Science.gov

Sample records for occupationally exposed individuals

  1. Telomere measurement in individuals occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures in tobacco fields.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Vívian Francília Silva; Simon, Daniel; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Cátia dos Santos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; da Silva, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], which measures oxidative damage to lipids; and toxic equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], which measures total equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated in serum, and inorganic element content was analyzed in whole blood through particle-induced X-ray emission technique. It was found that exposure to pesticides and tobacco smoking had significant effects on aTL. Individuals occupationally exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in tobacco fields and individuals who smoked had decreased aTL compared with the non-exposed group. TBARS and TEAC were significantly elevated in the exposed group. There were no significant differences in inorganic elements. There was no evidence of an influence of age, gender, consumption of alcoholic beverages, or intake of fruits and vegetables on aTL within the groups. In addition, years of work in the tobacco field in the exposed group did not influence any of the variables analyzed. Although further studies were needed, these results suggested differences in telomere maintenance in tobacco farmers compared with the control group, indicating that telomere length may be a good biomarker of occupational exposure.

  2. Telomere measurement in individuals occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures in tobacco fields.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Vívian Francília Silva; Simon, Daniel; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Cátia dos Santos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli; de Souza, Claudia Telles; da Silva, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields causes genetic damage in farmers. The aim of this study was to analyze tobacco farmers chronically exposed to low doses of pesticides and nicotine (present in the tobacco leaves) in relation to absolute telomere length (aTL), and explore the influence of lifestyle characteristics, oxidative stress, and inorganic element levels. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples from agricultural workers and non-exposed individuals, and aTL was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], which measures oxidative damage to lipids; and toxic equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC], which measures total equivalent antioxidant capacity) was evaluated in serum, and inorganic element content was analyzed in whole blood through particle-induced X-ray emission technique. It was found that exposure to pesticides and tobacco smoking had significant effects on aTL. Individuals occupationally exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides in tobacco fields and individuals who smoked had decreased aTL compared with the non-exposed group. TBARS and TEAC were significantly elevated in the exposed group. There were no significant differences in inorganic elements. There was no evidence of an influence of age, gender, consumption of alcoholic beverages, or intake of fruits and vegetables on aTL within the groups. In addition, years of work in the tobacco field in the exposed group did not influence any of the variables analyzed. Although further studies were needed, these results suggested differences in telomere maintenance in tobacco farmers compared with the control group, indicating that telomere length may be a good biomarker of occupational exposure. PMID:26426910

  3. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective  This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis  This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion  The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace. PMID:27413413

  4. [Programs for better health of individuals exposed to increased occupational risk].

    PubMed

    Poteriaeva, E L; Nesina, I A; Liutkevich, A A; Tepliakov, G V; Egorova, L S

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with problems of optimizing sanatorium-and-spa programs to better health in workers exposed to vibration, through using panto-magnesium pearl baths. Examinations covered 49 individuals exposed to local vibration at work, who underwent health programs including magnetotherapy, manual massage and exercise therapy. The authors conclude that maximal effect of improved life quality was seen after panto-magnesium gas baths course auxiliary to the programs. PMID:20873252

  5. Diagnostic assessment to estimate and minimize neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals at cyclotron facilities.

    PubMed

    Reina, L C; Silva, A X; Suita, J C; Souza, M I S; Facure, A; Silva, J C P; Furlanetto, J A D; Rebello, W

    2010-03-01

    Since 2003, radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnostic purposes have been produced at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, in Brazil, using two cyclotron accelerators - CV-28 and RDS111. As a result of the ever increasing production, a diagnostic assessment to reduce neutron dose rates received by occupationally exposed individuals during irradiation processes has been developed. The purpose of this work is to present this assessment, which is currently being applied to both the Fluorine and Iodine targets of CV-28 and RDS111 cyclotron accelerators.

  6. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  7. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  8. Dioxins in adipose tissue of non-occupationally exposed persons in France: correlation with individual food exposure.

    PubMed

    Arfi, C; Seta, N; Fraisse, D; Revel, A; Escande, J P; Momas, I

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated individual adipose tissue (subcutaneous lipomas) dioxin contamination in non-occupationally exposed persons living in France (adult patients undergoing a surgical ablation of benign lipomas), in relation to the corresponding individually evaluated mean daily dietary dioxin intake (DDDI). The diet survey (questionnaire) included information on consumption of meat, fish, milk and dairy products, from which the individual DDDI was calculated. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. DDDI ranged between 1.06 and 3.31 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight, bw (mean value: 2.05+/-0.72). Adipose tissue polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels ranged between 18.5 and 76.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipids (mean value: 35.6+/-14.8). No relation was found between the DDDI and adipose tissue PCDD/PCDF concentrations. The mean DDDI in France does not fundamentally differ from those found in other industrialised countries, is within the range of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day recently suggested by WHO-ECEH/ICPS for the tolerable daily intake of dioxins. Adipose tissue PCDD/PCDFs levels are similar to levels in other European countries and USA without relation to sex or age, and can be considered representative European background concentrations. Globalisation of alimentary production leads to a similar food exposure in Western European countries, in spite of dioxins accidental selective contaminations that are epiphenomenon and thus do not have any impact in human dioxin background levels. PMID:11513111

  9. Dioxins in adipose tissue of non-occupationally exposed persons in France: correlation with individual food exposure.

    PubMed

    Arfi, C; Seta, N; Fraisse, D; Revel, A; Escande, J P; Momas, I

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated individual adipose tissue (subcutaneous lipomas) dioxin contamination in non-occupationally exposed persons living in France (adult patients undergoing a surgical ablation of benign lipomas), in relation to the corresponding individually evaluated mean daily dietary dioxin intake (DDDI). The diet survey (questionnaire) included information on consumption of meat, fish, milk and dairy products, from which the individual DDDI was calculated. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. DDDI ranged between 1.06 and 3.31 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight, bw (mean value: 2.05+/-0.72). Adipose tissue polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels ranged between 18.5 and 76.9 pg I-TEQ/g lipids (mean value: 35.6+/-14.8). No relation was found between the DDDI and adipose tissue PCDD/PCDF concentrations. The mean DDDI in France does not fundamentally differ from those found in other industrialised countries, is within the range of 1-4 pg I-TEQ/kg/day recently suggested by WHO-ECEH/ICPS for the tolerable daily intake of dioxins. Adipose tissue PCDD/PCDFs levels are similar to levels in other European countries and USA without relation to sex or age, and can be considered representative European background concentrations. Globalisation of alimentary production leads to a similar food exposure in Western European countries, in spite of dioxins accidental selective contaminations that are epiphenomenon and thus do not have any impact in human dioxin background levels.

  10. Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland: the relationship between tick infection rates and the serological response of individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites.

    PubMed

    Zając, Violetta; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-06-01

    To explore the potential role of Ixodes ricinus as the presumed vector of Bartonella henselae in eastern Poland, ticks collected in various geographic locations were examined for the presence of B. henselae, and the results were matched against the prevalence of anti-B. henselae antibodies in individuals occupationally exposed to tick bites. The presence of Bartonella DNA was investigated by PCR in a total of 1,603 unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks. The presence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae was investigated in serum samples from 332 people occupationally exposed to tick bites (94 farmers and 238 forestry workers). The total prevalence of B. henselae in ticks was 1.7%; the infection rates in males (3.1%) and females (2.7%) were nearly ten times greater than in nymphs (0.3%). The prevalence of seropositive results in the risk group (30.4%), farmers (27.7%) and forestry workers (31.5%), was significantly greater compared to the control group (8.9%). The results showed a weak positive correlation between the degree of infection of ticks and humans living in the same geographic region. The lack of a direct relationship indicates that exposure to tick bites is only one of the factors contributing to the significant preponderance of a seropositive response to B. henselae in the forestry workers and farmers over the control group. Other factors must be considered, such as contact with cats, which are popular domestic animals in Polish villages, and exposure to cat fleas.

  11. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  12. OFFICE OCCUPATIONS, INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION MATERIALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    THE 79 ITEMS LISTED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY WERE SELECTED FOR THE BENEFIT OF TEACHER-COORDINATORS OF OFFICE OCCUPATIONS PROGRAMS. EXAMPLES OF MATERIAL INCLUDED ARE A COMBINATION TEXTBOOK-WORKBOOK WHICH PROVIDES TRAINING IN ALPHABETIC INDEXING, A COMBINATION TEXTBOOK-WORKBOOK WHICH CONTAINS PENMANSHIP DRILLS AND DIAGNOSTIC DRILLS, A PAPERBOUND BOOK…

  13. Stable chromosome aberration frequencies in men occupationally exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Whitehouse, Caroline A

    2003-09-01

    The introduction of fluorescence in situ hybridisation techniques to cytogenetic biodosimetry has enabled the detection of stable aberrations, e.g. translocations, which can provide an integrated measure of radiation exposure. The opportunity to study stable aberration frequencies in lymphocyte cultures from occupationally exposed workers with well-documented dosimetry records enables the establishment of dose-response relationships which can be compared with those obtained from studies of populations with high acute exposures. Since there is good mechanistic evidence for the role of translocations in oncogenesis, this provides an insight into the risks associated with low-dose exposure for which no direct epidemiological evidence is available. This paper provides preliminary data on a group of 98 individuals with cumulative occupational doses > 500 mSv and 96 controls with doses < 50 mSv. An increased frequency of translocations was found for the high-dose group (20.50 +/- 0.78 x 10(-3) per genome equivalent) in comparison with the control group (11.71 +/- 0.59 x 10(-3) per genome equivalent). Further analysis of the control group revealed increasing frequencies of translocations with increasing age. An increase associated with ever-smoking status was found for the control group which appeared to be driven by the lower age groups but no overall effect of smoking was seen in the > 500 mSv group.

  14. Blood level of cadmium and lead in occupationally exposed persons in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the blood levels of cadmium and lead in some occupationally exposed individuals and compare the values with non-exposed individuals, with the aim of increasing the awareness of health risk caused by these heavy metals. A total of 120 subjects (64 occupationally exposed and 56 non-exposed subjects) with the age range of 15–40 years were studied in cross-sectional study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013 in Gwagwalada area of Abuja, Nigeria. Blood cadmium and lead were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The respective mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were 11.63±1.73 μg/dl and 45.43±6.93 μg/dl in occupationally-exposed subjects, while in non-exposed subjects 2.03±0.55 μg/dl and 12.08±2.87 μg/dl. The results show that occupational exposure increases the blood level of cadmium and lead, which consequently increases the health risk of the exposed individuals. PMID:27486374

  15. TP53 mutations in workers exposed to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2003-03-01

    In some cases, evidence exists that exogenous carcinogenic exposures contribute to the mutation spectrum of the TP53 gene (p53) in human cancers. Although the clearest examples come from dietary and environmental sources, only a restricted number of papers have concentrated specifically on TP53 mutations in tumors from workers exposed to occupational carcinogens. In populations exposed to dietary aflatoxin B1 with liver cancer (AFB1) and ultraviolet (UV)-radiation with skin cancer, a single specific-looking TP53 mutation has been described in some of the tumors. Whether these fingerprints in the TP53 gene can be used to reveal an occupational etiology remains to be shown. In other cases, although differences in the TP53 mutation spectrum exist, they are more diffuse and difficult to interpret at this point. For instance, cigarette smoking seems to induce long-lasting molecular footprints in TP53. However, their use to rule out other occupational exposures as etiological factors in occupational cancers is still very questionable, especially due to the putative synergistic effects of cigarette smoke with other carcinogens. Although interesting implications of possible typical mutation spectra among cancers with other occupational etiologies exist, the data are scanty and await further development of TP53 mutation databases.

  16. Hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed Central

    Tomenson, J A; Baron, C E; O'Sullivan, J J; Edwards, J C; Stonard, M D; Walker, R J; Fearnley, D M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify any differences in hepatic function between workers exposed to carbon tetrachloride and controls, and to identify the best variable with which to examine any effects. METHODS--In a cross sectional study of hepatic function in workers occupationally exposed to carbon tetrachloride, 135 exposed employees were compared with 276 non-exposed controls. The exposed group was taken from three sites in the north west of England and the control group included non-exposed workers from one of these sites and another site located nearby. Demographic and alcohol consumption data were collected from both groups by questionnaire. Each member of the study group was allotted a notional estimated exposure to carbon tetrachloride, calculated from historic personal monitoring data and job category. A fasting sample of blood was taken from all participants and analysed for a variety of biochemical and haematological variables. The techniques of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance were used to investigate the effect on biochemical and haematological indices of a range of factors. RESULTS--Multivariate analysis of variance of four core liver function variables, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase, showed a significant difference between exposed and non-exposed workers. The univariate analyses identified increases in only alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase within the exposed group and these did not show a significant dose-response relation. Univariate analysis of variance did show effects of alcohol and age on several variables. Significant differences between exposed and control groups for three haematological variables, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and red blood count, were thought not to be due to the effects of exposure. Clinical review of exposed subjects with abnormal results did not show clinically evident disease that could have been associated with exposure to

  17. Strategies for epidemiologic studies of lead in bone in occupationally exposed populations

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Lead exposure is widespread among industrial populations in the US. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the lead content of bone offers a promising approach to acquisition of individualized data on chronic lead absorption in occupationally exposed populations. Dosimetric data obtained by XRF will permit accurate definition of dose-response relationships for such chronic consequences of lead exposure as central and peripheral neurologic impairment, renal disease, hypertension, and possibly reproductive dysfunction. Additionally, data on bone lead contect obtained by XRF will permit validation of models describing the body lead burden and will allow direct assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic chelation. XRF data may also permit assessment of the possible role of genetic polymorphism of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic dehydrase as a determinant of the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of lead. In both cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies of body lead burden in occupationally exposed populations, the K-XRF instrument appears to be the technology of choice.

  18. The Dynamics and Consequences of Occupational Deprivation on Displaced Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharma, Maher M.

    2010-01-01

    Following wars and natural disasters, individuals and their families face displacement from their native land and relocate to a new location where they become refugees. As occupational beings, people find meaning in their environment and build their identity through engaging in meaningful occupations. The environment plays a role in shaping the…

  19. Long-term study on workers occupationally exposed to ethylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Bardodĕj, Z; Círek, A

    1988-01-01

    Ethylbenzene is synthesized from benzene; subject to catalytic dehydrogenation it yields styrene, a raw material for the production of synthetic rubber and plastics. Long-term biomonitoring of occupational ethylbenzene exposures, carried out in the past 20 years in some 200 ethylbenzene-production workers, revealed this substance to pose little hazard to human health. As it turned out, mandelic acid concentrations in these workers' urine never exceeded 3.25 mmol.l-1 and none of the exposed showed damage to hematopoiesis and/or liver tissue. Over the last 10 years no case of malignancy has been recorded in this industrial facility belonging to a larger chemical complex where the overall incidence of cancer is about 3 times the national average. Today's low-level ethylbenzene exposures would make it fully justifiable if the present-day MAC limits, both whole-shift (200 mg.m-3) and peak (1,000 mg.m-3), were to be halved, i.e. to be lowered to 100 mg.m3 and 500 mg.m3 respectively. These newly recommended limit values are no more exceeded nowadays.

  20. Critical organ concentration of cadmium in occupationally-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Morgan, W.D.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Zanzi, I.; Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man and provides a comparison with other portable systems. The cadmium detection limits are 2.2 mg in the kidney and 1.5 ppM in the liver for the Brookhaven system. In a recent field study, the cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. The corresponding cadmium concentrations in the liver and urine were 30 to 42 ppM (liver) and 22 to 28 ..mu..g/g creatinine (urine), respectively. Blood and urine levels of cadmium and ..beta../sub 2/-microgloubin were also evaluated as possible biological indicators of organ content.

  1. Age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Hederstierna, Christina; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the pattern of age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise exposure. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals aged 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three age cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women). Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise exposure. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those aged 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women) and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women). This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL). The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified.

  2. Evaluation of DNA damage using 3 comet assay parameters in workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Kayaaltı, Zelıha; Yavuz, İlknur; Söylemez, Esma; Bacaksız, Ayşegül; Tutkun, Engın; Sayal, Ahmet; Söylemezoğlu, Tülın

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DNA damage and blood lead levels in individuals occupationally exposed to lead. To evaluate this association, 61 workers exposed to lead were monitored in terms of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes. The levels of DNA damage were measured according to 3 comet assay parameters, including tail intensity (TI), tail moment (TM), and DNA tail (DNAt). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the lead levels and TI, TM, and DNAt (p < .01). Smoking had independent effects on DNA damage. A statistically significant difference was observed between smokers and nonsmokers in regards to DNA damage parameters (p < .05). In addition, the lead and DNA damage levels in smokers were found to be significantly higher than the levels observed in nonsmoking workers (p < . 05). Our results show that exposure to lead induces genotoxic effects in peripheral lymphocytes, as measured by comet assays.

  3. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends <0.01). Injuries taking place out of the usual occupational setting (aOR=2.85, 95%CI 2.27-3.59), or carrying out atypical tasks (aOR=2.08; 95%CI 1.27-3.39) showed increased risks of a fatal result too, as occupational accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries. PMID:21094305

  4. Cytogenetic monitoring in a population occupationally exposed to pesticides in Ecuador.

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Bustamante, Gabriela; Sánchez, María Eugenia; Leone, Paola E

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the incidence of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in workers of a plantation of flowers located in Quito, Ecuador, in South America. This study included 41 individuals occupationally exposed to 27 pesticides, some of which are restricted in many countries and are classified as extremely toxic by the World Health Organization; among these are aldicarb and fenamiphos. The same number of individuals of the same age, sex, and geographic area were selected as controls. Workers exposed to these pesticides showed an increased frequency of CA compared with control group (20.59% vs. 2.73%; p < 0.001). We conclude that screening for CA is an adequate biomarker for evaluating and detecting genotoxicity resulting from exposure to pesticides. Levels of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase were also determined as a complementary metabolic study. Levels below the optimal (> 28 U/mL blood) were found in 88% of exposed individuals; this clearly shows the effect of organophosphate pesticides. When comparing the levels of acetylcholinesterase and structural CA frequencies, there was a negative linear correlation (r = 0.416; p < 0.01). We conclude that by using both analyses it may be possible to estimate damage produced by exposure to organophosphate pesticides. PMID:12417477

  5. Speech recognition index of workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental or occupational noise: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tinnitus is considered the third worst symptom affecting humans. The aim of this article is to assess complaints by workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental and occupational noise. Methodology 495 workers went through an epidemiological survey at the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies on Workers’ Health and Human Ecology, from 2003 to 2007. The workers underwent tonal and vocal audiometry, preceded by a clinical and occupational history questionnaire. Two-factor ANOVA and Tukey were the statistical tests used. All the analysis set statistical significance at α=5%. Findings There was a higher prevalence of occupational tinnitus (73.7%), a predominance of female domestic workers (65.4%) in cases of environmental exposure, and predominance of male construction workers (71.5%) for occupational exposure. There was a significant difference in workers with hearing loss, who showed a mean speech recognition index (SRI) of 85%, as compared to healthy workers with a mean SRI greater than 93.5%. Signs and symptoms, speech perception, and interference in sound localization with the type of noise exposure (environmental versus occupational) comparisons found no significant differences. Conclusion Studied group’s high prevalence of tinnitus, major difficulties in speech recognition with hearing loss and the presence of individuals with normal hearing with both types of exposure justify the importance of measures in health promotion, prevention, and hearing surveillance. The findings highlight the importance of valuing the patients’ own perception as the first indication of tinnitus and hearing loss in order to help develop appropriate public policies within the Unified National Health System (SUS). PMID:23259813

  6. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M. ); Mohammad, D. )

    1994-10-01

    Scalp hair is a metabolic end product that incorporates metals into its structure during the growth process. The levels of trace elements in the hair are considered to be influenced in particular by food, air and occupational exposure, and in general by race, age, sex, metabolism, hygienic condition and geographical location of individuals. Recently, trace metal content of human hair has been explored as a tool for monitoring the impact of environmental pollution on the inhabitants of a community. In this respect, the endogenous and exogenous contents of metals in hair are understood to play important role towards exposure assessment. The exogenous metal content of hair reflects exposure to the occupational, domestic and recreational environments, provided the donor is not suffering from heavy metal poisoning and depressed endogenous levels arising from dietary deficiencies. Keeping this in view, the exogenous and endogenous metal contents of scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers from various workshops were determined in the present study, both in unwashed and washed hair samples to assess the extent of metal contamination. All donors, within the age group of 6-45 years, were full-time workers of various autoworkshops situated in the densely populated and industrialized city of Lahore. ICP atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods were used for determining the levels of five non-essential and three essential elements in the scalp hair. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia School District, PA.

