangladesh. A total of 557 informal workers were surveyed for this study. Results: Most of the respondents (57%) reported that they had been affected by some type of illness for the last six months. The overall average healthcare expenditure of informal workers was US$48.34, while restaurant workers expended more (US$53.61). Self reported sickness absenteeism was highest (50.37days) in the case of shop keepers, followed by rickshaw pullers (49.31 days), in the last six months. Considering the income loss due to illness in the past six months, the rickshaw pullers were exposed to the highest income loss (US$197.15), followed by the shop keepers (US$151.39). Conclusions: Although the informal sector contributes the most to the economy of Bangladesh, the workers in this sector have hardly any financial protection. This study provides critical clues to providing financial and social protection to informal sector workers in Bangladesh. PMID:27010089

  7. Effects of occupational illness on labor productivity: A socioeconomic aspect of informal sector workers in urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ahmed, Sayem; Ahmed, Mohammad Wahid; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Islam, Ziaul; Gazi, Rukhsana; Khan, Jahangir A M

    2016-05-25

    The informal sector is the dominant area of employment and the economy for any developing country including Bangladesh. The cost of productivity loss due to absence from work or presenteeism with illness has rarely been examined in the Bangladesh context. This current study, therefore, attempted to examine the impact of ill health of informal sector workers on labor productivity, future earning, and healthcare-related expenditure. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among three occupational groups of informal workers (rickshaw pullers, shopkeepers and restaurant workers) that were generally found in all urban areas in Bangladesh. A total of 557 informal workers were surveyed for this study. Most of the respondents (57%) reported that they had been affected by some type of illness for the last six months. The overall average healthcare expenditure of informal workers was US$48.34, while restaurant workers expended more (US$53.61). Self reported sickness absenteeism was highest (50.37days) in the case of shop keepers, followed by rickshaw pullers (49.31 days), in the last six months. Considering the income loss due to illness in the past six months, the rickshaw pullers were exposed to the highest income loss (US$197.15), followed by the shop keepers (US$151.39). Although the informal sector contributes the most to the economy of Bangladesh, the workers in this sector have hardly any financial protection. This study provides critical clues to providing financial and social protection to informal sector workers in Bangladesh.

  8. Future Directions in Personality, Occupational and Medical Selection: Myths, Misunderstandings, Measurement, and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Lievens, Filip

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by…

  9. [Medical ethical aspects of culture in social interactions with Muslim patients].

    PubMed

    Ilkilic, I

    2007-07-30

    In today's world, the plurality of values is considered to be a constitutive feature of modern societies. In these societies, transcultural patient-physician relationships are a part of daily medical practice. Culturally determined value systems can be crucial for understanding the perception of notions such as "health" and "illness", leading to fundamental differences in assessing medical interventions and therapeutic objectives. Therefore, transcultural conflicts of interest are presenting medical ethical decision-making with new challenges. Time and again, medical practice demonstrates that cultural differences between physician and patient are correlated with the complexity of medical ethical conflicts, as can be seen in the relationship between Muslim patients and non-Muslim physicians in the German health care system. This paper discusses some of the central issues in these relationships like communication, sense of shame, religious duties, and medical end-of-life decisions, analyzing some concrete cases. Subsequently, a number of medical ethical theses relevant for multicultural societies will be discussed.

  10. Aspects of development of leader creative thinking of medical student at the undergraduate level of medical education.

    PubMed

    Sydorchuk, Аniuta S; Moskaliuk, Vasyl D; Randiuk, Yuriy O; Sorokhan, Vasyl D; Golyar, Oksana I; Sydorchuk, Leonid І; Humenna, Anna V

    Current issue deals with analysis of possible ways to develop leadership in medical students. Taking into consideration the reforming in National Ukrainian educative system and contemporary tendencies of world integration, the development of skillful personality is the prioritize task. The aim of study is to emphasize on the best-used ways for a development of leader creative thinking at the first basic level of medical education. methodology used here is descriptive analytical investigation based upon the own experience have been since 2005-2015 with undergraduate foreign medical students who studied disciplines « Infectious diseases » and «Epidemiology of Infectious diseases»,«Tropical Medicine and Clinical Parasitology» at the Higher state educational establishment of Ukraine « Bukovinian State Medical University » (Chernivtsi, Ukraine). the authors state that creative thinking of a leader is necessary and important part of innovative pedagogy nowadays. From the positive side of it, formation of new generation of medical students learned by competence-based approach with readiness to carry out multitasks. Coupled with, « thinking out of the box » development in individual person helps to discover maximum features of personality. From the negative side of it, there are difficulties to keep activity within certain limits. Most pre-graduate medical students actively express their best creativity in extra-class time within university events like Round Tables dedicated to International days of hepatitis B&C, malaria, HIV etc. to share with others of prevention recommendations. There are many methods to develop creativity and flexibility of cognitive processes, such as brainstorming session, case study, micro-reality, SCAMPER and lateral thinking method etc. Thus, leadership skills and creative thinking both had targeted for excellent qualitative medical education.

  11. [The origins of occupational therapy in Spain].

    PubMed

    Pérez de Heredia-Torres, M; Brea-Rivero, M; Martínez-Piédrola, R M

    Occupational therapy is a young discipline in many aspects, but since ancient times an important number of reports have appeared in the health sciences literature and in the early days of neurology and psychiatry that can shed light on the origins and the fundamental principles that underlie this profession today. We have gathered examples that show how the philosophy and the clinical practice of the procedures used in occupational therapy stem from the process of humanising medical care. After analysing the information currently available to us on the history of the influence of humanism on the development of medicine in Spain, the authors believe they have found enough evidence to identify the precursors of occupational therapy at that point in history. Our study examines facts that appear to situate the earliest evidence of occupational therapy at the origins of Spanish neurology and psychiatry in the 15th century, and which were later to have such a powerful influence on the birth of certain aspects of Pinel's moral treatment. If we accept 'moral treatment' as being one of the main forerunners of occupational therapy, and if we take into account that the humanitarian way patients were dealt with in Spanish neurological and psychiatric institutions and hospitals in the 15th century had a notable influence on the principles that regulated that 'moral treatment', then it is reasonable to state that the earliest evidence of occupational therapy is to be found in the development of humanisation within Spanish medical care.

  12. Long-term medical consequences for child occupants 0 to 12 years injured in car crashes.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Katarina; Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria

    2014-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the long-term medical consequences for children injured in car crashes. Thus, in the event of injury, the aim of the study was to specify patterns and risks of injuries resulting in permanent medical impairment of children (0-12 years) for different body regions and injury severity levels, according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The aim was also to compare the impairment outcome with adults. Data were obtained from the Folksam insurance company, including reported car crashes from 1998 to 2010 with at least one injured child 0-12 years of age. In all, 2619 injured children with 3704 reported medical diagnoses were identified. All injuries were classified according to the AIS 2005 revision. If the child had not recovered within 1 year postinjury an assessment of permanent medical impairment (PMI) was made by one or several medical specialists. In all, 55 children sustained 59 injuries resulting in PMI of which 75 percent were at AIS 1 or AIS 2. The head and cervical spine were the body regions sustaining the most injuries resulting in PMI. Sixty-eight percent of all injuries resulting in PMI were AIS 1 injuries to the cervical spine, with the majority occurring in frontal or rear impacts. Given an injury to the cervical spine, the risk of injuries resulting in PMI was 3 percent, and older children (≥6 years) had a significantly higher risk (3% versus 1%) than younger children. The head was the second most commonly injured body region with injuries resulting in PMI (12/59), which were predominantly AIS 2+. In addition, mild traumatic brain injuries at AIS 1 were found to lead to PMI. Whereas for children the injuries leading to PMI were primarily limited to the head and cervical spine, adults sustained injuries that led to PMI from a more diverse distribution of body regions. The pattern of injuries resulting in permanent medical impairment is different for children and adults; therefore, safety priorities for children need to be

  13. Occupational practices and the making of health news: a national survey of US Health and medical science journalists.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, K; Blake, Kelly D; Meissner, Helen I; Saiontz, Nicole Gottlieb; Mull, Corey; Freeman, Carol S; Hesse, Bradford; Croyle, Robert T

    2008-12-01

    News media coverage of health topics can frame and heighten the salience of health-related issues, thus influencing the public's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Through their routine coverage of scientific developments, news media are a critical intermediary in translating research for the public, patients, practitioners, and policymakers. Until now, little was known about how health and medical science reporters and editors initiate, prioritize, and develop news stories related to health and medicine. We surveyed 468 reporters and editors representing 463 local and national broadcast and print media outlets to characterize individual characteristics and occupational practices leading to the development of health and medical science news. Our survey revealed that 70% of respondents had bachelor's degrees; 8% were life sciences majors in college. Minorities are underrepresented in health journalism; 97% of respondents were non-Hispanic and 93% were White. Overall, initial ideas for stories come from a "news source" followed by press conferences or press releases. Regarding newsworthiness criteria, the "potential for public impact" and "new information or development" are the major criteria cited, followed by "ability to provide a human angle" and "ability to provide a local angle." Significant differences were seen between responses from reporters vs. editors and print vs. broadcast outlets.

  14. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 8 Occupational/Physical Therapy Technician.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-31

    SYMPTOMS OF PAIN 39 1OBSERVE/REPORT SYMPTOMS OF SIDE EFFECTS TO TREATMENT/MEDICATION 40 ICHECK COLOR OF SKIN, EeGe CYANOSIS, BLANCHING, JAUNDICE...IMOUTH MOVEMENTS 14 ITEACH PATIENT WORD RECOGNITION, EeG. PICTURE/WORD RELATIONSHIPS 15 ITEACH PATIENT SHAPE/ COLOR RECOGNITION I 16 ITEACH BLINO PATIENT...THAT INFLUENCE PATIENT’S PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE 34 IOBSERVE PATIENT’S GENERAL EMOTIONAL CONDITION, E.G. FACIAL ANO lEYE EXPRESSIONS, QUALITY OF VOICE 35

  15. [Medical certificates in occupational accidents, in common law and social affairs].

    PubMed

    El Banna, S; Van de Vyvere, A; Beauthier, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Physicians are asked to complete certificates within their profession. These certificates relate to various aspects of an individual's life, from birth to the end of life. The nature of requests is striking by its diversity. As a first step, the authors recall the outline of a certificate and its structure, as well as traps, hazards and risks to avoid. In a second step they describe three specific situations for the certificate: in the context of work accidents, common law accidents and social matters. All materials can not be treated in this space, so they refer the reader to the main bibliographic sources useful in this matter.

  16. Future directions in personality, occupational and medical selection: myths, misunderstandings, measurement, and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Lievens, Filip

    2017-02-20

    This paper has two objectives: (1) presenting recent advances in personality theory whereby personality traits are conceptualized within a framework that focuses on the dynamic interactions of behaviour, biology, context, and states, and (2) discussing the implications of these developments for measurement and medical selection. We start by presenting evidence that traits are no longer regarded as stable deterministic predictors of behaviour. Instead, traits are found to change across generations, the life span, and in response to environmental contingencies. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore how traits change as function of medical education. Second, drawing on recent theory and research (behavioural reaction norms and the density distribution model) we highlight evidence to show how the expression of trait relevant behaviour is dependent on context, and is distributed with an average (typical behaviour or personality) and a variance (plasticity or adaptability), with traditional personality measure associated with typical responding. Third, we demystify that some traits are better than others showing that so-called "good" traits have a dark-side. Fourth, we show how these developments impact on how personality might be assessed, thereby presenting recent evidence on the use of contextualized personality measures, situational judgment tests, other reports, and implicit measures. Throughout the paper, we outline the key implications of these developments for medical selection practices.

  17. [Modern aspects of organization of medical support for the Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Stavila, A G; Krasavin, K D; Levchenko, V N; Lemeshko, A L; Roenko, A S

    2015-09-01

    The challenges that medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation faces cannot be solved without a new qualitative approach to military and medical support. In order to create a complete organizational system of the medical support, consisting of united process of material flow management and management of accompanying elements, the. structure of the medical support and its equipment must correspond to performed tasks. The article describes a set of activities that are performed in the system of military-medical support and offers some promising approaches, which are supposed to solve assigned tasks imposed upon the center of pharmacy and medical technology and its interaction with superior body control, maintainable and third party organizations.

  18. Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and their treatments: an update on some critical aspects.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carrie; Mehler, Philip S

    2015-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Many of the deaths are attributable to medical complications which arise as the malnutrition and weight loss worsens. Every body system may be adversely affected by anorexia nervosa. Yet, remarkably, most of the medical complications of anorexia nervosa are treatable and reversible with optimal medical care, as part of a multidisciplinary team who are often involved in the care of these patients. Herein, we will describe the medical complications of anorexia nervosa and their treatments.

  19. Safeguarding the Health of the NASA Astronaut Community: the Need for Expanded Medical Monitoring for Former NASA Astronauts Under the Astronaut Occupational Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential latent health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging communities are necessary for astronauts to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography), as opposed to conditions resulting directly from the astronaut occupation; and increased breadth of monitoring services will improve the understanding of occupational health risks and longitudinal health of the astronaut community, past, present, and future. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of expanding existing medical monitoring under the Astronaut Occupational Health program for former NASA astronauts.

  20. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  1. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Kron, T; Cheung, KY; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, JY; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, TJ; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists. Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist. There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future

  2. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Kron, T; Cheung, Ky; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, Jy; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, Tj; Kumara, A; Lee, Cc; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, Xc; Ng, Kh

    2008-07-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists.Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist.There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future.

  3. Impact of health literacy level on aspects of medication nonadherence reported by underserved patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Bourg, Catherine A; Phillips, Beth Bryles; Huston, Sally A

    2015-03-01

    Medication adherence can be affected by many factors, including health literacy. The purpose of this study is to determine (1) if a relationship exists between health literacy and self-reported or objectively measured medication adherence and (2) which aspect or aspects of medication nonadherence are most associated with health literacy. This is a multicenter, cross-sectional survey study of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), taking one or more antidiabetes medication for ≥6 months with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measure on record. Data collected included patient demographics (age, gender, race, language, highest level of education, injectable diabetes medication use, last HbA1c, and diabetes medication refill history) and two survey instruments (the Morisky eight-item Medication Adherence Scale [MMAS-8] and the short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [s-TOFHLA]). Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations were assessed, along with linear and logistic regression. One hundred ninety-two patients with an average HbA1c level of 8.1% were included. Of these subjects, 32.8% had limited health literacy as measured by the s-TOFHLA, 58.9% had low adherence as measured by MMAS-8, and 65.1% were nonadherent based on cumulative medication gap (CMG) analysis. Age was associated with s-TOFHLA (-0.411; P<0.01) and MMAS-8 (0.157; P<0.05) scores. HbA1c was associated with MMAS-8 (-0.209; P<0.01) and CMG (0.152; P<0.05) scores. There was no significant association between s-TOFHLA and MMAS-8 or CMG. However, s-TOFHLA was positively related to MMAS-8 question 8, assessing difficulty remembering to take medications (P=0.017). Health literacy level is not associated with self-reported or objectively measured medication adherence in underserved patients with T2DM. Lower health literacy scores are associated with a patient experiencing difficulty remembering to take medications.

  4. Evaluation of the medical and occupational shielding in cerebral angiography using Monte Carlo simulations and virtual anthropomorphic phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, William S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Maia, Ana F.

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral angiography exams may provide valuable diagnostic information for the patients with suspect of cerebral diseases, but it may also deliver high doses of radiation to the patients and medical staff. In order to evaluate the medical and occupational expositions from different irradiation conditions, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were employed. Virtual anthropomorphic phantoms (MASH) were used to represent the patient and the physician inside a typical fluoroscopy room, also simulated in details, incorporated in the MCNPX 2.7.0 MC code. The evaluation was carried out by means of dose conversion coefficients (CCs) for equivalent (H) and effective (E) doses normalized by the air kerma-area product (KAP). The CCs for the surface entrance dose of the patient (ESD) and equivalent dose for the eyes of the medical staff were determined, because CA exams present higher risks for those organs. The tube voltage was 80 kVp, and Al filters with thicknesses of 2.5 mm, 3.5 mm and 4.0 mm were positioned in the beams. Two projections were simulated: posterior-anterior (PA) and right-lateral (RLAT). In all situations there was an increase of the CC values with the increase of the Al filtration. The highest dose was obtained for a RLAT projection with a 4.0 mm Al filter. In this projection, the ESD/KAP and E/KAP values to patient were 11 (14%) mGy/Gy cm2 and 0.12 (0.1%) mSv/Gy cm2, respectively. For the physician, the use of shield lead glass suspended and lead curtain attached to the surgical table resulted in a significant reduction of the CCs. The use of MC simulations proved to be a very important tool in radiation protection dosimetry, and specifically in this study several parameters could be evaluated, which would not be possible experimentally.

  5. Aspects of communication in medical life. Doctor-patient communication: differentiation and customization.

    PubMed

    Borţun, D; Matei, C S

    2017-01-01

    One of the weaknesses of the Romanian medical system is the absence of the communicational culture. This absence is felt at all levels of the healthcare system: doctor-patient relationship, doctor-patient's relatives relationship, labor relations within the medical teams and units, the management of the large hospitals and of the medical institutions from the public administration system and last, but not least, the relationships of these units and institutions with the public opinion and, particularly, with the stakeholders. This paper tackled with some of the principles and values that underlie an efficient communication, the default of which was felt in various domains of the Romanian medical life. They were analyzed from the perspective of the Romanian and international literature and the conclusions drawn might inspire proposals for the improvement of the medical education as well as for the professional development of the Romanian doctors.

  6. Aspects of communication in medical life. Doctor-patient communication: differentiation and customization

    PubMed Central

    Borţun, D; Matei, CS

    2017-01-01

    One of the weaknesses of the Romanian medical system is the absence of the communicational culture. This absence is felt at all levels of the healthcare system: doctor-patient relationship, doctor-patient’s relatives relationship, labor relations within the medical teams and units, the management of the large hospitals and of the medical institutions from the public administration system and last, but not least, the relationships of these units and institutions with the public opinion and, particularly, with the stakeholders. This paper tackled with some of the principles and values that underlie an efficient communication, the default of which was felt in various domains of the Romanian medical life. They were analyzed from the perspective of the Romanian and international literature and the conclusions drawn might inspire proposals for the improvement of the medical education as well as for the professional development of the Romanian doctors. PMID:28255380

  7. [Occupational carpal tunnel syndrome: the case of a secretary].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Diop, S N; Hatim, B; Sow, M L

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of carpal tunnel syndrome which occurred in a office secretary, whose job task was mainly type writing. Occupational origin of this disease was stressed based on unilateral lesion, absence of personal and familial risk factors. Working conditions seem to explain the occurrence of symptoms. The recognition of occupational origin is important for physicians, because it eases the implementation of ergonomic sound measures which supply medical treatment. It also allows to take into account medico-legal aspects.

  8. [Post-graduation aspects in Medical School of the Universidade de Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Lamounier, J A

    1998-01-01

    The post-graduation at Medical School of Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) is composed by 9 courses and has been for 30 years. Among these, 6 courses have Masterate and Doctorate levels, and 3 have only Masterate. It has already been produced 584 thesis and dissertati Doctorate courses with A (20%), B (20%), C (60%). The average amount of produced thesis and dissertations has been through 2 and 8 by year. The integration proposal of Medical internship and Masterate will be an opportunity of reducing the length of Masterate. The Post-Graduation Center (CPG) coordenates the post-graduation politics and activities at Medical School of UFMG.

  9. [Integrated occupational work capacity evaluation in medical rehabilitation--experiences and prospects exemplified by psychosomatic rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Beutel, M; Kayser, E; Vorndran, A; Farley, A; Bleichner, F

    1998-05-01

    Psychosomatic rehabilitation is often initiated when lasting work disability, loss of job, and pension application have occurred. After a review of the relevance of vocational strains and of predictors for reintegration, we present a model of an integrated work hardening programme in Psychosomatic Rehabilitation. Results for 64 patients are illustrated by case vignettes. Especially when lasting work disability and unemployment have undermined the patients' sense of competence and endurance, work hardening promotes return to work, realistic self-appraisal and vocational reorientation. The social and medical assessment and the coordination of vocational rehabilitation measures are improved. The implementation of a work hardening programme requires the provision of a variety of (unpaid) work opportunities, independent assessment of work performance by supervisors and social worker, psychological support and close cooperation with rehabilitation services.

  10. [Medical aspects of current flight safety concept of air forces of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Lizogub, I N

    2012-12-01

    Issues of medical supply of aviation operations, that is part of general system of flight safety are analyzed in this article. One of the main issues is development of the system of vocational preparation of medical personnel, taking part in organization and carrying flights. This issue consists of several themes: formation of united system of education from primary to post graduate; formation of modern training facility; assurance of high potential in academic and teaching staff and providing of good basic training and high learning motivation of applicants, who wants to become a air medical officer. Fundamental principles of developed concept of medical supply of flight safety are presented. It is shown that the essential condition of good implementation of the given concept is informaltion support of all its structures.

