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Sample records for occupationally exposed individuals

  1. Asbestos content in lungs of occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, R.F.; Greenberg, S.D.; Williams, M.G. Jr.; Corn, C.J.; O'Sullivan, M.F.; Hurst, G.A.

    1984-07-06

    Previous reports have indicated that a majority of the population has asbestos bodies within their lungs. These studies generally have been carried out using cohorts from urban environments. The present study compares the asbestos body levels from three unique cohorts: (1) a nonoccupationally exposed group from a large urban environment having a relatively low asbestos content, (2) patients with lung cancer from a nonurban setting, and (3) amosite asbestos workers, who worked and lived in a rural setting. The number of asbestos bodies in both the urban nonoccupationally exposed group and the patients with lung cancer was generally found to be low or below limits of detectability, with the exceptions being those persons in whom an occupational exposure was eventually found. The ferruginous body content of the occupationally exposed group varied considerably between individuals as well as between sites within the same individual.

  2. Uranium in the tissues of an occupationally exposed individual

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.; McInroy, J.F.; Moore, R.H.; Dietert, S.E.

    1989-07-01

    Uranium concentrations were radiochemically determined in samples of lung, kidney, liver and bone collected at autopsy from an occupationally exposed individual. Levels of U in these tissues were clearly in excess of those expected from environmental exposure. Deposition followed the pattern: skeleton greater than liver greater than kidney, with ratios of 63:2.8:1. The data suggest there is an important long-term storage depot in the skeleton, but the fraction transferred to this compartment, as proposed by ICRP 30, may be too small. In vivo chest counts obtained over about a 10-y period prior to death indicated about a factor of 2 greater in total U content and /sup 235/U enrichment than deposition estimates made at autopsy for the lungs and associated lymph nodes.

  3. Occupational diseases in individuals exposed to metal working fluids.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    To examine the current occurrence of respiratory and skin disease in workers who do metal machining with metal working fluids (MWFs), a common work process in manufacturing. A summary of the 27 recognized outbreaks of respiratory disease in workers exposed to MWFs was published. New studies have identified irritative symptoms among workers with low-level exposures. There were review articles discussing the content, measurement and control of microbial agents in MWFs. The occurrence of work-related asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis appears to have diminished in the last 10 years. This is presumed to be secondary to lower air levels from the use of newer machining equipment, which are enclosed and have local ventilation as well as better control of microbial contaminants. However, clinicians need to be aware that at the minimum irritative symptoms of the upper respiratory tract are still being reported at these lower exposure levels and there remains the possibility of the development of asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Given the widespread use of MWFs in manufacturing facilities, clinicians need to consider the possibility that MWFs are the cause or are aggravating the respiratory and dermatologic conditions of their patients.

  4. [Comparison on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations between coke oven workers and non-occupational exposed individuals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Hu, Yun-ping; Zheng, Li-xing; Wang, Qiang-yi; Zhou, Yuan-fen; Jin, Tai-yi

    2005-11-01

    To compare the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations between coke oven workers and non-occupational exposed individuals and to investigate the possible impact factors. Spot end-of-shift urine samples were collected in 265 coke oven workers and spot morning urine samples in 226 non-occupational exposed individuals. External exposure levels and possible confounding factors were assessed by environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) monitoring and uniform questionnaire, and the urinary 1-OHP concentrations determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were used to compare the different urinary 1-OHP levels between different research populations and to explore the effects of several factors such as external exposure levels, smoking habits, alcohol consumptions, age and body mass index (BMI). The urinary 1-OHP concentrations in coke oven workers were significantly higher than those in non-occupational exposed individuals (13.49, 6.56, 1.38 and 0.35 micromol/mol creatinine for topside workers, side-oven workers, bottom side workers and references, respectively, P < 0.001; the same trends for the percentage of the level over 2.3 micromol/mol creatinine: 94.81%, 84.73%, 35.09% and 0.88%, P < 0.001). The control individuals who smoked over 20 cigarettes per day possessed higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than the non-smokers (adjusted geometric mean: 0.47 and 0.31 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively, P < 0.05). Alcohol drinking references possessed lower urinary 1-OHP levels than the non-drinkers (adjusted geometric mean: 0.33 and 0.47 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively, P < 0.05). Coke oven workers should be exposed to a high level of urinary 1-OHP, especially for topside workers and side-oven workers. Background urinary 1-OHP levels in non-occupational exposed individuals should be related to smoking habits and alcohol consumptions.

  5. Telomere measurement in individuals occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures in tobacco fields.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Vívian Francília Silva; Simon, Daniel; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Cátia dos Santos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; da Silva, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], which measures oxidative damage to lipids; and toxic equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], which measures total equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated in serum, and inorganic element content was analyzed in whole blood through particle-induced X-ray emission technique. It was found that exposure to pesticides and tobacco smoking had significant effects on aTL. Individuals occupationally exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in tobacco fields and individuals who smoked had decreased aTL compared with the non-exposed group. TBARS and TEAC were significantly elevated in the exposed group. There were no significant differences in inorganic elements. There was no evidence of an influence of age, gender, consumption of alcoholic beverages, or intake of fruits and vegetables on aTL within the groups. In addition, years of work in the tobacco field in the exposed group did not influence any of the variables analyzed. Although further studies were needed, these results suggested differences in telomere maintenance in tobacco farmers compared with the control group, indicating that telomere length may be a good biomarker of occupational exposure.

  6. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective  This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis  This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion  The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace. PMID:27413413

  7. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2016-07-01

    The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: "Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?" The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  8. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise.

    PubMed

    Kumar, U Ajith; Ameenudin, Syed; Sangamanatha, A V

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13), 41 50 ( = 13), 41-50 (n = 9), and 51-60 (n = 6) years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group). Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  9. Human brucellosis among pyrexia of unknown origin cases and occupationally exposed individuals in Goa Region, India

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ajay D.; Dubal, Zunjar B.; Doijad, Swapnil; Raorane, Abhay; Rodrigues, Savio; Naik, Rajeshwar; Naik-Gaonkar, Shraddha; Kalorey, Dewanand R.; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Naik, Rajesh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic infection. This disease is endemic in many parts of Asia, including India. Brucellosis is a major cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Persons exposed to infected animals or contaminated animal products are at high risk. Seropositivity among animal handlers, veterinarians and dairy workers has been documented in India. Thus, the present study was aimed to determine prevalence of brucellosis among PUO cases and occupationally exposed individuals. Methods In this study, serum samples (n=282) from cases of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) (n=243), and occupationally exposed individuals (n=39) were collected and tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), indirect ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA. Blood culture for isolation of Brucella was performed for 10 serologically positive patients using BACTEC 9050 automated blood culture system. Biochemical tests and PCR techniques were used for confirmation of the isolates. Results Of the samples tested, 4.25%, 3.54%, 6.02% and 4.96% samples were positive by RBPT, SAT, indirect ELISA and IgG ELISA, respectively. None of the sample was positive for IgM ELISA. Of the 10 blood samples cultured bacteriologically, one Brucella isolate was recovered. The isolate was confirmed as Brucella abortus. Amplification of the bcsp31 and IS711 genes was also observed. Conclusion Seropositivity for brucellosis was observed among PUO cases, animal handlers and dairy workers in Goa, India. The serological tests showed variable results. One Brucella isolate was obtained by performing blood culture. Confirmation of the case was done rapidly using molecular tools. General awareness about clinical symptoms should be increased which will improve proper diagnosis within short time frame. PMID:24762925

  10. Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.

    PubMed

    Bhalli, Javed A; Khan, Q M; Haq, M A; Khalid, A M; Nasim, A

    2006-03-01

    Although several cytogenetic biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported, there is only limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of awareness of the potential hazards during manufacturing and application of the pesticides. The present study has assessed the genotoxic effects of pesticides on workers involved in the pesticide manufacturing industry. Subjects in the exposed group (29) were drawn from workers at a pesticide production plant in district Multan (Pakistan). The control group (unexposed) composed of 35 individuals from the same area but was not involved in pesticide production. Liver enzymes, serum cholinesterase (SChE), micronucleus assay and some haematological parameters were used as biomarkers in this study. A statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was detected in exposed workers with respect to the control group. There was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the level of SChE in the exposed group. Exposed individuals exhibited cytogenetic damage with increased frequencies (P < 0.001) of binucleated cells with micronuclei and total number of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes in comparison with subjects of the control group. A decrease (P < 0.001) in cytokinesis block proliferation index similarly demonstrates a genotoxic effect due to pesticide exposure. The results indicate that the pesticide industry workers have experienced significant genotoxic exposure. This study highlights the risk to workers in the pesticide manufacturing industries of developing countries such as Pakistan and the need for implementation of suitable safety measures to prevent/limit exposure to harmful toxins.

  11. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  12. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  13. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  14. Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland: the relationship between tick infection rates and the serological response of individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites.

    PubMed

    Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-06-01

    To explore the potential role of Ixodes ricinus as the presumed vector of Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland, ticks collected in various geographic locations were examined for the presence of B. henselae, and the results were matched against the prevalence of anti-B. henselae antibodies in individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites. The presence of Bartonella DNA was investigated by PCR in a total of 1,603 unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks. The presence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae was investigated in serum samples from 332 people occupationally exposed to tick bites (94 farmers and 238 forestry workers). The total prevalence of B. henselae in ticks was 1.7%; the infection rates in males (3.1%) and females (2.7%) were nearly ten times greater than in nymphs (0.3%). The prevalence of seropositive results in the risk group (30.4%), farmers (27.7%) and forestry workers (31.5%), was significantly greater compared to the control group (8.9%). The results showed a weak positive correlation between the degree of infection of ticks and humans living in the same geographic region. The lack of a direct relationship indicates that exposure to tick bites is only one of the factors contributing to the significant preponderance of a seropositive response to B. henselae in the forestry workers and farmers over the control group. Other factors must be considered, such as contact with cats, which are popular domestic animals in Polish villages, and exposure to cat fleas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. [Evaluating individual occupational risk in teachers].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E G; Ishmukhametov, I B

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyzed work conditions of comprehensive school teachers according to workplace assessment. Additional studies covered opportunistic pathogens content of air in classrooms. Auxiliary medical examination evaluated health state of the teachers. Individual occupational risk was calculated with consideration of actual work conditions and health state. Comprehensive school teacher's work is characterized by constant or transitory influence by complex of occupational and work hazards that are mostly (according to to workplace assessment) increased work intensity, noise and inadequate illumination parameters. Ambient air of classrooms constantly contains high number of opportunistic pathogens, that could decrease immune system parameters and cause more droplet infections. Individual occupational risk of teachers, calculated with consideration of work conditions and health state parameters, appears to be high and proves high possibility of teachers' health damage at work. Recommendations cover evaluation of biologic factors within the workplace assessment, obligatory preliminary (before employment) and periodic medical examinations for comprehensive school teachers as for workers exposed to occupational hazards.

  16. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  17. Cytogenetic evaluation of cataract patients occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D D; Yao, L; Guo, K M; Lu, C W

    2016-09-16

    Long-term radiation exposure is hazardous to health; late-onset effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) pose risks to the lens, and are associated with other non-cancerous diseases. Individuals occupationally exposed to low-dose IR are prone to developing eye cataracts. Cytogenetic evaluations suggest that IR is associated with chromosomal aberrations in occupationally exposed individuals. However, data regarding the association between chromosomal aberrations in cataract patients and occupational exposure to IR is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to report the characteristics of chromosomal aberrations in cataract patients from a Chinese population, occupationally exposed to IR. We found that the average age and frequency of numerical chromosomal aberrations were significantly lower in the exposed patients as compared with that in the non-exposed patients. In addition, the frequencies of dicentric and acentric chromosomes were significantly higher in the exposed patients as compared with those in the non-exposed patients. Therefore, chronic occupational exposure to IR affects cataract development in the Chinese population. The age of cataract patients exposed to IR was significantly lower than the age of cataract onset in normal individuals. Based on this study, we suggest that there is an urgent need for improved radiation safety and eye protection in individuals exposed to IR in the work place.

  18. DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures.

    PubMed

    Simoniello, M F; Kleinsorge, E C; Scagnetti, J A; Grigolato, R A; Poletta, G L; Carballo, M A

    2008-11-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but represent at the same time a potential risk to farmers and environment. The aim of this work is the evaluation of 54 subjects occupationally exposed to pesticides and 30 subjects as a control group using the quantification of DNA damage level by means of the alkaline Comet assay and the evaluation of repair processes. Damage index Comet assay (DICA) and damage index repair assay (DIRA) were studied in 27 pesticide applicator workers, 27 non-pesticide applicators and controls. Our results show that both exposed groups revealed significant increase in DICA when compared with controls (P < 0.0001), as well as in DIRA (P < 0.0001). However, the spraying group exhibited a marginally significant difference in DICA (P = 0.05) when years of exposure are considered and a significant difference (P < 0.05) when the personal protective equipment used by individuals was taken as a comparison factor. The influence of confounding factors on the genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to pesticides was investigated and no significant differences were observed considering age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to DICA and DIRA. Since DNA damage is an important step in events leading from carcinogen exposure to cancer disease, our study highlights the potential health risk associated with agrochemical exposure in developing countries with vast cultivated areas, such as Argentina.

  19. Cancer Mortality among Men Occupationally Exposed to Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, Pierluigi; Fadda, Domenica; Billai, Beatrice; D’Atri, Mario; Melis, Massimo; Blair, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated cancer risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Results are mixed. To further inquire into human carcinogenicity of DDT, we conducted a mortality follow-up study of 4,552 male workers, exposed to DDT during antimalarial operations in Sardinia, Italy, conducted in 1946 to 1950. Detailed information on DDT use during the operations provided the opportunity to develop individual estimates of average and cumulative exposure. Mortality of the cohort was first compared with that of the Sardinian population. Overall mortality in the cohort was about as expected, but there was a deficit for death from cardiovascular disease and a slight excess for nonmalignant respiratory diseases and lymphatic cancer among the unexposed subcohort. For internal comparisons, we used Poisson regression analysis to calculate relative risks of selected malignant and nonmalignant diseases with the unexposed subcohort as the reference. Cancer mortality was decreased among DDT-exposed workers, mainly due to a reduction in lung cancer deaths. Birth outside from the study area was a strong predictor of mortality from leukemia. Mortality from stomach cancer increased up to 2-fold in the highest quartile of cumulative exposure (relative risk, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9–4.4), but no exposure-response trend was observed. Risks of liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and leukemia were not elevated among DDT-exposed workers. No effect of latency on risk estimates was observed over the 45 years of follow-up and within selected time windows. Adjusting risks by possible exposure to chlordane in the second part of the antimalarial operations did not change the results. In conclusion, we found little evidence for a link between occupational exposure to DDT and mortality from any of the cancers previously suggested to be associated. PMID:16230425

  20. Blood level of cadmium and lead in occupationally exposed persons in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the blood levels of cadmium and lead in some occupationally exposed individuals and compare the values with non-exposed individuals, with the aim of increasing the awareness of health risk caused by these heavy metals. A total of 120 subjects (64 occupationally exposed and 56 non-exposed subjects) with the age range of 15–40 years were studied in cross-sectional study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013 in Gwagwalada area of Abuja, Nigeria. Blood cadmium and lead were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The respective mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were 11.63±1.73 μg/dl and 45.43±6.93 μg/dl in occupationally-exposed subjects, while in non-exposed subjects 2.03±0.55 μg/dl and 12.08±2.87 μg/dl. The results show that occupational exposure increases the blood level of cadmium and lead, which consequently increases the health risk of the exposed individuals. PMID:27486374

  1. Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies in individuals with occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, I; Sanchez-Roman, J; Morales, J; Castillo, M J; Ocaña, C; Nuñez-Roldan, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) in a series of patients exposed to silica. METHODS: The study included 52 patients with occupational exposure to silica (mean exposure time seven years) and a control group comprising seven patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), six patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 15 healthy individuals. Antibodies to MPO were detected using commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plates coated with MPO. Indirect immunoflurescence studies for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were performed using ethanol and formol fixed neutrophils. Clinical and biological data of individuals exposed to silica were recorded (published previously). RESULTS: Antibodies to MPO were detected in 14 individuals exposed to silica (27%). There was a statistically significant difference in anti-MPO ELISA units between the healthy subjects and patients (SLE, PSS, silica exposed individuals) (p < 0.01), but no difference between the different disease groups. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals chronically exposed to silica, whether or not they have a connective tissue disease, have levels of antibodies to MPO (as detected by ELISA) that are greater than those found in the normal population, but similar to those in patients with systemic diseases not induced by silica (SLE/PSS). PMID:8712888

  2. Eye Lens Opacities Among Physicians Occupationally Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Kivelä, Tero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Mrena, Samy

    2015-08-01

    We compared the frequency of lens opacities among physicians with and without occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, and estimated dose-response between cumulative dose and opacities. We conducted ophthalmologic examinations of 21 physicians with occupational exposure to radiation and 16 unexposed physicians. Information on cumulative radiation doses (mean 111 mSv) was based on dosimeter readings recorded in a national database on occupational exposures. Lens changes were evaluated using the Lens Opacities Classification System II, with an emphasis on posterior subcapsular (PSC) and cortical changes. Among the exposed physicians, the prevalences of cortical and PSC changes were both 11% (3/21), and the corresponding frequencies in the unexposed group were 44% (n = 7) and 6% (n = 1). For dose-response analysis, the data were pooled with 29 exposed physicians from our previous study. No association of either type of lens changes with cumulative recorded dose was observed. Our findings do not indicate an increased frequency of lens opacities in physicians with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the subjects in this study have received relatively low doses and therefore the results do not exclude small increases in lens opacities or contradict the studies reporting increases among interventional cardiologists with materially higher cumulative doses.

  3. Hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Baron, C E; O'Sullivan, J J; Edwards, J C; Stonard, M D; Walker, R J; Fearnley, D M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify any differences in hepatic function between workers exposed to carbon tetrachloride and controls, and to identify the best variable with which to examine any effects. METHODS--In a cross sectional study of hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride, 135 exposed employees were compared with 276 non-exposed controls. The exposed group was taken from three sites in the north west of England and the control group included non-exposed workers from one of these sites and another site located nearby. Demographic and alcohol consumption data were collected from both groups by questionnaire. Each member of the study group was allotted a notional estimated exposure to carbon tetrachloride, calculated from historic personal monitoring data and job category. A fasting sample of blood was taken from all participants and analysed for a variety of biochemical and haematological variables. The techniques of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance were used to investigate the effect on biochemical and haematological indices of a range of factors. RESULTS--Multivariate analysis of variance of four core liver function variables, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase, showed a significant difference between exposed and non-exposed workers. The univariate analyses identified increases in only alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase within the exposed group and these did not show a significant dose-response relation. Univariate analysis of variance did show effects of alcohol and age on several variables. Significant differences between exposed and control groups for three haematological variables, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and red blood count, were thought not to be due to the effects of exposure. Clinical review of exposed subjects with abnormal results did not show clinically evident disease that could have been associated with exposure to

  4. Serotonin transporter occupancy in rats exposed to serotonin reuptake inhibitors in utero or via breast milk.

    PubMed

    Capello, Catherine F; Bourke, Chase H; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Nemeroff, Amanda; Owens, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Rigorous data regarding fetal central nervous system (CNS) exposure after antidepressant exposure are sparse. The magnitude of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) CNS exposure was measured in three groups of rats using ex vivo autoradiography of the serotonin transporter (SERT): 1) in utero, 2) postnatal clearance after birth, and 3) exposure through lactation. Rats were exposed to one of five SRI-type antidepressants (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine) administered continuously via osmotic minipumps to pregnant or nursing dams. Dam dosing was adjusted to reflect the 50th and 85th percentiles of serum concentrations observed in pregnant women. Embryonic day 21 rat pups exposed in utero exhibited >80% SERT occupancy in brain tissue, which is equivalent to that of the pregnant dam and similar to that reported for human pharmacotherapy. Venlafaxine was the exception with occupancies ranging from 61 to 92% across different litters. The magnitude of SERT occupancy is essentially equivalent between dams and fetuses. By postnatal day 4, high SERT occupancy was observed only in fluoxetine-exposed pups (41-92% occupancy). Significantly less, but measurable, exposure occurred via breast milk exposure even in the absence of detectable drug concentrations in nursing pup sera. Pups exposed to SRIs via breast milk for 3 or 7 days exhibited varying SERT occupancies (0-57% depending on the individual medication and dam dose). These data highlight the need for animal modeling of fetal and nursing infant drug exposure using clinically meaningful dosing strategies and appropriate CNS measures to develop rational treatment guidelines that systematically minimize fetal and neonatal medication exposure in humans.

  5. Strategies for epidemiologic studies of lead in bone in occupationally exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Lead exposure is widespread among industrial populations in the US. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the lead content of bone offers a promising approach to acquisition of individualized data on chronic lead absorption in occupationally exposed populations. Dosimetric data obtained by XRF will permit accurate definition of dose-response relationships for such chronic consequences of lead exposure as central and peripheral neurologic impairment, renal disease, hypertension, and possibly reproductive dysfunction. Additionally, data on bone lead contect obtained by XRF will permit validation of models describing the body lead burden and will allow direct assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic chelation. XRF data may also permit assessment of the possible role of genetic polymorphism of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic dehydrase as a determinant of the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of lead. In both cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies of body lead burden in occupationally exposed populations, the K-XRF instrument appears to be the technology of choice.

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and structural changes in carotid arteries in normotensive workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Poreba, Rafał; Poreba, Małgorzata; Gać, Paweł; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-09-01

    Occupational exposure to lead may cause an increase in blood pressure. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on selected parameters of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and structural changes in carotid arteries. The study included 33 normotensive men occupationally exposed to lead and 39 unexposed men employed in administration of the foundry. All of the men underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). The group of men occupationally exposed to lead manifested significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), pulse pressure (PP), variability of diastolic blood pressure (VDBP), and IMT than the unexposed group. The studied groups did not differ in mean values of variability of systolic blood pressure (VSBP). As compared to the unexposed group, in men exposed to lead, atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more common. In the group of persons exposed to lead the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant linear positive correlations between MSBP and IMT, between lead level and the number of atherosclerotic plaques, and between lead level and PP. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that higher lead level in blood and higher triglyceride concentration in blood represent independent risk factors of an increased pulse pressure in the group of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Occupational exposure to lead can be associated with increased blood pressure and accelerated progression of atherosclerosis.

  7. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Gricienė, B; Slapšytė, G; Mierauskienė, J

    2014-06-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05). CA analyses revealed no significant differences between workers with external gamma radiation exposure and the controls (1.60 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p > 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency.

  8. Critical organ concentration of cadmium in occupationally-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Morgan, W.D.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man and provides a comparison with other portable systems. The cadmium detection limits are 2.2 mg in the kidney and 1.5 ppM in the liver for the Brookhaven system. In a recent field study, the cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. The corresponding cadmium concentrations in the liver and urine were 30 to 42 ppM (liver) and 22 to 28 ..mu..g/g creatinine (urine), respectively. Blood and urine levels of cadmium and ..beta../sub 2/-microgloubin were also evaluated as possible biological indicators of organ content.

  9. The Dynamics and Consequences of Occupational Deprivation on Displaced Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharma, Maher M.

    2010-01-01

    Following wars and natural disasters, individuals and their families face displacement from their native land and relocate to a new location where they become refugees. As occupational beings, people find meaning in their environment and build their identity through engaging in meaningful occupations. The environment plays a role in shaping the…

  10. Assessment of DNA damage in Brazilian workers occupationally exposed to pesticides: a study from Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Khayat, Carolinne Borges; Costa, Emília Oliveira Alves; Gonçalves, Macks Wendhell; da Cruz e Cunha, Damiana Mirian; da Cruz, Alex Silva; de Araújo Melo, Caroline Oliveira; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino; de Melo e Silva, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated 41 rural workers occupationally exposed to pesticides and 32 subjects as a control group, using the micronucleus (MN) and the comet assay. For the comet assay, we evaluated the peripheral blood, and for the MN, we sampled cells from the oral epithelium. Damage to DNA was measured by tail length, % DNA in tail (% tail), olive tail moment (OTM), and tail moment (TM). The exposed group presented an 8× increase in MN frequency, when compared to the control group (p <0.05). When we contrasted the MN frequencies between the individuals that use and do not use personal protective equipment, we found a mean of 7.5 MN (57 % variance) and 12.1 MN (130 % variance), respectively. The binucleated cells were 0.04 and 0.005, in the exposed and control groups, respectively, indicating 8× increase in the number of binucleated cells, when comparing the groups (p <0.05). In the comet assay, we demonstrated statistically significant differences in three parameters (% DNA, OTM, and TM) indicating that the rural workers presented high levels of genomic damages. Our results indicate that occupational exposure to pesticides could cause genome damage in somatic cells, representing a potential health risk to Brazilian rural workers that deal constantly with agrochemicals without adequate personal protection equipment.

  11. Evaluation of Genotoxicity in Automobile Mechanics Occupationally Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Micronuclei and Other Nuclear Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammed Rafiq; Sudha, Sellappa

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent mixtures of genotoxic agents, whereas the specificity of biomarker measurements varies widely. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics by using Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) as a biomarker. Methods The study population composed of 110 occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and 100 unexposed controls. All the study participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from automobile garages located in the urban area of Coimbatore City, South India. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 110 automobile mechanics and 100 age and sex matched controls. Further, cells were examined for MN frequency and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs and karyolysis. Results Results showed a statistically significant difference between occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in automobile mechanics were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher degree of NA was observed among the exposed subjects with smoking, drinking, tobacco chewing, which is an indicative of cytogenetic damage in these individuals. Conclusion MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that automobile mechanics exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and offer better awareness of occupational hazards

  12. Cytogenetic monitoring in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Bustamante, Gabriela; Sánchez, María Eugenia; Leone, Paola E

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the incidence of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in workers of a plantation of flowers located in Quito, Ecuador, in South America. This study included 41 individuals occupationally exposed to 27 pesticides, some of which are restricted in many countries and are classified as extremely toxic by the World Health Organization; among these are aldicarb and fenamiphos. The same number of individuals of the same age, sex, and geographic area were selected as controls. Workers exposed to these pesticides showed an increased frequency of CA compared with control group (20.59% vs. 2.73%; p < 0.001). We conclude that screening for CA is an adequate biomarker for evaluating and detecting genotoxicity resulting from exposure to pesticides. Levels of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase were also determined as a complementary metabolic study. Levels below the optimal (> 28 U/mL blood) were found in 88% of exposed individuals; this clearly shows the effect of organophosphate pesticides. When comparing the levels of acetylcholinesterase and structural CA frequencies, there was a negative linear correlation (r = 0.416; p < 0.01). We conclude that by using both analyses it may be possible to estimate damage produced by exposure to organophosphate pesticides. PMID:12417477

  13. Speech recognition index of workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental or occupational noise: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is considered the third worst symptom affecting humans. The aim of this article is to assess complaints by workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental and occupational noise. Methodology 495 workers went through an epidemiological survey at the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology, from 2003 to 2007. The workers underwent tonal and vocal audiometry, preceded by a clinical and occupational history questionnaire. Two-factor ANOVA and Tukey were the statistical tests used. All the analysis set statistical significance at α=5%. Findings There was a higher prevalence of occupational tinnitus (73.7%), a predominance of female domestic workers (65.4%) in cases of environmental exposure, and predominance of male construction workers (71.5%) for occupational exposure. There was a significant difference in workers with hearing loss, who showed a mean speech recognition index (SRI) of 85%, as compared to healthy workers with a mean SRI greater than 93.5%. Signs and symptoms, speech perception, and interference in sound localization with the type of noise exposure (environmental versus occupational) comparisons found no significant differences. Conclusion Studied group’s high prevalence of tinnitus, major difficulties in speech recognition with hearing loss and the presence of individuals with normal hearing with both types of exposure justify the importance of measures in health promotion, prevention, and hearing surveillance. The findings highlight the importance of valuing the patients’ own perception as the first indication of tinnitus and hearing loss in order to help develop appropriate public policies within the Unified National Health System (SUS). PMID:23259813

  14. [Life quality in individuals having occupational diseases caused by various occupational factors].

    PubMed

    D'iakovich, M P; Semenikhin, V A; Kazakova, P V; Odintseva, O V; D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents main results of studies concerning life quality in individuals having chronic occupational diseases of important social value. Life quality in patients with chronic mercurial intoxication and dust bronchitis appeared to result from personal, social and psychologic features.

  15. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends <0.01). Injuries taking place out of the usual occupational setting (aOR=2.85, 95%CI 2.27-3.59), or carrying out atypical tasks (aOR=2.08; 95%CI 1.27-3.39) showed increased risks of a fatal result too, as occupational accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries.

  16. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M. ); Mohammad, D. )

    1994-10-01

    Scalp hair is a metabolic end product that incorporates metals into its structure during the growth process. The levels of trace elements in the hair are considered to be influenced in particular by food, air and occupational exposure, and in general by race, age, sex, metabolism, hygienic condition and geographical location of individuals. Recently, trace metal content of human hair has been explored as a tool for monitoring the impact of environmental pollution on the inhabitants of a community. In this respect, the endogenous and exogenous contents of metals in hair are understood to play important role towards exposure assessment. The exogenous metal content of hair reflects exposure to the occupational, domestic and recreational environments, provided the donor is not suffering from heavy metal poisoning and depressed endogenous levels arising from dietary deficiencies. Keeping this in view, the exogenous and endogenous metal contents of scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers from various workshops were determined in the present study, both in unwashed and washed hair samples to assess the extent of metal contamination. All donors, within the age group of 6-45 years, were full-time workers of various autoworkshops situated in the densely populated and industrialized city of Lahore. ICP atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods were used for determining the levels of five non-essential and three essential elements in the scalp hair. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. p16 promoter methylation in Pb2+ -exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Kovatsi, Leda; Leda, Kovatsi; Georgiou, Elisavet; Elisavet, Georgiou; Ioannou, Antrea; Antrea, Ioannou; Haitoglou, Costas; Costas, Haitoglou; Tzimagiorgis, George; George, Tzimagiorgis; Tsoukali, Helen; Helen, Tsoukali; Kouidou, Sofia; Sofia, Kouidou

    2010-02-01

    One of the principle symptoms of lead poisoning is the development of neurological disorders. Neuronal response is closely related to DNA methylation changes. Aim. In this study, we estimated p16 methylation in nine individuals exposed to lead using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction followed by analysis of the methylated cytosine content of the product by thermal denaturation. We found that, based on lead blood concentration, lead-exposed individuals were divided into two groups. Among highly exposed individuals (blood Pb(2+) concentration = 51-100 microg/dL), we observed complete CpG methylation, whereas for low Pb(2+) concentrations (blood Pb(2+) concentration = 6-11 microg/dL), we observed partial methylation. Our results show that among lead-overexposed individuals, p16 methylation is frequent and extensive, and suggest that DNA methylation could be involved in the mechanism by which lead induces neurotoxicity.

  18. [Lichen ruber exanthematicus et pigmentosus in mercury poisoning. A contribution to individual pathology in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Marsch, W C; Groebe, G

    1990-11-01

    We report on a 21-year-old man professionally exposed to mercury, who developed lichen planus. This case must be regarded as a dispositional reaction and is in Germany entitled to indemnification in terms of a "quasi-occupational disease". The clinical signs and the probably non-allergic pathomechanism are comparable with those of lichen planus induced by gold. In diseases due to occupational intoxication, we face an individual disposition regarding the degree of clinical symptoms, which has to underly any expert opinion on indemnity.

  19. [Characteristics of lung cancer in patients exposed to silica at work. A comparison of exposed and non-exposed individuals].

    PubMed

    Barrenechea, M J; Martínez, C; Ferreiro, M J; Paramá, A; Tardón, A; Rego, G

    2002-12-01

    In 1977 silica was listed as a group 1 carcinogen (demonstrated in humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, conflicting results from various studies have kept debate alive as to its carcinogenic capacity. The interest of this debate lies in the large number of workers exposed to silica. To analyze the differential characteristics of lung cancer among silica exposed and silica non-exposed individuals, to identify indirectly a possible carcinogenic effect of silica. For all males with a diagnosis of lung cancer over a period of 22 consecutive months at the National Silicosis Institute (Oviedo, Spain), we recorded work history, age, smoking habits, spirometry, the presence of pneumoconiosis and histology. Comparing the results for silica exposed and non-exposed individuals, we found significant differences for age (63.7 8.8 and 66.7 8.6 y, respectively; p < 0.05), smoking (44.1 22.4 and 48.9 22.3 packs/year; p < 0.05) and a Tiffeneau index under 70% (in 78% of exposed vs. 55% of non-exposed patients; p < 0.05). No significant differences in histology, signs and symptoms or radiographs were observed between the two groups. In the multifactorial analysis in function of age of onset, exposure to silica continued to be an independent predictor. Our results show that the clinical and radiological signs and histology of patients exposed or non-exposed to silica did not differ. However, lung cancer appears earlier among individuals with work-related exposure to silica and lower rates of tobacco smoking, suggesting some carcinogenic effect for silica.

  20. Evaluation of Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    A study was conducted to determine whether or not the Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training (PIVOT) materials developed by the School District of Philadelphia were capable of developing entry-level competency in secondary school students in a variety of educational settings (comprehensive high schools, an occupational…

  1. Individualism-Collectivism: Links to Occupational Plans and Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism (IC) constitutes a cultural variable thought to influence a wide variety of variables including career planning and decision making. To examine this possibility, college students (216 women, 106 men, 64% racial-ethnic minorities) responded to measures of IC, occupational plans, and work values. Multivariate analysis of…

  2. Individualism-Collectivism: Links to Occupational Plans and Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism (IC) constitutes a cultural variable thought to influence a wide variety of variables including career planning and decision making. To examine this possibility, college students (216 women, 106 men, 64% racial-ethnic minorities) responded to measures of IC, occupational plans, and work values. Multivariate analysis of…

  3. Cytogenetic study in workers occupationally exposed to mercury fulminate.

    PubMed

    Anwar, W A; Gabal, M S

    1991-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytogenetic effects in male workers exposed to mercury fulminate. A total of 29 male workers and 29 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The mean mercury level in urine from the exposed workers was 123.2 +/- 54.1 micrograms/l compared with 39.2 +/- 11.1 micrograms/l in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). Metaphase chromosomes were studied. Micronucleated peripheral blood lymphocytes were also analyzed in cytochalasin B blocked binucleated lymphocytes. The percentage of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the exposed group (6.1 +/- 2.3) compared to the control group (2.8 +/- 0.7). The chromosomal aberrations detected were in the form of gaps, breaks and fragments. A significant increase in the incidence of micronucleated lymphocytes was found among the exposed group (7.1 +/- 4.2) compared to the control group (5.4 +/- 2.2) (P less than 0.01). The detected chromosomal damage correlated neither with the duration of exposure nor with the urinary mercury level.

  4. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  5. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    .05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide variation in enzyme activities and DNA damage due to polymorphisms in PON1 gene, which might have an important role in the identification of individual risk factors in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

  6. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a smelter exposed to zinc fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameille, J.; Brechot, J.M.; Brochard, P.; Capron, F.; Dore, M.F. )

    1992-03-01

    A smelter exposed to zinc fumes reported severe recurrent episodes of cough, dyspnea and fever. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed a marked increase in lymphocytes count with predominance of CD8 T-lymphocytes. Presence of zinc in alveolar macrophages was assessed by analytic transmission electron microscopy. This is the first case of recurrent bronchoalveolitis related to zinc exposure in which the clinical picture and BAL results indicate a probable hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  7. Effect of aluminium on the levels of some essential elements in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Fateheya M; Mazhar, Manal S

    2007-09-01

    The mechanism of aluminium-induced cytotoxicity has not yet been defined. This study investigated possible changes in essential elements in workers occupationally exposed to Al fumes. It included 60 exposed workers and a matching control group of 60 employees not occupationally exposed to Al. Mean serum copper, calcium, zinc and iron were significantly lower in the exposed group than in controls. In addition, mean plasma and urine levels of Al were significantly higher in the exposed employees than in the controls. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between plasma and urinary Al and the studied essential elements. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that Al exposure has an adverse effect on essential elements in humans, with subsequent impact on the cellular enzymatic and metabolic processes.

  8. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (MLAEP) in Workers with and without Tinnitus who are Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-09-11

    Tinnitus is an important occupational health concern, but few studies have focused on the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure. Thus, we analyzed the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure who had normal hearing threshold, and compared middle latency auditory evoked potential in those with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Sixty individuals (30 with and 30 without tinnitus) underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25-8 kHz, and middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Quantitative analysis of latencies and amplitudes of middle latency auditory evoked potential showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tinnitus. In the qualitative analysis, we found that both groups showed increased middle latency auditory evoked potential latencies. The study group had more alterations of the "both" type regarding the Na-Pa amplitude, while the control group had more "electrode effect" alterations, but these alterations were not significantly different when compared to controls. Individuals with normal hearing with or without tinnitus who are exposed to occupational noise have altered middle latency auditory evoked potential, suggesting impairment of the auditory pathways in cortical and subcortical regions. Although differences did not reach significance, individuals with tinnitus seemed to have more abnormalities in components of the middle latency auditory evoked potential when compared to individuals without tinnitus, suggesting alterations in the generation and transmission of neuroelectrical impulses along the auditory pathway.

  9. [Expression of protein p53 in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients.].

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun-lin; Xiang, Cui-qin; Zhang, Yun-ying; Qin, Yi-qiu; Liu, Cha-qin; Chen, Ji-gang; Zhang, Sheng-nian

    2005-02-01

    To study expression of mutant p53 protein in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients. Mutant p53 protein in serum from the workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients were determined with Immuno-PCR, while exfoliated urothelial cells in the urine samples were classified with Papanicolau grading. Positive rate of mutant p53 protein increased with the exposed intensity index in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. The positive rate of mutant p53 protein in bladder cancer patients (83.3%) was significantly higher than that in the group 1 of exposed intensity index. The average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the group of bladder cancer patients and group 2 of exposed intensity index were both higher than that in the group 1 significantly. Workers in the groups of different exposed intensity indices were further stratified according to Papanicolau grades. In the group 2 of exposed intensity index, the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the stratum of Papanicolau grade II and III were significantly higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I. And in the group 3 of exposed intensity index, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in the strata of Papanicolau grade III was higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I significantly. The increase of exposed intensity may not only result in the positive rate of mutant p53 protein, but also the quantity of mutant p53 protein in serum within the low range of benzidine exposure. Once the exposed intensity was beyond that spectrum, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in serum and the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band were no longer enhanced with the increase of exposed intensity. There was tight correlation between Papanicolau grade of exfoliated urothelial cells and the positive rate or the quantity of mutant p53 protein for the higher benzidine exposure intensity.

  10. Assessment of genotoxic effects of lead in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chinde, Srinivas; Kumari, Monika; Devi, Kanapuram Rudrama; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Mahboob, Mohammed; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxicological effects in 200 lead acid storage battery recycling and manufacturing industry workers in Hyderabad along with matched 200 controls were studied. The genetic damage was determined by comet, micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The MN test was also carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Pb in ambient air, blood Pb (B-Pb) concentrations, and hematological parameters were measured. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formed were also studied. The results of the present study showed that there was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean percent tail DNA, frequency of CA, and MN in PBL as well as in BEC as compared to controls. Pb in ambient air and B-Pb concentrations were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01). The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell values were significantly lowered in Pb-exposed workers in comparison to controls. SOD, GPx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased while GSH and MDA levels increased in exposed group when compared to control group. The present study suggests that environmental health standards should be enforced to control Pb contamination from battery industries to reduce human health risk.

  11. Plasma microRNAs expression profile in female workers occupationally exposed to mercury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656

  12. [The prevalence and risk factors of occupational asthma in workers exposed to isocyanate].

    PubMed

    An, Xiao-qin; Jiang, Yi-wen; Kong, Ling-fei; Zhang, Min-hua

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occupational asthma, airway inflammation and analyze the risk factors for workers exposed to isocyanates. A cross-sectional study was applied. Totally 429 isocyanates exposed workers were surveyed and the prevalence of occupational asthma and airway inflammation situation were examined by questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to analyze the possible risk factors of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma. (1) A total of 366 patients with complete data were included in the study, and finally 11 cases were diagnosed as isocyanate-induced occupational asthma with a prevalence of 3.0%. (2) Neutrophil percentage in the induced sputum of occupational asthma increased significantly [42.00% (34.00%-55.00%) before work and 59.00% (51.00%-70.00%) after work (Z = -2.940. P < 0.05)]. (3) Length of service (OR = 3.096, P = 0.025) and rhinitis (OR = 1.901, P = 0.008) were independent dangerous factors, and protective measures (OR = 0.074, P = 0.015) was protective factors to isocyanate-induced occupational asthma. Neutrophilic inflammation can be triggered by isocyanate exposure. Regular health examinations, effective protective measures can reduce the prevalence of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma.

  13. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  14. Occupations and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: are jobs exposed to the general public at higher risk?

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, F; d'Errico, A; Calvo, A; Costa, G; Chiò, A

    2017-02-14

    Aim of this study was to assess whether previous employment in certain occupations could be a risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) incidence. This topic has been explored by several studies, but no risk factor has been firmly identified. The study population consisted of all subjects over 30 years old resident in Turin in 1996 who worked or were unemployed at 1991 Italian census ( n = 284 406), followed up for ALS occurrence from 1996 to 2014. The risk of ALS was estimated in relation to the occupation held in 1991, using the Italian classification of occupations at the greatest detail. The association between occupations and ALS risk was estimated through Huber-White sandwich multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for age, gender, education and marital status. During the follow-up, 208 subjects developed ALS. ALS risk was significantly associated with previous employment as bank teller (IRR = 7.33), general practitioner (IRR = 4.61) and sales representative (IRR = 3.06). Categorizing all occupations as exposed or unexposed to direct contact with general public, it was found that previous employment in this group of occupations increased significantly ALS risk (IRR = 1.51), mainly driven by occupations in direct contact with customers (IRR = 1.79). The study results indicate that ALS risk may be increased by previous employment in occupations implying direct contact with the general public, in particular customers. A possible explanation of this finding, partly supported by the literature, is that workers in contact with the public could be more exposed to certain infections, which would increase their ALS risk.

  15. A screen for RAS mutations in individuals at risk of secondary leukaemia due to occupational exposure to petrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C; Hughes, D C; Zappone, E; Cazzola, M; Carter, G; Jacobs, A; Padua, R A

    1995-05-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemicals, in particular benzene, has been identified as a risk factor in the development of acute leukaemia. A cohort of exposed (n = 44) and non-exposed individuals (n = 19) from the same petrochemical installation were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by oligonucleotide hybridization (ONH) for the presence of mutations in the H, K, and NRAS cellular proto-oncogenes. A KRAS mutation was detected in one individual from the exposed group who was haematologically normal at the time of sampling. The presence of this mutation was confirmed by nude mouse tumorigenicity assay and positively identified as a K13 Gly-Asp substitution by cloning and sequencing.

  16. Maximally exposed offsite individual location determination for NESHAPS compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2000-03-13

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer program CAP88 for demonstrating compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS.) One of the inputs required for CAP88 is the location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI) by sector and distance. Distances to the MEI have been determined for 15 different potential release locations at SRS. These locations were compared with previous work and differences were analyzed. Additionally, SREL Conference Center was included as a potential offsite location since in the future it may be used as a dormitory. Worst sectors were then determined based on the distances.

  17. Health hazard assessment of occupationally di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate-exposed workers in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxin; Xu, Xiaobing; Fan, Chinbay Q

    2015-02-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is a potential hazard to human health. The effects of occupational high level DEHP exposure on human health were evaluated by measuring the plasma cholinesterase, residues, renal and hepatic biochemical markers. The study was conducted in three representative polyvinyl chloride manufacturing facilities from large size (S1), medium side (S2) to small size (S3). Total 456 adult males including 352 exposed workers (occupational) and 104 control workers (background) were selected. The average DEHP concentrations in respirable particulate matter were 233, 291, and 707 μg m(-3) for S1-S3, respectively, compared with 0.26 μg m(-3) in the background atmosphere (labeled by S4). The results showed significant decreases in post exposure plasma cholinesterase (PChE) levels (<30%) from the exposed workers as compared to baseline. These exposed workers had been evaluated for plasma DEHP residues. Regression analyses explored that PChE decreased significantly with increasing plasma DEHP residues. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, gamma glutamyltransferase, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant and C-reactive protein were significantly raised as compared to the controls. Of the 352 exposed workers, 116 (33.0%) had a daily DEHP intake 22.7 μg kg bw(-1)d(-1) , which is more than 20 μg kg bw(-1)d(-1) specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The study demonstrated that occupational phthalate exposure produces health hazards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Quantitation of manganese and vanadium levels in the lung of "normal" and occupationally exposed persons].

    PubMed

    Kraus, T; Raithel, H J; Schaller, K H

    1989-05-01

    Manganese and vanadium concentrations were measured in the lung and in hilus tissue of 30 non-exposed and 10 occupationally exposed patients. The analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background compensation after wet oxidative digestion. The pulmonary tissue sampling of 30 non-exposed persons was carried out in terms of topographic anatomical criteria from different lung segments and lobes, resp. The manganese concentrations vary between 70 and 360 ng/g, and for vanadium between 9 and 40 ng/g in relation to wet weight. On the average manganese concentrations are 3 to 5 times higher compared to vanadium concentrations, 2 to 4 times higher values were detected in hilus tissue compared to the lung parenchyme. With regard to the topographic anatomy 1.1 to 1.5 higher manganese and vanadium concentrations have been found in the upper lung areas. In 10 of the occupationally exposed persons the sampling was taken from various segments as far as available. In some cases only one lung tissue sample could be analysed. Two former high-grade steel welders and eight former workers from a Norwegian nickel refinery have been investigated. Esp. the manganese concentrations in lung tissue of the welders raised by the factor 100. The manganese content in other occupationally exposed persons has also been increased in comparison to the normal group whereas the vanadium concentrations were - with one exception - in the normal range. Synoptically these results demonstrate that the determination of manganese and vanadium concentrations in the lung tissue might give additional information especially concerning a former occupational exposure. Such investigations can also be of interest when giving medical expertise opinion.

  19. Micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in subjects occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric approach.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Massimo; Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Pavanello, Sofia; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Villarini, Milena; Appolloni, Massimo; Carrieri, Mariella; Sabatini, Laura; Dominici, Luca; Stronati, Laura; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Anna; Fatigoni, Cristina; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Mussi, Francesca; Monarca, Silvano

    2015-08-01

    Recently published works showed that occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ANPD) is still frequent in hospital settings, despite significant safety policy improvements. The aim of this study was to assess the current level of occupational exposure to ANPD and any potentially associated cytogenetic damages in hospital nurses routinely handling ANPD. Occupationally ANPD-exposed (n = 71) and ANPD-unexposed (n = 77; control) nurses were recruited on a voluntary basis from five hospitals in Northern and Central Italy. Evaluation of surface contamination and dermal exposure to ANPD was assessed by determining cyclophosphamide (CP) on selected surfaces (wipes) and on exposed nurses' clothes (pads). The concentration of unmetabolized CP—as a biomarker of internal dose—was measured in end-shift urine samples. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects (i.e., biological effect monitoring) was conducted by analyzing micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Genetic polymorphisms for enzymes involved in metabolic detoxification (i.e., glutathione S-transferases) were analyzed as well. We observed a significant increase in MN frequency (5.30 ± 2.99 and 3.29 ± 1.97; mean values ± standard deviation; p < 0.0001) in exposed nurses versus controls, as well as in CA detection (3.30 ± 2.05 and 1.84 ± 1.67; p < 0.0001), exposed subjects versus controls. Our results provide evidence that, despite safety controlled conditions, ANPD handling still represents a considerable genotoxic risk for occupationally exposed personnel. Because both MN and CA have been described as being predictive of group-increased cancer risk, our findings point to a need for improving specific safety procedures in handling and administering ANPD.