    A study was conducted to determine whether or not the Personalized, Individualized, Vocational Occupations Training (PIVOT) materials developed by the School District of Philadelphia were capable of developing entry-level competency in secondary school students in a variety of educational settings (comprehensive high schools, an occupational…

  8. Individualism-Collectivism: Links to Occupational Plans and Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.; Fouad, Nadya A.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hardin, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Individualism-collectivism (IC) constitutes a cultural variable thought to influence a wide variety of variables including career planning and decision making. To examine this possibility, college students (216 women, 106 men, 64% racial-ethnic minorities) responded to measures of IC, occupational plans, and work values. Multivariate analysis of…

  9. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Fabio Di; Giampaolo, Luca Di; Verna, Nicola; Gioacchino, Mario Di

    2007-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway hyper‐responsiveness and was responsive to inhaled corticosteroids. The eosinophilia detectable in their sputum was causally related to the occupational exposure in the workplace. The examination of induced sputum should be used in addition to the objective monitoring of lung function for workers who have asthma‐like symptoms in an occupational setting. PMID:16055615

  10. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide variation in enzyme activities and DNA damage due to polymorphisms in PON1 gene, which might have an important role in the identification of individual risk factors in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

  11. Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Ichhpujani, Rattan Lal; Rai, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    .05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide variation in enzyme activities and DNA damage due to polymorphisms in PON1 gene, which might have an important role in the identification of individual risk factors in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

  12. [Liver function of workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents in a petrochemical industry].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Oroño-Osorio, A

    2001-06-01

    A descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted to determine whether hepatic function changes in workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, were due to the exposure or confusing factors. A non random sample of 77 workers, operators and supervisors of the Olefin Plant I and II of a petrochemical industry in Maracaibo, Venezuela, was used. Their mean age was 29 +/- 7 years, and had at least one year of exposure to the solvents. This sample was compared with a group of employees of the administrative offices or control panel workers, with a mean age of 36 +/- 8 year and with similar anthropometric characteristics. Workers with a known history of liver disease, blood transfusions and diabetes mellitus were excluded of the study. In addition to a complete occupational disease medical history and a physical examination, serum samples were obtained to determine the activity of the aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamiltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AF), the concentration of the total bile acids (BAS), the surface antigen of hepatitis B(HbsAg) and the hepatitis A virus antibodies: AntiHAV-IgG and the AntiHAV-IgM. An urine sample was taken and analyzed by standard methodology to determine urinary phenols. The air concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene were analyzed by gas chromathography. The serum activities of the liver enzymes, the concentration of bile acids and urinary phenols were not influenced by the exposure to the solvents. The increase of the activity of GGT was associated with obesity and alcohol consumption. The antibodies of the surface antigen of hepatitis A-IgM were normal in both groups and the antibodies for the antigen of hepatitis A-IgG presented a prevalence of 6% in the exposed group and 9% in the non exposed not being associated with liver abnormalities. The individual air concentrations of the solvents were below the environmentally permissible

  13. Peculiarities of induction and persistence of hidden chromosome instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Pilinska, M A; Dybsky, S S; Dybska, O B; Shvayko, L I; Sushko, V O

    2014-09-01

    Objective - to investigate the induction of hidden chromosome instability in persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and its persistence in vitro in successive mitoses. Materials and methods. Using two tests ("G2-bleomycin sensitivity assay" and two-term cultivation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes) voluntary cytogenetic examination of 15 individuals participated in the conversion of the "Shelter" ("Chornobyl NPP") into ecologically safe system had been carried out. Total 24 034 metaphase had been analyzed, of which 12 243 - without additional mutagenic exposure, 11 791 - exposed to bleomycin in vitro at concentration of 0.05 μg/ml. Results. The magnitude and dynamics of background as well as bleomycin-induced cytogenetic effects in both terms of lymphocytes' cultivation in occupational group differed significantly from the group of comparison towards increasing of chromosome instability indices with significant interindividual fluctuations. Conclusion. Interindividual differences in persistence of radiation-induced hidden chromosome instability in successive generations of human somatic cells had been found.

  14. Tritium concentrations inside the homes of occupationally exposed workers: Dosimetric implications

    SciTech Connect

    Workman, W.J.; Cornett, R.J.; Trivedi, A.; Brown, R.M.

    1996-06-01

    For members of the general public living near a heavy water research reactor, about half of the total tritium dose is due to inhalation and skin absorption of atmospheric HTO. However, chronically exposed workers from the reactor facility could carry HTO in their body fluids and may increase HTO concentrations in air inside their homes. We tested the importance of this HTO transfer pathway and have demonstrated that this pathway is not important to members of the general public. The average HTO concentration in the indoor air of an occupationally exposed atomic radiation worker`s residence was higher (55 Bq m{sup -3}) than the indoor air of normal residences (0.4-0.8 Bq m{sup -3}). The higher concentrations were assumed to be from the exhaled HTO vapor of the exposed worker who had an average concentration of HTO-in-urine of 30 kBq L{sup -1} from chronic intakes of low levels of HTO. Urine samples from family members of the exposed worker were also collected and had HTO concentrations between 0.17 and 0.34 kBq L{sup -1}. These concentrations were higher than for individuals (0.006-0.032 kBq L{sup -1}) living in other residences having equal outdoor and indoor concentrations of HTO-in-air. The range of measured HTO-in-urine concentrations for family members of the exposed worker was in agreement with the prediction of a metabolic model for the estimated daily intakes of tritium (1.3 kBq). The HTO vapor in the indoor air of the exposed worker`s residence contributed about 98% of the daily tritium intakes. The annual average tritium dose to family members (9 {mu}Sv) were well below the recommended public annual dose limit (1 mSv). We conclude that, for a few members of the public living near the research reactor, daily intakes of tritium may be related to HTO exhaled by the exposed worker, as well as to tritium transported by the atmosphere from the reactor site.

  15. Assessment of genotoxic effects of lead in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Chinde, Srinivas; Kumari, Monika; Devi, Kanapuram Rudrama; Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur; Kumari, Srinivas Indu; Mahboob, Mohammed; Grover, Paramjit

    2014-10-01

    The genotoxicological effects in 200 lead acid storage battery recycling and manufacturing industry workers in Hyderabad along with matched 200 controls were studied. The genetic damage was determined by comet, micronucleus (MN), and chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The MN test was also carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs). Pb in ambient air, blood Pb (B-Pb) concentrations, and hematological parameters were measured. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formed were also studied. The results of the present study showed that there was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) increase in mean percent tail DNA, frequency of CA, and MN in PBL as well as in BEC as compared to controls. Pb in ambient air and B-Pb concentrations were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01). The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell values were significantly lowered in Pb-exposed workers in comparison to controls. SOD, GPx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased while GSH and MDA levels increased in exposed group when compared to control group. The present study suggests that environmental health standards should be enforced to control Pb contamination from battery industries to reduce human health risk.

  16. Plasma microRNAs expression profile in female workers occupationally exposed to mercury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656

  17. Prevalence of occupational allergy in medical researchers exposed to laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Muzembo, Basilua Andre; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Inaoka, Yuta; Oogiku, Makiko; Kawakubo, Mitomo; Tai, Ryuta; Takechi, Momoko; Hirabayashi, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Naofumi; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Hirota, Ryoji; Sandjaya, Bernardus; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to laboratory animals is a well known occupational hazard and remains a health concern for individuals in contact with lab animals. This study evaluates the prevalence of allergy symptoms among medical researchers exposed to laboratory animals. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey, involving subjects (n=169, 21-59 yr), working in Kochi Medical School, Japan. They were asked to fill out a questionnaire to evaluate symptoms related to contact with laboratory animals. The overall response rate was 86.2%. The prevalence of laboratory animal allergy was 17.6%. The symptoms most reported were allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and asthma. A small number of the subjects received education on the allergy issue and 62.5% of subjects with an allergy to laboratory animals claimed to have atopy. Protection from animal allergens should be a high priority for institutions using lab animals; providing continuous education to animal handlers would be meaningful to reduce and control exposure.

  18. An industry wide mortality study of chemical workers occupationally exposed to benzene. I. General results.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, O

    1987-01-01

    The cohort (7676) of this historical prospective study consisted of a group of male chemical workers from seven plants who had been occupationally exposed (continuously or intermittently) to benzene for at least six months and a comparison group of male chemical workers from the same plants who had been employed for at least six months during the same period but were never occupationally exposed to benzene. The observed mortality of the cohort, by cause, was compared with the expected based on the US mortality rates, standardised for age, race, sex, and calendar time. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) from all lymphatic and haematopoietic (lymphopoietic) cancer combined, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphosarcoma, reticulosarcoma, and other lymphoma), and non-Hodgkin's lymphopoietic cancer (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukaemia) for the exposed group were slightly, but not significantly, raised above the national norm. These SMRs were considerably higher than those in the comparison group. When the group with no occupational exposure was used for direct comparison, the continuously exposed group experienced a relative risk from lymphopoietic cancer of 3.20 (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square showed that the association between continuous exposure to benzene and leukaemia was statistically significant (p less than 0.05). PMID:3606966

  19. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in battery manufacturing workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja; Sharma, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Battery manufacturing workers are occupationally exposed to lead (Pb), which is a highly toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to investigate the blood lead levels (BLL) of 30 battery manufacturing workers and find the correlation between BLL, micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency, binucleated cell (BNC) frequency in buccal mucosal cells and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum. 30 subjects of the BMW group, exposed to lead, and 30 control subjects, matched with the exposed subjects with respect to age, socio-economic status, sex, diet, smoking and drinking habits, were monitored for this study. BLL was found to have highly significant difference between both the groups (P < 0.001). The serum MDA levels were observed at significantly higher levels (6.76 ± 3.26) for the exposed group as compared to the control group (2.10 ± 1.02; P < 0.001). Buccal micronucleus test showed that both MNC and BNC frequencies were higher among the workers, in comparison to the control subjects. A positive correlation has been found between BLL and all the parameters. Our results indicate an increased health associated risk for workers occupationally exposed to lead. PMID:23833444

  20. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  1. Circulating immune/inflammation markers in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Wei Jie; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Hu, Wei; Bassig, Bryan A.; Ji, Zhiying; Shiels, Meredith S.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Reiss, Boris; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Blair, Aaron; Kim, Christopher; Guo, Weihong; Wen, Cuiju; Li, Laiyu; Pinto, Ligia A.; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human myeloid leukemogen. However, the mechanistic basis for this association is still debated. Objectives. We aimed to evaluate whether circulating immune/inflammation markers were altered in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Methods. Using a multiplexed bead-based assay, we measured serum levels of 38 immune/inflammation markers in a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde-exposed and 51 unexposed factory workers in Guangdong, China. Linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to compare marker levels in exposed and unexposed workers. Results. We found significantly lower circulating levels of two markers among exposed factory workers compared with unexposed controls that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders and multiple comparisons using a false discovery rate of 10%, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (36.2 pg/ml in exposed versus 48.4 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0008) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (52.7 pg/ml in exposed versus 75.0 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0028), suggesting immunosuppression among formaldehyde-exposed workers. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with recently emerging understanding that immunosuppression might be associated with myeloid diseases. These findings, if replicated in a larger study, may provide insights into the mechanisms by which formaldehyde promotes leukemogenesis. PMID:25908645

  2. Survey of studies of occupational populations exposed to low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1980-04-01

    Studies of occupational populations exposed to large doses of radiation, principally from the ingestion of radium by dial painters and inhalation of radon and its daughters by miners, have provided important information on the health effects of those radioisotopes. Studies of medical radiologists, military personnel exposed to nuclear tests, and factory workers exposed to thorium are in progress. Employees of DOE-contractor facilities and of naval shipyards are also under study. Personnel dosimetry data are generally available for the latter category of occupational populations. Reasons for conducting the studies include interest in exploring the verification at low exposure levels of results of studies of heavily exposed populations and the responsibility of the employer to maintain adequate surveillance of the health of his workers by conducting appropriate epidemiologic studies. The low level of exposure of workers in facilities where adequate personnel dosimetry records are available make it unlikely that the results of such studies can be used to provide health risk estimates in the near future.

  3. Germline minisatellite mutations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility.

    PubMed

    Tawn, E Janet; Curwen, Gillian B; Rees, Gwen S; Jonas, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    Germline minisatellite mutation rates were investigated in male workers occupationally exposed to radiation at the Sellafield nuclear facility. DNA samples from 160 families with 255 offspring were analysed for mutations at eight hypervariable minisatellite loci (B6.7, CEB1, CEB15, CEB25, CEB36, MS1, MS31, MS32) by Southern hybridisation. No significant difference was observed between the paternal mutation rate of 5.0% (37 mutations in 736 alleles) for control fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 9 mSv and that of 5.8% (66 in 1137 alleles) for exposed fathers with a mean preconceptional testicular dose of 194 mSv. Subgrouping the exposed fathers into two dose groups with means of 111 mSv and 274 mSv revealed paternal mutation rates of 6.0% (32 mutations in 536 alleles) and 5.7% (34 mutations in 601 alleles), respectively, neither of which was significantly different in comparisons with the rate for the control fathers. Maternal mutation rates of 1.6% (12 mutations in 742 alleles) for the partners of control fathers and 1.7% (19 mutations in 1133 alleles) for partners of exposed fathers were not significantly different. This study provides evidence that paternal preconceptional occupational radiation exposure does not increase the germline minisatellite mutation rate and therefore refutes suggestions that such exposure could result in a destabilisation of the germline that can be passed on to future generations.

  4. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in workers occupationally exposed to jet fuel--a combined epidemiological and casuistic study.

    PubMed

    Struwe, G; Knave, B; Mindus, P

    1983-01-01

    Some aircraft personel and airline industry workers are exposed to jet fuel, a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (petroleum 80%) and some organic solvents (aromatic hydrocarbons 20%). In order to evaluate the possible neuropsychiatric sequeale of such long-term occupational exposure, we examined 30 workers exposed at about 250 mg/m3 for 4-32 years at a jet motor factory. They were compared with two control groups (2 x 30) of matched non-exposed workers. The medical history was first assessed by standardized interviews and examination of medical records kept by the factory physician. The exposed subjects had, after their employment, much more often sought medical advice because of emotional dysfunctions, such as depression and anxiety, than had the control groups (P less than 0.005). When the prevalent mental symptoms, indicative of brain lesion, later were rated by psychiatrists, the exposed workers scored higher than did the controls (P less than 0.001). 14 subjects showing most symptoms were then selected for a thorough neuropsychiatric clinical investigation comprising psychosocial inquiries, psychological testing, personality assessment and neurological/neurophysiological examination. Seven were judged to suffer from mild organic brain syndrome (i.e. "organic neurasthenia") of which one subject was a severe case. The subjects had all undergone a slow but steady personality change over the years--starting from an ordinary strength without neurotic traits and moving towards an asthenic state with fatigue, anxiety and vegetative hyperreactivity. No other cause for this change could be identified as an alternative to the occupational exposure to jet fuel. It is concluded that personality changes and emotional dysfunctions are the foremost effects of such long-term exposure to petroleum products. PMID:6575584

  5. In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

    1988-01-01

    In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images PMID:3348993

  6. [Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Preiß, K; Rehbock, B

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer. PMID:27502004

  7. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everatt, R. Petrauskaitdot e.; Smolianskiedot n, G.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicdot enas, S.; Jankauskas, R.

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and motor vehicle mechanics. In 2002-2007 workplace air asbestos concentrations exceeded the limit value of 0.1 f/cm3 in 11 samples out of 208 measurements. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that since the 1960s occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos was extensive in Lithuania.

  8. [Evaluation of the cancer risk among men exposed to occupational asbestos dust based on cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Kaczmarek, T; Szymczak, W

    1991-01-01

    The results of the study of a cohort of 2403 men occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos dust during the manufacture of various asbestos products have been reported. The study covered the period 1945-1985. Cohort availability was 91%. Risk estimates were based on SMR and SRR calculated by the man-year method. The general Polish male population served for the reference. The analysis was performed for sub-cohorts selected according to the period of employment in the plant, taking into account the dust dose and the age at the moment of the beginning of employment under exposed conditions. A significantly increased risk of pulmonary carcinoma (SMR: 238.0-211.0) and of gastric carcinoma (SMR: 197.9-238.5) was found in men exposed to high doses of the asbestos dust (above 50 mg/m3 x years). No statistically significant increases in the mortality rates either from cancer in general or from the cancer varieties specified above were detected in men exposed to low doses of dust. One case of death from pleural mesothelioma was reported.

  9. Alterations in leukocyte telomere length in workers occupationally exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Cawthon, Richard M; Smith, Martyn T; Yin, Songnian; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (>31 ppm) was 1.26 ± 0.17, 1.25 ± 0.16, and 1.37 ± 0.23, respectively. Mean TL was significantly elevated in workers exposed to >31 ppm of benzene compared with controls (P = 0.03). Our findings provide evidence that high levels of occupational benzene exposure are associated with TL. Environ.

  10. Cytokine patterns in greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to α-cypermethrin: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Chiara; Rapisarda, Venerando; Catania, Stefania; Di Nola, Carmelina; Ledda, Caterina; Fenga, Concettina

    2013-11-01

    The immunotoxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid α-cypermethrin (αCYP) was assessed in 30 occupationally exposed greenhouse workers and 30 non-exposed controls by comparing plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-α, TNF-β and INF-γ. Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as an exposure biomarker. Exposed workers showed neither clinical signs of immunosuppression nor alterations in total leukocytes or leukocyte subpopulations, whereas significant differences (p<0.05) were found for IL-12p70 and highly significant differences (p<0.001) for INF-γ, IL-2 and IL-8, which are involved in antitumor immunity and response to infection. Proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ play a significant role against infection and cancer. We report the first data on the ability of αCYP to reduce proinflammatory cytokine levels in an exposed healthy human population. Findings support the hypothesis that pyrethroid exposure may reduce host defenses against infection and cancer, particularly in subjects with impaired immune capacity.

  11. In vivo measurement of cadmium in an occupationally-exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K J; Morgan, W D; Yasumura, S; Vartsky, D; Zanzi, I; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium is recognized as a potentially serious health problem. A number of clinical abnormalities have been observed in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, it is essential that accurate data on body burdens be available in order to formulate dose-response relationships in man. The present Brookhaven facility for in vivo measurements of cadmium in man is described, and recent results from a field study to a cadmium production plant are reported. The cadmium content of the left kidney and concentration in the liver were measured by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis in 82 occupationally exposed workers and 10 control subjects. Organ content ranged up to 57 mg in the kidney and up to 120 ppM in the liver for the industrial group. By contrast, the values for the control group ranged from 0.4 to 11.8 mg for the kidney and 0.7 to 7.9 ppM for the liver. The geometric means were 3.7 mg for the kidney and 2.7 ppM for the liver in the control group. When the data were analyzed to provide an estimate of the critical concentration for the kidney, a range of 300 to 400 ..mu..g/g for the renal cortex was calculated. These results are compared with the available data in the literature.

  12. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed human beings of Himachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Shalmali; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Chahota, Rajesh

    2012-06-01

    The chief objective of respective study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 165 serum samples that were obtained from human beings from various regions of the state were screened through a battery of serological tests which included RBPT, STAT, 2-MET, dot-ELISA and indirect-ELISA. 165 of human sera samples included 42 from veterinarians, 40 shepherds, 35 livestock owners, 20 workers at veterinary hospitals/clinics, 16 abattoir workers and 12 veterinary pharmacists. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis among occupationally exposed human beings was observed to be 6.66% showing highest in abattoir workers (18.75%) followed by pharmacists (8.33%), veterinarians (7.14%), and livestock owners (5.71%) and shepherds (5.00%). In humans it is prevalent as an occult infection or under diagnosed disease, especially; in case of abattoir workers the highest seropositivity for brucella agglutinins was observed. Indirect-ELISA and Dot-ELISA proved best in the diagnosis of brucellosis.

  13. Assessment of some renal indices in people occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Onuegbu, A J; Olisekodiaka, M J; Nwaba, E I; Adeyeye, A D; Akinola, F F S

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to lead has been reported to have adverse health implications. An assessment of renal function in people occupationally exposed to lead was carried out using the following biochemical markers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. A total of 53 test subjects (mean age 30.9 ± 7.7) were randomly selected among some workers occupationally exposed to lead in Osogbo city and 42 apparently healthy subjects (mean age 30.1 ± 1.2) were used as controls. The plasma urea, creatinine, chloride and bicarbonate concentration were determined using modified Berthelot method, Jaffe's reaction, Schales and Schales method and back titration methods, respectively. The plasma sodium and potassium concentrations were determined using flame emission spectrophotometry while blood lead level was also determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The result showed significant increases in mean plasma concentration of creatinine (84.9 ± 13.6-97.4 ± 28.7 μmol/L), sodium (131.9 ± 3.9-134.8 ± 3.7 mmol/L) and chloride (98.2 ± 4.0-100.4 ± 3.9 mmol/L) in test subjects when compared with controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, significant increases (p < 0.01) were observed in mean plasma concentration of urea (4.7 ± 1.2-5.7 ± 1.3 mmol/L) and blood lead levels (18.5 ± 3.5-69.7 ± 13.2 mg/L) in test subjects in comparison with controls. In contrast, there were no significant differences observed when mean plasma potassium and bicarbonate levels in test subjects were compared with controls (p > 0.05). These results indicate that occupational exposure to lead may compromise renal function. PMID:21310779

  14. Risk of spontaneous abortion in women occupationally exposed to anaesthetic gases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, J F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between maternal occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases and risk of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed of published epidemiological studies identified from literature reviews, unsystematic perusal of reference lists of relevant publications, and two Medline searches (1984-92, keywords: anaesthetic gases; anaesthetics; anaesthetics, local; operating rooms; operating room nursing; pregnancy; abortion; 1985-92, keywords: anaesthetics; adverse effects; occupational exposure; anaesthesia, inhalation; operating room nursing; pregnancy; abortion). All peer reviewed studies were retained. Student theses were excluded, as were conference abstracts, unpublished material, and two studies in which data on paternal and maternal occupational exposures were pooled. The relative risk of spontaneous abortion was estimated. RESULTS: One study found no increase in risk of abortion when gases were scavenged or when the exposure to unscavenged gases was low. None of the studies included ambient gas sampling. 24 comparisons between exposed and unexposed women, obtained from 19 reports, were included. The overall relative risk was 1.48 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.4 to 1.58). To test whether this result was influenced by the quality of the studies, the validity of the reviewed papers was rated on the basis of three criteria: appropriateness of the unexposed comparison group, control for non-occupational confounding variables, and response rate. The estimate of risk increased to 1.9 (95% CI, 1.72 to 2.09) when analysis was restricted to the six comparisons which were rated the most rigorous. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological studies based on data obtained in the prescavenging era indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The estimated increased risk was not diminished but rather increased by exclusion of the more methodologically flawed studies. PMID:9326157

  15. DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic in copper smelters.

    PubMed

    Palus, Jadwiga; Lewinska, Dobroslawa; Dziubaltowska, Elzbieta; Stepnik, Maciej; Beck, Jens; Rydzynski, Konrad; Nilsson, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a known human carcinogen; however, humans continue to be exposed to i-As in drinking water and in certain occupational settings. In this study, we used the Comet assay to evaluate DNA damage in the somatic cells of workers from three Polish copper smelters who were occupationally exposed to i-As. Blood samples were collected from 72 male workers and 83 unexposed male controls and used for the detection of DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, and DNA damage after a 3-hr incubation in culture. Urine samples were collected to assess the level of exposure. The mean concentration of arsenic metabolites in urine [the sum of arsenite (AsIII), arsenate (AsV), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA)] and the concentrations of DMA (the main metabolite in urine) were higher in workers than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. By contrast, the level of DNA damage, expressed as the median tail moment, was significantly higher in the leukocytes of workers than in the controls. Comet assays conducted with formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) digestion to detect oxidative DNA damage indicated that oxidative lesions were present in leukocytes from both the exposed and control groups, but the levels of damage were significantly higher among the workers. Incubation of the cells in culture resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of DNA damage, especially among leukocytes from the workers, suggesting that the DNA damage was subject to repair. Our findings indicate that copper smelter workers have increased levels of DNA damage in somatic cells, suggesting a potential health risk for the workers. Although i-As was present in air samples from the smelters and in urine samples from workers, no clear association could be made between i-As exposure and the DNA damage. PMID:15880732

  16. Mortality from infectious pneumonia in metal workers: a comparison with deaths from asthma in occupations exposed to respiratory sensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Cullinan, Paul; Rice, Simon; Brown, Terry; Coggon, David

    2012-01-01

    Introduction National analyses of mortality in England and Wales have repeatedly shown excess deaths from pneumonia in welders. During 1979-1990 the excess was attributable largely to deaths from lobar pneumonia and pneumonias other than bronchopneumonia, limited to working-aged men, and apparent in other metal fume-exposed occupations. We assessed findings for 1991-2000 and compared the mortality pattern with that from asthma in occupations exposed to known respiratory sensitizers. Methods The Office of National Statistics supplied data on deaths by underlying cause among men aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, including age and last held occupation. We abstracted data on pneumonia for occupations with exposure to metal fume and on asthma for occupations commonly reported to surveillance schemes as at risk of occupational asthma. We estimated expected numbers of deaths by applying age-specific proportions of deaths by cause in the population to the total deaths by age in each occupational group. Observed and expected numbers were compared for each cause of death. Results Among working-aged men in metal fume-exposed occupations we found excesses of mortality from pneumococcal and lobar pneumonia (54 deaths vs. 27.3 expected) and from pneumonias other than bronchopneumonia (71 vs. 52.4), but no excess from these causes at older ages, or from bronchopneumonia at any age. The attributable mortality from metal fume (45.3 excess deaths) compared with an estimated 62.6 deaths from occupational asthma. Conclusion Exposure to metal fume is a material cause of occupational mortality. The hazard deserves far more attention than it presently receives. PMID:19703831

  17. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  19. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  20. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  1. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  2. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, “Records Management,” the National Archives and Records... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to...