  11. [Forum: dermopigmentation or medical tattooing. Brief notes on technical aspects of dermopigmentation].

    PubMed

    Chavoin, J P; Oksman, B

    1992-08-01

    Tattooing is a very old procedure widespread throughout the world. Recently dermatologists and plastic surgeons have applied this procedure for medical dermography. Incarcerating a pigment in the depth of the dermis has caused no problems for professionals and aestheticiens performing tattoos. Medical ethics oblige us to specify the nature of the pigment used. The instrument used for injecting the pigment should be well adapted for safety, technically, ergonomically and for asepsis.

  12. Occupational radiation exposure of medical staff performing ⁹⁰Y-loaded microsphere radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Sophie; Rolland, Yan; Ardisson, Valérie; Edeline, Julien; Pracht, Marc; Le Sourd, Samuel; Rohou, Tanguy; Lenoir, Laurence; Lepareur, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne

    2016-05-01

    Radioembolization of liver cancer with (90)Y-loaded microspheres is increasingly used but data regarding hospital staff exposure are scarce. We evaluated the radiation exposure of medical staff while preparing and injecting (90)Y-loaded glass and resin microspheres especially in view of the increasing use of these products. Exposure of the chest and finger of the radiopharmacist, nuclear medicine physician and interventional radiologist during preparation and injection of 78 glass microsphere preparations and 16 resin microsphere preparations was monitored. Electronic dosimeters were used to measure chest exposure and ring dosimeters were used to measure finger exposure. Chest exposure was very low for both products used (<10 μSv from preparation and injection). In our experience, finger exposure was significantly lower than the annual limit of 500 mSv for both products. With glass microspheres, the mean finger exposure was 13.7 ± 5.2 μSv/GBq for the radiopharmacist, and initially 17.9 ± 5.4 μSv/GBq for the nuclear medicine physician reducing to 13.97 ± 7.9 μSv/GBq with increasing experience. With resin microspheres, finger exposure was more significant: mean finger exposure for the radiopharmacist was 295.1 ± 271.9 μSv/GBq but with a reduction with increasing experience to 97.5 ± 35.2 μSv/GBq for the six most recent dose preparations. For administration of resin microspheres, the greatest mean finger exposure for the nuclear medicine physician (the most exposed operator) was 235.5 ± 156 μSv/GBq. Medical staff performing (90)Y-loaded microsphere radioembolization procedures are exposed to safe levels of radiation. Exposure is lower than that from treatments using (131)I-lipiodol. The lowest finger exposure is from glass microspheres. With resin microspheres finger exposure is acceptable but could be optimized in accordance with the ALARA principle, and especially in view of the increasing use of radioembolization.

  13. Medical and radiological aspects of emergency preparedness and response at SevRAO facilities.

    PubMed

    Savkin, M N; Sneve, M K; Grachev, M I; Frolov, G P; Shinkarev, S M; Jaworska, A

    2008-12-01

    Regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation has the overall goal of promoting improvements in radiation protection in Northwest Russia. One of the projects in this programme has the objectives to review and improve the existing medical emergency preparedness capabilities at the sites for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. These are operated by SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and in Gremikha village on the Kola Peninsula. The work is also intended to provide a better basis for regulation of emergency response and medical emergency preparedness at similar facilities elsewhere in Russia. The purpose of this paper is to present the main results of that project, implemented by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre. The first task was an analysis of the regulatory requirements and the current state of preparedness for medical emergency response at the SevRAO facilities. Although Russian regulatory documents are mostly consistent with international recommendations, some distinctions lead to numerical differences in operational intervention criteria under otherwise similar conditions. Radiological threats relating to possible accidents, and related gaps in the regulation of SevRAO facilities, were also identified. As part of the project, a special exercise on emergency medical response on-site at Andreeva Bay was prepared and carried out, and recommendations were proposed after the exercise. Following fruitful dialogue among regulators, designers and operators, special regulatory guidance has been issued by FMBA to account for the specific and unusual features of the SevRAO facilities. Detailed sections relate to the prevention of accidents, and emergency preparedness and response, supplementing the basic Russian regulatory requirements. Overall it is concluded that (a) the provision of medical and sanitary components of emergency

  14. [Role and future aspects of hospital clinical laboratories in medical team approaches].

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Akira

    2011-09-01

    The recent progress in medicine increases the routine works of the physicians or nurses and decreases the chances to obtain the new information on the laboratory medicine. Although the patients desire to know their test results in detail, it is likely to be difficult to obtain them from the physician in charge. Thereby, the quality of the medical services may be deteriorated. In these situations, needs of the medical team approaches in which the medical technologists (MTs) in the hospital laboratories participate are increasing. In Japan, there are a variety of medical team approaches in which MTs are involved. In our university hospital, MTs play important roles in the infection control team (ICT), in the nutrition support team (NST), in the educational class for the patients with diabetes mellitus, in the clinical research center, in the order-made medicine realizing project, in the infertility center and in the laboratory information room. In April 2010, the new payment system for the team approaches such as ICT or NST was established. In the future, the team approaches other than ICT or NST could be chosen for the subjects for the payment if they are recognized as important. The goal of the team approaches is to realize a patient-oriented medicine. MTs can reconfirm that they are working as one of the medical staffs through these team approaches. It is important to always find out a possibility of new team approaches.

  15. Non-medical aspects of civilian-military collaboration in management of major incidents.

    PubMed

    Khorram-Manesh, A; Lönroth, H; Rotter, P; Wilhelmsson, M; Aremyr, J; Berner, A; Andersson, A Nero; Carlström, E

    2017-03-02

    Disasters and major incidents demand a multidisciplinary management. Recent experiences from terrorist attacks worldwide have resulted in a search for better assessment of the needs, resources, and knowledge in the medical and non-medical management of these incidents and also actualized the need for collaboration between civilian and military healthcare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the civilian-military collaboration in a Swedish context with the main focus on its non-medical management. An exercise, simulating a foreign military attack centrally on Swedish soil, was designed, initiated, and conducted by a team consisting of civilian and military staff. Data were collected prospectively and evaluated by an expert team. Specific practical and technical issues were presented in collaboration between civilian and military staffs. In addition, shortcomings in decision-making, follow-up, communication, and collaboration due to prominent lack of training and exercising the tasks and positions in all managerial levels of the hospital were identified. Current social and political unrests and terror attacks worldwide necessitate civilian-military collaboration. Such collaboration, however, needs to be synchronized and adjusted to avoid preventable medical and non-medical consequences. Simulation exercises might be one important source to improve such collaboration.

  16. Medical aspects of drug misuse during one year in a rehabilitation unit

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The medical work in a voluntary drug rehabilitation unit near Glasgow was examined. During one year 174 residents were admitted of whom 103 (59%) developed illnesses which required medical treatment. The need for drug misusers to receive general medical services during and after drug misuse was confirmed. Although withdrawal from barbiturate misuse required the prescription of controlled drugs, opiate and other withdrawals were satisfactorily managed with psychological support and general care; substances which could be abused were not prescribed. Blood testing of 129 residents showed that 114 (88%) had evidence of previous hepatitis B infection, while only two had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody. The low prevalence of HIV antibody compared with the high prevalence that has been reported in Edinburgh suggests that the opportunity exists at the moment to limit the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome among Glasgow drug misusers. PMID:3656269

  17. [Aesthetic medicine and aspects related to liability, medical professional and social law].

    PubMed

    Jansen, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    There are no special legal arrangements for the field of aesthetic medicine; rather, the general medico-legal regulations apply although they raise specific questions as far as aesthetic medicine is concerned. Legally, a contract exists between physician and patient which is also applicable to aesthetic medicine. This means that the physician owes the patient only the provision of a proper, non-defective service, but does not need to guarantee that it actually leads to the desired outcome. Before performing a medically non-indicated procedure the physician is obliged to provide the patient with particularly thorough information about this procedure. Various problems and issues are raised by the advertising limitations for medical professionals and the maintenance of the boundaries confining the special field of aesthetic medicine. Medically indicated procedures are suitable for statutory reimbursement if the patient suffers from "physical disfigurement" or somatic complaints that lead to considerable impairment and if there are no other, cheaper treatment options available.

  18. Antecedents of the people and organizational aspects of medical informatics: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, N M; Riley, R T; Blyth, A J; Southon, G; Dixon, B J

    1997-01-01

    People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area--like medical informatics itself--is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with research with significant potential to ease the introduction and on-going use of information technology in today's complex health systems. These academic areas contribute research data and core information for better understanding of such issues as the importance of and processes for creating future direction; managing a complex change process; effective strategies for involving individuals and groups in the informatics effort; and effectively managing the altered organization. This article reviews the behavioral and business referent disciplines that can potentially contribute to improved implementations and on-going management of change in the medical informatics arena.

  19. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    PubMed Central

    Kron, T; Azhari, HA; Voon, EO; Cheung, KY; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, NM; Bold, L; Win, UM; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, JCL; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world’s population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Results and discussion: Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. Conclusion: As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:22970066

  20. Epilepsy and social security: general aspects of the insured claimants and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lisiane Seguti; Palhares, Dario; Gava, Marília; Seguti, Vladimir Ferreira; Marasciulo, Antônio Carlos Estima

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy affects adults at productive age and interferes with their ability to work. However, the granting of social security benefits to these patients has not received sufficient attention. This article aims to provide a profile of individuals with a previous diagnosis of epilepsy that file claims for social security benefits and a profile of the medical advisory decisions that support the concession of these benefits. A sample of thirty individuals with illness-related problems due to epilepsy was selected from the claimants that receive Social Security Incapacity/Sickness benefits. An exploratory data analysis of the 188 Social Security medical files of the thirty claimants was performed using the clinical and epidemiological information and the medical advisory criteria. The mean age of the claimants was 39 years and most of them were males in jobs that do not require a lot of schooling. The first claim was filed within an average of four years of employment. On average, each worker files a claim every three months, which entitles him/her to receive incapacity/sickness benefits for seventeen months. The frequency of seizures and the medications used by the claimants were registered in 60% of the medical files. In addition, the description of the physical and neurological exam was incomplete in 50% of the files. Furthermore, 60% of the files did not include the argument or the clinical evidence that was used to justify the concession of a benefit. The medical advisory decisions on epileptic workers tend to be inconsistent, overly lenient and generally lacking in clinical evidence. The disparities among the granted benefits indicate the need for the National Social Security System to review and draft specific guidelines for epilepsy.

  1. Training in client-centeredness enhances occupational therapist documentation on goal setting and client participation in goal setting in the medical records of people with stroke.

    PubMed

    Flink, Maria; Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie; Johansson, Ulla; Guidetti, Susanne; Tham, Kerstin; von Koch, Lena

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare client-centeredness as it was documented by the occupational therapists in the units randomized to the intervention clusters with documentation by occupational therapists in the control clusters. Comparison of medical records. The study is conducted in a context of a randomized controlled trial in Sweden, with 16 post-stroke rehabilitation units cluster randomized to intervention or control group. Occupational therapist documentation in medical records of 279 clients with stroke. The medical records were reviewed for their level of client-centeredness using a protocol developed from the Stewart et al model. The occupational therapists in the intervention groups participated in a workshop training to enhance their client-centeredness. Occupational therapists with training in client-centeredness documented significantly more on goal setting (OR = 4.1; 95% CI, 1.87-8.81), on client participation in goal setting (OR=11.34; 95% CI, 5.97-21.57), on how the goals could be reached (OR=2.8; 95% CI, 1.7-4.62), on client participation in how goals could be reached (OR=4.56; 95% CI, 2.73-7.64), on the follow-up on goals (OR=5.77; 95% CI, 2.78-11-98) and on client participation in follow-up on goals (OR=7.44, 95% CI, 4.33-12.8). This association remained after adjustment for healthcare setting, client socio-demographic variables, and stroke severity. Documentation of goal setting and client participation in goal setting can be influenced by training. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Training in client-centeredness enhances occupational therapist documentation on goal setting and client participation in goal setting in the medical records of people with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Flink, Maria; Bertilsson, Ann-Sofie; Johansson, Ulla; Guidetti, Susanne; Tham, Kerstin; von Koch, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare client-centeredness as it was documented by the occupational therapists in the units randomized to the intervention clusters with documentation by occupational therapists in the control clusters. Design: Comparison of medical records. Setting: The study is conducted in a context of a randomized controlled trial in Sweden, with 16 post-stroke rehabilitation units cluster randomized to intervention or control group. Subjects: Occupational therapist documentation in medical records of 279 clients with stroke. Main measures: The medical records were reviewed for their level of client-centeredness using a protocol developed from the Stewart et al model. The occupational therapists in the intervention groups participated in a workshop training to enhance their client-centeredness. Results: Occupational therapists with training in client-centeredness documented significantly more on goal setting (OR = 4.1; 95% CI, 1.87-8.81), on client participation in goal setting (OR=11.34; 95% CI, 5.97-21.57), on how the goals could be reached (OR=2.8; 95% CI, 1.7-4.62), on client participation in how goals could be reached (OR=4.56; 95% CI, 2.73-7.64), on the follow-up on goals (OR=5.77; 95% CI, 2.78-11-98) and on client participation in follow-up on goals (OR=7.44, 95% CI, 4.33-12.8). This association remained after adjustment for healthcare setting, client socio-demographic variables, and stroke severity. Conclusion: Documentation of goal setting and client participation in goal setting can be influenced by training. PMID:26647421

  3. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  4. [Theoretical aspects of developing a system of medical control in space flights].

    PubMed

    Gurovskiĭ, N N; Egorov, A D

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents theortical approaches to the medical control system in prolonged space flights. It classifies the most probable states in long-term weightlessness. The main symptoms of these states are described. On the basis of this classification methods and parameters to be used in diagnosis of symptoms that may occur in space flights are discussed.

  5. Crystal methamphetamine, its analogues, and HIV infection: medical and psychiatric aspects of a new epidemic.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Antonio; Jones, Kristina

    2004-03-15

    The use of the recreational drug crystal methamphetamine among younger homosexual men is expanding, and with it, unsafe sex behaviors that increase the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This article reviews available literature on the medical and psychiatric morbidities associated with methamphetamine abuse in HIV-infected patients. Medical complications include hypertension, hyperthermia, rhabdoymyolysis, and stroke. One fatal case of ingestion of methamphetamine with HIV medication has been documented. Two fatal cases of ingestion of HIV medication with the amphetamine analogue n-methyl-3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or "ecstasy") have also been reported. Some molecular researchers suggest that dopaminergic systems are vulnerable to the combined neurotoxicity of HIV infection and methamphetamine. Population surveys indicate high rates of HIV infection among methamphetamine abusers and high rates of unprotected anal intercourse during drug intoxication. Intoxication can sometimes produce paranoia, auditory hallucinations, and, occasionally, violent behavior. Amphetamine withdrawal commonly results in symptoms of depression. Methamphetamine is a new challenge related to treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

  6. A National Survey Concerning the Ethical Aspects of Informed Consent and Role of Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Daniel L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A national sample of medical students was surveyed to identify the ways the students obtained informed consent from their patients and to learn the students' views of certain issues concerning informed consent. All the students were less forthright about their status when given the opportunity to perform invasive procedures. (Author/MLW)

  7. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically.

  8. Legal aspects of administrating antipsychotic medications to jail and prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Dlugacz, Henry; Wimmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The administration of antipsychotic medications to jail and prison inmates involves two related components: conducting the informed consent process in a coercive environment and, where consent is not obtained, forcible administration of medication if needed. In the United States, both involve common law, statutory, and constitutional principles. Obtaining informed consent in correctional institutions is complicated. Patients in correctional institutions lack access to alternate sources of information, and depend on the correctional system completely - a system which they may distrust. This may influence the patient's view of the administering physician. Where consent cannot be obtained, forcible administration may be legally permissible for two primary reasons: to restore a criminal defendant to competency in order to stand trial and to ameliorate severe symptoms of mental disability, particularly when they threaten the safety of self, others, or in some instances, property. The interests at stake for the individual and the government, and the legal standards developed to balance these interests, differ between the two situations. When considering challenges to forcible medication of inmates serving a prison sentence, the United States Supreme Court has treated the interest of the institution in maintaining security as paramount. By contrast, when considering challenges to forcible medication of pretrial detainees, the Court's concern for the fair trial rights guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment has seemingly led it to moderate its emphasis on security. However, this distinction is not stable and may in fact be breaking down, as the recent case of Jared Loughner demonstrates. This article discusses the various federal, state, and international legal standards applicable to both informed consent and forcible medication, and their implementation in the correctional setting, focusing on issues related to the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  10. Don't forget the learner: an essential aspect for developing effective hypermedia online learning in continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Sandars, John; Homer, Matthew; Walsh, Kieran; Rutherford, Alaster

    2012-03-01

    There is increasing use of hypermedia online learning in continuing medical education (CME) that presents the learner with a wide range of different learning resources, requiring the learner to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. This study is the first to apply an SRL perspective to understand how learners engage with hypermedia online learning in CME. We found that the main SRL skills used by learners were use of strategies and monitoring. The increasing use of strategies was associated with increasing interest in the topic and with increasing satisfaction with the learning experience. Further research is recommended to understand SRL processes and its impact on learning in other aspects of hypermedia online learning across the different phases of medical education. Research is also recommended to implement and evaluate the learning impact of a variety of approaches to develop the SRL skills of hypermedia online learners in CME.

  11. Medical training and nurses of Family Health strategy on worker health aspect.

    PubMed

    Mori, Érika Chediak; Naghettini, Alessandra Vitorino

    2016-06-01

    Considering the worker's health one of the Unified Health System (SUS) tasks, the Primary Health Care (PHC) and the Family Health Strategy (FHS) play an important role in the development of health actions in the field health-work. In Brazil, where the number of informal and domiciled jobs is high, the FHS becomes a reference in the workers' health actions. Therefore, if the FHS is not attentive to the relation between professional occupation and disease, several diseases that affect workers can overload the system without obtaining a cure. The aim of this study is to evaluate doctors and nurses recognition of the Family Health Strategy on occupational diseases in Aparecida de Goiânia. This is a qualitative descriptive study and the data analysis was done by content analysis. The setting for this study contemplates FHS units in the municipality of Aparecida de Goiânia, Goiás. There were 8 Basic Health Units and 16 health professionals were interviewed. The data was collected in the participants of the interview workplaces, from February through April, 2013, after being approved by the Ethics and Research Committee. The discourses were analyzed according to Minayo (2007), using thematic analysis. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed for analysis. Among the 16 professionals interviewed we observed that only 3 (18.75%) received professional training on occupational health in their Institution, however the aim of the courses were towards situations of biological hazards and not about workers care. Practitioners reported lack of knowledge in the occupational health area, and also observed that the area is still undervalued and underexplored in the academic and professional fields, and even by the Municipality health management. Evaluating the academic education it is possible to observe the inadequacy of the subject workload, where professionals reported the lack of knowledge in the area and the low workload of the subject in the academic field. There is

  12. [Experience and prospective activities of the Department of Occupational Medicine at the St. Petersburg Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education].

    PubMed

    Retnev, V M

    1997-01-01

    Occupational Medicine Department in St. Petersburg Academy for Postgraduate Education has carried out considerable educational and scientific work during seventy years. Occupational medicine is a prospective scientific discipline, as it has a legal reason-the state's preservation of workers' health.

  13. Practice Makes Perfect: Emergency Medical Technicians and the Social Negotiation of a Skilled Occupational Identity. EQW Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Bonalyn J.; Barley, Stephen R.