  20. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potential (MLAEP) in Workers with and without Tinnitus who are Exposed to Occupational Noise

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is an important occupational health concern, but few studies have focused on the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure. Thus, we analyzed the central auditory pathways of workers with a history of occupational noise exposure who had normal hearing threshold, and compared middle latency auditory evoked potential in those with and without noise-induced tinnitus. Material/Methods Sixty individuals (30 with and 30 without tinnitus) underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, immittance measures, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies between 0.25–8 kHz, and middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Results Quantitative analysis of latencies and amplitudes of middle latency auditory evoked potential showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tinnitus. In the qualitative analysis, we found that both groups showed increased middle latency auditory evoked potential latencies. The study group had more alterations of the “both” type regarding the Na-Pa amplitude, while the control group had more “electrode effect” alterations, but these alterations were not significantly different when compared to controls. Conclusions Individuals with normal hearing with or without tinnitus who are exposed to occupational noise have altered middle latency auditory evoked potential, suggesting impairment of the auditory pathways in cortical and subcortical regions. Although differences did not reach significance, individuals with tinnitus seemed to have more abnormalities in components of the middle latency auditory evoked potential when compared to individuals without tinnitus, suggesting alterations in the generation and transmission of neuroelectrical impulses along the auditory pathway. PMID:26358094

  1. Prevalence of occupational asthma in spray painters exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Séguin, P; Allard, A; Cartier, A; Malo, J L

    1987-04-01

    The prevalence of occupational asthma was assessed in four paint shops of a large assembly plant where 51 employees were exposed to several types of isocyanates, including polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PPI). Three employees were first referred by their physician for asthma symptoms. A questionnaire was administered to the other 48 employees. Seven of these were suspected of having work-related asthma. Airway hyperexcitability to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in these ten subjects (three referred and seven screened). The diagnosis of occupational asthma was confirmed in six subjects (three referred and three screened) through specific inhalation challenges in the laboratory to a paint system component containing PPI. Thus, the prevalence of occupational asthma was 11.8% in these paint shops using several types of isocyanates, including PPI.

  2. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Battery Manufacturing Workers Occupationally Exposed to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead. PMID:23833444

  3. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in battery manufacturing workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead.

  4. Increased oxidative stress in subjects exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2)--an occupational coronary risk factor.

    PubMed

    Wronska-Nofer, Teresa; Chojnowska-Jezierska, Julita; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Halatek, Tadeusz; Wisniewska-Knypl, Justyna

    2002-04-01

    There is considerable epidemiological evidence that workers exposed to carbon disulfide (CS2) develop premature atherosclerosis leading to increased rates of coronary heart disease (CHD), but mechanisms underlying this association remain obscure. The present study documents that occupational exposure to CS2 modifies the oxidative status of plasma, which is a major determinant of the susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Concentrations of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), which reflect lipid peroxidation processes in plasma, were determined in 29 men who were exposed to CS2 for more than 20 years, in 24 patients with peripheral atherosclerosis, and in 30 unexposed, healthy control subjects. TBARS concentrations were significantly increased both in CS2-exposed subjects and in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis. Subjects in both groups presented also with decreased levels of plasma alpha-tocopherol, a major plasma antioxidant. In addition, decreased activities of two enzymatic antioxidants, glutathion peroxidase and catalase, were noted both in CS2-exposed subjects and patients with peripheral atherosclerosis. Finally, LDL isolated from both groups showed increased susceptibility to transition metal-induced oxidation in vitro. It is concluded, that occupational exposure to CS2 produces oxidative stress in plasma. This may favor the development of atherosclerosis and increase the incidence of CHD in workers exposed to CS2.

  5. Genotoxic hazard evaluation in welders occupationally exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF).

    PubMed

    Dominici, Luca; Villarini, Milena; Fatigoni, Cristina; Monarca, Silvano; Moretti, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Electric arc welding is known to involve considerable exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). A cytogenetic monitoring study was carried out in a group of welders to investigate the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to ELF-MF. This study assessed individual occupational exposure to ELF-MF using a personal magnetic-field dosimeter, and the cytogenetic effects were examined by comparing micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies in the lymphocytes of the exposed workers with those of non-exposed control subjects (blood donors) matched for age and smoking habit. Cytogenetic analyses were carried out on 21 workers enrolled from two different welding companies in Central Italy and compared to 21 controls. Some differences between the groups were observed on analysis of SCE and MN, whereas replication indices in the exposed were found not to differ from the controls. In particular, the exposed group showed a significantly higher frequency of MN (group mean±SEM: 6.10±0.39) compared to the control group (4.45±0.30). Moreover, the increase in MN is associated with a proportional increase in ELF-MF exposure levels with a dose-response relationship. A significant decrease in SCE frequency was observed in exposed subjects (3.73±0.21) compared to controls (4.89±0.12). The hypothesis of a correlation between genotoxic assays and ELF-MF exposure value was partially supported, especially as regards MN assay. Since these results are derived from a small-scale pilot study, a larger scale study should be undertaken.

  6. [Etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype wrist movements].

    PubMed

    Lewańska, Magdalena; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy of upper limbs and a leading cause of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of work exposure, repetitive and forceful exertions of the hand and use of vibrating hand tools. The aim of the study was to evaluate etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype movements in wrist. We conducted the retrospective analysis of 300 patients (261 women, 39 men), mean age 52 years (standard deviation: +/-6.93) hospitalized with the suspicion of occupational CTS. The study revealed high percentage (68.7%) of diseases and systemic factors involved in the pathogenesis of CTS in the analyzed population, especially obesity (32%), thyroid diseases (28.7%), hormone replacement therapy and/or oophorectomy (16.3%) and diabetes mellitus (12%). In 111 patients the coexistence of at least a couple of potential etiological factors of the neuropathy was recognized. Clinical analysis and occupational exposure allowed to diagnose occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in 18 (6%) patients only. The undeniable long-term (20(.2+/-9.3 years) occupational exposure to repetitive, forceful movements in the wrist was observed in this group. The results of our study indicated that non-occupational etiological factors of CTS predominated and in 37% of patients at least several factors were found. The analysis showed the high prevalence of CTS in workers employed in various sectors of industry, including so called "blue collar" workers. Our study confirmed the multifactorial etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, however, occupational agents contributed to only 6% of cases.

  7. Occupational Health Risks Among Trichloroethylene-Exposed Workers in a Clock Manufacturing Factory

    PubMed Central

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2015-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of subjective symptoms in the exposed group was 9.61-11.76 times higher than the rate of the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). It was found that skin (29.6%) and respiratory symptoms (21.1%) were the most frequent among the exposed workers. In conclusion, these results indicate that increased micronucleus frequency is associated with

  8. Occupational health risks among trichloroethylene-exposed workers in a clock manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2014-08-22

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of subjective symptoms in the exposed group was 9.61-11.76 times higher than the rate of the non-exposed group (p < 0.001). It was found that skin (29.6%) and respiratory symptoms (21.1%) were the most frequent among the exposed workers. In conclusion, these results indicate that increased micronucleus frequency is associated with

  9. Circulating immune/inflammation markers in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Hu, Wei; Bassig, Bryan A.; Ji, Zhiying; Shiels, Meredith S.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Reiss, Boris; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Blair, Aaron; Kim, Christopher; Guo, Weihong; Wen, Cuiju; Li, Laiyu; Pinto, Ligia A.; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human myeloid leukemogen. However, the mechanistic basis for this association is still debated. Objectives. We aimed to evaluate whether circulating immune/inflammation markers were altered in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Methods. Using a multiplexed bead-based assay, we measured serum levels of 38 immune/inflammation markers in a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde-exposed and 51 unexposed factory workers in Guangdong, China. Linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to compare marker levels in exposed and unexposed workers. Results. We found significantly lower circulating levels of two markers among exposed factory workers compared with unexposed controls that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders and multiple comparisons using a false discovery rate of 10%, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (36.2 pg/ml in exposed versus 48.4 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0008) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (52.7 pg/ml in exposed versus 75.0 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0028), suggesting immunosuppression among formaldehyde-exposed workers. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with recently emerging understanding that immunosuppression might be associated with myeloid diseases. These findings, if replicated in a larger study, may provide insights into the mechanisms by which formaldehyde promotes leukemogenesis. PMID:25908645

  10. Survey of studies of occupational populations exposed to low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1980-04-01

    Studies of occupational populations exposed to large doses of radiation, principally from the ingestion of radium by dial painters and inhalation of radon and its daughters by miners, have provided important information on the health effects of those radioisotopes. Studies of medical radiologists, military personnel exposed to nuclear tests, and factory workers exposed to thorium are in progress. Employees of DOE-contractor facilities and of naval shipyards are also under study. Personnel dosimetry data are generally available for the latter category of occupational populations. Reasons for conducting the studies include interest in exploring the verification at low exposure levels of results of studies of heavily exposed populations and the responsibility of the employer to maintain adequate surveillance of the health of his workers by conducting appropriate epidemiologic studies. The low level of exposure of workers in facilities where adequate personnel dosimetry records are available make it unlikely that the results of such studies can be used to provide health risk estimates in the near future.

  11. Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Rees, Gwen S; Jonas, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations.

  12. Residual fibre lung burden among patients with pleural mesothelioma who have been occupationally exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Merler, Enzo; Somigliana, Anna; Girardi, Paolo; Barbieri, Pietro Gino

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the lungs asbestos fibres concentration in participants with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) who have been occupationally exposed. The lung samples were obtained from pleuropneumonectomies or autopsies of 271 male MPMs. The lung samples were examined through scanning electron microscopy. Retrospective assessment was used to assess for asbestos exposure. This study includes 248 MPMs with an occupational exposure defined as either 'definite' or 'probable' or 'possible'. The participants had finished working in asbestos exposure conditions more than 20 years ago (on average 26.1±11.0 years). The fibre burden resulted with a geometric mean equal to 2.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.4) million fibres per gram of dry lung tissue. The burden was higher among participants employed in asbestos textiles industry and in shipyards with insulation material, if compared with construction workers or non-asbestos textile workers or participants working in chemicals or as auto mechanics. 91.3% of MPMs had a detectable amount of amphibole fibres. A strong lung clearance capability was evident among workers exposed to chrysotile fibres. Owing to that, the 1997 Helsinki Criteria for occupational exposure were reached in <35% of cases among participant working in construction, in metallurgical industry, in chemical or textile industry and among those performing brake repair activities. The MPM cases are now occurring in Italy in participants who ceased occupational asbestos exposure decades before the analysis. A large majority still shows a residual content of amphibole fibres, but given the lung clearance capability, attribution to occupational exposure cannot rely only on fibres detection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  14. Cognitive evoked potentials VEP P300 persons occupationally exposed to low concentrations of toluene.

    PubMed

    Vrca, A; Karacić, V; Bozicević, D; Fuchs, R; Malinar, M

    1997-09-01

    Cognitive evoked potentials VEP P300 were examined in 49 workers at printing press occupationally exposed to low concentrations of toluene for averagely 20 years, and in 59 control subjects. The exposure level of toluene was evaluated in randomly selected subgroups comprising 36 exposed and 27 control subjects. The concentrations of toluene were measured in peripheral blood on Wednesday morning before entering the work area, while the hippuric acid in urine was measured before and after entering the work area. The results show that the absolute number of exposed subjects displaying lower amplitude of cognitive wave VEP P300R and prolonged latency of the accompanying spontaneous wave VEP P300F was significantly greater than that of the controls.

  15. Alterations in serum immunoglobulin levels in workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Bassig, Bryan A.; Huang, Hanlin; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been associated with a variety of immunotoxic effects and may be associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Altered serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels have been reported in NHL patients and in animals exposed to TCE. Recently, we reported that occupational exposure to TCE is associated with immunosuppressive effects and immune dysfunction, including suppression of B-cell counts and activation, even at relatively low levels. We hypothesized that TCE exposure would also affect Ig levels in humans. We measured serum levels of IgG, IgM and IgE, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in TCE-exposed workers (n = 80) and unexposed controls (n = 45), matched by age and gender, in a cross-sectional, molecular epidemiology study of occupational exposure to TCE in Guangdong, China. Exposed workers had about a 17.5% decline in serum levels of IgG compared with unexposed controls (P = 0.0002). Similarly, serum levels of IgM were reduced by about 38% in workers exposed to TCE compared with unexposed controls (P < 0.0001). Serum levels of both IgG and IgM were significantly decreased in workers exposed to TCE levels below 12 p.p.m., the median exposure level. Adjustment for B-cell counts had minimal impact on our findings. IgE levels were not significantly different between exposed and control subjects. These results provide further evidence that TCE is immunotoxic at relatively low exposure levels and provide additional biologic plausibility for the reported association of TCE with NHL. PMID:23276795

  16. Impaired lung function in individuals chronically exposed to biomass combustion.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Médici; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    The use of biomass for cooking and heating is considered an important factor associated with respiratory diseases. However, few studies evaluate the amount of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), symptoms and lung function in the same population. To evaluate the respiratory effects of biomass combustion and compare the results with those of individuals from the same community in Brazil using liquefied petroleum gas (Gas). 1402 individuals in 260 residences were divided into three groups according to exposure (Gas, Indoor-Biomass, Outside-Biomass). Respiratory symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Reflectance of paper filters was used to assess particulate matter exposure. In 48 residences the amount of PM2.5 was also quantified. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 120 individuals. Reflectance index correlated directly with PM2.5 (r=0.92) and was used to estimate exposure (ePM2.5). There was a significant increase in ePM2.5 in Indoor-Biomass and Outside-Biomass, compared to Gas. There was a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for cough, wheezing and dyspnea in adults exposed to Indoor-Biomass (OR=2.93, 2.33, 2.59, respectively) and Outside-Biomass (OR=1.78, 1.78, 1.80, respectively) compared to Gas. Pulmonary function tests revealed both Non-Smoker-Biomass and Smoker-Gas individuals to have decreased %predicted-forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) as compared to Non-Smoker-Gas. Pulmonary function tests data was inversely correlated with duration and ePM2.5. The prevalence of airway obstruction was 20% in both Non-Smoker-Biomass and Smoker-Gas subjects. Chronic exposure to biomass combustion is associated with increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, reduced lung function and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These effects are associated with the duration and magnitude of exposure and are exacerbated by tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, S; Kripa, SK; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (P < 0.05). A significant difference in NA was observed in workers exposed to chromium for longer duration. In addition to this, a higher degree of NA was observed among smokers. Conclusion MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures. PMID:26328050

  18. N-Methylenvaline in a group of subjects occupationally exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Bono, Roberto; Vincenti, Marco; Schiliro', Tiziana; Scursatone, Enzo; Pignata, Cristina; Gilli, Giorgio

    2006-02-08

    Aim of this pilot study was to correlate the human exposure to formaldehyde (F) with N-methylenvaline, a molecular adduct formed by addiction of F to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin. A group of 21 subjects employed in a plywood factory and a laminate factory, and occupationally exposed to F, together with a group of 30 controls, were recruited as volunteers to test this biomarker. Each subject received a questionnaire and a passive personal F sampler. Exposure to F vapors and occurrence of N-methylenvaline in blood were measured. Integrated F concentrations always proved lower than threshold limit value as a ceiling (TLV-TWA) (0.37 mg/m(3), 0.3 ppm). N-Methylenvaline distribution in blood, as measured by GC/MS upon derivatization, showed direct positive relationship to F exposure, with r=0.465. Prevalence of the molecular adduct expressed in nmol/g of globin was significantly higher in the exposed group (p<0.04) than in the control group. However, the N-methylenvaline marker was unable to provide significant distinction between the subjects exposed to F through tobacco smoke habit and the non smokers. Despite this interference, in this pilot study the usefulness of N-methylenvaline as a biomarker for testing occupational exposure to F was demonstrated.

  19. Biochemical parameters of liver function in artisans occupationally exposed to "vat dyes".

    PubMed

    Soyinka, Oluwatosin O; Adeniyi, Francis A; Ajose, Olabamiji A

    2007-05-01

    Vat dyes are the class of dyes used in textile dyeing in Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria. While some dyes (including vat dyes intermediates) have been associated with adverse effects on manufacturer's health, there is paucity of data on effects of occupational exposure to vat dyes among end users, such as those involved in textile dyeing and finishing. To investigate the possible effect of occupational exposure to vat dyes on the functions of the liver. Using convenience sampling technique, a cohort of dye workers (n=117) with a minimum of one year and a maximum of 60 years duration of exposure (mean =17.03 ± 1.19 years) were recruited in this study. Sixty traders, matched for age and sex and who had no previous exposure to vat dyes were selected as controls. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic, occupational and environmental characteristics of the subjects. Plasma activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin and total bilirubin were measured using standard spectrophotometric methods. SPSS version 11.0 was used for statistical analyses. Tests of significance were carried out using Student's t test, and correlation co-efficient. The activity of ALP and the concentrations of total protein and albumin were significantly lower (P <0.05) in the exposed group. ALT and AST activities were significantly higher (P <0.05) in the exposed group. Occupational exposure to vat dyes may result in sub-clinical adverse effects on the liver, involving inhibition of its synthetic function.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  1. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  2. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    PubMed Central

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A.P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R.; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001). In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work. PMID:23413045

  3. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining.

    PubMed

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A P; Heuser, Vanina D; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-12-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001). In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work.

  4. [Occupational toxic exposure in the pregnant woman. 1: principles fo individual risk assessment ].

    PubMed

    Testud, F; Lambert-Chhum, R; Bellemin, B; Descotes, J

    2001-12-01

    Many women of childbearing age are occupationally exposed to chemicals and concerned with the ensuing risk when pregnant. To describe the principles of individual risk assessment to be applied in pregnant women or women wishing to become pregnant that are exposed to chemicals at the workplace. Each request for risk assessment is based on a comprehensive review of the hazards of the handled products together with a thorough evaluation of the actual exposure at the workplace. A toxicological advice is then written to the gynecologist or the general practitioner in charge of the patient. When the exposure is estimated to be hazardous for the pregnancy, either total withdrawal, avoidance of certain activities or improvements of individual protective devices are recommended. The outcome of the pregnancy is systematically followed-up. An objective assessment of toxic risks in pregnant women exposed to chemicals at the workplace can be done. Thus, patients who must be withdrawn or benefit from improvements of their workstation can be selected.

  5. Induction of micronuclei on Greek hairdressers occupationally exposed to chemical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Vlastos, Dimitris; Ntinopoulos, Alexandros

    2011-10-01

    Since the early 20th century, hairdressers (HD) have been exposed to a wide range of harmful chemical products. To determine the possible genetic damage to HD, as a result of their occupational exposure to combinations of different chemical factors, we applied the micronucleus assay on their peripheral blood lymphocytes cultures. The micronucleus assay was performed on blood samples from 20 Greek female HD and 20 control women, having no connection with the occupation, from the same area. In the results analysis, parameters included were age, smoking habits, and duration of occupational exposure. The results of our study showed a significant increase in HD micronuclei (MN) frequency, compared to the controls (13.4 ± 1.00 vs. 8.05 ± 0.65). The frequency of large-size MN was significantly higher in the HD and presented potential correlation with the phenomenon of aneuploidy. A statistically significant difference in the frequency of MN between HD and controls who smoked was observed, while this was not the case with the non smoker groups. However, multiple regression analysis showed no significant correlation between smoking habits and MN frequency. The observed increase of the frequency of MN in HD is attributed to the long-term occupational exposure of HD in combination with different chemical factors. Since in the literature there are very few similar studies, further combined studies are suggested on a larger number of HD from different countries, combining biological and molecular techniques, as well as chemical analytical methods of determining and tracing the chemical factors in both the occupational environment and their organisms.

  6. Immunological alterations in individuals exposed to metal(loid)s in the Panasqueira mining area, Central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Patrícia; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Fuchs, Dietmar; Geisler, Simon; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Zoffoli, Roberto; Bonassi, Stefano; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-03-15

    Environmental studies performed in Panasqueira mine area (central Portugal) identified high concentrations of several metal(loid)s in environmental media, and individuals environmentally and occupationally exposed showed higher levels of As, Cr, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb and Zn in blood, urine, hair and nails when compared to unexposed controls. To evaluate the presence of immunological alterations attributable to environmental contamination, we quantified neopterin, kynurenine, tryptophan, and nitrite concentrations in plasma, and analysed the percentage of several lymphocytes subsets, namely CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, CD19(+) B-cells, and CD16(+)56(+) natural killer (NK) cells in a group of individuals previously tested for metal(loid) levels in different biological matrices. The environmentally exposed group had significantly lower levels of %CD8(+) and higher CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios, whereas the occupationally exposed individuals showed significant decreases in %CD3(+) and %CD4(+), and significant increases in %CD16(+)56(+), when compared to controls. Analysed biomarkers were found to be influenced by age, particularly neopterin, kynurenine and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp) with significantly higher levels in older individuals, and %CD3(+), %CD8(+) and %CD19(+) with significantly lower values in older individuals. Males environmentally exposed showed significantly lower values of %CD19(+) when compared to control females. The concentration of Pb in toenails was associated to the level of neopterin, kynurenine and Kyn/Trp ratio (all direct), and the concentration of Mn in blood to the level of %CD8(+), %CD19(+) (both inverse) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio (direct). Overall our results show that the metal(loid) contamination in Panasqueira mine area induced immunotoxic effects in exposed populations, possibly increasing susceptibility to diseases.

  7. Toxicity and oxidative stress induced by chromium in workers exposed from different occupational settings around the globe: A review.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Pei, De-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    The present review focused on the levels and toxicological status of heavy metals especially chromium (Cr) in the exposed workers from different occupational settings around the globe and in Pakistan. It was found that exposed workers from leather tanning and metal plating units showed elevated levels of Cr than the workers from other occupational settings. Cr and other heavy metals level in biological matrices of the exposed workers in different occupational settings revealed that developing countries are severely contaminated. Occupational settings from the Sialkot district, Pakistan exhibited elevated level of Cr in biological entities of the exposed workers. Review suggested that higher level of Cr exposure to the workers enhance the oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl (OH) radical generation) which may cause; cellular and molecular damage such as genotoxicity and chromosomal aberration formations, and carcinogenic effects. This review will help to understand the Cr contamination mechanisms and associated health implications in different occupational settings around the globe in general and particularly to Pakistan. This study will also assist occupational health and safety management authorities to devise or change the Cr recommended exposure limits (REL) for different occupational settings.

  8. Determination of AChE levels and genotoxic effects in farmers occupationally exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Naravaneni, Rambabu; Jamil, Kaiser

    2007-09-01

    Pesticides can cause cytogenetic effects and lower the acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) levels in farmers exposed to pesticides. In this study, 210 farmers exposed to pesticides and 160 non-exposed individuals were enrolled for determining the genotoxicity and AChE levels. The AChE levels were determined in plasma and RBC lysate from blood samples collected from farmers and control subjects. AChE (true and pseudo) estimation done by the colorimetric method revealed that there was a progressive fall in both the RBC and plasma AChE levels in exposed individuals compared to unexposed individuals, which correlated with the severity of exposure (253.5 versus 311.1 and 142.3 versus 152.1; P < 0.001). Cytogenetic studies showed an increase in DNA damage and higher chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in exposed farmers compared to the control subjects (26.13 versus 07.61 and 21.37 versus 1.52; P < 0.001). When comparing the AChE levels with DNA damage and structural CA frequencies, there was a negative linear correlation. Therefore based on these findings, it is concluded that genotoxic biomarkers like CA frequencies, DNA damage data along with AChE levels are important parameters for determining farmer's health who are exposed to pesticides in any situation.

  9. Regulatory science and radiation protection: A study of dose constraints for members of the public and occupationally-exposed workers at the U.S. nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Tae Young

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering a revision of the existing system of radiation protection regulations with respect to ICRP Publication 103. It is expected that there will be a change in the current NRC regulations to require the implementation of concept of dose constraints for members of the public and for occupationally-exposed workers at the U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). Under the paradigm of regulatory science, the use of dose constraints is still highly debatable. This study addressed two objectives. The first objective was determining whether or not dose constraints are necessary for members of the public and occupationally-exposed workers at the U.S. NPPs. The second objective was determining, if dose constraints were needed, the optimal numerical values of dose constraints at the U.S. NPPs. To achieve these objectives, several areas were investigated and analyzed: 1) the establishment of a regulatory-science framework; 2) a system of radiation protection which would incorporate the concept of dose constraints; 3) methodologies and regulations for public and occupational dose assessment; 4) approaches to the establishment of dose constraints; 5) the actual doses for members of the public living around NPPs; and 6) the range of doses for occupationally-exposed workers in NPPs. As a result of analysis of exposure data, the annual median and maximum doses to a maximally-exposed individual (MEI) for members of the public were 10-4 and 10-1 mSv, respectively. The corresponding annual excess risks (ER) for the median and maximum doses were calculated to be on the order of 10-8 and 10-6 , respectively. These excess risks are low and should be considered acceptable. For occupationally-exposed workers, the average and maximum measurable doses were 1.3 mSv and 24.8 mSv, respectively. The annual excess risks for the average and maximum doses were 10-5 and 10-3, respectively. These excess risks are also acceptable from the perspective of

  10. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer.

  11. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everatt, R. Petrauskaitdot e.; Smolianskiedot n, G.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicdot enas, S.; Jankauskas, R.

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and motor vehicle mechanics. In 2002-2007 workplace air asbestos concentrations exceeded the limit value of 0.1 f/cm3 in 11 samples out of 208 measurements. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that since the 1960s occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos was extensive in Lithuania.

  12. Alterations in leukocyte telomere length in workers occupationally exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Cawthon, Richard M; Smith, Martyn T; Yin, Songnian; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (>31 ppm) was 1.26 ± 0.17, 1.25 ± 0.16, and 1.37 ± 0.23, respectively. Mean TL was significantly elevated in workers exposed to >31 ppm of benzene compared with controls (P = 0.03). Our findings provide evidence that high levels of occupational benzene exposure are associated with TL. Environ.

  13. Cytokine patterns in greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to α-cypermethrin: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Chiara; Rapisarda, Venerando; Catania, Stefania; Di Nola, Carmelina; Ledda, Caterina; Fenga, Concettina

    2013-11-01

    The immunotoxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid α-cypermethrin (αCYP) was assessed in 30 occupationally exposed greenhouse workers and 30 non-exposed controls by comparing plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α, TNF-β and INF-γ. Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as an exposure biomarker. Exposed workers showed neither clinical signs of immunosuppression nor alterations in total leukocytes or leukocyte subpopulations, whereas significant differences (p<0.05) were found for IL-12p70 and highly significant differences (p<0.001) for INF-γ, IL-2 and IL-8, which are involved in antitumor immunity and response to infection. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ play a significant role against infection and cancer. We report the first data on the ability of αCYP to reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels in an exposed healthy human population. Findings support the hypothesis that pyrethroid exposure may reduce host defenses against infection and cancer, particularly in subjects with impaired immune capacity.

  14. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  15. In vivo measurement of cadmium in an occupationally-exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K J; Morgan, W D; Yasumura, S; Vartsky, D; Zanzi, I; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium is recognized as a potentially serious health problem. A number of clinical abnormalities have been observed in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, it is essential that accurate data on body burdens be available in order to formulate dose-response relationships in man. The present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man is described, and recent results from a field study to a cadmium production plant are reported. The cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. These results are compared with the available data in the literature.

  16. Risk of spontaneous abortion in women occupationally exposed to anaesthetic gases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between maternal occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases and risk of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed of published epidemiological studies identified from literature reviews, unsystematic perusal of reference lists of relevant publications, and two Medline searches (1984-92, keywords: anaesthetic gases; anaesthetics; anaesthetics, local; operating rooms; operating room nursing; pregnancy; abortion; 1985-92, keywords: anaesthetics; adverse effects; occupational exposure; anaesthesia, inhalation; operating room nursing; pregnancy; abortion). All peer reviewed studies were retained. Student theses were excluded, as were conference abstracts, unpublished material, and two studies in which data on paternal and maternal occupational exposures were pooled. The relative risk of spontaneous abortion was estimated. RESULTS: One study found no increase in risk of abortion when gases were scavenged or when the exposure to unscavenged gases was low. None of the studies included ambient gas sampling. 24 comparisons between exposed and unexposed women, obtained from 19 reports, were included. The overall relative risk was 1.48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.4 to 1.58). To test whether this result was influenced by the quality of the studies, the validity of the reviewed papers was rated on the basis of three criteria: appropriateness of the unexposed comparison group, control for non-occupational confounding variables, and response rate. The estimate of risk increased to 1.9 (95% CI, 1.72 to 2.09) when analysis was restricted to the six comparisons which were rated the most rigorous. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological studies based on data obtained in the prescavenging era indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The estimated increased risk was not diminished but rather increased by exclusion of the more methodologically flawed studies. PMID:9326157

  17. Risk of spontaneous abortion in women occupationally exposed to anaesthetic gases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J F

    1997-08-01

    To determine the association between maternal occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases and risk of spontaneous abortion. A meta-analysis was performed of published epidemiological studies identified from literature reviews, unsystematic perusal of reference lists of relevant publications, and two Medline searches (1984-92, keywords: anaesthetic gases; anaesthetics; anaesthetics, local; operating rooms; operating room nursing; pregnancy; abortion; 1985-92, keywords: anaesthetics; adverse effects; occupational exposure; anaesthesia, inhalation; operating room nursing; pregnancy; abortion). All peer reviewed studies were retained. Student theses were excluded, as were conference abstracts, unpublished material, and two studies in which data on paternal and maternal occupational exposures were pooled. The relative risk of spontaneous abortion was estimated. One study found no increase in risk of abortion when gases were scavenged or when the exposure to unscavenged gases was low. None of the studies included ambient gas sampling. 24 comparisons between exposed and unexposed women, obtained from 19 reports, were included. The overall relative risk was 1.48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.4 to 1.58). To test whether this result was influenced by the quality of the studies, the validity of the reviewed papers was rated on the basis of three criteria: appropriateness of the unexposed comparison group, control for non-occupational confounding variables, and response rate. The estimate of risk increased to 1.9 (95% CI, 1.72 to 2.09) when analysis was restricted to the six comparisons which were rated the most rigorous. Epidemiological studies based on data obtained in the prescavenging era indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The estimated increased risk was not diminished but rather increased by exclusion of the more methodologically flawed studies.

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an... execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear criticality: Preservation of Individual...

  19. An assessment of immediate DNA damage to occupationally exposed workers to low dose ionizing radiation by using the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Angélica; Coleman, Matthew; Romero-Talamás, Carlos Alejandro; Frias, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Several cytogenetic studies have shown an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations for workers exposed to low dose ionizing radiation, however the dose, type of radiation and management vary among the areas of work; it is possible that this variation may generate different quantity of DNA damage, detectable within the first hours after exposure of the personnel. In this study we assessed early DNA lesions caused by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation in 41 workers from the departments of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and a group of 20 healthy unexposed individuals, all from the same Institution. Blood samples were obtained from exposed and unexposed subjects for analysis of DNA damage using the comet assay. The migration of the comet's tail was compared before and after the workday, as well as among the groups; the relationship between DNA migration and the exposure dose of the month was also obtained. A significant increase in damage to DNA was seen after workday for the occupationally exposed group (p < 0.01) as compared with the samples before workday as well as with those from the unexposed group. A positive correlation was found between the monthly dose of radiation and the migration length of DNA before and after the workday (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in the length of the comet tails among workers from different departments: workers from Radiology (28.6 microm) have less DNA damage than those from Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (92.5 microm, 63.4 microm respectively) departments. All the workers occupationally exposed showed an increase in DNA fragmentation after the workday. The amount of radiation in all three services is different, in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy the workers showed a greater monthly dose of exposure and greater DNA damage than the Radiology workers. The longer tails were observed in Nuclear Medicine where radionuclides are used; these radioactive substances are handled and

  20. Mortality from infectious pneumonia in metal workers: a comparison with deaths from asthma in occupations exposed to respiratory sensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Cullinan, Paul; Rice, Simon; Brown, Terry; Coggon, David

    2012-01-01

    Introduction National analyses of mortality in England and Wales have repeatedly shown excess deaths from pneumonia in welders. During 1979-1990 the excess was attributable largely to deaths from lobar pneumonia and pneumonias other than bronchopneumonia, limited to working-aged men, and apparent in other metal fume-exposed occupations. We assessed findings for 1991-2000 and compared the mortality pattern with that from asthma in occupations exposed to known respiratory sensitizers. Methods The Office of National Statistics supplied data on deaths by underlying cause among men aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, including age and last held occupation. We abstracted data on pneumonia for occupations with exposure to metal fume and on asthma for occupations commonly reported to surveillance schemes as at risk of occupational asthma. We estimated expected numbers of deaths by applying age-specific proportions of deaths by cause in the population to the total deaths by age in each occupational group. Observed and expected numbers were compared for each cause of death. Results Among working-aged men in metal fume-exposed occupations we found excesses of mortality from pneumococcal and lobar pneumonia (54 deaths vs. 27.3 expected) and from pneumonias other than bronchopneumonia (71 vs. 52.4), but no excess from these causes at older ages, or from bronchopneumonia at any age. The attributable mortality from metal fume (45.3 excess deaths) compared with an estimated 62.6 deaths from occupational asthma. Conclusion Exposure to metal fume is a material cause of occupational mortality. The hazard deserves far more attention than it presently receives. PMID:19703831

  1. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  2. Assessing individual employee risk factors for occupational asthma in primary aluminium smelting

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, C; McBride, D; Firth, H; Herbison, G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the significance of individual risk factors in the development of occupational asthma of aluminium smelting (OAAS). Methods: A matched case-control study nested in a cohort of 545 workers employed in areas with moderate to high levels of smelting dust and fume. The cohort comprised those who had their first pre-employment medical examination between 1 July 1982 and 1 July 1995; follow up was until 31 December 2000. Forty five cases diagnosed with OAAS and four controls per case were matched for the same year of pre-employment and age within ±5 years. The pre-employment medical questionnaires were examined, blinded as to case-control status, and information obtained on demographics and details of allergic symptoms, respiratory risk factors, respiratory symptoms, and spirometry. Data from the subsequent medical notes yielded subsequent history of hay fever, family history of asthma, full work history, date of termination or diagnosis, and tobacco smoking history at the end-point. Results: There was a significant positive association between hay fever diagnosed either at or during employment and OAAS (adjusted OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.57 to 8.21). A higher forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC%) at employment reduced the risk of developing OAAS (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99). The risk of OAAS was more than three times higher in individuals with an FER of 70.0–74.9% than in individuals with an FER ⩾80.0% (adjusted OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.89). Conclusions: Individuals with hay fever may be more susceptible to occupational asthma when exposed to airborne irritants in aluminium smelting. The pathological basis may be reduced nasal filtration and increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness. PMID:15208376

  3. Comparison of Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance and conventional occupational therapy on occupational performance in individuals with stroke: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Si-Nae; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae-Yean; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Yoo-Im

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach based on cognitive strategy in occupational therapy. To investigate the effects of CO-OP approach on occupational performance in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study was designed as a 5-week, randomized, single-blind. Forty-three participants who had a diagnosis of first stroke were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 20) or the control group (n = 23). The experimental group conducted CO-OP approach while the control group conducted conventional occupational therapy based on occupational performance components. This study measured Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS). Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and post-intervention. After training, the scores of COPM and PQRS in trained task were significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group. In addition, the non-trained task was significantly higher for the score in the experimental group than the control group in COPM and the PQRS. This study suggests that the CO-OP approach is beneficial effects on the occupational performance to improvement in individuals with hemiparetic stroke, and have positive effects on generalization and transfer of acquired skills.

  4. Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: II. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.E.; Wolfe, W.H.; Miner, J.C. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the current health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. This report compares the noncombat mortality of 1261 Ranch Hand veterans to that of a comparison population of 19,101 other Air Force veterans primarily involved in cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. The indirectly standardized all-cause death rate among Ranch Hands is 2.5 deaths per 1,000 person-years, the same as that among comparison subjects. After adjustment for age, rank, and occupation, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 1.0. In adjusted cause-specific analyses, the authors found no significant group differences regarding accidental, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths. These data are not supportive to a hypothesis of increases mortality among Ranch Hands.

  5. [Occupational hazard related to ionizing radiation and surveillance of exposed people].

    PubMed

    Gérard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In France, around 400,000 persons are occupationaly exposed to ionizing radiations especially in the field of medicine or industry (nuclear plant or other). Outside of accident the effective doses received are low and below the natural annual exposure dose in Paris (2,5 mSv). Epidemiological studies show that in the occupational environment the excess risk of cancexer leukemia related to ionizing radiations is negligible. Doctors performing interventional radiology if not taking safety measures may receive doses above 20 mSv responsible for lens opacity. In case of nuclear plant accident the emergency workers and liquidators may receive life-threatening whole body doses. In general industry accident may be responsible for high local dose and severe radiation necrosis which required a highly sophisticated treatment. Strict observance of radiation safety rules under the responsibility of the head of the company or institution must provide a safe professional environment.

  6. Prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in workers occupationally exposed to swine in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, J; Mesquita, J R; Pereira, S S; Oliveira, R M S; Abreu-Silva, J; Rodrigues, A; Myrmel, M; Stene-Johansen, K; Øverbø, J; Gonçalves, G; Nascimento, M S J

    2017-02-01

    The concept of zoonotic hepatitis E in industrialized countries has emerged with the discovery of swine strains of hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, closely related to human HEV. Different routes of zoonotic HEV transmission have been recognized, including contact with infected pigs. Workers occupationally exposed to swine (WOES) have been considered a risk group for HEV infection, but contradictory results have been reported. In the present study, we searched for anti-HEV IgG in WOES (butchers, slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians and pig farmers; n = 114) and in the general population (n = 804) in order to investigate the potential occupational risk of zoonotic HEV infection in this work group. A significantly higher (p = 0.008) anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence was found in WOES (30.7 %) when compared with the general population (19.9 %). Multivariate analysis showed that having professions with exposure to pigs for more than 16.5 years was a risk factor for being positive for anti-HEV IgG (aOR of 5.4, 95 % CI 1.9-15.6, p = 0.002). To our knowledge, this is the first study on the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in WOES in Portugal, also showing increased probability for infection in this group.

  7. [Otoneurologic and cardiovascular abnormalities associated to carbon monoxide poisoning in occupational exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Martínez, Alma; Reyna-López, Víctor; Rodríguez-Ortega, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Even though Federal Labor Law includes carbon monoxide poisoning in the list of occupational diseases, the registration of this intoxication rarely occurs in a work environment. The objective was to determine the association of this poisoning with cardiovascular and otoneurologic disorders, in order to establish adequately this diagnosis as a work-related illness. Cross-sectional survey performed in a group of broiler production workers, compared with a control group (n = 54). The sample consisted of people aged between 18 and 74 years, males and females, smokers and non-smokers. We excluded those participants with clinical history of cardiac attack. We determined carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) rates in exhaled air, and performed an audiometric test, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. We studied 54 workers (57 % males and 43 % females). We obtained a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) to develop hearing loss between the two groups, an odds ratio > 1 also in regards to hearing loss, and cardiovascular manifestations (anterior fascicle hemiblock). Otoneurologic and cardiovascular abnormalities in occupationally exposed workers to carbon monoxide are not casual, and suggest a cause-effect relationship.

  8. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii Antibodies Among Ruminants and Occupationally Exposed People in Thailand, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Doung-Ngern, Pawinee; Chuxnum, Teerasak; Pangjai, Decha; Opaschaitat, Pattarin; Kittiwan, Nattinee; Rodtian, Pranee; Buameetoop, Noppawan; Kersh, Gilbert J; Padungtod, Pawin

    2017-04-01

    AbstractLittle is known about the burden of Q fever in Thailand. We conducted a serological study to describe the prevalence of anti-Coxiella burnetii antibodies among ruminants and occupationally exposed persons in response to the report of the first two Q fever endocarditis patients in Thailand in 2012. We randomly selected ruminant sera from brucellosis surveillance and examined sera of 661 occupationally exposed subjects from two provinces of Thailand: Chiangmai and Nakornratchasima. Animal and human sera were tested using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Environmental samples, vaginal swab, and milk from cows in Chiangmai farms with detectable anti-C. burnetii serum antibodies were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among the 1,632 animal sera tested, 64 (3.9%) were seropositive. The prevalence was highest in dairy cattle (4.6%, 45/988), followed by goats (3.5%, 18/516) and sheep (2.1%, 1/48). The prevalence of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in each species varied significantly by province: the prevalence in cattle was higher in Chiangmai (5.5% versus 0%), however, the prevalence in sheep and goats was higher in Nakornratchasima (5.9% versus 1.0%). Four out of 60 milk samples were positive by PCR (6.7%). No environmental samples were positive. Among 661 human samples, 83 (12.6%) were ELISA positive. Seroprevalence was statistically higher in Chiangmai compare with Nakornratchasima (42.8% versus 3.0%). Coxiella burnetii infection exists in Thailand, but the prevalence varies by geographic distribution and animal reservoirs. Further studies focusing on the burden and risk factors of C. burnetii infection among high-risk groups should be conducted.

  9. [Effect of digital radiography processing parameters on digital chest radiograph for occupational exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-hua; Liu, Dong-sheng; Xuan, Xiao; Kang, Han; Yuan, Hui-shu

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effect of different processing parameters of digital radiography (DR) on the image quality of digital chest radiograph in dust-exposed workers. One hundred and five dust-exposed workers underwent both high-KV radiography and DR to obtain chest radiographs; the image processing parameters were set by the conventional processing method for digital chest radiograph (method A) and the processing method based on the special requirements of occupational diseases (method B). With the high-KV chest radiograph as the reference, the image qualities at 10 anatomic sites of DR image were graded. The images acquired by DR and high-KV radiography were compared, and the DR images acquired by methods A and B were also compared. For method A, the scores at the 10 anatomic sites of DR image were mostly 0 and +1, accounting for over 88%, and the mean score was 0.23 ∼ 0.65, there was a significant difference between the mean score of DR image and the score of high-KV image (P < 0.001). For method B, the scores at the 10 anatomic sites of DR image were mostly 0, accounting for over 65%, and the mean score was -0.01∼ +0.02 except at the pleura and chest wall; there was no significant difference between the mean score of DR image and the score of high-KV image (P > 0.05). There were significant differences in the scores at the 10 anatomic sites between the DR images acquired by methods A and B (P < 0.01). The DR images acquired based on different processing parameters are different. The quality of DR image acquired by the processing method based on the special requirements of occupational diseases is similar to that of high-KV image at the anatomic sites.

  10. Brominated flame retardant: environmental and exposed individuals' health impact.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Patrice; Charlier, Corinne

    2017-04-01

    Since Antiquity, men have used chemicals to protect their goods against fire. Effective and easy to use, brominated flame retardants are used since decades massively in plastic industry. Such like other organohalogenated compounds, brominated flame retardants are very persistent in the environment and able to accumulate along the food chain. Many authors highlight their presence in the environment, in many animal species and in the human serum. Worryingly, man is exposed as soon as the pregnancy and then by the breastfeeding. This exposition may have consequence on our health. Many studies (in vitro, in vivo or epidemiologic) highlight brominated flame retardant negative effects on the endocrine system, mainly on the thyroid function but also on the reproduction, the neurodevelopment in the children and on the metabolism with increasing diabetes risk. If authorities and some big enterprises are aware about the problematic, new studies are needed to confirm previous results, elucidate endocrine disrupting mechanisms and highlight hypothetical synergies with other pollutants such like PCBs.

  11. Evaluation of genome damage in subjects occupationally exposed to possible carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Zeljezic, Davor; Mladinic, Marin; Kopjar, Nevenka; Radulovic, Azra Hursidic

    2016-09-01

    In occupational exposures, populations are simultaneously exposed to a mixture of chemicals. We aimed to evaluate DNA damage due to possible carcinogen exposure (phenylhydrazine, ethylene oxide, dichloromethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane) in lymphocytes of pharmaceutical industry workers from the same production line. Population comprised 16 subjects (9 females and 7 males) who were exposed to multiple chemicals for 8 months. Genome damage was assessed using alkaline comet assay, micronucleus assay, and comet assay coupled with fluorescent in situ hybridization (comet-FISH). After 8 months of exposure, the issue of irregular use of all available personal protective equipment (PPE) came into light. To decrease the risk of exposure, strict use of PPE was enforced. After 8 months of strict PPE use, micronuclei frequency and comet assay parameters in lymphocytes of pharmaceutical workers significantly decreased compared with prior period of irregular PPE use. Comet-FISH results indicated a significant shift in distribution of signals for the TP 53 gene toward a more frequent occurrence in the comet tail. Prolonged exposure to possible carcinogens may hinder DNA repair mechanisms and affect structural integrity of TP 53 Two indicators of loss of TP 53 gene integrity have risen, namely, TP 53 fragmentation rate in lymphocytes with persistently elevated primary damage and incidence of TP 53 deletions in undamaged lymphocytes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. A long-term mortality study of workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    Godbold, J H; Tompkins, E A

    1979-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether mortality from respiratory cancer among workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) differed from that of workers at the same plant with no record of occupational exposure to metallic nickel or any nickel compound. A cohort of ,14 nickel-exposed workers and one of 1600' controls were identified. The members of both cohorts had a minimum follow-up period of 19 years. Mortality from respiratory cancer and from other causes was examined in both groups. The data showed no evidence of an increased risk of mortality due to respiratory cancer among the nickel-exposed workers. The exposed cohort experienced lower mortality than the controls, both in deaths due to respiratory cancer and in deaths due to all causes, although neither of these differences was statistically significant.

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  14. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  15. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  17. Gene-specific promoter methylation is associated with micronuclei frequency in urothelial cells from individuals exposed to organic solvents and paints.

    PubMed

    Hoyos-Giraldo, L S; Escobar-Hoyos, L F; Saavedra-Trujillo, D; Reyes-Carvajal, I; Muñoz, A; Londoño-Velasco, E; Tello, A; Cajas-Salazar, N; Ruíz, M; Carvajal, S; Santella, R M

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient epidemiologic evidence has established an etiologic link between bladder cancer risk and occupational exposure as a painter to organic solvents. Currently, it remains to be established whether gene-specific promoter methylation contributes to bladder cancer development, including by enhancing chromosome breakage or loss. We investigated the effect of chronic exposure to organic solvents and paints on DNA methylation profiles in the promoter regions of four genes (GSTP1, p16(INK4a), APC and CDH1) and micronucleus (MN) frequency in exfoliated urothelial cells from voided urine from Colombian male non-smoking car painters and age-matched unexposed individuals. The exposed group had a higher percentage of individuals with >2 MNs/2000 cells compared with the unexposed group (P=0.04). Gene-specific analysis showed a significantly higher percentage of individuals with methylated GSTP1, p16(INK4a) and APC in the exposed group. Poisson regression analysis indicated that exposed individuals with methylated GSTP1 and p16(INK4a) promoters were more than twofold more likely to have an increase in MN frequency as compared with the reference. Finally, among exposed individuals with GSTP1 and p16(INK4a) methylated promoters, those with a greater age had a higher RR of increased MN frequency compared with younger exposed individuals with methylated promoters. These results support the conclusion that gene-specific promoter methylation may increase MN frequency in a dependent or independent interaction with occupational exposure to organic solvents.