  3. Health status of Air Force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: II. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.E.; Wolfe, W.H.; Miner, J.C. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the current health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. This report compares the noncombat mortality of 1261 Ranch Hand veterans to that of a comparison population of 19,101 other Air Force veterans primarily involved in cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. The indirectly standardized all-cause death rate among Ranch Hands is 2.5 deaths per 1,000 person-years, the same as that among comparison subjects. After adjustment for age, rank, and occupation, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 1.0. In adjusted cause-specific analyses, the authors found no significant group differences regarding accidental, malignant neoplasm, and circulatory deaths. These data are not supportive to a hypothesis of increases mortality among Ranch Hands.

  4. Brief Report: A Growth Mixture Model of Occupational Aspirations of Individuals with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    A previous longitudinal study of the occupational aspirations of individuals with high-incidence disabilities revealed multiple longitudinal patterns for individuals with learning disabilities or emotional-behavioral disorders. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether individuals in these two high-incidence disabilities groups (N =…

  5. Determination of methyltin compounds in urine of occupationally exposed and general population by in situ ethylation and headspace SPME coupled with GC-FPD.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zongyan; Zhang, Kegang; Zhou, Qunfang; Liu, Jiyan; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-08-15

    A method for the determination of methyltin compounds in human urine samples was developed using headspace solid-phase microextration (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatographic separation and flame photometric detection. Three methyltin compounds, monomethyltin (MMT), dimethyltin (DMT), and trimethyltin (TMT) were in situ ethylated by sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) for SPME and GC-FPD analysis. Under the optimized condition, the detection limits of MMT, DMT, and TMT were 8.1, 2.5 and 5.6 ng Sn L(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 11.0%, 7.3% and 4.0%, respectively. Methyltin compounds in thirteen urine samples from occupationally exposed population and two from general population were analyzed by the proposed method. The concentrations of total methyltin in the tested urine samples of occupationally exposed population ranged from 26.0 to 7892 ng Sn L(-1), and the average level is higher than those of the two non-occupationally exposed individuals. The methyltins in urine were adjusted by osmolality in order to enhance the comparability of different urine samples and the feasibility of this correction method was validated. PMID:21726734

  6. Biological monitoring of kidney function among workers occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Green, T; Dow, J; Ong, C; Ng, V; Ong, H; Zhuang, Z; Yang, X; Bloemen, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the nephrotoxic potential of trichloroethylene in a currently exposed population using sensitive urinary markers of kidney toxicity. Methods: Renal dysfunction was monitored in a cross-sectional study of 70 workers currently exposed to trichloroethylene. An age and sex matched control population of 54 individuals was drawn from hospital and administrative staff. Results: The mean exposure to trichloroethylene, estimated from urinary trichloroacetic acid concentrations, was 32 ppm (range 0.5–252 ppm) with an average duration of exposure of 4.1 years (range 1–20 years). Significant differences between the exposed and control populations were found for nephrotoxicity markers N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and albumin, and for the mode of action marker, formic acid. However, neither NAG nor albumin showed a significant correlation with either the magnitude or duration of exposure to trichloroethylene. There was a significant correlation between urinary formic acid and trichloroacetic acid concentrations. Within the exposed population there were dose dependent increases in urinary methylmalonic acid concentrations and urinary glutathione S-transferase α activity. Although still within the control range, these changes were clearly dose dependent and consistent with one of the proposed mechanisms of trichloroethylene induced kidney toxicity. Conclusion: Although there was no evidence of kidney toxicity within the population studied, the results suggest that kidney damage could occur at exposure concentrations higher (>250 ppm) than those encountered in this study. PMID:15031388

  7. A study protocol for the evaluation of occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic risks in subjects exposed to antineoplastic drugs: a multicentric project

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    be determined in exposed nurses only, whereas potential confounders (medicine consumption, lifestyle habits, diet and other non-occupational exposures) will be assessed in both groups of hospital workers. Statistical analysis will be performed to ascertain the association between occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and biomarkers of DNA and chromosome damage, after taking into account the effects of individual genetic susceptibility, and the presence of confounding exposures. Discussion The findings of the study will be useful in updating prevention procedures for handling antineoplastic drugs. PMID:21450074

  8. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  9. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  10. Collectivism, Individualism, and Cohesion in a Team-based Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Ethnographic interviews with 3 teams of 26 computer programmers revealed how levels of collectivism or individualism differed as groups solved problems. Cultural cohesion was identified as a separate construct from collectivism. (Contains 53 references.) (SK)

  11. Acetone odor and irritation thresholds obtained from acetone-exposed factory workers and from control (occupationally unexposed) subjects.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, C J; Dalton, P; Brody, M J; Lawley, H J

    1997-10-01

    Sensitivity of olfaction (smell) and chemesthesis (irritation) was evaluated for 2-propanone (acetone) and 1-butanol in acetone-exposed workers (AEW; N = 32) during a workday and unexposed subjects (microES; N = 32). Irritation sensitivity was assessed using a method that relies on the ability of individuals to localize irritants on the body. When a volatile compound is inhaled into one nostril and air into the other, the stimulated side can be determined (lateralized) only after the concentration reaches a level that stimulates the trigeminal nerve (irritation); compounds stimulating olfaction alone cannot be lateralized. Intranasal lateralization thresholds offer an objective measure of sensory irritation elicited by volatile compounds. Test results indicated that neither olfactory nor lateralization thresholds for butanol differed between AEW and microES. Olfactory thresholds to acetone in AEW (855 ppm) were elevated relative to those of microES (41 ppm), as were lateralization thresholds (36,669 ppm and 15,758 ppm, respectively). Within AEW, level of occupational exposure was not correlated with thresholds. Other measures revealed that microES used more irritation descriptors than did AEW on trials where the acetone concentration was below the lateralization threshold. This is noteworthy because microES received lower concentrations of acetone to evaluate than did AEW. These results suggest that exposures to acetone induce changes in acetone sensitivity that are specific to acetone. The acetone concentrations eliciting sensory irritation using the lateralization technique were all well above current occupational exposure standards. The current study indicates that acetone is a weak sensory irritant and that sensory adaptation is an important factor affecting its overall irritancy. PMID:9342830

  12. [Individual autonomy and the principles of occupational health care].

    PubMed

    Makowska-Matuszkiewicz, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of work-related diseases on the health condition of the population at large has increased the interest in etiology and epidemiology of these diseases and intensified activities aimed at providing effective treatment of occupational diseases, but first of all at preventing their occurrence. That is why workers are now recognised as the largest population group subjected to active counselling. In order to meet the recommendations of the International Labour Organization, Polish labour law has been modified so that every worker is guaranteed an opportunity to benefit from medical prevention within the range required by his/her working conditions. This concern for workers' health contributed to the fact that health has now become a supreme value to which all other values and human needs are submitted. The author discusses the issues of compulsory prophylactic examinations and protection against employment at a workplace that is inadmissible because of health reasons, in the perspective of the human right to keep his/her own ailments in secret and the right to freedom of choice concerning his/her own health and living and conditions.

  13. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers’ cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  14. Hypermutation and unique mutational signatures of occupational cholangiocarcinoma in printing workers exposed to haloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Sachiyo; Totsuka, Yukari; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Chikako; Goto, Masanori; Kojima, Motohiro; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Takemura, Shigekazu; Tanaka, Shogo; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Masahiko; Matsuda, Tomonari; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kubo, Shoji; Nakamori, Shoji; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although several risk factors have been suggested, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of cholangiocarcinomas remain unclear. Recently, a high incidence of early-onset cholangiocarcinoma was reported among the workers of a printing company in Osaka, Japan. These workers underwent high exposure to organic solvents, mainly haloalkanes such as 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and/or dichloromethane. We performed whole-exome analysis on four cases of cholangiocarcinoma among the printing workers. An average of 44.8 somatic mutations was detected per Mb in the genome of the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma tissues, approximately 30-fold higher than that found in control common cholangiocarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, C:G-to-T:A transitions with substantial strand bias as well as unique trinucleotide mutational changes of GpCpY to GpTpY and NpCpY to NpTpY or NpApY were predominant in all of the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma genomes. These results were consistent with the epidemiological observation that they had been exposed to high concentrations of chemical compounds. Whole-genome analysis of Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 exposed to 1,2-DCP revealed a partial recapitulation of the mutational signature in the printing workers' cholangiocarcinoma. Although our results provide mutational signatures unique to occupational cholangiocarcinoma, the underlying mechanisms of the disease should be further investigated by using appropriate model systems and by comparison with genomic data from other cancers. PMID:27267998

  15. Increased chromosome aberration frequencies in the Bowen's patients compared to non-cancerous skin lesions individuals exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Banerjee, Mayukh; De Chaudhuri, Sujata; Das, Jayanta K; Sarma, Nilendu; Basu, Arindam; Giri, Ashok K

    2007-08-15

    Cytogenetic biomarkers are essential for assessing environmental exposure that can predict adverse human health effects such as cellular damage. Chromosomal aberrations are the most important cytogenetic end-points successfully used for the cancer risk assessment of populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to different toxic chemicals. Previous reports suggest that, increased frequency of chromosomal aberration (CA), in peripheral blood lymphocytes, is a predictor of cancer. Arsenic is a paradoxical human carcinogen, clastogen and aneugen. Despite of exposure at similar extent, only 15-20% of individuals show arsenic induced skin lesions including Bowen's disease (BD). Previously we have reported the significant increase in CA in the individuals with arsenic induced skin lesions when compared to individuals without any skin lesions, drinking arsenic contaminated water at similar extent. Presently, a matched case-control study was performed to examine whether biomarkers such as chromosomal aberrations can predict the development of arsenic induced Bowen's (in situ carcinoma) diseases. Chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome and chromatid types) and mitotic index were analyzed from the lymphocytes of 25 cases of Bowen's patient which was compared to matched control from the individuals with arsenic induced non-cancerous skin lesions such as raindrop pigmentation, keratosis of palm and sole, hypo and hyper pigmentation. Chromosomal aberrations/cell, chromosome type aberrations and total percentage of aberrant cells were significantly higher in cases compared to control (p<0.01). These results suggest that chromosomal aberrations can be used for cancer risk assessment of the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 and susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Priyanka; Thakur, Sachin; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-10-01

    GSTM1, T1 and P1 are important enzymes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), involved in the metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Individual genetic variation in these metabolizing enzymes may influence the metabolism of their substrates. The present study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects using DNA damage and its association with GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual PCR or PCR-RFLP. Significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) was observed in workers as compared to control subjects (14.41 ± 2.25 vs. 6.36 ± 1.41 tail % DNA, p<0.001). The results revealed significantly higher DNA TM in workers with GSTM1 null genotype than those with GSTM1 positive (15.18 vs. 14.15 tail % DNA, p=0.03). A significantly higher DNA TM was also observed in workers with homozygous Ile-Ile GSTP1 genotype than heterozygous (Ile-Val) and mutant (Val-Val) GSTP1 genotype (p=0.02). In conclusion, the results show that null deletion of GSTM1 and homozygote wild GSTP1 genotype could be related to inter-individual differences in DNA damage arises from the gene-environment interactions in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

  17. Sperm quality and DNA damage in men from Jilin Province, China, who are occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D D; Hao, J L; Guo, K M; Lu, C W; Liu, X D

    2016-01-01

    Long-term radiation exposure affects human health. Ionizing radiation has long been known to raise the risk of cancer. In addition to high doses of radiation, low-dose ionizing radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, lens opacity, and some other non-cancerous diseases. Low- and high-dose exposures to ionizing radiation elicit different signaling events at the molecular level, and may involve different response mechanisms. The health risks arising from exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation should be re-evaluated. Health workers exposed to ionizing radiation experience low-dose radiation and have an increased risk of hematological malignancies. Reproductive function is sensitive to changes in the physical environment, including ionizing radiation. However, data is scarce regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Sperm DNA integrity is a functional parameter of male fertility evaluation. Hence, we aimed to report sperm quality and DNA damage in men from Jilin Province, China, who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Sperm motility and normal morphology were significantly lower in the exposed compared with the non-exposed men. There was no statistically significant difference in sperm concentration between exposed and non-exposed men. The sperm DNA fragmentation index was significantly higher in the exposed than the non-exposed men. Chronic long-term exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation could affect sperm motility, normal morphology, and the sperm DNA fragmentation index in the Chinese population. Sperm quality and DNA integrity are functional parameters that could be used to evaluate occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:27050976

  18. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Klußmann, André; Gebhardt, Hansjuergen; Liebers, Falk; von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Dávid, Andreas; Bouillon, Bertil; Rieger, Monika A

    2008-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports), which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA). The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the correlation of occupational

  19. Individual predictors of increased serum mesothelin in asbestos-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Filiberti, Rosa; Marroni, Paola; Mencoboni, Manlio; Mortara, Virginia; Caruso, Pietro; Cioè, Alex; Michelazzi, Luigi; Merlo, Domenico F; Bruzzone, Andrea; Bobbio, Barbara; Del Corso, Lisette; Galli, Roberto; Taveggia, Paola; Dini, Guglielmo; Spigno, Fabio

    2013-03-01

    The soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP), a candidate marker for screening of subjects with asbestos exposure, is influenced by some individual and clinical factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the role of age, smoking, weight, presence of diseases and exposure to asbestos on serum SMRP levels in a large series of subjects exposed to asbestos, possible candidates for mesothelioma screening. One thousand seven hundred and four participants underwent clinical examination and were interviewed on medical anamnesis, occupation, smoking and weight. SMRP was measured by an ELISA assay. Overall, median SMRP was 0.4 (IQR 25-75: 0.3-0.7) nmol/l. It was higher in current smokers and in subjects with a cumulative asbestos exposure >50 ff/cc/years than in all the other subjects (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). SMRP was positively correlated with age (ρ = 0.11, p < 0.001) and, inversely, with BMI (ρ = -0.15, p < 0.001). SMRP was lower in healthy subjects (n = 1,217: median 0.4 nmol/l) than in subjects with malignant tumors (n = 118: 0.5 nmol/l; p = 0.01), asbestos-related pleural lesions (plaques or thickenings, n = 152: 0.6 nmol/l; p < 0.001) and other benign diseases (n = 182: 0.5 nmol/l; p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors of increased SMRP: age >57 years, current smoking, a positive anamnesis for cancer and for asbestos-related pleural lesions, and BMI < 25. Some clinical and demographic variables are associated with serum SMRP levels. The degree of these associations is low, nevertheless they should be accounted for in the interpretation of SMPR as a candidate marker predictive of mesothelioma. The potential predictive value of serum SMRP in screening/surveillance programs must be validated in prospective studies.

  20. Influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2012-01-24

    Previous studies have revealed that organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticides-exposed workers. Present study was designed to determine the influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 268 subjects including 134 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase activity were found to be significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects which were analyzed as biomarkers of toxicity due to OPs exposure (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) compared to control subjects (14.32±2.17 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail % DNA, p<0.001). GSTM1 null genotype was found to influence DNA TM in workers (p<0.05). DNA TM was also found to be increased with concomitant presence of NAT2 slow acetylation and CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes (p<0.05). DNA TM was found increased in NAT2 slow acetylators with mild and heavy smoking habits in control subjects and workers, respectively (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that GSTM1 null genotypes, and an association of NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes with CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes may modulate DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.

  1. Frequent Simian Foamy Virus Infection in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Bhullar, Vinod; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Cong, Mian-er; Parekh, Bharat; Lerche, Nicholas W.; Yee, JoAnn L.; Ely, John J.; Boneva, Roumiana; Chapman, Louisa E.; Folks, Thomas M.; Heneine, Walid

    2004-01-01

    The recognition that AIDS originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (NHPs). These retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), and simian foamy virus (SFV). Although occasional infection with SIV, SRV, or SFV in persons occupationally exposed to NHPs has been reported, the characteristics and significance of these zoonotic infections are not fully defined. Surveillance for simian retroviruses at three research centers and two zoos identified no SIV, SRV, or STLV infection in 187 participants. However, 10 of 187 persons (5.3%) tested positive for SFV antibodies by Western blot (WB) analysis. Eight of the 10 were males, and 3 of the 10 worked at zoos. SFV integrase gene (int) and gag sequences were PCR amplified from the peripheral blood lymphocytes available from 9 of the 10 persons. Phylogenetic analysis showed SFV infection originating from chimpanzees (n = 8) and baboons (n = 1). SFV seropositivity for periods of 8 to 26 years (median, 22 years) was documented for six workers for whom archived serum samples were available, demonstrating long-standing SFV infection. All 10 persons reported general good health, and secondary transmission of SFV was not observed in three wives available for WB and PCR testing. Additional phylogenetic analysis of int and gag sequences provided the first direct evidence identifying the source chimpanzees of the SFV infection in two workers. This study documents more frequent infection with SFV than with other simian retroviruses in persons working with NHPs and provides important information on the natural history and species origin of these infections. Our data highlight the importance of studies to better define the public health implications of zoonotic SFV infections. PMID:14990698

  2. [Health protection of workers occupationally exposed to effects of electromagnetic fields in Poland and in the European Union member states].

    PubMed

    Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, one of potentially harmful physical agents present in the work environment in Poland, are under a constant surveillance regulated by the law. Among others, the surveillance involves periodical measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) intensities in the work environment and medical prophylactic examination of workers at the employers' expense. The introduction of new MAC values imposes extra responsibilities on occupational health services, resulting from the need to verify the number of workers exposed to EMF at frequency bands corresponding with protection zones, and the need to set an appropriate range of prophylactic examinations, taking account of the current body of knowledge of biological effects of EMF and their hazards to workers' health. The suggestions how to change the range and frequency of medical prophylactic examinations are presented. The differences in occupational health care between Poland and the European Union members states, as well as changes in legal regulations on occupational diseases are discussed.

  3. Analysis of T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in the individuals exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Biswas, R; Ghosh, P; Banerjee, N; Das, J K; Sau, T; Banerjee, A; Roy, S; Ganguly, S; Chatterjee, M; Mukherjee, A; Giri, A K

    2008-05-01

    Over six million people in nine districts of West Bengal, India are exposed to very high levels of arsenic primarily through their drinking water. More than 300,000 people showed arsenic-induced skin lesions in these districts. This is regarded as the greatest arsenic calamity in the world. Chronic arsenicosis causes varied dermatological signs ranging from pigmentation changes, hyperkeratosis to non-melanocytic cancer of skin, and also malignancies in different internal organs. Higher incidences of opportunistic infections are found in the arsenic-exposed individuals, indicating that their immune systems may be impaired somehow. We have thus investigated the effect of arsenic on T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in 20 individuals with arsenic-induced skin lesions and compared the results with 18 arsenic-unexposed individuals. A marked dose-dependent suppression of Concanavalin A (Con A) induced T-cell proliferation was observed in the arsenic-exposed individuals compared with the unexposed (P < 0.001) individuals. This correlated with a significant decrease in the levels of secreted cytokines by the T cells (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL2, IL10, IL5, and IL4) in the exposed individuals (P < 0.001). Thus it can be inferred that arsenic exposure can cause immunosuppression in humans.