    Most scholars adopt one of two orientations when explaining why some occupations are more skilled than others: realism or constructionism; both views would benefit from a consideration of interactionism. No occupations are more likely to have to negotiate their status than those that emerge from amateur or voluntary work. Members of such…

  14. Health aspects of Arctic exploration – Alaska’s medical history based on the research files of Dr. Robert Fortuine

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Background Robert Fortuine provided basic medical care to Alaska Native people, chronicled the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration and through a number of influential publications, was the first to thoroughly document and analyse Alaska’s Medical History. This overview of his published work will provide the reader with a detailed overview, so that they can begin to explore Dr. Fortuine’s many published works in more detail. Objective This review will explore Alaska’s Medical History and the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration through the research files and the 10 most significant publications of Dr. Robert Fortuine. Design Review of Dr. Fortuine’s major works and the master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. The master bibliography is a merger of 55 separate bibliographies, which provides a wealth of bibliographic information. This paper will describe his 10 most significant publications, 2 of which began as a journal issue. Results Dr. Fortuine was a prolific writer throughout his career, publishing 134 articles and books. He wrote papers and books on Alaska’s medical history, tuberculosis and health care delivery from Russian–America through the Public Health Service efforts in the territory and then the State of Alaska. The master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. This list has a significant number of entries for tuberculosis with almost one-third of the entries including this heading. Others dwell on the history of “pre-contact” health, the history of Alaska Native health care, the history of the Alaska Department of Health, especially the tuberculosis programme, the role of the US Public Health Service and traditional medicine. He completely reviewed every Governors’ and the US Surgeon General’s reports in regard to Alaska content. This paper describes his 10 most significant publications. Conclusions Robert Fortuine’s published works offer a wealth of information and insight into Alaska

  15. Health aspects of Arctic exploration--Alaska's medical history based on the research files of Dr. Robert Fortuine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Robert Fortuine provided basic medical care to Alaska Native people, chronicled the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration and through a number of influential publications, was the first to thoroughly document and analyse Alaska's Medical History. This overview of his published work will provide the reader with a detailed overview, so that they can begin to explore Dr. Fortuine's many published works in more detail. This review will explore Alaska's Medical History and the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration through the research files and the 10 most significant publications of Dr. Robert Fortuine. Review of Dr. Fortuine's major works and the master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. The master bibliography is a merger of 55 separate bibliographies, which provides a wealth of bibliographic information. This paper will describe his 10 most significant publications, 2 of which began as a journal issue. Dr. Fortuine was a prolific writer throughout his career, publishing 134 articles and books. He wrote papers and books on Alaska's medical history, tuberculosis and health care delivery from Russian-America through the Public Health Service efforts in the territory and then the State of Alaska. The master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. This list has a significant number of entries for tuberculosis with almost one-third of the entries including this heading. Others dwell on the history of "pre-contact" health, the history of Alaska Native health care, the history of the Alaska Department of Health, especially the tuberculosis programme, the role of the US Public Health Service and traditional medicine. He completely reviewed every Governors' and the US Surgeon General's reports in regard to Alaska content. This paper describes his 10 most significant publications. Robert Fortuine's published works offer a wealth of information and insight into Alaska's Medical History and the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration. As is

  16. [Problem aspects of the medical examination for HIV-infection in the youth of conscription age].

    PubMed

    Akimkin, V G; Parshin, M Zh; Zemliakov, S V

    2010-08-01

    The article is concerned with the verification of the medical examination for HIV-infection in the youth of conscription age. Negative epidemiologic situation with HIV-infection and drug habituation increases the number of draftees unfitted for service for reasons of health. The data of analysis of structure and dynamics of detection of HIV positive people of conscription age during 1999-2008 was quoted: the main contingent was people from the territorial subject of Russian Federation with the highest index of HIV-infection prevalence. Introduction of obligatory medical examination for HIV-infection in the youth of conscription age can successfully prevent its spread among the military personnel. In this case expenses for the laboratory examination for HIV-infection of the whole draft contingent of Russian Federation will be lower than for alimentation, treatment and the following discharge of HIV positive servicemen.

  17. Medical information on the internet: a tool for measuring consumer perception of quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Dubowicz, Arthur; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-03-30

    Most of adult Internet users have searched for health information on the Internet. The Internet has become one of the most important sources for health information and treatment advice. In most cases, the information found is not verified with a medical doctor, but judged by the "online-diagnosers" independently. Facing this situation, public health authorities raise concern over the quality of medical information laypersons can find on the Internet. The objective of the study was aimed at developing a measure to evaluate the credibility of websites that offer medical advice and information. The measure was tested in a quasi-experimental study on two sleeping-disorder websites of different quality. There were 45 survey items for rating the credibility of websites that were tested in a quasi-experimental study with a random assignment of 454 participants to either a high- or a low-quality website exposure. Using principal component analysis, the original items were reduced to 13 and sorted into the factors: trustworthiness, textual deficits of the content, interferences (external links on the Web site), and advertisements. The first two factors focus more on the provided content itself, while the other two describe the embedding of the content into the website. The 45 survey items had been designed previously using exploratory observations and literature research. The final scale showed adequate power and reliability for all factors. The loadings of the principal component analysis ranged satisfactorily (.644 to .854). Significant differences at P<.001 were found between the low- and high-quality groups. Advertisements on the website were rated as disturbing in both experimental conditions, meaning that they do not differentiate between good and bad information. The scale reliably distinguished high- and low-quality of medical advice given on websites.

  18. Medical Information on the Internet: A Tool for Measuring Consumer Perception of Quality Aspects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Most of adult Internet users have searched for health information on the Internet. The Internet has become one of the most important sources for health information and treatment advice. In most cases, the information found is not verified with a medical doctor, but judged by the “online-diagnosers” independently. Facing this situation, public health authorities raise concern over the quality of medical information laypersons can find on the Internet. Objective The objective of the study was aimed at developing a measure to evaluate the credibility of websites that offer medical advice and information. The measure was tested in a quasi-experimental study on two sleeping-disorder websites of different quality. Methods There were 45 survey items for rating the credibility of websites that were tested in a quasi-experimental study with a random assignment of 454 participants to either a high- or a low-quality website exposure. Using principal component analysis, the original items were reduced to 13 and sorted into the factors: trustworthiness, textual deficits of the content, interferences (external links on the Web site), and advertisements. The first two factors focus more on the provided content itself, while the other two describe the embedding of the content into the website. The 45 survey items had been designed previously using exploratory observations and literature research. Results The final scale showed adequate power and reliability for all factors. The loadings of the principal component analysis ranged satisfactorily (.644 to .854). Significant differences at P<.001 were found between the low- and high-quality groups. Advertisements on the website were rated as disturbing in both experimental conditions, meaning that they do not differentiate between good and bad information. Conclusions The scale reliably distinguished high- and low-quality of medical advice given on websites. PMID:25835333

  19. [Medical-psychological aspects of flying training of pilots for informal aviation structure].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, S K; Zasiad'ko, K I; Oproshchenko, D L; Ziziko, A G

    2007-01-01

    The authors report the data of medical and psychological monitorized of in formal aviation pilots trained for flying motor-hang-planes. Monitoring was conducted in two categories of pilots: professionals (reserves, n = 6) and amateurs (n = 6). Psychophysiological profile and level of neuroemotional stress before and after training were in correlation with previous flying experience. These results point to the importance of differential approach to planning and preparation of training flights for different categories of pilots.

  20. Epidemiologic Aspects of Medical Retirement from the Republic of Korea Army due to Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to report the epidemiologic characteristics of medical retirement from the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army due to visual impairment and to suggest a practical screening system for the draft. The medical records of 423 eyes of 301 patients who retired from the ROK Army due to visual impairment were reviewed retrospectively between January 2010 and December 2014. The patients were grouped by the presence of trauma, and each group was subdivided by military rank. We analyzed demographic and ophthalmic data, including the etiology of ophthalmologic disease. The etiology was classified into 5 anatomical categories (ocular surface, lens, retina, optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway, and extraocular muscle and orbit), which were then subdivided into the type of disease. The mean age was 24.5 years, and non-traumatic mechanisms accounted for 81.1% (343/423 eyes) of medical retirements. Visual acuity was better in patients without trauma. In enlisted soldiers, disease in the optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway was the most common anatomical category (40.5%), and primary open angle glaucoma (30.8%), retinal dystrophy (18.3%), congenital cataract (14.5%), and retinal detachment (9.7%) were the four most common diseases. Most medical retirements due to visual impairment resulted from non-traumatic mechanisms, even though patients were young. The fundus examination and visual field test would be more useful tools than a conventional vision test for large-scale draft screening for the most common two disease types: primary open angle glaucoma and retinal dystrophy.

  1. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Herfs, Paul G P

    2014-10-14

    In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In 2005, of all the doctors practising in the UK, 31% were educated outside the country. In most EEA-countries, health care is not dependent on the influx of IMGs.The aim of this study is to present data relating to the changes in IMG migration in the UK since the extension of the European Union in May 2004. In addition, data are presented on IMG migration in the Netherlands. These migration flows show that migration patterns differ strongly within these two EU-countries. This study makes use of registration data on migrating doctors from the General Medical Council (GMC) in the UK and from the Dutch Department of Health. Moreover, data on the ratio of medical doctors in relation to a country's population were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO). The influx of IMGs in the UK has changed in recent years due to the extension of the European Union in 2004, the expansion of UK medical schools and changes in the policy towards non-EEA doctors.The influx of IMGs in the Netherlands is described in detail. In the Netherlands, many IMGs come from Afghanistan, Iraq and Surinam. There are clear differences between IMG immigration in the UK and in the Netherlands. In the UK, the National Health Service continues to be very reliant on immigration to fill shortage posts, whereas the number of immigrant doctors working in the Netherlands is much smaller. Both the UK and the Netherlands' regulatory bodies have shared great concerns about the linguistic and communication skills of both EEA and non-EEA doctors seeking to work in these countries. IMG migration is a global and intricate problem. The source countries, not only those where English is the first or second language, experience

  2. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies and asthma have the best prognosis with an early, accurate diagnosis and subsequent avoidance of exposure to the relevant sensitizer. These diagnoses can normally be suspected from the clinical history. Primary care physicians can also initiate investigations to make an objective diagnosis, can assess workplace exposure agents from the history, and can review appropriate data sheets on material safety. Specialist evaluation is likely to be needed for skin tests, however, and for other specialized tests (such as pulmonary function assessments at work and off work or specific challenges with the suspected workplace agent). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis need appropriate medical management of their allergic manifestations or asthma, but also often require psychosocial support during the period of investigation and management, especially in relation to required changes in their work and to compensation or insurance claims. CONCLUSIONS: Consider workplace exposure as a source of patients' allergies or asthma and aim to make an early, accurate diagnosis. PMID:10386216

  3. [Xenophobia and anti-Semitism in the medical milieu during the Occupation as seen through the journal "Concours Médical"].

    PubMed

    Halioua, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of a well-known medical journal, the Concours Médical reveals the attitude among the French medical corps between 1940 and 1944. This journal kept its readers informed of the various stages of xenophobia and anti-Semitism under the Vichy government. It provided the decisions adopted, and the application of measures prohibiting foreign and Jewish physicians to practice, regularly publishing lists. Analysis of the editions published under the occupation clearly shows the xenophobia and anti-Semitism that existed among a certain population of French practitioners.

  4. The Indigenous and Exogenous Aspects of Moral Education: A Comparative Analysis of the U.S. Military Occupation in Japan and Germany after World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    During the U.S. military occupation of Japan after World War II, few sectors of Japanese society were left untouched. Reforms during the occupation included education, religion, moral values, and gender relations. By contrast, in Germany, except in the Soviet-controlled zone, no radical changes were introduced in the education system during the…

  5. Half-century archives of occupational medical data on French nuclear workers: a dusty warehouse or gold mine for epidemiological research?

    PubMed

    Garsi, Jerome-Philippe; Samson, Eric; Chablais, Laetitia; Zhivin, Sergey; Niogret, Christine; Laurier, Dominique; Guseva Canu, Irina

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the availability and completeness of medical data on workers from the AREVA NC Pierrelatte nuclear plant and their possible use in epidemiological research on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders related to internal exposure to uranium. We created a computer database from files on 394 eligible workers included in an ongoing nested case-control study from a larger cohort of 2897 French nuclear workers. For each worker, we collected records of previous employment, job positions, job descriptions, medical visits, and blood test results from medical history. The dataset counts 9,471 medical examinations and 12,735 blood test results. For almost all of the parameters relevant for research on cardiovascular risk, data completeness and availability is over 90%, but it varies with time and improves in the latest time period. In the absence of biobanks, collecting and computerising available good-quality occupational medicine archive data constitutes a valuable alternative for epidemiological and aetiological research in occupational health. Biobanks rarely contain biological samples over an entire worker's carrier and medical data from nuclear industry archives might make up for unavailable biomarkers that could provide information on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  6. Nested Case-control Study of Occupational Radiation Exposure and Breast and Esophagus Cancer Risk among Medical Diagnostic X Ray Workers in Jiangsu of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Ru; Fang, Qiao-Qiao; Tang, Wei-Ming; Xu, Xiao-San; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Liu, Yu-Fei; Yu, Ning-Le; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Medical diagnostic X-ray workers are one occupational group that expose to the long-term low-dose external radiation over their working lifetime, and they may under risk of different cancers. This study aims to determine the relationship between the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk among these workers in Jiangsu, China. We conducted Nested case-control study to investigate the occupational X-ray radiation exposure and cancer risk. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire, which includes but not limits to demographic data, personal behaviors and family history of cancer. Retrospective dose reconstruction was conducted to estimate the cumulative doses of the x-ray workers. Inferential statistics, t-test and 2 tests were used to compare the differences between each group. We used the logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cancer by adjusting the age, gender. All 34 breast cancer cases and 45 esophageal cancer cases that detected in a cohort conducted among health workers between 1950~2011 were included in this presented study, and 158 cancer-free controls were selected by frequency-matched (1:2). Our study found that the occupational radiation exposure was associated with a significantly increased cancer risk compared with the control, especially in breast cancer and esophageal cancer (adjusted OR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.19-7.04 for breast cancer; OR=4.19, 95% CI: 1.87-9.38 for esophageal cancer, and OR=3.43, 95% CI: 1.92-6.12 for total cancer, respectively). The occupational X-ray radiation exposure was associated with increasing cancer risk, which indicates that proper intervention and prevention strategies may be needed in order to bring down the occupational cancer risk.

  7. [Psychological medical aspects of the management of the tumor patient (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Freyberger, H

    1977-10-28

    Psychodynamic processes in the sense of secondary psychic reactions which can be regularly demonstrated in tumor patients are described: object loss with subsequent narcissistic insult and aggression defense and the inherent defense mechanisms; especially is denial which appears as adaptive misadaptive. Dealing with tumor patients includes emotional receptivity on the one hand and supportive psychotherapy on the other. Furthermore, of additional importance is management of the relatives and pre-operative and post-operative care by means of selfhelp groups. From this broadly based psychological medical program arise possibilities for specific psychosomatic interventions to supplement the somatotherapeutic measures.

  8. Stem cells: An insight into the therapeutic aspects from medical and dental perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sunil, P. M.; Nirmal, R. Madhavan; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Saravanan, Balasubramanian; Senthileagappan, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The recent advancements in the field of stem cell (SC) biology have increased the hope of achieving the definitive treatments for the diseases which are now considered incurable such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease and other chronic long standing conditions. To achieve this possibility, it is necessary to understand the basic concepts of SC biology to utilize in various advanced techniques of regenerative medicine including tissue engineering and gene therapy. This article highlights the types of SCs available and their therapeutic capacity in regenerative medical and dental fields. PMID:26538878

  9. [Medical aspects of selecting a new high performance olympic sail boat].

    PubMed

    Schönle, C

    1998-03-01

    For the 2000 Olympic Sailing-Regatta the Medical Commission of the International Sailing Federation (ISAF) analysed different high performance dinghy boats from the medical point of view. The hull of the boats and the modern styled sails increase the forward force. Special outriggers compensate the shearing forces, by which different weights of the sailors make no longer a difference in case of moderate winds. The high distance between boat and boom is favorable to prevent head injuries. But in some boats many clips, rollers, ropes, hooks are installed in those areas, where the helmsman and the foredeck hand are active. The area between the outrigger tube should be covered with fabric being pervious to water: in case of a sailor's slip off or an overturn of the boat no part of the body can be squeezed. The foot straps mostly enclose the metatarsus: At manoeuvres or capzising a foot-fracture could happen. The selected boat for the Olympic Games was the 49er.

  10. The limits of social justice as an aspect of medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-08-01

    Contemporary accounts of medical ethics and professionalism emphasize the importance of social justice as an ideal for physicians. This ideal is often specified as a commitment to attaining the universal availability of some level of health care, if not of other elements of a "decent minimum" standard of living. I observe that physicians, in general, have not accepted the importance of social justice for professional ethics, and I further argue that social justice does not belong among professional norms. Social justice is a norm of civic rather than professional life; professional groups may demand that their members conform to the requirements of citizenship but ought not to require civic virtues such as social justice. Nor should any such requirements foreclose reasonable disagreement as to the content of civic norms, as requiring adherence to common specifications of social justice would do. Demands for any given form of social justice among physicians are unlikely to bear fruit as medical education is powerless to produce this virtue.

  11. [The early semiautomatic defibrillation: legislative Italian framing and medical-legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Fontana, Alessandro; Zancaner, Silvano

    2004-10-01

    Following Anglosaxon experience, automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), devices capable of automatically identifying a defibrillating rhythm and triggering a life-saving discharge, are now becoming widespread in Italy too. Their extremely simple functioning, and diagnostic sensitivity combined with diagnostic specificity all mean that AEDs can even be used by non-medical personnel (nurses) and, more extensively and after proper training, also by "first responders" who are not necessarily healthcare-related (red cross volunteers, members of the police force, firemen, etc.). In this sense Italian law no. 120/2001, enacted in the interests of the collectivity, and its later provisions approved at the conference of the Italian state and regional authorities in 2003, admits this type of application. AED safety assurance means that these devices can also be used by ordinary people who are not trained and have no specific obligations, but who suddenly find themselves in an emergency situation. However, medical personnel, paramedics and non-healthcare-related "first responders" trained in the use of AEDs, are required to apply them in suitable circumstances and, if they do not, may be accused of refusal to act in an official capacity, omission of first aid, and manslaughter.

  12. Continue development of a biomedical data base on the medical aspects of chemical defense. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, L.A.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents a one-year period of activities encompassing the further development and maintenance of the automated information system known as the Chemical Agent Retrieval System (CARS) for the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD). During the period 18 November 1985 through 17 November 1986, Associate Consultants, Inc. (ACI), creator of the prototype system, expanded the database with relevant research articles taken from USAMRICD research reports and CRDEC holdings, medical and scientific libraries within the Washington area, and on-line searches of machine-readable database containing citations from the world-wide literature. ACI began entry of the results of these searches into the citation-tracking system file (CITES). To assist with automated retrieval of the documents, ACI wrote and tested a modular posting-switching program for expansion and maintenance of the thesaurus. ACI also initiated a study of the impact upon the contract of acquiring an Army-owned/ACI located VAX.

  13. Occupational Medical Surveillance Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    2 000095-79- 4 5-Chloro-o-Toluidine NE - 000095-80-7 2,4- Diaminotoluene 2B 2 000095-83-0 4 ...Substitution of less toxic chemicals. 2 . Containing hazards with engineering process controls. 3. Personnel protective measures. 4 . Eliminating...Acetylaminofluorene 000057-57-8 beta-Propiolactone 000060-11-7 4 -Dimethylaminobenzene 000062-75-9 n-Nitrosodimethylamine 000071-43- 2 Benzene 000075-01- 4 Vinyl

  14. [Human health in the space rocket-making areas: medical and environmental aspects].

    PubMed

    Sidorov, P I; Skrebtsova, N V; Sovershaeva, S L

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems of medical and ecological escorts of space rocket-making activities. The properties of one of the highly toxic components of propellant - asymmetric dimethylhydrazine as a substance assigned to a class of ecological toxicants, are considered. The data obtained on implementing the program for a study of the health status in the population living not far from the asymmetric dimethylhydrazine-polluted areas are presented. The authors propose to consider a package of measures that can apply the systems approach to securing the safety of the population to live and work in areas under space-rocket making activities, which is based on the prevention principle provided by the Rio de Janeiro Environment and Development Declaration.

  15. [Medical, psychological, social and gender aspects of aging in modern Russia].

    PubMed

    Miakotnykh, V S; Sidenkova, A P; Borovkova, T A; Berezina, D A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors considered controversial issues ambiguous attitude to the aging process of the population of the Russian Federation on the basis of a number of individual differences--psychological, social, sexual, and medical. The thesis is that, unfortunately, the fight against aging appears rather to be more a struggle with an already existing old age, and you need to develop preventive measures against aging much earlier than is currently done. Submissions own research confirm this position. The system of training, adjustment to a new level of life, to the new conditions associated with aging process, in the form of a special kind of multidisciplinary centers that carry out the tasks of improving health and young is proposed.

  16. TU-CD-213-00: Administrative Aspects of Medical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    As part of the AAPM’s Scope of Practice, medical physicists are expected to collaborate effectively with practioners and allied health care providers. Interpersonal skills such as communication, negotiation and persuasion are vital for successful collaboration to achieve shared goals. This session will provide some theoretical background of these interpersonal skills as well as specific techniques and practical tools to influence others. Applications of these interpersonal skills for administrative and human resource management purposes vital to medical physicists will be shared. Session attendees will gain knowledge and tools to help them effectively collaborate with administrative and physician leaders in areas such as capital and human resource selection, prioritization, and implementation. Participants will hear methods of how to articulate their goals and to understand the goals of administration, helping ensure alignment of purpose. Session speakers will present one of the topics: equipment selection, budget creation, contracts, and program-related policy development. Specifics may include designing a business case in language that administrators understand, calculating the prioritization of budget requests, and influencing policies for safe and effective care. Human resource topics may include staffing justification, recruitment for fit, employment contracts, and benefits. Speakers will provide examples in both radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging departments and will share experiences and outcomes of their approaches for better results. Learning Objectives: After this course attendees will be better able to Understand the shared goal between administrative and physicist leadership. Articulate the “why” of the technical or human resource need. Utilize communication, negotiation and persuasion tools to improve collaboration.