  18. Biological monitoring of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs: urinary excretion and cytogenetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, A S; Huber, R; Pethran, A; Römmelt, H; Schierl, R; Kulka, U; Fruhmann, G

    1997-01-01

    For evaluation of the risk borne by hospital pharmacy personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents, the incorporation of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and platinum-containing drugs was quantified by the determination of urinary concentrations. In addition, the induction of micronuclei (MN) and sister-chromatid-exchange (SCE) rates in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied for correlation with the urinary excretion of cytostatic drugs. Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide were determined in 24-h urine samples using gas chromatography with electron capture (detection limit 2.5 micrograms/l). Voltammetric analysis enabled the determination of platinum concentrations of 4 ng/l. Heparinized blood (20 ml) was drawn and lymphocytes were cultured for MN and SCE studies. In all, 13 hospital pharmacists and pharmacy technicians regularly involved in the preparation of cytostatic drugs participated in this investigation (7 persons represent a follow-up group). All subjects applied standard safety precautions, including the use of a vertical laminar air-flow hood, protective gowns, and latex gloves. On the day of urine sampling an average of 4,870 mg cyclophosphamide, 5,580 mg ifosfamide, and 504 mg platinum-containing drugs were handled. The excretion of 5 and 9 micrograms cyclophosphamide/l urine was measured in two samples, respectively. An elevated level of urinary platinum was found in one pharmacist (22.3 ng/g creatinine) in comparison with a nonexposed control group. Mean frequencies of MN and SCE did not differ significantly between the drug exposed group and control group. The employees who had incorporated chemotherapeutic agents were part of the follow-up group and, thus, particularly cautious and sensitive to a possible hazard. The results emphasize the necessity of improving personal protection of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs and support the importance of biological monitoring. In an ongoing project in our department the

  19. [Follow-up of subjects occupationally exposed to asbestos, what are the objectives, the benefits, and the possible risks?].

    PubMed

    Dalphin, J-C

    2011-12-01

    The follow-up of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos has two possible beneficial effects: (1) individually, both medical by screening for diseases related to asbestos and social by notification of occupational disease and/or compensation from the indemnity funds for asbestos victims; (2) collectively, by the establishment of epidemiological surveillance (follow-up of cohorts) and evaluation of the impact of follow-up in terms of health benefits and compensation. The respiratory disorders related to asbestos are: cancer (malignant pleural mesothelioma and bronchial carcinoma), asbestos-related pulmonary fibrosis, and pleural disease (plaques, pleural fibrosis and benign pleurisy). In the light of the data currently available and the effectiveness of the tools used, medical and public health benefits of screening for mesothelioma have not been demonstrated. The early diagnosis of primary bronchial carcinoma can theoretically improve the prognosis of the subjects screened, particularly by identification of stage I disease on CT (pulmonary nodules). This is a common finding but there are a large number of false-positives. While we await the results of several international randomised trials, the benefits of a screening programme for bronchial carcinoma in the population at risk have not been demonstrated. There is no effective treatment for asbestosis but this is an independent risk factor for bronchial carcinoma and it is evidence of heavy asbestos exposure. Stopping smoking in subjects suffering from asbestosis will reduce the incidence of bronchial carcinoma. There is no effective treatment for asbestos-related benign pleural diseases but these are markers of exposure. The presence of pleural plaques has not been shown to be an aetiological factor for thoracic cancers. Post-occupational follow-up may involve risks to health, particularly repeated irradiation and invasive diagnostic procedures. It is also necessary to consider the psychological consequences

  20. Biomonitorization of cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva in an occupationally exposed population.

    PubMed

    Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Márquez, Claudia; Femia, Pedro; Olmedo, Pablo; López-Guarnido, Olga; Pla, Antonio

    2011-02-15

    Heavy metal contamination from occupational origin is a cause for concern because of its potential accumulation in the environment and in living organisms leading to long term toxic effects. This study was aimed to assess Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb levels in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva from 178 individuals with occupational exposure to heavy metals. Levels of metal compounds were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. We collected information on occupation, lifestyle habits and food intake by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses for metal ion concentration in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva were adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, lifetime workplace exposure, residence area and food habits. Overall, blood and urine median concentrations found for the five metals analyzed do not exceed biological exposure indexes, so that they are very similar to a non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicokinetic differences may account for the lack of correlations found for metal levels in hair and saliva with those in blood or urine. For those heavy metals showing higher median levels in blood with respect to hair (Cd, Mn and Pb) indicating lesser hair incorporation from blood, the lifetime working experience was inversely correlated with their hair levels. The longer the lifetime working experience in industrial environments, the higher the Mn and Ni concentration in saliva. Axillary hair and saliva may be used as additional and/or alternative samples to blood or urine for biomonitoring hair Mn, and saliva Ni in subjects with occupational exposure.

  1. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Massimo; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Feretti, Donatella; Pavanello, Sofia; Mussi, Francesca; Grollino, Maria G; Villarini, Milena; Barbieri, Anna; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Carrieri, Mariella; Buschini, Annamaria; Appolloni, Massimo; Dominici, Luca; Sabatini, Laura; Gelatti, Umberto; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Poli, Paola; Stronati, Laura; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Monarca, Silvano

    2011-03-30

    Some industrial hygiene studies have assessed occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs; other epidemiological investigations have detected various toxicological effects in exposure groups labeled with the job title. In no research has the same population been studied both environmentally and epidemiologically. The protocol of the epidemiological study presented here uses an integrated environmental and biological monitoring approach. The aim is to assess in hospital nurses preparing and/or administering therapy to cancer patients the current level of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, DNA and chromosome damage as cancer predictive effects, and the association between the two. About 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses, who job it is to prepare or handle antineoplastic drugs, and a reference group of about 80 healthy non-smoking female nurses not occupationally exposed to chemicals will be examined simultaneously in a cross-sectional study. All the workers will be recruited from five hospitals in northern and central Italy after their informed consent has been obtained.Evaluation of surface contamination and dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs will be assessed by determining cyclophosphamide on selected surfaces (wipes) and on the exposed nurses' clothes (pads). The concentration of unmetabolized cyclophosphamide as a biomarker of internal dose will be measured in end-shift urine samples from exposed nurses. Biomarkers of effect and susceptibility will be assessed in exposed and unexposed nurses: urinary concentration of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; DNA damage detected using the single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay in peripheral white blood cells; micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Genetic polymorphisms for enzymes involved in metabolic detoxification (i.e. glutathione S-transferases) will also be analysed.Using standardized questionnaires, occupational exposure will be determined in exposed

  2. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    be determined in exposed nurses only, whereas potential confounders (medicine consumption, lifestyle habits, diet and other non-occupational exposures) will be assessed in both groups of hospital workers. Statistical analysis will be performed to ascertain the association between occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and biomarkers of DNA and chromosome damage, after taking into account the effects of individual genetic susceptibility, and the presence of confounding exposures. Discussion The findings of the study will be useful in updating prevention procedures for handling antineoplastic drugs. PMID:21450074

  3. Associations among occupational roles, independence, assistive technology, and purchasing power of individuals with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Daniel Marinho Cezar; Emmel, Maria Luisa Guillaumon

    2013-01-01

    to verify whether there are associations among occupational roles, independence to perform Activities of Daily Living, purchasing power, and assistive technology for individuals with physical disabilities. 91 individuals with physical disabilities participated in the study. The instruments used were: Role Checklist, Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion, Barthel Index, and a Questionnaire to characterize the subjects. an association with a greater number of roles was found among more independent individuals using a lower number of technological devices. Higher purchasing power was associated with a lower functional status of dependence. even though technology was not directly associated with independence, the latter was associated with a greater number of occupational roles, which requires reflection upon independence issues when considering the participation in occupational roles. These findings support interdisciplinary actions designed to promote occupational roles in individuals with physical disabilities.

  4. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  5. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Asuquo, Asuquo E

    2017-02-21

    The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase) activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), antioxidant enzyme activities, etc.), conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental effects. Int J

  6. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  7. Correlation of axon size and myelin occupancy in rats prenatally exposed to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Melo, Pedro; Pinazo-Durán, Maria Dolores; Salgado-Borges, José; Tavares, Maria Amélia

    2008-07-30

    The abuse of methamphetamine (MA) and other psychostimulants is a social and medical problem. In particular, the use of these drugs by pregnant women results in an increased number of children exposed prenatally to psychostimulants. Our previous work has demonstrated that prenatal exposure to MA affects the normal development of the rat visual system due to alterations of biochemical mechanisms and oxidative stress. It was also demonstrated that prenatal exposure to MA affects the dopaminergic system of the rat retina and optic nerve (ON) myelination. The present work was conducted to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to MA on the development of the ON in terms of axon growth and the myelin sheath. Pregnant female rats were given 5 mg/kg/day MA, subcutaneously (s.c.), in 0.9% saline from gestational day (GD) 8 to 22. The pair-fed control group was injected s.c. with an isovolumetric dose of 0.9% saline. Qualitative analysis was performed using representative electron ultramicrographs. Quantitative analysis was performed at an electron microscopic level on ON cross sections; parameters measured included myelinated/unmyelinated ratio, outer axon mean area, inner axon mean area, myelin mean area, myelin occupancy and distribution of axons by size. The ON of prenatally MA-exposed rats presented a higher rate of deformed axons and slighter lamellar separation. At PND 21, the average outer axon area of MA-treated males was significantly reduced. The average inner axon area only showed a significant difference between MA and control males for axons with an area of less than 0.3 microm(2). The average myelin area of MA-treated males was significantly reduced, and in MA-treated females was only significantly reduced in axons with an area of less than 0.3 microm(2). The percentage of myelin occupancy was significantly affected in MA-treated males, and in MA-treated females in the group of axons with an area of more than 0.3 microm(2). At PND 14 no significant

  8. [Studing the health status of workers occupationally exposed to carbon disulfide].

    PubMed

    Song, Hai-yan; Wei, Chun-long; Dong, Qiu; Wang, Mei-lin; Ji, Chun-ping; Hou, Zhi-guo; Lu, Xiao-min; Xu, Jin; Wang, Shou-yu; Zhu, Bao-li; Ni, Chun-hui

    2012-06-01

    To study the effects of carbon disulfide (CS(2)) on the health of workers, and to provide the basis for the further preventive measures. The occupational health examination of 881 workers exposed to CS(2) in a chemical fiber factory was carried out according to the national technical standard of occupational health surveillance. The time weighted average concentrations (TWA) of CS(2) in the workshops of short silk and long silk exceeded the national standard, The workers in these two workshops served as the high exposure group. The workers of the other workshops were classified as low exposure group, in which TWA met the national standard. All exposed workers were also divided into long-term exposure group and short-term exposure group on the basis of average exposure years (16 years). The statistical analysis was used by t test, χ(2), and fisher exact test. The symptom rates of numbness, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia and headache were 12.5%, 8.5%, 8.2%, 7.5%, and 7.2% respectively. The abnormal rates of superficial sensation, three fibrillation, achilles tendon reflex, patellar reflex, EMG, hypertension, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B were 33.0%, 26.1%, 20.8%, 18.6%, 10.8%, 33.4%, 24.5%, 17.0% and 9.3% respectively. Among the high exposure group, the abnormal detectable rates of dizziness, headache, fatigue, insomnia, numbness, achilles tendon reflex, superficial and deep sensation, EMG, hypertension, ECG, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein in long-term exposure group were significantly higher than those in short-term exposure group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, among the low exposure group, the abnormal rates of the insomnia achilles tendon reflex and superficial sensation in long term exposure group were significantly higher than those of short term exposure group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The detected rates of hypertension, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, creatinine and uric acid were in males

  9. Brief Report: A Growth Mixture Model of Occupational Aspirations of Individuals with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A previous longitudinal study of the occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities revealed multiple longitudinal patterns for individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavioral disorders. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether individuals in these two high-incidence disabilities groups (N =…

  10. Brief Report: A Growth Mixture Model of Occupational Aspirations of Individuals with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A previous longitudinal study of the occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities revealed multiple longitudinal patterns for individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavioral disorders. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether individuals in these two high-incidence disabilities groups (N =…

  11. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  12. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers

    PubMed Central

    Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”, Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100–200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  13. A trace metal survey of non-occupationally exposed Gauteng residents.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerry; Kielkowski, Danuta; Theodoru, Penny; Naik, Ina

    2011-10-01

    Specific reference values for background levels of body burden of trace metals are not available for South Africa. Currently, laboratories measuring trace metal levels in workers use internationaly established values for comparison. A preliminary cross-sectional survey of 107 non-occupationally exposed volunteers of both genders and all races provided blood and urine samples. The samples were collected with consideration for possible routes of contamination. Seven metals were measured in blood and ten in urine. Reference ranges for a Gauteng population were then calculated using the central 95% of data to provide lower and upper limits, which were then compared to international limits. The trace metal levels described had both lower and higher reference ranges in blood and urine compared to international studies. This reflects the differences in the environments. Statistically significant differences in metal levels were observed by gender. The differences in detected trace metal levels in our sample as compared to other published data demonstrate the need for the establishment of local reference values for laboratories. The establishment of local 95% reference ranges would also allow South Africa to determine its exposure levels compared to those internationally. This would assist with establishing pollution control priorities.

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Priyanka; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-10-09

    GSTM1, T1 and P1 are important enzymes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), involved in the metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Individual genetic variation in these metabolizing enzymes may influence the metabolism of their substrates. The present study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects using DNA damage and its association with GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual PCR or PCR-RFLP. Significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) was observed in workers as compared to control subjects (14.41 ± 2.25 vs. 6.36 ± 1.41 tail % DNA, p<0.001). The results revealed significantly higher DNA TM in workers with GSTM1 null genotype than those with GSTM1 positive (15.18 vs. 14.15 tail % DNA, p=0.03). A significantly higher DNA TM was also observed in workers with homozygous Ile-Ile GSTP1 genotype than heterozygous (Ile-Val) and mutant (Val-Val) GSTP1 genotype (p=0.02). In conclusion, the results show that null deletion of GSTM1 and homozygote wild GSTP1 genotype could be related to inter-individual differences in DNA damage arises from the gene-environment interactions in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship between mercury in kidney, blood, and urine in environmentally exposed individuals, and implications for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    Individuals without occupational exposure are exposed to mercury (Hg) from diet and dental amalgam. The kidney is a critical organ, but there is limited information regarding the relationship between Hg in kidney (K-Hg), urine (U-Hg), blood (B-Hg), and plasma (P-Hg). The aim was to determine the relationship between K-Hg, U-Hg, B-Hg, and P-Hg among environmentally exposed individuals, estimate the biological half-time of K-Hg, and provide information useful for biomonitoring of Hg. Kidney cortex biopsies and urine and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Total Hg concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Hg, U-Hg, P-Hg, and B-Hg were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Hg was estimated from the elimination constant. There were strong associations between K-Hg and all measures of U-Hg and P-Hg (rp=0.65-0.84, p<0.001), while the association with B-Hg was weaker (rp=0.29, p=0.002). Mean ratios between K-Hg (in μg/g) and U-Hg/24h (in μg) and B-Hg (in μg/L) were 0.22 and 0.19 respectively. Estimates of the biological half-time varied between 30 and 92days, with significantly slower elimination in women. Adjusting overnight urine samples for dilution using urinary creatinine resulted in less bias in relation to K-Hg or U-Hg/24h, compared with other adjustment techniques. The relationship between K-Hg and U-Hg is approximately linear. K-Hg can be estimated using U-Hg and gender. Women have longer half-time of Hg in kidney compared to men. Adjusting overnight urine samples for creatinine concentration resulted in less bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A retrospective occupational cohort study of end-stage renal disease in aircraft workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Radican, Larry; Wartenberg, Daniel; Rhoads, George G; Schneider, Dona; Wedeen, Richard; Stewart, Patricia; Blair, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Case-control studies suggest hydrocarbons increase end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk. No cohort studies have been conducted. An occupational database was matched to the U.S. Renal Data System, and the outcome of all-cause ESRD was examined using multivariable Cox regression. Sixteen individual hydrocarbons were studied, although exposures were not mutually exclusive. For the 1973-2000 period, there was an approximate twofold increased risk of ESRD among workers exposed to trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and JP4 gasoline compared with unexposed subjects (all P < 0.05). Relative risk was greater than unity (P > 0.05) for several other hydrocarbons. Associations attenuated (all P > 0.05) when 2001-2002 data were included in the analyses. Certain hydrocarbons may increase all-cause ESRD risk. Uncertainty regarding the mechanism for increased risk and the observed attenuation in risk in 2001-2002, as well as the overlap of exposures, complicates interpretation. Additional research is needed.

  17. [Findings of standard and high-frequency audiometry in workers exposed to occupational noise for long durations].

    PubMed

    Türkkahraman, Sami; Gök, Uzeyir; Karlidağ, Turgut; Keleş, Erol; Oztürk, Ahmet

    2003-04-01

    Changes in hearing thresholds were determined by standard and high-frequency audiometry in subjects exposed to occupational noise for long durations. Hearing thresholds were measured between 250 and 16000 Hz frequencies by standard and high-frequency audiometry in 64 male workers (mean age 42 years; range 31 to 55 years) of a hydroelectric power plant and in 30 age- and sex-matched controls with no hearing problems. The workers were divided into three groups according to the noise level and into four groups according to the duration of exposure. The mean hearing thresholds of workers showed significant increases in all frequencies from 4000 to 16000 Hz (p<0.005), the most affected frequencies being 4000, 6000, 14000, and 16000 Hz (p<0.0005). Increases in hearing thresholds were significantly correlated with the noise level and duration of exposure to noise (p<0.05). The results suggest that high-frequency audiometry should be used together with standard audiometry in the detection and follow-up of individuals who are at potential risks for hearing losses.

  18. Cadmium concentration in the kidney cortex of occupationally exposed workers measured in vivo using X-ray fluorescence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffersson, J.O.; Welinder, H.; Spang, G.M.; Mattsson, S.; Skerfving, S.

    1987-04-01

    A method for in vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis of the cadmium concentration in the kidney cortex has been improved and tested in 20 selected male occupationally cadmium-exposed workers (duration of exposure 7-39 years). The concentration of cadmium in kidney cortex ranged from 47 to 317 (median 141) micrograms/g. The concentration of cadmium in blood was 32-160 (median 64) nmole/liter, cadmium in urine was 2.5-13 (median 5.4) nmole/mmole creatinine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine was 3.3-68 (median 14) micrograms/mmole creatinine. In individuals, the relationship between duration of exposure, time-integrated exposure, and cadmium level in urine on the one hand and cadmium level in the kidney on the other varied considerably. Direct in vivo analysis of the concentration of cadmium in the kidney cortex is therefore valuable as a complement to the other tests when monitoring cadmium exposure. Our method is sensitive, practically free from risk, and can b performed by routine at low costs.

  19. A Retrospective Occupational Cohort Study of End-Stage Renal Disease in Aircraft Workers Exposed to Trichloroethylene and Other Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Radican, Larry; Wartenberg, Daniel; Rhoads, George G.; Schneider, Dona; Wedeen, Richard; Stewart, Patricia; Blair, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Objective Case–control studies suggest hydrocarbons increase end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk. No cohort studies have been conducted. Methods An occupational database was matched to the U.S. Renal Data System, and the outcome of all-cause ESRD was examined using multivariable Cox regression. Sixteen individual hydrocarbons were studied, although exposures were not mutually exclusive. Results For the 1973–2000 period, there was an approximate twofold increased risk of ESRD among workers exposed to trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and JP4 gasoline compared with unexposed subjects (all P < 0.05). Relative risk was greater than unity (P > 0.05) for several other hydrocarbons. Associations attenuated (all P > 0.05) when 2001–2002 data were included in the analyses. Conclusions Certain hydrocarbons may increase all-cause ESRD risk. Uncertainty regarding the mechanism for increased risk and the observed attenuation in risk in 2001–2002, as well as the overlap of exposures, complicates interpretation. Additional research is needed. PMID:16404204

  20. Use of genotypic selection to detect P53 codon 273 CGT>CTT transversion: application to an occupationally exposed population.

    PubMed

    Carton, T; Tan, X D; Hartemann, P; Joyeux, M

    2007-01-01

    CGT>CTT transversion in codon 273 of the P53 tumor-suppressor gene is one of the major mutations detected in human tumors. Within an epidemiological framework, we investigated the use of a genotypic selection method to measure this point mutation. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) that was developed was able to detect 10 mutant copies of the gene among a total of 5 x 10(5) wild-type copies. We used this assay to detect CGT>CTT transversions in buccal cell DNA of production workers (n=76) from a viscose factory exposed to carbon disulfide (amongst other pollutants) and in the DNA of non-exposed office workers (n=67). The mutation appeared more frequently in the exposed than in the non-exposed worker who were smokers. The results of the study indicate that occupational exposure results in a significant increase in P53 CGT>CTT transversions and more especially identified occupational exposure in combination with smoking as a significant risk factor for the mutation. We conclude that AS-PCR of the P53 273rd codon transversions is a suitable technique for studying the effects of occupational exposure.

  1. Occupational stress as it relates to higher education, individuals and organizations.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, Maria; Asimenos, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    This study examined through survey research methodology the degree to which, faculty, administrators and program coordinators, working in higher education, experience stress at work. The Occupational Stress Indicator was used, composed of four compound factors: sources of occupational stress, individual characteristics, coping strategies and the effects of stress. Preliminary findings showed that occupational stress has a negative impact on the degree of satisfaction with their achievement, value and growth, being strongest with faculty and coordinators, (dissatisfaction with career opportunities, personal growth, skill utilization). Another significant outcome was the dissatisfaction of faculty with the organizational design, structure and processes (communication, change implementation, motivation, supervision style, participation in decision-making). All possess individual characteristics of the Type A Scale; they all considered major sources of pressure in their jobs to be their relationships with others, home/work interface, their need to achieve personal and corporate success. Occupational stress has affected their state of health.

  2. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal...

  3. Frequent Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Yee, JoAnn L.; Ely, John J.; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E.; Folks, Thomas M.; Heneine, Walid

    2004-01-01

    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of these zoonotic infections are not fully defined. Surveillance for simian retroviruses at three research centers and two zoos identified no SIV, SRV, or STLV infection in 187 participants. However, 10 of 187 persons (5.3%) tested positive for SFV antibodies by Western blot (WB) analysis. Eight of the 10 were males, and 3 of the 10 worked at zoos. SFV integrase gene (int) and gag sequences were PCR amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes available from 9 of the 10 persons. Phylogenetic analysis showed SFV infection originating from chimpanzees (n = 8) and baboons (n = 1). SFV seropositivity for periods of 8 to 26 years (median, 22 years) was documented for six workers for whom archived serum samples were available, demonstrating long-standing SFV infection. All 10 persons reported general good health, and secondary transmission of SFV was not observed in three wives available for WB and PCR testing. Additional phylogenetic analysis of int and gag sequences provided the first direct evidence identifying the source chimpanzees of the SFV infection in two workers. This study documents more frequent infection with SFV than with other simian retroviruses in persons working with NHPs and provides important information on the natural history and species origin of these infections. Our data highlight the importance of studies to better define the public health implications of zoonotic SFV infections. PMID:14990698

  4. Frequent simian foamy virus infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-Er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W; Yee, JoAnn L; Ely, John J; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E; Folks, Thomas M; Heneine, Walid

    2004-03-01

    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of these zoonotic infections are not fully defined. Surveillance for simian retroviruses at three research centers and two zoos identified no SIV, SRV, or STLV infection in 187 participants. However, 10 of 187 persons (5.3%) tested positive for SFV antibodies by Western blot (WB) analysis. Eight of the 10 were males, and 3 of the 10 worked at zoos. SFV integrase gene (int) and gag sequences were PCR amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes available from 9 of the 10 persons. Phylogenetic analysis showed SFV infection originating from chimpanzees (n = 8) and baboons (n = 1). SFV seropositivity for periods of 8 to 26 years (median, 22 years) was documented for six workers for whom archived serum samples were available, demonstrating long-standing SFV infection. All 10 persons reported general good health, and secondary transmission of SFV was not observed in three wives available for WB and PCR testing. Additional phylogenetic analysis of int and gag sequences provided the first direct evidence identifying the source chimpanzees of the SFV infection in two workers. This study documents more frequent infection with SFV than with other simian retroviruses in persons working with NHPs and provides important information on the natural history and species origin of these infections. Our data highlight the importance of studies to better define the public health implications of zoonotic SFV infections.

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydrogenase (ALAD) Variants and Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk among Individuals Exposed to Lead

    PubMed Central

    van Bemmel, Dana M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Liao, Linda M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Menashe, Idan; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David; Matteev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Hellena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Mates, Dana; Slamova, Alena; Rothman, Nathaniel; Han, Summer S.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead. Methods The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796CT/TT was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05–1.73, p-value = 0.02) when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles (GGOR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17–6.12, p = 0.01; GAOR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06–3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (pint = 0.06).. No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N). Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results. Conclusion A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure. PMID:21799727

  6. Occupational dermatitis in hairdressers - influence of individual and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Carøe, Tanja K; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Agner, Tove

    2017-03-01

    Hairdressers are at risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis because of their intense contact with wet work in combination with chemicals. To perform an analysis of a cohort study of hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis recognized in the period 2006-2011, focusing on individual and environmental factors associated with the disease. The study was a descriptive, register-based survey including all hairdressers with recognized occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in the period January 2006 to September 2011. Data were obtained from the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The study comprised 381 patients (373 women and 8 men). The median age was 25 years, 64.8% were apprentices, and 35.2% were fully trained hairdressers. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 36.0%, and was significantly higher among apprentices than among fully trained hairdressers (44.9% and 19.4%, respectively) (p < 0.001). Of the patients, 48.3% had their dermatitis recognized as occupational irritant contact dermatitis, 46.7% had their dermatitis recognized as as occupational allergic contact dermatitis or combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, and 5.0% were recognized as having occupational contact urticaria. The low median age, the high percentages of atopic dermatitis in apprentices and the fact that more apprentices than fully trained hairdressers had recognized occupational contact dermatitis underlines the importance of early prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Poręba, Rafał Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlations analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear relationships

  8. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed Central

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  9. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  10. Auditory Brainstem Responses for Click and CE-chirp Stimuli in Individuals with and without Occupational Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pushpalatha, Zeena Venkatacheluvaiah; Konadath, Sreeraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Encoding of CE-chirp and click stimuli in auditory system was studied using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) among individuals with and without noise exposure. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of two groups. Group 1 (experimental group) consisted of 20 (40 ears) individuals exposed to occupational noise with hearing thresholds within 25 dB HL. They were further divided into three subgroups based on duration of noise exposure (0–5 years of exposure-T1, 5–10 years of exposure-T2, and >10 years of exposure-T3). Group 2 (control group) consisted of 20 individuals (40 ears). Absolute latency and amplitude of waves I, III, and V were compared between the two groups for both click and CE-chirp stimuli. T1, T2, and T3 groups were compared for the same parameters to see the effect of noise exposure duration on CE-chirp and click ABR. Result: In Click ABR, while both the parameters for wave III were significantly poorer for the experimental group, wave V showed a significant decline in terms of amplitude only. There was no significant difference obtained for any of the parameters for wave I. In CE-Chirp ABR, the latencies for all three waves were significantly prolonged in the experimental group. However, there was a significant decrease in terms of amplitude in only wave V for the same group. Discussion: Compared to click evoked ABR, CE-Chirp ABR was found to be more sensitive in comparison of latency parameters in individuals with occupational noise exposure. Monitoring of early pathological changes at the brainstem level can be studied effectively by using CE-Chirp stimulus in comparison to click stimulus. Conclusion: This study indicates that ABR's obtained with CE-chirp stimuli serves as an effective tool to identify the early pathological changes due to occupational noise exposure when compared to click evoked ABR. PMID:27762255

  11. Auditory brainstem responses for click and CE-chirp stimuli in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, Zeena Venkatacheluvaiah; Konadath, Sreeraj

    2016-01-01

    Encoding of CE-chirp and click stimuli in auditory system was studied using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) among individuals with and without noise exposure. The study consisted of two groups. Group 1 (experimental group) consisted of 20 (40 ears) individuals exposed to occupational noise with hearing thresholds within 25 dB HL. They were further divided into three subgroups based on duration of noise exposure (0-5 years of exposure-T1, 5-10 years of exposure-T2, and >10 years of exposure-T3). Group 2 (control group) consisted of 20 individuals (40 ears). Absolute latency and amplitude of waves I, III, and V were compared between the two groups for both click and CE-chirp stimuli. T1, T2, and T3 groups were compared for the same parameters to see the effect of noise exposure duration on CE-chirp and click ABR. In Click ABR, while both the parameters for wave III were significantly poorer for the experimental group, wave V showed a significant decline in terms of amplitude only. There was no significant difference obtained for any of the parameters for wave I. In CE-Chirp ABR, the latencies for all three waves were significantly prolonged in the experimental group. However, there was a significant decrease in terms of amplitude in only wave V for the same group. Compared to click evoked ABR, CE-Chirp ABR was found to be more sensitive in comparison of latency parameters in individuals with occupational noise exposure. Monitoring of early pathological changes at the brainstem level can be studied effectively by using CE-Chirp stimulus in comparison to click stimulus. This study indicates that ABR's obtained with CE-chirp stimuli serves as an effective tool to identify the early pathological changes due to occupational noise exposure when compared to click evoked ABR.

  12. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in individuals exposed to long-term low concentrations of toluene.

    PubMed

    Vrca, A; Karacić, V; Bozicević, D; Bozikov, V; Malinar, M

    1996-07-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were examined in 49 workers employed in a printing press, who were occupationally exposed to low concentrations of toluene for an average of 20.3 years, and in 59 subjects in a control group. In the group of exposed workers, a significant decrease was found in all wave amplitudes examined, a significant prolongation of P1 wave latency, and an increased interval of interpeak latencies (P3-P5), indicating that the extramedullary and high medullary part of the auditory pathway are biologically most frequently affected by chronic exposure to low concentrations of toluene. The level of exposure to toluene in both groups was evaluated by defining the concentration of toluene in peripheral blood and the concentration of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol in urine.

  13. Immediate hypersensitivity type of occupational laryngitis in a welder exposed to welding fumes of stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Hannu, Timo; Piipari, Ritva; Toskala, Elina

    2006-05-01

    Although upper respiratory symptoms have been reported to occur in welders, occupational laryngitis of immediate hypersensitivity type due to welding fumes of stainless steel has not been previously reported. Occupational laryngitis was diagnosed based on the specific challenge test combined with the patient's history of occupational exposure and laryngeal symptoms. During the past few years, a 50-year-old man had started to experience laryngeal symptoms while welding stainless steel. The welding challenge test with stainless steel caused significant changes in the laryngeal status 30 min after challenge: increased erythema, edema, and hoarseness of the voice. The referent inhalation challenge test by welding mild steel was negative. The welding of stainless steel should be included in the etiological factors of occupational laryngitis of immediate hypersensitivity type. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.

    1986-09-01

    We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

  15. Neurotoxicity effect of formaldehyde on occupational exposure and influence of individual susceptibility to some metabolism parameters.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Fazli, Zohreh; Mazinani, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Over the years, neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction have separately been associated with endogenous formaldehyde and reduction of acetylcholine signals. However, a limited number of studies have shown a relationship between cholinergic neurotransmitter and formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the neurological effect on workers from melamine-dish preparation workshop, who were exposed to formaldehyde. A total of 35 formaldehyde-exposed workers were compared with 32 control employees from the food industry. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was conducted using the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 3500 methods. Using the Ellman method, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker for neurotoxicity was analyzed in blood erythrocyte. The effects of alcohol dehydrogenase III (ADH3) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) polymorphism were used to survey the level of AChE activity. In this study, it was found that exposure to airborne formaldehyde increased from 0.024 to 0.74 ppm and the median personnel exposure was 0.057. Induction of AChE activity was observed in formaldehyde-exposed workers as compared with the control group (p < 0.01), while AChE activity increased in 64 % of the exposed subjects. Spearman's correlation (p < 0.02) was used to evaluate the association between AChE activity and occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Exposed subjects containing ADH32-2 genotype had higher AChE than others. The findings of this study suggest that the neurotoxic effect of formaldehyde depends on the AChE activity, which is affected by metabolism. It can be concluded that cholinergic signal reduction in cases of cognitive dysfunction could be associated with endogenous formaldehyde.

  16. Oxidative toxic stress in workers occupationally exposed to ceramic dust: A study in a ceramic manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Shad, Mehri Keshvari; Barkhordari, Abolfaz; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Dehghani, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Moghadam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-09-27

    Exposure to compounds used in ceramic industries appears to be associated with induction of oxidative toxic stress. This cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the oxidative toxic stress parameters associated with occupational exposure to ceramic dust. Forty ceramic-exposed workers from a ceramic manufacturing industry and 40 unexposed referent subjects were studied. A questionnaire containing information regarding demographic variables, occupational history, history of any chronic disease, antioxidant consumption, and use of therapeutic drugs was administrated to them. Oxidative toxic stress biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP), levels of total Thiol groups (TTG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured. Significant increments in blood LPO levels, CAT activity and concomitant lower TAP were observed in ceramic exposed workers in comparison to referent group. No statistically significant difference was noted between the means of TTG levels between the groups. Findings of the study indicate that occupational exposure to ceramic dust induces oxidative toxic stress. Supplementation of workers with antioxidants may have beneficial effects on oxidative damages in ceramic industries.

  17. Determination of nickel, copper, zinc and lead in human scalp hair in Syrian occupationally exposed workers by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Khuder, A; Bakir, M A; Hasan, R; Mohammad, A

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb in human scalp hair of 281 individuals working in 10 Syrian industrial plants were determined using co-precipitation by ammoniumpyrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) method for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis. The results were compared to data obtained for a control group consisted of individuals working at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission and also to data reported in the literature. The results given by the group of workers in battery plant showed that Pb concentration in human scalp hair samples were higher than those for control group, while some abnormal concentrations were obtained for Cu, Zn and Ni in cables, printing and battery plants, respectively. Normal concentrations of these elements were obtained for hair workers in olive oil, power stations, textile, and iron industrial plants. The relationships of Pb-Pb/Ni and Cu-Cu/Ni were plotted with correlation coefficients of 0.9937 and 0.9014, respectively. In general, the results showed that, the workers who were occupationally exposed to battery industrial pollution are at risk, followed by individuals in printing and cables industries, while the rest of workers in other industries are considered occupationally unexposed.

  18. Serum Metabolomic Profiling of Sulphur Mustard-Exposed Individuals Using (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Zahra; Ghanei, Mostafa; Panahi, Yunus; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Mirkhani, Fatemeh; Parvin, Shahram; Salehi, Maryam; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Vahabi, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur mustard is an alkylating agent that reacts with different cellular components, causing acute and delayed complications that may remain for decades after exposure. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed individuals suffering from chronic complications compared with unexposed individuals as the control group. Serum samples were obtained from 15 mustard-exposed individuals and 15 apparently healthy unexposed individuals. Metabolomic profiling was performed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and analyses were carried out using Chenomex and MATLAB softwares. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database, and the main metabolic pathways were identified using MetaboAnalyst software. Chemometric analysis of serum samples identified 11 differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed and unexposed groups. The main pathways that were influenced by sulphur mustard exposure were related to vitamin B6 (down-regulation), bile acid (up-regulation) and tryptophan (down-regulation) metabolism. Metabolism of vitamin B6, bile acids and tryptophan are the most severely impaired pathways in individuals suffering from chronic mustard-induced complications. These findings may find implications in the monitoring of exposed patients and identification of new therapeutic approaches.

  19. Aspergers – Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

  20. Aspergers--different, not less: occupational strengths and job interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed 136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02-.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model.

  1. Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia among individuals prenatally exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki City.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Y; Nakane, Y; Ohta, Y; Kondo, H

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation and the development of schizophrenia in adulthood. We investigated the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia among people prenatally exposed to the 1945 Nagasaki A-bomb, using the schizophrenia register and the A-bomb survivors' database. Among 1867 prenatally exposed individuals, 18 subjects (0.96%) had developed schizophrenia later in life. The prevalence was significantly higher in people exposed in the second trimester of pregnancy than in those exposed in the third trimester. The closer they had been to the hypocentre, the higher was the prevalence, but no statistically significant linear relationship was seen. This investigation could not clarify the nature of exposure to A-bomb radiation as a risk factor for schizophrenia in the prenatal period.

  2. Determination of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in human urine in a highly occupationally exposed German cohort: New prospects for urinary biomarkers of PCB exposure.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia; Esser, André; Kraus, Thomas; Schettgen, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The present study evaluates for the first time the determination of 20 hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB) congeners and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in urine as a biomarker of exposure to PCBs in humans. Thereby, a fast, sensitive and selective online solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled to LC-MS/MS was validated for the determination of OH-PCBs in human urine, being previously successfully developed and applied for the separation and quantitation of OH-PCBs in human plasma. The lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) ranged from 0.01 to 0.19ngmL(-1) and average extraction recoveries from 79 to 125% for all hydroxylated congeners. Within-run precision and between-run precision were between 2 and 17%. Extraction recovery tests were also performed in urine with different creatinine contents (0.52-3.92gL(-1)) for an estimation of matrix influences and ranged between 69 and 125%. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, the study was conducted in three different groups, which were distinctly separated as non-exposed to known sources of PCBs (N=21), low-to-moderate PCB-exposed individuals (N=25) and highly occupationally PCB-exposed individuals (N=25), which included workers of a transformer recycling plant, their relatives and workers of surrounding companies from a German cohort. As part of the biomonitoring program HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls), urine and blood samples were collected annually from 2010 to 2014. In this way, OH-PCB elimination profile in urine over time, correlations between OH-PCB levels in human plasma and urine, and associations with their parent compounds in plasma of the studied PCB cohort could be also assessed. Tri-chlorinated OH-PCBs were the predominant congeners in urine with concentrations up to 174ngmL(-1). High chlorinated OH-PCBs (penta- through hepta-chlorinated OH-PCBs) were also frequently detected in urine samples from non-exposed and

  3. Exercise heart rate recovery assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Karakulak, Uğur Nadir; Yılmaz, Ömer Hınç; Tutkun, Engin; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Evranos, Banu; Ercan Onay, Emine; Aytürk, Mehmet; Tek Öztürk, Müjgan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic function via indices of exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) in workers occupationally exposed to lead. A total of 98 lead-exposed workers and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. All underwent exercise testing and transthoracic echocardiography. HRR indices were calculated by subtracting 1st- (HRR1), 2nd- (HRR2), and 3rd-minute (HRR3) heart rates from maximal heart rate (HR). Exercise test parameters- HRR in particular- were compared between groups, and correlation analysis of blood, 24-hour urine lead levels, and test parameters was performed. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were found to be similar between groups. Mean HRR1 (26.2±3.6 vs 29.0±4.1 bpm, p<0.001), HRR2 (42.6±3.9 vs 46.9±3.7 bpm, p<0.001), and HRR3 (56.6±4.5 vs 61.8±4.3 bpm, p<0.001) values were significantly lower in the lead-exposed group than in the healthy controls. HRR1 was found to be significantly correlated with blood (r:-0.415; p<0.001) and 24-hour urine lead levels (r:-0.446; p<0.001). HRR2 and HRR3 were significantly correlated with 24-hour urine lead level (r:-0.396; p<0.001 and r:-0.233; p=0.021, respectively). Lead-exposed workers had lower HRR indices than normal subjects. Blood and 24-hour urine lead levels were significantly associated with HRR indices. Cardiac autonomic functions may be affected by exposure to lead, and those occupationally exposed should be closely followed for adverse cardiovascular outcome.

  4. No evidence for zoonotic transmission of H3N8 canine influenza virus among US adults occupationally exposed to dogs.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic potential of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) has not been previously examined; yet considering the popularity of dogs as a companion animal and the zoonotic capabilities of other influenza viruses, the public health implications are great. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against CIV among a US cohort. A cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Recruitments primarily occurred in Iowa and Florida. Participants were enrolled at dog shows, or at their home or place of employment. Three hundred and four adults occupationally exposed to dogs and 101 non-canine-exposed participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Microneutralization and neuraminidase inhibition assays were performed to detect human sera antibodies against A/Canine/Iowa/13628/2005(H3N8). An enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) was adapted to detect antibodies against a recombinant N8 neuraminidase protein from A/Equine/Pennsylvania/1/2007(H3N8). For all assays, no significant difference in detectable antibodies was observed when comparing the canine-exposed subjects to the non-canine-exposed subjects. While these results do not provide evidence for cross-species CIV transmission, influenza is predictably unpredictable. People frequently exposed to ill dogs should continually be monitored for novel zoonotic CIV infections. © 2013 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. No evidence for zoonotic transmission of H3N8 canine influenza virus among US adults occupationally exposed to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Whitney S; Heil, Gary L; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Gray, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The zoonotic potential of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) has not been previously examined; yet considering the popularity of dogs as a companion animal and the zoonotic capabilities of other influenza viruses, the public health implications are great. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against CIV among a US cohort. Design A cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Setting Recruitments primarily occurred in Iowa and Florida. Participants were enrolled at dog shows, or at their home or place of employment. Sample Three hundred and four adults occupationally exposed to dogs and 101 non-canine-exposed participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Main outcome measures Microneutralization and neuraminidase inhibition assays were performed to detect human sera antibodies against A/Canine/Iowa/13628/2005(H3N8). An enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) was adapted to detect antibodies against a recombinant N8 neuraminidase protein from A/Equine/Pennsylvania/1/2007(H3N8). Results For all assays, no significant difference in detectable antibodies was observed when comparing the canine-exposed subjects to the non-canine-exposed subjects. Conclusion While these results do not provide evidence for cross-species CIV transmission, influenza is predictably unpredictable. People frequently exposed to ill dogs should continually be monitored for novel zoonotic CIV infections. PMID:24237615

  6. 40 CFR 197.21 - Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual? 197.21 Section 197.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS...

  7. 40 CFR 197.21 - Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Who is the reasonably maximally exposed individual? 197.21 Section 197.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR...

  8. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC.
    L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4.
    1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  9. 10 CFR 63.312 - Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. 63.312 Section 63.312 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF... demand of 3000 acre-feet; (d) Drinks 2 liters of water per day from wells drilled into the ground...

  10. 10 CFR 63.312 - Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. 63.312 Section 63.312 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF... demand of 3000 acre-feet; (d) Drinks 2 liters of water per day from wells drilled into the ground...

  11. 10 CFR 63.312 - Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. 63.312 Section 63.312 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF... demand of 3000 acre-feet; (d) Drinks 2 liters of water per day from wells drilled into the ground...

  12. 10 CFR 63.312 - Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. 63.312 Section 63.312 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF... demand of 3000 acre-feet; (d) Drinks 2 liters of water per day from wells drilled into the ground...

  13. 10 CFR 63.312 - Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required characteristics of the reasonably maximally exposed individual. 63.312 Section 63.312 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF... demand of 3000 acre-feet; (d) Drinks 2 liters of water per day from wells drilled into the ground...

  14. Eligibility for low-dose computerized tomography screening among asbestos-exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Natalie R; Flanagan, William M; Evans, William K; Miller, Anthony B

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to incorporate an estimate of risk for asbestos exposure in the Canadian Cancer Risk Management Lung Cancer (CRMM-LC) microsimulation model. In CRMM-LC, a 3-year probability of developing lung cancer can be derived from different risk profiles. An asbestos-exposed cohort was simulated and different scenarios of low-dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening were simulated. As annual LDCT screening among non-asbestos-exposed individuals is less cost-effective than biennial screening, all the scenarios modeled for an asbestos-exposed cohort were biennial. For individuals with a two-fold risk of asbestos-induced lung cancer to be eligible for biennial LDCT screening, a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years would be necessary. For non-smokers with asbestos exposure resulting in a relative risk (RR) for lung cancer, it is not cost-effective to screen those with a RR of 5, but it is cost-effective to screen those with a RR of 10 (the heavily exposed). Asbestos-exposed individuals with an estimated two-fold or more risk of lung cancer from asbestos-exposure are eligible for LDCT screening at all ages from 55-74 years if they have a cigarette smoking history of ≥15 pack-years. Asbestos-exposed individuals who are lifelong non-smokers are eligible for LDCT screening at all ages from 55-74 years if they have accumulated a degree of asbestos exposure resulting in an estimated risk of lung cancer of ≥10.

  15. Occupational risk assessment of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in workers exposed to paints during a working week.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Carina; Calloni, Caroline; Bortolini, Giovana; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dornelles, Marco Aurélio; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Salvador, Mirian

    2011-09-01

    Paints are complex mixtures of solvents and metals that can induce health damages in workers exposed to them. The aim of the present work was to evaluate possible oxidative and genotoxic effects in workers exposed to paints. Peripheral blood and buccal cell samples were collected from 33 workers exposed to paints and 29 non-exposed workers (controls) during an ordinary working week (Monday morning and Friday evening). Oxidative markers were assessed using thiobarbituric acid assay, carbonylated proteins, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Hippuric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid were determined as biomarkers of toluene and lead exposure, respectively. Genotoxicity was measured through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) frequencies. The exposed group showed higher hippuric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid levels (Friday samples) and lower superoxide dismutase activity (Monday samples) in relation to control group. DNA damage index (comet assay) was higher in the exposed group, both in Monday and Friday samples, compared to the control group. No differences were observed in frequency of micronuclei (MN) between the groups, either in lymphocytes or buccal cells. However, the exposed group presented an increase (Monday samples) in nuclear buds frequency in lymphocytes - a marker of gene amplification - as well as an increase in condensed chromatin in the buccal cells (Monday and Friday samples), suggesting induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, a decrease in the nuclear division index (Friday samples) was observed in the exposed group, indicating that paint exposure induces cytostatic effects in lymphocytes. The results suggest that individuals exposed to paints have increased levels of DNA damage.

  16. Determination of nickel in the serum of occupationally exposed workers, by means of flame atomic-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghe, A M; Lippolis, M T; Pastorelli, L

    1985-10-01

    A flame atomic-absorption spectroscopy method for determination of nickel in the serum of occupationally exposed subjects has been developed. Trichloroacetic add is utilized for precipitating proteins and freeing bound nickel; sodium diethyldithiocarbamate is used as complexing agent and isopropyl acetate as the solvent for extraction. The method is characterized by good accuracy, precision and sensitivity, over a concentration range up to about 20 ng/ml. Calcium, which is present in serum in great excess with respect to typical nickel concentrations, does not interfere in the determination of the latter.

  17. Occupational bladder cancer in a 4,4 -methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-exposed worker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yi-Chun; Uang, Shi-Nian; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Hong-I

    2005-06-01

    A 52-year-old male chemical worker was admitted to the hospital with a history of paroxysmal microscopic hematuria for about 2 years and nocturia with gross hematuria about five times per night for 2 months. He was a nonsmoker and denied a history of any other bladder carcinogen exposure except for occasional pesticide application during agricultural work. Intravenous urogram imaging showed a mass occupying half of the bladder capacity. Cystoscopy revealed a mass over the left dome of the bladder. Cystoscopic biopsy revealed a grade 3 invasive transitional cell carcinoma with marked necrosis. From 1987 until hospital admission in 2001, the patient had worked in a company that produced the 4,4 -methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) curing agent. He did not wear any personal protective equipment during work. Ambient air MBOCA levels in the purification process area (0.23-0.41 mg/m3) exceeded the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure level. Urinary MBOCA levels (267.9-15701.1 microg/g creatinine) far exceeded the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration's reference value of 100 microg/L. This patient worked in the purification process with occupational exposure to MBOCA for 14 years. According to the environmental and biologic monitoring data and latency period, and excluding other potential bladder carcinogen exposure, this worker was diagnosed as having occupational bladder cancer due to high exposure to MBOCA through inhalation or dermal absorption in the purification area. This case finding supports that MBOCA is a potential human carcinogen. Safe use of skin-protective equipment and respirators is required to prevent workers from MBOCA exposure.