  4. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    PubMed Central

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  5. Assessment of genotoxic risks in Croatian health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs: a multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Kopjar, Nevenka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Verica; Kasuba, Vilena; Rozgaj, Ruzica; Ramić, Snjezana; Pavlica, Vesna; Zeljezić, Davor

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Croatian health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs. A comprehensive multi-biomarker approach using the alkaline comet assay and cytogenetic endpoints (analysis of structural chromosome aberrations, SCE assay, lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay) was employed. The study included two populations of subjects: 50 health care workers occupationally exposed to cytotoxic drugs and 50 control subjects matched in age, gender and smoking habit. An investigation regarding the handling practice with cytotoxic drugs was conducted in parallel. Results obtained indicate high exposure levels at workplace that should be reduced. The values recorded among the occupationally exposed subjects were as follows: mean comet tail length: 17.46+/-0.08 microm; the incidence of long-tailed nuclei: 54.68+/-3.93%; 4.48+/-0.33 structural chromosome aberrations per 200 cells; 5.81+/-0.04 SCE per 50 cells; 29.28+/-2.21% of high-frequency cells; proliferation rate index: 1.97+/-0.12; and 16.32+/-0.85 micronuclei per 1000 binuclear cells. All these values indicated higher levels of DNA and cytogenetic damage compared to the general population. Obtained results also confirmed that the frequency of long-tailed nuclei in the alkaline comet assay represents a helpful complement to other well-established comet parameters. The age of subjects and smoking habit significantly influenced the values of both comet and cytogenetic endpoints. Overall results of this study confirmed that handling cytotoxic drugs without appropriate safety precautions involves a potential genotoxic risk for exposed subjects. Before a strict monitoring of exposure levels on each workplace becomes a standard practice in Croatian hospitals, cytogenetic surveillance of exposed workers is also recommended, at least in cases of accidental exposure. PMID:19049854

  6. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Poręba, Rafał Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlations analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear relationships

  7. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.

    1986-09-01

    We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

  8. Aspergers--different, not less: occupational strengths and job interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed 136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02-.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model.

  9. Aspergers – Different, Not Less: Occupational Strengths and Job Interests of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Timo; Heinitz, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Rooted in the neurodiversity approach, this study provides an overview of the strengths and interests of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome. We interviewed136 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and 155 neurotypical individuals via an online survey with regards to (a) demography, (b) occupational strengths, (c) general self-efficacy, (d) occupational self-efficacy, and (e) the job interest profile according to Holland. The vocational and educational fields of the individuals with Asperger's in the sample are more diverse than and surpass those classical fields stated in research and biographical literature. The comparison of both groups in cross-tables showed that the indicated strengths differ in several areas (ΦCramer = .02–.47), which means that a specific strength profile can be derived, and this profile goes beyond the clinical view of the diagnostic criteria. Individuals with Asperger's indicate lower self-efficacy, both general and occupational. Furthermore, a high concentration of individuals with Asperger's can be found in the areas I (Investigative) and C (Conventional) of Holland's RIASEC model. PMID:24950060

  10. Serum Metabolomic Profiling of Sulphur Mustard-Exposed Individuals Using (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Zahra; Ghanei, Mostafa; Panahi, Yunus; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Mirkhani, Fatemeh; Parvin, Shahram; Salehi, Maryam; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Vahabi, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur mustard is an alkylating agent that reacts with different cellular components, causing acute and delayed complications that may remain for decades after exposure. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed individuals suffering from chronic complications compared with unexposed individuals as the control group. Serum samples were obtained from 15 mustard-exposed individuals and 15 apparently healthy unexposed individuals. Metabolomic profiling was performed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and analyses were carried out using Chenomex and MATLAB softwares. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database, and the main metabolic pathways were identified using MetaboAnalyst software. Chemometric analysis of serum samples identified 11 differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed and unexposed groups. The main pathways that were influenced by sulphur mustard exposure were related to vitamin B6 (down-regulation), bile acid (up-regulation) and tryptophan (down-regulation) metabolism. Metabolism of vitamin B6, bile acids and tryptophan are the most severely impaired pathways in individuals suffering from chronic mustard-induced complications. These findings may find implications in the monitoring of exposed patients and identification of new therapeutic approaches.

  11. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage, Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Pathogenicity among Healthy Individuals Exposed and Not Exposed to Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Veena; Renushri, Bhadravati Virupaksha; Nagaraj, Elkal Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers as well as healthy community-dwelling individuals may be colonised by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Healthcare workers who carry MRSA may transmit it to patients, causing various nosocomial infections. Literature shows that the differences between MRSA isolated from healthcare settings and from community settings, with regard to multi-drug resistance (traditionally exhibited by the former) and possession of pvl genes (traditionally exhibited by the latter), is diminishing due to a large community reservoir and increasing influx of community harboured strains into the hospital. However, there is no literature on the current scenario in India. Aims and Objectives: This study examines the influence of exposure to hospital environment on MRSA carriage, antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSA, and the presence of genes encoding five extracellular pathogenicity determinants (pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a). Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group) and 100 age matched pharmacy students (non-exposed group). S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. Conventional PCR was performed for mecA, pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a. Results: The differences in carrier rates, antibiotic resistance patterns and expression of extracellular pathogenicity determinants between MRSA isolates from the two study groups were not significant, and pvl was found in all the MRSA isolates. Conclusion: The nursing students carried MRSA strains similar to those carried by the non-exposed group. Our results suggest that healthcare workers could act as a link and transmit MRSA acquired from the community to patients. PMID:25177563

  12. DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMASIII AND DMASIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    DETERMINATION OF URINARY TRIVALENT ARSENICALS (MMAsIII and DMAsIII) IN INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC.
    L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo2, W. R. Cullen3, and D.J. Thomas4.
    1Toxicology Section, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico, D.F., 2Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3Uni...

  13. Monitoring of DNA damage in individuals exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Paz-y-Miño, César; López-Cortés, Andrés; Arévalo, Melissa; Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2008-10-01

    Currently, it is known that several chemical agents used or generated by the oil industry are classified as mutagens and/or carcinogens. Among these we have gasoline, diesel, butane gas, styrene, benzene, chloroform, and others. Studies have verified that these chemicals have effects in fertility (abortions, sterility); produce various upheavals, such as dizziness, nausea, muscular pain; and produce chromosomal damage at the DNA level, which in the long or medium run, can develop into cancer and leukemia. The genetic damage in exposed individuals was measured by means of the comet test, chromosomal alterations test, and the study of the CYP 1A1 and MSH2 genes. These methods were applied to determine the genotoxicity of hydrocarbons and their residue in human beings. When conducting these tests on the blood samples of individuals exposed to hydrocarbons (workers of oil companies) and of a control population of the area of study and Quito, it was found that, in effect, the exposed individuals presented a greater amount of damage at the DNA level as well as at the chromosomal level than the individuals from the control populations (P< 0.001). Thus, it can be determined that populations that are exposed to hydrocarbons are susceptible to developing genetic damage. Therefore, risk groups can be determined in certain zones where the oil impact has been greater.

  14. [Individual in-patient and out-patient prevention in occupational skin diseases].

    PubMed

    Skudlik, C; Weisshaar, E

    2015-03-01

    Concerning all occupation-related diseases, one-third of those reported in Germany are skin diseases. Among them, contact dermatitis is the most frequent skin disease. It usually presents as hand eczema leading to a loss of function and ability to work as well as reduced quality of life. Due to the high demand a number of prevention programmes were introduced. They comprise measures of secondary (out-patient) and tertiary (in-patient) prevention. Out-patient prevention measures include dermatologist's report and occupation-tailored teaching and prevention programmes. If the occupational skin disease is severe, therapy is not successful or the diagnosis is not clear measures of tertiary prevention can be offered as an in-patient treatment and prevention programme. All this aims to prevent the job loss of the patient. Preventive measures in occupational dermatology have proven to be very effective in recent years, especially measures of individual in-patient and out-patient prevention as components of a complex hierarchical prevention concept. This integrated concept of an in-patient/out-patient disease management reveals remarkable pertinent effectivity for patients with severe occupational dermatoses in risk professions.

  15. Arsenic-induced mitochondrial instability leading to programmed cell death in the exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Nilanjana; Banerjee, Mayukh; Ganguly, Sudipto; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Das, Jayanta K; Bandyopadhay, Apurba; Chatterjee, Mitali; Giri, Ashok K

    2008-04-18

    In West Bengal, India, more than 6 million people in nine districts are exposed to arsenic through drinking water. It is regarded as the greatest arsenic calamity in the world. Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen, which does not induce cancer in any other animal model. Interestingly, at lower concentrations, arsenic is known to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines in vitro. We have studied apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 30 arsenic exposed skin lesion individuals by annexin V-FITC staining and compared with 28 unexposed individuals. The percentage of apoptotic cells in individuals with skin lesions was significantly higher (p<0.001) in comparison to unexposed individuals. In the exposed individuals with skin lesions, there were elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased cytochrome c release, leading to increased downstream caspase activity. Arsenic-induced DNA damage was confirmed by DNA ladder formation and confocal microscopy. We also observed that chronic arsenic exposure reduced Bcl-2/Bax ratio and also resulted in cell cycle arrest of PBMC in G0/G1 phase. All these observations indicate that mitochondria-mediated pathway may be responsible for arsenic-induced apoptosis.

  16. Influence of occupational therapy on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Falk-Kessler, Janet; Kalina, J Tamar; Miller, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pilot study examined the impact of multidisciplinary care, with a particular focus on occupational therapy (OT), on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Individuals with a diagnosis of MS who were receiving multidisciplinary care including outpatient OT at an MS center were invited to participate. A total of 36 individuals agreed to enroll and were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and the Resilience Scale (RS). After an 8-week period of multidisciplinary treatment, the 35 individuals who completed treatment were again asked to complete the RS. As a group they demonstrated statistically significant improvement in resilience. A cohort of participants unexpectedly did not follow through with OT but did follow through with their other referrals. These individuals completed the RS before and after the 8-week time period and became an ad hoc control group. The group receiving OT showed significant improvement in resilience, while the control group did not. This study shows that a multidisciplinary approach to care, especially when it includes OT, is effective in treating individuals with MS. Occupational therapy focuses on treating symptoms that specifically limit daily functioning and participation, and may be uniquely positioned to affect resilience. Because resilience plays an important role in functional recovery and maintenance, this study suggests that OT may be a critical component of MS care in developing characteristics that enhance resilience.

  17. Influence of occupational therapy on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Falk-Kessler, Janet; Kalina, J Tamar; Miller, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pilot study examined the impact of multidisciplinary care, with a particular focus on occupational therapy (OT), on resilience in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Individuals with a diagnosis of MS who were receiving multidisciplinary care including outpatient OT at an MS center were invited to participate. A total of 36 individuals agreed to enroll and were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire and the Resilience Scale (RS). After an 8-week period of multidisciplinary treatment, the 35 individuals who completed treatment were again asked to complete the RS. As a group they demonstrated statistically significant improvement in resilience. A cohort of participants unexpectedly did not follow through with OT but did follow through with their other referrals. These individuals completed the RS before and after the 8-week time period and became an ad hoc control group. The group receiving OT showed significant improvement in resilience, while the control group did not. This study shows that a multidisciplinary approach to care, especially when it includes OT, is effective in treating individuals with MS. Occupational therapy focuses on treating symptoms that specifically limit daily functioning and participation, and may be uniquely positioned to affect resilience. Because resilience plays an important role in functional recovery and maintenance, this study suggests that OT may be a critical component of MS care in developing characteristics that enhance resilience. PMID:24453747

  18. Dose reconstruction for individuals exposed to ionizing radiation using chromosome painting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. N.; Cox, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    To be most useful, a biomarker for dose reconstruction should employ an end point that is highly quantitative, stable with time and easily measured. Reciprocal translocations have been shown to be a promising biomarker that is linked to both prior exposure and risk, and they can be measured easily and quantitatively using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In contrast to other biomarkers that are available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time after exposure, has rather small interindividual variability and can be measured accurately at low levels of exposure. Results from recent studies demonstrate that measurements of reciprocal translocation frequencies, facilitated by chromosome painting, can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for individuals exposed in the distant past.

  19. Younger age at onset of sporadic Parkinson's disease among subjects occupationally exposed to metals and pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Farb, David H.; Ozer, Josef; Feldman, Robert G.; Durso, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    An earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with occupational exposures to manganese and hydrocarbon solvents suggesting that exposure to neurotoxic chemicals may hasten the progression of idiopathic PD. In this study the role of occupational exposure to metals and pesticides in the progression of idiopathic PD was assessed by looking at age at disease onset. The effects of heritable genetic risk factors, which may also influence age at onset, was minimized by including only sporadic cases of PD with no family history of the disease (n=58). Independent samples Student t-test revealed that subjects with occupational exposure to metals and/or pesticides (n=36) were significantly (p=0.013) younger than unexposed controls (n=22). These subjects were then divided into three groups [high (n=18), low (n=18), and unexposed (n=22)] to ascertain if duration of exposure further influenced age at onset of PD. One-way ANOVA revealed that subjects in the high exposure group were significantly (p=0.0121) younger (mean age: 50.33 years) than unexposed subjects (mean age: 60.45 years). Subjects were also stratified by exposure type (metals vs. pesticides). These results suggest that chronic exposure to metals and pesticides is associated with a younger age at onset of PD among patients with no family history of the disease and that duration of exposure is a factor in the magnitude of this effect. PMID:26109889

  20. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Smith, Martyn T; Tang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Weihong; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Hu, Wei; Hubbard, Alan E; Shen, Min; McHale, Cliona M; Qiu, Chuangyi; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Blair, Aaron; Ge, Yichen; Xiong, Jun; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Luoping

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an economically important industrial chemical to which millions of people worldwide are exposed environmentally and occupationally. Recently, the International Agency for Cancer Research concluded that there is sufficient evidence that FA causes leukemia, particularly myeloid leukemia. To evaluate the biological plausibility of this association, we employed a chromosome-wide aneuploidy study approach, which allows the evaluation of aneuploidy and structural chromosome aberrations (SCAs) of all 24 chromosomes simultaneously, to analyze cultured myeloid progenitor cells from 29 workers exposed to relatively high levels of FA and 23 unexposed controls. We found statistically significant increases in the frequencies of monosomy, trisomy, tetrasomy and SCAs of multiple chromosomes in exposed workers compared with controls, with particularly notable effects for monosomy 1 [P = 6.02E-06, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.31], monosomy 5 (P = 9.01E-06; IRR = 2.24), monosomy 7 (P = 1.57E-05; IRR = 2.17), trisomy 5 (P = 1.98E-05; IRR = 3.40) and SCAs of chromosome 5 (P = 0.024; IRR = 4.15). The detection of increased levels of monosomy 7 and SCAs of chromosome 5 is particularly relevant as they are frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia. Our findings provide further evidence that leukemia-related cytogenetic changes can occur in the circulating myeloid progenitor cells of healthy workers exposed to FA, which may be a potential mechanism underlying FA-induced leukemogenesis.

  1. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Smith, Martyn T; Tang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Weihong; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Hu, Wei; Hubbard, Alan E; Shen, Min; McHale, Cliona M; Qiu, Chuangyi; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Blair, Aaron; Ge, Yichen; Xiong, Jun; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Luoping

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an economically important industrial chemical to which millions of people worldwide are exposed environmentally and occupationally. Recently, the International Agency for Cancer Research concluded that there is sufficient evidence that FA causes leukemia, particularly myeloid leukemia. To evaluate the biological plausibility of this association, we employed a chromosome-wide aneuploidy study approach, which allows the evaluation of aneuploidy and structural chromosome aberrations (SCAs) of all 24 chromosomes simultaneously, to analyze cultured myeloid progenitor cells from 29 workers exposed to relatively high levels of FA and 23 unexposed controls. We found statistically significant increases in the frequencies of monosomy, trisomy, tetrasomy and SCAs of multiple chromosomes in exposed workers compared with controls, with particularly notable effects for monosomy 1 [P = 6.02E-06, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.31], monosomy 5 (P = 9.01E-06; IRR = 2.24), monosomy 7 (P = 1.57E-05; IRR = 2.17), trisomy 5 (P = 1.98E-05; IRR = 3.40) and SCAs of chromosome 5 (P = 0.024; IRR = 4.15). The detection of increased levels of monosomy 7 and SCAs of chromosome 5 is particularly relevant as they are frequently observed in acute myeloid leukemia. Our findings provide further evidence that leukemia-related cytogenetic changes can occur in the circulating myeloid progenitor cells of healthy workers exposed to FA, which may be a potential mechanism underlying FA-induced leukemogenesis. PMID:25391402

  2. Elemental bio-imaging of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in tissues from occupationally exposed former nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei; James, Anthony; Bishop, David; Austin, Christine; Fryer, Fred; Doble, Philip

    2010-04-15

    Internal exposure from naturally occurring radionuclides (including the inhaled long-lived actinides (232)Th and (238)U) is a component of the ubiquitous background radiation dose (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States; NCRP Report No. 160; NCRP: Bethesda, MD, 2009). It is of interest to compare the concentration distribution of these natural alpha-emitters in the lungs and respiratory lymph nodes with those resulting from occupational exposure, including exposure to anthropogenic plutonium and depleted and enriched uranium. This study examines the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to quantifying and visualizing the mass distribution of uranium and thorium isotopes from both occupational and natural background exposure in human respiratory tissues and, for the first time, extends this application to the direct imaging of plutonium isotopes. Sections of lymphatic and lung tissues taken from deceased former nuclear workers with a known history of occupational exposure to specific actinide elements (uranium, plutonium, or americium) were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. Using a previously developed LA-ICPMS protocol for elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in human tissue and a new software tool, we generated images of thorium ((232)Th), uranium ((235)U and (238)U), and plutonium ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) mass distributions in sections of tissue. We used a laboratory-produced matrix-matched standard to quantify the (232)Th, (235)U, and (238)U concentrations. The plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu were detected by LA-ICPMS in 65 mum diameter localized regions of both a paratracheal lymph node and a sample of lung tissue from a person who was occupationally exposed to refractory plutonium (plutonium dioxide). The average (overall) (239)Pu concentration in the lymph node was 39.2 ng/g, measured by high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma

  3. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in lymphocytes of operating room personnel occupationally exposed to enfluorane and nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Fatigoni, C; Marcarelli, M; Monarca, S; Donato, F; Cencetti, S; Cerami, F M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess whether occupational exposure to anesthetics increases genotoxic risk. We investigated two cytogenetic biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 46 anesthesiologists (24 men), working in operating rooms and mostly exposed to enfluorane and nitrous oxide, and 66 controls (35 men), not exposed to chemicals and living in the same area. Contrary to what was expected, a lower frequency of SCE was found in male anesthesiologists than in controls. Smoking status was found to be positively associated with SCE frequency in each group, while no relation to age was evident. On the contrary, MN frequency was significantly higher in female, but not male, anesthesiologists than in controls. Age and smoking status did not modify the association. No relationship between MN frequency and duration of employment was found in anesthesiologists. Smoking status and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day in smokers were not associated with MN frequency in either anesthesiologists or in controls. MN analysis seems to be a sensitive index of possible genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to anesthesiologists, and women appear to be more susceptible to these effects than men. PMID:11394710

  4. Alteration in bilirubin excretion in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; Aguilar, C; García-Vargas, G G; Borja, V H; Cebrián, M E

    1998-10-15

    We have studied hepatic function in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We studied 51 individuals living in three villages exposed to As in water. Nazareno (0.014 mgAs/l), Santa Ana (0.1 mgAs/l) and Benito Juárez (0.3 mgAs/l). We determined the serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (SAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as indicators of hepatocellular injury and that of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as indicators of cholestasic injury. Serum bilirubin was used as an indicator of organic conjugated anion transport. Total proteins, albumin and globulin fraction in serum were used as indicators of biosynthetic liver capacity. The main findings of this study were the predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and increased serum ALP activity which were related to the concentration of total arsenic (TAs) in urine, suggesting the presence of cholestasis in As-exposed individuals. No significant changes were observed in the other parameters studied.

  5. Relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress among Japanese schoolteachers

    PubMed Central

    NAKADA, Akihiro; IWASAKI, Shinichi; KANCHIKA, Masaru; NAKAO, Takehisa; DEGUCHI, Yasuhiko; KONISHI, Akihito; ISHIMOTO, Hideyuki; INOUE, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the “depressive group.” We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers’ work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers’ work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers’ depressive symptoms. PMID:27021060

  6. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  7. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  8. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  9. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  10. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.110 Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a)...

  11. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ould-Kadi, Farid; Nawrot, Tim S; Hoet, Peter H; Nemery, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8) years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6) years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted) was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01) and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009) than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037) for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects. PMID:17922914

  12. p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung cancer patients occupationally exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Andujar, Pascal; Wang, Jinhui; Descatha, Alexis; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Abd-Alsamad, Issam; Billon-Galland, Marie-Annick; Blons, Hélène; Clin, Bénédicte; Danel, Claire; Housset, Bruno; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Letourneux, Marc; Monnet, Isabelle; Régnard, Jean-François; Renier, Annie; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Jaurand, Marie-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that asbestos fibers constitute the major occupational risk factor and that asbestos acts synergistically with tobacco smoking to induce lung cancer. Although some somatic gene alterations in lung cancer have been linked to tobacco smoke, few data are available on the role of asbestos fibers. P16/CDKN2A is an important tumor suppressor gene that is frequently altered in lung cancer via promoter 5'-CpG island hypermethylation and homozygous deletion, and rarely via point mutation. Many studies suggest that tobacco smoking produces P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer, but the status of this gene in relation to asbestos exposure has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of P16/CDKN2A alterations in lung cancer in asbestos-exposed patients. P16/CDKN2A gene status was studied in 75 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases with well-defined smoking habits, and detailed assessment of asbestos exposure, based on occupational questionnaire and determination of asbestos bodies in lung tissue. The results of this study confirm published data on the effect of tobacco smoke on P16/CDKN2A gene alterations, characterized by significantly higher P16/CDKN2A promoter hypermethylation in heavy smokers (more than 40 pack-years (P-Y)) than in smokers of less than 40 P-Y. These results also demonstrate a higher incidence of loss of heterozygosity and homozygous deletion in asbestos-exposed cases, after adjustment for age and cumulative tobacco consumption, than in unexposed cases (P=0.0062). This study suggests that P16/CDKN2A gene inactivation in asbestos-exposed NSCLC cases mainly occurs via deletion, a feature also found in malignant mesothelioma, a tumor independent of tobacco smoking but associated with asbestos exposure, suggesting a possible relationship with an effect of asbestos fibers.