  17. The Case of Pharmacological Neuroenhancement: Medical, Judicial and Ethical Aspects from a German Perspective.

    PubMed

    Franke, A G; Northoff, R; Hildt, E

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) describes the use of psychoactive drugs for the purpose of enhancing cognition (e. g., fatigue, concentration, memory etc.) by healthy subjects without medical need. Drugs used for this purpose can be divided into freely available, over-the-counter drugs (e. g., methylxanthines such as caffeine), prescription drugs (e. g., antidementia drugs, methylphenidate) and illicit drugs (e. g., illicit amphetamines). Clinical studies have shown that the aforementioned substances only have limited pro-cognitive effects and have considerable safety risks and side effects.The German judicial perspective shows legal differences between substances (drugs, food, food supplements, fortified food) that can be bought in a supermarket, drugs that can be bought in a pharmacy as over-the-counter- (OTC-) drugs, drugs with or without the need for a prescription and illicit drugs. Supermarket drugs and fortified food can be sold freely and follow the general rules of civil and penal law; regarding acquisition, parents are responsible for their children. OTC drugs require special information about therapy. Regarding prescription drugs, there are legal problems caused by an off-label use and the non-medical purposes of PN drugs. Furthermore, prescription stimulants for PN are governed by the specialized law for narcotics, and their use might be punished. Beyond the general lack of rules for regulation for PN drug use there are specific needs for prevention (e. g., control of the black market, etc.).Possible future policy will depend, among others, on the probability with which effective PN drugs with an acceptable risk-benefit ratio will be available, on individual and societal implications, and on public opinion towards PN. While 4 different general policy scenarios can be identified, it is important to advance a broad societal debate on PN to collect relevant empirical data and to address enhancement-related conceptual issues. © Georg Thieme

  18. Longitudinal PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education Develops Lifelong-Learning Habits and Clinical Competencies in Social Aspects.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Yumiko; Matsushita, Susumu; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is popular in medical education in Japan. We wished to understand the influence of PBL on the clinical competence of medical residents, using self-assessment and observer assessment. Tokyo Women's Medical University (TWMU) implemented PBL longitudinally (long-time) for four years, and on this basis we analyzed whether long-time PBL education is useful for clinical work. A self-assessment questionnaire was sent to junior and senior residents who were alumni of several schools, and an observation-based assessment questionnaire to senior doctors instructing them. Respondents were asked if they had used the PBL process in daily clinical tasks, and if so in what processes. Senior doctors were asked whether TWMU graduates perform differently from graduates of other schools. TWMU graduates answered "used a lot" and "used a little" with regard to PBL at significantly higher rates than other graduates. As useful points of PBL, they mentioned extracting clinical problems, solving clinical problems, self-directed leaning, positive attitude, collaboration with others, presentation, doctor-patient relations, self-assessment, and share the knowledge with doctors at lower levels and students. Observer assessments of TWMU graduates by senior doctors represented them as adaptive, good at presenting, good at listening to others' opinions, practical, selfish, and eager in their instructional practice. Longitudinal PBL can be a good educational method to develop lifelong-learning habits and clinical competencies especially in terms of the social aspect.

  19. Physiological and Medical Aspects That Put Women Soldiers at Increased Risk for Overuse Injuries.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Fleischmann, Chen; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval

    2015-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place female soldiers at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Average aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at a disadvantage compared with men in performing military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights, or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier. Their smaller size, skeletal anatomy, and different bone geometry also predispose women to a higher incidence of exercise-related injuries. Consequently, the attrition rate of female soldiers in combat units is higher than that of their male counterparts. This review summarizes the literature on gender-related physiological and anatomical differences that put female soldiers at an increased risk of exercise-related injuries.

  20. [Sport-medical aspects concerning Asian martial arts Aikidô and Ving Tsun].

    PubMed

    Adler, D; Majerle, S; Schmidt, M; von Salis-Soglio, G

    2010-03-01

    Asian martial arts became very popular in Germany during the last years, nevertheless there are only few clinical inquiries concerning sportorthopaedic or -traumatological aspects. In this study we analyzed the risk and the prevalence of sport-injuries and sport-damages in Aikidô and Ving Tsun. 19 Aicidôca and 24 Ving Tsun athletes were to undergo broad survey and sport-orthopedic inspection. In this process an especially adapted examination-sheet after Baumann was used. 68.4 % of the Aikidoca and 79.2 % of the Ving Tsun athletes reported injuries, whereupon soft injuries dominated, severe injuries like luxations, ligamental und muscular ruptures appeared infrequently, the incidence of fractures was 1 % resp. 0.2 %. 37 % resp. 33.3 % of all injuries where related to the lower limb, 14.8 % resp. 16.7 % to the head and neck. Disorders dominated with 60 % resp. 50 % in the range of the knees. Persistent sport-damages could not be found in the clinical examinations. There is even just a low risk for severe sport-injuries and sport-damages while intensely practicing martial arts Aikidô and Ving Tsun for years. In the range of prevention the consequent use of protective gear (specificly bump cap and footwear) is important. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  1. Bioethical aspects of basic research and medical applications of human stem cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, Manuel J; Ventura-Juncá, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The new discoveries, the extraordinary dynamism in human stem cell (SC) research, and the great expectations of the benefits in clinical treatment of many diseases are on the edge of unparalleled advances in both: 1) the understanding of basic mechanisms of cell differentiation and development and 2) the translation from basic research to new clinical therapies. Human stem cells are obtained from different sources, such as embryo, fetal, and adult tissues, in vitro induction (iPS cells) or transdifferentiation. The evidence that these cells are pluripotent (or multipotent), meaning they have the ability to differentiate into all body tissues or tissues of the same lineage, raises the possibility that they could regenerate diseased or damaged tissue in diseases that until now have had no effective treatments. Human stem cell research and therapy raise important bioethical considerations because of the human nature of these cells and their peculiar characteristics. Here we discuss the bioethical aspects of basic human SC research and the conditions necessary for the translation of basic preclinical research into clinical use of SC.

  2. Military Occupational Health Surveillance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Responses were received from 37 HSC medical treatment facilities (100%) regarding their occupational health surveillance programs. The occupational ...personnel determined to be potentially exposed to occupational or job- related hazards, medical surveillance programs are limited, if available at all. An...exposed to occupational or job-related hazards would require more adequate staffing to provide the services. Identification of personnel at risk could be

  3. [Judicial and medical/legal aspects of the responsibility of workers appointed to carry out first aid].

    PubMed

    Caprioli, L C; Ciavarella, M; Sacco, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the innovations introduced by law 626/94 [the Italian law on occupational health and safety of workers] is the obligation of the employer to designate workers responsible for first aid. To identify and discuss the duties, the role and the medical and legal responsibility of workers appointed to carry out first aid measures. Analysis of legislation and current practice concerning medical and legal responsibility in first aid procedures. The worker appointed to carry out first aid measures is, by virtue of his appointment, obliged to take action. Therefore, he could commit an illegitimate act both by "acting" and by "omitting" to carry out a duty that is his responsibility. In the first case the worker could be accused of committing an unpremeditated criminal offence when his actions involve negligence, imprudence, inexperience or violation of regulations concerning his duties. A "serious criminal offence" is committed when the most elementary rules of diligence, prudence and skill are violated; the offence is "slight" when negligence, imprudence or inexperience are involved in particularly complex situations. The reference parameter for inexperience is not a first aid volunteer, nor a member of the public, but a worker designated to carry out first aid possessing "average" attitudes, training and ability. Briefly, a guilty error by the appointed worker consists of the following: i) the professional conduct of the operator was clearly wrong, serious and unjustifiable; ii) the operator clearly omitted doing his/her duty; iii) the consequence of the error is physical personal damage. The observations made clearly illustrate the delicacy of the tasks of the worker appointed to carry out first aid measures. Essential elements for minimizing wrong and/or negligent conduct are appropriate choice of the designated workers and their adequate training.

  4. Medical decision-making in children and adolescents: developmental and neuroscientific aspects.

    PubMed

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; Hein, Irma M; van den Broek, Jos M; de Vries, Martine C

    2017-05-08

    Various international laws and guidelines stress the importance of respecting the developing autonomy of children and involving minors in decision-making regarding treatment and research participation. However, no universal agreement exists as to at what age minors should be deemed decision-making competent. Minors of the same age may show different levels of maturity. In addition, patients deemed rational conversation-partners as a child can suddenly become noncompliant as an adolescent. Age, context and development all play a role in decision-making competence. In this article we adopt a perspective on competence that specifically focuses on the impact of brain development on the child's decision-making process. We believe that the discussion on decision-making competence of minors can greatly benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. We adopted such an approach in order to contribute to the understanding on how to deal with children in decision-making situations. Evidence emerging from neuroscience research concerning the developing brain structures in minors is combined with insights from various other fields, such as psychology, decision-making science and ethics. Four capacities have been described that are required for (medical) decision-making: (1) communicating a choice; (2) understanding; (3) reasoning; and (4) appreciation. Each capacity is related to a number of specific skills and abilities that need to be sufficiently developed to support the capacity. Based on this approach it can be concluded that at the age of 12 children can have the capacity to be decision-making competent. However, this age coincides with the onset of adolescence. Early development of the brain's reward system combined with late development of the control system diminishes decision-making competence in adolescents in specific contexts. We conclude that even adolescents possessing capacities required for decision-making, may need support of facilitating environmental factors

  5. Electrical Aspects of Argon Micro-Cell Plasma with Applications in Bio-Medical Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Yasuhiro; van Dijk, Jan; Makabe, Toshiaki

    2003-10-01

    Argon micro-cell plasma (MCP) is believed to be a viable tool for performing micro-surgery. The non-thermal nature of the discharge allows an effective treatment of pathological tissue without causing thermal damage to its surroundings. This bio-medical application imposes a number of design challenges on the plasma configuration which we will address by computer-aided source design. In this contribution we present a numerical study with the Relaxation ConTinuum model (RCT) [1-2] of the characteristics of an atmospheric argon MCP which is maintained by an RF source. The focus will be on the influence of the geometry and the externally applied RF amplitude and frequency on the plasma properties. In particular, attention will be paid to the effect of pulsed-mode operation on the gas temperature. In addition, the influence of the frequency and the field in the wall sheath on the losses of the plasma species to the cell walls by drift-diffusion processes will be considered. [1] K. Okazaki, T. Makabe and Y. Yamaguchi, Appl. Phys. Lett. (54), 1742 (1989) [2] T. Makabe, "Advances in Low Temperature RF Plasmas" Elsevier, (2002)

  6. Occupational rhinitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Whitney W; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-01-01

    Occupational rhinitis is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing that occur secondary to exposures in the workplace. This disease can be classified into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based upon the underlying disease pathogenesis as well as the type of causative agent. While the true prevalence of occupational rhinitis is unknown, there are certain professions and occupational exposures that place workers at a higher risk for developing the disease. Additionally, occupational rhinitis can be associated with occupational asthma and upper airway symptoms may precede those of the lower respiratory tract. Taken together, occupational rhinitis is an important disease for study given its medical as well as socioeconomic implications. This review will focus on the classification of occupational rhinitis as well the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

  7. INFECTION AS OCCUPATIONAL RISK,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The percentage of the job-connected infectious diseases of the total number of occupational diseases has been subject to only minor fluctuations...since 1949. Of the occupational infections of medical personnel, tuberculosis and infectious hepatitis are the most important; among diseases that can be...importance in the recognition of an infectious disease as an occupational disease. The article discusses the sources of infection, the manner of

  8. Medical physics aspects of the synchrotron radiation therapies: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT).

    PubMed

    Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Adam, Jean-Francois; Alagoz, Enver; Bartzsch, Stefan; Crosbie, Jeff; DeWagter, Carlos; Dipuglia, Andrew; Donzelli, Mattia; Doran, Simon; Fournier, Pauline; Kalef-Ezra, John; Kock, Angela; Lerch, Michael; McErlean, Ciara; Oelfke, Uwe; Olko, Pawel; Petasecca, Marco; Povoli, Marco; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Siegbahn, Erik A; Sporea, Dan; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy (SSRT) and Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) are both novel approaches to treat brain tumor and potentially other tumors using synchrotron radiation. Although the techniques differ by their principles, SSRT and MRT share certain common aspects with the possibility of combining their advantages in the future. For MRT, the technique uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams between 50 and 600 keV. Important features of highly brilliant Synchrotron sources are a very small beam divergence and an extremely high dose rate. The minimal beam divergence allows the insertion of so called Multi Slit Collimators (MSC) to produce spatially fractionated beams of typically ∼25-75 micron-wide microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns center-to-center(ctc)) spaces with a very sharp penumbra. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are extremely well tolerated by normal tissues and at the same time provide a higher therapeutic index for various tumor models in rodents. The hypothesis of a selective radio-vulnerability of the tumor vasculature versus normal blood vessels by MRT was recently more solidified. SSRT (Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiotherapy) is based on a local drug uptake of high-Z elements in tumors followed by stereotactic irradiation with 80 keV photons to enhance the dose deposition only within the tumor. With SSRT already in its clinical trial stage at the ESRF, most medical physics problems are already solved and the implemented solutions are briefly described, while the medical physics aspects in MRT will be discussed in more detail in this paper. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Occupational injury and fatality investigations: the application of forensic nursing science.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The forensic evaluation of trauma in occupational injuries and fatalities can provide the benefit of a more thorough analysis of incident causation. Forensic nursing science applied during workplace investigations can assist investigators to determine otherwise unknown crucial aspects of the incident circumstances that are important to event reconstruction, the enforcement of occupational health and safety requirements, and the direction of workplace prevention initiatives. Currently, a medical and forensic medical knowledge gap exists in the subject-matter expertise associated with occupational accident investigations. This gap can be bridged with the integration of forensic nursing in the investigation of workplace fatalities and serious injuries.

  10. Technical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy at the BNL Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Rorer, D.C.; Patti, F.J.; Liu, H.B.; Reciniello, R.; Chanana, A.D.

    1997-07-01

    The Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, BMRR, is a 3 MW heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for biomedical studies. Early BNL work in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) used a beam of thermal neutrons for experimental treatment of brain tumors. Research elsewhere and at BNL indicated that higher energy neutrons would be required to treat deep seated brain tumors. Epithermal neutrons would be thermalized as they penetrated the brain and peak thermal neutron flux densities would occur at the depth of brain tumors. One of the two BMRR thermal port shutters was modified in 1988 to include plates of aluminum and aluminum oxide to provide an epithermal port. Lithium carbonate in polyethylene was added in 1991 around the bismuth port to reduce the neutron flux density coming from outside the port. To enhance the epithermal neutron flux density, the two vertical thimbles A-3 (core edge) and E-3 (in core) were replaced with fuel elements. There are now four fuel elements of 190 grams each and 28 fuel elements of 140 grams each for a total of 4.68 kg of {sup 235}U in the core. The authors have proposed replacing the epithermal shutter with a fission converter plate shutter. It is estimated that the new shutter would increase the epithermal neutron flux density by a factor of seven and the epithermal/fast neutron ratio by a factor of two. The modifications made to the BMRR in the past few years permit BNCT for brain tumors without the need to reflect scalp and bone flaps. Radiation workers are monitored via a TLD badge and a self-reading dosimeter during each experiment. An early concern was raised about whether workers would be subject to a significant dose rate from working with patients who have been irradiated. The gamma ray doses for the representative key personnel involved in the care of the first 12 patients receiving BNCT are listed. These workers did not receive unusually high exposures.

  11. A Ferromagnetic Foreign Body at the Lateral Aspect of the Mandibular Ramus in a Medically Compromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, K; Nakayama, Y; Yamamoto, I; Matsusue, Y; Shimotsuji, H; Kirita, T

    2016-01-01

    A case of a ferromagnetic foreign body in a medically compromised patient was reported. The patient was a 45-year-old male who consulted our department complaining of a foreign body accidentally impacted in the right cheek. X-ray examination revealed a foreign body at the lateral aspect of the right mandibular ramus. The removal of the foreign body was scheduled, but the patient did not return for the procedure. After 8 years he revisited our department for the removal of the foreign body, because it had been found to be ferromagnetic and a barrier to MRI examination. X-ray examination confirmed the foreign body was located at the same site as 8 years prior. Although the patient was suffering from liver cirrhosis with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, the foreign body was successfully removed under general anesthesia. The foreign body was 12 × 5 × 1 mm, weighed 0.48 g, and was ferromagnetic. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful. X-ray examination confirmed the removal of the foreign body. Since the surgery, the patient has been in generally stable condition with no complications. This case was a rare example of a foreign body that needed to be removed for medical examination. PMID:27583049

  12. GPs’ thoughts on prescribing medication and evidence-based knowledge: The benefit aspect is a strong motivator

    PubMed Central

    Skoglund, Ingmarie; Segesten, Kerstin; Björkelund, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe GPs’ thoughts of prescribing medication and evidence-based knowledge (EBM) concerning drug therapy. Design Tape-recorded focus-group interviews transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative methods. Setting GPs from the south-eastern part of Västra Götaland, Sweden. Subjects A total of 16 GPs out of 178 from the south-eastern part of the region strategically chosen to represent urban and rural, male and female, long and short GP experience. Methods Transcripts were analysed using a descriptive qualitative method. Results The categories were: benefits, time and space, and expert knowledge. The benefit was a merge of positive elements, all aspects of the GPs’ tasks. Time and space were limitations for GPs’ tasks. EBM as a constituent of expert knowledge should be more customer adjusted to be able to be used in practice. Benefit was the most important category, existing in every decision-making situation for the GP. The core category was prompt and pragmatic benefit, which was the utmost benefit. Conclusion GPs’ thoughts on evidence-based medicine and prescribing medication were highly related to reflecting on benefit and results. The interviews indicated that prompt and pragmatic benefit is important for comprehending their thoughts. PMID:17497487

  13. Attitude of Iranian Medical Oncologists Toward Economic Aspects, and Policy-making in Relation to New Cancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Daroudi, Rajabali; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2015-10-20

    Although medical oncologists can have an important role in controlling the cost of cancer treatment, there is little information about their attitudes toward the cost of cancer treatment and the impact of cost on their treatment recommendations, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we assessed the attitude of Iranian medical oncologists toward some economic aspects of new cancer drugs. We translated a questionnaire that was used in similar studies in the United States and Canada into Persian and modified it according to the local setting in Iran. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were assessed by oncologists before being used in the survey. We distributed the questionnaire and collected the data from 80 oncologists who participated in the 13th Annual Congress of the Iranian Society of Medical Oncology and Hematology (ISMOH). Fifty-two oncologists participated in our study (a response rate of 65%). The majority of oncologists stated that drug costs and patient out-of-pocket (OOP) costs influence their treatment recommendations (92% and 94%, respectively). Most oncologists (70%) felt that they are ready enough to use cost-effectiveness information in their treatment decisions, and 74% believed that patients should only have access to cancer treatments that are cost-effective. Most oncologists agree that the government should have control over drug prices, and more use of cost-effectiveness data is required for decision-making about cancer drug coverage. Ninety-one percent of oncologists said that they always or frequently discuss cancer treatment costs with their patients. Oncologists believed that academic groups (research centers and scientific societies) (81%) and the Ministry of Health (MoH) (43%) are the most eligible groups for determining whether a drug provides good value. Iranian medical oncologists are ready to participate in the health technology assessment and priority-setting process. This situation

  14. A Review of Supplementary Medical Aspects of Post-Cold War UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trends, Lessons Learned, Courses of Action, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of force protection and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will adjust to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of all medical aspects of UN PKO operations, including those considered supplementary, that is, less crucial but contributing nonetheless. Medical aspects considered paramount and key to UN PKOs have received relatively thorough treatment elsewhere. The intent of this article is to report on ancillary and supplemental medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKO operations assembled through an iterative inquiry of open-source articles. Recommendations are made about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in such medical aspects of PKOs and relevance of US/NATO/European Union models and research.

  15. Research trends in biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering: 3D bioprinting, surface modification, nano/micro-technology and clinical aspects in tissue engineering of cartilage and bone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cen; Bang, Sumi; Cho, Younghak; Lee, Sahnghoon; Lee, Inseop; Zhang, ShengMin; Noh, Insup

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses about biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering of bone and cartilage, after previous scientific commentary of the invitation-based, Korea-China joint symposium on biomimetic medical materials, which was held in Seoul, Korea, from October 22 to 26, 2015. The contents of this review were evolved from the presentations of that symposium. Four topics of biomimetic medical materials were discussed from different research groups here: 1) 3D bioprinting medical materials, 2) nano/micro-technology, 3) surface modification of biomaterials for their interactions with cells and 4) clinical aspects of biomaterials for cartilage focusing on cells, scaffolds and cytokines.