  18. Cardiovascular disease mortality among retired workers chronically exposed to intense occupational noise.

    PubMed

    Girard, Serge Andre; Leroux, Tony; Verreault, René; Courteau, Marilène; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Baril, Julie; Richer, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted among retired workers (≥65 years), is to estimate the association between long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death and (1) duration of occupational noise exposure in career and (2) noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the latter being used as an indicator of adverse effects for long-term exposure to occupational noise. Data from screening activities of occupational NIHL were paired to data from death records and were used for this study. A nested case-control analysis was performed. Each case was matched with three controls for length of follow-up and economic sector. A total of 161 CVD deaths occured during an average follow-up of 6.8 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk (OR) of CVD death by tertiles of duration of noise exposure and of NIHL. Conditional logistic regression models indicated that prolonged duration of noise exposure (≥36.5 years) (3rd tertile) was associated with an increased risk of CVD death (OR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.10-2.62), as compared with shorter duration (<27 years) (first tertile). Moderate NIHL (2nd tertile) (OR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.04-2.6) and severe NIHL (3rd tertile) (OR 1.66; 95 % CI 1.06-2.60) were also associated with an increase in risk of CVD death. Results are consistent with recent findings on the chronic effects of occupational noise exposure persisting after retirement although it is less than during active working life.

  19. Younger age at onset of sporadic Parkinson's disease among subjects occupationally exposed to metals and pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Farb, David H.; Ozer, Josef; Feldman, Robert G.; Durso, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    An earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with occupational exposures to manganese and hydrocarbon solvents suggesting that exposure to neurotoxic chemicals may hasten the progression of idiopathic PD. In this study the role of occupational exposure to metals and pesticides in the progression of idiopathic PD was assessed by looking at age at disease onset. The effects of heritable genetic risk factors, which may also influence age at onset, was minimized by including only sporadic cases of PD with no family history of the disease (n=58). Independent samples Student t-test revealed that subjects with occupational exposure to metals and/or pesticides (n=36) were significantly (p=0.013) younger than unexposed controls (n=22). These subjects were then divided into three groups [high (n=18), low (n=18), and unexposed (n=22)] to ascertain if duration of exposure further influenced age at onset of PD. One-way ANOVA revealed that subjects in the high exposure group were significantly (p=0.0121) younger (mean age: 50.33 years) than unexposed subjects (mean age: 60.45 years). Subjects were also stratified by exposure type (metals vs. pesticides). These results suggest that chronic exposure to metals and pesticides is associated with a younger age at onset of PD among patients with no family history of the disease and that duration of exposure is a factor in the magnitude of this effect. PMID:26109889

  20. Elemental bio-imaging of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in tissues from occupationally exposed former nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei; James, Anthony; Bishop, David; Austin, Christine; Fryer, Fred; Doble, Philip

    2010-04-15

    Internal exposure from naturally occurring radionuclides (including the inhaled long-lived actinides (232)Th and (238)U) is a component of the ubiquitous background radiation dose (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States; NCRP Report No. 160; NCRP: Bethesda, MD, 2009). It is of interest to compare the concentration distribution of these natural alpha-emitters in the lungs and respiratory lymph nodes with those resulting from occupational exposure, including exposure to anthropogenic plutonium and depleted and enriched uranium. This study examines the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to quantifying and visualizing the mass distribution of uranium and thorium isotopes from both occupational and natural background exposure in human respiratory tissues and, for the first time, extends this application to the direct imaging of plutonium isotopes. Sections of lymphatic and lung tissues taken from deceased former nuclear workers with a known history of occupational exposure to specific actinide elements (uranium, plutonium, or americium) were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. Using a previously developed LA-ICPMS protocol for elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in human tissue and a new software tool, we generated images of thorium ((232)Th), uranium ((235)U and (238)U), and plutonium ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) mass distributions in sections of tissue. We used a laboratory-produced matrix-matched standard to quantify the (232)Th, (235)U, and (238)U concentrations. The plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu were detected by LA-ICPMS in 65 mum diameter localized regions of both a paratracheal lymph node and a sample of lung tissue from a person who was occupationally exposed to refractory plutonium (plutonium dioxide). The average (overall) (239)Pu concentration in the lymph node was 39.2 ng/g, measured by high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma

  1. Pupil Response to Threat in Trauma-Exposed Individuals With or Without PTSD.

    PubMed

    Cascardi, Michele; Armstrong, Davine; Chung, Leeyup; Paré, Denis

    2015-08-01

    An infrequently studied and potentially promising physiological marker for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is pupil response. This study tested the hypothesis that pupil responses to threat would be significantly larger in trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD compared to those without PTSD. Eye-tracking technology was used to evaluate pupil response to threatening and neutral images. Recruited for participation were 40 trauma-exposed individuals; 40.0% (n = 16) met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Individuals with PTSD showed significantly more pupil dilation to threat-relevant stimuli compared to the neutral elements (Cohen's d = 0.76), and to trauma-exposed controls (Cohen's d = 0.75). Pupil dilation significantly accounted for 12% of variability in PTSD after time elapsed since most recent trauma, cumulative violence exposure, and trait anxiety were statistically adjusted. The final logistic regression model was associated with 85% of variability in PTSD status and correctly classified 93.8% of individuals with PTSD and 95.8% of those without. Pupil reactivity showed promise as a physiological marker for PTSD.

  2. [Main criteria for the occupational licensure of individualized hand protection against local vibration].

    PubMed

    Butkovskaia, Z M; Smirnov, V V

    1999-01-01

    Hygienic certification of individual means protecting hands against local vibration requires special laboratory and industrial studies considering specific preset criteria. The criteria choice should consider functional state of major body systems involved and capacity to work in specific industrial process. For manually operated machines, the criteria are set within the limits of mutual influence in the system: manually operated machine (its vibration strength characteristics)--operator (state and changes of his major physiologic functions)--occupational environment (peculiarities).

  3. Assessment  of  Genotoxicity  Among  Rubber  Industry Workers  Occupationally  Exposed  to  Toxic  Agents  Using Micronucleus  Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gemitha, Gem; Sudha, Sellappa

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent complexmixture of genotoxic agents, however there is a wide variation in the specificity of biomarkers. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to toxic agents among rubber industry workers by using Micronucleus (MN) assay. Methods In the present study 35 occupationally exposed rubber industry workers and 30 controls were investigated for genetic damage. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from rural areas of South India. Exfoliated Buccal cells were collected from the study population and examined for the presence of MN. Results Rubber industry workers showed a significant increase in micronucleated cells when compared to controls with respect to their smoking and drinking habits (P< 0.05). The present study suggested that occupational exposure to toxic chemicals in rubber industry can cause genetic damage. Conclusion MN formation reflects genetic changes and/or events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore the results of this study indicate that rubber industry workers may be at the risk of cancer. Therefore, it is important to take appropriate measures to protect the workers from occupational hazards. PMID:25250114

  4. Dose reconstruction for individuals exposed to ionizing radiation using chromosome painting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. N.; Cox, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    To be most useful, a biomarker for dose reconstruction should employ an end point that is highly quantitative, stable with time and easily measured. Reciprocal translocations have been shown to be a promising biomarker that is linked to both prior exposure and risk, and they can be measured easily and quantitatively using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to other biomarkers that are available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time after exposure, has rather small interindividual variability and can be measured accurately at low levels of exposure. Results from recent studies demonstrate that measurements of reciprocal translocation frequencies, facilitated by chromosome painting, can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for individuals exposed in the distant past.

  5. Dose reconstruction for individuals exposed to ionizing radiation using chromosome painting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. N.; Cox, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    To be most useful, a biomarker for dose reconstruction should employ an end point that is highly quantitative, stable with time and easily measured. Reciprocal translocations have been shown to be a promising biomarker that is linked to both prior exposure and risk, and they can be measured easily and quantitatively using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to other biomarkers that are available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time after exposure, has rather small interindividual variability and can be measured accurately at low levels of exposure. Results from recent studies demonstrate that measurements of reciprocal translocation frequencies, facilitated by chromosome painting, can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for individuals exposed in the distant past.

  6. p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung cancer patients occupationally exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Andujar, Pascal; Wang, Jinhui; Descatha, Alexis; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Blons, Hélène; Clin, Bénédicte; Danel, Claire; Housset, Bruno; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Letourneux, Marc; Monnet, Isabelle; Régnard, Jean-François; Renier, Annie; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Jaurand, Marie-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that asbestos fibers constitute the major occupational risk factor and that asbestos acts synergistically with tobacco smoking to induce lung cancer. Although some somatic gene alterations in lung cancer have been linked to tobacco smoke, few data are available on the role of asbestos fibers. P16/CDKN2A is an important tumor suppressor gene that is frequently altered in lung cancer via promoter 5'-CpG island hypermethylation and homozygous deletion, and rarely via point mutation. Many studies suggest that tobacco smoking produces P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer, but the status of this gene in relation to asbestos exposure has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of P16/CDKN2A alterations in lung cancer in asbestos-exposed patients. P16/CDKN2A gene status was studied in 75 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases with well-defined smoking habits, and detailed assessment of asbestos exposure, based on occupational questionnaire and determination of asbestos bodies in lung tissue. The results of this study confirm published data on the effect of tobacco smoke on P16/CDKN2A gene alterations, characterized by significantly higher P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in heavy smokers (more than 40 pack-years (P-Y)) than in smokers of less than 40 P-Y. These results also demonstrate a higher incidence of loss of heterozygosity and homozygous deletion in asbestos-exposed cases, after adjustment for age and cumulative tobacco consumption, than in unexposed cases (P=0.0062). This study suggests that P16/CDKN2A gene inactivation in asbestos-exposed NSCLC cases mainly occurs via deletion, a feature also found in malignant mesothelioma, a tumor independent of tobacco smoking but associated with asbestos exposure, suggesting a possible relationship with an effect of asbestos fibers.

  7. Alteration in bilirubin excretion in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; Aguilar, C; García-Vargas, G G; Borja, V H; Cebrián, M E

    1998-10-15

    We have studied hepatic function in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We studied 51 individuals living in three villages exposed to As in water. Nazareno (0.014 mgAs/l), Santa Ana (0.1 mgAs/l) and Benito Juárez (0.3 mgAs/l). We determined the serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (SAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as indicators of hepatocellular injury and that of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as indicators of cholestasic injury. Serum bilirubin was used as an indicator of organic conjugated anion transport. Total proteins, albumin and globulin fraction in serum were used as indicators of biosynthetic liver capacity. The main findings of this study were the predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and increased serum ALP activity which were related to the concentration of total arsenic (TAs) in urine, suggesting the presence of cholestasis in As-exposed individuals. No significant changes were observed in the other parameters studied.

  8. Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele F; Moro, Angela M; Ferrari, Pedro; Bubols, Guilherme; Sauer, Elisa; Fracasso, Rafael; Durgante, Juliano; Thiesen, Flávia V; Duarte, Marta M; Gioda, Adriana; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo H; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-05-01

    Consistent evidence has indicated that the exposure to environmental air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to air pollution, especially to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the influence of co-morbidities on the atherosclerotic process and inflammation. For that, biomarkers of exposure such as 1-hydroxypyrene urinary, oxidative damage and markers of cardiovascular risk were determined in plasma, serum and blood. In addition, inflammation models such as carotid intima-media thickness and serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in 58 taxi drivers with and without co-morbidity. The results demonstrated that considering only taxi drivers without co-morbidities, 15% presented carotid intima-media thickness above reference values. For the first time it has been demonstrated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were associated with carotid intima-media thickness and with serum homocysteine levels. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that several factors may contribute to the increased carotid intima-media thickness, among which age, interleukin-6, fibrinogen and exposure to PAHs stand out. In summary, our results suggest that chronic occupational exposure to atmospheric pollution could be an additional contributor to the atherogenesis process, leading to impaired vascular health. Moreover, carotid intima-media thickness, serum homocysteine levels, fibrinogen and the total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio could be suggested as preventive measures to monitor drivers' health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hospital admissions for neurological and renal diseases among dentists and dental assistants occupationally exposed to mercury.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanehøj, Kirsten; Kjuus, Helge; Juel, Knud

    2011-12-01

    For many years an amalgam containing metallic mercury, which has been associated with neurological and renal diseases, has been used in dentistry. In this nationwide study we compared hospital admissions due to neurological and renal diseases among dentists and dental assistants to admissions in controls. This register-based cohort study included all Danish workers employed in dental clinics, general practitioners' clinics or lawyers' offices between 1964 and 2006. We compared dentists with general practitioners and lawyers, and dental assistants with medical secretaries, nurses and legal secretaries. We also compared dentists and dental assistants employed during periods with high occupational mercury exposure with dentists and dental assistants employed during periods with less mercury exposure. We followed all subjects in a nationwide register of hospital admissions. We analysed risk of neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease and renal diseases using a Cox regression model. The cohort consisted of 122,481 workers including 5371 dentists and 33,858 dental assistants. For neurological diseases, no association was observed for dental assistants, while for dentists an increasing risk for periods with less mercury exposure was observed. Among dental assistants, a negative association between employment length and risk of neurological disease was observed. Admissions for renal disease among dental assistants were increased during periods with less mercury exposure compared with controls. For dentists a non-significant increased risk was observed between employment length and renal disease risk. Our nationwide study does not indicate that occupational exposure to mercury increases the risk of hospital admissions for neurological, Parkinson's or renal diseases.

  10. Determination of o-cresol by gas chromatography and comparison with hippuric acid levels in urine samples of individuals exposed to toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Amorim, L.C.A.; Alvarez-Leite, E.M.

    1997-03-01

    Hippuric acid is the most frequently used biomarker in the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene. This product of solvent biotransformation may be also found in the urine of individual who have not been exposed to the solvent. A smaller fraction of the absorbed toluene is oxidized to aromatic compounds including ortho-cresol, which is not found significantly in the urine of nonexposed individuals. An analytical methodology whereby gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is utilized for determination of o-cresol in urine of workers exposed to toluene is described. The levels obtained were subsequently compared to hippuric acid levels determined in the same urine samples. The analytical method has demonstrated an adequate precision (intra- and interassay coefficient of variation in the range of 2.4-5.4%) and average recovery of 98%. The samples for o-cresol determination were obtained from workers exposed to toluene in three different industrial activities. The concentration range found in exposed groups varied from {le}0.21 to 2.8 {mu}g/ml. The o-cresol values in the urine did not differ significantly among the exposed groups analyzed at the 5% level. The o-cresol and hippuric acid values found in the urine samples showed a significant correlation at the 1% level. These results may represent an additional contribution to studies for a definitive evaluation of the validity of o-cresol as a biomarker of exposure to toluene. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Neutrophil chemotactic factor release and neutrophil alveolitis in asbestos-exposed individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A.A.; Rose, A.H.; Musk, A.W.; Robinson, B.W.

    1988-09-01

    Alveolar neutrophil accumulation occurs in asbestosis. To evaluate a possible role for release of neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) in the pathogenesis of asbestosis, spontaneous NCF release from alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in eight individuals with asbestosis, 13 asbestos-exposed individuals without asbestosis, and five control subjects has been studied. Alveolar macrophages were incubated in medium (four hours; 37 degrees C), and neutrophil responses to the supernatants were assayed in a microchemotaxis chamber. Alveolar macrophages from subjects with asbestosis released more NCF (97 +/- 19 neutrophils per high-power field (N/HPF)) than controls (3 +/- 1 N/HPF; p less than 0.01). Alveolar macrophages from individuals with asbestos exposure and increased BAL neutrophil proportions (n = 7) released more NCF (93 +/- 24 N/HPF) than individuals with asbestos exposure and normal BAL neutrophil proportions (n = 6; 11 +/- 6 N/HPF; p less than 0.02). The results show that spontaneous NCF release occurs in asbestosis and that NCF release is associated with neutrophil alveolitis in asbestos-exposed individuals without asbestosis, suggesting a pathogenic role for NCF in mediating this neutrophil alveolitis. The results of the study also suggest that the presence of crackles is a better predictor of the presence of neutrophil alveolitis than is an abnormal chest x-ray film.

  12. Assessment of cytogenetic damage and oxidative stress in personnel occupationally exposed to the pulsed microwave radiation of marine radar equipment.

    PubMed

    Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Gajski, Goran; Pažanin, Senijo; Sarolić, Antonio; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Flajs, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Due to increased usage of microwave radiation, there are concerns of its adverse effect in today's society. Keeping this in view, study was aimed at workers occupationally exposed to pulsed microwave radiation, originating from marine radars. Electromagnetic field strength was measured at assigned marine radar frequencies (3 GHz, 5.5 GHz and 9.4 GHz) and corresponding specific absorption rate values were determined. Parameters of the comet assay and micronucleus test were studied both in the exposed workers and in corresponding unexposed subjects. Differences between mean tail intensity (0.67 vs. 1.22) and moment (0.08 vs. 0.16) as comet assay parameters and micronucleus test parameters (micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds) were statistically significant between the two examined groups, suggesting that cytogenetic alterations occurred after microwave exposure. Concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde were measured spectrophotometrically and using high performance liquid chromatography. The glutathione concentration in exposed group was significantly lower than in controls (1.24 vs. 0.53) whereas the concentration of malondialdehyde was significantly higher (1.74 vs. 3.17), indicating oxidative stress. Results suggests that pulsed microwaves from working environment can be the cause of genetic and cell alterations and that oxidative stress can be one of the possible mechanisms of DNA and cell damage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The international follow-up of individuals potentially exposed to polonium-210 in London 2006.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K; Anders, K; Olowokure, B; Fraser, G; Maguire, H; Bailey, M; Smith, J; Frossell, S; Yap, K; Evans, B

    2010-06-01

    Following a death from polonium-210 ((210)Po), contamination was found at several sites in London. This paper describes the UK Health Protection Agency's follow-up and assessment of individuals resident overseas who were potentially exposed to (210)Po. Descriptive follow-up study. Individuals were classified into three exposure groups (higher, lower and unknown). Presence and degree of internal contamination were measured by 24-h urinary (210)Po activity (mBq/day). Results over 30mBq/day were taken to indicate probable contact with (210)Po in this incident. Dose assessments were conducted to determine degree of exposure and to identify individuals requiring further follow-up. Overall, 664 potentially exposed persons from 52 countries and territories were identified. Of these, 157 (24%) were in the higher exposure category, and urinary measurements were reported for 31% (48/157). Results for 19% (9/48) of those at higher exposure were more than 30mBq/day. For those at lower exposure, the percentage was 4% (3/68). Results above 30mBq/day were significantly more likely to be reported for the higher exposure category than the lower exposure category (Fisher's exact test P=0.010). Reported dose assessments suggested that identified individuals were not at increased health risk in the long term. Challenges and practical lessons were identified during the investigation. The results suggest that it is unlikely that any overseas resident had significant internal contamination with (210)Po. However, this incident clearly demonstrated the scale of international involvement likely to be necessary in other public health emergencies in large cities. The lessons identified have implications for the international health community, particularly with regard to the follow-up of individuals exposed to radiation in one country who then travel to another. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Akihiro; IWASAKI, Shinichi; KANCHIKA, Masaru; NAKAO, Takehisa; DEGUCHI, Yasuhiko; KONISHI, Akihito; ISHIMOTO, Hideyuki; INOUE, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the “depressive group.” We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers’ work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers’ work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers’ depressive symptoms. PMID:27021060

  15. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Kanchika, Masaru; Nakao, Takehisa; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Konishi, Akihito; Ishimoto, Hideyuki; Inoue, Koki

    2016-10-08

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the "depressive group." We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers' work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers' work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers' depressive symptoms.

  16. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders—(1) Services for individuals with...

  17. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders—(1) Services for individuals...

  18. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (1) Services for individuals...

  19. Assessment of DNA damage in WBCs of workers occupationally exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, Boleslaw; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Preuss, Ralf; Kappler, Martin; Schott, Klaus; Pesch, Beate; Zoubek, Gerd; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Mensing, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a cross-shift study with 66 bitumen-exposed mastic asphalt workers and 49 construction workers without exposure to bitumen. Exposure was assessed using personal monitoring of airborne bitumen exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and the sum of 1-, 2 + 9-,3-,4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH). Genotoxic effects in WBC were determined with nonspecific DNA adduct levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and the formation of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Concentration of fumes and aerosols of bitumen correlated significantly with the concentrations of 1-OHP and OHPH after shift (r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.03 and r(s) = 0.55; P < 0.0001, respectively). Bitumen-exposed workers had more DNA strand breaks than the reference group (P < 0.0001) at both time points and a significant correlation with 1-OHP and OHPH in the postshift urines (r(s) = 0.32; P = 0.001 and r(s) = 0.27; P = 0.004, respectively). Paradoxically, we measured higher levels of DNA strand breaks, although not significant, in both study groups before shift. 8-OxodGuo adduct levels did not correlate with DNA strand breaks. Further, 8-oxodGuo levels were associated neither with personal exposure to bitumen nor with urinary metabolite concentrations. Significantly more DNA adducts were observed after shift not only in bitumen-exposed workers but also in the reference group. Only low-exposed workers had significantly elevated 8-oxodGuo adduct levels before as well as after shift (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Our results show that exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen may contribute to an increased DNA damage assessed with strand breaks.

  20. Metabolic profile in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic: role of GST polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ricardo; Martínez, Valeria; Hernández, Alba; Creus, Amadeu; Sekaran, Chandra; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Quinteros, Domingo

    2006-03-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen with a ubiquitous distribution in the natural environment. Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic involves a biotransformation process that leds to the main excretion of organic methylated metabolites, such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), as well as the parental inorganic species. Interindividual variation in arsenic metabolism has been extensively reported, and polymorphisms in genes involved in such process could be related to changes in the arsenic excretion profile and the response to chronic exposures. Our analysis of the metabolic profiles in three groups of workers exposed to different arsenic exposure levels showed high amounts of inorganic arsenic and MMA in the most-exposed workers versus the least-exposed workers, in whom high amounts of DMA were observed. With respect to the role of different genetic polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in the modulation of the urinary profiles, for the overall population only a tendency was just observed between GSTM1 null and MMA excretion as well as between GSTP1 val/val and DMA excretion.

  1. Mortality among men occupationally exposed to phosgene in 1943-1945

    SciTech Connect

    Polednak, A.P.

    1980-08-01

    Mortality and causes of death as reported on death certificates were described among white male workers exposed to phosgene in 1943 to 1945 at a uranium-processing plant in Tennessee. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by using death rates for United States white males. As of 1974, SMRs for all causes and for various selected causes were similar in 699 chemical workers chronically exposed to low levels of phosgene (and to daily episodes of levels above 1 ppM) and in 9352 controls who worked at the same plant. SMRs for diseases of the respiratory system were 78 and 113 in the chemical workers and controls, respectively. A group of 106 male chemical and other workers was acutely exposed to higher levels of phosgene (i.e., above 50 ppM, based on clinical symptoms), and 25 had X-ray evidence of acute pneumonitis. Among the 106 men, one death from pulmonary edema due to phosgene poisoning occurred less than 24 hr after exposure, and a total of 30 deaths occurred as of 1974 (SMR = 113); there were no deaths from lung cancer, but three deaths (vs 1.37 expected) were due to respiratory diseases. Further follow-up of these groups is needed, including data on morbidity as well as mortality.

  2. Cryptic pulmonary lesions in workers occupationally exposed to dust containing silica.

    PubMed

    Craighead, J E; Vallyathan, N V

    Fibrotic lesions associated with deposits of crystalline silica were found postmortem in the lungs of 15 granite workers who lacked radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. All members of this occupational group had been employed in the granite quarrying and monument industry of Vermont since ambient air-dust standards were introduced in 1937. Although particulate silica was not revealed in the lesions by traditional polarization light microscopy, it was identified by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with backscatter imaging and x-ray spectrometry. The etiologic basis of the fibrotic pulmonary disease would not have been diagnosed without the aid of these modern analytical tools. Exposure to silica-containing dust can result in cryptic pulmonary disease that is not detectable radiologically. In these retrospective postmortem studies, it was not possible to define the distribution of the lesions in the lungs.

  3. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...

  4. Facial trustworthiness perception bias elevated in individuals with PTSD compared to trauma exposed controls.

    PubMed

    Fertuck, Eric A; Tsoi, Fai; Grinband, Jack; Ruglass, Lesia; Melara, Robert; Hien, Denise A

    2016-03-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research has focused largely on fear processing. However, interpersonal trauma exposure can also impact interpersonal functioning and the perception of the trustworthiness of others. The present study examined facial perceptions of fearfulness and trustworthiness in individuals with PTSD (n=29), trauma-exposed without PTSD (n=19), and healthy controls (n=18). The PTSD group was hypothesized to exhibit a bias to perceive more fear and untrustworthiness in faces relative to controls. Participants rated the level of fearfulness or trustworthiness of faces that were parametrically morphed along a fear or trustworthiness dimension. The PTSD group was biased to perceive faces as more trustworthy compared to the trauma-exposed healthy controls, yet there were no differences between groups in fear processing. A trustworthiness bias in PTSD may represent a vulnerability factor. Conversely, lower trustworthiness perception may represent a protective disposition in trauma-exposed individuals who do not develop PTSD. Differences in the perception of trustworthiness may be an aspect of social perception that is independent of the fear processing abnormalities observed in PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring and risk assessment by means of alkyl groups in hemoglobin in persons occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Calleman, C J; Ehrenberg, L; Jansson, B; Osterman-Golkar, S; Segerbäck, D; Svensson, K; Wachtmeister, C A

    1978-01-01

    In persons occupationally exposed to ethylene oxide, i.e. under the conditions described by Dunkelberg and Hartmetz (1977), the degree of alkylation in histidine of hemoglobin was determined. Quantitative determination of N-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)histidine by mass fragmentography and by ion-exchange amino-acid analysis gave consistent results. Data are in agreement with the fast elimination from tissues (lambda = 4.6 hr-1, i.e. biological half-life about 9 min) found in the mouse. At the respiration rate of light work, and exposure dose of 1 ppm/hr results in a tissue dose that is estimated to involve a risk amounting to 1.101 mrad-equivalents of stochastic effects with a genetic mechanism.

  6. Sample preparation and system calibration for proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of hair from occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.; Wooller, K.K.

    1985-05-01

    Blood and urine collections are commonly used to monitor trace element concentration in the body. Hair may also be used. The concentration of many elements is much higher in hair than in either blood or urine and may provide a ready record of a period of exposure to heavy metals. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used to study trace elements in hair. A method of preparing samples by charring hair and mixing with yttrium-spiked graphite has been developed. Thick targets suitable for PIXE analysis are made. The trace elements K, Ca, Tl, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb, and Sr are routinely measured in most samples and Cr, Co, As, Bi, Se, Zr, and Cd can be measured in occupationally exposed workers. Helium backscattering and elastic recoil detection are used to determine the major component H, C, N, O, and S. 23 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; García-Vargas, G G; Aguilar, C; Borja, V H; Albores, A; Cebrián, M E

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 microg As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized.

  8. Oxidative stress biomarkers and paraoxonase 1 polymorphism frequency in farmers occupationally exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Costa, Chiara; Gangemi, Silvia; Giambò, Federica; Rapisarda, Venerando; Caccamo, Daniela; Fenga, Concettina

    2015-10-01

    Previous evidence has demonstrated that chemical classes of pesticides, including organophosphates (OP), can induce oxidative stress in exposed workers. The resulting increase in free radicals causes damage to biological macromolecules, and promotes the formation of novel compounds, including advanced glycation end products (AGE) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP). The present study aimed to evaluate the common genetic polymorphisms of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene in a group of 55 farmers exposed to pesticides, as well as the association between these polymorphisms and serum levels of AGE and AOPP. The 192Q wild‑type (WT) allele was present at a significantly higher frequency, compared with the 192R mutated allele (0.74 and 0.26, respectively). The WT allele was predominantly represented by the homozygote 192QQ genotype (51%). The mutated 192QR heterozygotic allele was prevalent, at a frequency of 45.4%, whereas the mutated homozygotes were present at a frequency of 3.6%. A significant decrease in the levels of AGE and AOPP was observed in farmers exhibiting the homozygotic 192RR mutated genotype (14,7221 AU/ml and 0.64 nmol/ml, respectively), compared with the WT genotype (16,1400 AU/ml and 1.76 nmol/ml, respectively), and 192QR genotype (15,2312 AU/ml and 1.60 nmol/ml, respectively). Therefore, due to the high catalytic activity of PON1, the 192RR genotype provides an important genetic predictor of the toxic effects associated with OP pesticide exposure. It determines a minor risk of developing oxidative damage following pesticide exposure, and measuring the levels of AOPP may provide a novel biomarker for oxidative damage in subjects exposed to OP.

  9. The analysis of blood lead levels changeability over the 5-year observation in workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Boroń, Marta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Płachetka, Anna; Pawlas, Natalia

    2016-11-02

    The aim of the present study was to compare a group of workers with stable lead levels with a group of workers with fluctuating lead levels in terms of selected hematological, biochemical, and immunological parameters. The examined group included male workers occupationally exposed to lead. Blood lead (PbB) levels were measured every 3 months during the 5-year observation. Based on standard deviation of mean PbB levels, the examined population was divided into two groups: low level of fluctuation (L-SD) and high level of fluctuation (H-SD) groups. The mean and maximal PbB levels were significantly higher in the H-SD group than in the L-SD group by 9 and 22%, respectively. At the same time, the maximal level of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and standard deviation of mean ZPP level were higher in the H-SD group by 29 and 55%, respectively. The maximal level of hemoglobin and white blood cell (WBC) count as well as standard deviation of the mean hemoglobin level and WBC count were higher in the H-SD group by 2, 8, 58, and 24%, respectively. The expression of nuclear factor kappa-B1 gene and telomerase reverse transcriptase gene was significantly greater in the H-SD group than in the L-SD group by 11 and 28%, respectively. Workers occupationally exposed to lead do not represent a homogenous population. Some present stable lead levels, whereas others have fluctuating lead levels. These fluctuations are related to secondary changes in ZPP and hemoglobin levels as well as WBC count.

  10. NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, B Fatemeh; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouie, Afsaneh; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Parastar, Hadi; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Fariba; Taheri, Salman

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent and its effects on cells and tissues are varied and complex. Due to limitations in the diagnostics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals (SMEIs) by noninvasive approaches, there is a great necessity to develop novel techniques and biomarkers for this condition. We present here the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolic profiling of serum from and healthy controls to identify novel biomarkers in blood serum for better diagnostics. Of note, SMEIs were exposed to SM 30 years ago and that differences between two groups could still be found. Pathways in which differences between SMEIs and healthy controls are observed are related to lipid metabolism, ketogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism.

  11. Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes in sputum from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Lan, Qing; Shen, Min; Mumford, Judy; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung cancer but also in sputum of smokers without the disease, suggesting the potential for aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum as a predictive marker for lung cancer. In the present study, we investigated promoter methylation of 4 genes frequently detected in lung tumors, including p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK genes, in sputum samples obtained from 107 individuals, including 34 never-smoking females and 73 mostly smoking males, who had no evidence of lung cancer but who were exposed to smoky coal emission in Xuan Wei County, China, where lung cancer rate is more than 6 times the Chinese national average rate. Forty nine of the individuals showed evidence of chronic bronchitis while the remaining 58 individuals showed no such a symptom. Promoter methylation of p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK was detected in 51.4% (55/107), 17.8% (19/107), 29.9% (32/107), and 15.9% (17/107) of the sputum samples from these individuals, respectively. There were no differences in promoter methylation frequencies of any of these genes according to smoking status or gender of the subjects or between individuals with chronic bronchitis and those without evidence of such a symptom. Therefore, individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in this region harbored in their sputum frequent promoter methylation of these genes that have been previously found in lung tumors and implicated in lung cancer development. PMID:18751376

  12. Serum protein expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis in workers occupationally exposed to chromium (VI).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guiping; Wang, Tianjing; Liu, Jiaxing; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhong, Lijun; Yu, Shanfa; Zhao, Zuchang; Zhai, Min; Jia, Guang

    2017-08-05

    Cr(VI) is widely-recognized as occupational and environmental contaminant, but the precise underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI) induced carcinogenic toxicity remain to be elucidated. Among kinds of toxic mechanisms, alteration of protein profiling usually elaborate a key mechanism of Cr(VI) induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Large-scale proteins changes can reflect the onset or progression of carcinogenic toxicity, and potential serum protein biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure. To gain an insight into the serum proteins expression profiling in chromate workers and find potential novel serum proteins biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure, 107 male participants from a chromate production plant were recruited into the study. Questionnaire was applied to collect personal information and occupational history. Chromium concentration in blood (CrB) was measured to evaluate the participants' internal exposure. Serum proteins profiling and bioinformatics analysis were performed to explore differentially expressed proteins, proteins-chemical interaction network, critical proteins nodes related to the signaling pathways among 16 controls and 25 exposure workers in the first stage. ELISA tests were applied to verify the critical interested proteins nodes in the remaining 41 exposure workers and 25 controls. The results showed that the CrB levels in the control group were significantly lower than that in the exposure group (P<0.05). 44 significantly differentially expressed serum proteins formed 16 significant signaling pathways and a complex proteins-chemical interaction network, which associated with the immune system and extracellular matrix organization. C reactive protein (CRP), sonic hedgehog protein (SHH) and calcium located at critical nodes in proteins-chemical interaction network. There was a significant negative correlation between serum CRP level and CrB (P<0.05), and a significant positive correlation between SHH concentrations and CrB (P<0.05), which indicated that CRP and SHH

  13. Cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelium of Brazilian aviators occupationally exposed to agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Minasi, L B; Costa, E O A; Silva, D M; Melo, C O A; de Almeida, J G; Vieira, T C; Silva Júnior, R L; Ribeiro, C L; da Silva, C C; da Cruz, A D

    2011-12-12

    The frequency of micronuclei in both buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes is extensively used as a biomarker of chromosomal damage and genome stability in human populations. We examined whether prolonged exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides leads to an increase in cytogenetic damage. The exposed group comprised 50 agricultural aviators, mainly from Central and Southeast regions of Brazil, who had inhaled agrochemicals for more than 10 years without personal protection equipment; the control group consisted of 17 men from the same regions, without indication of exposure to pesticides, There were three times higher frequencies of micronuclei (P < 0.05) and 2.5 times higher frequencies of binucleated cells in the aviators when compared to controls. However, cytotoxic alterations such as broken eggs and karyorrhexis did not present statistically significant differences between the exposed and control groups. Therefore, diverse agrochemicals used to combat pests in agriculture possess genotoxic effects in the oral mucosa of the agricultural pilots, as showed in this study.

  14. [Results of bronchodilation tests in workers exposed to occupation respiratory noxae].

    PubMed

    Popović, V; Jovanović, J; Todorović, R; Arandelović, M; Momcilović, O; Dordević, D

    1990-01-01

    In order to detect and assess the spastic components in airway obstruction of workers exposed to inhalation of different nonorganic and organic dusts, 129 workers of metal industry and 135 workers of textile industry were examined. The workers of metal industry were exposed to the following respiratory noxa: toluol, paint aerosol, mineral dusts (SiO2 up to 10%), asbestos dust, metalic dust and several chemical noxa (acetone, CO, CO2, ZnO, FeO and petrol). In textile industry the dust of vegetal origin was detected with unfavourable micro climatic factors. In both groups the similar results were found with very high percent of spastic components. After bronhodilatatory testing the most significant differences were found in the following tests: Raw, FMF25-75, FEF75-85, components. Several significant spastic components were present in workers of metal industry which are due to the polluted working area. In relation to the mean values of tests, the greatest number of different results was found in FEF75-85 and Raw tests. It is suggested that the workers with these results should be tested as well.

  15. Oxidative stress indices in Nigerian pesticide applicators and farmers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Surajudeen, Yaqub A; Sheu, Rahamon K; Ayokulehin, Kosoko M; Olatunbosun, Arinola G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reports have clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of organophosphate pesticides (Op) toxicity. However, there is dearth of information on which group of the farm workers is more at risk of Op-induced oxidative stress. Aim: This study determined serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and serum activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in farm workers exposed to Op. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 (30 pesticide applicators and 30 farmers) and 30 apparently healthy non-farmers who were nonexposed to Op (controls) were recruited into this study. Serum activity of AChE was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while serum levels of MDA, GSH, and NO and serum activities of CAT, MPO, GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined colorimetrically. Results: Serum activities of AChE and CAT were significantly lower, whereas MPO activity was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with controls. Similarly, farmers had significantly reduced serum AChE activity and significantly raised MPO activity compared with controls. However, serum activities of AChE, CAT, and MPO were significantly lower, whereas mean level of MDA was significantly higher in pesticide applicators compared with farmers. Conclusion: This study shows that Op applicators are more exposed to oxidative stress than farmers, thus Op applicators require increased antioxidant supplements than farmers. PMID:25298941

  16. Retrospective biodosimetry using translocation frequency in a stable cell of occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Bae, Keum Seok; Han, Eun-Ae; Jang, Seong Jae; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Kim, Wan Tae

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of hematological malignancies were reported in an industrial radiography company over a year, which were reasonably suspected of being consequences of prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation because of the higher incidence than expected in the general population. We analyzed chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the other workers who had been working under similar circumstances as the patients in the company. Among the subjects tested, 10 workers who belonged to the highest band were followed up periodically for 1.5 years since the first analysis. The aim of this study was to clarify pertinence of translocation analysis to an industrial set-up where chronic exposure was commonly expected. To be a useful tool for a retrospective biodosimetry, the aberrations need to be persistent for a decade or longer. Therefore we calculated the decline rates and half-lives of frequency for both a reciprocal translocation and a dicentric chromosome and compared them. In this study, while the frequency of reciprocal translocations was maintained at the initial level, dicentric chromosomes were decreased to 46.9% (31.0–76.5) of the initial frequency over the follow-up period. Our results support the long-term stability of reciprocal translocation through the cell cycle and validate the usefulness of translocation analysis as a retrospective biodosimetry for cases of occupational exposure. PMID:25922373

  17. Quality assurance of personal beta particle dosemeters used for individual monitoring of occupationally exposed persons.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, Klaus; Ambrosi, Peter

    2007-01-01

    As a result of investigations and intercomparison measurements organised from 1996 to 1999 by PTB, several types of personal dosemeters, all based on TLD, were selected by the dosimetry services for the measurement of the personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07) in beta and/or photon radiation fields. These dosemeters have now the status of legal personal beta partial-body dosemeters. Workplaces at which beta radiation might significantly contribute to the doses to the extremities are to be found today with increasing frequency in radiation therapy, radiation source production and nuclear power plants. Quality assurance for beta personal dosemeters is stipulated by guidelines for the official dosimetry service and is carried out by way of the intercomparison measurements organised periodically by the PTB. The results are evaluated based on the recommendations of the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK). The procedure of these intercomparison measurements will be explained in detail. The experience gained from three series of comparisons with seven types of fingerring dosemeters will be described and the results will be presented. The anonymity of the dosemeter types and of the participants in the intercomparison will be preserved.

  18. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes.

  19. Individual contributory factors in teacher stress: the role of achievement striving and occupational commitment.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to understanding this problem (Cox, 1978; Parkes, 1994). Identifying individual contributory factors is essential in understanding why, under the same environmental conditions, some people suffer much greater levels of stress than others. This study examined the influence of Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, occupational commitment, gender and nature/experience of teaching on perceived workplace stress within the teaching profession (N = 95). It was predicted that perceived stress would be strongest amongst those reporting higher levels of these factors. A multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a positive relationship between Type A behaviour, personal achievement strivings, and perceived stress. The relationship between perceived stress and occupational commitment, however, was found to be negative. The possible explanations for these findings, and potential implications, are discussed. Future research plans are outlined for exploring the relationships between these individual contributory factors and environmental stressors.

  20. Declining prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment-exposed individuals in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Andrea; Dunn, David; Zazzi, Maurizio; Camacho, Ricardo; Torti, Carlo; Fanti, Iuri; Kaiser, Rolf; Sönnerborg, Anders; Codoñer, Francisco M; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Bansi, Loveleen; Ghisetti, Valeria; van de Vijver, David A M C; Asboe, David; Prosperi, Mattia C F; Di Giambenedetto, Simona

    2013-04-15

    HIV-1 drug resistance represents a major obstacle to infection and disease control. This retrospective study analyzes trends and determinants of resistance in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-exposed individuals across 7 countries in Europe. Of 20 323 cases, 80% carried at least one resistance mutation: these declined from 81% in 1997 to 71% in 2008. Predicted extensive 3-class resistance was rare (3.2% considering the cumulative genotype) and peaked at 4.5% in 2005, decreasing thereafter. The proportion of cases exhausting available drug options dropped from 32% in 2000 to 1% in 2008. Reduced risk of resistance over calendar years was confirmed by multivariable analysis.

  1. [Evaluation of health effect among occupational population exposed to nano-titanium dioxide: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Xu, H D; Zhou, J W; Tang, S C; Kong, F L; Li, X W; Shen, Z L; Yan, L; Chen, Z J; Zhao, L; Jia, G; Zhang, J

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To characterize the health effects of nano-titanium dioxide exposure in an occupational cohort. Methods: Eighty-five male employees of a nano-titanium dioxide manufacturing enterprise in Shandong Province were evaluated in September 2014. Forty-four were exposed to nano-titanium dioxide (exposure group), and 41 were not exposed to nano-titanium dioxide (control group). We collected employees' basic information, smoking and drinking history, previous medical history, family history, and occupational history. Differences in blood pressure, hematological parameters, and blood biochemistry between the two groups were analyzed and compared. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of nano-titanium dioxide exposure on blood pressure, hematological parameters, and blood biochemistry indices after controlling for age, smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI). Twenty-five employees from the exposure group and 25 employees from the control group were selected at random for measurement of genetic damage by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Poisson regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of nano-titanium dioxide exposure on micronucleus frequency or micronucleus cell frequency after controlling for age, smoking, drinking, and BMI. Results: The median (P25-P75) surface area concentration of particles deposited in the tracheobronchial region, the surface area concentration of particles deposited in the alveolar region, and particle number concentration in the exposure group were 35.35(24.31-57.42) μ m(2)/cm(3), 173.09(116.27-270.72) μ m(2)/cm(3), and 40 244.00 (17 803.50-78 679.00) /cm(3), respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control group 33.90 (27.44-43.29) μm(2)/cm(3), 150.50(125.82-192.87)μm(2)/cm(3), and 18 721.00 (12 721.00-51 898.50)/cm(3), respectively. Z values were 15.47, 15.96, and 14.54, respectively (P<0.001 for all three values). Multiple linear regression analysis

  2. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Fenske, Richard A; Furlong, Clement E; van Belle, Gerald; Checkoway, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of ‘BuChE depression’ (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of follow-up testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to pre-season baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, P < 0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (β = −1.74, P < 0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. PMID:19819864

  3. Energy absorption of seated occupants exposed to horizontal vibration and role of back support condition.

    PubMed

    Rakheja, Subhash; Mandapuram, Santosh; Dong, Ren G

    2008-12-01

    Absorbed power characteristics of seated human subjects under fore-aft (x-axis) and lateral (y-axis) vibration are investigated through measurements of dynamic interactions at the two driving-points formed by the body and the seat pan, and upper body and the backrest. The experiments involved: (i) three back support conditions (no back support, and back supported against a vertical and an inclined backrest); (ii) three seat pan heights (425, 390 and 350 mm); and three magnitudes (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s2 rms acceleration) of band limited random excitations in 0.5-10 Hz frequency range, applied independently along the x- and y- axes. The force responses, measured at the seat pan and the backrest are applied to characterize total energy transfer reflected on the seat pan and the backrest. The mean responses suggest strong contributions due to back support, and direction and magnitude of vibration. In the absence of a back support, the seat pan responses dominated in lower frequency bands centered at 0.63 and 1.25 Hz under both directions of motion. Most significant interactions of the upper body against the back support was observed under fore-aft vibration. The addition of back support caused the seat pan response to converge to a single primary peak near a higher frequency of 4 Hz under x- axis, with only little effect on the y-axis responses. The back support serves as an additional source of vibration to the occupant and an important constraint to limit the fore-aft movement of the upper body and thus relatively higher energy transfer under. The mean responses were further explored to examine the Wd frequency-weighting used for assessing exposure to horizontal vibration. The results show that the current weighting is suited for assessing the vibration exposure of human subjects seated only without a back support.

  4. Evaluating genotoxic risks in Brazilian public health agents occupationally exposed to pesticides: a multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Franco, Fernanda Craveiro; Alves, Alessandro Arruda; Godoy, Fernanda Ribeiro; Avelar, Juliana Boaventura; Rodrigues, Douglas Dantas; Pedroso, Thays Millena Alves; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino; Nomura, Fausto; de Melo E Silva, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    This is the first study demonstrating genotoxic effects and whole transcriptome analysis on community health agents (CHAs) occupationally exposed to pesticides in Central Brazil. For the transcriptome analysis, we found some genes related to Alzheimer's disease (LRP1), an insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF2R), immunity genes (IGL family and IGJ), two genes related to inflammatory reaction (CXCL5 and CCL3), one gene related to maintenance of cellular morphology (NHS), one gene considered to be a strong apoptosis inductor (LGALS14), and several transcripts of the neuroblastoma breakpoint family (NBPF). Related to comet assay, we demonstrated a significant increase in DNA damage, measured by the olive tail moment (OTM), in the exposed group compared to the control group. Moreover, we also observed a statistically significant difference in OTM values depending on GSTM1 genotypes. Therefore, Brazilian epidemiological surveillance, an organization responsible for the assessment and management of health risks associated to pesticide exposure to CHA, needs to be more proactive and considers the implications of pesticide exposure for CHA procedures and processes.

  5. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  6. Effect of cigarette smoking on noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Liyuan; Davis, Robert; Heyer, Nicholas; Yang, Qiuling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Li, Nan; Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Lin; Zhao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Excessive exposure to high noise level environments has the potential to cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and cigarette smoking has also been shown to have a potential adverse effect on hearing. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking interacts with noise in the development of hearing loss, and if so, the extent of the contribution from smoking on NIHL. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the effect of smoking on NIHL in 517 male workers (non-smokers: N = 199; smokers: N = 318) exposed to a high-level industrial noise environment in China. Shift-long temporal waveforms of the noise that workers were exposed to for evaluation of noise exposures, and audiometric threshold measures were obtained on all selected subjects. The subjects used hearing protection devices only within the last 1-2 years. The results suggest that smoking has an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to high level industrial noise, i.e., the median high frequency hearing thresholds were significantly greater in smokers than non-smokers exposed to noise for more than 10 years. This effect was observed at 4.0 and 6.0 kHz. Smoking did not have an adverse effect on NIHL in workers exposed to noise less than 10 years. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for high frequency hearing loss (i.e., hearing threshold greater than 40 dB at 4.0 kHz) were 1.94 for smokers in comparison to non-smokers. The results suggest that: (1) smokers have a higher risk of developing high frequency hearing loss than non-smokers with a similar occupational noise exposure, and (2) the interaction between cigarette smoking and high-level noise exposure may be additive. There is a need to develop and analyze a larger database of workers with well-documented exposures and smoking histories for better understanding of the effect of smoking on NIHL incurred from high-level industrial noise exposures. A better understanding of the role of smoking may lead to its

  7. Advantages and risks of nanotechnologies in cancer patients and occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Monica; Zappavigna, Silvia; Sannolo, Nicola; Porto, Stefania; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, different nanotechnology platforms for drug delivery in the area of medical biology have gained remarkable attention. Nanoparticles (NPs) used as drug delivery vehicles consist of different materials such as natural or synthetic polymers, lipids or metals. They have an ultra-small size, large surface area-to-mass ratio and high reactivity. Although there are many data on the advantages in terms of both higher efficacy and less adverse effects of nanodrugs, several recent findings have reported unexpected toxicities giving origin to nanotoxicology. Despite the great promise that NPs show, few studies have examined the human body's reaction due to NP exposure in both patients and workers. To perform this type of evaluation, it is necessary to define an adequate index of exposure, and the measure of this index is representative of what the worker is breathing. The properties of the nanomaterials used for designing NPs, such as in the case of poorly biocompatible materials (carbon nanotubes or heavy metals), and their chemical composition (as in the case of liposomes) largely contribute in determining potential side effects. Awareness of the levels of particles, which can cause health effects, is necessary for the workers and exposed patients.