  13. Proteomic analysis of a model fish species exposed to individual pesticides and a binary mixture.

    PubMed

    Biales, Adam D; Bencic, David C; Flick, Robert L; Blocksom, Karen A; Lazorchak, James M; Lattier, David L

    2011-01-17

    Pesticides are nearly ubiquitous in surface waters of the United States, where they often are found as mixtures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of sub-lethal exposure to pesticides as both individual and mixtures are unclear. The current work aims to identify and compare differentially expressed proteins in brains of male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 72 h to permethrin (7.5 μg/L), terbufos (57.5 μg/L) and a binary mixture of both. Twenty-four proteins were found to be differentially expressed among all three treatments relative to the control using an ANOVA followed by a Dunnett's post hoc test (p ≤0.05). One protein was found to be differentially expressed among all treatment groups and one protein was in common between the terbufos and the mixture group. Fifteen spots were successfully sequenced using LC-MS/MS sequencing. Proteins associated with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, glycolysis, the cytoskeleton and hypoxia were enriched. As a second objective, we attempted to establish protein expression signatures (PES) for individual permethrin and terbufos exposures. We were unable to generate a useable PES for terbufos; however, the permethrin PES was able to distinguish between control and permethrin-exposed individuals in an independent experiment with an accuracy of 87.5%. This PES also accurately classified permethrin exposed individuals when the exposure occurred as part of a mixture. The identification of proteins differentially expressed as a result of pesticide exposure represent a step forward in the understanding of mechanisms of toxicity of permethrin and terbufos. They also allow a comparison of molecular responses of the binary mixture to single exposures. The permethrin PES is the first step in establishing a method to determine exposures in real-world scenarios. PMID:20974496

  14. Aberrant promoter methylation of multiple genes in sputum from individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Lan, Qing; Shen, Min; Mumford, Judy; Keohavong, Phouthone

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of cancer-related genes leads to gene transcriptional inactivation and plays an integral role in lung tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrated that promoter methylation was detected not only in lung tumors from patients with lung cancer but also in sputum of smokers without the disease, suggesting the potential for aberrant gene promoter methylation in sputum as a predictive marker for lung cancer. In the present study, we investigated promoter methylation of 4 genes frequently detected in lung tumors, including p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK genes, in sputum samples obtained from 107 individuals, including 34 never-smoking females and 73 mostly smoking males, who had no evidence of lung cancer but who were exposed to smoky coal emission in Xuan Wei County, China, where lung cancer rate is more than 6 times the Chinese national average rate. Forty nine of the individuals showed evidence of chronic bronchitis while the remaining 58 individuals showed no such a symptom. Promoter methylation of p16, MGMT, RASSF1A and DAPK was detected in 51.4% (55/107), 17.8% (19/107), 29.9% (32/107), and 15.9% (17/107) of the sputum samples from these individuals, respectively. There were no differences in promoter methylation frequencies of any of these genes according to smoking status or gender of the subjects or between individuals with chronic bronchitis and those without evidence of such a symptom. Therefore, individuals exposed to smoky coal emissions in this region harbored in their sputum frequent promoter methylation of these genes that have been previously found in lung tumors and implicated in lung cancer development. PMID:18751376

  15. Frequency of gamma H2AX foci in healthy volunteers and health workers occupationally exposed to X-irradiation and its relevance in biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Raavi, Venkateswarlu; Basheerudeen, Safa Abdul Syed; Jagannathan, Vijayalakshmi; Joseph, Santosh; Chaudhury, Nabo Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Gamma-H2AX (γ-H2AX) assay is a marker to measure double-strand breaks in the deoxyribonucleic acid. Variables such as age, oxidative stress, temperature, genetic factors and inter-individual variation have been reported to influence the baseline γ-H2AX focus levels. Therefore, knowledge on baseline frequency of γ-H2AX foci in a targeted population would facilitate reliable radiation triage and dose estimation. The objective of the present study was to establish the baseline data using blood samples from healthy volunteers (n = 130) differing in age, occupation and lifestyle as well as from occupationally exposed health workers (n = 20). The γ-H2AX focus assay was performed using epifluorescence microscopy. In vitro dose-response curve for γ-H2AX foci was constructed in blood samples (n = 3) exposed to X-rays (30 min post-exposure). The mean γ-H2AX focus frequency obtained in healthy volunteers was 0.042 ± 0.001 and showed an age-related increase (p < 0.001). Significantly higher (p < 0.005) focus frequencies were observed in health workers (0.066 ± 0.005) than in healthy volunteers. A sub-group analysis did not show a significant (p > 0.1) difference in γ-H2AX focus frequency among sexes. Blood exposed in vitro to X-rays showed dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci frequency (Y = 0.1902 ± 0.1363 + 2.9020 ± 0.3240 * D). Baseline frequency of γ-H2AX foci obtained from different age groups showed a significant (p < 0.01) influence on the dose-response coefficients. The overall results demonstrated that the γ-H2AX assay can be used as a reliable biomarker for radiation triage and estimating the radiation absorbed dose by considering variables such as age, occupation and lifestyle factors. PMID:27287768

  16. NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, B Fatemeh; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouie, Afsaneh; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Parastar, Hadi; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Fariba; Taheri, Salman

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent and its effects on cells and tissues are varied and complex. Due to limitations in the diagnostics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals (SMEIs) by noninvasive approaches, there is a great necessity to develop novel techniques and biomarkers for this condition. We present here the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolic profiling of serum from and healthy controls to identify novel biomarkers in blood serum for better diagnostics. Of note, SMEIs were exposed to SM 30 years ago and that differences between two groups could still be found. Pathways in which differences between SMEIs and healthy controls are observed are related to lipid metabolism, ketogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism. PMID:26984270

  17. NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, B Fatemeh; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouie, Afsaneh; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Parastar, Hadi; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Fariba; Taheri, Salman

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent and its effects on cells and tissues are varied and complex. Due to limitations in the diagnostics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals (SMEIs) by noninvasive approaches, there is a great necessity to develop novel techniques and biomarkers for this condition. We present here the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolic profiling of serum from and healthy controls to identify novel biomarkers in blood serum for better diagnostics. Of note, SMEIs were exposed to SM 30 years ago and that differences between two groups could still be found. Pathways in which differences between SMEIs and healthy controls are observed are related to lipid metabolism, ketogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism.

  18. Cryptic pulmonary lesions in workers occupationally exposed to dust containing silica.

    PubMed

    Craighead, J E; Vallyathan, N V

    Fibrotic lesions associated with deposits of crystalline silica were found postmortem in the lungs of 15 granite workers who lacked radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. All members of this occupational group had been employed in the granite quarrying and monument industry of Vermont since ambient air-dust standards were introduced in 1937. Although particulate silica was not revealed in the lesions by traditional polarization light microscopy, it was identified by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with backscatter imaging and x-ray spectrometry. The etiologic basis of the fibrotic pulmonary disease would not have been diagnosed without the aid of these modern analytical tools. Exposure to silica-containing dust can result in cryptic pulmonary disease that is not detectable radiologically. In these retrospective postmortem studies, it was not possible to define the distribution of the lesions in the lungs. PMID:6252356

  19. Cryptic pulmonary lesions in workers occupationally exposed to dust containing silica.

    PubMed

    Craighead, J E; Vallyathan, N V

    Fibrotic lesions associated with deposits of crystalline silica were found postmortem in the lungs of 15 granite workers who lacked radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. All members of this occupational group had been employed in the granite quarrying and monument industry of Vermont since ambient air-dust standards were introduced in 1937. Although particulate silica was not revealed in the lesions by traditional polarization light microscopy, it was identified by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with backscatter imaging and x-ray spectrometry. The etiologic basis of the fibrotic pulmonary disease would not have been diagnosed without the aid of these modern analytical tools. Exposure to silica-containing dust can result in cryptic pulmonary disease that is not detectable radiologically. In these retrospective postmortem studies, it was not possible to define the distribution of the lesions in the lungs.

  20. Childhood cancer in the offspring of male sawmill workers occupationally exposed to chlorophenate fungicides.

    PubMed Central

    Heacock, H; Hertzman, C; Demers, P A; Gallagher, R; Hogg, R S; Teschke, K; Hershler, R; Bajdik, C D; Dimich-Ward, H; Marion, S A; Ostry, A; Kelly, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether paternal occupational exposure to chlorophenol fungicides and their dioxin contaminants is associated with childhood cancer in the offspring of sawmill workers. We used data from 23,829 British Columbian sawmill workers employed for at least 1 continuous year between 1950 and 1985 in 11 sawmills that used chlorophenates. Probabilistic linkage of the sawmill worker cohort to the provincial marriage and birth files produced an offspring cohort of 19,674 children born at least 1 year after the initiation of employment in the period 1952-1988. We then linked the offspring cohort to the British Columbia Cancer Registry. We included all malignancies in cases younger than 20 years of age that appeared on the cancer registry between 1969 and 1993. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the British Columbia population as a reference. A nested case-control analysis assessed the effects of paternal cumulative exposure and windows of exposure on the risk of developing cancer in the offspring. We identified 40 cases of cancer during 259,919 person-years of follow-up. The all-cancer SIR was 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-1.4]; the SIR for leukemia was 1.0 (CI, 0.5-1.8); and the SIR for brain cancer was 1.3 (CI, 0.6-2.5). The nested case-control analysis showed slightly increased risks in the highest categories of chlorophenol exposure, although none was statistically significant. Our analyses provide little evidence to support a relationship between the risk of childhood cancer and paternal occupational exposure to chlorophenate fungicides in British Columbian sawmills. PMID:10856022

  1. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. PMID:27331344

  2. Declining prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment-exposed individuals in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Andrea; Dunn, David; Zazzi, Maurizio; Camacho, Ricardo; Torti, Carlo; Fanti, Iuri; Kaiser, Rolf; Sönnerborg, Anders; Codoñer, Francisco M; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Bansi, Loveleen; Ghisetti, Valeria; van de Vijver, David A M C; Asboe, David; Prosperi, Mattia C F; Di Giambenedetto, Simona

    2013-04-15

    HIV-1 drug resistance represents a major obstacle to infection and disease control. This retrospective study analyzes trends and determinants of resistance in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-exposed individuals across 7 countries in Europe. Of 20 323 cases, 80% carried at least one resistance mutation: these declined from 81% in 1997 to 71% in 2008. Predicted extensive 3-class resistance was rare (3.2% considering the cumulative genotype) and peaked at 4.5% in 2005, decreasing thereafter. The proportion of cases exhausting available drug options dropped from 32% in 2000 to 1% in 2008. Reduced risk of resistance over calendar years was confirmed by multivariable analysis.

  3. Reactive arthritis-associated bacteria can stimulate lymphocyte proliferation in non-exposed individuals and newborns.

    PubMed Central

    Chieco-Bianchi, F; Hedley, K; Weissensteiner, T; Panayi, G S; Kingsley, G H

    1995-01-01

    In reactive arthritis (ReA) a specific T cell response to the triggering bacterial antigen is present in the synovial fluid, while in paired peripheral blood T cells the response is markedly reduced. The proliferative response to ReA-associated bacteria in the peripheral blood of ReA patients was compared with that seen in the blood of healthy adults, who denied exposure to these microbes, and in the umbilical cord blood of newborns, who have clearly not been exposed to bacterial antigen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from non-exposed adults and those from umbilical cord blood proliferated to ReA-associated bacteria, whilst little response was seen in ReA PBMC. The response was MHC class II-restricted, required processing of the bacterial antigen, was seen in both CD45RO+ and CD45RA+ subsets, and was not oligoclonal. These T cell responses are similar to those previously demonstrated in non-exposed individuals to malaria, leishmania and trypanosoma antigen, and may reflect the existence of 'natural' T cell immunity to ReA-associated bacteria. The lack of such responses in ReA peripheral blood may suggest that such 'natural' responses may restrict the dissemination or progression of infection. PMID:8536372

  4. Retrospective biodosimetry using translocation frequency in a stable cell of occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Su; Lee, Jin Kyung; Bae, Keum Seok; Han, Eun-Ae; Jang, Seong Jae; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Kim, Wan Tae

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of hematological malignancies were reported in an industrial radiography company over a year, which were reasonably suspected of being consequences of prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation because of the higher incidence than expected in the general population. We analyzed chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the other workers who had been working under similar circumstances as the patients in the company. Among the subjects tested, 10 workers who belonged to the highest band were followed up periodically for 1.5 years since the first analysis. The aim of this study was to clarify pertinence of translocation analysis to an industrial set-up where chronic exposure was commonly expected. To be a useful tool for a retrospective biodosimetry, the aberrations need to be persistent for a decade or longer. Therefore we calculated the decline rates and half-lives of frequency for both a reciprocal translocation and a dicentric chromosome and compared them. In this study, while the frequency of reciprocal translocations was maintained at the initial level, dicentric chromosomes were decreased to 46.9% (31.0–76.5) of the initial frequency over the follow-up period. Our results support the long-term stability of reciprocal translocation through the cell cycle and validate the usefulness of translocation analysis as a retrospective biodosimetry for cases of occupational exposure. PMID:25922373

  5. Relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.; Lawrence, C.E.

    1984-09-20

    A study was made of the relation between occupational exposure of women to high homolog polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and birthweight and gestational age among the live offspring of these workers. In 1982 interviews were conducted with 200 women who had held jobs with direct PCB exposure. A comparison was made with 205 women who had never held such a job. When all births occurring to mothers following exposure to PCBs were considered, the unadjusted mean birthweight in the direct exposure group was 96 grams less than the comparison group. No differences in gestational age were seen between groups. The birthweight difference was reduced to 41 grams following adjustment for potential confounding factors. In a parallel analysis using a continuous exposure variable estimate generated from an independently derived serum PCB prediction model, no effect of PCBs was noted on birthweight or gestational age using either crude or adjusted analyses. The authors conclude that no evidence for a biologically meaningful effect of high homolog PCBs on gestational age or birthweight exists.

  6. Application of Premack's generalization of reinforcement to modify occupational behavior in two severely retarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Bateman, S

    1975-03-01

    Premack's generalization that a more probable response will reinforce a less probable one was applied to modify occupational behavior of two severly retarded individuals. When opportunity to work on a more preferred activity was made contingent upon spending some time on a less preferred activity, an increase in the amount of time spent on less preferred work occurred. As the reinforcement schedule was gradually reduced in terms of time allowed on more preferred work, time spent on the less preferred activity tended to increase. Behavior did not return to baseline levels on extinction, however. Possible reasons for these findings are outlined, together with the practical advantages of utilizing Premack's generalization as a reinforcement technique for motivating retarded individuals in rehabilitation settings.

  7. Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual and Average Member of Critical Group

    SciTech Connect

    K. Montague

    2000-02-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure.

  8. Health status of air force veterans occupationally exposed to herbicides in Vietnam: I. Physical health

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C. ); Rahe, A. ); Silva, J. ); Thomas, W.F.; Lustik, M.B.; Grubbs, W.D.; Roegner, R.H. ); Karrison, T.G. ); Williams, D.E. )

    1990-10-10

    The Air Force Health Study is a 20-year comprehensive assessment of the health of Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam. The study compares the health and noncombat mortality of Ranch Hand veterans with a comparison group of Air Force veterans primarily involved with cargo missions in Southeast Asia but who were not exposed to herbicides. This report summarizes the health of these veterans as determined at the third in a series of physical examinations. Nine hundred ninety-five Ranch Hands and 1,299 comparison subjects attended the second follow-up examination in 1987. The two groups were similar in reported health problems, diagnosed skin conditions, and hepatic, cardiovascular, and immune profiles. Ranch Hands have experienced significantly more basal cell carcinomas than comparison subjects. The two groups were not different with respect to melanoma and systemic cancer.

  9. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Fenske, Richard A; Furlong, Clement E; van Belle, Gerald; Checkoway, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of ‘BuChE depression’ (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of follow-up testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to pre-season baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, P < 0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (β = −1.74, P < 0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. PMID:19819864

  10. Evaluation for compensation of asbestos-exposed individuals. II. Apportionment of risk for lung cancer and mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Chase, G R; Kotin, P; Crump, K; Mitchell, R S

    1985-03-01

    The incidence of lung cancer in the cigarette smoking population occupationally exposed to asbestos is inordinately high. A method for apportioning risk to these two agents has been developed. It utilizes degree of asbestos and smoking exposures; the time interval from onset and, where applicable, termination of both exposures; the time interval to diagnosis of lung cancer; and morphologic, physiologic, and radiological evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  12. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations. PMID:27087348

  13. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  14. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  15. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68–45.71 mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00–1.06 mg-year), medium (1.37–3.55 mg-year), and high (4.26–48.13 mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Three regions are selected as the areas affected by endemic arsenicosis of China. ► We first examine changes in serum TRX1 among individuals exposed to arsenic. ► A positive correlation was seen between serum TRX1 and total water arsenic intake. ► The same relationship

  16. Association of radiation-induced genes with noncancer chronic diseases in Mayak workers occupationally exposed to prolonged radiation.

    PubMed

    Abend, Michael; Azizova, Tamara; Müller, Kerstin; Dörr, Harald; Doucha-Senf, Sven; Kreppel, Helmut; Rusinova, Galina; Glazkova, Irina; Vyazovskaya, Natalia; Unger, Kristian; Braselmann, Herbert; Meineke, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    We examined the association of gene expression with noncancer chronic disease outcomes in Mayak nuclear weapons plant workers who were exposed to radiation due to their occupation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with selection based on radiation exposure status of Mayak plant workers living in Ozyorsk who were alive in 2011 and either exposed to: combined incorporated Plutonium-239 ((239)Pu) and external gamma-ray exposure (n = 82); external gamma-ray exposure alone (n = 18); or were unexposed (n = 50) of Ozyorsk residents who provided community-based professional support for plant personnel and who were alive in 2011. Peripheral blood was taken and RNA was isolated and then converted into cDNA and stored at -20°C. In a previous analysis we screened the whole genome for radiation-associated candidate genes, and validated 15 mRNAs and 15 microRNAs using qRT-PCR. In the current analysis we examined the association of these genes with 15 different chronic diseases on 92 samples (47 males, 45 females). We examined the radiation-to-gene and gene-to-disease associations in statistical models stratified by gender and separately for each disease and exposure. We modeled radiation exposure as gamma or (239)Pu on both the continuous and categorical scales. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and the concordance for genes that were significantly associated with radiation exposure and a specific disease outcome were identified. Altogether 12 mRNAs and 9 microRNAs appeared to be significantly associated with 6 diseases, including thyroid diseases (3 genes, OR: 1.2-5.1, concordance: 71-78%), atherosclerotic diseases (4 genes, OR: 2.5-10, concordance: 70-75%), kidney diseases (6 genes, OR: 1.3-8.6, concordance: 69-85%), cholelithiasis (3 genes, OR: 0.2-0.3, concordance: 74-75%), benign tumors [1 gene (AGAP4), OR: 3.7, concordance: 81%] and chronic radiation syndrome (4 genes, OR: 2.5-4.3, concordance: 70

  17. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  18. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  19. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  20. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  1. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR... external and internal occupational dose. Each licensee shall monitor exposures to radiation and radioactive material at levels sufficient to demonstrate compliance with the occupational dose limits of this part....

  2. Contribution of Direct and Indirect Exposure to Human Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in an Occupationally Exposed Group of Ski Waxers.

    PubMed

    Gomis, Melissa I; Vestergren, Robin; Nilsson, Helena; Cousins, Ian T

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of direct (i.e., uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) itself) and indirect (i.e., uptake of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and metabolism to PFOA) exposure to PFOA serum concentrations was investigated using a dynamic one-compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. The PK model was applied to six occupationally exposed ski waxers for whom direct and indirect exposures via inhalation were characterized using multiple measurements with personal air sampling devices. The model was able to predict the diverging individual temporal trends of PFOA in serum with correlation coefficients of 0.82-0.94. For the four technicians with high initial concentrations of PFOA in serum (250-1050 ng/mL), the ongoing occupational exposure (both direct and indirect) was of minor importance and net depuration of PFOA was observed throughout the ski season. An estimated average intrinsic elimination half-life of 2.4 years (1.8-3.1 years accounting for variation between technicians and model uncertainty) was derived for these technicians. The remaining two technicians, who had much lower initial serum concentrations (10-17 ng/mL), were strongly influenced by exposure during the ski season with indirect exposure contributing to 45% of PFOA serum concentrations. On the basis of these model simulations, an average metabolism yield of 0.003 (molar concentration basis; uncertainty range of 0.0006-0.01) was derived for transformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA. An uncertainty analysis was performed, and it was determined that the input parameters quantifying the intake of PFOA were mainly responsible for the uncertainty of the metabolism yield and the initial concentration of PFOA in serum was mainly contributing to the uncertainty of estimated serum half-lives.