  16. Occupational Therapy Aid (medical ser.) 079.368-026--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  17. Health hazards from fine asbestos dusts. An analysis of 70,656 occupational preventive medical investigations from 1973 to the end of 1986.

    PubMed

    Raithel, H J; Weltle, D; Bohlig, H; Valentin, H

    1989-01-01

    For the period from 1973 to the end of 1986, 70,656 data sets on occupational preventive medical examinations in employees exposed occupationally to asbestos dust (G 1.2) were made available to us by the Central Registry for Employees Exposed to Asbestos Dust (ZAS). On the basis of this data, an analysis of asbestosis risk was to be made in relation to specific areas of work, taking into consideration the beginning and duration of exposure. Proceedings for declaratory appraisal in accordance with occupational disease no. 4103 were instituted in 1760 cases in the report period. In accordance with the character of the available data, the X-ray findings in the lungs were available from the persons investigated as parameters of possible asbestosis risk on the basis of coding consistent with the International Pneumoconiosis Classification (ILO U/C 1971 and/or ILO 1980 West Germany). The major result of the statistical analyses on the mainframe macrocomputer of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg was that the relatively highest risk of asbestosis was present in persons whose exposure began before 1955. On the other hand, with increasing duration of exposure, an unequivocal rise of the asbestosis risk could not be detected on the basis of the overall population. In relation to the individual fields of work, the relatively highest risk of asbestosis was shown to be in the asbestos textile and paper industry, as well as in the asbestos cement industry. No detectable risk of asbestosis was present in the fields of mining, traffic and health service and for women in the industrial sectors of building material, gas and water, catering trade, building, commerce as well as banking and insurance. Accordingly, it can be assumed that certain fields of work are or were exposed to such a small extent or not at all that a risk of asbestosis which is relevant in terms of occupational medicine is no longer to be assumed or was not to be assumed. This applies above all to certain work

  18. Lag Times in Reporting Injuries, Receiving Medical Care, and Missing Work: Associations With the Length of Work Disability in Occupational Back Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Besen, Elyssa; Harrell, Mason; Pransky, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the associations between lag times following occupational low back injury and the length of work disability. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study using workers’ compensation claims, random effects Tobit models were used to explore how disability length relates to three lag times: the number of days from the date of injury to reporting the injury, the number of days from the date of injury to medical care, and the number of days from the date of injury to initiating work disability. Results: In general, shorter lag times for each of the different lags were related to shorter lengths of disability. Conclusions: Decreasing the length of the lag times in reporting injuries, receiving medical care, and missing work may help to decrease the length of work disability for workers after low back injury. PMID:26445030

  19. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma/Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Landgren, Ola; McMaster, Mary L.; Slager, Susan L.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Smith, Alex; Staines, Anthony; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Linet, Martha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM), a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtype, shows strong familial aggregation and a positive association with chronic immune stimulation, but evidence regarding other risk factors is very limited. Methods The International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) pooled data from 11 predominantly population-based case–control studies from North America, Europe, and Australia to examine medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for LPL/WM. Age-, sex-, race/ethnicity-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression for a total of 374 LPL/WM cases and 23 096 controls. Results In multivariate analysis including all putative risk factors, LPL/WM risk was associated with history of Sjögren’s syndrome (OR = 14.0, 95% CI = 3.60 to 54.6), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.69 to 25.2), hay fever (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.99), positive hepatitis C serology (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.03 to 6.17), hematologic malignancy in a first-degree relative (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.64), adult weight (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.85 for highest vs. lowest quartile), duration of cigarette smoking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.05 for ≥ 40 years vs. nonsmokers), and occupation as a medical doctor (OR = 5.54, 95% CI = 2.19 to 14.0). There was no association with other medical conditions, lifestyle factors, or occupations. Conclusions This pooled analysis confirmed associations with immune conditions and family history of hematologic malignancy, and identified new associations with hay fever, weight, smoking, and occupation, and no association with other lifestyle factors. These findings offer clues to LPL/WM biology and prevention. PMID:25174029

  20. Myasthenia Gravis: Medical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zeldowicz, Ludmila R.; Buckler, William St. John

    1965-01-01

    The diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is often difficult and calls for a broader use of pharmacological and electrodiagnostic tests. The decamethonium-edrophonium test, which has proved superior to other procedures for this purpose, is based on neurophysiological principles and depicts the behaviour of the neuromuscular junction. A state of resistance to depolarizing agents in the limited form of myasthenia and a state of a non-depolarizing (competitive) block in advanced cases has been shown. This test has demonstrated that the neuromuscular defect exists throughout the skeletal musculature, including muscles clinically unaffected. It produced no false-positive results either in normal or neurasthenic persons or in patients with neurological diseases with myasthenic symptoms. In a patient with botulism and in a patient with ocular palsies from brain-stem encephalitis the edrophonium test gave a false-positive result, while the decamethonium-edrophonium test was negative. Diagnosis, treatment and management of myasthenic emergencies are described. PMID:14323662

  1. Medical Aspects of Lightning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range Forecasts Climate Prediction PAST WEATHER Past Weather Heating/Cooling Days Monthly ... types of symptoms Mild confusion, memory slowness or mental ... injury, or from any illness or major injury for that matter, are: Having ...

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis amongst first- and second-year medical students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Meintjes, Willem A.J.; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, with 68% of infected people residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy is used as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent infection in cases of occupational exposure, and use has recently been expanded to non-occupational exposure. Studies have demonstrated a lack of awareness of non-occupational PEP (NO-PEP) in the general population. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards availability of, access to and use of NO-PEP amongst first- and second-year medical students. Setting Participants were medical undergraduates of Stellenbosch University in the Western Cape of South Africa who were registered in 2013. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of 169 students was performed. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires handed out in a classroom in August 2013. Self-reported knowledge and attitudes towards NO-PEP and barriers to access to and use of NO-PEP were analysed using frequency tables. Associations between self-reported and objective knowledge of NO-PEP were analysed by odds ratios. Results Over 90% of students had good knowledge on HIV transmission, and about 75% knew how it can be prevented. Twenty eight per cent (n = 47) of students reported knowledge of NO-PEP; 67% reported hearing about it from lecturers, whilst 1% reported hearing about it from their partner. Students who knew the correct procedure to take when a dose is forgotten were 2.4 times more likely to report knowledge of NO-PEP than those who did not know what to do when a dose is forgotten (p = 0.029). No other associations were statistically significant. Conclusion Students had positive attitudes towards the use of NO-PEP and also identified barriers to its use. Despite good knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission, knowledge on NO-PEP was poor. PMID:26245421

  3. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics].

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  4. Vertebral fractures in motor vehicle accidents - a medical and technical analysis of 33,015 injured front-seat occupants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian W; Otte, Dietmar; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Panzica, Martin; Krettek, Christian; Brand, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Spinal injuries pose a considerable risk to life and quality of life. In spite of improvements in active and passive safety of motor vehicles, car accidents are regarded as a major cause for vertebral fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current incidence of vertebral fractures among front-seat occupants in motor vehicle accidents, and to identify specific risk factors for sustaining vertebral fractures in motor vehicle accidents. Data from an accident research unit were accessed to collect collision details, preclinical data, and clinical data. We included all data on front-seat occupants. Hospital records were retrieved, and radiological images were evaluated. We analysed 33,015 front-seat occupants involved in motor vehicle accidents over a 24-year period. We identified 126 subjects (0.38%) with cervical spine fractures, 78 (0.24%) with thoracic fractures, and 99 (0.30%) with lumbar fractures. The mean relative collision speeds were 48, 39, and 40 kph in subjects with cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine fractures, respectively, while it was 17.3 kph in the whole cohort. Contrary to the overall cohort, these patients typically sustained multiple hits rather than simple front collisions. Occupants with vertebral fractures frequently showed numerous concomitant injuries; for example, additional vertebral fractures. The incidence of vertebral fractures corresponded with collision speed. Safety belts were highly effective in the prevention of vertebral fractures. Apart from high speed, complex injury mechanisms as multiple collisions or rollovers were associated with vertebral fractures. Additional preventive measures should focus on these collision mechanisms.

  5. Occupational stress and its effect on job performance. A case study of medical house officers of district Abbottabad.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Rubina; Amjad, Shehla; Khan, Delawar

    2008-01-01

    Doctors especially house officers are under a great deal of stress related to a variety of occupational stressors. Occupational stressors contribute to organizational inefficiency, high staff turnover, absenteeism due to sickness, decreased quality, and quantity of practice, increased costs of health care, and decreased job satisfaction. One of the organizational outcomes that affected by occupational stress is job performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of job stress on job performance. The universe of the study is District Abbottabad and the complete population of house officers was targeted which were present at that time were 55. The data obtained through questionnaire was analyzed using the statistical methods including descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation and multiple regression. The analysis showed strong support for the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between job stress and job performance indicating that there is high job stress in the house officers, resulting in low job performance. Correct stress management should start from improved health and good intrapersonal relationships. The prevention and management of workplace stress requires organizational level interventions, because it is the organization that creates the stress. Success in managing and preventing stress will depend on the culture in the organization. A culture of openness and understanding, rather than of criticism, is essential. Those house officers who had high level of job stress had low job performance. All the factors affected male house officers more than the female house officers.

  6. [The Occupational Doctor working in private services appointed by the employer for medical surveillance (Law Decree 81/08, article 39 paragraph 2 letter a): professional, organisational, juridical and forensic implications].

    PubMed

    Frigeri, G

    2010-01-01

    The Italian Health and Safety Law (D.Lgs. vo 81/08) allows the Employer to commit to a private H&S Service the execution of the medical surveillance, being the Occupational Doctor ("Medico Competente") an Employee or Collaborator of the Service itself rather than a "freelancer" Professional. The implications of such a choice are discussed, taking in account the point of view of the Employer, the Occupational Doctor and the Control Authority.

  7. Occupational Health: Meeting the Challenges of the Next 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Harrison, John; Dawson, Leonie

    2016-06-01

    The industrial revolution that took place in the United Kingdom (UK) between 1760 and 1830 led to profound social change. Occupational medicine was concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of occupational diseases, that is, diseases directly caused by exposure to workplace hazards. A similar pattern of development has occurred globally. A review of relevant literature. The international conceptualization and development of occupational health occurred during the 20th century. A new paradigm for occupational health has emerged that extends the classical focus on what might be termed "health risk management" that is, the focus on workplace hazards and risk to health to include the medical aspects of sickness absence and rehabilitation, the support and management of chronic noncommunicable diseases, and workplace health promotion. The future strategic direction for occupational health will be informed by a needs analysis and a consideration of where it should be positioned within future healthcare provision. What are the occupational health workforce implications of the vision for occupational health provision? New challenges and new ways of working will necessitate a review of the competence and capacity of the occupational health workforce, with implications for future workforce planning.

  8. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Asthma Library ▸ Occupational asthma TTR Share | Occupational Asthma This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Occupational asthma has become the most common work-related lung ...

  9. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  10. [Clinico-occupational history in neurology and scope of occupational neurology].

    PubMed

    Motis-Dolader, J C

    The occupational environment generates a large amount of illness which involves several specialities, including neurology. However, there is little awareness--or little training--in this field as in most medical specialities, since in the basic tool of a doctor's work, the clinical history, importance is sometimes given to aspects such as sex, race etc. and data referring to the patient's occupation and the risks this may imply for his health are considered to matter less. The creation of a new working party within the Sociedad Española de Neurología, that of Neurología del Trabajo (Occupational Neurology) aims to correct these deficiencies, and to make colleagues aware of the importance of assessing the occupational hazards of patients and attempt to relate them to the clinical picture which presents. In order to do this we must first mark out our field of action, the commonest diseases and the administrative route used for claiming for these conditions. Then we will have to evaluate our relationship with other professional colleagues in the field of occupational health and finally consider the tasks of training, investigation and promotion of occupational health.

  11. Medical Aspects of Deafness. Proceedings of National Forum IV, Council of Organizations Serving the Deaf (Atlantic City, New Jersey, March 3-5, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin, Ed.

    Medical aspects of deafness discussed are physicians, prevention, diagnosis, and habilitation. In speeches on physicians, Louis Z. Cooper expresses need for services for deaf victims of the 1964 rubella epidemic; Jerald M. Jordan discusses the doctor-deaf patient relationship; and Hilde S. Schlesinger critically views prevention, diagnosis, and…

  12. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 2. Equipment, Safe Driving Practices, Legal Aspects, Controlling the Situation, Action Evaluation Conference. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual, the second in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains five sections that cover the following course content: ambulance equipment, safe driving practices for emergency vehicle drivers, legal aspects of the EMT's job, how to maintain control at an accident scene…

  13. Image Processing Occupancy Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-14

    The Image Processing Occupancy Sensor, or IPOS, is a novel sensor technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The sensor is based on low-cost embedded microprocessors widely used by the smartphone industry and leverages mature open-source computer vision software libraries. Compared to traditional passive infrared and ultrasonic-based motion sensors currently used for occupancy detection, IPOS has shown the potential for improved accuracy and a richer set of feedback signals for occupant-optimized lighting, daylighting, temperature setback, ventilation control, and other occupancy and location-based uses. Unlike traditional passive infrared (PIR) or ultrasonic occupancy sensors, which infer occupancy based only on motion, IPOS uses digital image-based analysis to detect and classify various aspects of occupancy, including the presence of occupants regardless of motion, their number, location, and activity levels of occupants, as well as the illuminance properties of the monitored space. The IPOS software leverages the recent availability of low-cost embedded computing platforms, computer vision software libraries, and camera elements.

  14. Limited Career Pathways: Occupational Challenges for Women and Girls in the Medical Field. Executive Summary. Research Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Suzanne; Pritchard, Alice

    A 2-year investigation was conducted of Connecticut's high school medical careers programs and the career opportunities available to students, particularly females, who have graduated from them. Research conducted in two phases in four communities involved the following activities: site visits of high school medical careers programs and student…

  15. Evaluation of the occupational X-rays dose of the medical staff in a cardiac catheterization laboratory using an acrylic phantom and semiconductor dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lung Fa; Kittipayak, Samrit; Yen, Shan Lin; Pan, Lung Kwang; Lin, Cheng Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The occupational X-rays doses of medical staff in a cardiac catheterization laboratory were evaluated. Four customized acrylic phantoms were used to simulate a patient, medical doctor, assistant, and radiologist to evaluate the in-situ X-rays exposure dose using semiconductor dosimeters. The exposure dose was measured under three scenarios that were preset to imply: no shielding, moderate shielding and complete shielding for the medical staff in the laboratory. The doses were applied by changing the dose area product (DAP) from 11,000 to 500,000mGy·cm(2) in 14 increments. The estimated annual occupational doses for doctors, assistants and radiologists in scenarios I, II, and III were: I) 35.03, 7.78, 1.95; II) 1.95, 0.78, 0.06; and III) 0.19, 0.10, 0.05cSv, respectively. The derived linear regression line of the exposure dose with respect to the DAP were extrapolated to obtain the minimum detectable level (MDL) of DAP for triggering the staff dosimeters. Accordingly, the minimum annual dose was estimated as 0.05cSv. Additional shielding provided measurable protection to the staff. The protective clothing used in scenarios II and III can reduce the original dose from scenario I to ∼3% (scenario II) and ∼0.5% (scenario III). The annual occupational dose also changed with the various X-rays energy settings. The annual dose increased to 126% when the preset X-rays energy was changed from 70 to 100kVp. The semiconductor dosimeter proved to be an adequate tool for measuring low doses and low dose rates under these circumstances. The dose can be reduce of I) 35.03, 7.78, 1.95; to II) 1.95, 0.78, 0.06 (∼3%); or III) 0.19, 0.10, 0.05 (∼0.5%)cSv, respectively according to different protective scenarios.

  16. [Occupational morbidity of railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed.

  17. French good practice guidelines for medical and occupational surveillance of the low back pain risk among workers exposed to manual handling of loads.

    PubMed

    Petit, Audrey; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Rousseau, Sandrine; Mairiaux, Philippe; Roquelaure, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical practice guidelines related to the assessment and management of low back pain (LBP) have been published with varied scopes and methods. This paper summarises the first French occupational guidelines for management of work-related LBP (October 2013). There main originality is to treat all the three stages of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of work-related LBP. The guidelines were written by a multidisciplinary working group of 24 experts, according to the Clinical Practice Guidelines method proposed by French National Health Authority, and reviewed by a multidisciplinary peer review committee of 50 experts. Recommendations were based on a large systematic review of the literature carried out from 1990 to 2012 and rated as strong (Level A), moderate (B), limited (C) or based on expert consensus (D) according to their level of evidence. It is recommended to deliver reassuring and consistent information concerning LBP prognosis (Level B); to perform a clinical examination looking for medical signs of severity related to LBP (Level A), encourage continuation or resumption of physical activity (Level A), identify any changes in working conditions and evaluate the occupational impact of LBP (Level D). In case of persistent/recurrent LBP, assess prognostic factors likely to influence progression to chronic LBP, prolonged disability and delayed return to work (Level A). In case of prolonged/repeated sick leave, evaluate the pain, functional disability and their impact and main risk factors for prolonged work disability (Level A), promote return to work measures and inter professional coordination (Level D). These good practice guidelines are primarily intended for professionals of occupational health but also for treating physicians and paramedical personnel participating in the management of LBP, workers and employers.

  18. External Practicum-Year Residency Training in Occupational and Environmental Medicine: the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center Program.

    PubMed

    Emmett, E A; Green-McKenzie, J

    2001-05-01

    We describe a competency-based training program that allows physicians employed full-time in occupational and environmental medicine to satisfy the supervised practicum year of training required by the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM). The program is designed for trainees with greater clinical experience than the 1 clinical year required by the ABPM. To date, 25 physicians from clinic-based, academic, corporate, and government employment across most geographic regions of the United States have been admitted into the program. Most completed a master's in public health (MPH) in a distance-learning, on-job, on-campus, or executive program. The practicum-year training has been highly successful, as evidenced by improvements in resident self-assessment of competency, resident satisfaction with the training, faculty evaluation of resident performance, and success rate in the ABPM examination. The program has opened a new pathway for physicians making a mid-career shift to occupational and environmental medicine to obtain high-quality, in-depth education and board certification.

  19. Altered emotional experiences attributed to antipsychotic medications - A potential link with estimated dopamine D2 receptor occupancy.

    PubMed

    Lako, Irene M; Taxis, Katja; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Burger, Huibert; Wiersma, Durk; Slooff, Cees J; Knegtering, Henderikus; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-02-28

    Altered emotional experiences in response to antipsychotics may increase the burden of disease in patients with schizophrenia. In a large cross-sectional study, patients with schizophrenia completed the Subjects Reaction to Antipsychotics questionnaire (SRA) to assess whether they attributed altered emotional experiences (flattened affect or depressive symptoms) to their antipsychotics. Association with antipsychotic D2 receptor affinity and occupancy was examined using logistic regression. We compared antipsychotic-attributed emotional experiences between patients using antipsychotic monotherapy and combination therapy. Of the 1298 included patients, 23% attributed flattened affect to their antipsychotics and 16% attributed depressive symptoms to their antipsychotics, based on the SRA. No differences were observed between antipsychotics in patients on monotherapy. We discuss that within these patients' relatively low dose range, altered emotional experiences did not appear to relate to the level of D2 receptor affinity of antipsychotic monotherapy. Patients using antipsychotic combination therapy (22%) were more likely to attribute depressive symptoms to their antipsychotics than patients using antipsychotic monotherapy (OR [95%CI]=1.443 [1.033-2.015]); possibly due to higher D2 receptor occupancies as estimated by dose equivalents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Recognition of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms and knowledge about some other aspects of ASD among final year medical students in Nigeria, Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bakare, M O; Tunde-Ayinmode, M F; Adewuya, A O; Bello-Mojeed, M A; Sale, S; James, B O; Yunusa, M A; Obindo, J T; Igwe, M N; Odinka, P C; Okafor, C J; Oshodi, Y O; Okonoda, K M; Munir, K M; Orovwigho, A O

    2015-09-18

    Earlier studies suggest that knowledge about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among healthcare workers in Nigeria is low. This present study assessed the knowledge of Nigerian final year medical students about symptoms of ASD and some other aspects of ASD. This is a cross sectional descriptive study that drew a total of seven hundred and fifty-seven (757) final year medical students from ten (10) randomly selected fully accredited medical schools out of a total of twenty-seven (27) fully accredited medical schools in Nigeria. Sociodemographic and Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) questionnaires were used to assess knowledge of final year medical students about ASD and obtain demographic information. Only few, 218 (28.8 %) of the 757 final year medical students had seen and participated in evaluation and management of at least a child with ASD during their clinical postings in pediatrics and psychiatry. Knowledge and recognition of symptoms of ASD is observed to be better among this group of final year medical students as shown by higher mean scores in the four domains of KCAHW questionnaire. Knowledge about ASD varies across gender and regions. Misconceptions about ASD were also observed among the final year medical students. More focus needs to be given to ASD in the curriculum of Nigerian undergraduate medical students, especially during their psychiatry and pediatric clinical postings.