  8. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kossowska, Barbara; Dudka, Ilona; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela; Szymańska-Chabowska, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Włodzimierz; Gancarz, Roman; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  9. Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual and Average Member of Critical Group

    SciTech Connect

    K. Montague

    2000-02-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure.

  10. The experiences and needs of individuals with disabilities exposed to chronic political violence.

    PubMed

    Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa; Gelkopf, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to understand, describe and map the experiences, challenges and needs of individuals with lifelong disabilities, who have been exposed to chronic politically violent events (terror, war or continuous missile attacks) in Israel. Method The study was conducted within the qualitative-constructivist paradigm. Three focus groups consisting of 18 individuals with lifelong disabilities were conducted; each focus group included a specific disability type (physical, visual and hearing impairment). Results The participants reported encountering environmental barriers, such as inaccessibly of the physical environment and information as well as dependency on others. These barriers limited the participants' functioning during emergency period and thus increased their level of distress. The participants also emphasized their physical, social and psychological needs. Conclusions The needs of individuals with disabilities in emergency situations can be met if they have a safe place to stay in, are with someone else, and plan every daily action in advance. It is also imperative to provide accessible services and information. Furthermore, it is recommended to develop training sessions for individuals with disabilities and for service providers regarding how to locate, communicate with and assist individuals with disabilities during security threat situations. Implications for Rehabilitation Successful coping of individuals with lifelong disabilities with chronic politically violent events depends on personal and organizational accommodations. Besides an accessible physical environment, the information provided should be available and accessible through mass media and assistive technologies. A comprehensive emergency service for various disabilities is needed. Service providers should be trained on how to locate, communicate with, and assist individuals with disabilities during security threat situations.

  11. Effects of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning and health care utilization in individuals with anxiety.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Guidos, Brittany M; Mete, Mihriye; Bui, Eric; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effect of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning in individuals with Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Fifty-seven individuals with GAD (mean (SD) age=39 (13); 56% women) participated in an 8-week clinical trial in which they were randomized to mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class. In this secondary analysis, absenteeism, entire workdays missed, partial workdays missed, and healthcare utilization patterns were assessed before and after treatment. Compared to the attention control class, participation in MBSR was associated with a significantly greater decrease in partial work days missed for adults with GAD (t=2.734, df=51, p=0.009). Interestingly, a dose effect was observed during the 24-week post-treatment follow-up period: among MBSR participants, greater home mindfulness meditation practice was associated with less work loss and with fewer mental health professional visits. Mindfulness meditation training may improve occupational functioning and decrease healthcare utilization in adults with GAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors contributing to occupational stress experienced by individuals employed in the fast food industry.

    PubMed

    Michailids, Maria P; Elwkai, Mouafak E-ali

    2003-01-01

    The present study, examined through survey research methodology, the factors or combination of factors which appear to contribute to the experience of occupational stress of individuals working in the fast-food industry. The Occupational Stress Indicator was used. Preliminary findings showed that there exists, several compound factors, which appear to be the most frequently encountered factors by the sample tested, such as the way they feel about their job; the way they behave generally; the way they interpret events around them; the sources of pressure in their job; and the way they cope with stress they experience. It appears that there are statistically significant differences between males and females as regards to the way they respond to stress, the sources of pressure in their job and the way they cope with stress they experience. Also, statistically significant differences exist between individuals in managerial and non-managerial positions, as regards to their personality type, the degree of ambition, and work dedication they possess.

  13. The Role of Individual and Collective Mindfulness in Promoting Occupational Safety in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Dierynck, Bart; Leroy, Hannes; Savage, Grant T; Choi, Ellen

    2016-01-29

    Although the importance of safety regulations is highly emphasized in hospitals, nurses frequently work around, or intentionally bypass, safety regulations. We argue that work-arounds occur because adhering to safety regulations usually requires more time and work process design often lacks complementarity with safety regulations. Our main proposition is that mindfulness is associated with a decrease in occupational safety failures through a decrease in work-arounds. First, we propose that individual mindfulness may prevent the depletion of motivational resources caused by worrying about the consequences of time lost when adhering to safety regulations. Second, we argue that collective mindfulness may provide nursing teams with a cognitive infrastructure that facilitates the detection and adaptation of work processes. The results of a multilevel analysis of 580 survey responses from nurses are consistent with our propositions. Our multilevel analytic approach enables us to account for the unique variance in work-arounds that individual and collective mindfulness explain.

  14. Application of Premack's generalization of reinforcement to modify occupational behavior in two severely retarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Bateman, S

    1975-03-01

    Premack's generalization that a more probable response will reinforce a less probable one was applied to modify occupational behavior of two severly retarded individuals. When opportunity to work on a more preferred activity was made contingent upon spending some time on a less preferred activity, an increase in the amount of time spent on less preferred work occurred. As the reinforcement schedule was gradually reduced in terms of time allowed on more preferred work, time spent on the less preferred activity tended to increase. Behavior did not return to baseline levels on extinction, however. Possible reasons for these findings are outlined, together with the practical advantages of utilizing Premack's generalization as a reinforcement technique for motivating retarded individuals in rehabilitation settings.

  15. An occupational therapy work skills assessment for individuals with head injury.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M

    2003-06-01

    Comprehensive and accurate evaluation is a critical step in the return-to-work process for individuals with head injury. Research findings have been reported on the barriers for a successful return to work. Assessment frameworks have been published, but they do not include a protocol that contains each component for the assessment. This paper describes an occupational therapy assessment protocol developed and used in the evaluation of the work skills of individuals with head injury. This protocol focuses on assessment of physical, cognitive and behavioural abilities in relation to the demands of the workplace and measures these within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills and safety. The functional approach inherent in this protocol provides information to complement the findings of other interdisciplinary team members. This paper also explores the strengths and limitations of this protocol.

  16. Enhancement of benzo(a)pyrene-induced sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers occupationally exposed to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.; Christiani, D.C.; Little, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    The frequencies of base-line and benzo(a)pyrene ((BP) CAS 50-38-8)-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 22 male asbestos-exposed workers and 10 nonexposed workers of comparable age. A clear association between cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure in the sensitivity of lymphocytes to BP was observed. Among asbestos-exposed workers, lymphocytes from those who smoked cigarettes were significantly more susceptible to the induction of SCE by in vitro exposure to BP (P = .01) than were lymphocytes from nonsmokers. Active smoking elevated the base-line SCE frequency in both asbestos-exposed and nonexposed workers (P = .001), and an interaction between smoking and asbestos in the production of base-line SCE was suggested (P = .07). Asbestos exposure alone was not associated with an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of SCE by BP or with an elevation of base-line SCE. Increased age was associated with an increase in SCE inducibility by BP (P = .01), and a history of smoking was marginally associated with SCE inducibility by BP (P = .07). These findings support the hypothesis that an increased susceptibility of asbestos-exposed individuals to polyaromatic hydrocarbon-induced cancer results from an enhanced sensitivity to the induction of genetic damage rather than to an asbestos-induced differential cellular metabolic capacity.

  17. Radiological protection of foetuses and breast-fed children of occupationally exposed women in nuclear medicine - Challenges for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Mattsson, S

    2017-09-04

    This paper describes issues of concern for protecting foetuses and breast-fed children of occupationally exposed women in nuclear medicine from unnecessary exposure of ionising radiation. The protection principle is to ensure the same level of protection for the foetus and child as for the general public. Therefore international radiation protection standards recommend a dose constraint of 1mSv to a foetus during the remaining time of pregnancy after it is known/declared and a yearly dose constraint of 1mSv to a breast-fed child. It is not self-evident how to guarantee this level of radiation protection. The exposure situation in nuclear medicine is complex. Exploring existing reported occupational exposure levels suggests great variability between work tasks and facilities. The standards and guidelines found give no detailed advice. Therefore each facility needs to systematically review external and internal exposure levels in order to plan appropriate protection measures and issue their own guidelines and rules. One strategy might be that each facility defines tasks that do not require any restrictions and lists such duties that are not suitable to do when pregnant or breastfeeding, taking also potential exposure levels into consideration. This paper gives examples of such types of work. Information to the staff about the necessity of declaring pregnancy or breastfeeding is of fundamental importance. The internal policies issued by the hospital management should make clear the basis for taking care of pregnant and breastfeeding employees. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Through a case control seroprevalence study, we sought to determine the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with occupational exposure to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables. Methods Subjects, numbering 200, who worked growing or selling fruits and vegetables, and 400 control subjects matched by age, gender, and residence were examined by enzyme immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Of the 200 fruit and vegetable workers, 15 (7.5%) of whom, and 31 (7.8%) of the 400 controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (P = 0.96). Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1%) of the fruit workers and in 11 (2.8%) of the control subjects (P = 0.23). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies increased with age (P = 0.0004). In addition, seropositivity to Toxoplasma was associated with ill status (P = 0.04), chronic tonsillitis (P = 0.03), and reflex impairment (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma infection was associated with consumption of raw meat (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.15-28.79; P = 0.03), unwashed raw fruits (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.11-5.63; P = 0.02), and living in a house with soil floors (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.22-7.88; P = 0.01), whereas Toxoplasma infection was negatively associated with traveling abroad (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67; P = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Toxoplasma infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables, and the results may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Toxoplasma infection especially in female workers at reproductive age. PMID:22177118

  19. Comparison of in vivo translocation frequencies with in vitro G2 radiosensitivity in radiation workers occupationally exposed to external radiation.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Kevin K; Whitehouse, Caroline A; Tarone, Robert E; Janet Tawn, E

    2008-03-01

    A group of retired workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield who had been studied for in vivo translocation frequencies in blood lymphocytes were resampled and analysed for in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity. Significant variation in response to a dose of 0.5 Gy given at the G(2) stage of the cell cycle was observed between individuals (P < 0.001). In a regression analysis that included age, cumulative occupational radiation dose and in vitro G(2) radiation-induced aberration frequencies as independent variables, only cumulative occupational radiation dose had a significant influence on chromosomal translocation frequency (P = 0.0036). G(2) in vitro radiosensitivity is assumed to be a marker for genetic polymorphic variation in DNA damage recognition and repair genes. Therefore, since in vivo translocation frequencies can be considered a surrogate for cancer risk, this lack of association with G(2) in vitro radiosensitivity suggests that such genetic variation has no impact on the response to low dose chronic exposure.

  20. Evaluation of a national register on occupational exposure to carcinogens: effectiveness in the prevention of occupational cancer, and cancer risks among the exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Saalo, Anja; Pukkala, Eero; Virtanen, Simo; Karjalainen, Antti; Vuorela, Raija

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of a register of employees exposed to carcinogens (the ASA Register) which has been in operation in Finland since 1979, and to study cancer risks among the notified workers. The impact of ASA at workplaces was studied by questionnaires mailed to 1448 work departments, which were notified to ASA in 1996, and to 1033 departments, which departed ASA in 1991-1996. The mailing was responded by 69% of departments. The cancer incidence of 35,138 workers notified to ASA in 1979-1988 was followed up through the files of the Finnish Cancer Register for the period 1980-2003. Changes eliminating or substantially reducing exposure to carcinogens were reported by 73% of departments notified to ASA in 1996. The ASA notification process had directly prompted measures to reduce exposure (8% of cases) or contributed to them (24% of cases). Estimations based on responses of the workplaces suggested that the ASA registration had decreased exposure of 600 workers year(-1) (out of approximately 15,000 notified workers, which is <1% of the employed in Finland), preventing thereby an unknown number of occupational cancers. Other benefits of ASA included the saving of the treatment costs of prevented cancers, the prevention of other health outcomes of carcinogens, improved safety behaviour of exposed workers and avoidance of human suffering among cancer patients and their families. The labour safety authorities had better possibilities to direct their activities against carcinogen exposure. These benefits should be considered against the annual costs, mainly due to 7-8 person-years of work required by tasks related to ASA. The results of the cancer incidence study among notified workers were based on a relatively short follow-up (on average 19 years). The incidence of mesothelioma was significantly increased in the ASA cohort, probably due to exposure to asbestos. These results suggest that a national exposure

  1. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  2. Selection bias in follow-up interviews with individuals attending the emergency department for occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether supplementary interview participation was comparable for occupationally injured patients attending two hospital emergency departments and to investigate the magnitude of selection bias in relation to sex, age, severity, job tasks and industry risk level. Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments were compared for study recruitment by age and sex. Respondents and non-respondents to the interview were compared for age, sex, injury severity, job tasks and industry risk level. Of 4002 patients attending the two hospitals, 1693 (42%) participated in the interview. One hospital had a markedly higher response rate to the questionnaire, but the proportions of participation in the interview were similar in the two hospitals. Patients aged <30 years were over-represented among non-respondents whereas sex, injury severity, job task and industry risk level were not significantly different between respondents and non-respondents. Despite a relatively low interview participation rate among injured individuals attending the emergency department, selection bias was limited. This indicates that results regarding injury risk patterns may be more widely generalisable when examining the causality of occupational injuries. However, the study also showed that young injured workers were less likely to participate in follow-up interviews, which is an important factor when interpreting age-related risk of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  4. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  5. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in recently trauma-exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Frijling, Jessie L; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Koch, Saskia B J; Nawijn, Laura; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for effective, early post-trauma preventive interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Attenuating amygdala hyperreactivity early post-trauma, a likely PTSD vulnerability factor, may decrease PTSD risk. Since oxytocin modulates amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli, oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising candidate for PTSD prevention. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled fMRI study, we investigated effects of a single intranasal oxytocin administration (40 IU) on amygdala reactivity to happy, neutral and fearful faces in 41 recently trauma-exposed men and women showing moderate to high distress after initial post-trauma screening. We explored treatment interactions with sex. Participants were scanned within 11 days post-trauma. Compared with placebo, oxytocin significantly increased right amygdala reactivity to fearful faces. There was a significant treatment by sex interaction on amygdala reactivity to neutral faces, with women showing increased left amygdala reactivity after oxytocin. These findings indicate that a single oxytocin administration may enhance fearful faces processing in recently trauma-exposed individuals and neutral faces processing in recently trauma-exposed women. These observations may be explained by oxytocin-induced increased salience processing. Clinical implications of these findings for PTSD prevention should be further investigated. Netherlands Trial Registry; Boosting Oxytocin after trauma: Neurobiology and the Development of Stress-related psychopathology (BONDS); NTR3190; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC = 3190. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Contribution of Direct and Indirect Exposure to Human Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in an Occupationally Exposed Group of Ski Waxers.

    PubMed

    Gomis, Melissa I; Vestergren, Robin; Nilsson, Helena; Cousins, Ian T

    2016-07-05

    The contribution of direct (i.e., uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) itself) and indirect (i.e., uptake of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and metabolism to PFOA) exposure to PFOA serum concentrations was investigated using a dynamic one-compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. The PK model was applied to six occupationally exposed ski waxers for whom direct and indirect exposures via inhalation were characterized using multiple measurements with personal air sampling devices. The model was able to predict the diverging individual temporal trends of PFOA in serum with correlation coefficients of 0.82-0.94. For the four technicians with high initial concentrations of PFOA in serum (250-1050 ng/mL), the ongoing occupational exposure (both direct and indirect) was of minor importance and net depuration of PFOA was observed throughout the ski season. An estimated average intrinsic elimination half-life of 2.4 years (1.8-3.1 years accounting for variation between technicians and model uncertainty) was derived for these technicians. The remaining two technicians, who had much lower initial serum concentrations (10-17 ng/mL), were strongly influenced by exposure during the ski season with indirect exposure contributing to 45% of PFOA serum concentrations. On the basis of these model simulations, an average metabolism yield of 0.003 (molar concentration basis; uncertainty range of 0.0006-0.01) was derived for transformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA. An uncertainty analysis was performed, and it was determined that the input parameters quantifying the intake of PFOA were mainly responsible for the uncertainty of the metabolism yield and the initial concentration of PFOA in serum was mainly contributing to the uncertainty of estimated serum half-lives.

  7. Using handheld plastic scintillator detectors to triage individuals exposed to a radiological dispersal device

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, Ryan P; Hertel, Nolan; Burgett, E.; Ansari, A.

    2011-01-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, people could become internally contaminated by inhaling dispersed radioactive particles. A rapid method to screen individuals who are internally contaminated is desirable. Such initial screening can help in prompt identification of those who are highly contaminated and in prioritizing individuals for further and more definitive evaluation such as laboratory testing. The use of handheld plastic scintillators to rapidly screen those exposed to an RDD with gamma-emitting radionuclides was investigated in this study. The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code was used to model two commercially available plastic scintillation detectors in conjunction with anthropomorphic phantom models to determine the detector response to inhaled radionuclides. Biokinetic models were used to simulate an inhaled radionuclide and its progression through the anthropomorphic phantoms up to 30 d after intake. The objective of the study was to see if internal contamination levels equivalent to 250 mSv committed effective dose equivalent could be detected using these instruments. Five radionuclides were examined: {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 131}I and {sup 241}Am. The results demonstrate that all of the radionuclides except {sup 241}Am could be detected when placing either one of the two plastic scintillator detector systems on the posterior right torso of the contaminated individuals.

  8. Genomic analysis of human lung fibroblasts exposed to vanadium pentoxide to identify candidate genes for occupational bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jennifer L; Antao-Menezes, Aurita; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Wallace, Duncan G; Mangum, James B; Pluta, Linda J; Thomas, Russell S; Bonner, James C

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a cause of occupational bronchitis. We evaluated gene expression profiles in cultured human lung fibroblasts exposed to V2O5 in vitro in order to identify candidate genes that could play a role in inflammation, fibrosis, and repair during the pathogenesis of V2O5-induced bronchitis. Methods Normal human lung fibroblasts were exposed to V2O5 in a time course experiment. Gene expression was measured at various time points over a 24 hr period using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 Array. Selected genes that were significantly changed in the microarray experiment were validated by RT-PCR. Results V2O5 altered more than 1,400 genes, of which ~300 were induced while >1,100 genes were suppressed. Gene ontology categories (GO) categories unique to induced genes included inflammatory response and immune response, while GO catogories unique to suppressed genes included ubiquitin cycle and cell cycle. A dozen genes were validated by RT-PCR, including growth factors (HBEGF, VEGF, CTGF), chemokines (IL8, CXCL9, CXCL10), oxidative stress response genes (SOD2, PIPOX, OXR1), and DNA-binding proteins (GAS1, STAT1). Conclusion Our study identified a variety of genes that could play pivotal roles in inflammation, fibrosis and repair during V2O5-induced bronchitis. The induction of genes that mediate inflammation and immune responses, as well as suppression of genes involved in growth arrest appear to be important to the lung fibrotic reaction to V2O5. PMID:17459161

  9. Intensity of Binge Drinking a Decade After the September 11th Terror Attacks Among Exposed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Welch, Alice E; Caramanica Zweig, Kimberly; McAteer, Jonathan M; Brackbill, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center resulted in elevated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use among exposed individuals. The relationship among traumatic exposure, PTSD, and excessive drinking is well documented; however, little is known about these relationships in the long term. This study examines factors increasing binge drinking risk among exposed individuals a decade post-9/11. In 2015-2016, data were analyzed from 28,592 World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees aged ≥18 years who completed the Wave 3 (2011-2012) survey. Women comprised 38.9% of participants. Binge drinking in the last 30 days was categorized as low (men, five to seven drinks; women, four to six drinks) or high intensity (men, eight or more drinks; women, seven or more drinks). Probable 9/11-related PTSD was defined as scoring ≥44 on the PTSD Checklist. Exposures to 9/11 (e.g., witnessing horror, sustaining an injury) were categorized as none/low (zero to two) or high (three or more). Binge drinking was reported by 24.7% of participants, of whom 36.9% reported high-intensity binge drinking. Compared with non-binge drinkers, the odds of low- and high-intensity binge drinking were greater among enrollees who were male, aged 18-34 years, non-Hispanic white, had income >$75,000, were rescue/recovery workers, had high 9/11 exposure, or 9/11-related PTSD. The observed associations among traumatic exposure, PTSD, and excessive drinking underscore the need for improved therapies addressing excessive drinking and PTSD concurrently, inclusion of repeated post-event screening for excessive drinking, and evidence-based population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mineral particles in the lungs of subjects resident in the Rome area and not occupationally exposed to mineral dust

    SciTech Connect

    Paoletti, L.; Batisti, D.; Caiazza, S.; Petrelli, M.G.; Taggi, F.; De Zorzi, L.; Dina, M.A.; Donelli, G.

    1987-10-01

    We studied the inorganic particulate contained in the lung parenchyma of 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females) residing in an urban area and not occupationally exposed to dusts. A total of 17 mineral types were identified, along with 16 metal elements in the form of oxides and sulfides. Approximately 70% of the minerals were made up of phyllosilicates, in particular clay, mica, and talc; three metal elements, Fe, Al, and Ti, accounted for more than 75% of the recovered oxide particles. The mean concentration of the observed inorganic particles was approximately 1.8 X 10(5) pp/mg dry tissue. No significant differences were observed in terms of total particulate concentration in the various areas of the lungs and between the right and left lung. Instead we observed a larger concentration of fibrous particles in the upper lobes. The analysis of the data made it possible to determine the presence of a high degree of correlation between the concentrations of silicates and the concentrations of metal oxides and sulfides, implying the existence of a ubiquitous environmental source of these mineral particles. The frequent observation of tremolite fibers is remarkable. This finding, confirmed elsewhere, indicates that the magnitude of the sources of these fibers in the environment, constituted by contaminated talc dusts, has been underestimated until today.

  11. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-21

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by (1)H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  12. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  13. [Exposure to persistent and non-persistent pesticides in a non-occupationally exposed population in Tenerife Island (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Luzardo, Octavio P; García, Carlos Pérez; Zumbado, Manuel; Yanes, Carmen; Trujillo-Martín, María del Mar; Boada Fernández del Campo, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an "environmental obesogen", was detected in 82%, and "endocrine disrupter" pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution. PMID:27767182

  15. Analytical method for assessing potential dermal exposure to pesticides of a non-agricultural occupationally exposed population.

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Olivier; Raeppel, Caroline; Teigné, Delphine; Briand, Olivier; Millet, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    To measure dermal exposure of a non-agricultural occupationally exposed population to pesticides, a new method has been developed for analysis of 13 pesticides from different classes (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides) on dermal patches. The method includes extraction of the patches and analysis of the pesticides by GC-MS and/or HPLC-fluorescence. Water-soluble pesticides (glyphosate and glufosinate) on patches were ultrasonically extracted twice with ultra-pure water for 10 min and analysed by HPLC-fluorescence after derivatisation with FMOC. Organic-soluble pesticides (bifenthrin, cyprodinil, difufenicanil, fludioxonil, oxadiazon, pyriproxyfen, clopyralid, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr, 2,4-MCPA, and triclopyr) were extracted ultrasonically twice for 10 min with 70:30 dichloromethane-acetonitrile and analysed by GC-MS directly or after derivatisation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide. Detection limits varied between 3 and 4 μg L(-1) for water-soluble pesticides and between 1 and 10 μg L(-1) for organic-soluble pesticides.

  16. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  17. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  18. High prevalence of co-factor independent anticardiolipin antibodies in malaria exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Consigny, P H; Cauquelin, B; Agnamey, P; Comby, E; Brasseur, P; Ballet, J J; Roussilhon, C

    2002-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were investigated in 137 individuals chronically exposed to malaria and living in Africa and Asia. They belonged to several groups according to parasite (Plasmodium falciparum or vivax) and clinical manifestations (i.e. asymptomatic parasite carriers, acute uncomplicated attack or severe malaria episodes). aCL were measured in an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) performed in the presence of either goat serum (aCLs) or gelatin (aCLg). In a group of 53 patients with autoimmune manifestations (i.e. antiphospholipid syndrome and/or lupus), detection of IgG but not IgM aCL was markedly reduced in the presence of gelatin. In malaria donors, high prevalence of serum co-factor-independent IgG and IgM were detected, and the presence of goat serum in the assay consistently decreased their detection. aCLg levels were found to be related to the clinical/endemic status of donors. IgG aCLg were found to be higher in asymptomatic P. falciparum carriers than in patients with uncomplicated acute or cerebral malaria. IgM aCLg were higher in the cerebral malaria group than in groups with uncomplicated acute malaria patients or asymptomatic individuals. Data suggest that using a serum co-factor independent, sensitive ELISA, aCL are commonly detected during malarial infections and related to malarial infection status. PMID:11882047

  19. Sputum Inflammatory Profile Before and After Specific Inhalation Challenge in Individuals with Suspected Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Cruz, María-Jesús; Gómez-Ollés, Susana; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to establish the sputum inflammatory profile and changes in levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and a panel of Th1/Th2 cytokines in subjects with suspected occupational asthma (OA) following specific inhalation challenge (SIC) to high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) agents. Material and Methods Fifty-one consecutive subjects undergoing SIC for suspected OA were enrolled. Sputum induction was performed the day before and 24 h after exposure to the offending agent. Total and differential cell counts were assessed. LTB4 and a 10 Th1/Th2 cytokines were measured in sputum supernatant. Results Thirty-four patients tested positive to SIC and were diagnosed with OA (in 10 due to HMW agents and in 24 to LMW agents). SIC was negative in 17 subjects. As compared to baseline an increase was found in the percentage of sputum eosinophils and neutrophils, and in IL-10 concentration after SIC (p = 0.0078, p = 0.0195, and p = 0.046, respectively), and a decrease was seen in LTB4 level (p = 0.0078) in patients with OA due to HMW agents. An increase in the percentage of sputum neutrophils after SIC (p = 0.0040) was observed in subjects without OA exposed to LMW agents. IL-8 levels after SIC were higher in patients without OA compared with patients with OA (p = 0.0146). Conclusion When conducting airway inflammation studies in OA, patients should be divided according to the causal agent (HMW or LMW). In OA patients exposed to HMW agents, an increase in the number of neutrophils can be found in parallel to the increase of eosinophils, although this does not contradict an IgE-mediated mechanism. Exposure to LMW agents can result in increased neutrophilic inflammation in patients with airway diseases unrelated to OA. There is variability in the responses observed in patients with OA exposed to LMW agents. PMID:24236015

  20. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68-45.71mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00-1.06mg-year), medium (1.37-3.55mg-year), and high (4.26-48.13mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity.

  1. Arterial Indices and Serum Cystatin C Level in Individuals With Occupational Wide Band Noise Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Ali R.; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups. Conclusion: We could

  2. Arterial indices and serum cystatin C level in individuals with occupational wide band noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, Ali R; Mousavi-Asl, Benyamin; Shekarchi, Babak; Amini, Kazem; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM) proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN) exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: <40 and >40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI) for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75) were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA). CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66) and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77) revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145) but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019). Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P value < 0.001) both in younger and older groups

  3. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  4. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period.

    PubMed

    Azizova, Tamara V; Bannikova, Maria V; Grigorieva, Evgenia S; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P; Azizova, Elena V

    2016-05-01

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25% of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∆AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95% CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account.

  5. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in workers occupationally exposed to water, sewage, and soil in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Liesenfeld, O; Márquez-Conde, J A; Estrada-Martínez, S; Dubey, J P

    2010-10-01

    Water, sewage, and soil are potential sources of infection for Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated characteristics in 61 plumbers, 203 construction workers, and 168 gardeners in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were tested for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from each participant were obtained. IgG T. gondii antibodies were found in 4 (6.6%) plumbers, 17 (8.4%) construction workers, and 10 (6.0%) gardeners; T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 3 (1.5%) construction workers and 4 (2.4%) gardeners, but in none of the plumbers. In the total population, the prevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in workers living in suburban areas, without education, workers that consumed chorizo, and those who suffered from any disease (P < 0.05). In gardeners, prevalence of infection was significantly higher in those with blood transfusion, and memory impairment (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was positively associated with consumption of unwashed fruits (adjusted odds ratio [OR]  =  2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-5.13), and with raising animals (adjusted OR  =  2.53; 95% CI: 1.00-6.37). This is the first report of contributing factors for T. gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to water, sewage, and soil in a Mexican city, and results will contribute to the design of optimal preventive measures.

  6. Relation between urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion and concentration of lead in the blood of workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Mori, K

    1992-05-01

    Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) concentration was determined by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatography in 22 workers occupationally exposed to lead. The urinary excretion of ABA was increased with increasing exposure to lead. The excretion of urinary ABA had a significant correlation with concentration of lead in blood (Pb-B) (r = 0.581), similar to the correlation of Pb-B with urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) concentration (r = 0.563). The determination of urinary ABA concentration in workers exposed to lead, therefore, may offer a new approach for evaluating the health effect of lead.

  7. Psychiatric disorders among disaster bereaved: an interview study of individuals directly or not directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Pål; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have explored the long-term mental health consequences of disaster losses in bereaved, either exposed to the disaster themselves or not. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of mental disorders and psychological distress in bereaved individuals either directly or not directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami disaster. A cross-sectional study of 111 bereaved Norwegians (32 directly and 79 not directly exposed) was conducted 2 years postdisaster. We used a face-to-face structured clinical interview to diagnose current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression (major depressive disorder, MDD) and a self-report scale to measure prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was twice as high among individuals directly exposed to the disaster compared to individuals who were not directly exposed (46.9 vs. 22.8 per 100). The prevalence of disorders among the directly exposed was PTSD (34.4%), MDD (25%), and PGD (23.3%), whereas the prevalence among the not directly exposed was PGD (14.3%), MDD (10.1%), and PTSD (5.2%). The co-occurrence of disorders was higher among the directly exposed (21.9 vs. 5.2%). Low education and loss of a child predicted PGD, whereas direct exposure to the disaster predicted PTSD. All three disorders were independently associated with functional impairment. The dual burden of direct trauma and loss can inflict a complex set of long-term reactions and mental health problems in bereaved individuals. The relationship between PGD and impaired functioning actualizes the incorporation of PGD in future diagnostic manuals of psychiatric disorders.

  8. Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: a nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel.

    PubMed

    Sterud, Tom; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Oivind; Lau, Bjørn

    2008-12-02

    High levels of stress among ambulance personnel have been attributed to the conditions of ambulance work. However, there is little research to support this notion, and it has been questioned whether ambulance work is inherently stressful. We compared the severity and frequency level of organizational and ambulance-specific stressors, and studied their relationship to organizational conditions and individual differences A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel (n = 1180) in operational duty. The questionnaire included the Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey, the Basic Character Inventory, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and questions addressing organizational conditions. Serious operational tasks and physical demands were identified as the two most severe stressors. Lack of support from co-workers was the most severe and frequent organizational stressor. Higher frequency of stressors was most strongly associated with size of service districts (beta ranging between .18 and .30, p < .01) and working overtime (beta ranging from .13 to .27, p < .05). Stressor severity was related to lack of support after exposure to critical event (beta ranging from .11 to .24, p < .01) and working overtime. Neuroticism (beta ranging from .09 to .17, p < .01) and low general self-efficacy (beta ranging from -.12 to -.16, p < .001) were equally strongly related to severity of stressors, as were organizational conditions. Ambulance-specific stressors were reported as both more severe and more frequently occurring stressors than were organizational stressors. Organizational working conditions were more strongly related to frequency of job stressors than were individual differences. In general, the relationship between occupational stressors and individual differences was weak.

  9. Characterization of the profession/occupation of individuals affected by leprosy and the relationship with limitations in professional activities.

    PubMed

    Nardi, S M T; Ikehara, E; Pedro, H S P; Paschoal, V D A

    2012-01-01

    People who had leprosy stay away from work and have difficulty of employability and to perform their functions or retire early. This study aimed at determining whether there is a relationship between profession/occupation and limitations in activities. This was a cross-sectional study that used the SALSA scale (Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness) to assess limitations and to classify professions/occupations as low, medium or high risk. Of the 277 people surveyed, 50.2% were men, the mean age was 53.8 years (SD = 16.3), 62.7% had multibacillary, 59.7% had family incomes of 3 minimum wages or less, 58.5% had up to 6 years schooling and 57% did not have paid jobs. As for occupations, 45.8% were considered low, 39.7% medium and 12.3% high risk. Of thetotal, 49.1% had mild/moderate, 8.7% severe/very severe and 42.2% did not have any limitations. The relationship between limitations in activities and occupational risk indicated that people with severe limitations tend to have low risk occupations (p value < 0.05). The limitations associated with employability showed that most active individuals have no limitations (p value < 0.05). Hence, most people who had leprosy have low risk professions/occupations; the limitations favor a shift from high-risk activities and interfere with employability.

  10. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  11. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  12. Prevalence of thyroid nodules in an occupationally radiation exposed group: a cross sectional study in an area with mild iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Trerotoli, Paolo; Ciampolillo, Anna; Marinelli, Giuseppe; Giorgino, Riccardo; Serio, Gabriella

    2005-07-07

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer occur more frequently in people exposed to radiation for therapeutic purposes, and to nuclear fallout. Furthermore, it is known that a moderate degree of iodine deficiency may be responsible for an increased prevalence of thyroid nodules, while it is suspected that radiation exposure could induce changes in thyroid autoimmunity. The iodine intake of people resident in Bari, S. Italy, is mildly deficient, which could be presumed to cause a higher prevalence of thyroid pathology. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in a population occupationally exposed to radiation, in an area of mild iodine deficiency. A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in radiation exposed workers, compared with a stratified sample of non exposed workers. After giving written consent to participate in the study, all the recruited subjects (304 exposed and 419 non exposed volunteers) were interviewed to fill in an anamnestic questionnaire, and underwent a physical examination, ultrasound thyroid scan, serum determinations of fT3, fT4 and TSH, fine needle aspiration biopsy. The sample was subdivided into one group exposed to a determined quantity of radiation (detected by counter), one group exposed to an undetectable quantity of radiation, and the non exposed control group. The prevalence of thyroid nodules < 1 cm in diameter, defined as incidentalomas, in the exposed group with detected doses, was 11.28% in males and 9.68% in females, while in the exposed group with undetectable dose the prevalence was 10.39% in males and 16.67% in females. In the non exposed group the prevalence of incidentalomas was 9.34% in males and 13.20% in females. These prevalences were not statistically different when analysed by a multiple test comparison with the bootstrap method and stratification for sex. Instead, the prevalence of thyroid nodules > 1 cm in diameter resulted statistically different in

  13. Evaluation of chromosomal alteration in electrical workers occupationally exposed to low frequency of electro magnetic field (EMFs) in Coimbatore population, India.

    PubMed

    Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Stalin, Nattan; Varsha, Prakash; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Manikantan, Pappuswamy; Venkatesan, Chinnakulandhai; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Dharwadkar, Shahnaz N

    2012-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electro magnetic fields (EMFs) have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. An increased number of chromosomal alterations in peripheral lymphocytes are correlated with elevated incidence of cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess occupationally induced chromosomal damage in EMF workers exposed to low levels of radiation. We used conventional metaphase chromosome aberration (CA) analysis and the micronucleus (MN) assay as biological indicators of non ionizing radiation exposure. In the present study totally 70 subjects were selected including 50 exposed and 20 controls. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants and the study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the approval of the local ethical committee. A higher degree of CA and MN was observed in exposed subjects compared to controls, the frequency of CA being significantly enhanced with long years of exposure (P<0.05). Moreover increase in CA and MN with age was noted in both exposed subjects and controls, but was significantly greater in the former. The results of this study demonstrated that a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to EMFs in electric transformer and distribution stations. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EMFs possess genotoxic capability, as measured by CA and MN assays; CA analysis appeared more sensitive than other cytogenetic end-points. It can be concluded that chronic occupational exposure to EMFs may lead to an increased risk of genetic damage among electrical workers.

  14. 32P-post-labelling of 7-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine in white blood cells of workers occupationally exposed to epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Plna, K; Osterman-Golkar, S; Nogradi, E; Segerbäck, D

    2000-02-01

    Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a simple 3-carbon epoxide of industrial importance. It has been shown to be genotoxic in several systems and carcinogenic in experimental animals. The aim of the present investigation was to study DNA adducts of ECH as a biomarker of occupational exposure to this chemical. 7-(3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)guanine (7-CHP-guanine) was analysed in DNA from white blood cells using an anion exchange-based adduct enrichment protocol of the (32)P-post-labelling/HPLC-based assay. Blood samples were collected from seven workers handling ECH (exposed), nine workers not handling ECH but normally present in the premises where this chemical is used (potentially exposed) and 13 office and factory workers from locations in the plant where ECH is not handled (controls). 7-CHP-guanine was detected in five of the seven workers exposed to ECH (1.6-7.1 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides) and in two of the nine workers potentially exposed to ECH (0.8-1.5 mol/10(9) mol nucleotides). This adduct was not detected in any of the 13 controls. The difference in adduct levels between exposed workers and controls was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.001), as was the difference between exposed workers and potentially exposed workers (P = 0.017). The recovery of 7-CHP-guanine in the (32)P-post-labelling assay was on average 48 +/- 7%, which is considerably higher than previously reported for other 7-alkylguanines. The method used had a limit of detection of approximately 0.4 mol adduct/10(9) mol nucleotides using 20 microg DNA. This study shows for the first time ECH-induced DNA adducts in humans and suggests that 7-CHP-guanine may be used as a biomarker of occupational exposure to ECH.

  15. Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Brix, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Method Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. Results The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. Conclusion We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes. PMID:26599866

  16. Adaptation by older individuals repeatedly exposed to 0. 45 parts per million ozone for two hours

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M.; Drechsler-Parks, D.M.

    1989-02-01

    To test for an increased reaction to ozone (O3) in older individuals following an initial exposure, and to test for adaptation and its duration, we exposed 10 men and 6 women (60-89 years old) in an environmental chamber to filtered air and 3 consecutive days of O3 exposure (0.45 ppm), followed by a fourth O3 exposure day after a two day hiatus. Subjects alternated 20-min exercise (minute ventilation = 27 L) and rest periods for 2 hours during each exposure. Subjects rated from one to five, 16 possible respiratory/exercise symptoms prior to and following the exposure. Pulmonary function tests were performed before, and during each rest period and following the exposure. Metabolic measurements were obtained during each exercise period. No significant changes in any symptom question occurred, in spite of a threefold increase in the total number of reported symptoms during O3 exposure. Small but significant pre-to-post decrements on the first and second O3 days in forced vital capacity (FVC-111 and 104 mL), forced expiratory volume in 1 (FEV1-171 and 164 mL) and 3 seconds (FEV3-185 and 172 mL) occurred without concomitant changes in any flow parameter of the forced expiratory maneuver. No differences in the group mean response in FVC, FEV1 or FEV3 on the third or fourth day of O3 exposure and the filtered air exposure were found. The observed changes were due to significant physiological changes in eight of the subjects. Unlike young subjects, no evidence of an increased pulmonary function response to a second consecutive O3 exposure was observed.

  17. Scabies outbreak in an intensive care unit with 1,659 exposed individuals--key factors for controlling the outbreak.

    PubMed

    Buehlmann, Manuela; Beltraminelli, Helmut; Strub, Christoph; Bircher, Andreas; Jordan, Xavier; Battegay, Manuel; Itin, Peter; Widmer, Andreas F

    2009-04-01

    To investigate a large outbreak of scabies in an intensive care unit of a university hospital and an affiliated rehabilitation center, and to establish effective control measures to prevent further transmission. Outbreak investigation. The intensive care unit of a 750-bed university hospital and an affiliated 92-bed rehabilitation center. All exposed individuals were screened by a senior staff dermatologist. Scabies was diagnosed on the basis of (1) identification of mites by skin scraping, (2) identification of mites by dermoscopy, or (3) clinical examination of patients without history of prior treatment for typical burrows. During a follow-up period of 6 months, the attack rate was calculated as the number of symptomatic individuals divided by the total number of exposed individuals. All exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) and their household members underwent preemptive treatment. Initially, the most effective registered drug in Switzerland (ie, topical lindane) was prescribed, but this prescription was switched to topical permethrin or systemic ivermectin as a result of the progression of the outbreak. Individuals with any signs or symptoms of scabies underwent dermatological examination. Within 7 months, 19 cases of scabies were diagnosed, 6 in children with a mean age of 3.1 years after exposure to the index patient with HIV and crusted scabies. A total of 1,640 exposed individuals underwent preemptive treatment. The highest attack rate of 26%-32% was observed among HCWs involved in the care of the index patient. A too-restricted definition of individuals at risk, noncompliance with treatment, and the limited effectiveness of lindane likely led to treatment failure, relapse, and reinfestation within families. Crusted scabies resulted in high attack rates among HCWs and household contacts. Timely institution of hygienic precautions with close monitoring and widespread, simultaneous scabicide treatment of all exposed individuals are essential for control of an

  18. A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

  19. Proteomic analysis of a model fish species exposed to individual pesticides and a binary mixture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic organisms are often exposed to multiple pesticides simultaneously. Due to the relatively poor characterization of mixture constituent interactions and the potential for highly complex exposure scenarios, there is considerable uncertainty in understanding the toxicity of m...

  20. [The toxicology and prevention of the risks of occupational exposure to aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. III. The effects: epidemiological evidence, early effects. Individual hypersusceptibility. Health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Porru, S; Assennato, G; Bergamaschi, E; Carta, P; Foà, V; Forni, A; Gabbani, G; Mastrangelo, G; Sartorelli, P

    1997-01-01

    Adverse effects following occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mainly carcinogenic. The available epidemiological data suggest that some substances and industrial processes, in which PAH exposure is frequent, are classified as carcinogenic to humans: primary aluminium industry, cola gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundry, coal tar, pitch, creosote, untreated mineral oils, asphalt, soot. The target organs are mainly lung, bladder, skin. Other relevant effects are skin lesions such as folliculitis. The studies on early biological effects (chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei) have shown contradictory results, mainly because of differences in exposure intensity. The metabolic polymorphism may account for a higher susceptibility to lung and bladder cancer following exposure to risk factors; the role of PAH occupational exposure is however to be examined, and the use of indicators of genetic susceptibility is currently limited to research programs. Health surveillance for PAH exposed workers is funded on the Italian laws (DPR 303/56 and D.Lgs. 626/94) and it is mainly dedicated to prevention of carcinogenic effects. Preventive examinations should consider PAH target organs (skin, lung, bladder, larynx) and look for early signs and symptoms. Particular attention will be paid to life habits such as tobacco smoking or diseases which could represent condition of susceptibility. Periodical examinations (every six months) will similarly evaluate PAH target organs. Health surveillance is also programmed for formerly exposed workers and the institution of exposure and cancer registries is mandatory. On the basis of the current scientific data, it is not advisable the use of tumor markers or cytogenetic tests at the individual level as well as the screening of asymptomatic PAH exposed workers for early diagnosis of lung or bladder cancer. Information and formation activities will be part of medical

  1. Occupational airborne exposure in relation to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and lung function in individuals without childhood wheezing illness: A 50-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tagiyeva, Nara; Sadhra, Steven; Mohammed, Nuredin; Fielding, Shona; Devereux, Graham; Teo, Ed; Ayres, Jon; Graham Douglas, J

    2017-02-01

    Evidence from longitudinal population-based studies relating occupational exposure to the full range of different forms of airborne pollutants and lung function and airway obstruction is limited. To relate self-reported COPD and lung function impairment to occupational exposure to different forms of airborne chemical pollutants in individuals who did not have childhood wheeze. A prospective cohort study was randomly selected in 1964 at age 10-15 years and followed up in 1989, 1995, 2001 and 2014 (aged 58-64) by spirometry and respiratory questionnaire. Occupational histories were recorded in 2014 and occupational exposures assigned using an airborne chemical job exposure matrix. The risk of COPD and lung function impairment was analyzed in subjects, who did not have childhood wheeze, using logistic and linear regression and linear mixed effects models. 237 subjects without childhood wheeze (mean age 60.6 years, 47% male) were analyzed. There was no association between any respiratory outcomes and exposure to gases, fibers, mists or mineral dusts and no consistent associations with exposure to fumes. Reduced FEV1 was associated with longer duration (years) of exposure to any of the six main pollutant forms - vapors, gases, dusts, fumes, fibers and mists (VGDFFiM) with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p-trend=0.004). Exposure to biological dusts was associated with self-reported COPD and FEV1occupationally exposed to biological dusts or vapors or had

  2. Panic symptoms and elevated suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals: Moderating effects of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Brian J.; Norr, Aaron M.; Capron, Daniel W.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2015-01-01

    Panic attacks (PA) are highly prevalent among trauma exposed individuals and have been associated with a number of adverse outcomes. Despite high suicide rates among trauma exposed individuals, research to date has not examined the potential relation between panic symptoms andsuicidal ideation and behaviors among this high risk population. The current study tested the association of panic with suicidal ideation and behaviors among a large sample of trauma exposed smokers. Community participants (N = 421) who reported a lifetime history of trauma exposure were assessed concurrently for current panic, suicidal ideation and behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses. Those who met criteria for a current panic disorder diagnosis were removed from analyses to allow for the assessment of non-PD related panic in line with the recent addition of the PA specifier applicable to all DSM-5 disorders. Findings indicated that panic symptoms were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors beyond the effects of depression and number of trauma types experienced. Further, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status significantly moderated this relationship, indicating the relationship between panic and suicidal ideation and behaviors is potentiated among individuals with a current PTSD diagnosis. This investigation suggests panic symptoms may be a valuable clinical target for the assessment and treatment of suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals. PMID:26050924

  3. Panic symptoms and elevated suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals: Moderating effects of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Brian J; Norr, Aaron M; Capron, Daniel W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are highly prevalent among trauma exposed individuals and have been associated with a number of adverse outcomes. Despite high suicide rates among trauma exposed individuals, research to date has not examined the potential relation between panic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behaviors among this high risk population. The current study tested the association of panic with suicidal ideation and behaviors among a large sample of trauma exposed smokers. Community participants (N=421) who reported a lifetime history of trauma exposure were assessed concurrently for current panic, suicidal ideation and behaviors, and psychiatric diagnoses. Those who met criteria for a current panic disorder diagnosis were removed from analyses to allow for the assessment of non-PD related panic in line with the recent addition of the PA specifier applicable to all DSM-5 disorders. Findings indicated that panic symptoms were significantly associated with suicidal ideation and behaviors beyond the effects of depression and number of trauma types experienced. Further, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status significantly moderated this relationship, indicating that the relationship between panic and suicidal ideation and behaviors is potentiated among individuals with a current PTSD diagnosis. This investigation suggests that panic symptoms may be a valuable clinical target for the assessment and treatment of suicidal ideation and behaviors among trauma exposed individuals.

  4. Three case studies of community occupational therapy for individuals with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Misko, Alexis N; Nelson, David L; Duggan, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate the complexities and opportunities in providing community-based occupational therapy services to persons with HIV. An infectious disease physician recommended three clients for therapy sessions in both the home and community. The Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) in conjunction with the Conceptual Framework for Therapeutic Occupation (CFTO) was used to guide the therapeutic process. Assessments measured challenges to clients and client progress in the following areas: leisure, mobility, organization, problem solving, community involvement, transitioning to independent living, fatigue, childcare/play, and home management. This paper describes the three cases with findings suggesting that community-based occupational therapy has potential to address important issues such as habits, roles, and volition in the HIV/AIDS population.