  3. High prevalence of co-factor independent anticardiolipin antibodies in malaria exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Consigny, P H; Cauquelin, B; Agnamey, P; Comby, E; Brasseur, P; Ballet, J J; Roussilhon, C

    2002-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were investigated in 137 individuals chronically exposed to malaria and living in Africa and Asia. They belonged to several groups according to parasite (Plasmodium falciparum or vivax) and clinical manifestations (i.e. asymptomatic parasite carriers, acute uncomplicated attack or severe malaria episodes). aCL were measured in an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) performed in the presence of either goat serum (aCLs) or gelatin (aCLg). In a group of 53 patients with autoimmune manifestations (i.e. antiphospholipid syndrome and/or lupus), detection of IgG but not IgM aCL was markedly reduced in the presence of gelatin. In malaria donors, high prevalence of serum co-factor-independent IgG and IgM were detected, and the presence of goat serum in the assay consistently decreased their detection. aCLg levels were found to be related to the clinical/endemic status of donors. IgG aCLg were found to be higher in asymptomatic P. falciparum carriers than in patients with uncomplicated acute or cerebral malaria. IgM aCLg were higher in the cerebral malaria group than in groups with uncomplicated acute malaria patients or asymptomatic individuals. Data suggest that using a serum co-factor independent, sensitive ELISA, aCL are commonly detected during malarial infections and related to malarial infection status. PMID:11882047

  4. Sputum Inflammatory Profile Before and After Specific Inhalation Challenge in Individuals with Suspected Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Cruz, María-Jesús; Gómez-Ollés, Susana; Morell, Ferran; Muñoz, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to establish the sputum inflammatory profile and changes in levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and a panel of Th1/Th2 cytokines in subjects with suspected occupational asthma (OA) following specific inhalation challenge (SIC) to high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) agents. Material and Methods Fifty-one consecutive subjects undergoing SIC for suspected OA were enrolled. Sputum induction was performed the day before and 24 h after exposure to the offending agent. Total and differential cell counts were assessed. LTB4 and a 10 Th1/Th2 cytokines were measured in sputum supernatant. Results Thirty-four patients tested positive to SIC and were diagnosed with OA (in 10 due to HMW agents and in 24 to LMW agents). SIC was negative in 17 subjects. As compared to baseline an increase was found in the percentage of sputum eosinophils and neutrophils, and in IL-10 concentration after SIC (p = 0.0078, p = 0.0195, and p = 0.046, respectively), and a decrease was seen in LTB4 level (p = 0.0078) in patients with OA due to HMW agents. An increase in the percentage of sputum neutrophils after SIC (p = 0.0040) was observed in subjects without OA exposed to LMW agents. IL-8 levels after SIC were higher in patients without OA compared with patients with OA (p = 0.0146). Conclusion When conducting airway inflammation studies in OA, patients should be divided according to the causal agent (HMW or LMW). In OA patients exposed to HMW agents, an increase in the number of neutrophils can be found in parallel to the increase of eosinophils, although this does not contradict an IgE-mediated mechanism. Exposure to LMW agents can result in increased neutrophilic inflammation in patients with airway diseases unrelated to OA. There is variability in the responses observed in patients with OA exposed to LMW agents. PMID:24236015

  5. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution. PMID:27767182

  6. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  7. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68-45.71mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00-1.06mg-year), medium (1.37-3.55mg-year), and high (4.26-48.13mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity. PMID:22202168

  8. Changes in serum thioredoxin among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Lijun; Wei, Yudan; Feng, Hongqi; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Wei; Ding, Yunpeng; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-02-15

    It is well known that oxidative damage plays a key role in the development of chronic arsenicosis. There is a complex set of mechanisms of redox cycling in vivo to protect cells from the damage. In this study, we examined the differences in the levels of serum thioredoxin1 (TRX1) among individuals exposed to different levels of arsenic in drinking water and detected early biomarkers of arsenic poisoning before the appearance of skin lesions. A total of 157 subjects from endemic regions of China were selected and divided into arsenicosis group with skin lesions (total intake of arsenic: 8.68-45.71mg-year) and non-arsenicosis group without skin lesions, which further divided into low (0.00-1.06mg-year), medium (1.37-3.55mg-year), and high (4.26-48.13mg-year) arsenic exposure groups. Concentrations of serum TRX1 were analyzed by an ELISA method. Levels of water arsenic and urinary speciated arsenics, including inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylated arsenic (MMA), and dimethylated arsenic (DMA), were determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Our results showed that the levels of serum TRX1 in arsenicosis patients were significantly higher than that of the subjects who were chronically exposed to arsenic, but without skin lesions. A positive correlation was seen between the levels of serum TRX1 and the total water arsenic intake or the levels of urinary arsenic species. The results of this study indicate that arsenic exposure could significantly change the levels of human serum TRX1, which can be detected before arsenic-specific dermatological symptoms occur. This study provides further evidence on revealing the mechanism of arsenic toxicity.

  9. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  10. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  11. Air quality index from charcoal production sites, carboxyheamoglobin and lung function among occupationally exposed charcoal workers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olujimi, O O; Ana, G R E E; Ogunseye, O O; Fabunmi, V T

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and

  12. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period.

    PubMed

    Azizova, Tamara V; Bannikova, Maria V; Grigorieva, Evgenia S; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P; Azizova, Elena V

    2016-05-01

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25% of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∆AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95% CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account. PMID:26994996

  13. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period.

    PubMed

    Azizova, Tamara V; Bannikova, Maria V; Grigorieva, Evgenia S; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P; Azizova, Elena V

    2016-05-01

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25% of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∆AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95% CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account.

  14. Occupational conditions of ward staff and quality of residential care for individuals with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Duker, P C; Seys, D; van Leeuwe, J; Prins, L W

    1991-01-01

    Effects of occupational conditions of ward staff on the quality of residential care for individuals with mental retardation was assessed. Three questions were asked: (a) Does type of contract under which staff members are employed differentially affect their distribution of activities? (b) Does length of duty have an effect on their distribution of activities? (c) Does the number of staff members present on the living group influence quality of care? Over a 40-week period, data were collected on 30 ward staff members who were responsible for 39 residents with severe and profound mental retardation. Results show that staff differentially distributed their activities, especially with respect to organizational activities and the amount of custodial care, depending on the type of contract they were employed under and the number of consecutive days they worked. Number of staff present on the living group appeared to be a major factor in terms of distribution of activities. Implications for staff managers and administrators of residential facilities were discussed. PMID:2003908

  15. Inflammatory Mediator Profiling of n-butanol Exposed Upper Airways in Individuals with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Brix, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls. Method Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained. Results The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences. Conclusion We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes. PMID:26599866

  16. Adaptation by older individuals repeatedly exposed to 0. 45 parts per million ozone for two hours

    SciTech Connect

    Bedi, J.F.; Horvath, S.M.; Drechsler-Parks, D.M.

    1989-02-01

    To test for an increased reaction to ozone (O3) in older individuals following an initial exposure, and to test for adaptation and its duration, we exposed 10 men and 6 women (60-89 years old) in an environmental chamber to filtered air and 3 consecutive days of O3 exposure (0.45 ppm), followed by a fourth O3 exposure day after a two day hiatus. Subjects alternated 20-min exercise (minute ventilation = 27 L) and rest periods for 2 hours during each exposure. Subjects rated from one to five, 16 possible respiratory/exercise symptoms prior to and following the exposure. Pulmonary function tests were performed before, and during each rest period and following the exposure. Metabolic measurements were obtained during each exercise period. No significant changes in any symptom question occurred, in spite of a threefold increase in the total number of reported symptoms during O3 exposure. Small but significant pre-to-post decrements on the first and second O3 days in forced vital capacity (FVC-111 and 104 mL), forced expiratory volume in 1 (FEV1-171 and 164 mL) and 3 seconds (FEV3-185 and 172 mL) occurred without concomitant changes in any flow parameter of the forced expiratory maneuver. No differences in the group mean response in FVC, FEV1 or FEV3 on the third or fourth day of O3 exposure and the filtered air exposure were found. The observed changes were due to significant physiological changes in eight of the subjects. Unlike young subjects, no evidence of an increased pulmonary function response to a second consecutive O3 exposure was observed.

  17. Nucleoplasmic bridges and acrocentric chromosome associations as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation in occupationally exposed hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Ionising radiation, with the contribution of telomere shortening, induces DNA double-strand breaks that result in chromosome end fusion, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and chromosome aberrations (ChAbs) as well as dicentric chromosomes. In order to investigate the chromosomal damage induced by occupational ionising radiation at low exposure levels, and to find early markers of health hazard, peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed hospital workers were cytogenetically analysed. Results showed a significant difference in the frequency of ChAbs in exposed subjects relative to controls. A significant number of NPBs between nuclei of binucleated cultured lymphocytes from exposed subjects were also observed, as well as a consistent amount of acrocentric chromosomes with associations of their short arms. Excluding confounding factors, the frequencies of all these three biological endpoints differed significantly in exposed subjects from those in controls. Because the absence of telomeres and/or their short length could be a common root for both the findings, we utilised fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique with telomeric repeat as probe to demonstrate that, in exposed subjects, chromatin of short arms of involved acrocentric chromosomes did not exhibit a telomeric shortening but appeared strongly decondensed. This finding suggests that NPBs and telomeric acrocentric association should be regarded as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation and their increase should be seen as an early warning for the health of the involved workers. PMID:25381312

  18. A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

  19. UV-induced occupational skin cancer: possibilities of secondary individual prevention in the "Dermatologist's Procedure".

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Blome, Otto; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig

    2013-07-01

    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as a "quasi occupational disease" according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII typically develops on chronically UV-damaged skin from actinic keratoses. After the Medical Scientific Committee of the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs has confirmed the legal criteria for acknowledging UV-induced SCC as an occupational disease, it is expected that the condition will be added to the official list of occupational diseases issued by the Federal Government in the near future. The Social Accident Insurance is required by law (§3 Occupational Disease Regulation) to prevent these tumors by "all appropriate means". There are excellent therapeutic and preventive measures for the management of actinic keratoses to avoid the development of SCC. The "Dermatologist's Procedure" according to §§ 41-43 of the agreement between the Social Accident Insurance and the Federal Medical Association was established in Germany in 1972 to take preventive measures in insured persons with skin lesions possibly developing into an occupational disease, or worsening it, or leading to a recurrence of it This procedure proved to be very successful in the prevention of severe and/or recurring skin diseases forcing a worker to leave his job. On the basis of this agreement, the Social Accident Insurance has the instruments to independently provide preventive measures for the new occupational skin disease SCC induced by natural UV light according to §9 Section 2 of the German Social Code Book (SGB) VII.

  20. DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z; Xia, Y; Tian, D; Wu, K; Schmitt, M; Kwok, R K; Mumford, J L

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 +/- 23.7 micrograms/L (mean +/- SEM) and 13 controls exposed to arsenic at 4.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms/L. DNA fragmentation by the DNA ladder and TUNEL assay were used to detect DNA damage in buccal cells. In the DNA ladder assay, 89% (17/19) of the arsenic-exposed group showed < 100 bp DNA fragments, in contrast to 15% (2/13) of the controls (p < 0.0001). For the TUNEL assay, the mean frequencies of positive cells were higher in the exposed group (15.1%) than in the controls (2.0%) (p < 0.0001). This study showed that high arsenic exposure via drinking water resulted in DNA damage and DNA fragmentation in buccal cells thus may be an appropriate biomarker for assessing chronic effects of arsenic in humans. A study investigating DNA fragmentation from the individuals with low levels of arsenic exposure in this population is in progress.

  1. Avian influenza virus H9N2 seroprevalence and risk factors for infection in occupational poultry-exposed workers in Tai'an of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Song, Wengang; Pang, Quanhai; Miao, Zengmin

    2016-08-01

    To determine risk factor for H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, a serological surveillance among both occupational poultry-exposed (OPE) workers and general humans was carried out using both haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays in Tai'an, China, between 2011 and 2013. At baseline, the positive rate of anti-H9 antibody (HI and MN titers ≥40) among OPE workers (51/600, 8.5%) was significantly higher than that among the general population (11/600, 1.8%). The result indicated that occupational exposure to chicken flocks was an important risk factor for H9N2 AIV infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1453-1456, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26816053

  2. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN-α2b) gene in occupationally protracted low dose radiation exposed personnel.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman; Mahmood, Nasir; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Sheikh, Shaharyar; Ahmad, Nauman

    2015-05-01

    Ionizing radiations impact human tissues by affecting the DNA bases which constitute genes. Human interferon alpha 2b gene synthesizes a protein which is an important anticancerous, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antiviral protein. This study was aimed to identify interferon alpha-2b mutations as a consequence of the use of occupational chronic low dose radiation by hospital radiation exposed workers. A molecular analysis was done in which DNAs were extracted from blood samples from radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine workers. The gene was amplified through polymerase chain reaction and further genetic data from sequencing results analyzed by bioinformatics tools in order to determine as to how mutations in interferon alpha 2b sequences will lead to changes in human interferon alpha-2b protein. A total of 41% gene mutations was detected among all radiation exposed workers in which higher percentage (5.4%) of base insertion mutations and 14% frameshift mutations were found in radiology workers. The chronic use of low dose of radiations by occupational workers has a significant correlation with mutational effects on interferon alpha 2b gene, further evident by depressed interferon alpha levels in serum. This can lead to depressed immunity in radiation exposed workers. Hematological profiling of this group also showed hyperimmune response in the form of lymphocytosis.

  3. An Occupational Therapy Work Skills Assessment for Individuals with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an occupational therapy skills assessment protocol developed and used to evaluate physical, cognitive, and behavioral abilities for persons seeking to return to work following head injuries. It measures them within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills, and safety. (Contains 48 references.) (Author/JOW)

  4. Increased incidence of anti-dsDNA autoantibody concentration in sera of workers occupationally exposed to diisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Czuppon, A B; Marczynski, B; Scheer, E; Hartmann, R; Baur, X

    1993-01-01

    Sera of 87 industrial workers with a history of occupational exposition to various diisocyanates, toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate and methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate were analyzed for antibodies to isocyanate-conjugated human serum albumin and for anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. Ten workers (approx. 11%) were shown to have elevated anti-dsDNA autoantibody concentrations and 13 revealed antibodies to isocyanate-modified human serum albumin. The overlap of both tests being positive was calculated at about 40%. It would seem, therefore, that routine estimation of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies could provide additional useful information for the clinical diagnosis of occupational health impairment due to isocyanate exposure.

  5. Antioxidant and metabolic impairment result in DNA damage in arsenic-exposed individuals with severe dermatological manifestations in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Smarajit; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Deb, Bimal; Samanta, Tanmoy; Maji, Gurupada; Pan, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Amar; Ghosh, Debidas

    2012-05-01

    Arsenic is an environmental toxicant, free-radical generator, carcinogenic agent, and aging promoter. Recently, blood samples were analyzed from individuals (control- male 12, female 13; arsenic-exposed- male 16, female 14; and exposed to ≥100 μg/L As, ≥10 y) with dermatological symptoms in few affected villages in Eastern India to unravel their hematopoietic, metabolic, and antioxidant profiles. White blood cells recovered from buffy coat were used for DNA fragmentation test. Present observation suggests that significant number of individuals developed pigmentation and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with black-brownish patch on their body and many of those developed carcinomas. Hematopoietic data show a significant increase in eosinophil and decrease in monocyte count in either sex. Though insignificant, an increase in neutrophil in female and lymphocyte count in male arsenic-exposed individuals are supported by the earlier report on sex dimorphic immune sensitization. Significant increase in serum alanine transaminase in both sexes and bilirubin only in male suggests the eventuality of hepatic disintegration. Arsenic exposure significantly decreased serum amylase in female. A significant decrease in antioxidant components like catalase, soluble thiol, and recently recognized uric acid worsened the situation by generating free radicals as observed in significant rise in malondialdehyde level, which finally increased DNA fragmentation and arsenic-associated mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This could attribute to lowering in immune competence and related necrotic and/or apoptotic manifestations.

  6. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  7. ENV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in HIV seronegative health care workers occupationally exposed to HIV-contaminated body fluids.

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, L A; Sullivan, J; Berzofsky, J A; Clerici, M; Kessler, H A; Landay, A L; Shearer, G M

    1995-01-01

    Identification of the components of protective immunity are crucial for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies. Analysis of HIV-specific responses in exposed but uninfected individuals might thus provide a unique resource to elucidate the components and correlates of protective immunity to HIV. In the present study we analyzed HIV-specific cytotoxic and helper T lymphocyte responses in health care workers (HCW) exposed to body fluids from HIV-positive individuals. HCW exposed to blood from HIV-negative individuals as well as healthy donors served as controls. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to HIV envelope (env) peptides were detected in 7/20 (35%) HCW exposed to HIV-positive blood and in none of the 20 health care workers exposed to uninfected blood or the seven healthy blood donors studied. HIV-specific CTL responses were detected only after in vitro stimulation, and were MHC class I restricted. No MHC class I restriction elements were uniformly identified among the different responders. 21/28 (75%) HCW exposed to contaminated blood responded to env as measured by IL-2 production to the peptides, in contrast to only 9/38 (24%) HCW exposed to HIV seronegative blood and 3/35 (9%) healthy blood donors. All the HIV exposed individuals were seronegative on repeated ELISA tests, and no evidence of infection was obtained by PCR analysis. These findings indicate that a single exposure to HIV can induce CTL immunity to HIV antigens, in the absence of other evidence of infection. Images PMID:7635981

  8. Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupationally exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Knave, B; Persson, H E; Goldberg, J M; Westerholm, P

    1976-09-01

    In the present study the results of a neurological and neurophysiological health examination of 29 aircraft factory workers chronically exposed to jet fuel vapors are presented. The exposed subjects were classified into a heavily exposed and a less heavily exposed group. The examination included a standardized clinical neurological examination, measurements of the conduction velocities in the peripheral nerves, and threshold determinations of vibratory sensations in the extremities. All 13 persons examined in the heavily exposed group and 7 of the 16 in the less heavily exposed group stated that they had repeatedly experienced acute effects (dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, heart palpitations, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea, headache) of the jet fuel vapors in the inhaled air. A high rate of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy was observed both in the heavily exposed group and in the two groups combined in comparison with reference groups. Considering the presented facts concerning (a) the acute effects on repeated occasions, (b) the high rates of symptoms indicative of neurasthenia and psychasthenia and symptoms and signs indicative of polyneuropathy, and (c) the differences in the observations made between the two groups with varying degrees of exposure to jet fuel, the authors interpreted the results as indicative of a possible effect of long-term exposure to jet fuel on the nervous system.

  9. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico.

  10. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. PMID:26245813

  11. Evaluation of traffic noise pollution and attitudes of exposed individuals in working place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B. D.; Mishra, Virendra kumar

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.

  12. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-06-03

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested.

  13. Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Yu, Hai-Tao; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This review paper presents an overview of individual monitoring, as well as the national dose register and dose record management of radiation workers in China. Progress has recently been made on the individual monitoring of radiation workers. A critical analysis of current status and problems in individual monitoring is also presented and necessary future research on individual monitoring, such as the monitoring technology in the form of the ring dosimeters and eye lens dosimeters, is suggested. PMID:27271646

  14. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions.

  15. International Environmental and Occupational Health: From Individual Scientists to Networked Science Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. PMID:23109132

  16. International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua; Jessup, Christine; Felknor, Sarah; Humble, Michael; Bader, Farah; Bridbord, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. PMID:23109132

  17. Cross-sectional study of expression of divalent metal transporter-1, transferrin, and hepcidin in blood of smelters who are occupationally exposed to manganese

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Yu, Changyin; Chen, Jian; Shi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2016-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) is widely used in industries including the manufacture of Mn-iron (Fe) alloy. Occupational Mn overexposure causes manganism. Mn is known to affect Fe metabolism; this study was designed to test the hypothesis that workers exposed to Mn may have an altered expression of mRNAs encoding proteins in Fe metabolism. Methods Workers occupationally exposed to Mn (n = 71) from a Mn–Fe alloy factory and control workers without Mn-exposure (n = 48) from a pig-iron plant from Zunyi, China, were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected into Trizol-containing tubes. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Metal concentrations were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Working environment and genetic background of both groups were similar except for marked differences in airborne Mn concentrations (0.18 mg/m3 in Mn–Fe alloy factory vs. 0.0022 mg/m3 in pig-Fe plant), and in blood Mn levels (34.3 µg/L vs. 10.4 µg/L). Mn exposure caused a significant decrease in the expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), transferrin (Tf) and hepcidin by 58.2%, 68.5% and 61.5%, respectively, as compared to controls, while the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) was unaltered. Linear regression analysis revealed that expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin were inversely correlated with the accumulative Mn exposure; the correlation coefficients (r) are −0.47, −0.54, and −0.49, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion The data suggest that occupational Mn exposure causes decreased expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin in blood cells; the finding will help understand the mechanism underlying Mn exposure-associated alteration in Fe homeostasis among workers.

  18. Cross-sectional study of expression of divalent metal transporter-1, transferrin, and hepcidin in blood of smelters who are occupationally exposed to manganese

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Yu, Changyin; Chen, Jian; Shi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2016-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn) is widely used in industries including the manufacture of Mn-iron (Fe) alloy. Occupational Mn overexposure causes manganism. Mn is known to affect Fe metabolism; this study was designed to test the hypothesis that workers exposed to Mn may have an altered expression of mRNAs encoding proteins in Fe metabolism. Methods Workers occupationally exposed to Mn (n = 71) from a Mn–Fe alloy factory and control workers without Mn-exposure (n = 48) from a pig-iron plant from Zunyi, China, were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected into Trizol-containing tubes. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Metal concentrations were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Working environment and genetic background of both groups were similar except for marked differences in airborne Mn concentrations (0.18 mg/m3 in Mn–Fe alloy factory vs. 0.0022 mg/m3 in pig-Fe plant), and in blood Mn levels (34.3 µg/L vs. 10.4 µg/L). Mn exposure caused a significant decrease in the expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), transferrin (Tf) and hepcidin by 58.2%, 68.5% and 61.5%, respectively, as compared to controls, while the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) was unaltered. Linear regression analysis revealed that expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin were inversely correlated with the accumulative Mn exposure; the correlation coefficients (r) are −0.47, −0.54, and −0.49, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion The data suggest that occupational Mn exposure causes decreased expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin in blood cells; the finding will help understand the mechanism underlying Mn exposure-associated alteration in Fe homeostasis among workers. PMID:27635361

  19. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were

  20. Learning disabilities in individuals exposed prenatally to ionizing radiation: The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schull, William J.; Otake, Masanori

    The brain, undoubtedly the most complex organ in the mammalian body, is the culmination of a long and interrelated sequence of molecular, cellular and tissue events. Brain function hinges on the orderly progression of these, each of which must occur correctly, temporally and spatially. Impingement on any one will give rise to a less developed system of cellular connections, and hence impaired function. Moreover, the neurons of the central nervous system are not self-renewing and thus neuronal loss cannot be repaired through repopulation. Reanalysis of the data on the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggests that severe mental retardation occurs primarily, if not exclusively in the period from the 8th through the 15th week following fertilization. Within this window of vulnerability, the increase in mental retardation appears linear with dose and without theshold. More subtle functional effects also occur as reflected in diminished performance on intelligence tests and in school. These findings and their implications for space travel and regulatory agencies charged with the specification of acceptable risks should not require further elaboration in this article given the focus of the radiobiological presentations at this meeting.