  1. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) first section.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Futoshi; Taniyama, Yukari; Hwi, Song You; Fujisaki, Takeshi; Kameda, Takashi; Mori, Koji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming widely recognized as an issue for Japanese companies. Corporate responsibility for employees is considered important by various stakeholders, and occupational safety and health is regarded as one of these responsibilities. The present authors examined this issue from the viewpoint of corporate management by analysis of statements found in CSR-related reports. For companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), we searched for CSR-related reports, and titles and contents, based on two established guidelines: the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002 as the international reference and the Environmental Reporting Guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, as the domestic reference. Corporations that published CSR reports were 26.3% (416/1,581) of the total, and large differences were recognized by type of industry. Comparing the numbers of pages for various contents, more concern was shown about the environment than about social activity, indicating the environment to be the main issue of CSR in Japan. In the items included in the guidelines, many matters about occupational accidents were mentioned, but it was found that statements regarding HIV/AIDS, which is not of such strong social concern in Japan, and statements regarding the costs of safety that are difficult to calculate were few. However, statements regarding mental health, which is of high interest socially, were many, even though this issue is not included in the two guidelines used. In revising the guidelines, these matters should be reviewed. In the future, continuance of analysis of CSR-related reports with regard to changes and comparisons with overseas reports will help improve occupational safety and health.

  2. A literature review of medical aspects of post-cold war UN peacekeeping operations: trends, lessons learnt, courses of action and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2016-08-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of 'force protection' and optimising operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will conform to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of medical aspects crucial to UN PKOs. The intent of this article is to report on a review of principal medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKOs. This review was assembled through a comprehensive, grounded, systematic iterative inquiry of open-source articles. This inquiry revealed that the principal medical aspects in post-Cold War UN missions were the following: (1) the changed nature of UN PKOs, (2) new challenges in terms of proximity and distance to medical care, (3) expanded need for preventive medicine and disease contagion prevention and (4) increased propensity for psychological morbidity and need for intervention. Post Cold War, the dramatically changed nature of UN PKOs has resulted in new challenges mainly in terms of medical logistics, preventive medicine and psychiatry. The changed nature of post-Cold War UN PKOs altered the character of medical support most notably regarding (1) a need for emphasis on immediate response proximate to medical events and rapid transport over long distances and traversing barriers to higher levels of care, (2) proactive contagion and hazard identification and prevention and (3) interventions designed to reduce psychological morbidity. Recommendations are offered about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in identified medical aspects of PKOs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  3. [The Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine: a space for the constitution of occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil in the 1940s].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Anna Beatriz de Sá

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine, created in the end of 1944 as a space for consolidating occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil. The Association was founded by the first group of specialists in the field of occupational hygiene and medicine with seat at the facilities of the proper Ministry of Work, Industry and Commerce, where the founders were working. Counting on an initial core group of 35 physicians and five engineers, all of them coming from the Ministry, the main objective of the Association was to study, discuss and promote the issues related to workers' medicine. Among the most relevant activities promoted by the Association were the monthly scientific meetings (with lectures held by invited physicians and physicians and engineers of the Ministry itself), the organization of scientific events and the publication of a specialized periodical. In 1945, only one year after its foundation, the Association passed to make part of the International Bureau of Safety at Work, with seat in Montreal, Canada, and the International Bureau of Work of the International Labor Organization. In December 1945, on occasion of the election of the new board of directors, the Association created the Journal of Workers' Medicine, whose first issue was published in 1946.

  4. Symptom onset in the first 2 years of employment at a wood products plant using diisocyanates: some observations relevant to occupational medical screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Lin; Petsonk, Edward L

    2004-09-01

    Questionnaires are essential tools for medical screening, but their role in monitoring workers at increased risk of occupational asthma (OA) remains indeterminate. Employees who were at a newly established wood products plant without previous exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) completed an initial questionnaire and from one to four follow-up questionnaires during a 2-year period. Onset of symptoms in 132 workers was assessed by exposure groups and modeled using generalized estimating equations. Onset of attacks of dyspnea with wheeze, attacks of dyspnea or cough at rest, and chest tightness were significantly associated with MDI exposure after controlling for age, smoking, and wood dust exposure. Onset of cough on most days was significantly related to smoking and dust. Onset of phlegm production was significantly related to both MDI and dust exposure. Onset of certain symptoms is significantly associated with MDI exposure. Early detection of MDI-associated health effects using a short screening questionnaire appears feasible.

  5. [The role and place of pathology services in ensuring and improving the quality of medical care: Organizational and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, I V

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the legal and organizational issues of the activity of pathology services in improving medical care. It shows the main (diagnostic and medico-organizational) areas of pathology work to improve the quality of medical care.

  6. e-Learning strategies in occupational legal medicine based on problem solving through "CASUS" system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jarreta, B; Monsó, E; Gascón, S; Casalod, Y; Abecia, E; Kolb, S; Reichert, J; Radon, K

    2009-04-01

    The use of online teaching tools facilitate the incorporation of self-learning methods. With a view to encouraging convergence in teaching tools and methods in Occupational Legal Medicine, an initiative was set up within the classes of Legal and Forensic Medicine at Saragossa University, as part of the EU funded NetWoRM project, which has been led since 1999 by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität in Munich (Germany). The interest of medical students in Occupational Legal Medicine has so far been low and in addition different aspects complicate the teaching of Occupational Legal Medicine at medical schools: One reason for the low interest is the limited availability of bedside teaching, one of the students' most favourite and effective way to learn. The reason for that is that most medical schools with occupational departments only have outpatient clinics. "Interesting" patients who be need for educational purposes are therefore only available for a limited part of the day. However, in order to recognize and prevent occupational disorders each medical student and physician needs profound clinical knowledge in Occupational Legal Medicine. This project has proven to be highly efficient in permitting the creation and validation of teaching tools which cover and improve the traditional training of the Occupational Legal Medicine programme imparted in the degree of Medicine.

  7. Federal environmental and occupational toxicology regulations and reporting requirements: a practical approach to what the medical toxicologist needs to know, part 1.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael D; Dell'Aglio, Damon M; Nickle, Richard; Hornsby-Myers, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    Toxicologists are often called upon to assist in environmental, industrial, occupational and public health assessments. Accordingly, medical toxicologists may find it prudent to be aware of applicable federal toxicological regulations and reporting requirements and of the roles of relevant federal agencies. These regulations are numerous, complex, and have evolved and expanded over time, making it difficult for toxicologists to sustain a current knowledge base. This article reviews the pertinent federal toxicological reporting requirements with regard to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA), the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Department of Transportation, and information about the National Response Center. We reference internet-based government resources and offer direct links to applicable websites in an attempt to offer rapid and current sources of practical information. The format of the article is a series of hypothetical scenarios followed by commentary. Discussions of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act are beyond the scope of this paper. For those desiring a more in-depth discussion of the relevant federal environmental laws and statutes and applicable case law, the reader is directed to resources such as the Environmental Law Handbook, the websites of individual laws found at www.epa.gov and the decisions of individual courts of appeal. It is our hope that this article provides not only useful practical information for the practicing toxicologist but also serves as a key reference for medical toxicology core content on environmental laws and

  8. Federal environmental and occupational toxicology regulations and reporting requirements: a practical approach to what the medical toxicologist needs to know, part 2.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael D; Dell'Aglio, Damon M; Nickle, Richard; Hornsby-Myers, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Toxicologists are often called upon to assist in environmental, industrial, occupational and public health assessments. Accordingly, medical toxicologists may find it prudent to be aware of applicable federal toxicological regulations and reporting requirements and of the roles of relevant federal agencies. These regulations are numerous, complex, and have evolved and expanded over time, making it difficult for toxicologists to sustain a current knowledge base. This article reviews the pertinent federal toxicological reporting requirements with regards to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA), the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Department of Transportation, and information about the National Response Center. We reference internet-based government resources and offer direct links to applicable websites in an attempt to offer rapid and current sources of practical information. The format of the article is a series of hypothetical scenarios followed by commentary. Discussions of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act are beyond the scope of this paper. For those desiring a more in depth discussion of the relevant federal environmental laws and statutes, and applicable case law, the reader is directed to resources such as the Environmental Law Handbook, the websites of individual laws found at www.epa.gov and the decisions of individual courts of appeal. It is our hope that this article provides not only useful practical information for the practicing toxicologist, but also serves as a key reference for Medical Toxicology core content on environmental

  9. Medical Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... and sterilize medical instruments. They may have additional responsibilities, such as instructing patients about medication or special ... They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools ...

  10. The social transformation of American medical education: class, status, and party influences on occupational closure, 1902–1919.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Richard M; Miller, Lynn E

    2010-01-01

    Applying Weber's theorizing on action and stratification, this study examines whether the early 20th-century extinction of half of the medical schools in the United States resulted from actions intended to serve class, status, and party interests by achieving social closure. Analyses reveal closure intentions in the school ratings assigned by the American Medical Association, although not in the recommendations in the 1910 Carnegie-sponsored Flexner report. In contrast to claims that schools failed largely because of economic exigencies, analyses indicate that failures were influenced by the AMA's and Flexner's assessments, as well as by state regulatory regimes and school characteristics.

  11. Technical Aspects: Problems of Scale Development, Norms, Item Differences by Sex, and the Rate of Change in Occupational Group Characteristics (Revised February 6, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Charles B.

    The scope of the paper is to review the two major interest inventories, exploring the nuances and complexities of the technical aspects in their development, their item sampling, norming, scoring, reporting of results, and changing patterns of interests in relation to the differential treatment of sexes; and to suggest guidelines to eliminate or…

  12. [Is drug dependence an occupational risk for physicians?].

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, M; Schmidt, R; Loevenich, A; Krahl, A

    1996-10-20

    Physicians are probably a high-risk group for the development of dependency. In addition to the particular demands associated with the profession of medicine, another cause is to be sought in the specific aspects of a doctor's personality. Occupational stress and an inability to develop adequate compensatory mechanisms can lead to burnout and addiction. Over and beyond treatment, rational prophylaxis is urgently required, and this should not fail to include a critical consideration of the self-image of the medical profession.

  13. Occupational exposures to body fluids and behaviors regarding their prevention and post-exposure among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university.

    PubMed

    Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes de; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in "standard precautions" to prevent such exposures.

  14. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES TO BODY FLUIDS AND BEHAVIORS REGARDING THEIR PREVENTION AND POST-EXPOSURE AMONG MEDICAL AND NURSING STUDENTS AT A BRAZILIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY

    PubMed Central

    de Souza-Borges, Fernanda Ribeiro Fagundes; Ribeiro, Larissa Araújo; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the frequencies and characteristics of occupational exposures among medical and nursing students at a Brazilian public university, in addition to their prevention and post-exposure behavior. During the second semester of 2010, a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 253/320 (79.1%) medical students of the clinical course and 149/200 (74.5%) nursing students who were already performing practical activities. Among medical students, 53 (20.9%) suffered 73 injuries, which mainly occurred while performing extra-curricular activities (32.9%), with cutting and piercing objects (56.2%), in the emergency room (39.7%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (54.8%). Among nursing students, 27 (18.1%) suffered 37 injuries, which mainly occurred with hollow needles (67.6%) in the operating room or wards (72.2%), and as a result of lack of technical preparation or distraction (62.1%). Among medical and nursing students, respectively, 96.4% and 48% were dissatisfied with the instructions on previously received exposure prevention; 48% and 18% did not always use personal protective equipment; 67.6% and 16.8% recapped used needles; 49.3% and 35.1% did not bother to find out the source patient's serological results post-exposure; and 1.4% and 18.9% officially reported injuries. In conclusion, this study found high frequencies of exposures among the assessed students, inadequate practices in prevention and post-exposure, and, consequently, the need for training in “standard precautions” to prevent such exposures. PMID:24626419

  15. A Guide for Planning Facilities for Occupational Preparation Programs for Medical X-Ray Technicians. Research 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macconnell, James D.; And Others

    The major purpose of this guide is to develop the necessary information for the writing of educational specifications to house medical x-ray technician programs. The guide is also designed to: (1) assist planners in the formation of creative housing solutions for desired educational programs, (2) prevent important considerations from being…

  16. Use of the Medical Research Council Framework to Develop a Complex Intervention in Pediatric Occupational Therapy: Assessing Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah N.; Bennett, Sheila; Hecimovich, Catherine; Gaines, Robin; DeCola, Cindy; Cairney, John; Russell, Dianne; Molinaro, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom Medical Research Council recommends use of a conceptual framework for designing and testing complex therapeutic interventions. "Partnering for Change" (P4C) is an innovative school-based intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that was developed by an interdisciplinary team who were…

  17. Use of the Medical Research Council Framework to Develop a Complex Intervention in Pediatric Occupational Therapy: Assessing Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah N.; Bennett, Sheila; Hecimovich, Catherine; Gaines, Robin; DeCola, Cindy; Cairney, John; Russell, Dianne; Molinaro, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom Medical Research Council recommends use of a conceptual framework for designing and testing complex therapeutic interventions. "Partnering for Change" (P4C) is an innovative school-based intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that was developed by an interdisciplinary team who were…

  18. United Kingdom: Medical Laboratory Science, Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy. A Study of These Programs and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Programs in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alan M.; Monahan, Thomas J.

    Medical laboratory science, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy programs in the United Kingdom (U.K.) are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students from these programs who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. For each of the programs, attention is directed to the relevant professional bodies, career…

  19. Organization and education in occupational safety and health in Maghreb countries.

    PubMed

    Laraqui, C H; Rahhali, A; Laraqui, O; Mounassif, M; Gharbi, R

    2001-01-01

    The Maghreb consists of five countries of North Africa (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) which are members of a socio-economical community called the Union of Arab Maghreb. This paper discusses the organisation of occupational health, medical protection of workers and training in occupational safety and health in these countries. After a review of socio-economic and demographic data and legislative aspects, we report epidemiological and analytic data specific to each country concerning organisation and training in occupational health. Occupational medicine in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia has progressed but some deficiencies are still observed at several levels. Like countries of the European Union, cooperation between the Maghreb countries in occupational health and safety seems indispensable.

  20. [Good practice in occupational health services: recommendations for prophylactic examinations and medical certifications in persons with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szosland, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes and a significant proportion of unawareness of its risk among the patients indicate the need to include into general prophylactic examinations the standards of medical certification, which would prevent discrimination and ensure public safety. In certifying medical predispositions to work in a person with diabetes mellitus the key issue is to distinguish 2 categories of medical requirements: the higher - related to qualifying workers for jobs demanding psychophysical abilities, which affect the safety of the workers and their environment and the lower - related to qualifying workers for jobs characterized by harmful factors and nuisances, which might have a negative effect on the course of diabetes. The very fact of having diabetes cannot be the reason for the patient being disqualified and the decision on certifying the capacity to perform a particular job should always be based on an individual health assessment of the patient, taking into account the risk of hypoglycemia, metabolic control, the progression and dynamics of chronic complications, as well as the level of health awareness in patients. The objective assessment of the health status of the patient with diabetes involves the judgment of an attending physician, additionally supported by the consultation of a diabetes specialist to ensure that the patient is able to perform properly the job, requiring psychomotor abilities.

  1. Teaching Occupational Health to Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegman, David H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive training program is described that prepares students to identify and prevent occupational disease, emphasizing public health. Content areas include epidemiology and biostatistics, toxicology, industrial hygiene, safety and ergonomics, policy issues, administration, and clinical aspects. (Author/LBH)

  2. Formation and Development of the Pre-Professional Training System of Foreign Medical Applicants in Ukraine (Historical and Educational Aspect)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proskurkina, Iana

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of foreign applicants looking forward to getting education in Ukrainian medical universities makes us find the ways how to improve and make effective the pre-professional training system of foreign medical applicants for further education. The article deals with the issues of the history of formation and development of the…

  3. Formation and Development of the Pre-Professional Training System of Foreign Medical Applicants in Ukraine (Historical and Educational Aspect)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proskurkina, Iana

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of foreign applicants looking forward to getting education in Ukrainian medical universities makes us find the ways how to improve and make effective the pre-professional training system of foreign medical applicants for further education. The article deals with the issues of the history of formation and development of the…

  4. Experience and Consequences on the Deployments of the Medical Services of the German Army in Foreign Countries - Surgical Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-109 41 - 1 Experience and Consequences on the Deployments of the Medical Services of the German Army in Foreign Countries...army medical services lead to new experiences concerning personal, training, preparation, support, equipment and standardisation. The consequences...are not only important for the surgical work but also for anaesthesiology , intensive care, internal medicine and neurology and psychiatry. The

  5. The purpose of occupational medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Raffle, P A

    1975-01-01

    The purposes of occupational medicine are described in terms of its clinical medical, environmental medical, research, and administrative content. Each of these components is essential in different proportions in comprehensive occupational health services for different industries, and can only be satisfactorily provided by occupational physicians and occupational health nurses who are an integral part of their organizations. Two-thirds of the working population in the United Kingdom are without the benefits of occupational medicine. The reorganization of the National Health Service and of local government presents the opportunity to extend occupational health services to many more workers who need them. It is suggested that area health authorities should provide occupational health services for all National Health Service staff and, on an agency basis, for local government and associated services, eventually extending to local industry. Such area health authority based services, merged with the Employment Medical Advisory Service, could conveniently then be part of the National Health Service, as recommended by the British Medical Association, the Society of Occupational Medicine, and the Medical Services Review Committee. PMID:1131336

  6. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Yolanda; Blair, Aaron; Vermeulen, Roel; Cerhan, James R.; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Monnereau, Alain; Nieters, Alexandra; Clavel, Jacqueline; Call, Timothy G.; Maynadié, Marc; Lan, Qing; Clarke, Christina A.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Norman, Aaron D.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Casabonne, Delphine; Cocco, Pierluigi; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) are two subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A number of studies have evaluated associations between risk factors and CLL/SLL risk. However, these associations remain inconsistent or lacked confirmation. This may be due, in part, to the inadequate sample size of CLL/SLL cases. Methods We performed a pooled analysis of 2440 CLL/SLL cases and 15186 controls from 13 case-control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We evaluated associations of medical history, family history, lifestyle, and occupational risk factors with CLL/SLL risk. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We confirmed prior inverse associations with any atopic condition and recreational sun exposure. We also confirmed prior elevated associations with usual adult height, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, living or working on a farm, and family history of any hematological malignancy. Novel associations were identified with hairdresser occupation (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.98) and blood transfusion history (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.94). We also found smoking to have modest protective effect (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.99). All exposures showed evidence of independent effects. Conclusions We have identified or confirmed several independent risk factors for CLL/SLL supporting a role for genetics (through family history), immune function (through allergy and sun), infection (through hepatitis C virus), and height, and other pathways of immune response. Given that CLL/SLL has more than 30 susceptibility loci identified to date, studies evaluating the interaction among genetic and nongenetic factors are warranted. PMID:25174025

  7. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Cocco, Pierluigi; La Vecchia, Carlo; Chang, Ellen T.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Kadin, Marshall E.; Spinelli, John J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Kane, Eleanor V.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Kasten, Carol; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wang, Sophia S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are rare cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Their etiology is poorly understood. Methods A pooled analysis of 324 MF/SS cases and 17217 controls from 14 case–control studies from Europe, North America, and Australia, as part of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) Subtypes Project, was carried out to investigate associations with lifestyle, medical history, family history, and occupational risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found an increased risk of MF/SS associated with body mass index equal to or larger than 30kg/m2 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.40), cigarette smoking for 40 years or more (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.31), eczema (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.73 to 3.29), family history of multiple myeloma (OR = 8.49, 95% CI = 3.31 to 21.80), and occupation as crop and vegetable farmers (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.14 to 4.92), painters (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.94 to 7.07), woodworkers (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.18 to 4.08), and general carpenters (OR = 4.07, 95% CI = 1.54 to 10.75). We also found a reduced risk of MF/SS associated with moderate leisure time physical activity (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.97). Conclusions Our study provided the first detailed analysis of risk factors for MF/SS and further investigation is needed to confirm these findings in prospective data and in other populations. PMID:25174030

  8. A Literature Review-Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 1. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of Diesel Fuel and White Smoke Generated from It

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    protected from breathing the smoke and getting it in eyes , on skin and hair. Medical examinations should be provided to check for lung problems, skin...related hydrocarbons to laboratory animals: blood, lungs, skin, central nervous system, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidney, eye (cataract...the alkanes is absorbed unaltered. Absorption into lymph is greater than directly into portal blood. After application of hexadecane to the skin of

  9. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  10. InterCardioRisk: a novel online tool for estimating doses of ionising radiation to occupationally-exposed medical staff and their associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Moriña, David; Grellier, James; Carnicer, Adela; Pernot, Eileen; Ryckx, Nick; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2016-09-01

    Those working in interventional cardiology and related medical procedures are potentially subject to considerable exposure to x-rays. Two types of tissue of particular concern that may receive considerable doses during such procedures are the lens of the eye and the brain. Ocular radiation exposure results in lens changes that, with time, may progress to partial or total lens opacification (cataracts). In the early stages, such opacities do not result in visual disability; the severity of such changes tends to increase progressively with dose and time until vision is impaired and cataract surgery is required. Scattered radiation doses to the eye lens of an interventional cardiologist in typical working conditions can exceed 34 μGy min(-1) in high-dose fluoroscopy modes and 3 μGy per image during image acquisition (instantaneous rate values) when radiation protection tools are not used. A causal relation between exposure to ionising radiation and increased risk of brain and central nervous system tumours has been shown in a number of studies. Although absorbed doses to the brain in interventional cardiology procedures are lower than those to the eye lens by a factor between 3.40 and 8.08 according to our simulations, doses to both tissues are among the highest occupational radiation doses documented for medical staff whose work involves exposures to x-rays. We present InterCardioRisk, a tool featuring an easy-to-use web interface that provides a general estimation of both cumulated absorbed doses experienced by medical staff exposed in the interventional cardiology setting and their estimated associated health risks. The tool is available at http://intercardiorisk.creal.cat.