  5. Specific antibody responses against membrane proteins of erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum of individuals briefly exposed to malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum infections could lead to severe malaria, principally in non-immune individuals as children and travellers from countries exempted of malaria. Severe malaria is often associated with the sequestration of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in deep micro-vascular beds via interactions between host endothelial receptors and parasite ligands expressed on the surface of the infected erythrocyte. Although, serological responses from individuals living in endemic areas against proteins expressed at surface of the infected erythrocyte have been largely studied, seldom data are available about the specific targets of antibody response from travellers. Methods In order to characterize antigens recognized by traveller sera, a comparison of IgG immune response against membrane protein extracts from uninfected and P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC), using immunoblots, was performed between non exposed individuals (n = 31) and briefly exposed individuals (BEI) (n = 38) to malaria transmission. Results Immune profile analysis indicated that eight protein bands from iRBC were significantly detected more frequently in the BEI group. Some of these antigenic proteins were identified by an original immuno-proteomic approach. Conclusion Collectively, these data may be useful to characterize the singular serological immune response against a primary malaria infection in individuals briefly exposed to transmission. PMID:20932351

  6. SERUM CYTOKERATIN 18 AND CYTOKINE ELEVATIONS SUGGEST A HIGH PREVALENCE OF OCCUPATIONAL LIVER DISEASE IN HIGHLY EXPOSED ELASTOMER/POLYMER WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Matt; Falkner, Keith Cameron; Henry, Latasha; Costello, Brittany; Gregory, Bonnie; McClain, Craig J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is a novel serologic biomarker for occupational liver disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of CK18 elevation in elastomer/polymer workers exposed to acrylonitrile, 1,3 butadiene, and styrene. Methods 82 chemical workers were evaluated. CK18 was determined by ELISA and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by multi-analyte chemiluminescent detection. Results 39% (32 of 82) had elevated CK18 levels which were not explained by alcohol or obesity, except in potentially 4 cases. The pattern of CK18 elevation was consistent with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) in the majority of cases (78%). TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and PAI-1 were increased in these workers compared to those with normal CK18 levels. Conclusions These results suggest a high prevalence of occupational liver disease and TASH in elastomer/polymer workers with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21915069

  7. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN-α2b) gene in occupationally protracted low dose radiation exposed personnel.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman; Mahmood, Nasir; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Sheikh, Shaharyar; Ahmad, Nauman

    2015-05-01

    Ionizing radiations impact human tissues by affecting the DNA bases which constitute genes. Human interferon alpha 2b gene synthesizes a protein which is an important anticancerous, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antiviral protein. This study was aimed to identify interferon alpha-2b mutations as a consequence of the use of occupational chronic low dose radiation by hospital radiation exposed workers. A molecular analysis was done in which DNAs were extracted from blood samples from radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine workers. The gene was amplified through polymerase chain reaction and further genetic data from sequencing results analyzed by bioinformatics tools in order to determine as to how mutations in interferon alpha 2b sequences will lead to changes in human interferon alpha-2b protein. A total of 41% gene mutations was detected among all radiation exposed workers in which higher percentage (5.4%) of base insertion mutations and 14% frameshift mutations were found in radiology workers. The chronic use of low dose of radiations by occupational workers has a significant correlation with mutational effects on interferon alpha 2b gene, further evident by depressed interferon alpha levels in serum. This can lead to depressed immunity in radiation exposed workers. Hematological profiling of this group also showed hyperimmune response in the form of lymphocytosis.

  8. Assessment of the Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System in Mercury-Exposed Individuals via Post-Exercise Heart Rate Recovery.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Omer Hinc; Karakulak, Ugur Nadir; Tutkun, Engin; Bal, Ceylan; Gunduzoz, Meside; Ercan Onay, Emine; Ayturk, Mehmet; Tek Ozturk, Mujgan; Alaguney, Mehmet Erdem

    The aim of this study was to assess exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) indices in mercury-exposed individuals when evaluating their cardiac autonomic function. Twenty-eight mercury-exposed individuals and 28 healthy controls were enrolled. All the subjects underwent exercise testing and transthoracic echocardiography. The HRR indices were calculated by subtracting the first- (HRR1), second- (HRR2) and third-minute (HRR3) heart rates from the maximal heart rate. The two groups were evaluated in terms of exercise test parameters, especially HRR, and a correlation analysis was performed between blood, 24-hour urine and hair mercury levels and the test parameters. The mercury-exposed and control groups were similar in age (37.2 ± 6.6 vs. 36.9 ± 9.0 years), had an identical gender distribution (16 females and 12 males) and similar left ventricular ejection fractions (65.5 ± 3.1 vs. 65.4 ± 3.1%). The mean HRR1 [25.6 ± 6.5 vs. 30.3 ± 8.2 beats per min (bpm); p = 0.009], HRR2 (43.5 ± 5.3 vs. 47.8 ± 5.5 bpm; p = 0.010) and HRR3 (56.8 ± 5.1 vs. 59.4 ± 6.3 bpm; p = 0.016) values were significantly lower in the mercury-exposed group than in the healthy controls. However, there were no significant correlations between blood, urine and hair mercury levels and exercise test parameters. Mercury-exposed individuals had lower HRR indices than normal subjects. In these individuals, mercury exposure measurements did not show correlations with the exercise test parameters, but age did show a negative correlation with these parameters. Therefore, cardiac autonomic functions might be involved in cases of mercury exposure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Prevalence and Course of Symptom-Defined PTSD in Individuals Directly or Indirectly Exposed to Terror: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marianne Bang; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nissen, Alexander; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that direct exposure to terrorism can result in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, individuals indirectly exposed to terrorism may also develop symptoms of PTSD. This study examined the prevalence and course of symptom-defined PTSD in employees who were present and not present at the site of a workplace terror attack. Survey data from ministerial employees were collected 10, 22, and 34 months after the 2011 bombing in the government district of Oslo. A total of 3,520 employees were initially invited to the study. Response rates of eligible participants were 56% (N = 1,974) at T1, 55% (N = 1,780) at T2, and 54% (N = 1,578) at T3. PTSD was measured using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Specific (PCL-S). Symptom-defined PTSD was specified as meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), B, C, and D criteria. Our findings showed a low and declining prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD in employees indirectly exposed to a workplace terror attack (4%, 3%, and 2% at the three respective times). In employees present at the site of the explosion, PTSD was six- to eightfold more prevalent (24%, 17%, and 17%). Individuals indirectly exposed to terrorism may develop long-lasting posttraumatic stress reactions fulfilling PTSD symptom criteria. Due to the large number of individuals that may be indirectly exposed to terrorism, even a low risk of PTSD may result in high numbers of individuals with substantial posttraumatic stress. Our findings have implications for the planning and implementation of health care services beyond those directly exposed after large-scale terror events.

  10. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and "free" erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) in lead-exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Karacić, V; Prpić-Majić, D; Telisman, S

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and total erythrocyte protoporphyrin, measured as "free" erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), was determined in 194 adult subjects with different occupational and non-occupational lead exposures. Furthermore, the ZPP-FEP comparison was considered with respect to the dose-effect relationship of ZPP and FEP with blood lead (PbB) for males and females, respectively. Bilirubin (Bil.) interferences in ZPP analysis were taken into account. A very close and highly significant relationship (r = 0.962, P < 0.001) was established between ZPP and FEP values. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) between log ZPP or log FEP and PbB (males r = 0.767 and 0.718; females r = 0.525 and 0.405) was also found. It was established, by both in vitro and in vivo studies, that Bil. interferes with the ZPP fluorescence readings; the relationship between "false" positive ZPP concentrations and Bil. concentrations (in vitro r = 0.987, in vivo r = 0.903) was highly significant (P < 0.001). A small but highly significant (r = 0.948, P < 0.001) influence of increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations on the decrease in hematofluorometer ZPP readings, due to inadequate oxygenation of the blood, was found. The results obtained confirm the usefullness of ZPP determinations using hematofluorometers for surveillance of increased lead absorption but stress that the interfering effect of Bil., and to a lesser extent of COHb, cannot be ignored.

  11. Chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in blood and human milk of non occupationally exposed persons living in the vicinity of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Deml, E; Mangelsdorf, I; Greim, H

    1996-11-01

    The concentrations of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in human blood and in milk from non-occupationally exposed persons living in the vicinity of a municipal waste incinerator were determined. As compared to background levels in the general population in Germany the results give no indication of an enhanced body burden of PCDD/F. This is in agreement with earlier investigations in the same area, showing normal background concentrations in soil, fruit and vegetables. In conclusion, no direct health hazard related to PCDD/F-emissions from a local municipal waste incinerator may be expected.

  12. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis: results of a case-control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of occupational risk factors are discussed in relation to the development and progress of knee joint diseases (for example, working in a kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying heavy weights). Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important. The distinction between work-related and other factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. Methods In a case-control study, patients with and without symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire complemented by a semi-standardised interview. Controls were matched and assigned to the cases by gender and age. Conditional logistic regression was used in analysing data. Results In total, 739 cases and 571 controls were included in the study. In women and men, several individual and occupational predictors for knee OA could be described: obesity (odds ratio (OR) up to 17.65 in women and up to 12.56 in men); kneeling/squatting (women, OR 2.52 (>8,934 hours/life); men, 2.16 (574 to 12,244 hours/life), 2.47 (>12,244 hours/life)); genetic predisposition (women, OR 2.17; men, OR 2.37); and sports with a risk of unapparent trauma (women, OR 2.47 (≥1,440 hours/life); men, 2.58 (≥3,232 hours/life)). In women, malalignment of the knee (OR 11.54), pain in the knee already in childhood (OR 2.08), and the daily lifting and carrying of loads (≥1,088 tons/life, OR 2.13) were related to an increased OR; sitting and smoking led to a reduced OR. Conclusions The results support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee OA in men and, for the first time, in women. The results concerning general and occupational predictors for knee OA reflect the findings from the literature quite well. Yet occupational risks such as jumping or climbing stairs/ladders, as discussed in the literature, did not correlate with symptomatic knee OA in the

  13. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis: results of a case-control study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klussmann, André; Gebhardt, Hansjürgen; Nübling, Matthias; Liebers, Falk; Quirós Perea, Emilio; Cordier, Wolfgang; von Engelhardt, Lars V; Schubert, Markus; Dávid, Andreas; Bouillon, Bertil; Rieger, Monika A

    2010-01-01

    A number of occupational risk factors are discussed in relation to the development and progress of knee joint diseases (for example, working in a kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying heavy weights). Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important. The distinction between work-related and other factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In a case-control study, patients with and without symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire complemented by a semi-standardised interview. Controls were matched and assigned to the cases by gender and age. Conditional logistic regression was used in analysing data. In total, 739 cases and 571 controls were included in the study. In women and men, several individual and occupational predictors for knee OA could be described: obesity (odds ratio (OR) up to 17.65 in women and up to 12.56 in men); kneeling/squatting (women, OR 2.52 (>8,934 hours/life); men, 2.16 (574 to 12,244 hours/life), 2.47 (>12,244 hours/life)); genetic predisposition (women, OR 2.17; men, OR 2.37); and sports with a risk of unapparent trauma (women, OR 2.47 (>or=1,440 hours/life); men, 2.58 (>or=3,232 hours/life)). In women, malalignment of the knee (OR 11.54), pain in the knee already in childhood (OR 2.08), and the daily lifting and carrying of loads (>or=1,088 tons/life, OR 2.13) were related to an increased OR; sitting and smoking led to a reduced OR. The results support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee OA in men and, for the first time, in women. The results concerning general and occupational predictors for knee OA reflect the findings from the literature quite well. Yet occupational risks such as jumping or climbing stairs/ladders, as discussed in the literature, did not correlate with symptomatic knee OA in the present study. With regards to occupational

  14. A hybrid strategy for surveillance of individuals potentially exposed to contaminated methylprednisolone acetate--Virginia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Corvese, Kate; Forlano, Laurie; Gibson, Lex

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, a multistate outbreak of fungal infections associated with the use of contaminated steroid products resulted in 675 exposed persons in Virginia and 53 cases of fungal infections, including 2 deaths. This article describes the design and implementation of a "hybrid" active public health surveillance system and related communication activities in partnership with key clinical stakeholders in Virginia. Strong collaboration with clinical partners is critical in establishing and implementing a surveillance system for an evolving outbreak. While clinicians focused on diagnosis, treatment, and routine follow-up of patients who presented with symptoms consistent with the outbreak case definition, public health took on the responsibility of weekly surveillance phone calls to all exposed persons who did not enter clinical care. Communication between clinical partners and public health was essential and included the somewhat atypical role of public health actively performing assessment and referral to care functions during an outbreak.

  15. Evidence for Altered Hippocampal Volume and Brain Metabolites in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Lead: A Study by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue-Ming; Long, Li-Ling; Zhu, Xia-Yan; Zheng, Hong; Fu, Xue; Ou, Shi-Yan; Wei, Dong-Lu; Zhou, Hai-Lin; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to lead (Pb) remains to be a major public health issue. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) techniques to investigate whether chronic exposure to Pb in an occupational setting altered brain structure and function of Pb-exposed workers. The Pb-exposed group consisted of 15 workers recruited from either a Pb-smelting factory or a Pb-battery manufacturer. The control group had 19 healthy volunteers who had no history of Pb exposure in working environment or at home. The average airborne Pb concentrations in fume and dust were 0.43 mg/m3 and 0.44 mg/m3, respectively in the smeltery, and 0.10 mg/m3 and 1.06 mg/m3, respectively in the Pb battery workshop. The average blood Pb concentrations (BPb) in Pb-exposed and control workers were 63.5 µg/dL and 8.7 µg/dL, respectively. The MRI examination showed that brain hippocampal volume among Pb-exposed workers was significantly diminished in comparison to age-matched control subjects (p<0.01), although the extent of this reduction was relatively small (5–6% of the control values). Linear regression analyses revealed significant inverse associations between BPb and the decreased hippocampal volume on both sides of brain hemisphere. Among five brain metabolites investigated by MRS, i.e., N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), inosine (mI), glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and lipids (Lip), a significant decrease in NAA/Cr ratio (7% of controls, p<0.05) and a remarkable increase in Lip/Cr ratio (40%, p<0.01) were observed in the brains of Pb-exposed workers as compared to controls. Furthermore, the increased Lip/Cr ratio was significantly associated with BPb (r = 0.46, p<0.01). Taken together, this study suggests that occupational exposure to Pb may cause subtle structural and functional alteration in human brains. The MRI and MRS brain imaging techniques can be

  16. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Occupational Therapy Work Skills Assessment for Individuals with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an occupational therapy skills assessment protocol developed and used to evaluate physical, cognitive, and behavioral abilities for persons seeking to return to work following head injuries. It measures them within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills, and safety. (Contains 48 references.) (Author/JOW)

  18. Human Relations Skills in Individual Interactions for the Occupational Specialist. Competency-Based Modular Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Juanita B.; Boland, Jeanne M.

    This self-instructional module, one volume of a series of competency-based modules in human relations skills for occupational specialists, is designed to help the specialist interact effectively with a variety of students, teachers, co-workers and employees. Other modules in this set of three are Level I Human Relations Skills for the Occupational…

  19. Effects of Individual, Occupational, and Industrial Characteristics on Earnings: Intersections of Race and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Barbara; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey (1966-81) to determine how job experience, education, marital status, occupational characteristics, and industrial sector interact with race and gender to create gender and race gaps in earnings. Results reveal a number of complex race/gender interactions affecting income inequality.…

  20. Predictors of depression outcomes among abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals exposed to an exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Margaret; Ang, Alfonso; Mooney, Larissa; Gonzales, Rachel; Chudzynski, Joy; Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Gitlin, Michael; Rawson, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    This paper expands on a study investigating depression outcomes in response to an 8-week exercise intervention among methamphetamine (MA) dependent individuals in early recovery. A total of 135 MA-dependent individuals enrolled in residential treatment were randomly assigned to either a structured exercise intervention or a structured health education control group. Both groups were similar in format: 60-minute sessions, offered three times a week over an 8-week study period. Results showed that at the 8-week trial endpoint, participants randomized to the exercise intervention showed significantly greater reduction in depression symptom scores than participants randomized to the health education group, and that participants who attended the greatest number of exercise sessions derived the greatest benefit. This paper further analyzes study data to uncover individual predictors of depression response to exercise and finds that among participants randomized to exercise treatment, individuals with the most severe medical, psychiatric, and addiction disease burden at baseline showed the most significant improvement in depressive symptoms by study endpoint. Our findings suggest that exercise in moderate dose is effective at treating depressive symptoms in individuals in early recovery from addiction, and furthermore, that treatment with exercise appears to be particularly beneficial to individuals who suffer from severe medical, psychiatric, and addictive disorders. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  2. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  3. Proteome analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage in individuals from Metsovo, nonoccupationally exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Archimandriti, Dimitra T; Dalavanga, Yotanna A; Cianti, Riccardo; Bianchi, Laura; Manda-Stachouli, Carmen; Armini, Alessandro; Koukkou, Anna-I I; Rottoli, Paola; Constantopoulos, Stavros H; Bini, Luca

    2009-02-01

    Inhabitants of Metsovo, NW Greece, have been exposed to an asbestos whitewash, resulting in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and pleural calcifications (PCs). Interestingly, those with PCs (PC(+)) are less prone to MPM. They also have lymphocytic alveolitis, and differences in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins, compared with those without pleural calcifications (PC(-)). This may mean a different response to the fiber leading to different susceptibility to neoplasia. To further evaluate this, a proteomic analysis of BAL proteins was performed. Proteomic analysis (2D-electrophoresis/Mass Spectrometry) of BAL in Metsovites nonoccupationally exposed to asbestos revealed increased albumin fragments, alpha1-antitrypsin, S100-A9 and HSP27, suggesting ongoing inflammation. In those without pleural calcifications, increased expression of acid ceramidase, glutathione-S-transferase and presence of calcyphosin, all involved in cell cycle regulation and death as well as in the detoxification of mutagenic and toxic agents, lend further support to our thesis of possible "protection against neoplasia" in Metsovites with pleural calcifications.

  4. Individual and grouping track pits etched in the exposed in a free space plastic track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, L.; Bazhutov, Yu

    2013-02-01

    New results concerned to the investigation of depth-dependent the pit-like surface-average and the grouping track-density distributions in the cosmic ray exposed column of CN-85 and CR-39 plastic solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are presented. Two main sources: solar cosmic ray protons and recoil nuclei for very short (length <3 μm) track-pit formation are considered. Theoretical estimation of the total, uniform track-pit density indicates on failure of evidence of some additional radiation effects, partially, hypothetically conditioned with the Erzion theory. Some quantitative proofs of this hypothesis have been obtained in the measurements of the pit-groups. Totally, up to this time it was registered near of 30 pit groups with the surface pit-density in the interval of (1-15) × 106 cm2, that is two-three orders of magnitude higher than uniformly distributed track-pits on the same CR-39 plate surface. As a result of layer-by-layer investigation of the exposed CN-85 stock arrangement three pit swarms exactly correlated with the end point of high ionizing primary charge particle tracks were observed. Obtained data are considered in according to submission based on the probability of detection for the negative charged cosmic ray Erzion particles stopping events.

  5. Computerized morphodensitometric analysis of blood cells from individuals exposed to low-dose radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, Victor F.; Zhukotsky, Alexander V.; Kogan, Emmanuil M.; Putina, Tatiana G.; Marchenko, Oleg V.; Lomakina, Elena B.; Chernysh, Sergei A.

    1994-07-01

    This study was carried out as part of the state program Children Affected by the Chernobyl Accident and used materials and results of the medical examinations of children living in radio-contaminated areas of the Bryansk region. The health status of children and adolescents exposed to low-dose radiation is causing increasing concern. Our attention was focused on assessing chromatin disorders in interphase lymphocyte nuclei and determining diagnostic criteria for lymphocytes and erythrocytes through measurement of their morphodensitometric parameters using a system of our own design called DIAMORF. Blood cells from children and adolescents exposed to low-dose radiation were examined after processing images of DNA- stained lymphocytes and unstained erythrocytes in a computer analyzer. The new method was used to study the fine supromolecular structure of the chromatin network. An optoelectronic image analyzer can differentiate between different areas of the erythrocytes surface and determine their curvatures. Parameters of cellular changes in response to low-dose radiation were evaluated quantitatively by measuring the optical density index and a number of other optical and geometric parameters.

  6. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were

  7. Cross-sectional study of expression of divalent metal transporter-1, transferrin, and hepcidin in blood of smelters who are occupationally exposed to manganese

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Yu, Changyin; Chen, Jian; Shi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2016-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) is widely used in industries including the manufacture of Mn-iron (Fe) alloy. Occupational Mn overexposure causes manganism. Mn is known to affect Fe metabolism; this study was designed to test the hypothesis that workers exposed to Mn may have an altered expression of mRNAs encoding proteins in Fe metabolism. Methods Workers occupationally exposed to Mn (n = 71) from a Mn–Fe alloy factory and control workers without Mn-exposure (n = 48) from a pig-iron plant from Zunyi, China, were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected into Trizol-containing tubes. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Metal concentrations were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Working environment and genetic background of both groups were similar except for marked differences in airborne Mn concentrations (0.18 mg/m3 in Mn–Fe alloy factory vs. 0.0022 mg/m3 in pig-Fe plant), and in blood Mn levels (34.3 µg/L vs. 10.4 µg/L). Mn exposure caused a significant decrease in the expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), transferrin (Tf) and hepcidin by 58.2%, 68.5% and 61.5%, respectively, as compared to controls, while the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) was unaltered. Linear regression analysis revealed that expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin were inversely correlated with the accumulative Mn exposure; the correlation coefficients (r) are −0.47, −0.54, and −0.49, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion The data suggest that occupational Mn exposure causes decreased expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin in blood cells; the finding will help understand the mechanism underlying Mn exposure-associated alteration in Fe homeostasis among workers. PMID:27635361

  8. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India.

    PubMed

    Fareed, Mohd; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were significantly altered (p<0.001) in pesticide sprayers than

  9. Elevated peripheral eosinophils are associated with new onset and persistent wheeze and airflow obstruction in World Trade Center exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kazeros, Angeliki; Maa, Ming-Tyh; Patrawalla, Paru; Liu, Mengling; Shao, Yongzhao; Turetz, Meredith; Parsia, Sam; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Rogers, Linda; Reibman, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes is associated with onset of asthma-like respiratory symptoms in rescue and recovery workers and exposed community members. Eosinophilic inflammation with increased lung and peripheral eosinophils has been described in subpopulations with asthma. We hypothesized that persistent asthma-like symptoms in WTC-exposed individuals would be associated with systemic inflammation characterized by peripheral eosinophils. Methods The WTC Environmental Health Center (EHC) is a treatment program for local residents, local workers, and clean-up workers with presumed WTC-related symptoms. Patients undergo a standardized evaluation including questionnaires and complete blood count. Between 9/2005–3/2009, 2461 individuals enrolled in the program and were available for analysis. Individuals with pre-existing respiratory symptoms or lung disease diagnoses prior to 9/11/2001 and current or significant tobacco use were excluded. Results 1508 individuals met inclusion criteria. These patients had a mean age of 47 years, were mostly female (51%) and had a diverse race/ethnicity. Respiratory symptoms that developed after WTC dust/fume exposure and remained persistent included dyspnea on exertion (68%), cough (57%), chest tightness (46%), and wheeze (33%). A larger percentage of those with wheeze had elevated peripheral eosinophils compared to those without wheeze (21% vs. 13%, p<0.0001). Individuals with elevated peripheral eosinophils were more likely to have airflow obstruction on spirometry (16% vs. 7%, p = 0.0003). Conclusions Peripheral eosinophils were associated with wheeze and reduced lung function in a diverse WTC-exposed population. These data suggest that eosinophils may participate in lung inflammation in this population with symptoms consistent with WTC-related asthma. PMID:23227974

  10. Prevalence of Drug Resistance Associated Mutations Among the Anti Retroviral Therapy Exposed HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Manipur, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Lakhikumar Sharma, Adhikarimayum; Ramsing Singh, Thiyam; Ranjana Devi, Khuraijam; Shanjukumar Singh, Lisam

    2016-01-01

    Manipur is one of the highest HIV prevalence states of India because of its geographical location at the international border near the golden triangle of South-East Asia, but no study on drug resistance associated mutations (DRAMs) has been reported yet. A population-based study on DRAMs of HIV-1 among the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) exposed HIV-1 infected individuals of Manipur was conducted. 110 HIV-1 positive individuals who had initially exposed to first line anti-HIV drugs were recruited for the surveillance of DRAMs. Reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1 were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Significant prevalence of DRAMs of HIV-1 was found among the ART exposed HIV-1 infected individuals of Manipur. The results revealed that 37%, 29% and 7% individuals harbor HIV-1 strains mutated at the target sites of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors respectively. Predominant DRAMs at RT genes were M184V, T215Y, M41L and V108I and H221Y while at PR genes were M46I and I47V. Among the high risk groups, intravenous drug users have the highest number of DRAMs followed by heterosexual individuals. Analysis of viral subtype based on pol gene revealed 83% subtype C, 11.8% recombinant forms and 5.2% subtype B. DRAMs at the target sites of reverse transcriptase inhibitors are high and these were found to have developed resistance to the primary ART drugs that are used in Manipur. The findings of this study will help the clinicians to guide patients during the course of ART treatment regimes.

  11. Intranasal Oxytocin Affects Amygdala Functional Connectivity after Trauma Script-Driven Imagery in Distressed Recently Trauma-Exposed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Frijling, Jessie L; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Koch, Saskia B J; Nawijn, Laura; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neural emotion regulation may be etiologically involved in PTSD development. Oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising avenue for PTSD prevention, as intranasal oxytocin has previously been found to affect emotion regulation networks in healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study, we assessed the effects of a single intranasal oxytocin administration (40 IU) on seed-based amygdala resting-state FC with emotion regulation areas (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)), and salience processing areas (insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)) in 37 individuals within 11 days post trauma. Two resting-state scans were acquired; one after neutral- and one after trauma-script-driven imagery. We found that oxytocin administration reduced amygdala-left vlPFC FC after trauma script-driven imagery, compared with neutral script-driven imagery, whereas in PL-treated participants enhanced amygdala-left vlPFC FC was observed following trauma script-driven imagery. Irrespective of script condition, oxytocin increased amygdala-insula FC and decreased amygdala-vmPFC FC. These neural effects were accompanied by lower levels of sleepiness and higher flashback intensity in the oxytocin group after the trauma script. Together, our findings show that oxytocin administration may impede emotion regulation network functioning in response to trauma reminders in recently trauma-exposed individuals. Therefore, caution may be warranted in administering oxytocin to prevent PTSD in distressed, recently trauma-exposed individuals.

  12. FBLN-3 as a biomarker of pleural plaques in workers occupationally exposed to carcinogenic fibers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Migliore, Marcello; Salemi, Rossella; Musumeci, Andrea; Bracci, Massimo; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    FBLN-3 has recently been proposed as a biomarker for malignant mesothelioma. A significantly increased standardized mortality rate from malignant mesothelioma has been reported in Biancavilla, Italy. Its cause has been identified in environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite. The aim of this study was to seek a correlation between plasma FBLN-3 concentration and pleural plaques in subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite and in a nonexposed control group. Pleural plaques was never detected in the control group, whereas it was found in 52% of exposed subjects. Median FBLN-3 concentrations were 12.96 and 5.29 ng/ml in the exposed and the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). FBLN-3 plasma levels exhibited a high predictive value for the presence of pleural plaques.

  13. Efficacy of a Hand Regimen in Skin Barrier Protection in Individuals With Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. To review the pathogenesis and treatment options for OICD and evaluate the ef cacy of a selective skin-care regimen involv- ing a hand protectant cream alone as well as combined with a repair cream and speci c cleanser. A single-center open study was performed comprising 42 healthy male and female adult volunteers prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to frequent wet work or contact with detergents. Between day 0 and day 7, subjects applied a hand protectant cream as needed on both hands (at least twice daily). On days 7 to 14, subjects applied a hand protectant cream and cleanser as needed on both hands (at least twice daily) as well as a repair cream each evening. A diary log was given to each volunteer for application control and for a subjective evaluation of daily tolerability. In these subjects prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis, the hand protectant cream applied during the initial 7-day period was effective in restoring the damaged skin barrier and improving the stratum corneum hydration. A regimen that combined the hand protectant and repair creams with a speci c cleanser during a further 7-day period allowed contin- ued improvement of skin hydration and additional clinical bene ts while respecting the skin barrier function. The results of this study support the use of a 3-step approach for patients who are at risk of repeated exposure to external irritants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(suppl 11):s81-85..

  14. Evaluation of traffic noise pollution and attitudes of exposed individuals in working place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B. D.; Mishra, Virendra kumar

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.

  15. [Survey on individual occupational health protection behaviors of welding workers using theory of reasoned action].

    PubMed

    Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying

    2012-03-01

    To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P < 0.01). the subjective norm of company was correlated with all protection behaviors (χ(2) = 20.60, 10.98 and 19.86, P < 0.01), the subjective norm of colleague was correlated with mask and earplug use, (χ(2) = 27.43, 36.39, P < 0.01), and the subjective norm of family was correlated with mask use (χ(2) = 5.73, P < 0.05). Theory of reasoned action is suitable for welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.

  16. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  17. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject.

  18. [Neuromodulatory effects of bromazepam when individuals were exposed to a motor learning task: quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)].

    PubMed

    Salles, José Inácio; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Cunha, Marlo; Machado, Dionis; Cagy, Maurício; Furtado, Vernon; Basile, Luis Fernando; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2006-03-01

    The sedative effects of bromazepam on cognitive and performance have been widely investigated. A number of different approaches have assessed the influence of bromazepam when individuals are engaged to a motor task. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate electrophysiological changes when individuals were exposed to a typewriting task after taking 6 mg of bromazepam. qEEG data were simultaneously recorded during the task. In particular, relative power in delta band (0.5-3.5 Hz) was analyzed. Time of execution and errors during the task were registered as behavioral variables. The experimental group, bromazepam 6 mg, showed a better motor performance and higher relative power than control individuals (placebo). These results suggest that the use of bromazepam reduces anxiety levels as expected and thus, produces an increment in motor performance.

  19. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  20. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids. PMID:25791573

  1. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  2. Brain inflammation and Alzheimer's-like pathology in individuals exposed to severe air pollution.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reed, William; Maronpot, Robert R; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Delgado-Chavez, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana; Dragustinovis, Irma; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Solt, Anna C; Altenburg, Michael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Swenberg, James A

    2004-01-01

    Air pollution is a complex mixture of gases (e.g., ozone), particulate matter, and organic compounds present in outdoor and indoor air. Dogs exposed to severe air pollution exhibit chronic inflammation and acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by pollutants. We investigated whether residency in cities with high levels of air pollution is associated with human brain inflammation. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), an inflammatory mediator, and accumulation of the 42-amino acid form of beta-amyloid (Abeta42), a cause of neuronal dysfunction, were measured in autopsy brain tissues of cognitively and neurologically intact lifelong residents of cities having low (n:9) or high (n:10) levels of air pollution. Genomic DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, nuclear factor-kappaB activation and apolipoprotein E genotype were also evaluated. Residents of cities with severe air pollution had significantly higher COX2 expression in frontal cortex and hippocampus and greater neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of Abeta42 compared to residents in low air pollution cities. Increased COX2 expression and Abeta42 accumulation were also observed in the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest that exposure to severe air pollution is associated with brain inflammation and Abeta42 accumulation, two causes of neuronal dysfunction that precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Learning disabilities in individuals exposed prenatally to ionizing radiation: The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schull, William J.; Otake, Masanori

    The brain, undoubtedly the most complex organ in the mammalian body, is the culmination of a long and interrelated sequence of molecular, cellular and tissue events. Brain function hinges on the orderly progression of these, each of which must occur correctly, temporally and spatially. Impingement on any one will give rise to a less developed system of cellular connections, and hence impaired function. Moreover, the neurons of the central nervous system are not self-renewing and thus neuronal loss cannot be repaired through repopulation. Reanalysis of the data on the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggests that severe mental retardation occurs primarily, if not exclusively in the period from the 8th through the 15th week following fertilization. Within this window of vulnerability, the increase in mental retardation appears linear with dose and without theshold. More subtle functional effects also occur as reflected in diminished performance on intelligence tests and in school. These findings and their implications for space travel and regulatory agencies charged with the specification of acceptable risks should not require further elaboration in this article given the focus of the radiobiological presentations at this meeting.

  4. Perniosis-like tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton verrucosum in cold-exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Placzek, M; van den Heuvel, M E; Flaig, M J; Korting, H C

    2006-11-01

    Trichophyton verrucosum is a zoophilic infectious agent causing 98% of the dermatophytic infections of cattle. Transmission to humans has, until recently, been rare. One reason for an increase of infection in humans and animals seems to be the decrease in immunisation of cattle. We report on three cases of pertinent human infections with disseminated, sharply defined, bluish red, partly oedematous nodules and plaques in particular not only on the thighs, but also on the trunk and arms. Two of our patients work with farm animals. The third one works as an assistant in a butcher shop, but lives on a cow farm. All three patients are often exposed to the cold. In all three cases T. verrucosum was detected by culture. Tinea corporis was histologically confirmed in two patients. Based on the microbiological results, we began a combined systemic and local antimycotic therapy with fluconazole 50 mg day(-1) in two patients, itraconazole 100 mg day(-1) in one patient p.o. combined with topical ciclopiroxolamine. All patients were cured. Dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum can, under certain circumstances, such as frequent exposure to cold or a long-term corticosteroid therapy, mimic the characteristic clinical picture of perniosis, as we demonstrate here.

  5. Assessment of the relative success of sporozoite inoculations in individuals exposed to moderate seasonal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Tall, Adama; Sokhna, Cheikh; Perraut, Ronald; Fontenille, Didier; Marrama, Laurence; Ly, Alioune B; Sarr, Fatoumata D; Toure, Aïssatou; Trape, Jean-François; Spiegel, André; Rogier, Christophe; Druilhe, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background The time necessary for malaria parasite to re-appear in the blood following treatment (re-infection time) is an indirect method for evaluating the immune defences operating against pre-erythrocytic and early erythrocytic malaria stages. Few longitudinal data are available in populations in whom malaria transmission level had also been measured. Methods One hundred and ten individuals from the village of Ndiop (Senegal), aged between one and 72 years, were cured of malaria by quinine (25 mg/day oral Quinimax™ in three equal daily doses, for seven days). Thereafter, thick blood films were examined to detect the reappearance of Plasmodium falciparum every week, for 11 weeks after treatment. Malaria transmission was simultaneously measured weekly by night collection of biting mosquitoes. Results Malaria transmission was on average 15.3 infective bites per person during the 77 days follow up. The median reappearance time for the whole study population was 46.8 days, whereas individuals would have received an average one infective bite every 5 days. At the end of the follow-up, after 77 days, 103 of the 110 individuals (93.6%; CI 95% [89.0–98.2]) had been re-infected with P. falciparum. The median reappearance time ('re-positivation') was longer in subjects with patent parasitaemia at enrolment than in parasitologically-negative individuals (58 days vs. 45.9; p = 0.03) and in adults > 30 years than in younger subjects (58.6 days vs. 42.7; p = 0.0002). In a multivariate Cox PH model controlling for the sickle cell trait, G6PD deficiency and the type of habitat, the presence of parasitaemia at enrolment and age ≥ 30 years were independently predictive of a reduced risk of re-infection (PH = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.3–0.9] and 0.4; [95% CI: 0.2–0.6] respectively). Conclusion Results indicate the existence of a substantial resistance to sporozoites inoculations, but which was ultimately overcome in almost every individual after 2 1/2 months of natural challenges

  6. International Environmental and Occupational Health: From Individual Scientists to Networked Science Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. PMID:23109132

  7. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. Published in 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Relationships of working conditions and individual characteristics to occupational injuries: a case-control study in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed the relationship of age, poor perception of working condition, poor safety environment, poor management and supervision, risk-taking behavior, emotional instability, negative job involvement, job dissatisfaction, job stress, and poor safety performance of workers to occupational injuries. This case-control study was conducted on 202 male coal miners with at least one occupational injury during a five-year period and 202 male controls with no occupational injury, matched on the job. A standardized questionnaire administered by individual interviewers was used. Data were analysed by the logistic regression method. For all workers combined, the factors with significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) found were: 30-45 and >45 yr age groups (OR vs. <30 yr age group: 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.17 and 2.59, 1.38-4.85 respectively), poor perception of working conditions (1.61, CI 1.00-3.18), emotional instability (2.33, 1.04-5.22), job stress (1.83, 1.00-3.46) and poor safety performance of workers (3.10, 1.45-6.63). No significant interaction was found between these risk factors and the job. It was concluded that older age, poor perception of work conditions, poor work environment, and human behavioral factors played significant roles in occupational injuries. This information would help in implementing preventive programs to improve working conditions and management quality and to help the workers to develop positive psychological traits, but workers with negative traits such as emotional instability and older workers should be employed in less demanding jobs.

  9. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  10. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-06-03

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen and its derivatives in young adults occupationally exposed to quarry pollutants in southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ewenighi, Chinwe O; Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Onyeanusi, Joel C; Babtunde, Adejumo; Onoh, Linus U M; Onoh, Gladys O; Ezeugwu, Uchechukwu

    2017-09-03

    To evaluate the level of total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and effect of duration of exposure to pollutants in quarry workers, 5 mls of blood sample was collected from participants: 72 male quarry workers exposed to quarry pollutants and 72 unexposed controls. PSA estimations were done using the principle of ELISA. Mean total PSA, free PSA, and free-total PSA ratio levels of quarry workers did not differ from those of controls and was below the cutoff for the risk of prostate diseases. Higher mean total PSA and free PSA were observed in workers exposed for > 3 years compared to the unexposed control and workers exposed for ≤ 3 years. Age-adjusted linear regression indicated significant association (R = 0.515; p < .001) between the duration of exposure and total PSA level in quarry workers. This study suggests that longer duration of exposure to the quarry pollutants may elevate PSA level if precautions are not taken to minimize dose of exposure.

  12. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  13. The adverse health effects of oil spills: a review of the literature and a framework for medically evaluating exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Nassetta, William J

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, an explosion on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, injured 17 workers, and spilled an estimated 185 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf. Adverse effects on the health of cleanup workers, fishermen, and others as well as on the ecosystem are being studied. This paper reviews published studies of the adverse health effects due to previous oil spills. Acute effects have included: respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms; headache; nausea; dizziness; and tiredness or fatigue. Chronic effects have included: psychological disorders, respiratory disorders, genotoxic effects, and endocrine abnormalities. We also present a systematic approach to evaluating individuals exposed to oil spills.

  14. Descriptions of Home and Community Occupations Related to Home Economics; Descriptions of Specific Occupations Classified Into Six Clusters, Index to Areas of Work and Worker Trait Groups for Individual Occupations. Professional Education Series No. HE-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Beatrice

    This bulletin is a reference tool for the identification of home economics-related occupations and requirements and methods of entry into these occupations. A full description of 200 home economics-related occupations as found in the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" Volume I, and page references which will facilitate the location of…

  15. Lack of relationship between hair lead levels and some usual markers (blood lead levels, ZPP, urinary ALA-D) in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Tracqui, A; Bosque, M A; Costa, V; Kintz, P; Siegel, F; Mangin, P

    1994-01-01

    Blood and hair samples collected from 54 male workers occupationally exposed to lead were assayed for this metal by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Blood ZPP and urinary ALA-D were also determined for most subjects tested. Blood and hair lead concentrations (PbB and PbH) ranged from 100 to 770 ng/ml (10 to 77 micrograms/100 ml) (mean +/- SD: 384.6 +/- 143.4 ng/ml (38.46 +/- 14.34 micrograms/100 ml)), and from 3 to 243 ng/mg (mean +/- SD: 102.4 +/- 72.6 ng/mg), respectively. No correlation was observed between the PbH and PbB values, nor between PbH and ZPP or ALA-D values. Neither hair coloration nor subjects' age were related to PbH levels. Results are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  16. Thinking that one's life was in danger: perceived life threat in individuals directly or indirectly exposed to terror.

    PubMed

    Heir, Trond; Blix, Ines; Knatten, Charlotte K

    2016-10-01

    Perceived life threat is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Still, it is not known whether perceived threat may be important for PTSD in people indirectly exposed to trauma. To examine the prevalence of perceived life threat and the association with PTSD in individuals directly or indirectly exposed to terror. Data are cross-sectional from a survey 10 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing. Perceived life threat was measured by the question: 'How great do you think the danger was that you would die?' scored on a five-point scale. PTSD was measured with the PTSD Checklist (PCL). The retrospective belief that one's life was in great or overwhelming danger was reported by 65% and 22% of employees who had been present or not present, respectively, at the site of the bomb explosion (n = 1923). A high perceived life threat was associated with PTSD among those present (odds ratio (OR) = 5.7, 95% CI 1.9-16.9) and not present (OR = 5.2. 95% CI 3.0-9.0), even after adjusting for objective exposure, demographics and neuroticism. Perceived life threat may play a central role in the development and maintenance of PTSD in people directly as well as indirectly exposed to terror. Moderating perceptions of having been in serious danger may be an appropriate approach to the prevention and treatment of PTSD. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. DNA damage in leukocytes, buccal cells and nasal epithelial cells of individuals exposed to air pollution in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde, M.; Lopez, M.C.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.

    1997-10-01

    There is an increased interest in using biological markers to monitor populations for the identification of exposure to environmental toxicants. Test systems which permit the sensitive detection of DNA damage and DNA repair are critically important. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay is a rapid and a sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damage at the single cell level ant it provides information on the occurrence of DNA single-strand breaks and alkali labile sites using alkaline conditions. In this work, the differences in the basal level of DNA single strand breaks using alkaline single strand breaks using alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis, between young adults from the south (exposed principally to high levels of ozone) and north (exposed principally to hydrocarbons and particles) of Mexico City was investigated using three different cell types (leukocytes, nasal and buccal epithelial cells). We found an increased DNA tail length in blood and nasal cells from individuals who live in the south part of the city compared to the northern part. However, no differences were observed in buccal epithelial cells. These results show the feasibility of using SCGE in different tissues and its great potential for the monitoring of humans exposed to xenobiotics.

  18. Elevation of Circulating Th17/Th22 Cells Exposed to Low-Level Formaldehyde and Its Relevance to Formaldehyde-Induced Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mai, Weihua; Liu, Xingwei; Su, Guangxiao; Zhou, Wenying; Wen, Ziping; Lu, Dongqing

    2017-07-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of formaldehyde exposure on Th17 and Th22 cells and its relevance to human occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD). Circulating IL17-/IL22-secreting cells and serum IL17/IL22 levels in formaldehyde-exposed workers at Occupational Exposure Limit and nonexposed controls were assessed. The IL17 and IL22 cell population were detected in both CD3CD8 and CD3CD8 cells. The percentages of circulating IL17 and IL22 T cells in the workers with and without ACD history were all elevated, which were more remarkable in the ones with ACD history. Serum levels of IL17 and IL22 between the workers and controls were not significantly different. Low-level formaldehyde exposure may increase circulating IL17-/IL22-producing T cells (CD8 and CD8), possibly involved in the development of human OACD. But it may not alter serum levels of IL17/IL22 before the appearance of OACD symptoms.

  19. [Association between H3K4me3/BDNF and the cognitive function of workers occupationally exposed to aluminum].

    PubMed

    Qiu, H Y; Ren, P; Li, R; Zhang, Q L; Lu, X T; Niu, Q

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the influence of occupational aluminum exposure on cognitive function and its relationship with tri-methyl histone H3 lysine residues 4 points (H3K4me3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Methods: By cluster random sampling method, a total of 235 cases of male workers selected from a Shanxi aluminum factory were recruited in the study in September 2015. Used the occupational epidemiological investigation questionnaire, which included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) , Clock Drawing Test (CDT) , Digit Span Test (DST, including forward test DSFT and backward test DSBT) , Fuild Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) , to collect workers' basic information and assess their cognitive function score. Detected the concentration of aluminum in plasma by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Workers were divided into three groups by the 25 percentile and 75 percentile of the aluminum content, such as low, middle and high aluminum concentration groups. The concentrations of H3K4me3 in lymphocyte and BDNF in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The levels of aluminum in plasma was 134.36 (100.14, 178.96) μg/L. The scores of MMSE, DSFT, DSBT, DST of high aluminum concentration group were lower than low aluminum group (27.98±1.25 vs 28.83±1.54, 9.19±2.00 vs 10.64±2.87, 6.08±1.63 vs 7.19±3.07, 15.27±3.11 vs 17.81±4.72, all P<0.05) , the scores of CDT, FOME, VFT among three groups had no statistical significance (all P>0.05) . The expression levels of H3K4me3 and BDNF of high aluminum concentration group were lower than the low group [ (18.45±9.81) ng/μg Pro vs (23.76±9.89) ng/μg Pro, (26.07±10.18) ng/ml vs (31.66±9.24) ng/ml, all P<0.05]. Multiple correlation analysis showed that aluminum concentration were negatively correlated toH3K4me3, BDNF, MMSE, DSFT, DST, respectively (r(s)=-0.307、-0.214、-0.252、-0.197, -0.181, all P<0.01) . Conclusion

  20. Adverse morphological development in embryonic zebrafish exposed to environmental concentrations of contaminants individually and in mixture.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Cassandra D; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Habibi, Hamid R

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been linked to developmental and reproductive abnormalities leading to infertility, spontaneous abortion, reduced number of offspring, and metabolic disorders. In addition, there is evidence linking environmental contaminants and endocrine disruption to abnormal developmental rate, defects in heart and eye morphology, and alterations in behavior. Notably, these effects could not be explained by interaction with a single hormone receptor. Here, using a whole-organism approach, we investigated morphological changes to developing zebrafish caused by exposure to a number of environmental contaminants, including bisphenol A (BPA), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol, and fucosterol at concentrations measured in a local water body (Oldman River, AB), individually and in mixture. Exposure to nanomolar contaminant concentrations resulted in abnormal morphological development, including changes to body length, pericardia (heart), and the head. We also characterize the spatiotemporal expression profiles of estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone receptors to demonstrate that localization of these receptors might be mediating contaminant effects on development. Finally, we examined the effects of contaminants singly and in mixture. Combined, our results support the hypothesis that adverse effects of contaminants are not mediated by single hormone receptor signaling, and adversity of contaminants in mixture could not be predicted by simple additive effect of contaminants. The findings provide a framework for better understanding of developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants in zebrafish and other vertebrate species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses among uninfected individuals exposed to HIV parenterally and mucosally.

    PubMed

    Makedonas, George; Bruneau, Julie; Alary, Michel; Tsoukas, Christos M; Lowndes, Catherine M; Lamothe, François; Bernard, Nicole F

    2005-02-18

    To assess the influence of route of HIV exposure on the development of HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses in exposed, uninfected (EU) individuals. Two groups of EU exposed to virus through either sexual or intravenous contact were studied. Group I included subjects (n = 20) who had unprotected sexual contact with known HIV-infected partners and no intravenous HIV exposure; Group II included individuals (n = 27) who had shared needles with HIV-infected partners and had no sexual exposure to this virus. Between-group comparisons were made for the proportion of responders, breadth, magnitude, and specificity of HIV-specific responses. : The interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay was used to detect HIV-specific effector activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from each subject were stimulated with a panel of HIV peptides restricted to the MHC class I alleles expressed by the individual. A similar proportion of EU tested from each group (35.0% Group I versus 22.2% Group II) recognized at least one HIV peptide. Group I and II subjects recognized HIV peptides with a similar cumulative intensity of 130 +/- 67.5 and 182.9 +/- 184.2 spot forming cells/1 x 10 PBMC, respectively, and similar magnitude per stimulatory peptide of 82.7 and 78.4 SFC/1 x 10 PBMC, respectively. The proportion of stimulatory peptides derived from HIV Gag, reverse transcriptase, Env, and Nef was not significantly different between the two EU groups. HLA-A*0201 restricted HIV epitopes immunodominant in infected individuals are rarely stimulatory in EU subjects. Both mucosal and parenteral exposure to HIV can elicit HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses with similar characteristics.