  1. Learning disabilities in individuals exposed prenatally to ionizing radiation: the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences.

    PubMed

    Schull, W J; Otake, M

    1986-01-01

    The brain, undoubtedly the most complex organ in the mammalian body, is the culmination of a long and interrelated sequence of molecular, cellular and tissue events. Brain function hinges on the orderly progression of these, each of which must occur correctly, temporally and spatially. Impingement on any one will give rise to a less developed system of cellular connections, and hence impaired function. Moreover, the neurons of the central nervous system are not self-renewing and thus neuronal loss cannot be repaired through repopulation. Reanalysis of the data on the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggests that severe mental retardation occurs primarily, if not exclusively in the period from the 8th through the 15th week following fertilization. Within this window of vulnerability, the increase in mental retardation appears linear with dose and without threshold. More subtle functional effects also occur as reflected in diminished performance on intelligence tests and in school. These findings and their implications for space travel and regulatory agencies charged with the specification of acceptable risks should not require further elaboration in this article given the focus of the radiobiological presentations at this meeting.

  2. Defining the Brittle Failure Envelopes of Individual Reaction Zones Observed in CO2-Exposed Wellbore Cement.

    PubMed

    Hangx, Suzanne J T; van der Linden, Arjan; Marcelis, Fons; Liteanu, Emilia

    2016-01-19

    To predict the behavior of the cement sheath after CO2 injection and the potential for leakage pathways, it is key to understand how the mechanical properties of the cement evolves with CO2 exposure time. We performed scratch-hardness tests on hardened samples of class G cement before and after CO2 exposure. The cement was exposed to CO2-rich fluid for one to six months at 65 °C and 8 MPa Ptotal. Detailed SEM-EDX analyses showed reaction zones similar to those previously reported in the literature: (1) an outer-reacted, porous silica-rich zone; (2) a dense, carbonated zone; and (3) a more porous, Ca-depleted inner zone. The quantitative mechanical data (brittle compressive strength and friction coefficient) obtained for each of the zones suggest that the heterogeneity of reacted cement leads to a wide range of brittle strength values in any of the reaction zones, with only a rough dependence on exposure time. However, the data can be used to guide numerical modeling efforts needed to assess the impact of reaction-induced mechanical failure of wellbore cement by coupling sensitivity analysis and mechanical predictions. PMID:26690239

  3. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  4. Behavioral swimming effects and acetylcholinesterase activity changes in Jenynsia multidentata exposed to chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin individually and in mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Amé, María Valeria

    2016-07-01

    The pesticides cypermethrin (CYP) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) were found together in water bodies located in agricultural and urban areas. However, the impact to non-target biota from exposure to mixtures has received little attention. In the current study, we evaluated changes in swimming behavior and cholinesterase enzymes activity in Jenynsia multidentata, to investigate the possible effects of these insecticides individually and in mixtures. Moreover, differences between technical and commercial mixtures of the pesticides were evaluated. Females of J. multidentata were exposed over 96-h to CYP (0.04 and 0.4µgL(-1)), CPF (0.4 and 4µgL(-1)), individually and in a technical and commercial mixtures. Swimming behavior was recorded after 24h and 96h of exposure. Also, we measured cholinesterase enzymes activity in brain and muscle after 96h of exposure. Exposure to CYP increased the exploratory activity of J. multidentata in the upper area of the aquarium. Fish exposed to CPF (4µg L(-1)) showed a decrease in swimming activity and an increase in the time spent at the bottom of the aquarium. Interestingly, fish exposed to the technical and commercial mixture of CYP and CPF displayed a different behavior based on the concentration of exposure. Low concentration of pesticides elicited an increase in J. multidentata swimming activity with preference for the upper area of the aquarium, and high concentrations caused decrease in swimming activity with preference for the bottom area of the aquarium. Based on the response of cholinesterase enzymes, acetylcholinesterase in muscle was more sensitive to exposure to CYP, CPF and their mixtures than in brain. A decrease in swimming behavior correlates significantly with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in muscle of J. multidentata exposed to high concentrations of pesticides. These results draw attention to the need of more studies on the potential ecotoxicological impact of pesticides and its mixtures at

  5. FBLN-3 as a biomarker of pleural plaques in workers occupationally exposed to carcinogenic fibers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Migliore, Marcello; Salemi, Rossella; Musumeci, Andrea; Bracci, Massimo; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    FBLN-3 has recently been proposed as a biomarker for malignant mesothelioma. A significantly increased standardized mortality rate from malignant mesothelioma has been reported in Biancavilla, Italy. Its cause has been identified in environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite. The aim of this study was to seek a correlation between plasma FBLN-3 concentration and pleural plaques in subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite and in a nonexposed control group. Pleural plaques was never detected in the control group, whereas it was found in 52% of exposed subjects. Median FBLN-3 concentrations were 12.96 and 5.29 ng/ml in the exposed and the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). FBLN-3 plasma levels exhibited a high predictive value for the presence of pleural plaques. PMID:26638921

  6. FBLN-3 as a biomarker of pleural plaques in workers occupationally exposed to carcinogenic fibers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Migliore, Marcello; Salemi, Rossella; Musumeci, Andrea; Bracci, Massimo; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    FBLN-3 has recently been proposed as a biomarker for malignant mesothelioma. A significantly increased standardized mortality rate from malignant mesothelioma has been reported in Biancavilla, Italy. Its cause has been identified in environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite. The aim of this study was to seek a correlation between plasma FBLN-3 concentration and pleural plaques in subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite and in a nonexposed control group. Pleural plaques was never detected in the control group, whereas it was found in 52% of exposed subjects. Median FBLN-3 concentrations were 12.96 and 5.29 ng/ml in the exposed and the control group, respectively (p < 0.001). FBLN-3 plasma levels exhibited a high predictive value for the presence of pleural plaques.

  7. [Noise-related occupational risk aboard fishing vessels: considerations on prevention and the protection of exposed workers].

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Bolognini, S; Fenga, C

    2004-01-01

    Recent legislation regarding the safety of workers aboard fishing vessels requires the appointment by ship owners of a Reference Physician in charge of health surveillance, preventive inspections and related tasks. As maritime workers, especially fishermen, have always been excluded from legal protection of occupational health, there are no exhaustive data on the incidence of their occupational disease. Several epidemiological studies of fishermen have evidenced a high prevalence and incidence of occupational conditions, among which noise-related hypoacousia. We report data of a phonometric survey conducted aboard six fishing vessels carrying a crew of less than six fishing in the mid-Adriatic. Measurements were performed during fishing and navigation aboard five vessels fitted with a fixed-pitch propeller and during fishing only aboard one vessel fitted with an controllable pitch propeller. Measurements were conducted: 1) in the engine rooms; 2) in the work area on deck; 3) at the winch; 4) in the wheelhouse; 5) in the mess-room and kitchen; 6) in the sleeping quarters. Results show that the equivalent sound pressure level in the engine rooms consistently exceeded 90 dBA on all vessels. The speed of the vessels fitted with the fixed-pitch propeller is 3-4 knots in the fishing phase and around 10 knots during navigation to and from the fishing grounds; noise emission is lower with the former regimen because of the smaller number of engine revolutions per minute. Our survey demonstrated considerably different noise levels in the various areas of vessels. One key element in workers' exposure, the tasks assigned and the environmental working conditions is of course the type of fishing in which the vessel is engaged. Further phonometric studies are required to assess the daily level of exposure per crew member, which represents the reference for the noise-related risk of each subject. Knowledge of the sound pressure levels in the work environment and the length of

  8. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Lauren M; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  9. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  10. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  11. The adverse health effects of oil spills: a review of the literature and a framework for medically evaluating exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Nassetta, William J

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, an explosion on an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, injured 17 workers, and spilled an estimated 185 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf. Adverse effects on the health of cleanup workers, fishermen, and others as well as on the ecosystem are being studied. This paper reviews published studies of the adverse health effects due to previous oil spills. Acute effects have included: respiratory, eye, and skin symptoms; headache; nausea; dizziness; and tiredness or fatigue. Chronic effects have included: psychological disorders, respiratory disorders, genotoxic effects, and endocrine abnormalities. We also present a systematic approach to evaluating individuals exposed to oil spills.

  12. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  13. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-20

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  14. [Doping in endurance sports. Survey of individual [Hb] levels can expose doping].

    PubMed

    Ekblom, B; Holmberg, H C; Eriksson, K

    2001-11-28

    Doping through increasing [Hb] increases physical performance in sport. Therefore, no cross-country skiers with [Hb] values above 160 and 175 g/l for women and men, respectively, may start in competitions. Even plasma expanders have been used, possibly for lowering a high [Hb] but this procedure may not increase physical performance. There are methods available for detecting the use of erythropoietin but not reinfusion of erythrocytes to increase [Hb]. To make it more difficult to increase [Hb] by different unethical methods we suggest that the [Hb] in endurance athletes is determined both during the training and the competition season to establish individual [Hb] mean values and range. Since endurance training at altitude does not increase [Hb] after return to sea level, an occasional increased [Hb] is suspicious. In such a case complementary doping tests may be used.

  15. Decreased DNA repair gene expression among individuals exposed to arsenic in United States drinking water.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Angeline S; Karagas, Margaret R; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2003-04-10

    Arsenic is well established as a human carcinogen, but its precise mechanism of action remains unknown. Arsenic does not directly damage DNA, but may act as a carcinogen through inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms, leading indirectly to increased mutations from other DNA damaging agents. The molecular mechanism underlying arsenic inhibition of nucleotide excision repair after UV irradiation (Hartwig et al., Carcinogenesis 1997;18:399-405) is unknown, but could be due to decreased expression of critical genes involved in nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing expression of repair genes and arsenic exposure in a subset of 16 individuals enrolled in a population based case-control study investigating arsenic exposure and cancer risk in New Hampshire. Toenail arsenic levels were inversely correlated with expression of critical members of the nucleotide excision repair complex, ERCC1 (r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.0001), XPF (r(2) = 0.56, p < 0.002), and XPB (r(2) = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The internal dose marker, toenail arsenic level, was more strongly associated with changes in expression of these genes than drinking water arsenic concentration. Our findings, based on human exposure to arsenic in a US population, show an association between biomarkers of arsenic exposure and expression of DNA repair genes. Although our findings need verification in a larger study group, they are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of DNA repair capacity is a potential mechanism for the co-carcinogenic activity of arsenic.

  16. Genetic Factors That Might Lead to Different Responses in Individuals Exposed to Perchlorate

    PubMed Central

    Scinicariello, Franco; Murray, H. Edward; Smith, Lester; Wilbur, Sharon; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter, the thyroid cell–surface protein responsible for transporting iodide from the plasma into the thyroid. An estimated 4.3% of the U.S. population is subclinically hypothyroid, and 6.9% of pregnant women may have low iodine intake. Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 4,000 infants, and 15% of these cases have been attributed to genetic defects. Our objective in this review is to identify genetic biomarkers that would help define subpopulations sensitive to environmental perchlorate exposure. We review the literature to identify genetic defects involved in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, particularly defects in iodide transport from circulation into the thyroid cell, defects in iodide transport from the thyroid cell to the follicular lumen (Pendred syndrome), and defects of iodide organification. Furthermore, we summarize relevant studies of perchlorate in humans. Because of perchlorate inhibition of iodide uptake, it is biologically plausible that chronic ingestion of perchlorate through contaminated sources may cause some degree of iodine discharge in populations that are genetically susceptible to defects in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, thus deteriorating their conditions. We conclude that future studies linking human disease and environmental perchlorate exposure should consider the genetic makeup of the participants, actual perchlorate exposure levels, and individual iodine intake/excretion levels. PMID:16263499

  17. Genetic factors that might lead to different responses in individuals exposed to perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, Franco; Murray, H Edward; Smith, Lester; Wilbur, Sharon; Fowler, Bruce A

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter, the thyroid cell-surface protein responsible for transporting iodide from the plasma into the thyroid. An estimated 4.3% of the U.S. population is subclinically hypothyroid, and 6.9% of pregnant women may have low iodine intake. Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 4,000 infants, and 15% of these cases have been attributed to genetic defects. Our objective in this review is to identify genetic biomarkers that would help define subpopulations sensitive to environmental perchlorate exposure. We review the literature to identify genetic defects involved in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, particularly defects in iodide transport from circulation into the thyroid cell, defects in iodide transport from the thyroid cell to the follicular lumen (Pendred syndrome), and defects of iodide organification. Furthermore, we summarize relevant studies of perchlorate in humans. Because of perchlorate inhibition of iodide uptake, it is biologically plausible that chronic ingestion of perchlorate through contaminated sources may cause some degree of iodine discharge in populations that are genetically susceptible to defects in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, thus deteriorating their conditions. We conclude that future studies linking human disease and environmental perchlorate exposure should consider the genetic makeup of the participants, actual perchlorate exposure levels, and individual iodine intake/excretion levels. PMID:16263499

  18. Physiological responses of exercised-fatigued individuals exposed to wet-cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Tikuisis, P; Ducharme, M B; Moroz, D; Jacobs, I

    1999-04-01

    Thirteen healthy and fit men [age = 27 +/- 8 (SD) yr, height = 177 +/- 5 cm, mass = 75 +/- 7 kg, body fat = 14 +/- 5%, maximal O2 consumption = 51 +/- 4 ml. kg-1. min-1] participated in an experiment designed to test their thermoregulatory response to a challenging cold exposure after 5 h of demanding mixed exercise during which only water was consumed. Subjects expended 7,314 +/- 741 kJ on cycling, rowing, and treadmill-walking machines, performed 8,403 +/- 1,401 kg. m of mechanical work during resistance exercises, and completed 120 inclined sit-ups. Subjects then assumed a seated position in a 10 degrees C air environment while wearing shorts, T-shirt, rain hat, and neoprene gloves and boots. After 30 min the subjects were showered continuously with cold water ( approximately 920 ml/min at 10 degrees C) on their backs accompanied by a 6 km/h wind for up to 4 h. Blood samples were taken from the nondominant arm every 30 min during the exposure and assayed for energy metabolites, hormones, indexes of hydration, and neurotransmitters. Counterbalanced control trials without prior exercise were also conducted. Blood insulin was higher during the control trial, whereas values of glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, cortisol, free triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were lower. Three subjects lasted the maximum duration of 4.5 h for control and fatigue trials, with final rectal temperatures of 36.43 +/- 0.21 and 36.08 +/- 0.49 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the duration of 172 +/- 68 (SD) min for the fatigue trial was not significantly different from that of the control trial (197 +/- 72 min) and, therefore, was not affected by the preexposure exercise. Although duration was positively correlated to body fatness and shivering intensity, the latter was not correlated to any physical characteristic or the fitness level of the individual.

  19. Genetic factors that might lead to different responses in individuals exposed to perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Scinicariello, Franco; Murray, H Edward; Smith, Lester; Wilbur, Sharon; Fowler, Bruce A

    2005-11-01

    Perchlorate has been detected in groundwater in many parts of the United States, and recent detection in vegetable and dairy food products indicates that contamination by perchlorate is more widespread than previously thought. Perchlorate is a competitive inhibitor of the sodium iodide symporter, the thyroid cell-surface protein responsible for transporting iodide from the plasma into the thyroid. An estimated 4.3% of the U.S. population is subclinically hypothyroid, and 6.9% of pregnant women may have low iodine intake. Congenital hypothyroidism affects 1 in 3,000 to 1 in 4,000 infants, and 15% of these cases have been attributed to genetic defects. Our objective in this review is to identify genetic biomarkers that would help define subpopulations sensitive to environmental perchlorate exposure. We review the literature to identify genetic defects involved in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, particularly defects in iodide transport from circulation into the thyroid cell, defects in iodide transport from the thyroid cell to the follicular lumen (Pendred syndrome), and defects of iodide organification. Furthermore, we summarize relevant studies of perchlorate in humans. Because of perchlorate inhibition of iodide uptake, it is biologically plausible that chronic ingestion of perchlorate through contaminated sources may cause some degree of iodine discharge in populations that are genetically susceptible to defects in the iodination process of the thyroid hormone synthesis, thus deteriorating their conditions. We conclude that future studies linking human disease and environmental perchlorate exposure should consider the genetic makeup of the participants, actual perchlorate exposure levels, and individual iodine intake/excretion levels.

  20. Folate, homocysteine, and arsenic metabolism in arsenic-exposed individuals in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Mary V; Liu, Xinhua; Ahsan, Habibul; Pilsner, Richard; Ilievski, Vesna; Slavkovich, Vesna; Parvez, Faruque; Levy, Diane; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph H

    2005-12-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic is occurring throughout South and East Asia due to groundwater contamination of well water. Variability in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity may be related to nutritional status. Arsenic is methylated to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) via one-carbon metabolism, a biochemical pathway that is dependent on folate. The majority of one-carbon metabolism methylation reactions are devoted to biosynthesis of creatine, the precursor of creatinine. Our objectives of this cross-sectional study were to characterize the relationships among folate, cobalamin, homocysteine, and arsenic metabolism in Bangladeshi adults. Water arsenic, urinary arsenic, urinary creatinine, plasma folate, cobalamin, and homocysteine were assessed in 1,650 adults; urinary arsenic metabolites were analyzed for a subset of 300 individuals. The percentage of DMA in urine was positively associated with plasma folate (r = 0.14, p = 0.02) and negatively associated with total homocysteine (tHcys; r = -0.14, p = 0.01). Conversely, percent MMA was negatively associated with folate (r = -0.12, p = 0.04) and positively associated with tHcys (r = 0.21, p = 0.0002); percent inorganic arsenic (InAs) was negatively associated with folate (r = -0.12, p = 0.03). Urinary creatinine was positively correlated with percent DMA (r = 0.40 for males, p < 0.0001; 0.25 for females, p = 0.001), and with percent InAs (r = -0.45 for males, p < 0.0001; -0.20 for females, p = 0.01). Collectively, these data suggest that folate, tHcys, and other factors involved in one-carbon metabolism influence arsenic methylation. This may be particularly relevant in Bangladesh, where the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia is extremely high.

  1. Evaluation of the serum catalase and myeloperoxidase activities in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals and concomitant cytogenetic damage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mayukh; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Ghosh, Pritha; Das, Jayanta K; Basu, Santanu; Sarkar, Ajoy K; States, J Christopher; Giri, Ashok K

    2010-11-15

    Chronic arsenic exposure through contaminated drinking water is a major environmental health issue. Chronic arsenic exposure is known to exert its toxic effects by a variety of mechanisms, of which generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most important. A high level of ROS, in turn, leads to DNA damage that might ultimately culminate in cancer. In order to keep the level of ROS in balance, an array of enzymes is present, of which catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are important members. Hence, in this study, we determined the activities of these two enzymes in the sera and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes in individuals exposed and unexposed to arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic in drinking water and in urine was used as a measure of exposure. Our results show that individuals chronically exposed to arsenic have significantly higher CAT and MPO activities and higher incidence of CA. We found moderate positive correlations between CAT and MPO activities, induction of CA and arsenic in urine and water. These results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure causes higher CAT and MPO activities in serum that correlates with induction of genetic damage. We conclude that the serum levels of these enzymes might be used as biomarkers of early arsenic exposure induced disease much before the classical dermatological symptoms of arsenicosis begin to appear.

  2. Evaluation of the serum catalase and myeloperoxidase activities in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals and concomitant cytogenetic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Mayukh; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Ghosh, Pritha; Das, Jayanta K.; Basu, Santanu; Sarkar, Ajoy K.; States, J. Christopher; Giri, Ashok K.

    2010-11-15

    Chronic arsenic exposure through contaminated drinking water is a major environmental health issue. Chronic arsenic exposure is known to exert its toxic effects by a variety of mechanisms, of which generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most important. A high level of ROS, in turn, leads to DNA damage that might ultimately culminate in cancer. In order to keep the level of ROS in balance, an array of enzymes is present, of which catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are important members. Hence, in this study, we determined the activities of these two enzymes in the sera and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes in individuals exposed and unexposed to arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic in drinking water and in urine was used as a measure of exposure. Our results show that individuals chronically exposed to arsenic have significantly higher CAT and MPO activities and higher incidence of CA. We found moderate positive correlations between CAT and MPO activities, induction of CA and arsenic in urine and water. These results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure causes higher CAT and MPO activities in serum that correlates with induction of genetic damage. We conclude that the serum levels of these enzymes might be used as biomarkers of early arsenic exposure induced disease much before the classical dermatological symptoms of arsenicosis begin to appear.

  3. Immunomodulation by heavy metals tested individually or in mixtures in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Dardon, J.; Voccia, I.; Hontela, A.; Chilmonczyk, S.; Dunier, M.; Boermans, H.; Blakley, B.; Fournier, M.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heavy metals, at environmentally relevant concentrations, on the immune response of rainbow trout. Trout were exposed for 30 d to cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}), mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}), or zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) either individually or in combinations: CdCl{sub 2}/HgCl{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}, HgCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}, or CdCl{sub 2}/HgCl{sub 2}/ZnCl{sub 2}. Following the 30-d exposure, parameters of the nonspecific cellular immune response (phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and lymphoblastic proliferation) and of the nonspecific humoral immune response (lysozyme activity and the level of immunoglobulin) were measured. The results obtained indicate that individually, all three metals induce significant immunomodulations. However, the toxicity of mercury or cadmium is significantly reduced in fish simultaneously exposed to zinc, indicating that a protection is afforded by zinc against cadmium- and mercury-induced immunotoxicity.

  4. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  5. [Changes in the pleura of subjects occupationally-exposed to asbestos: radiological study technique, spectrum, etiological classification and coding according to the ILO classification].

    PubMed

    Wiebe, V; Müller, K M; Reichel, G

    1991-01-01

    Pleural abnormalities of 119 occupationally asbestos-exposed with prominent internal stripe of the lateral thoracic wall were radiodiagnostically analysed by plain films of the thorax in four views and by computed tomography in the course of medical expert's certification. Abnormalities were coded according to 1980 ILO international classification of pneumoconioses. Hardly half of the patients had pleural abnormalities caused by asbestos exposure: Pleural plaques, "diffuse" pleural fibrosis, pleural effusions, organized pleural effusions and pleural tumors. The other half of the patients had pleural involvement of pulmonary and chest wall abnormalities or variations of the lateral thoracic wall not related to asbestos exposure. The 1980 ILO classification of pneumoconioses proved to be inadequate for complete coding of the abnormalities, since only the postero-anterior plain film of the thorax must be used, since the normal appearance of the pleura is insufficiently defined and since the entity of organized pleural effusion is lacking.