  11. Agreement between upper respiratory diagnoses from self-report questionnaires and medical records in an occupational health setting.

    PubMed

    Weakley, Jessica; Webber, Mayris P; Ye, Fen; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Cohen, Hillel W; Hall, Charles B; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J

    2014-10-01

    The Fire Department of the City of New York World Trade Center Health Program (FDNY-WTCHP) monitors and treats WTC-related illnesses through regular physical exams, self-administered health questionnaires and treatment visits, as indicated. We measured positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of self-reported diagnoses of GERD and rhinosinusitis from the health questionnaires in relation to FDNY physician diagnoses from the medical record. Self-reported GERD had PPV and NPV of 54.0% and 95.7%, respectively; for rhinosinusitis, the PPV and NPV were 48.2% and 91.9%. These characteristics improved considerably (PPV 78.0% GERD and PPV 76.5% rhinosinusitis) in a subpopulation receiving medications from the FDNY-WTCHP. The PPV of self-reported diagnoses demonstrates only modest value in predicting physician diagnoses, although high NPVs suggest benefit in ruling out disease. In subgroups selected for their higher disease prevalence, self-reported diagnoses may be considerably more useful. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    PubMed Central

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  13. Occupational diseases: NIOSH instructional module. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bert, J.L.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of the educational module is to familiarize engineering faculty and students with some basic principles underlying the development of occupational diseases. The self-contained instructional module can be studied separately or as a component of an upper-level engineering course. The courses appropriate for the information contained in the work include occupational health and safety courses as well as laboratory design courses. In addition, the instructional module could serve as a suitable addition to a survey course on pollution control. The module contains a qualitative, conceptual model describing the interaction of a worker with an environment containing potentially harmful inputs. Additionally, dose (the amount of the hazardous agent received by the worker) is considered the driving force for the physiological, biochemical, or biomechanical responses. The potential outcomes of the exposure, as well as the roles of the body defense mechanisms and means of elimination of harmful agents, are discussed. Some implications of development of occupational disease as interpreted with the aid of the model include: effect of differences in human susceptibility, aspects of medical intervention and surveillance, and rational approaches to setting of safe standards of occupational exposure.

  14. Burnout and occupational stress in the medical residents of Oncology, Haematology and Radiotherapy: a prevalence and predictors study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Ana; Custódio, Sandra; Savva-Bordalo, Joana; Chacim, Sérgio; Carvalhais, Inês; Lombo, Liliana; Lopes, Heitor; Araújo, António; Gomes, Rui

    2017-06-29

    Burnout is a professional syndrome associated with stress caused by overwork. Our aim was to calculate the prevalence of burnout and stress on medical residents of Oncology, Haematology and Radiotherapy in Portugal, as well as to determine predictors of burnout and stress. An anonymous questionnaire was applied (n = 118). Statistical analysis consisted of a descriptive and inferential analysis. The prevalence of burnout and stress was calculated to be 45.2 and 50%, respectively. The dimensions that generated higher levels of stress were 'dealing with patients' and 'overwork'. Burnout was directly related with stress dimension 'overwork'. The prevalence of burnout in Portuguese oncological residents is high as in other European countries and in the U.S. Therefore, interventional strategies can be designed.

  15. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T

    2015-01-01

    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  16. An Internet-based exercise as a component of an overall training program addressing medical aspects of radiation emergency management.

    PubMed

    Levy, K; Aghababian, R V; Hirsch, E F; Screnci, D; Boshyan, A; Ricks, R C; Samiei, M

    2000-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials continues to increase worldwide in industry, medicine, agriculture, research, electrical power generation, and nuclear weaponry. The risk of terrorism using weapons of mass destruction or simple radiological devices also has increased, leading to heightened concerns. Radiation accidents occur as a consequence of errors in transportation of radionuclides, use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial monitoring and sterilization procedures, and rarely, nuclear power generation. Compared to other industries, a small number of serious radiation accidents have occurred over the last six decades with recent cases in the Republic of Georgia, Peru, Japan, and Thailand. The medical, psychological, and political consequences of such accidents can be considerable. A number of programs designed to train medical responders in the techniques of radiation accident management have been developed and delivered in many countries. The low frequency of serious radiation accidents requires constant re-training, as skills are lost and medical staff turnover occurs. Not all of the training involves drills or exercises in which responders demonstrate learning or communication over the broad spectrum of medical response capabilities. Medical preparedness within the context of a total emergency response program is lacking in many parts of the world, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States. This paper describes an effort to enhance medical preparedness in the context of a total program of international cooperation and conventions facilitated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The paper concludes that novel application of telecommunications technology as part of a training activity in radiation accident preparedness can help address gaps in training in this field in which preparedness is essential but experience and practical field exercises are lacking.

  17. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Kacetl, Jaroslav; Maresova, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas. Aim This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens. Methods The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU) and the US. Results Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. PMID:27499618

  18. Aspects of Spirituality in Medical Doctors and Their Relation to Specific Views of Illness and Dealing with Their Patients' Individual Situation

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Hirdes, Almut Tabea; Baumann, Klaus; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Heusser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We intended to analyse which aspects of spirituality are of relevance for medical doctors in a mostly secular society and how their spiritual/religious attitudes are related to specific views of illness, their dealing with patients' individual situation, and finally physicians' life satisfaction. Data from an anonymous survey enrolling 237 medical doctors from Germany (mean age 45.7 ± 9.6, 58% male, 42% female) indicated that secular forms of spirituality scored highest, while specific religious orientation had the lowest scores. Physicians with a specific specialization in complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) or anthroposophic medicine differed from their conventional counterparts with respect to specific aspects of spirituality; however, the specific views associated with these specialisations were only weakly to moderately correlated with physicians' view on the meaning of illness and how they assume that they would deal with their patients' individual situation. Of interest, the specific aspects of spirituality were negatively correlated with the view of “illness as a meaningless interruption” of life, indicating that physicians with a spiritual attitude would see illness also as a chance for an “individual development” and associated with a “biographical meaning” rather than just a “useless interruption” of life. PMID:23956779

  19. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  20. Occupational Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  1. How are Canadian universities training and supporting undergraduate medical, physiotherapy and occupational therapy students for global health experiences in international low-resource settings?

    PubMed

    Bessette, Jennifer; Camden, Chantal

    2016-12-27

    Canadian medical (MD), physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) students increasingly show an interest in global health experiences (GHEs). As certain moral hazards can occur as a result of student GHEs, a growing consensus exists that universities must have an established selection process, in-depth pre-departure training (PDT), adequate onsite supervision and formal debriefing for their students. This study aimed to identify current practices in Canadian MD, PT and OT programs and discuss areas for improvement by comparing them with recommendations found in the literature. Canadian MD, PT and OT programs (n = 45) were invited to answer an online survey about their current practices for GHE support and training. The survey included 24 close-ended questions and 18 open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and a thematic analysis were performed on the data and results were discussed in comparison with recommendations found in the literature. Twenty-three programs responded to the survey. Student selection processes varied across universities; examples included using academic performance, interviews and motivation letters. All but one MD program had mandatory PDT; content and teaching formats varied, as did training duration (2-38 hours). All but one MD program had onsite supervision; local clinicians were frequently involved. Debriefing, although not systematic, covered similar content; debriefing was variable in duration (1-8 hours). Many current practices are encouraging, but areas for improvement exist. Integrating global health content into the regular curriculum, with advanced study options for students participating in GHEs, could help universities standardize support and training.

  2. Virtual patients for assessing medical students--important aspects when considering the introduction of a new assessment format.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Uta-Maria; Gulich, Markus Sebastian; Zeitler, Hans-Peter

    2008-02-01

    A case-based online assessment tool has been accomplished at the University of Ulm by simulating consultations with virtual patients in General Practice setting. After a successful pilot study, more data on validity were needed as one important step when considering introducing this assessment format to replace the regular written course exam. Five distinct sources of validity evidence are addressed: content, response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. An examination simulation was conducted including all students (147) of the General Practice course, scores of three virtual patient cases compared with the written course exam and data gathered regarding usability, acceptance, content and structural characteristics, and consequences. All five aspects were supported by collected data. Correlation to the written exam was moderate with r = 0.36, correlation between the cases higher with r = 0.50-0.56. Although a direct comparison of written course exams and dealing with virtual patients is difficult in many aspects and the study setting as an exam simulation caused confounders, this new assessment format is supported by many aspects of validity evidence. Solving virtual clinical scenarios addresses other abilities, skills and knowledge than traditional written exams and since "assessment drives learning" it could have positive implications on teaching and learning alike.

  3. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  4. Factors influencing medical informatics examination grade--can biorhythm, astrological sign, seasonal aspect, or bad statistics predict outcome?

    PubMed

    Petrovecki, Mladen; Rahelić, Dario; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Jelec, Vjekoslav

    2003-02-01

    To investigate whether and to what extent various parameters, such as individual characteristics, computer habits, situational factors, and pseudoscientific variables, influence Medical Informatics examination grade, and how inadequate statistical analysis can lead to wrong conclusions. The study included a total of 382 second-year undergraduate students at the Rijeka University School of Medicine in the period from 1996/97 to 2000/01 academic year. After passing the Medical Informatics exam, students filled out an anonymous questionnaire about their attitude toward learning medical informatics. They were asked to grade the course organization and curriculum content, and provide their date of birth; sex; study year; high school grades; Medical Informatics examination grade, type, and term; and describe their computer habits. From these data, we determined their zodiac signs and biorhythm. Data were compared by the use of t-test, one-way ANOVA with Tukey's honest significance difference test, and randomized complete block design ANOVA. Out of 21 variables analyzed, only 10 correlated with the average grade. Students taking Medical Informatics examination in the 1998/99 academic year earned lower average grade than any other generation. Significantly higher Medical Informatics exam grade was earned by students who finished a grammar high school; owned and regularly used a computer, Internet, and e-mail (p< or =0.002 for all items); passed an oral exam without taking a written test (p=0.004), or did not repeat the exam (p<0.001). Better high-school students and students with better grades from high-school informatics course also scored significantly better (p=0.032 and p<0.001, respectively). Grade in high-school mathematics, student's sex, and time of year when the examination was taken were not related to the grade, and neither were pseudoscientific parameters, such as student zodiac sign, zodiac sign quality, or biorhythm cycles, except when intentionally

  5. Current needs for comprehensive occupational health services support for employers.

    PubMed

    Lednar, W M

    1994-04-01

    The most valuable resource for most employers is their personnel. Maintaining the health and effective work performance of employee groups is enhanced by a strong and well-delivered occupational health program. Employers' needs in this area include access to urgent care services for on-plant medical problems that occur, regulatory compliance assistance, and medical specialty consultation to identify the contribution of workplace exposures to employee health. This article identifies aspects of each wherein community ambulatory care facilities may assist employers to optimize the health of their work force, provide important and cost-effective medical services, and ensure compliance with legal and regulatory health obligations. The enhancing functions of both high-quality medical care for individuals and the use of population-directed medical programming and diagnosis using epidemiology are illustrated.

  6. [Certified occupational physician system of Japan Society for Occupational Health].

    PubMed

    Ogami, Akira; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Certified Occupational Physician System (COPS) of Japan Society for Occupational Health has been in existence for 21 years, since 1992. UOEH has supported this system as a secretary general. In this report, we review the 2012 revision of COPS. With the new title of Certified Associate Occupational Physician (CAOP), this revision was established to produce well-educated and experienced occupational physicians. The title of COP is not competitive but independent to other titles such as occupational physician, medical advisor in industrial health or industrial health consultant. In addition, the aim of COPS is not the replacement to these existing systems. Furthermore, the COP should be active in industrial and occupational health, and should cooperate with existing systems through the sharing of experience and knowledge.

  7. [Occupationally mediated morbidity in aviation specialists].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, S K; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Zinkin, V N; Swidowyĭ, V I; Palishkina, E E

    2010-01-01

    General hygienic evaluation covered workplaces of aviation engineers and technicians and showed that work conditions of these occupations are characterized mainly by exposure to noise and infrasound, that are assigned to hazardous (3.4) and jeopardized (4) classes. Analysis of periodic medical examinations results helped to justify evidence based occupational and occupationally mediated diseases.

  8. Oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture. A critical evaluation of the various methods clarifies positive and negative aspects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Besides oxygen, several other gases such as NO, CO, H2, H2S, Xe and O3 have come to age over the past few years. With regards to O3, its mechanisms of action in medicine have been clarified during the last two decades so that now a comprehensive framework for understanding and recommending ozone therapy in various pathologies is available. O3 used within the determined therapeutic window is absolutely safe and more effective than golden standard medications in numerous pathologies, like vascular diseases. However, ozone therapy is mostly in practitioners' hands and some recent developments for increasing cost effectiveness and speed of treatment are neither standardized, nor evaluated toxicologically. Hence, the aim of this article is to emphasize the need to objectively assess the pros and cons of oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture in the hope that ozone therapy will be accepted by orthodox medicine in the near future. PMID:22146387

  9. [The diagnosis of brain death: medical and legal aspects with special reference to the German Transplantation Law (TPG)].

    PubMed

    Haupt, W F; Höfling, W

    2002-11-01

    The diagnosis of brain death following total and irreversible cessation of all cerebral functions is based on anthropological assumptions and conventions as well as on the exact medical diagnosis of total loss of brain function. The question whether individual life ends after cerebral function is irreversibly lost cannot be answered by medical definition alone. Clear and unrefutable legal definitions of death and the cessation of the rights of the individual must be provided before organs may be harvested from brain dead individuals. Acceptance of these definitions by the general population is of paramount importance for the practice of organ donation. In the first part of this article, the legal definition of death and the provisions of the German transplantation law are critically reviewed. The legal statements deal with the question of the definition of death and how death can be detected. The provisions of the German transplantation law are referenced with special attention to the provision of prior consent to the removal of organs following after the diagnosis of brain death. The provisions of the German constitution with respect to the preservation of the personal rights of the individual are discussed in the light of organ harvesting. The second part deals with the medical procedure of determining brain death in adults. The medical statements pertain to the diagnostic steps to be taken in the diagnosis and determination of brain death. The prerequisites for entering the diagnostic procedure to determine brain death are described. The clinical signs of total and irreversible cessation of brain function are listed, and the technical examinations to corroborate the clinical signs of brain death as accepted in Germany are delineated. In the perspective of the authors, individuals having suffered brain death still possess the protection of their personal human rights according to the German constitution since it cannot be conclusively demonstrated that total loss

  10. [Medical and legal aspects of inability to participate in legal proceedings and the execution of imprisonment resulting from mental illness].

    PubMed

    Teleśnicki, Stanisław M; Bolechała, Filip

    2004-01-01

    A mental disorder of the criminal can be the cause of reprieving penal conduct or the execution of imprisonment. In the present study the matter of ability to take part in legal proceedings and arrest in preliminary custody were considered. The possibility and propriety of staying in conditions of imprisonment mentally ill persons was also considered. Legal settlements relating to this problem were submitted. We paid attention to medical circumstances in which judicial experts should act in such cases.

  11. Experiences, attitudes and possibilities for improvement concerning the cooperation between occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians and general practitioners in Germany from the perspectives of the medical groups and rehabilitation patients - a protocol for a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne; Stratil, Jan M; Kaluscha, Rainer; Krischak, Gert; Rieger, Monika A

    2017-04-26

    Rehabilitation measures for patients in the working age primarily aim at maintaining employability, restoring fitness for work or timely return to work (RTW). To facilitate RTW after long sick leave in Germany, both rehabilitation physicians' knowledge about the patients' workplace and communication between the rehabilitation physician and the occupational physician need to be improved. This research will record the experiences and attitudes of occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians and general practitioners, as well as of rehabilitation patients, to indicate barriers and possibilities for improvement concerning the intersection between workplace and rehabilitation institution. As a previous literature review has shown, insufficient data on the experiences and attitudes of the stakeholders are available. Therefore, an exploratory qualitative approach was chosen. 8 focus group discussions will be conducted with occupational physicians, rehabilitation physicians, general practitioners and rehabilitation patients (2 focus groups with 6-8 interviewees per category). Qualitative content analysis will be used to evaluate the data, thus describing positive and negative experiences and attitudes, barriers and possibilities for improvement at the intersection of general and occupational medicine and rehabilitation with regard to the workplace. The data from the focus groups will be used to develop a standardised quantitative questionnaire for a survey of the medical groups and rehabilitation patients in a follow-up project. The research will be undertaken with the approval of the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty and University Hospital of Tuebingen. The study participants' consent will be documented in written form. The names of all study participants and all other confidential information data fall under medical confidentiality. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal independent of the nature of the results. Published by the BMJ

  12. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers: An Analysis of the Global TravEpiNet Consortium, 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nomana M; Jentes, Emily S; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H F; LaRocque, Regina C; Ryan, Edward T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage.

  13. [Hazard assessment and occupational safety measures in surgery : Relevant knowledge on occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Darius, S; Meyer, F; Böckelmann, I

    2016-11-01

    Surgeons routinely work in an environment with occupational risks and hazards about which they are often uninformed. Based on the currently available scientific literature this review article describes the various hazards in the operating theater and their effects on personnel, particularly from the surgical perspective. A further aim of this article is to describe the occupational safety measures to reduce the burdens and to maintain the long-term health of personnel. Ultimately, surgeons should be equipped with the necessary knowledge for implementing hazard assessments according to the German Occupational Health and Safety Act. Surgeons are exposed to increased risks and hazards by working in awkward positions with a high risk for musculoskeletal pain and injuries. They are also commonly exposed to inhalational anesthetics, surgical smoke, radiation, noise and infectious agents. Furthermore, the mental and emotional stress associated with these activities is also high. Meaningful occupational safety measures for reduction of burdens are from a technical aspect the installation of effective air extraction systems, measures to reduce exposure to radiation and noise and the use of safer instruments to prevent needle stick injuries. Furthermore, individual occupational safety measures, such as the use of personal protective equipment (e.g. radiation protective clothing and double gloves) must be observed. The consistent implementation and also adherence to these described occupational safety measures and regulations can reduce the burden on operating theater personnel and contribute to maintaining health. Furthermore, periodic preventive healthcare controls and health checks by the company medical officer and individually initiated additional prevention measures can be a sensible augmentation to these safety measures.

  14. Occupational Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurses , and other types of therapists. They may work with patients who have chronic conditions, such as diabetes, or help rehabilitate a patient recovering from hip replacement surgery. Occupational therapists also oversee the work of occupational therapy assistants and aides . <- Summary Work ...

  15. Occupational asthma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to advances in anti-asthma medication, control by medical treatment tends to be emphasized and the search for causative antigens seems to be neglected. Furthermore, we do not have a Japanese guideline for diagnosis and management of OA. This article discusses the current state of OA in Japan. PMID:22872819

  16. Obsessive-compulsive aspects as predictors of poor response to treatments in patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse.

    PubMed

    Curone, M; D'Amico, D; Bussone, G

    2012-05-01

    Patients with chronic migraine (CM) and medication overuse (MO) have a high frequency of psychiatric comorbidity or psychopathological traits, the presence of which may have important implications for the course of the CM and the MO, both for response to treatment and possible relapses. Overuse of symptomatic drugs is regarded as one of the most important risk factor for the transformation of episodic migraine into CM and drug-seeking tendency due to fear of headache in chronic migraine patients shares with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the compulsive quality of the behavior. Aim of this study was to review the clinical history of a sample of CM patients with MO in which an obsessive-compulsive trait was identified, performing a comparison with a sample of patients without obsessive-compulsive trait. We selected 14 patients with positivity to Spectrum Project OBS (obsessive-compulsive disorder) questionnaire and other 14 patients with negativity to the same tool from among a sample of patients who were enrolled in a previous study on the psychopathological profile of patients suffering from CM with MO. According to data obtained from the clinical records referring to the previous 5 years, patients with OBS questionnaire positivity showed a worse clinical course and a tendency to early relapse in MO after symptomatic medication withdrawal. Our results show that the comorbidity of OCD should be always evaluated in patients with CM and MO as it may play a relevant role--particularly if not treated--among the risk factors favoring the progression of episodic migraine to the chronic form, and/or the tendency to a pathological behavior that prompts the overuse of symptomatic medications.