  2. Evaluation of the serum catalase and myeloperoxidase activities in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals and concomitant cytogenetic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Mayukh; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Ghosh, Pritha; Das, Jayanta K.; Basu, Santanu; Sarkar, Ajoy K.; States, J. Christopher; Giri, Ashok K.

    2010-11-15

    Chronic arsenic exposure through contaminated drinking water is a major environmental health issue. Chronic arsenic exposure is known to exert its toxic effects by a variety of mechanisms, of which generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most important. A high level of ROS, in turn, leads to DNA damage that might ultimately culminate in cancer. In order to keep the level of ROS in balance, an array of enzymes is present, of which catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are important members. Hence, in this study, we determined the activities of these two enzymes in the sera and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes in individuals exposed and unexposed to arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic in drinking water and in urine was used as a measure of exposure. Our results show that individuals chronically exposed to arsenic have significantly higher CAT and MPO activities and higher incidence of CA. We found moderate positive correlations between CAT and MPO activities, induction of CA and arsenic in urine and water. These results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure causes higher CAT and MPO activities in serum that correlates with induction of genetic damage. We conclude that the serum levels of these enzymes might be used as biomarkers of early arsenic exposure induced disease much before the classical dermatological symptoms of arsenicosis begin to appear.

  3. Immunomodulation by heavy metals tested individually or in mixtures in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Dardon, J.; Voccia, I.; Hontela, A.; Chilmonczyk, S.; Dunier, M.; Boermans, H.; Blakley, B.; Fournier, M.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heavy metals, at environmentally relevant concentrations, on the immune response of rainbow trout. Trout were exposed for 30 d to cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}), or zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) either individually or in combinations: CdCl{sub 2}/HgCl{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}, HgCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}, or CdCl{sub 2}/HgCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}. Following the 30-d exposure, parameters of the nonspecific cellular immune response (phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and lymphoblastic proliferation) and of the nonspecific humoral immune response (lysozyme activity and the level of immunoglobulin) were measured. The results obtained indicate that individually, all three metals induce significant immunomodulations. However, the toxicity of mercury or cadmium is significantly reduced in fish simultaneously exposed to zinc, indicating that a protection is afforded by zinc against cadmium- and mercury-induced immunotoxicity.

  4. Partial protective effect of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in a cohort of heterosexual Italian HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals.

    PubMed

    Trecarichi, Enrico M; Tumbarello, Mario; de Gaetano Donati, Katleen; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Brahe, Christina; Tiziano, Francesco D

    2006-09-25

    Despite multiple sexual exposure to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative (exposed seronegative, ESN). The mechanisms underlying this resistance remain still unclear, although a multifactorial pathogenesis can be hypothesised. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozigosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32 bp deletion, i.e. CCR5-Delta32 allele) is presently considered the most relevant one. In the present study we analysed the genotype at CCR5 locus of 30 Italian ESN individuals (case group) who referred multiple unprotected heterosexual intercourse with HIV-1 seropositive partner(s), for at least two years. One hundred and twenty HIV-1 infected patients and 120 individuals representative of the general population were included as control groups. Twenty percent of ESN individuals had heterozygous CCR5-Delta 32 genotype, compared to 7.5% of HIV-1 seropositive and 10% of individuals from the general population, respectively. None of the analysed individuals had CCR5-Delta 32 homozygous genotype. Sequence analysis of the entire open reading frame of CCR5 was performed in all ESN subjects and no polymorphisms or mutations were identified. Moreover, we determined the distribution of C77G variant in CD45 gene, which has been previously related to HIV-1 infection susceptibility. The frequency of the C77G variant showed no significant difference between ESN subjects and the two control groups. In conclusion, our data show a significantly higher frequency of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygous genotype (p = 0.04) among the Italian heterosexual ESN individuals compared to HIV-1 seropositive patients, suggesting a partial protective role of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in this cohort.

  5. Physiological responses of exercised-fatigued individuals exposed to wet-cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Tikuisis, P; Ducharme, M B; Moroz, D; Jacobs, I

    1999-04-01

    Thirteen healthy and fit men [age = 27 +/- 8 (SD) yr, height = 177 +/- 5 cm, mass = 75 +/- 7 kg, body fat = 14 +/- 5%, maximal O2 consumption = 51 +/- 4 ml. kg-1. min-1] participated in an experiment designed to test their thermoregulatory response to a challenging cold exposure after 5 h of demanding mixed exercise during which only water was consumed. Subjects expended 7,314 +/- 741 kJ on cycling, rowing, and treadmill-walking machines, performed 8,403 +/- 1,401 kg. m of mechanical work during resistance exercises, and completed 120 inclined sit-ups. Subjects then assumed a seated position in a 10 degrees C air environment while wearing shorts, T-shirt, rain hat, and neoprene gloves and boots. After 30 min the subjects were showered continuously with cold water ( approximately 920 ml/min at 10 degrees C) on their backs accompanied by a 6 km/h wind for up to 4 h. Blood samples were taken from the nondominant arm every 30 min during the exposure and assayed for energy metabolites, hormones, indexes of hydration, and neurotransmitters. Counterbalanced control trials without prior exercise were also conducted. Blood insulin was higher during the control trial, whereas values of glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, cortisol, free triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were lower. Three subjects lasted the maximum duration of 4.5 h for control and fatigue trials, with final rectal temperatures of 36.43 +/- 0.21 and 36.08 +/- 0.49 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the duration of 172 +/- 68 (SD) min for the fatigue trial was not significantly different from that of the control trial (197 +/- 72 min) and, therefore, was not affected by the preexposure exercise. Although duration was positively correlated to body fatness and shivering intensity, the latter was not correlated to any physical characteristic or the fitness level of the individual.

  6. Genetic Factors That Might Lead to Different Responses in Individuals Exposed to Perchlorate

    PubMed Central

    Scinicariello, Franco; Murray, H. Edward; Smith, Lester; Wilbur, Sharon; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter, the thyroid cell–surface protein responsible for transporting iodide from the plasma into the thyroid. An estimated 4.3% of the U.S. population is subclinically hypothyroid, and 6.9% of pregnant women may have low iodine intake. Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 4,000 infants, and 15% of these cases have been attributed to genetic defects. Our objective in this review is to identify genetic biomarkers that would help define subpopulations sensitive to environmental perchlorate exposure. We review the literature to identify genetic defects involved in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, particularly defects in iodide transport from circulation into the thyroid cell, defects in iodide transport from the thyroid cell to the follicular lumen (Pendred syndrome), and defects of iodide organification. Furthermore, we summarize relevant studies of perchlorate in humans. Because of perchlorate inhibition of iodide uptake, it is biologically plausible that chronic ingestion of perchlorate through contaminated sources may cause some degree of iodine discharge in populations that are genetically susceptible to defects in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, thus deteriorating their conditions. We conclude that future studies linking human disease and environmental perchlorate exposure should consider the genetic makeup of the participants, actual perchlorate exposure levels, and individual iodine intake/excretion levels. PMID:16263499

  7. Genetic factors that might lead to different responses in individuals exposed to perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, Franco; Murray, H Edward; Smith, Lester; Wilbur, Sharon; Fowler, Bruce A

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter, the thyroid cell-surface protein responsible for transporting iodide from the plasma into the thyroid. An estimated 4.3% of the U.S. population is subclinically hypothyroid, and 6.9% of pregnant women may have low iodine intake. Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 4,000 infants, and 15% of these cases have been attributed to genetic defects. Our objective in this review is to identify genetic biomarkers that would help define subpopulations sensitive to environmental perchlorate exposure. We review the literature to identify genetic defects involved in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, particularly defects in iodide transport from circulation into the thyroid cell, defects in iodide transport from the thyroid cell to the follicular lumen (Pendred syndrome), and defects of iodide organification. Furthermore, we summarize relevant studies of perchlorate in humans. Because of perchlorate inhibition of iodide uptake, it is biologically plausible that chronic ingestion of perchlorate through contaminated sources may cause some degree of iodine discharge in populations that are genetically susceptible to defects in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, thus deteriorating their conditions. We conclude that future studies linking human disease and environmental perchlorate exposure should consider the genetic makeup of the participants, actual perchlorate exposure levels, and individual iodine intake/excretion levels.

  8. A retrospective cohort mortality study among workers occupationally exposed to metallic nickel powder at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    Cragle, D L; Hollis, D R; Newport, T H; Shy, C M

    1984-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) employed over 800 white male workers between 1 January 1948, and 31 December 1953, in the manufacture of "barrier" material that required metallic nickel powder in its production. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine whether persons working with metallic nickel powder have a higher mortality from cancers of the respiratory tract than non-nickel workers. A comparison group was defined as all white males employed at ORGDP sometime between 1 January 1948, and 31 December 1953, who had no indications of occupational involvement in barrier production. This group comprised over 7 500 workers. Vital status determination has been completed up to 31 December 1977, allowing at least 24 years of follow-up for all persons in the study. Death certificates were available for 97% of the deaths among the nickel workers and non-nickel worker groups. End-points of interest were selected site-specific cancers and the general overall pattern of disease-specific mortality. Mortality rates in the nickel workers and non-nickel worker groups were compared with those for the white male population of the United States and with each other. There was no evidence of increased mortality due to lung cancers or nasal sinus cancers in nickel workers. Increases (not statistically significant) in mortality due to cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, and of the digestive system were observed in the nickel worker group, compared with the non-nickel worker group.

  9. Increased Lead Biomarker Levels Are Associated with Changes in Hormonal Response to Stress in Occupationally Exposed Male Participants

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marie C.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Nwankwo, Chizoba; Yanger, T. Steven; Todd, Andrew C.; Moynihan, Jan; Walton, James; Brooks, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with a host of pathological conditions in humans. In rodents Pb exposure has been shown to alter the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. Objective: We investigated the effects of lead on responses of the HPA axis to a psychosocial laboratory stressor administered to Pb-exposed workers. Methods: Seventy male participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Serum cortisol (CORT) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were assessed in response to and during recovery from the stressor. We measured Pb in blood, a biomarker of recent exposure, and in tibia bone by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), a biomarker of chronic exposure. Results: The TSST induced statistically significant increases in ACTH and CORT in the participants. At baseline, ACTH was not significantly higher (p = 0.052) in participants with higher blood Pb concentration, but CORT was significantly lower in these participants (p = 0.016). Adjusted linear regression models indicated a positive association between blood and bone Pb and the increase in ACTH in response to stress. However, Pb was not strongly associated with changes in CORT in response to stress. Pb was also associated with the ACTH:CORT ratio at baseline and throughout the course of the protocol, suggesting an adrenal hyporesponsiveness in participants with higher Pb concentrations. Conclusion: The altered HPA-axis stress response observed in participants exposed to higher levels of Pb further supports the idea that lead may contribute to a host of biological dysfunctions beyond the classical neurotoxic effects. PMID:22112310

  10. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  11. Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Gammarus pulex Exposed to Cadmium and Arsenate at Three Temperatures: Individual and Combined Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and15°C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na+] and [Cl−] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na+] and [Cl−] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl−]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as ‘additive’ for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10°C considered as “antagonistic”). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl−] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na+] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  12. Behavioural and physiological responses of Gammarus pulex exposed to cadmium and arsenate at three temperatures: individual and combined effects.

    PubMed

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and 15 °C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl(-)]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as 'additive' for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10 °C considered as "antagonistic"). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl(-)] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na(+)] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  13. Arsenic exposure is associated with decreased DNA repair in vitro and in individuals exposed to drinking water arsenic.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Angeline S; Burgess, Jefferey L; Meza, Maria M; Demidenko, Eugene; Waugh, Mary G; Hamilton, Joshua W; Karagas, Margaret R

    2006-08-01

    The mechanism(s) by which arsenic exposure contributes to human cancer risk is unknown ; however, several indirect cocarcinogenesis mechanisms have been proposed. Many studies support the role of As in altering one or more DNA repair processes. In the present study we used individual-level exposure data and biologic samples to investigate the effects of As exposure on nucleotide excision repair in two study populations, focusing on the excision repair cross-complement 1 (ERCC1) component. We measured drinking water, urinary, or toenail As levels and obtained cryopreserved lymphocytes of a subset of individuals enrolled in epidemiologic studies in New Hampshire (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). Additionally, in corroborative laboratory studies, we examined the effects of As on DNA repair in a cultured human cell model. Arsenic exposure was associated with decreased expression of ERCC1 in isolated lymphocytes at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, lymphocytes from As-exposed individuals showed higher levels of DNA damage, as measured by a comet assay, both at baseline and after a 2-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene (2-AAAF) challenge. In support of the in vivo data, As exposure decreased ERCC1 mRNA expression and enhanced levels of DNA damage after a 2-AAAF challenge in cell culture. These data provide further evidence to support the ability of As to inhibit the DNA repair machinery, which is likely to enhance the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of other directly genotoxic compounds, as part of a cocarcinogenic mechanism of action.

  14. Individual Contributory Factors in Teacher Stress: The Role of Achievement Striving and Occupational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to…

  15. Individual Contributory Factors in Teacher Stress: The Role of Achievement Striving and Occupational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to…

  16. Reproductive toxicity parameters and biological monitoring in occupationally and environmentally boron-exposed persons in Bandirma, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Üstündağ, Aylin; Aydin, Sevtap; Ündeğer, Ülkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Britta Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2011-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. Experimentally, a NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 17.5 mg B/kg-bw/day has been identified for the (male) reproductive effects of boron in a multigeneration study of rats, and a NOAEL for the developmental effects in rats was identified at 9.6 mg B/kg-bw/day. These values are being taken as the basis of current EU safety assessments. The present study was conducted to investigate the reproductive effects of boron exposure in workers employed in boric acid production plant in Bandirma, Turkey. In order to characterize the external and internal boron exposures, boron was determined in biological samples (blood, urine, semen), in workplace air, in food, and in water sources. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators (concentration, motility, morphology of the sperm cells and blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total testosterone) were not observed. The mean calculated daily boron exposure (DBE) of the highly exposed group was 14.45 ± 6.57 (3.32-35.62) mg/day. These human exposures represent worst-case exposure conditions to boric acid/borates in Turkey. These exposure levels are considerably lower than exposures, which have previously led to reproductive effects in experimental animals. In conclusion, this means that dose levels of boron associated with developmental and reproductive toxic effects in animals are by far not reachable for humans under conditions of normal handling and use.

  17. A genome-wide association study of resistance to HIV infection in highly exposed uninfected individuals with hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Jérôme; McLaren, Paul J.; Dorrell, Lucy; Shianna, Kevin V.; Stemke, Amanda; Pelak, Kimberly; Moore, Stephen; Oldenburg, Johannes; Alvarez-Roman, Maria Teresa; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Boehlen, Francoise; Bolton-Maggs, Paula H.B.; Brand, Brigit; Brown, Deborah; Chiang, Elaine; Cid-Haro, Ana Rosa; Clotet, Bonaventura; Collins, Peter; Colombo, Sara; Dalmau, Judith; Fogarty, Patrick; Giangrande, Paul; Gringeri, Alessandro; Iyer, Rathi; Katsarou, Olga; Kempton, Christine; Kuriakose, Philip; Lin, Judith; Makris, Mike; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Tsakiris, Dimitrios A.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Mauser-Bunschoten, Evelien; Neff, Anne; Oka, Shinichi; Oyesiku, Lara; Parra, Rafael; Peter-Salonen, Kristiina; Powell, Jerry; Recht, Michael; Shapiro, Amy; Stine, Kimo; Talks, Katherine; Telenti, Amalio; Wilde, Jonathan; Yee, Thynn Thynn; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Martinson, Jeremy; Hussain, Shehnaz K.; Bream, Jay H.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Carrington, Mary; Goedert, James J.; Haynes, Barton F.; McMichael, Andrew J.; Goldstein, David B.; Fellay, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic variation contributes to differences in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To search for novel host resistance factors, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in hemophilia patients highly exposed to potentially contaminated factor VIII infusions. Individuals with hemophilia A and a documented history of factor VIII infusions before the introduction of viral inactivation procedures (1979–1984) were recruited from 36 hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), and their genome-wide genetic variants were compared with those from matched HIV-infected individuals. Homozygous carriers of known CCR5 resistance mutations were excluded. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and inferred copy number variants (CNVs) were tested using logistic regression. In addition, we performed a pathway enrichment analysis, a heritability analysis, and a search for epistatic interactions with CCR5 Δ32 heterozygosity. A total of 560 HIV-uninfected cases were recruited: 36 (6.4%) were homozygous for CCR5 Δ32 or m303. After quality control and SNP imputation, we tested 1 081 435 SNPs and 3686 CNVs for association with HIV-1 serostatus in 431 cases and 765 HIV-infected controls. No SNP or CNV reached genome-wide significance. The additional analyses did not reveal any strong genetic effect. Highly exposed, yet uninfected hemophiliacs form an ideal study group to investigate host resistance factors. Using a genome-wide approach, we did not detect any significant associations between SNPs and HIV-1 susceptibility, indicating that common genetic variants of major effect are unlikely to explain the observed resistance phenotype in this population. PMID:23372042

  18. Biomonitoring of 20 trace elements in blood and urine of occupationally exposed workers by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solovyev, N D; Zeimal', A E; Navolotskii, D V; Drobyshev, E J

    2013-11-15

    A sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in whole blood and urine was designed. Microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid was used for blood samples. Urine samples were analyzed after 1/50 (v/v) dilution with 5% (v/v) nitric acid. For beryllium the necessity of medium resolution mode (R=4000) was shown. Method validation was performed using blood and urine reference materials and by analyzing of spiked samples. For the designed method relative standard deviation (RSD) for the concentration range 0.01-1.0 μg/L was 5-10%. RSD did not exceed 3% when trace elements concentrations were above 1.0 μg/L. Method detection limits (3σ): Ag 0.7 ng/L, Al 16 ng/L, As 3.4 ng/L, Ba 0.02 ng/L, Be 1.5 ng/L, Cd 7.7 ng/L, Co 1.0 ng/L, Cr 2.8 ng/L, Cs 9.8 ng/L, Cu 27 ng/L, Fe 1.1 ng/L, Mn 1.8 ng/L, Ni 17 ng/L, Pb 13 ng/L, Se 0.07 ng/L, Sr 5.7 ng/L, Tl 0.2 ng/L, U 0.1 ng/L, V 0.7 ng/L and Zn 1.2 ng/L. A developed method was applied for trace element biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers of a beryllium processing enterprise. For preliminary risk assessment technological surface dust had been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Based upon results of 50 blood and 40 urine samples analyses occupational exposure evaluation was performed. Exposure risks were found not to exceed acceptable ranges. Possible health hazards were found for Be and also Al, Cr, Mn. Occupational health and safety recommendations for the biomonitored enterprise medical care unit were issued as a result of the current investigation.

  19. Urine cytology screening of French workers exposed to occupational urinary tract carcinogens: a prospective cohort study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Dutheil, Frederic; Rouanet, Lucile; Mulliez, Aurélien; Naughton, Geraldine; Fontana, Luc; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moustafa, Farès; Chamoux, Alain

    2017-09-21

    To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. Prospective cohort study. Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria. Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant. We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1-10 years, 6.2% for 11-20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21-30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p<0.001). Using exposure for 1-10 years as reference, the adjusted OR of receiving a suspicious or malignant diagnosis increased with duration of exposure: OR=1.50 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.05, p=0.01) for 21-30 years and OR=1.78 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.56, p=0.002) for >30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11). Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new guidelines with an early screening of urothelial cancer by cytology, starting with

  20. DNA damage in oral epithelial cells of individuals chronically exposed to indoor radon ((222)Rn) in a hydrothermal area.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Diana Paula Silva; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Silva, Catarina; Barroso, Joana; Kazachkova, Nadya; Pereira, Rui; Lima, Manuela; Camarinho, Ricardo; Ferreira, Teresa; Dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo

    2016-11-09

    Hydrothermal areas are potentially hazardous to humans as volcanic gases such as radon ((222)Rn) are continuously released from soil diffuse degassing. Exposure to radon is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer, but little is known about radon health-associated risks in hydrothermal regions. This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage in the buccal epithelial cells of individuals chronically exposed to indoor radon in a volcanic area (Furnas volcano, Azores, Portugal) with a hydrothermal system. Buccal epithelial cells were collected from 33 individuals inhabiting the hydrothermal area (Ribeira Quente village) and from 49 individuals inhabiting a non-hydrothermal area (Ponta Delgada city). Indoor radon was measured with Ramon 2.2 detectors. Chromosome damage was measured by micronucleus cytome assay, and RAPD-PCR was used as a complementary tool to evaluate DNA damage, using three 10-mer primers (D11, F1 and F12). Indoor radon concentration correlated positively with the frequency of micronucleated cells (r s = 0.325, p = 0.003). Exposure to radon is a risk factor for the occurrence micronucleated cells in the inhabitants of the hydrothermal area (RR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4; p = 0.003). One RAPD-PCR primer (F12) produced differences in the banding pattern, a fact that can indicate its potential for detecting radon-induced specific genomic alterations. The observed association between chronic exposure to indoor radon and the occurrence of chromosome damage in human oral epithelial cells evidences the usefulness of biological surveillance to assess mutations involved in pre-carcinogenesis in hydrothermal areas, reinforcing the need for further studies with human populations living in these areas.

  1. A population-based study of help seeking and self-medication among trauma-exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Sheerin, Christina; Berenz, Erin C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Kendler, Kenneth S; Aggen, Steven H; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies of trauma highlight the imbalance between prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and help seeking. We investigated prevalence and correlates of help seeking and self-medication in Norwegian adults with trauma history with a focus on common posttrauma outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (alcohol or drug). Participants reporting at least 1 PTSD symptom (n = 307) were asked if they consulted with a doctor/another professional (help seeking) or used drugs/alcohol (self-medication) for trauma-related problems. PTSD, alcohol abuse or dependence (AUD), and drug use or dependence (DUD) were assessed via structured diagnostic interviews. Help seeking and self-medication were endorsed by 37.4% and 10.4% of the sample, respectively. As compared to the full sample, help seeking was endorsed at a greater rate in individuals with PTSD (χ2 = 8.59, p = .005) and at a lower rate in those with AUD (χ2 = 7.34, p < .004). Self-medication was more likely to be endorsed by individuals with PTSD than without PTSD (χ2 = 25.68, p < .001). In regression analyses, PTSD was associated with increased likelihood of self-medication (odds ratio [OR] = 4.56) and help seeking (OR = 2.29), while AUD was associated with decreased likelihood of help-seeking (OR = .29). When self-medication was included as a predictor, PTSD was no longer associated with help seeking, although AUD remained inversely associated. PTSD and AUDs have a nuanced relationship with formal help seeking as well as the use of substances to cope. Trauma-exposed individuals are likely engaging in adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, the latter of which may be compounding distress. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. [Occupational exposure to benzene in Brazil: estimates based on an occupational exposure matrix].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Maria Juliana Moura; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2016-12-22

    This study estimates the number of exposed workers and the prevalence of occupational benzene exposure in Brazil. Due to the lack of available local measurements for the study, data were used from an occupational exposure matrix, the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), which covers proportions of individuals exposed to benzene, calculated as environmental measures. In Brazil, the 2010 Demographic Census identified 86,353,839 workers in the workforce and employed. Applying the FINJEM parameters, an estimated 7,376,761 (8.5%) belonged to potentially exposed occupational groups, while 770,212 were considered exposed to benzene, corresponding to an occupational group-weighted prevalence of 0.9%, higher in men (1.1%) than in women (0.6%). Exposed individuals were concentrated in the category of Machine and Motor Operators and Mechanics (62%). The number of exposed and prevalence of occupational exposure to benzene are high, even when compared to Finnish parameters, suggesting the need for monitoring and control of this carcinogen in Brazil.

  3. Patch occupancy, number of individuals and population density of the Marbled White in a changing agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Metapopulation theory predicts the occurrence of animals in habitat patches. In this paper, we tested predictions based on this theory, including effects of spatial autocorrelation, to describe factors affecting the presence, local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea in habitat patches spread across the agricultural landscape of southern Poland. This agricultural landscape has undergone significant changes in recent decades due to the country's political transformation and is currently characterized by a large proportion of fallow (abandoned) land. We compared 48 occupied habitat patches with 60 unoccupied ones. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in the number and density of individuals in habitat patches. The probability of patch occupancy was higher for patches that were larger, had a higher proportion of edges, were located closer to the nearest neighbouring local population and to the nearest piece of fallow, contained a smaller area of cut grass, and also had more nectar resources. The number of Marbled Whites in habitat patches was positively related to the patch area, the distance to the nearest fallow and the abundance of nectar resources, but was negatively related to the density of shrubs. The density of individuals was positively related to abundance of flowers, proportion of edge in a patch and distance to the nearest fallow, but it was negatively related to patch area, vegetation height and grass cover. These results indicate that recent land-use changes in agricultural landscapes have had both positive and negative effects on the presence and local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White. These changes affect the metapopulation of the species through changes in habitat quality and landscape connectivity in the area surrounding habitat patches.

  4. Particle-Associated Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene and Levels of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in a Non-occupationally Exposed Population of Adults and Children in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Qiong; Li, Liangzhong; Liu, Zien; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Yanping; Lin, Haipeng; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Bigui

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in ambient air from different areas in Lanzhou city in northwest of China, and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the urine of resident children and adults were determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the atmospheric environmental concentration of B[a]P varied significantly from one part of the city to another with levels of 150 ng/m(3) in the industrial area of Xigu and 73.8 ng/m(3) in the agricultural area of Yuzhong. The geometric mean urinary 1-OHP concentration was 0.42 µmol/mol-creatinine, with a range of means between 0.067 and 2.05 for the various population sub-groups. The non-occupationally exposed populations' age, gender and area of residence were the major factors that influenced urinary 1-OHP levels. The health risks of B[a]P for adults and children in Xigu and for children in Yuzhong exceeded the acceptable level (1 × 10(-4)) of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles in a Chinese population occupationally exposed to benzene and in a population with chronic benzene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Xianwen; Bian, Qian; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNA (miRNA) has attractive interests as a non-invasive biomarker of physiological and pathological conditions. Our study aimed to investigate the potential effects of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP) and benzene exposure on miRNA expression, and identify CBP-related miRNAs. Methods In the discovery stage, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles among pooled plasma samples from ten CBP patients, ten healthy benzene-exposed individuals and ten non-benzene exposed individuals. Subsequently, we conducted an expanded validation of six candidate miRNAs in 27 CBP patients- low blood counts, 54 healthy benzene-exposed individuals and 54 non-exposed individuals. Moreover, we predicted the biological functions of putative target genes using a Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis. Results In the discovery stage, compared with non-exposures, 36 and 12 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients and the benzene exposures, respectively. And compared with benzene exposures, 58 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients. In the expanded validation stage, compared with non-exposures as well as exposures, miR-24-3p and miR-221-3p were significantly up-regulated (1.99- and 2.06-fold for miR-24-3p, 2.19- and 3.93-fold for miR-221-3p, P<0.01) while miR-122-5p and miR-638 were significantly down-regulated (−3.45- and −2.60-fold for miR-122-5p, −1.82- and −3.20-fold for miR-638, P<0.001) in the CBP patients; compared with non-exposures, the plasma level of miR-638 was significantly up-regulated (1.38-fold, P<0.01) while the plasma levels miR-122-5p and miR-221-3p were significantly down-regulated (−0.85- and −1.74-fold, P<0.01) in the exposures, which were consistent with the results of microarray analysis. Conclusions The four indicated plasma miRNAs may be biomarkers of indicating responses to benzene

  6. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  7. Increased microRNA 21 expression contributes to arsenic induced skin lesions, skin cancers and respiratory distress in chronically exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nilanjana; Bandyopadhyay, Apurba K; Dutta, Suman; Das, Jayanta K; Roy Chowdhury, Tarit; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Giri, Ashok K

    2017-03-01

    More than 26 million people in West Bengal, India, are exposed to arsenic through drinking water, leading to several deleterious endpoints including precancerous and cancerous skin lesions and other non-dermatological health effects. Here, our aim was to identify whether miR21 is associated with such dermatological and non-dermatological health outcomes in chronically exposed humans. A total of 123 subjects from West Bengal were recruited for this study (45 exposed individuals with skin lesions, 38 exposed individuals without skin lesions and 40 unexposed individuals). The miR21 expression patterns in the lymphocytes were studied by quantitative realtime PCR and the effects on downstream targets were validated by Western blotting. Associations between the miR21 expression patterns and non-dermatological health effects were determined from epidemiological survey data. In vitro studies were done with low dose (0.05ppm) of chronic arsenic exposure to HaCaT cells for 15 passages. Interestingly, within the exposed group, the skin lesion individuals showed almost 4.5 fold up-regulation of miR21 compared to the no skin lesion group. The expression of the downstream targets of miR21 (PTEN and PDCD4) varied inversely, while the expression of pAKT and PI3K varied proportionately with its expression levels. Results of in vitro studies showed similar trends. Again miR21 was 2.03 fold up-regulated in the exposed individuals with respiratory diseases compared to the individuals without the same. This study for the first time shows that miR21 plays an important role in contributing to arsenic induced dermatological and non-dermatological health outcomes in an exposed population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Quality of life in individuals exposed to cesium-137 in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Fuini, Silvana Cruz; Souto, Rafael; Amaral, Geraldo Francisco do; Amaral, Rita Goreti

    2013-07-01

    This cross-sectional observational study in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil in a sample of 56% of 111 individuals exposed to cesium-137 aimed to evaluate their quality of life and associations with socio-demographic factors. The study used the WHOQOL-BREF and the Monitoring System for Radiation Victims. Participants were divided according to international criteria: Group I - radiation dermatitis and / or cytogenetic dosimetry above 20 rads (n = 33) and Group II - cytogenetic dosimetry ≤ 20 rads (n = 29), totaling 62 subjects. Among the WHOQOL-BREF domains, environment showed the highest mean scores (59.88, SD = 20.39) and psychological the lowest (53.02, SD = 17.98). Associations between the physical, psychological, and social domains were significant for the age variable. There was no difference between groups. The association between socio-demographic factors and quality of life was not significant. Radiation victims suffer considerable impact on quality of life, with persistent psychosocial problems, especially among those older than 41 years.

  9. Thorium in occupationally exposed men.

    SciTech Connect

    Stehney, A. F.

    1999-02-24

    Higher than environmental levels of {sup 232}Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a thorium refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Examination of the distribution of thorium among the organs revealed poor agreement with the distribution calculated from the dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radioprotection (ICRP). Concentrations in the lungs relative to pulmonary lymph nodes, bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y thorium and the exposure histories of the workers. Much better agreement was found with more recently proposed models in Publications 68 and 69 of the ICRP. Radiation doses estimated from the amounts of thorium in the autopsy samples were compatible with health studies that found no significant difference in mortality from that of the general population of men in the US.

  10. Occupation and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H; Della Valle, Curt T; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-05-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text 'occupation' 'job' 'employment' or 'work' and 'thyroid cancer'. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarised the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender-stratified results are reported. The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and healthcare occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis.

  11. Individual-level and plant-level predictors of acute, traumatic occupational injuries in a manufacturing cohort.

    PubMed

    Souza, Kerry; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Workplace and contextual factors that may affect risk for worker injury are not well described. This study used results from an employee job satisfaction survey to construct aggregate indicators of the work environment and estimate the relative contribution of those factors to injury rates in a manufacturing cohort. Principal components analysis was used to construct four plant-level factors from responses to a 32 question survey of the entire workforce, administered in 2006. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between injury rate, individual-level and plant-level risk factors, unionisation and plant type. Plant-level 'work stress' (incident rate ratio (IRR)=0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90) was significant in the multilevel model, indicating the rate of injury for an average individual in that plant was halved (conditional on plant) when job stress decreased by a tertile. 'Overall satisfaction', 'work environment' and 'perception of supervisor' showed the same trend but were not significant. Unionisation was protective (IRR=0.40, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.95) as was any plant type compared with smelter. We demonstrated utility of data from a human resources survey to construct indicators of the work environment. Our research suggests that aspects of the work environment, particularly work stress and unionisation, may have a significant effect on risk for occupational injury, emphasising the need for further multilevel studies. Our work would suggest monitoring of employee perceptions of job stress and the possible inclusion of stress management as a component of risk reduction programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. A comprehensive retrospective study of the seroprevalence of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in occupationally exposed populations in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Tian, Bai; Jianfang, Zhou; Yongkun, Chen; Xiaodan, Li; Wenfei, Zhu; Yan, Li; Jing, Tang; Junfeng, Guo; Tao, Chen; Rongbao, Gao; Dayan, Wang; Shu, Yuelong

    2017-01-01

    The H9N2 avian influenza virus circulates worldwide, predominantly in poultry. Its increasing infectivity and adaptation in poultry and mammals have enhanced the possibility of human infection. However, H9N2 human cases are difficult to detect due to their mild clinical symptoms. Serological study is valuable for risk assessment. A total of 15,700 serum samples were collected from occupationally exposed populations in 22 provinces of China and tested using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays. The sera positive rate of A/Guangzhou/333/99 (G9) was significantly higher than that of A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (G1) (p<0.0001). The seroprevalences of H9N2 were significantly higher in live poultry market workers, large-scale poultry farmers and backyard farmers than in poultry slaughtering factory workers and wild bird habitant workers. The seroprevalences of A/Guangzhou/333/99 (G9) (3.42%) and A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (G1) (1.37%) in Southern China were significantly higher than those in Northern China (p<0.001). The seroprevalence was highest in the elderly, followed by adults and then youths. Our results indicate that subclinical human infection with H9N2 avian influenza virus is widely distributed in China. Longer poultry exposure might contribute to the higher seroprevalence in the elderly group. The higher seroprevalence observed in Southern China than in Northern China might be caused by a higher poultry density.

  13. InterCardioRisk: a novel online tool for estimating doses of ionising radiation to occupationally-exposed medical staff and their associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Moriña, David; Grellier, James; Carnicer, Adela; Pernot, Eileen; Ryckx, Nick; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2016-09-01

    Those working in interventional cardiology and related medical procedures are potentially subject to considerable exposure to x-rays. Two types of tissue of particular concern that may receive considerable doses during such procedures are the lens of the eye and the brain. Ocular radiation exposure results in lens changes that, with time, may progress to partial or total lens opacification (cataracts). In the early stages, such opacities do not result in visual disability; the severity of such changes tends to increase progressively with dose and time until vision is impaired and cataract surgery is required. Scattered radiation doses to the eye lens of an interventional cardiologist in typical working conditions can exceed 34 μGy min(-1) in high-dose fluoroscopy modes and 3 μGy per image during image acquisition (instantaneous rate values) when radiation protection tools are not used. A causal relation between exposure to ionising radiation and increased risk of brain and central nervous system tumours has been shown in a number of studies. Although absorbed doses to the brain in interventional cardiology procedures are lower than those to the eye lens by a factor between 3.40 and 8.08 according to our simulations, doses to both tissues are among the highest occupational radiation doses documented for medical staff whose work involves exposures to x-rays. We present InterCardioRisk, a tool featuring an easy-to-use web interface that provides a general estimation of both cumulated absorbed doses experienced by medical staff exposed in the interventional cardiology setting and their estimated associated health risks. The tool is available at http://intercardiorisk.creal.cat.

  14. Follow-up study of genotoxic effects in individuals exposed to oil from the tanker Prestige, seven years after the accident.

    PubMed

    Laffon, Blanca; Aguilera, Francisco; Ríos-Vázquez, Julia; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Pásaro, Eduardo

    2014-01-15

    The accident with the oil tanker Prestige in November 2002 resulted in a major spill of about 63,000 tons of heavy fuel oil. More than 300,000 people participated in the clean-up activities, which lasted for up to 10 months. Previous studies reported increases in genotoxicity endpoints in individuals exposed to Prestige oil, both at the moment of exposure [DNA breakage, micronuclei (MN), sister chromatid exchange] and two years later (chromosomal aberrations). In this work we carried out for the first time the follow-up of genotoxic effects in subjects exposed to an oil spill seven years after the exposure. The main objective was to determine the possible persistence of genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to Prestige oil seven years after the accident. The exposed group was composed of 54 residents of Galician villages in Spain that were heavily affected by the spill. This group was involved in clean-up labor for at least two months in the period November 2002-September 2003. They were compared with 50 matched controls. Primary DNA damage was evaluated by the comet assay, mutagenicity by the T-cell receptor (TCR) mutation assay, and MN frequency was determined both by the cytokinesis-block test and by flow cytometry. The results obtained showed no significant differences between the exposed and the controls in the comet assay, the TCR mutation assay and the cytokinesis-block MN test. An unexpected and significant decrease was observed in the exposed group for the results of the MN test evaluated by flow cytometry, probably influenced by modifying factors - other than age, sex and smoking - not considered in this study. Our results show no evidence of the persistence of genotoxic damage in individuals exposed to Prestige oil seven years later. Nevertheless, the need to plan biomonitoring studies on people participating in clean-up activities in case a new oil spill occurs should be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MUTATION SPECTRA OF SMOKY COAL COMBUSTION EMMISSIONS IN SALMONELLA REFLECTS THE TP53 AND KRAS MUTATIONS IN LUNG TUMORS FROM SMOKY COAL EXPOSED INDIVIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Mutation Spectra of Smoky Coal Combustion Emissions in Salmonella Reflect the TP53
    and KRAS Mutations in Lung Tumors from Smoky Coal-Exposed Individuals

    Abstract
    Nonsmoking women in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China who use smoky coal for cooking and h...

  16. MUTATION SPECTRA OF SMOKY COAL COMBUSTION EMMISSIONS IN SALMONELLA REFLECTS THE TP53 AND KRAS MUTATIONS IN LUNG TUMORS FROM SMOKY COAL EXPOSED INDIVIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Mutation Spectra of Smoky Coal Combustion Emissions in Salmonella Reflect the TP53
    and KRAS Mutations in Lung Tumors from Smoky Coal-Exposed Individuals

    Abstract
    Nonsmoking women in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China who use smoky coal for cooking and h...

  17. Early Detection of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Asbestos-Exposed Individuals with a Noninvasive Proteomics-Based Surveillance Tool

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alex; Ayers, Deborah; Brody, Edward N.; Williams, Stephen A.; Levin, Stephen; Black, Brad; Harbut, Michael; Carbone, Michele; Goparaju, Chandra; Pass, Harvey I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related pulmonary cancer that is increasing in incidence. Because diagnosis is difficult and the disease is relatively rare, most patients present at a clinically advanced stage where possibility of cure is minimal. To improve surveillance and detection of MM in the high-risk population, we completed a series of clinical studies to develop a noninvasive test for early detection. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted multi-center case-control studies in serum from 117 MM cases and 142 asbestos-exposed control individuals. Biomarker discovery, verification, and validation were performed using SOMAmer proteomic technology, which simultaneously measures over 1000 proteins in unfractionated biologic samples. Using univariate and multivariate approaches we discovered 64 candidate protein biomarkers and derived a 13-marker random forest classifier with an AUC of 0.99±0.01 in training, 0.98±0.04 in independent blinded verification and 0.95±0.04 in blinded validation studies. Sensitivity and specificity at our pre-specified decision threshold were 97%/92% in training and 90%/95% in blinded verification. This classifier accuracy was maintained in a second blinded validation set with a sensitivity/specificity of 90%/89% and combined accuracy of 92%. Sensitivity correlated with pathologic stage; 77% of Stage I, 93% of Stage II, 96% of Stage III and 96% of Stage IV cases were detected. An alternative decision threshold in the validation study yielding 98% specificity would still detect 60% of MM cases. In a paired sample set the classifier AUC of 0.99 and 91%/94% sensitivity/specificity was superior to that of mesothelin with an AUC of 0.82 and 66%/88% sensitivity/specificity. The candidate biomarker panel consists of both inflammatory and proliferative proteins, processes strongly associated with asbestos-induced malignancy. Significance The SOMAmer biomarker panel discovered and validated in

  18. MFISH Measurements of Chromosomal Aberrations Individuals Exposed in Utero to Gamma-ray Doses from 5 to 20 cGy

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-11-17

    Our plan was to identify and obtain blood from 36 individuals from the Mayak-in-utero exposed cohort who were exposed in utero only to gamma ray does doses fro 5 to 20 cGy. Our goal is to do mFISH and in a new development, single-arm mFISH on these samples to measure stable chromosome aberrations in these now adult individuals. The results were compared with matched control individuals (same age, same gender) available from the large control population which we are studying in the context of our plutonium worker study. The long term goal was to assess the results both in terms of the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to low doses of ionizing radiation, and in terms of different potential mechanisms (expanded clonal origin vs. induced instability) for an increased risk.

  19. Estimation of occupational cosmic radiation exposure among airline personnel: Agreement between a job-exposure matrix, aggregate, and individual dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Talibov, Madar; Salmelin, Raili; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-04-01

    Job-exposure matrices (JEM) are used for exposure assessment in occupational studies, but they can involve errors. We assessed agreement between the Nordic Occupational Cancer Studies JEM (NOCCA-JEM) and aggregate and individual dose estimates for cosmic radiation exposure among Finnish airline personnel. Cumulative cosmic radiation exposure for 5,022 airline crew members was compared between a JEM and aggregate and individual dose estimates. The NOCCA-JEM underestimated individual doses. Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.37, proportion of agreement 64%, kappa 0.46 compared with individual doses. Higher agreement was achieved with aggregate dose estimates, that is annual medians of individual doses and estimates adjusted for heliocentric potentials. The substantial disagreement between NOCCA-JEM and individual dose estimates of cosmic radiation may lead to exposure misclassification and biased risk estimates in epidemiological studies. Using aggregate data may provide improved estimates. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:386-393, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  1. Military Occupational Health Surveillance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Responses were received from 37 HSC medical treatment facilities (100%) regarding their occupational health surveillance programs. The occupational ...personnel determined to be potentially exposed to occupational or job- related hazards, medical surveillance programs are limited, if available at all. An...exposed to occupational or job-related hazards would require more adequate staffing to provide the services. Identification of personnel at risk could be

  2. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  3. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  4. The use of the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy in improving the cognitive functioning of individuals with brain injury: A pre- and post-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Soeker, Shaheed

    2017-09-14

    Individuals diagnosed with a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) often experience major limitations in returning to work despite participating in rehabilitation programmes. The aim of the study was to determine whether individuals who sustained a traumatic brain injury experienced improved cognitive functioning after participating in an intervention programme that utilizes the Model of Occupational Self-Efficacy (MOOSE). Ten (10) individuals who were diagnosed with a mild to moderate brain injury participated in the study. The research study was positioned within the quantitative paradigm specifically utilizing a pre and post intervention research design. In order to gather data from the participants, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) was used to determine whether the individual with brain injury's cognitive functioning improved after participating in a vocational rehabilitation model called the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy (MOOSE). All the participants in this study presented with an improvement in MOCA test scores. The results of the study revealed a statistically significant effect of the intervention (i.e. MOOSE) on cognitive functioning measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, F(4, 6) = 15.95, p = 0.002. The findings of this study indicated that MOOSE is a useful model to facilitate the return of individuals living with a TBI back to work. It is also suggested that cognitive rehabilitative activities be included as part of the vocational rehabilitation programme.

  5. A longitudinal application of three health behaviour models in the context of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Matterne, Uwe; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2011-09-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is common, associated with poor prognosis and poses a significant burden to the individual and society. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the prototype-willingness model (PWM) and the health action process approach (HAPA) to the prediction and explanation of occupationally relevant skin protection behaviour in individuals with OSD. We used a longitudinal design. In this study, 150 individuals participating in a 3-week inpatient tertiary prevention programme completed measures assessing the constructs of the TPB, PWM and HAPA at admission (T 0), discharge (T 1) and once the individual had returned to work and worked for 4 consecutive weeks (T 2) (n = 117). Intention was measured at T 0 and skin protection behaviour at T 2. Path analysis was used to assess the longitudinal associations of the models' constructs with intention and skin protection behaviour. TPB as well as PWM variables accounted for 30% of variance in behaviour, HAPA variables for 33%. While not all predictions were confirmed by the data, all three models are able to inform us about the formation of skin protection intention and behaviour in individuals with OSD. The findings are discussed in light of future interventions and research.

  6. Detection of hypoxia by measurement of DNA damage in individual cells from spheroids and murine tumours exposed to bioreductive drugs. II. RSU 1069.

    PubMed Central

    Olive, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of the dual-function bioreductive drug, RSU 1069, to identify hypoxic cells in multicell spheroids and murine SCCVII squamous cell carcinomas was examined using the alkaline comet method. This method applies fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to measure the amount of migration of DNA from individual cells embedded in agarose and exposed to an electric field. Chinese hamster V79 spheroids, exposed for 1 h to RSU 1069, were disaggregated and individual cells were analysed for DNA damage. Following exposure to RSU 1069, aerobic cells exhibited DNA single-strand breaks while DNA interstrand cross-links were produced in hypoxic cells. Spheroids containing 40-50% radiobiologically hypoxic cells exhibited 20-30% cells with cross-links and the remainder showed only strand breaks. Similar patterns of damage were observed in SCCVII tumours growing in C3H mice exposed to 25-200 mg kg-1. Subsequent irradiation of cells in vitro greatly improved the distinction between aerobic and hypoxic cells from spheroids or SCCVII murine tumours exposed to RSU 1069, especially after treatment with low drug doses. The pattern of damage was relatively stable for at least 4 h after drug injection. Results indicate that detection of hypoxic cells in solid tumours may be practical using this agent or a prodrug, PD 144872, selected for phase I clinical testing as a hypoxic cell radiosensitiser and cytotoxin in human tumours. PMID:7880736

  7. Detection of hypoxia by measurement of DNA damage in individual cells from spheroids and murine tumours exposed to bioreductive drugs. II. RSU 1069.

    PubMed

    Olive, P L

    1995-03-01

    The ability of the dual-function bioreductive drug, RSU 1069, to identify hypoxic cells in multicell spheroids and murine SCCVII squamous cell carcinomas was examined using the alkaline comet method. This method applies fluorescence microscopy and image analysis to measure the amount of migration of DNA from individual cells embedded in agarose and exposed to an electric field. Chinese hamster V79 spheroids, exposed for 1 h to RSU 1069, were disaggregated and individual cells were analysed for DNA damage. Following exposure to RSU 1069, aerobic cells exhibited DNA single-strand breaks while DNA interstrand cross-links were produced in hypoxic cells. Spheroids containing 40-50% radiobiologically hypoxic cells exhibited 20-30% cells with cross-links and the remainder showed only strand breaks. Similar patterns of damage were observed in SCCVII tumours growing in C3H mice exposed to 25-200 mg kg-1. Subsequent irradiation of cells in vitro greatly improved the distinction between aerobic and hypoxic cells from spheroids or SCCVII murine tumours exposed to RSU 1069, especially after treatment with low drug doses. The pattern of damage was relatively stable for at least 4 h after drug injection. Results indicate that detection of hypoxic cells in solid tumours may be practical using this agent or a prodrug, PD 144872, selected for phase I clinical testing as a hypoxic cell radiosensitiser and cytotoxin in human tumours.

  8. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  9. Occupational syncarcinogenesis in the skin - combined effects of two carcinogens from the German occupational disease list.