  17. An internet survey on self-reported food allergy in Greece: clinical aspects and lack of appropriate medical consultation.

    PubMed

    Kalogeromitros, D; Makris, M P; Chliva, C; Sergentanis, T N; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Psaltopoulou, T

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy (FA) represents a common and worldwide disorder but in publications referring to FA the reported diagnosis is rarely confirmed. Consequently, the subjectively assessed FA may negatively affect the quality of life of patients and their families. We have conducted this internet survey in order to estimate the self-reported perception of FA in Greece. A standard anonymous questionnaire was posted for a 3-month period on http://www.in.gr, a Greek popular Internet portal. Each individual could participate only once. Participants were screened for the presence or history of FA by a key question and were then asked to provide information on symptoms, course and management. A total of 3673 adult subjects (mean age 34.2 years, range 18-74, females 61.3%), reporting FA were included in analysis. Most reported reactions were related to fruits (14.9%), seafood (10.7%) and nuts (9.2%). The first episode occurred principally during the second (29.2%) and third (30.9%) decade within 3 h from consumption (82.2%). Predominant symptoms were urticaria and oral allergy syndrome (almost 25% each one). Nearly half of the participants sought no medical advice, while 31.4% asked for an allergist's consultation. Almost 21% of reactors were hospitalized; nuts, severity of symptoms (lower respiratory and/or cardiovascular), onset in lower age, previous exercise and concomitant alcohol and/or aspirin intake were positively associated with hospitalization. Although FA causes severe anaphylactic episodes, almost 50% of individuals who experience symptoms perceived as FA do not seek medical advice. Awareness programmes must be carried out in order to increase consciousness about this potentially fatal medical condition. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. [The main conclusions about the medical aspects of air pollution: the projects REVIHAAP and HRAPIE WHO/EC].

    PubMed

    Heroux, M E; Braubach, M; Korol, N; Krzyzanowski, M; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2013-01-01

    For the time present the World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating two major international projects aimed to provide the European Union (EU) with science-based information on health aspects of air pollution for a comprehensive analysis of EU policy in the field of air quality, scheduled for 2013. The information provided is structured in the form of answers to 26 policy-forming key questions, defined by the European Commission (EC). The questions cover the both general aspects that are important for air quality management, and also specific topics related to the health effects of certain air pollutants. Texts of the answers to the questions were provided on requests of large group of invited experts from leading specialized institutions around the world. First stages of the overview of existing data have shown that in recent years there has been published a significant amount of information proving adverse health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in an amount, which typically occurs in the air in Europe. These new data confirm the findings reported in renewed in 2005 WHO Guidelines for Air Quality (GAQ), and show that the negative health effects in some cases may take place at concentrations of aeropollutants in the air below mentioned in the GAQ in 2005. In the review there are presented the scientific arguments in favor of adoption of strong measures to improvement air quality and reduction of the burden of diseases associated with air pollution in Europe. The conclusions formulated within a framework of these projects, are equally referred to all Member States and can become a basis for the development and implementation of effective strategies to reduce air pollution and reduction of its negative impact on the health of the population.

  19. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Mantle Cell Lymphoma: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Slager, Susan L.; Maynadié, Marc; Roman, Eve; Habermann, Thomas M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bracci, Paige M.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a distinctive subtype accounting for 2%–10% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is not known. Methods We investigated associations with self-reported medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in a pooled analysis of 557 patients with MCL and 13766 controls from 13 case–control studies in Europe, North America, and Australia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with each exposure were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. Results The median age of the MCL patients was 62 years and 76% were men. Risk of MCL was inversely associated with history of hay fever (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.82), and the association was independent of other atopic diseases and allergies. A hematological malignancy among first-degree relatives was associated with a twofold increased risk of MCL (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.39 to 2.84), which was stronger in men (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.38) than women (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 0.82 to 3.19). A modestly increased risk of MCL was also observed in association with ever having lived on a farm (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.90). Unlike some other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, MCL risk was not statistically significantly associated with autoimmune disorders, tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, or ultraviolet radiation. Conclusions The novel observations of a possible role for atopy and allergy and farm life in risk of MCL, together with confirmatory evidence of a familial link, suggest a multifactorial etiology of immune-related environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility. These findings provide guidance for future research in MCL etiology. PMID:25174028

  20. HIV medical providers’ perceptions of the use of antiretroviral therapy as non-occupational post- exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) in two major metropolitan areas

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Allan; Castel, Amanda D.; Parish, Carrigan L.; Willis, Sarah; Feaster, Daniel J.; Kharfen, Michael; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Villamizar, Kira; Kolber, Michael; Vázquez-Rivera, Liliana; Metsch, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    Intro In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded its recommendation of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) use in the workplace to include non-occupational exposures (nPEP). The availability and extensive use of nPEP has not achieved widespread acceptance among health care providers of high-risk populations, and public health and primary care agencies have been sparse in their implementation of nPEP promotion, protocols, and practices. Methods We conducted a survey of HIV providers (n=142, response rate = 61%) in Miami-Dade County (Florida) and the District of Columbia (DC) that focused on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices related to the delivery of nPEP. We then analyzed differences in survey responses by site and by history of prescribing nPEP using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results More DC providers (59.7%) reported ever prescribing nPEP than in Miami (39.5%%, p < 0.048). The majority of practices in both cities did not have a written nPEP protocol and rarely or never had patients request nPEP. Multivariable analysis for history of prescribing nPEP was dominated by having patients request nPEP (OR = 21.53) and the belief that nPEP would lead to antiretroviral resistance (OR = 0.14), as well as having an nPEP written protocol (OR = 7.49). Discussion Our findings are consistent with earlier studies showing the underuse of nPEP as a prevention strategy. The significance of having an nPEP written protocol and of patient requests for nPEP speaks to the importance of using targeted strategies to promote widespread awareness of the use of HIV antiretroviral medications as a prevention intervention. PMID:24126450

  1. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma/Leukemia: The Interlymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chang, Ellen T.; Costas, Laura; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kelly, Jennifer; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Cozen, Wendy; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Slager, Susan L.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiologic role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors in sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown, but epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that risk factors may vary by age. Methods We investigated risk factors for sporadic BL in 295 cases compared with 21818 controls in a pooled analysis of 18 case–control studies in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Cases were defined to include typical BL or Burkitt-like lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations were calculated separately for younger (<50 years) and older (≥50 years) BL using multivariate logistic regression. Results Cases included 133 younger BL and 159 older BL (age was missing for three cases) and they were evenly split between typical BL (n = 147) and Burkitt-like lymphoma (n = 148). BL in younger participants was inversely associated with a history of allergy (OR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.05), and positively associated with a history of eczema among individuals without other atopic conditions (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.20 to 5.40), taller height (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.36), and employment as a cleaner (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.13 to 10.7). BL in older participants was associated with a history of hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 4.19; 95% CI = 1.05 to 16.6) based on three exposed cases. Regardless of age, BL was inversely associated with alcohol consumption and positively associated with height. Conclusions Our data suggest that BL in younger and older adults may be etiologically distinct. PMID:25174031

  2. Aspects of informed consent in medical practice in the eastern Mediterranean region during the 17th and 18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Platon; Falagas, Matthew E; Gourzis, Philippos; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2007-08-01

    Informed consent is a question of central importance in contemporary medical ethics, and clinical practice is inconceivable without considering the issues it raises. Although it is often vigorously argued that consent, informed or otherwise, is a recent phenomenon and that no sources testify to its existence before the 20th century, it is difficult to accept that a process for regulating the common and fundamental parameters in the relationship between doctor and patient and the planning of treatment had not concerned previous eras. A review of the Registers of the Islamic Court of Candia (Heraklion) in Crete, a series of records that touches on, among other things, matters of medical interest, reveals that the concept of informed consent was not only known during a period that stretched from the mid-17th to the early 19th century, but it was concerned with the same principles that prevail or have been a point of contention today. An extension of this study into other periods may thus provide contemporary researchers with material and information valuable in the discussion of today's bioethical issues.

  3. Occupational health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bedrikow, B; Algranti, E; Buschinelli, J T; Morrone, L C

    1997-01-01

    Brazil is a recently industrialised country with marked contrasts in social and economic development. The availability of public/private services in its different regions also varies. Health indicators follow these trends. Occupational health is a vast new field, as in other developing countries. Occupational medicine is a required subject in graduation courses for physicians. Specialisation courses for university graduated professionals have more than 700 hours of lectures and train occupational health physicians, safety engineers and nursing staff. At the technical level, there are courses with up to 1300 hours for the training of safety inspectors. Until 1986 about 19,000 occupational health physicians, 18,000 safety engineers and 51,000 safety inspectors had been officially registered. Although in its infancy, postgraduation has attracted professionals at university level, through residence programmes as well as masters and doctors degrees, whereby at least a hundred good-quality research studies have been produced so far. Occupational health activities are controlled by law. Undertakings with higher risks and larger number of employees are required to hire specialised technical staff. In 1995 the Ministry of Labour demanded programmes of medical control of occupational health (PCMSO) for every worker as well as a programme of prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA). This was considered as a positive measure for the improvement of working conditions and health at work. Physicians specialising in occupational medicine are the professionals more often hired by the enterprises. Reference centres (CRSTs) for workers' health are connected to the State or City Health Secretariat primary health care units. They exist in more populated areas and are accepted by workers as the best way to accomplish the diagnosis of occupational diseases. There is important participation by the trade unions in the management of these reference centres. For 30 years now employers

  4. Eugenic sterilization: a discussion of certain legal, medical, and moral aspects of present practices in our public mental institutions.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, M

    1961-03-18

    Eugenic sterilization is defined as sterilization of a person who is either mentally ill or mentally defective and will either severely handicap any future offspring through heredity or is unable to properly care for a child. When an institutionalized mentally disordered person of reproductive age reaches a stage when he is able to return to the community, 3 possibilities arise: 1) eugenic surgical sterilization; 2) eugenic institutional sterilization, where the patient is effectively sterilized by being kept in the institution; and 3) discharge without eugenic sterilization. 3 cases of patients discharged without sterilization are presented. A review of the law of eugenic surgical sterilization reveals that 22 states have laws that permit compulsory eugenic sterilization without patient consent. Even though a state does not specifically authorize eugenic sterilization, it does not mean that such a procedure cannot be done legally. However, fewer and fewer eugenic sterilizations are being performed. Decisions relating to sterilization more often are made by medical men than by judges. Medically, the Committee of the American Neurological Association for the Investigation of Eugenical Sterilization, in a report made 25 years ago, condemned on both medical and philosophical grounds widespread eugenic surgical sterilizations except in certain cases. Morally, the author believes that patients and physicians are incapable of acting as moral beings in dealing with the question of eugenic sterilization because of 1) lack of proper facilities to allow freedom of choice, and 2) lack of knowledge of available relevant facts. With respect to the 3 alternatives for dealing with mental patients who are capable of reproducing, the author asks: Is it morally just to sterilize a person without first offering adequate treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up that a well-equipped institution could offer? Is it just to incarcerate a patient without offering the personnel and

  5. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  6. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  7. Exertion-induced heat exhaustion and other medical aspects of the City-to-Surf fun runs, 1978-1984.

    PubMed

    Richards, R; Richards, D

    During the years 1978 to 1984, only 197 (0.14%) of 144 950 starters in a 14-km road race had suffered from heat exhaustion; of these, only three (1.5%) required admission to hospital. The effectiveness of treatment in medical centres was indicated by the fact that the mean time taken for the body temperature to fall to 38 degrees C was 31 +/- 12 minutes in all heat-exhaustion casualties, and 49 +/- 14 minutes in 41 subjects who had rectal temperatures of 42 degrees C and higher. When disaster teams from metropolitan hospitals were introduced in 1983, it became apparent that skilled staff members, despite their lack of experience in the resuscitation of combative heat casualties, could carry out the established procedures and protocols effectively and efficiently.

  8. Some aspects of a medical anthropology: pathic existence and causality in Viktor von Weizsäcker.

    PubMed

    Wiedebach, Hartwig

    2009-09-01

    'Life is not only an "event" that happens--but also something that is suffered'; this is the core principle of what Viktor von Weizsäcker (1886-1957), the German physician and founder of a 'Medical Anthropology', called the 'pathic' dimension. The personal voice of the human being himself becomes a constitutive principle within the medium of science. Concepts of cause and effect are no longer applicable in the customary functional sense of aetiology. Even the intellect or spirit (Geist) can no longer be regarded as unscathed. In order to handle pathic 'causality' Weizsäcker introduced his 'pathic pentagram'. The interplay of five modalities--must / may / want / should / can--creates a ground or reason of psychological and/or somatic explanation. Necessity and freedom of a person appear interwoven in a constitutive manner.

  9. ["Is there a doctor on board?" - legal aspects of medical care in emergency situations during spare time].

    PubMed

    Lindner, Christina; Lindner, Gregor; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2013-12-11

    Medical emergencies on international flights are not uncommon. In these situations the question often arises whether physicians are obliged to render first aid and whether omission leads to legal consequences. The general obligation to aid those in need applies to everyone, not only to physicians. Evading this duty makes liable to prosecution for omittance of defence of a third person in line with Art. 128 of the Swiss Penal Code, punishable by custodial sentence up to three years or an equivalent punitive fine. Vocational and professional law extend the duty to aid for physicians to urgent cases. Although resulting from the performance of a legal obligation, malpractice occurred in the course of first aid can lead to claims for compensation - even from foreign patients, and that according to their own domestic law.

  10. [Medical and psychological aspects of the treatment of connatal dacryostenosis : Parental evaluation of their own and their child's stress].

    PubMed

    Heichel, J; Bachner, F; Hübner, G; Struck, H-G; Bredehorn-Mayr, T

    2016-06-01

    Lacrimal probing and syringing for connatal dacryostenosis can be performed under local (LA) and general anesthesia (GA). In cases of invasive medical procedures, pain and anxiety can be distressing for children and their parents. Using questionnaires (n = 65), parents were asked to evaluate their own stress and that of their child during lacrimal probing and syringing. Analyzing different subgroups, the impact of the kind of anesthesia (LA vs. GA), trust in medical treatment, therapeutic success, prior experiences with GA, parental educational level, age of parents and children, number of children, and time between the intervention and the interview on the stress was examined. Stress level was evaluated on a scale from 1 (no stress) to 10 (maximal stress). Mean children's age was 8.5 ± 7.42 months. Mean age of the parents was 30.8 ± 6.17 years. Treating children under LA, parents reported moderate to severe stress levels for themselves (mean, M = 7.15) and for their children (M = 7.82). Children's stress levels were significantly higher when the treatment was performed under LA (n = 47; M = 7.34) in comparison to GA (n = 18; M = 6.06; p < 0.05). Parents having two or more children reported significantly lower stress levels than those with only one child. Furthermore, prior experiences with GA led to significantly higher parental stress levels when their children were treated under GA. Other factors did not show any impact on parent's and children's stress levels. Parents might have been influenced by hearing the children's reaction (e. g., crying) during the intervention under LA. Nevertheless, parents had a higher acceptance of this type of intervention (LA) in comparison to GA. This effect was even stronger among parents with prior experience of GA.

  11. Functional aspects of the use of plants and animals in local medical systems and their implications for resilience.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, André L B; Lozano, Alejandro; Melo, Joabe G; Alves, Rômulo R N; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-12-24

    This study sought to understand the role of plants and animals in traditional medical systems and evaluate the capacity of these systems to absorb impacts and maintain their identity by determining the existence of functional substitutes. Ethnobiological data were collected through semi-structured interviews and free lists at a rural community in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The data were subjected to the utilitarian redundancy model and analyzed by tests of proportion and variance. We found that most of the therapeutic targets treated with animal-based remedies were also treatable by plant-based remedies; these targets were perceived as very usual, although they were not considered dangerous. Furthermore, people considered the plants and animals to be equally effective at curing overlapping therapeutic targets, but the plant remedies were used more frequently. The findings show that local knowledge about medicinal plants and animals follows similar patterns regarding the utilitarian redundancy, with high functional overlap among these features. However, the ease of access to the medicinal resource influences the choice of treatment, leading to an increased preference for plants over animals. In addition, we suggest that during the cultural evolution process, people concentrated their efforts on experimenting with different resources for the treatment of diseases that were very frequent locally, even if not very severe, which contributed to the resilience of the local medical system. Furthermore, we infer that plants may effectively perform the function of healing, whereas animals act as reserves of resilience for the system, maintaining system function in the face of disturbances that may affect the availability of plant species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. c-Met expression and activity in urogenital cancers - novel aspects of signal transduction and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Hass, Ralf; Jennek, Susanne; Yang, Yuanyuan; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2017-02-17

    C-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase with multiple functions throughout embryonic development, organogenesis and wound healing and is expressed in various epithelia. The ligand of c-Met is Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) which is secreted among others by mesenchymal stroma/stem (MSC) cells.Physiological c-Met functions are centred around processes that underly cellular motility and invasive growth. Aberrant c-Met expression and activity is observed in numerous cancers and makes major contributions to cell malignancy. Importantly, HGF/c-Met signaling is crucial in the context of communication between cancer cells and the the tumor stroma.Here, we review recent findings on roles of dysregulated c-Met in urogenital tumors such as cancers of the urinary bladder, prostate, and ovary. We put emphasis on novel aspects of cancer-associated c-Met expression regulation on both, HGF-dependent and HGF-independent non-canonical mechanisms. Moreover, this review focusses on c-Met-triggered signalling with potential relevance for urogenital oncogenesis, and on strategies to specifically inhibit c-Met activity.

  13. Practical aspects of change management at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic at the University Hospital of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Sobkowski, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes to the Polish healthcare system have forced healthcare managers and administrators to implement modern instruments for strategic and operations management. The main aim of the study was to analyze the effect of managerial decisions in the area of human resources, resulting from the adopted restructuring program, on the economic situation of the OGCH, PUMS. The research material comprised of secondary sources on finance, accounting and human resources data: financial statements, analysis of costs incurred by individual hospital departments, reports on the implementation of NHF contracts for providing health services and on hospital workforce at the time of the study, as well as the results of patient satisfaction survey at the OGCH, PUMS. After implementation of the restructuring program all clinics apart from one - Surgical Gynecology Clinic - reached better beds occupancy rates in 2012 as compared to 2009, as well as significantly improved profit/per hospital bed. Over the course of three years, since the launch of the hospital restructuring program, a significant (20%) increase in the revenues from selling healthcare services and a simultaneous decrease (2%) of the operating cost was observed. Inclusion of department heads into the decision making processes of managerial accounting seems to be necessary to improve the overall financial condition of a hospital. However, it requires a more flexible hospital structure, what can be achieved by implementing a divisional organizational structure, which grants individual organizational units a certain autonomy in the process of making medical-financial decisions.

  14. Health Occupations Cluster. Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Bruce; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in secondary health occupations education programs in Georgia. It provides a model for organizing vocational instructional content in health occupations, such as nurse, dental assistant, medical lab technician, radiologic technician, emergency medical technician, respiratory therapy assistant, medical…

  15. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  16. Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... from becoming larger and causing more serious problems. Antiplatelets are medications that stop blood particles called platelets ... an angioplasty procedure. Aspirin is one type of antiplatelet medicine. (See "Aspirin: Take With Caution" ) Beta blockers ...

  17. Embracing the Sparse, Noisy, and Interrelated Aspects of Patient Demographics for use in Clinical Medical Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Stephen M.; Ip-Lin, King

    2015-01-01

    Duplicate patient records in health information systems have received increased attention in recent time due to regulatory incentives to integrate the healthcare enterprise. Historically, most patient record matching systems have been limited to simple applications of the Fellegi-Sunter theory of record linkage with edit distance based string similarity measurements. String similarity approaches ignore the rich semantic information present by reducing it to a simple syntactic comparison of characters. This work describes an updated approach to building clinical medical record linkage systems, which embraces the unavoidable problems present in real-world patient matching. Using a ground truth dataset of a real patient population, we demonstrate that systems built in this fashion improve recall by 76% with little reduction in precision. This result empirically demonstrates the size of the gap between sophisticated systems and naïve approaches. Additionally, it accentuates the difficulty in estimating the false negative error in this setting as previous research has reported much higher levels of recall, due, in part, to measuring from biased samples. PMID:26306279

  18. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  19. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  20. Instructional Analysis for Health Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This instructional analysis centers on identifying the skills, related knowledge, teacher activities, and student activities that are central to teaching various topics included in the core curriculum for health occupations courses. Addressed in the volume are the following instructional areas: first aid; medical terminology; medical asepsis;…