    PubMed

    Dickel, Heinrich; Blome, Otto; Dickel, Beate; Bruckner, Thomas; Stockfleth, Eggert; Soemantri, Silas Paras

    2016-12-01

    Though scientifically undisputed, cutaneous syncarcinogenesis is not reflected in German occupational disease (OD) regulations, which tend to be guided by the tenet of monocausality. Recognition of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and its precursor lesions as OD requires individual assessment as to whether the requirements pursuant to either OD 5103 (occupational exposure to natural UV radiation) or OD 5102 (occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are fulfilled. Retrospective analysis of 28 patients (median age 72.5 years) with NMSC and respective precursor lesions who had been occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All cases had undergone expert medical assessment between September 2012 and September 2015. According to our assessments, all 28 cases met the occupational requirements pursuant to OD 5103 and 5102. In 26 cases (93 %), we recommended recognition of skin cancer as occupational disease pursuant to both OD 5103 and OD 5102. The competent occupational insurance association (BG) followed our recommendation in four cases. In eight cases, recognition was solely based on OD 5103; in ten cases, only on OD 5102. Four cases were denied recognition. Following adequate cumulative occupational exposure to natural UV light as well as occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NMSC or its precursor lesions arising in UV-exposed areas should be reported to the competent occupational insurance association as "OD 5103 and 5102 in terms of syncarcinogenesis". Apart from the fact that the ensuing recognition proceedings will be able to more adequately reflect real-life workplace conditions, filing a report pursuant to both ODs also allows for recognition of basal cell carcinoma as occupational disease. According to current regulations, this would not be possible, if the assessment were solely based on OD 5103. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons

  10. Elevated peripheral eosinophils are associated with new-onset and persistent wheeze and airflow obstruction in world trade center-exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Kazeros, Angeliki; Maa, Ming-Tyh; Patrawalla, Paru; Liu, Mengling; Shao, Yongzhao; Qian, Meng; Turetz, Meredith; Parsia, Sam; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Rogers, Linda; Reibman, Joan

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes is associated with the onset of asthma-like respiratory symptoms in rescue and recovery workers and exposed community members. Eosinophilic inflammation with increased lung and peripheral eosinophils has been described in subpopulations with asthma. We hypothesized that persistent asthma-like symptoms in WTC-exposed individuals would be associated with systemic inflammation characterized by peripheral eosinophils. The WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) is a treatment program for local residents, local workers, and cleanup workers with presumed WTC-related symptoms. Patients undergo a standardized evaluation including questionnaires and complete blood count. Between September 2005 and March 2009, 2462 individuals enrolled in the program and were available for analysis. Individuals with preexisting respiratory symptoms or lung disease diagnoses prior to September 2001 and current or significant tobacco use were excluded, One thousand five hundred and seventeen individuals met the inclusion criteria. Patients had a mean age of 47 years, were mostly female (51%), and had a diverse race/ethnicity. Respiratory symptoms that developed after WTC dust/fume exposure and remained persistent included dyspnea on exertion (68%), cough (57%), chest tightness (47%), and wheeze (33%). A larger percentage of patients with wheeze had elevated peripheral eosinophils compared with those without wheeze (21% vs. 13%, p < .0001). Individuals with elevated peripheral eosinophils were more likely to have airflow obstruction on spirometry (16% vs. 7%, p = .0003). Peripheral eosinophils were associated with wheeze and airflow obstruction in a diverse WTC-exposed population. These data suggest that eosinophils may participate in lung inflammation in this population with symptoms consistent with WTC-related asthma.

  11. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  12. Proteomic analysis of a model fish species exposed to individual pesticides and a binary mixture--Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are nearly ubiquitous in surface waters of the United States, where they often are found as mixtures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of sub-lethal exposure to pesticides as both individual and mixtures are unclear. The current work aims to ident...

  13. Proteomic analysis of a model fish species exposed to individual pesticides and a binary mixture--Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are nearly ubiquitous in surface waters of the United States, where they often are found as mixtures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of sub-lethal exposure to pesticides as both individual and mixtures are unclear. The current work aims to ident...

  14. The additive impact of group and individual publicly displayed feedback: examining individual response patterns and response generalization in a safe-driving occupational intervention.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Timothy D; Geller, E Scott; Clarke, Steven W

    2010-09-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on their turn-signal use (i.e., group feedback phase). Then, for the next 4 weeks, individual turn-signal use means were publicly posted along with the group feedback (i.e., individual feedback phase). Deliverers at Store A (n = 24) increased their use of turn signals from a mean of 5% during baseline to 16.9% during the group feedback phase and then to 30% during the individual feedback phase. Turn-signal use at Store B (n = 20) increased from 28.9% during baseline to 43.6% during group feedback phase and to 56% during the subsequent individual feedback phase. Individual analyses suggested that deliverers who improved the target behavior during group feedback phase did not increase their turn-signal use further when individual feedback was added. Conversely, most deliverers who did not improve during the group feedback phase increased their turn-signal use when individual feedback was added. Complete intersection stopping increased concurrently with the turn-signal intervention phases from baseline means of 12% and 30% at Store A and B, respectively, to means of 21% and 48% during the interventions.

  15. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  16. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    PubMed

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments.

  17. Investigation of 5-HT3A receptor gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahangari, Ghasem; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Mozafari, Sona; Majeidi, Ali; Deilami, Gholamreza Derkhshan

    2013-12-01

    The role of air pollution in exacerbation of allergic symptoms is well known. Several studies have shown the effect of air pollution on serotonergic system. The changes in serotonergic system could trigger several allergic symptoms. 5-HT(3A) is among serotonin receptors on the peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) as well as other cells. In the present study we compared the 5-HT(3A) gene expression in PBMCs of the asthmatic patients as well as individuals who had been exposed to the air pollution. Normal individuals were also included in the study as control for comparison of 5-HT(3A) gene expression. Following the synthesis of the cDNA using mRNA extracted from PBMCs the level of 5- HT(3A) gene expression was measured using real-time PCR. The results showed t a significant increase in the relative expression level of 5-HT(3A) receptor in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and individuals exposed to the air pollutants compared to normal controls. Our result indicates that significant increase in 5-HT(3A) receptor may contribute to the pathogenesis as well as allergic symptoms which resulted from air pollution.

  18. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867). Conclusions Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so

  19. Trace elements in scalp hair from potentially exposed individuals in the vicinity of the Bayan Obo mine in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2015-11-01

    Mining activities including mineral excavation and ore transportation produce and release large amounts of pollutants to the surrounding environment, raising concerns regarding the effects of environmental exposure to pollutants on human health. The concentration of elements in hair can be used as a biomarker of exposure to chemical elements. In the present study, hair samples from 89 relatively healthy volunteers aged 11-77 years old (57 living near Bayan Obo giant REE-Nb-Fe ore deposit and 32 in non-mining areas) from Baotou (Inner Mongolia, China) were analyzed to determine the contents of 25 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Tl, U, V and Zn) with the aim of gaining insights about the potential exposure to chemical elements of the population living within the Bayan Obo opencast mining area. The effects of gender and living area on element concentrations in hair were also investigated. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the target elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Cs, Ga, Rb, U, Bi, Mo, As, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn) in human hair from the mining area (MA) were primarily higher than that in non-mining areas (NMA). The area of residence had an influence on the presence of select trace elements (As, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, U and Zn) in human hair. In addition, the hair samples from MA showed statistically significant differences between males and females for a larger number of elements than those in NMA in which only Ag, Bi and Se were significantly different. This result implies a potential influence of mining activities on residents living in the vicinity. These findings confirm the need for competent authorities to act as early as possible and to implement strategies aimed to protect exposed populations and the entire ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  1. Serum levels of the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor in individuals exposed to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Chen, Y; Slavkovic, V; Ahsan, H; Parvez, F; Graziano, J H; Brandt-Rauf, P W

    2007-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent mechanisms have been implicated in growth signal transduction pathways that contribute to cancer development, including dermal carcinogenesis. Detection of the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ECD) in serum has been suggested as a potential biomarker for monitoring this effect in vivo. Arsenic is a known human carcinogen, producing skin and other malignancies in populations exposed through their drinking water. One such exposed population, which we have been studying for a number of years, is in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to examine the EGFR ECD as a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure and/or effect in this population. Levels of the EGFR ECD were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum samples from 574 individuals with a range of arsenic exposures from drinking water in the Araihazar area of Bangladesh. In multiple regression analysis, serum EGFR ECD was found to be positively associated with three different measures of arsenic exposure (well water arsenic, urinary arsenic and a cumulative arsenic index) at statistically significant levels (pindividuals with arsenic-induced skin lesions (p exposed individuals at greatest risk for the development of arsenic-induced skin lesions.

  2. APOBEC3G mRNA expression in exposed seronegative and early stage HIV infected individuals decreases with removal of exposure and with disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Pérez, Joel A; Ormsby, Christopher E; Hernández-Juan, Ramón; Torres, Klintsy J; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Background APOBEC3G is an antiretroviral factor that acts by inducing G to A mutations. In this study, we examined the expression of APOBEC3G in uninfected HIV-1 exposed individuals at the time of their partner's diagnosis and one year later. We then compared this expression with that of infected individuals at different disease stages. APOBEC3G mRNA was measured in PBMCs from three groups: healthy controls with no known risk factor to HIV infection (n = 26), exposed uninfected individuals who had unprotected sex with their HIV+ partners for at least 3 months (n = 37), and HIV infected patients at various disease stages (n = 45), including 8 patients with low HIV viral loads < 10,000 copies/mL (LVL) for at least 3 years. Additionally, we obtained sequences from the env, gag, pol, nef, vif and the LTR of the patients' virus. Results Exposed uninfected individuals expressed higher APOBEC3G than healthy controls (3.86 vs. 1.69 relative expression units), and their expression significantly decreased after a year from the HIV diagnosis and subsequent treatment of their partners. Infected individuals showed a positive correlation (Rho = 0.57, p = 0.00006) of APOBEC3G expression with CD4+ T cell count, and a negative correlation with HIV viremia (Rho = -0.54, p = 0.00004). The percentage of G to A mutations had a positive correlation (Rho = 0.43, p = 0.0226) with APOBEC3G expression, and it was higher in LVL individuals than in the other patients (IQR 8.27 to 9.64 vs. 7.06 to 8.1, p = 0.0084). Out of 8 LVLs, 3 had hypermutations, and 4 had premature stop codons only in viral vif. Conclusion The results suggest that exposure to HIV may trigger APOBEC3G expression in PBMCs, in the absence of infection. Additionally, cessation of exposure or advanced disease is associated with decreased APOBEC3G expression. PMID:19254362

  3. Occupational allergy to animals.

    PubMed

    Seward, J P

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the epidemiology, manifestations, etiologic agents, and exposure controls related to occupational allergies from animals and insects, including both respiratory and dermatologic responses. The overall prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in exposed workers is about 23% 4-9% of exposed individuals develop asthma. Symptom development is related to duration and intensity of exposure. The most prevalent dermatologic findings are contact urticaria and eczematous dermatitis. While a history of atopy is associated with the risk of symptom development, this factor has poor predictive value for any given individual. Similarly, skin testing and RAST testing are not sufficiently predictive to be recommended as screening tools, although they may identify individuals at some increased risk. The specific tissue sources of the major allergens are reviewed; for laboratory rats and mice, a urinary protein complex has been implicated. Environmental control of antigens is key in the prevention of allergic disease. Task-specific engineering controls, general environmental hygiene, training, and medical surveillance of workers are important elements of the prevention program.

  4. French good practice guidelines for medical and occupational surveillance of the low back pain risk among workers exposed to manual handling of loads.

    PubMed

    Petit, Audrey; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Rousseau, Sandrine; Mairiaux, Philippe; Roquelaure, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical practice guidelines related to the assessment and management of low back pain (LBP) have been published with varied scopes and methods. This paper summarises the first French occupational guidelines for management of work-related LBP (October 2013). There main originality is to treat all the three stages of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of work-related LBP. The guidelines were written by a multidisciplinary working group of 24 experts, according to the Clinical Practice Guidelines method proposed by French National Health Authority, and reviewed by a multidisciplinary peer review committee of 50 experts. Recommendations were based on a large systematic review of the literature carried out from 1990 to 2012 and rated as strong (Level A), moderate (B), limited (C) or based on expert consensus (D) according to their level of evidence. It is recommended to deliver reassuring and consistent information concerning LBP prognosis (Level B); to perform a clinical examination looking for medical signs of severity related to LBP (Level A), encourage continuation or resumption of physical activity (Level A), identify any changes in working conditions and evaluate the occupational impact of LBP (Level D). In case of persistent/recurrent LBP, assess prognostic factors likely to influence progression to chronic LBP, prolonged disability and delayed return to work (Level A). In case of prolonged/repeated sick leave, evaluate the pain, functional disability and their impact and main risk factors for prolonged work disability (Level A), promote return to work measures and inter professional coordination (Level D). These good practice guidelines are primarily intended for professionals of occupational health but also for treating physicians and paramedical personnel participating in the management of LBP, workers and employers.

  5. Exposure to volatile organic compounds for individuals with occupations associated with potential exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and/or gasoline vapor emissions.

    PubMed

    Jo, W K; Song, K B

    2001-03-26

    Workers who work near volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source(s), motor vehicle exhausts and/or gasoline vapor emissions, are suspected to be exposed to highly-elevated VOC levels during their work-time. This study confirmed this suspicion and evaluated the work-time exposure VOCs for traffic police officers, parking garage attendants, service station attendants, roadside storekeepers and underground storekeepers, by measuring the concentrations of six aromatic VOCs in workplace air, or personal air and breath samples. For nearly all target VOCs, the post-work breath concentrations of the workers were slightly or significantly higher than the pre-work breath concentrations, depending on the compound and occupation. Furthermore, both the pre- and post-work breath concentrations of the workers showed elevated levels compared with a control group of college students. The post-work breath concentrations were significantly correlated with the personal air concentrations, while the pre-work breath concentrations were not. Smoking workers were not always exposed to higher aromatic VOC levels than non-smoking workers. The breath and personal air concentrations for all the target compounds were both higher for underground parking garage attendants than for ground-level parking attendants. For all the target compounds except toluene, storekeepers exhibited similar levels of exposure for all store types. Print shopkeepers recorded the highest toluene exposure.

  6. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37±2.15 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail% DNA, p<0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p<0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupancies of individual orbits, and the nuclear matrix element of the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.; Poves, A.

    2009-10-15

    We discuss the variation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) for the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 76}Ge when the wave functions are constrained to reproduce the experimental occupancies of the two nuclei involved in the transition. In the interacting shell model description the value of the NME is enhanced about 15% compared to previous calculations, whereas in the QRPA the NME's are reduced by 20%-30%. This diminishes the discrepancies between both approaches. In addition, we discuss the effect of the short-range correlations on the NME in light of the recently proposed parametrizations based on a consistent renormalization of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} transition operator.

  8. Vocational Knowledge in Rural Children: A Study of Individual Differences and Predictors of Occupational Aspirations and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-Wilson, Sarah; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have identified individual differences in vocational knowledge or its association with career aspirations or expectations of children. We investigated whether individual differences in grade, gender, academic achievement, and SES predict levels of vocational knowledge, and further examined the relationship between vocational knowledge…

  9. Predictors of help-seeking behaviour among women exposed to violence in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis to evaluate the impact of contextual and individual factors.

    PubMed

    Linos, Natalia; Slopen, Natalie; Berkman, Lisa; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-03-01

    To simultaneously examine contextual and individual-level predictors of help-seeking behaviour among women exposed to physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. A multi-level cross-sectional study. We fit three 3-level random intercepts models to examine contextual and individual-level characteristics associated with help seeking, simultaneously. Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey for 2008. 5553 women (15-49 years) who reported physical or sexual violence, drawn from 23 715 women in the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey that responded to questions on violence exposure. Help seeking to prevent future victimisation was based on self-report. In our sample of women exposed to physical and sexual violence, 39.7% reported that they sought help to stop the perpetrator from hurting them again. Rates of help seeking were geographically patterned by state (range: 12% to 65%). State-level development, measured by the Human Development Index (z-score), was positively associated with help seeking (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.61), after adjusting for individual-level characteristics. State-level prevalence of violence against women (z-score) was negatively associated with help-seeking (OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.84), suggesting that service providers who may target their programmes to areas with high prevalence of violence, may need to simultaneously address barriers to help seeking. Few individual-level characteristics were associated with help seeking, including wealth, marital status, employment status, ethnicity, history of witnessing domestic violence and relationship to perpetrator. Efforts to support female survivors of violence should consider broader social and contextual determinants that are associated with help-seeking behaviours.

  10. Natural history of human papillomavirus infection of sun-exposed healthy skin of immunocompetent individuals over three climatic seasons and identification of HPV209, a novel betapapillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Bolatti, Elisa M; Chouhy, Diego; Hošnjak, Lea; Casal, Pablo E; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Bottai, Hebe; Stella, Emma J; Sanchez, Adriana; Bussy, Ramón Fernandez; Poljak, Mario; Giri, Adriana A

    2017-06-01

    We present the first longitudinal study reporting the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in sun-exposed skin of healthy individuals living in a geographical area in which solar UV radiation is influenced by the ozone content of the atmosphere. During three climatic seasons, skin swab samples were obtained from 78 healthy individuals and the prevalence of cutaneous HPVs was assessed with broad-spectrum FAP and CUT primers and determined at 54, 45 and 47 % in spring, summer and winter, respectively. Frequencies of mixed HPV infections were significantly higher in spring with respect to summer and winter (P=0.02). Seventy-one different HPV types/putative types were identified. While 62 volunteers were HPV-infected in at least one season, 23 had persistent infections. β-PVs (β-1) were the most prevalent and persistent. Age was associated with both the infection status (P=0.01) and the type of HPV infection (no infection, indeterminate/transient, persistent P=0.02). The molecular/phylogenetic analysis of the newly identified β-PV, officially designated as HPV209, showed that the virus has a typical genomic organization of cutaneous HPVs with five early (E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4) and two late genes (L2 and L1), which clusters to the species β-2. This provides useful data on cutaneous HPV infections in high UV-exposed regions.

  11. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  12. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  13. The Heath Occupational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  14. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Wheelock, Craig E; Eder, Kai J; Werner, Inge; Huang, Huazhang; Jones, Paul D; Brammell, Benjamin F; Elskus, Adria A; Hammock, Bruce D

    2005-08-30

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 microg/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 microg/l), but not a low dose (1.2 microg/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were approximately 30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases

  15. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Eder, Kai J.; Werner, Inge; Huang, Huazhang; Jones, Paul D.; Brammell, Benjamin F.; Elskus, Adria A.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 μg/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 μg/l), but not a low dose (1.2 μg/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ∼30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  16. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheelock, C.E.; Eder, K.J.; Werner, I.; Huang, H.; Jones, P.D.; Brammell, B.F.; Elskus, A.A.; Hammock, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 ??g/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 ??g/l), but not a low dose (1.2 ??g/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ???30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  17. Occupational physicians' attitudes and practices in relation to occupational cancer prevention: a qualitative study in southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Verger, Pierre; Pardon, Claire; Dumesnil, Helene; Charrier, Danielle; De Labrusse, Benoit; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Viau, Alain; Arnaud, Sandrine; Souville, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative survey of 20 occupational physicians (OPs) in southeastern France in 2008 to study their attitudes and practices regarding the prevention of occupational cancers. Occupational physicians' practices regarding occupational cancers centered mainly on prevention. Numerous difficulties impeded these activities: attitudes that minimized the carcinogenic risks by employers and employees, the absence or inadequacy of mandatory risk assessment to identify health hazards, and difficulties in obtaining individual exposure forms, which employers are supposed to complete to identify employees exposed to carcinogens. Other problems were related to the resources available to OPs and the constraints on their time. Finally, some OPs reported that they lacked self-efficacy. The results of this study suggested the need to strengthen OPs' initial training, draft and adopt good practice guidelines for various aspects of their practices, and improve collaborations between OPs and other professionals specialized in the prevention of occupational risks.

  18. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  19. Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in the blood of subjects exposed to occupational airborne contamination from coal mining extraction and incineration of hospital residues.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm Filho, D; Avila, S; Possamai, F P; Parisotto, E B; Moratelli, A M; Garlet, T R; Inácio, D B; Torres, M A; Colepicolo, P; Dal-Pizzol, F

    2010-10-01

    Coal mining and incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) generate several contaminants that are delivered into the environment, such as heavy metals and dioxins. These xenobiotics can lead to oxidative stress overgeneration in organisms and cause different kinds of pathologies, including cancer. In the present study the concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the urine, as well as several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, protein carbonyls = PC, protein thiols = PT, α-tocopherol = AT, reduced glutathione = GSH, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of six different groups (n = 20 each) of subjects exposed to airborne contamination related to coal mining as well as incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) after vitamin E (800 mg/day) and vitamin C (500 mg/day) supplementation during 6 months, which were compared to the situation before the antioxidant intervention (Ávila et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1150-1157, 2009; Possamai et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1158-1164, 2009). Except for the decreased manganese contents, heavy metal concentrations were elevated in all groups exposed to both sources of airborne contamination when compared to controls. TBARS and PC concentrations, which were elevated before the antioxidant intervention decreased after the antioxidant supplementation. Similarly, the contents of PC, AT and GSH, which were decreased before the antioxidant intervention, reached values near those found in controls, GPx activity was reestablished in underground miners, and SOD, CAT and GST activities were reestablished in all groups. The results showed that the oxidative stress condition detected previously to the antioxidant supplementation in both directly and indirectly subjects

  20. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. 440.110 Section 440.110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical...

  1. A General Theoretical Integrative Model of Individual Differences in Interests, Abilities, Personality Traits, and Academic and Occupational Achievement: A Commentary on Four Recent Articles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Frank L

    2014-03-01

    This commentary integrates the contents of four recent articles on individual differences (Nye, Su, Rounds, & Drasgow, 2012; Schmidt, 2011; Valla & Ceci, 2011; von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011) in a causal theoretical model. In this model, introversion and fluid intelligence cause interest in general learning (intellectual curiosity), which in turn is a major cause of crystallized intelligence. Certain specific interests and fluid intelligence also contribute to crystallized intelligence. Prenatal testosterone hormone conditioning is postulated to cause sex differences in certain specific interests but not in others. Crystallized intelligence, specific interests, and the personality trait of conscientiousness cause adult academic and occupational performance, whereas crystallized intelligence is the main cause of good mental functioning at older ages. Research is presented supporting each link in the model.

  2. Exposure assessment of airborne acrylamide for occupationally exposed workers by using an isotope-dilution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Huang, Yu-Fang; Chen, Ming-Feng; Shih, Tung-Shen; Uang, Shi-Nian; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-07-01

    To develop a highly sensitive analytical method for very low acrylamide (AA) exposure and to conduct an occupational exposure assessment by the developed method. Seventy-five air samples from four plants were collected and analyzed using an isotope-dilution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This isotope-dilution GC-MS method is sufficiently sensitive for assessing very low AA level as 4.37 ng m(-3), which is 10- to 7500-fold lower than the current analytical method. Field study showed that most airborne AA was gaseous rather than particulate. The personal exposure levels in workers ranged from 4.37 x 10(-3) microg m(-3) to 94.90 microg m(-3) with a mean of 12.08 microg m(-3). Fifty percent of personal 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the AA production plant exceeded the threshold limit value of 30 microg m(-3) set by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The field study indicated that 8-h TWA concentrations in workers varied by two orders of magnitude. The highly sensitive method can be used in future health risk assessment of AA exposure, such as those in fast-food restaurants.

  3. Sensitivity to tri-o-cresylphosphate neurotoxicity on n-hexane exposed hens as a model of simultaneous hexacarbon solvent and organophosphorus occupational intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pellín, M; Vicedo, J L; Vilanova, E

    1987-02-01

    Hens were given a single oral dose (0.235 mg/kg) of tri-o-cresylphosphate (TOCP) during chronic n-hexane treatment (200 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week). They were compared with other animals treated only with n-hexane or only with TOCP. Animals treated with a higher TOCP dose (1 ml/kg) were used as positive controls. The animals treated with both n-hexane and TOCP showed rapid development of severe ataxia. The rate of the ataxia development was similar to that of the positive controls but with earlier onset of the first signs and with less loss of body weight. However, animals treated only with n-hexane, under the same conditions, showed only reversible weakness and sedative effects, and those treated only with TOCP showed slow and slight ataxia development. The n-hexane- and TOCP-treated hens showed axonal swelling with myelin retraction associated with Ranvier's nodes, which is characteristic of long hexacarbon exposure. Some internodal swellings were also observed but less frequently than the paranodal swellings. The time course of the ataxia development was similar to an organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN); however, the light microscopy observation more closely resembled hexacarbon neuropathy. The results suggest a potentiation effect of n-hexane and TOCP neurotoxicities which could be related to some human occupational neuropathies.

  4. Individuals Who Believe in the Paranormal Expose Themselves to Biased Information and Develop More Causal Illusions than Nonbelievers in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Fernando; Barberia, Itxaso; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In the reasoning literature, paranormal beliefs have been proposed to be linked to two related phenomena: a biased perception of causality and a biased information-sampling strategy (believers tend to test fewer hypotheses and prefer confirmatory information). In parallel, recent contingency learning studies showed that, when two unrelated events coincide frequently, individuals interpret this ambiguous pattern as evidence of a causal relationship. Moreover, the latter studies indicate that sampling more cause-present cases than cause-absent cases strengthens the illusion. If paranormal believers actually exhibit a biased exposure to the available information, they should also show this bias in the contingency learning task: they would in fact expose themselves to more cause-present cases than cause-absent trials. Thus, by combining the two traditions, we predicted that believers in the paranormal would be more vulnerable to developing causal illusions in the laboratory than nonbelievers because there is a bias in the information they experience. In this study, we found that paranormal beliefs (measured using a questionnaire) correlated with causal illusions (assessed by using contingency judgments). As expected, this correlation was mediated entirely by the believers' tendency to expose themselves to more cause-present cases. The association between paranormal beliefs, biased exposure to information, and causal illusions was only observed for ambiguous materials (i.e., the noncontingent condition). In contrast, the participants' ability to detect causal relationships which did exist (i.e., the contingent condition) was unaffected by their susceptibility to believe in paranormal phenomena. PMID:26177025

  5. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EURADOS SURVEY ON INDIVIDUAL MONITORING DATA AND INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENTS OF FOREIGNERS EXPOSED IN JAPAN FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NPP ACCIDENT.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Fojtik, P; Franck, D; Osko, J; Gerstmann, U; Scholl, C; Lebacq, A L; Breustedt, B; Del Risco Norrlid, L

    2016-09-01

    European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V. (EURADOS) survey on individual monitoring data and dose assessment has been carried out for 550 foreigners returning home after being exposed in Japan to intakes of radionuclides (mainly (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) as a consequence of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. In vivo and in vitro measurements were performed in their respective countries at an early stage after that accident. Intakes of radionuclides were detected in 208 persons from Europe and Canada, but the committed effective dose E(50) was below the annual dose limit for the public (<1 mSv) in all the cases. Lessons learned from this EURADOS survey are presented here regarding not only internal dosimetry issues, but also the management of the emergency situation, the perception of the risk of health effects due to radiation and the communication with exposed persons who showed anxiety and lack of trust in monitoring data and dose assessments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Individuals Who Believe in the Paranormal Expose Themselves to Biased Information and Develop More Causal Illusions than Nonbelievers in the Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Fernando; Barberia, Itxaso; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In the reasoning literature, paranormal beliefs have been proposed to be linked to two related phenomena: a biased perception of causality and a biased information-sampling strategy (believers tend to test fewer hypotheses and prefer confirmatory information). In parallel, recent contingency learning studies showed that, when two unrelated events coincide frequently, individuals interpret this ambiguous pattern as evidence of a causal relationship. Moreover, the latter studies indicate that sampling more cause-present cases than cause-absent cases strengthens the illusion. If paranormal believers actually exhibit a biased exposure to the available information, they should also show this bias in the contingency learning task: they would in fact expose themselves to more cause-present cases than cause-absent trials. Thus, by combining the two traditions, we predicted that believers in the paranormal would be more vulnerable to developing causal illusions in the laboratory than nonbelievers because there is a bias in the information they experience. In this study, we found that paranormal beliefs (measured using a questionnaire) correlated with causal illusions (assessed by using contingency judgments). As expected, this correlation was mediated entirely by the believers' tendency to expose themselves to more cause-present cases. The association between paranormal beliefs, biased exposure to information, and causal illusions was only observed for ambiguous materials (i.e., the noncontingent condition). In contrast, the participants' ability to detect causal relationships which did exist (i.e., the contingent condition) was unaffected by their susceptibility to believe in paranormal phenomena.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 in malaria-exposed, adult individuals from Lambaréné, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mordmüller, Benjamin; Szywon, Katja; Greutelaers, Benedikt; Esen, Meral; Mewono, Ludovic; Treut, Carolin; Mürbeth, Raymund E.; Chilengi, Roma; Noor, Ramadhani; Kilama, Wen L.; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Imbault, Nathalie; Leroy, Odile; Theisen, Michael; Jepsen, Søren; Milligan, Paul; Fendel, Rolf; Kremsner, Peter G.; Issifou, Saadou

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is still one of the major public health threats in sub-Saharan Africa. An effective vaccine could be a sustainable control measure that can be integrated into existing health infrastructures. The malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 is a recombinant fusion protein of conserved parts of Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein and Merozoite Surface Protein 3 adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. GMZ2 is immunogenic and well tolerated in malaria-naive adults from Germany. To assess safety and immunogenicity in malaria exposed individuals, 40 adults from Lambaréné, Gabon were randomly assigned to receive either 100 μg GMZ2 or a rabies control vaccine three times in monthly intervals. Both vaccines were well tolerated. GMZ2 induced antibodies and memory B-cell responses, despite a high prevalence of GMZ2-specific immune reactivity due to previous intense exposure to P. falciparum. PMID:20696154

  8. Re-examining concepts of occupation and occupation-based models: occupational therapy and community development.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Leanne L

    2010-02-01

    A growing body of literature supports the role of occupational therapists in community development. Using a community development approach, occupational therapists respond to community-identified occupational needs. They work to build local resources and capacities and self-sustaining programs that foster change within the community and potentially beyond. The purpose of this paper is to highlight some key issues related to occupational therapy practice in community development. The definitions and classifications of occupation focus primarily on the individual and fail to elaborate on the shared occupations of a community. As well, occupation-based models of practice are not easily applied to occupational therapy practice in community development. In order for occupational therapy to articulate its role in community development, greater heed needs to be given to the definition and categorization of occupation, occupation-based models of practice, and their application to communities.

  9. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying.

  10. Association of Resting Metabolism in the Fear Neural Network With Extinction Recall Activations and Clinical Measures in Trauma-Exposed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marie-France; Song, Huijin; VanElzakker, Michael B; Staples-Bradley, Lindsay K; Linnman, Clas; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Lasko, Natasha B; Shin, Lisa M; Milad, Mohammed R

    2016-09-01

    Exposure-based therapy, an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), relies on extinction learning principles. In PTSD patients, dysfunctional patterns in the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction have been observed using resting-state or functional activation measures. It remains undetermined whether resting activity predicts activations during extinction recall or PTSD symptom severity. Moreover, it remains unclear whether trauma exposure per se affects resting activity in this circuitry. The authors employed a multimodal approach to examine the relationships among resting metabolism, clinical symptoms, and activations during extinction recall. Three cohorts were recruited: PTSD patients (N=24), trauma-exposed individuals with no PTSD (TENP) (N=20), and trauma-unexposed healthy comparison subjects (N=21). Participants underwent a resting positron emission tomography scan 4 days before a functional MRI fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Amygdala resting metabolism negatively correlated with clinical functioning (as measured by the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale) in the TENP group, and hippocampal resting metabolism negatively correlated with clinical functioning in the PTSD group. In the PTSD group, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) resting metabolism positively correlated with PTSD symptom severity, and it predicted increased dACC activations but decreased hippocampal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activations during extinction recall. The TENP group had lower amygdala resting metabolism compared with the PTSD and healthy comparison groups, and it exhibited lower hippocampus resting metabolism relative to the healthy comparison group. Resting metabolism in the fear circuitry correlated with functioning, PTSD symptoms, and extinction recall activations, further supporting the relevance of this network to the pathophysiology of PTSD. The study findings also highlight the fact that chronic dysfunction in the

  11. Occupational Causes of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Kira L.; Newman, Lee S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Sarcoidosis, the multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, remains mysterious. Several important investigations in the past two years add to accumulating evidence for both occupational and environmental causes of granulomatous inflammation. Recent findings This review considers the most recent studies that contribute to the hypothesis that sarcoidosis occurs when individuals are exposed to foreign antigens and to inorganic particulates that promote inflammation. Major recent findings, such as those emerging from the study of World Trade Center responders, the study of nanoparticles, and cases of work-associated sarcoidosis support the probability that occupational, as well as environmental, exposures to inflammatory stimuli trigger sarcoidosis-like illness. Major recent studies of microbially-rich indoor environments, including moldy indoor workplaces and mycobacterially-contaminated settings, contribute to the evidence that a variety of microbial antigens serve as targets for the hypersensitivity immune response in an inflammatory milieu. Summary There is increasing evidence that sarcoidosis can occur in workplace settings in which there is exposure to both foreign antigens and inorganic triggers of inflammation that promote an exuberant granulomatous immune response. It is likely that sarcoidosis has more than one cause. PMID:22314258

  12. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  13. Graphic Communications. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering graphic communications occupations. The…

  14. Medical follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: French evidence-based and pragmatic recommendations.

    PubMed

    Delva, Fleur; Margery, Jacques; Laurent, François; Petitprez, Karine; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-14

    The aim of this work was to establish recommendations for the medical follow-up of workers currently or previously exposed to lung carcinogens. A critical synthesis of the literature was conducted. Occupational lung carcinogenic substances were listed and classified according to their level of lung cancer risk. A targeted screening protocol was defined. A clinical trial, National Lung Screnning Trial (NLST), showed the efficacy of chest CAT scan (CT) screening for populations of smokers aged 55-74 years with over 30 pack-years of exposure who had stopped smoking for less than 15 years. To propose screening in accordance with NLST criteria, and to account for occupational risk factors, screening among smokers and former smokers needs to consider the types of occupational exposure for which the risk level is at least equivalent to the risk of the subjects included in the NLST. The working group proposes an algorithm that estimates the relative risk of each occupational lung carcinogen, taking into account exposure to tobacco, based on available data from the literature. Given the lack of data on bronchopulmonary cancer (BPC) screening in occupationally exposed workers, the working group proposed implementing a screening experiment for bronchopulmonary cancer in subjects occupationally exposed or having been occupationally exposed to lung carcinogens who are confirmed as having high risk factors for BPC. A specific algorithm is proposed to determine the level of risk of BPC, taking into account the different occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking at the individual level.

  15. Suicide and potential occupational exposure to pesticides, Colorado 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Stallones, Lorann

    2006-01-01

    A number of occupational studies have reported high rates of suicide among selected occupations, including farmers. Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe suicide among individuals potentially exposed to pesticides through their occupation. Data from Colorado death certificate files for the period 1990-1999 were obtained. Eligible records were those individuals who were Colorado residents at the time of death who had an occupation listed on their death certificates. Cases had suicide listed as the primary cause of death on the death certificates. The comparison group included Colorado residents who died from any cause during the same period other than cancer, mental disorders and injuries. A total of 4,991 suicide deaths were included and a total of 107,692 other deaths served as the comparison group. Occupations considered pesticide exposed included: veterinarians; pest control occupations; farmers and farm workers; farm managers and supervisors; marine life cultivators; nursery workers; groundskeepers and gardeners; animal caretakers; graders, sorters and inspectors of agricultural products; and forestry workers, supervisors and loggers. All other occupational categories were coded as unexposed. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups, separately for males and females. After controlling for age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, years of education, and marital status, males who were in pesticide exposed occupations had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.34) and females in pesticide exposed occupations also had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 3.88).

  16. Occupational therapists' perception of the concept of occupational balance.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Harb, Alia; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Nobakht, Laya; Yazdani, Nastaran

    2017-05-10

    Occupational balance is one of the concepts used by occupational therapists with no consensus on its definition. Literature demonstrates different perspectives when this concept is applied in practice and in its link to other concepts such as health and well-being. This study aims to explore how the concept of occupational balance is perceived and practised by occupational therapy practitioners. A qualitative methodology was employed. Fourteen occupational therapists volunteered for the study. Nine occupational therapy practitioners were interviewed individually and five attended a focus group. Thematic analysis was applied to analyze the data. Six themes were identified as follows: (1) occupational balance: what it is; (2) how occupational balance is formed; (3) occupational balance and well-being (4); subjective and objective representations of occupational balance (5); what disrupts/affects occupational balance; and (6) occupational balance/imbalance and occupational therapy practice. Both objective and subjective experiences of occupational balance need to be considered in order to make an informed decision in practice. The right occupational balance for each individual should be based on his/her values but with consideration of the principal of no harm to others.

  17. Frequency of CCR5 delta-32 mutation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and HIV-exposed seronegative individuals and in general population of Medellin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Díaz, F J; Vega, J A; Patiño, P J; Bedoya, G; Nagles, J; Villegas, C; Vesga, R; Rugeles, M T

    2000-01-01

    Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not always result in seroconversion. Modifications in coreceptors for HIV entrance to target cells are one of the factors that block the infection. We studied the frequency of Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and eighteen individuals distributed in three different groups were analyzed for Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR): 29 HIV seropositive (SP), 39 exposed seronegative (ESN) and 150 individuals as a general population sample (GPS). The frequency of the Delta-32 mutant allele was 3.8% for ESN, 2.7% for GPS and 1.7% for SP. Only one homozygous mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32) was found among the ESN (2.6%). The heterozygous genotype (ccr5/Delta-32) was found in eight GPS (5.3%), in one SP (3.4%) and in one ESN (2.6%). The differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the three groups were not statistically significant. A comparison between the expected and the observed genotypic frequencies showed that these frequencies were significantly different for the ESN group, which indirectly suggests a protective effect of the mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32). Since this mutant genotype explained the resistance of infection in only one of our ESN persons, different mechanisms of protection must be playing a more important role in this population.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of the malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 in malaria-exposed, adult individuals from Lambaréné, Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mordmüller, Benjamin; Szywon, Katja; Greutelaers, Benedikt; Esen, Meral; Mewono, Ludovic; Treut, Carolin; Mürbeth, Raymund E; Chilengi, Roma; Noor, Ramadhani; Kilama, Wen L; Imoukhuede, Egeruan Babatunde; Imbault, Nathalie; Leroy, Odile; Theisen, Michael; Jepsen, Søren; Milligan, Paul; Fendel, Rolf; Kremsner, Peter G; Issifou, Saadou

    2010-09-24

    Malaria is still one of the major public health threats in sub-Saharan Africa. An effective vaccine could be a sustainable control measure that can be integrated into existing health infrastructures. The malaria vaccine candidate GMZ2 is a recombinant fusion protein of conserved parts of Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein and Merozoite Surface Protein 3 adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. GMZ2 is immunogenic and well tolerated in malaria-naive adults from Germany. To assess safety and immunogenicity in malaria-exposed individuals, 40 adults from Lambaréné, Gabon were randomly assigned to receive either 100 μg GMZ2 or a rabies control vaccine three times in monthly intervals. Both vaccines were well tolerated. One month after a full course of vaccination, GMZ2-vaccinated individuals had 1.4-fold (95% confidence interval: [1.1, 1.7]) higher baseline-corrected anti-GMZ2 antibody levels and more GMZ2-specific memory B-cells compared to the rabies group (p=0.039), despite a high prevalence of GMZ2-specific immune reactivity due to previous intense exposure to P. falciparum.

  19. Individual phenolic response and peroxidase activity in peel of differently sun-exposed apples in the period favorable for sunburn occurrence.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-11-15

    Extreme weather events like high solar radiation can cause stress in apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.). The aim of the study was to make a screening of individual phenols and peroxidase activity in apple peel as a response to sunburn and different sun-exposures in the period when weather conditions are suitable for sunburn occurrence. Apple fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Braeburn' were sampled. Fruit temperature and color were measured prior HPLC-MS(2) and peroxidase activity analyses. Sunburned peel was darker and more yellow-red in comparison to healthy peel, which appeared yellow-green. Fruit temperature, total as well as individual flavonols and dihydrochalcones, total hydroxycinnamics and perixodase activity were highest in sunburned peel in comparison with healthy sun-exposed peel, furthermore both were different than shaded sides of both fruits and peel of apples inside the tree crown; moreover in sunburned peel dihydrochalcones were determined for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was up to 2.5 times higher, 3-hydroxy-phloretin-2'-O-xyloglucoside was up to 10 times higher and quercetin-3-galactoside was up to 33 times higher in sunburned peel, comparing to shaded sided peels. Flavanols did not show a distinct pattern. A deeper insight in phenolic response against environmental stress caused by high solar radiation and high air temperatures has been made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Purgato, Marianna; Gross, Alden L; Jordans, Mark J D; de Jong, Joop T V M; Barbui, Corrado; Tol, Wietse

    2014-04-11

    The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this evidence has shown complexity with regard to setting, conflict-phase, gender, and age. These complex findings raise the need of a detailed evaluation of the specific factors which influence size and direction of intervention effects.Individual patient data meta-analysis is a specific type of meta-analysis that allows the collection of exact information at an individual patient level, and to examine whether intervention and socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support may act as moderators and mediators of intervention effect.The aim of the present study is to carry out an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from all available randomized controlled trials (either published or unpublished) comparing psychosocial intervention with waiting list or no intervention arms in children exposed to traumatic events living in low- and middle-income countries. All randomized trials comparing selective preventive psychosocial intervention versus waiting list or no treatment conditions in children (0-18 years) living in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Studies will be identified in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There will be no restrictions on publication type, status, language, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be psychological symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (coping methods, social support, self-esteem), and function impairment. We are expecting that some variables, like socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables

  1. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this evidence has shown complexity with regard to setting, conflict-phase, gender, and age. These complex findings raise the need of a detailed evaluation of the specific factors which influence size and direction of intervention effects. Individual patient data meta-analysis is a specific type of meta-analysis that allows the collection of exact information at an individual patient level, and to examine whether intervention and socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support may act as moderators and mediators of intervention effect. The aim of the present study is to carry out an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from all available randomized controlled trials (either published or unpublished) comparing psychosocial intervention with waiting list or no intervention arms in children exposed to traumatic events living in low- and middle-income countries. Methods/Design All randomized trials comparing selective preventive psychosocial intervention versus waiting list or no treatment conditions in children (0–18 years) living in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Studies will be identified in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There will be no restrictions on publication type, status, language, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be psychological symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (coping methods, social support, self-esteem), and function impairment. Discussion We are expecting that some variables, like socio

  2. Occupational cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Occupational cancer epidemiology has led to the identification of more than 40 agents, groups of agents, and exposure circumstances which cause cancer in humans. This evidence has been followed by preventive and control measures. There are four areas where occupational cancer epidemiology may contribute important results in the future: surveillance of workers exposed to carcinogens, identification of new carcinogens and target organs, study of interactions, and research on special exposure circumstances.

  3. The levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in individuals occupationally exposed to municipal solid waste in Ogun State, South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ebesunu, Maria O; Ekor, Martins

    2013-10-01

    Airway inflammation and related respiratory complaints are common symptoms among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the relationship between exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) and the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress among WMW of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. A total of 280 subjects consisting of 180 WMW and 100 controls were recruited. Ten millilitres of blood were collected from antecubital vein of the subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to MSW is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant (p < 0.001) elevation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and C-reactive protein was associated with marked decreases in superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.001), and glutathione (p < 0.05) and significant (p < 0.001) increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and uric acid when compared with control. Haematological disorders include significant (p < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume and significant (p < 0.01) increase in total leucocyte count. Apart from decreased albumin (p < 0.05) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.05) activity observed in WMW, other markers of hepatic (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides) and renal (urea and creatinine) functions did not change significantly (p > 0.05) when compared with the control. A positive correlation between leucocytes (r = 0.195, p < 0.01), Cp (r = 0.210, p < 0.01) and job duration and between Cp and MDA (r = 0.200, p < 0.01) and Cp and leucocytes (r = 0.260, p < 0.001) were observed in WMW. Overall, exposure to MSW predisposes to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and Cp may be a useful biomarker for monitoring health status of Nigerian WMWs.

  4. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  5. Characterising the individual health risk in infants exposed to organochlorine pesticides via breast milk by applying appropriate margins of safety derived from estimated daily intakes.

    PubMed

    Hernik, A; Góralczyk, K; Struciński, P; Czaja, K; Korcz, W; Minorczyk, M; Lyczewska, M; Ludwicki, J K

    2014-01-01

    Milk secretion being an important way of elimination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) poses a concern due to potential risk for breastfed infants. This study aims to provide a tool for assessing such risks to infants exposed to OCPs (through accumulation in the mother's body), using calculated individual margins of safety (MoS). Selected OCPs included; p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, γ-HCH and HCB which were analysed in 28 samples of maternal milk. The highest intakes were recorded for p,p'-DDE (at 2.90 μg kg(-1)bw d(-1)) whilst the lowest was for γ-HCH, (at 0.019 μg kg(-1)bwd(-1)). For the risk characterisation purposes MoSs were calculated for the compounds for which toxicological reference values (e.g. ADI, TDI) were adopted. The MoS for average ∑DDT concentrations was found to be relatively low (2.82) somewhat similar to that for HCB at 7.08, and for γ-HCH, the MoS was substantially higher at 263.1. This, however does not take into account the extremely high individual concentrations. Thus, it was decided to calculate estimated daily intake (EDI) values based on OCP levels in individual milk samples. MoS levels of <1 (meaning unacceptable risk) were noted both for HCB in one sample as well as for ∑DDT in 3 samples indicating likely threats to infant's health. The lowest MoS noted for γ-HCH equalled to 60.6, indicating that this compound was not a threat to the health of any of the breastfed infants from the study group.

  6. Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

    1982-01-01

    Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

  7. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Asthma Library ▸ Occupational asthma TTR Share | Occupational Asthma This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Occupational asthma has become the most common work-related lung ...

  8. Application of high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in the environmental and biological monitoring of health care personnel occupationally exposed to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide.

    PubMed

    Minoia, C; Turci, R; Sottani, C; Schiavi, A; Perbellini, L; Angeleri, S; Draicchio, F; Apostoli, P

    1998-01-01

    Twenty four workers (10 involved in the preparation and 14 in administration) exposed to cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) in two Italian hospitals were monitored. The extent of exposure was assessed by the analysis of air samples, wipe samples, pads and gloves. Urinary excretion at the beginning and at the end of the work shift was also measured by liquid-liquid extraction and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Three out of 24 air samples were positive for CP or IF. In wipe samples, CP concentrations ranging from < 0.001 to 82.4 micrograms/dm2 in Hospital A (32 samples) and from 0.2 to 383.3 micrograms/dm2 in Hospital B (17 samples), were found. IF concentrations varied from < 0.001 to 90.9 micrograms/dm2 in Hospital A and from 0.01 to 141.5 micrograms/dm2 in Hospital B. Pads (from 11 to 13 for each operator) were contaminated with CP and IF especially on arms, legs and chest. The use of a plastic-backed liner on the working tray in the laminar flow hoods was demonstrated to compromise the containment properties of the hood. Urine samples were positive for CP in 50% of the workers (range: 0.1-2.1 micrograms/L), whereas IF was detected in 2 subjects only (range: 0.1-0.8 microgram/L). The results of this investigation demonstrate that vertical laminar airflow hoods, when incorrectly used, might represent a source of contamination and that higher risk may depend on lack of educational programmes and observance of preventive guidelines.

  9. Serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in non-occupationally exposed population groups living near two incineration plants in Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Abballe, Annalisa; Casalino, Francesco; di Domenico, Alessandro; Domenici, Pierangela; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Pretolani, Elisabetta; Spagnesi, Maurizio

    2008-05-01

    A pilot study was carried out in Tuscany, Italy, to provide preliminary information on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs), and selected non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in groups of subjects living in the vicinity of two incineration plants. Seventy-four volunteers were enrolled from areas identified as under a potential impact from incinerator emissions and from not exposed areas. No significant differences were observed between subjects living in the two types of areas. Total concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs resulted to be in the range 23-30 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1), lipid base, for subjects in the 27-54 year age groups, while concentrations increased to 40-44 pgTEQ g(-1) for the two 55-67 year age group