  6. Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to organic solvent mixtures used in the paint and varnish production.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Sińczuk-Walczak, H; Szymczak, M; Wesołowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the nervous system of workers chronically exposed to mixtures of organic solvent at concentrations within or slightly exceeding the MAC values, used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers. The tests were performed on a group of 175 people, 107 men aged 22-59 (x = 41.25), and 68 women aged 20-55 (x = 38.62). The period of employment was x = 17.34 years and cumulative dose index 16.97 for males; for females, the corresponding values were x = 14.75 and x = 11.42, respectively. The control group included 175 people (107 men and 68 women) not exposed to chemicals matched according to sex, age, and work shift distribution. The neurological examinations included subjective and objective examinations of the nervous system, electroencephalographic (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) evaluations. The assessment of organic solvent exposure was performed according to the method described in PN89/Z-04008/07, and the solvent mixtures were shown to contain xylenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, aliphatic hydrocarbons and the components of painter's naphtha. The most frequent complaints among the exposed males included headache, vertigo, concentration difficulties, sleep disorders, sleepiness during the day, increased emotional irritability, mood swings with a tendency to anxiety. The objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Generalised and paroxysmal changes were most common recordings in the abnormal EEG. VEP examinations revealed abnormalities, primarily in the latency of the response evoked. The results of this study suggest that exposures to concentrations within MAC values, or below 1.5 of the MAC values of organic solvents mixtures used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers produce subclinical health effect in the nervous system.

  7. Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to organic solvent mixtures used in the paint and varnish production.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Sińczuk-Walczak, H; Szymczak, M; Wesołowski, W

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the nervous system of workers chronically exposed to mixtures of organic solvent at concentrations within or slightly exceeding the MAC values, used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers. The tests were performed on a group of 175 people, 107 men aged 22-59 (x = 41.25), and 68 women aged 20-55 (x = 38.62). The period of employment was x = 17.34 years and cumulative dose index 16.97 for males; for females, the corresponding values were x = 14.75 and x = 11.42, respectively. The control group included 175 people (107 men and 68 women) not exposed to chemicals matched according to sex, age, and work shift distribution. The neurological examinations included subjective and objective examinations of the nervous system, electroencephalographic (EEG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) evaluations. The assessment of organic solvent exposure was performed according to the method described in PN89/Z-04008/07, and the solvent mixtures were shown to contain xylenes, ethyltoluenes, trimethylbenzenes, propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, aliphatic hydrocarbons and the components of painter's naphtha. The most frequent complaints among the exposed males included headache, vertigo, concentration difficulties, sleep disorders, sleepiness during the day, increased emotional irritability, mood swings with a tendency to anxiety. The objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Generalised and paroxysmal changes were most common recordings in the abnormal EEG. VEP examinations revealed abnormalities, primarily in the latency of the response evoked. The results of this study suggest that exposures to concentrations within MAC values, or below 1.5 of the MAC values of organic solvents mixtures used in the manufacture of paints and lacquers produce subclinical health effect in the nervous system. PMID:8972166

  8. Proteomic profiling in the sera of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic and lead: identification of potential biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rihong; Su, Suhua; Lu, Xin; Liao, Ruiqing; Ge, Xianmin; He, Min; Huang, Yuanjiao; Mai, Sui; Lu, Xi; Christiani, David

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are important inorganic toxicants in the environment. Frequently, humans are exposed to the mixtures of As and Pb, but little is known about the expression of biomarkers resulting from such mixed exposures. In this study, we analyzed serum proteomic profiles in a group of smelter workers with the aim of identifying protein biomarkers of mixed As and Pb exposure. Forty-six male workers co-exposed to As and Pb were studied. Forty-five age-matched male office workers were chosen as controls. Urine As and blood Pb concentrations were determined. Serum proteomic profiles were analyzed by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometer on the WCX2 ProteinChip. Using Recursive support vector machine (RSVM) algorithm, a panel of five peptides/proteins (2097 Da, 2953 Da, 3941 Da, 5338 Da, and 5639 Da) was selected based on their collective contribution to the optional separation between higher metal mixture exposure and non-exposure controls. Among these five selected markers, the 3941 Da was down-regulated and the four other proteins were up-regulated. Descriptive statistics confirmed that these five proteins differed significantly between metal exposure and non-exposure. Interestingly, the combined use of the five selected biomarkers could achieve higher discriminative power than single marker. These results demonstrated that proteomic technology, in conjunction with bioinformatics tools, could facilitate the discovery of new and better biomarkers of mixed metal exposure.

  9. Individual Contributory Factors in Teacher Stress: The Role of Achievement Striving and Occupational Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Emma; Forrest, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Workplace stress and its impact upon retention levels are becoming an increasing concern within the teaching profession (Brown, Davis, & Johnson, 2002; Jarvis, 2002). Research has largely focused upon the effects of environmental factors, whilst noting that it is the interplay between the individual and the environment which may hold the key to…

  10. Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mahata, J; Basu, A; Ghoshal, S; Sarkar, J N; Roy, A K; Poddar, G; Nandy, A K; Banerjee, A; Ray, K; Natarajan, A T; Nilsson, R; Giri, A K

    2003-01-10

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater has become a worldwide problem. Currently an unprecedented number of people in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh are exposed to the ubiquitous toxicant via drinking water in exposure levels far exceeding the maximum recommended limit laid down by WHO. This arsenic epidemic has devastated nine districts of West Bengal encompassing an area of 38,865 km(2) leading to various clinical manifestations of chronic arsenicosis. We conducted a human bio-monitoring study using chromosomal aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) as end points to explore the cytogenetic effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in the population of North 24 Parganas, one of the arsenic affected districts in West Bengal. Study participants included 59 individuals residing in this district where the mean level (+/-S.E.) of arsenic in drinking water (microg/l) was 211.70+/-15.28. As age matched controls with similar socio-economic status we selected 36 healthy, asymptomatic individuals residing in two unaffected districts--Midnapur and Howrah where the mean arsenic content of water (microg/l) was 6.35+/-0.45. Exposure was assessed by standardized questionnaires and by detecting the levels of arsenic in drinking water, nails, hair and urine samples. In the exposed group the mean arsenic concentrations in nails (microg/g), hair (microg/g) and urine (microg/l) samples were 9.04+/-0.78, 5.63+/-0.38 and 140.52+/-8.82, respectively, which were significantly high (P<0.01) compared to the corresponding control values of 0.44+/-0.03, 0.30+/-0.02 and 5.91+/-0.49, respectively. Elevated mean values (P<0.01) of the percentage of aberrant cells (8.08%) and SCEs per cell (7.26) were also observed in the exposed individuals in comparison to controls (1.96% and 5.95, respectively). The enhanced rates of CAs and SCEs among the residents of North 24 Parganas are indicative of the cytogenetic damage due to long term exposure to arsenic through consumption of contaminated

  11. Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Gammarus pulex Exposed to Cadmium and Arsenate at Three Temperatures: Individual and Combined Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and15°C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na+] and [Cl−] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na+] and [Cl−] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl−]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as ‘additive’ for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10°C considered as “antagonistic”). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl−] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na+] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  12. The bank of biological samples representing individuals exposed to long-term ionizing radiation at various doses.

    PubMed

    Takhauov, Ravil M; Karpov, Andrey B; Albach, Elena N; Khalyuzova, Maria V; Freidin, Maxim B; Litviakov, Nicolai V; Sazonov, Aleksey E; Isubakova, Daria S; Bolshakov, Mikhail A; Mezheritskiy, Stanislav A; Mironova, Elena B; Semenova, Julia V; Nekrasov, Gennadiy B; Izosimov, Andrey S; Gagarin, Aleksey A; Brendakov, Roman V; Maksimov, Dmitriy E; Ermolaev, Yuriy D

    2015-04-01

    Collection and storage of biological specimens in biobanks aims to obtain and preserve samples of different kinds for biological and medical studies. Here we present a description of the Bank of Biological Materials (BBM) housed by the Seversk Biophysical Research Centre (SBRC; Seversk, Russia). The main goal of maintaining the BBM is to collect and store biological samples suitable for genetic studies of people exposed to long-term ionizing radiation. Currently, the collection includes 19,194 biological specimens obtained from 8105 donors, of whom 42.3% are diagnosed with malignant neoplasms, 28.7% are healthy residents of the city of Seversk, 18.8% are healthy employees of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE), and 10.2% are patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. The donors were enrolled using the Regional Medical and Dosimetric Register database created by the SBRC. For each donor, DNA specimens were extracted from peripheral blood and tissues and cell suspensions for cytogenetic analysis were prepared routinely. The BBM's unique collection is suitable primarily for studies of individual radiosensitivity of humans (IRH), and genetic aspects of the pathophysiology of common human diseases, especially in populations exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation.

  13. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Doses to the maximally exposed individual from NRC-licensed activities: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, D.A.; Dolan, M.M.; Mantooth, D.S.

    1989-07-01

    This report estimates the additional radiation dose potentially received by the maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the disposal of Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) waste from other NRC-licensed activities potentially resulting in exposures to members of the general public. The MEI for BRC waste disposal has been identified as the driver of the disposal truck containing BRC waste. The additional doses received by the BRC waste truck driver are determined by identifying the following: (1) the MEI from NRC-licensed activities that result in exposures to the general public (documented in the literature); and (2) the likelihood that the truck driver is also the MEI for those activities. The likelihood that the truck driver is also the MEI from other activities is evaluated based on the time of the potential exposure, its geographic proximity to the BRC waste MEI, and the critical exposure pathway. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Outcomes of a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Workshop on Understanding HIV-Exposed but Seronegative Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Jim A.; Musib, Runa; Sharma, Opendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The fascinating conundrum that some individuals who are exposed to HIV in ways that would make viral transmission highly likely, yet are able to remain uninfected, has been appreciated for many years. As early as the late 1980s, reports of such individuals began appearing in the HIV/AIDS literature. Despite the critical importance of understanding possible mechanisms of natural HIV resistance for developing effective prevention strategies, numerous obstacles have prevented this essential area of scientific exploration from moving forward. The Workshop held on July 8–9, 2010 and supported by the Office of AIDS Research (OAR), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) at the NIH hosted 200 participants and utilized the expertise of 42 AIDS researchers as invited speakers, session chairs, and discussion leaders for presentations and breakout sessions in an attempt to remove some of those obstacles. Accomplishments of the participants included developing a consensus for a new general term for the field, HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN), while recognizing the necessity to identify and utilize secondary descriptive criteria such as exposure level, risk group, duration of seronegativity, or natural resistance. Three key questions for future research were also identified by the group: (1) What is different in HESN versus those who get infected? (2) What is the immune response in HESN and is it just a marker of exposure or a correlate of protection? (3) What are the HESN host factors that help HESN resist infection? This report briefly summarizes the presentations, and describes future directions for addressing these questions and challenges. PMID:21142412

  15. Reproductive toxicity parameters and biological monitoring in occupationally and environmentally boron-exposed persons in Bandirma, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Duydu, Yalçın; Başaran, Nurşen; Üstündağ, Aylin; Aydin, Sevtap; Ündeğer, Ülkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçın; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Britta Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2011-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. Experimentally, a NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 17.5 mg B/kg-bw/day has been identified for the (male) reproductive effects of boron in a multigeneration study of rats, and a NOAEL for the developmental effects in rats was identified at 9.6 mg B/kg-bw/day. These values are being taken as the basis of current EU safety assessments. The present study was conducted to investigate the reproductive effects of boron exposure in workers employed in boric acid production plant in Bandirma, Turkey. In order to characterize the external and internal boron exposures, boron was determined in biological samples (blood, urine, semen), in workplace air, in food, and in water sources. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators (concentration, motility, morphology of the sperm cells and blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total testosterone) were not observed. The mean calculated daily boron exposure (DBE) of the highly exposed group was 14.45 ± 6.57 (3.32-35.62) mg/day. These human exposures represent worst-case exposure conditions to boric acid/borates in Turkey. These exposure levels are considerably lower than exposures, which have previously led to reproductive effects in experimental animals. In conclusion, this means that dose levels of boron associated with developmental and reproductive toxic effects in animals are by far not reachable for humans under conditions of normal handling and use.

  16. Patch occupancy, number of individuals and population density of the Marbled White in a changing agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr

    2010-09-01

    Metapopulation theory predicts the occurrence of animals in habitat patches. In this paper, we tested predictions based on this theory, including effects of spatial autocorrelation, to describe factors affecting the presence, local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea in habitat patches spread across the agricultural landscape of southern Poland. This agricultural landscape has undergone significant changes in recent decades due to the country's political transformation and is currently characterized by a large proportion of fallow (abandoned) land. We compared 48 occupied habitat patches with 60 unoccupied ones. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in the number and density of individuals in habitat patches. The probability of patch occupancy was higher for patches that were larger, had a higher proportion of edges, were located closer to the nearest neighbouring local population and to the nearest piece of fallow, contained a smaller area of cut grass, and also had more nectar resources. The number of Marbled Whites in habitat patches was positively related to the patch area, the distance to the nearest fallow and the abundance of nectar resources, but was negatively related to the density of shrubs. The density of individuals was positively related to abundance of flowers, proportion of edge in a patch and distance to the nearest fallow, but it was negatively related to patch area, vegetation height and grass cover. These results indicate that recent land-use changes in agricultural landscapes have had both positive and negative effects on the presence and local number of individuals and density of the Marbled White. These changes affect the metapopulation of the species through changes in habitat quality and landscape connectivity in the area surrounding habitat patches.

  17. Biomonitoring of 20 trace elements in blood and urine of occupationally exposed workers by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solovyev, N D; Zeimal', A E; Navolotskii, D V; Drobyshev, E J

    2013-11-15

    A sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in whole blood and urine was designed. Microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid was used for blood samples. Urine samples were analyzed after 1/50 (v/v) dilution with 5% (v/v) nitric acid. For beryllium the necessity of medium resolution mode (R=4000) was shown. Method validation was performed using blood and urine reference materials and by analyzing of spiked samples. For the designed method relative standard deviation (RSD) for the concentration range 0.01-1.0 μg/L was 5-10%. RSD did not exceed 3% when trace elements concentrations were above 1.0 μg/L. Method detection limits (3σ): Ag 0.7 ng/L, Al 16 ng/L, As 3.4 ng/L, Ba 0.02 ng/L, Be 1.5 ng/L, Cd 7.7 ng/L, Co 1.0 ng/L, Cr 2.8 ng/L, Cs 9.8 ng/L, Cu 27 ng/L, Fe 1.1 ng/L, Mn 1.8 ng/L, Ni 17 ng/L, Pb 13 ng/L, Se 0.07 ng/L, Sr 5.7 ng/L, Tl 0.2 ng/L, U 0.1 ng/L, V 0.7 ng/L and Zn 1.2 ng/L. A developed method was applied for trace element biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers of a beryllium processing enterprise. For preliminary risk assessment technological surface dust had been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Based upon results of 50 blood and 40 urine samples analyses occupational exposure evaluation was performed. Exposure risks were found not to exceed acceptable ranges. Possible health hazards were found for Be and also Al, Cr, Mn. Occupational health and safety recommendations for the biomonitored enterprise medical care unit were issued as a result of the current investigation.

  18. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  19. Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles in a Chinese population occupationally exposed to benzene and in a population with chronic benzene poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Xianwen; Bian, Qian; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Qingdong; Ding, Lu; Zhang, Hengdong

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNA (miRNA) has attractive interests as a non-invasive biomarker of physiological and pathological conditions. Our study aimed to investigate the potential effects of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP) and benzene exposure on miRNA expression, and identify CBP-related miRNAs. Methods In the discovery stage, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles among pooled plasma samples from ten CBP patients, ten healthy benzene-exposed individuals and ten non-benzene exposed individuals. Subsequently, we conducted an expanded validation of six candidate miRNAs in 27 CBP patients- low blood counts, 54 healthy benzene-exposed individuals and 54 non-exposed individuals. Moreover, we predicted the biological functions of putative target genes using a Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis. Results In the discovery stage, compared with non-exposures, 36 and 12 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients and the benzene exposures, respectively. And compared with benzene exposures, 58 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.0-fold differential expression in the CBP patients. In the expanded validation stage, compared with non-exposures as well as exposures, miR-24-3p and miR-221-3p were significantly up-regulated (1.99- and 2.06-fold for miR-24-3p, 2.19- and 3.93-fold for miR-221-3p, P<0.01) while miR-122-5p and miR-638 were significantly down-regulated (−3.45- and −2.60-fold for miR-122-5p, −1.82- and −3.20-fold for miR-638, P<0.001) in the CBP patients; compared with non-exposures, the plasma level of miR-638 was significantly up-regulated (1.38-fold, P<0.01) while the plasma levels miR-122-5p and miR-221-3p were significantly down-regulated (−0.85- and −1.74-fold, P<0.01) in the exposures, which were consistent with the results of microarray analysis. Conclusions The four indicated plasma miRNAs may be biomarkers of indicating responses to benzene

  20. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers: Flowcytometry Measurements of T, B, NK and NKT Cells.

    PubMed

    Gyuleva, Ilona; Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant "Kozloduy", Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100-200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  1. Solvent-exposed serines in the Gal4 DNA-binding domain are required for promoter occupancy and transcriptional activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeličić, Branka; Nemet, Josipa; Traven, Ana; Sopta, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The yeast transcriptional activator Gal4 has long been the prototype for studies of eukaryotic transcription. Gal4 is phosphorylated in the DNA-binding domain (DBD); however, the molecular details and functional significance of this remain unknown. We mutagenized seven potential phosphoserines that lie on the solvent-exposed face of the DBD structure and assessed them for transcriptional activity and DNA binding in vivo. Serine to alanine mutants at positions 22, 47, and 85 show the greatest reduction in promoter occupancy and transcriptional activity at the MEL1 promoter containing a single UASGAL . Substitutions with the phosphomimetic aspartate restored DNA-binding and transcriptional activity at serines 22 and 85, suggesting that they are potential sites of Gal4 phosphorylation in vivo. In contrast, the serine to alanine mutants, except serine 22, were fully proficient for binding to the GAL1-10 promoter, containing multiple UASGAL sites, although they had a reduced ability to activate transcription. Collectively, these data show that at the GAL1-10 promoter, functions of the DBD in transcriptional activation can be uncoupled from roles in promoter binding. We suggest that the serines in the DBD mediate protein-protein contacts with the transcription machinery, leading to stabilization of Gal4 at promoters.

  2. Individual-level and plant-level predictors of acute, traumatic occupational injuries in a manufacturing cohort

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Kerry; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Workplace and contextual factors that may affect risk for worker injury are not well described. This study used results from an employee job satisfaction survey to construct aggregate indicators of the work environment and estimate the relative contribution of those factors to injury rates in a manufacturing cohort. Methods Principal components analysis was used to construct four plant-level factors from responses to a 32 question survey of the entire workforce, administered in 2006. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to evaluate the relationship between injury rate, individual-level and plant-level risk factors, unionisation and plant type. Results Plant-level ‘work stress’ (incident rate ratio (IRR)=0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.90) was significant in the multilevel model, indicating the rate of injury for an average individual in that plant was halved (conditional on plant) when job stress decreased by a tertile. ‘Overall satisfaction’, ‘work environment’ and ‘perception of supervisor’ showed the same trend but were not significant. Unionisation was protective (IRR=0.40, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.95) as was any plant type compared with smelter. Conclusions We demonstrated utility of data from a human resources survey to construct indicators of the work environment. Our research suggests that aspects of the work environment, particularly work stress and unionisation, may have a significant effect on risk for occupational injury, emphasising the need for further multilevel studies. Our work would suggest monitoring of employee perceptions of job stress and the possible inclusion of stress management as a component of risk reduction programmes. PMID:24727737

  3. Thorium in occupationally exposed men.

    SciTech Connect

    Stehney, A. F.

    1999-02-24

    Higher than environmental levels of {sup 232}Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a thorium refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Examination of the distribution of thorium among the organs revealed poor agreement with the distribution calculated from the dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radioprotection (ICRP). Concentrations in the lungs relative to pulmonary lymph nodes, bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y thorium and the exposure histories of the workers. Much better agreement was found with more recently proposed models in Publications 68 and 69 of the ICRP. Radiation doses estimated from the amounts of thorium in the autopsy samples were compatible with health studies that found no significant difference in mortality from that of the general population of men in the US.

  4. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose-response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions.

  5. [Occupational choice and biography - biographical diagnostics as an approach to accessing the individual's perceptual horizons and resources in the context of vocational rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Dern, W; Hanses, A

    2001-10-01

    This contribution is focused on the core tenet that the process of choice of occupation must encompass in its everyday routines the disabled person's biography, his or her life experiences, biographical self-appraisals as well as action orientations. Unless this is achieved, its professional strategies and interventions will remain prone to missing, or even counteracting, the biographical resources as well as thinking and perceptions of its clients. Biographical Diagnostics is presented here as a method seeking to access the individual in the process of choice of occupation in an understanding manner. It constitutes a new concept in terms of a biography-based, hermeneutic case approach conceived for implementation in the everyday routines of vocational rehabilitation. Two case examples serve to explicate the method of Biographical Diagnostics and set out the relevancy of a biographical orientation in the process of occupational choice. PMID:11579376

  6. [Occupational choice and biography - biographical diagnostics as an approach to accessing the individual's perceptual horizons and resources in the context of vocational rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Dern, W; Hanses, A

    2001-10-01

    This contribution is focused on the core tenet that the process of choice of occupation must encompass in its everyday routines the disabled person's biography, his or her life experiences, biographical self-appraisals as well as action orientations. Unless this is achieved, its professional strategies and interventions will remain prone to missing, or even counteracting, the biographical resources as well as thinking and perceptions of its clients. Biographical Diagnostics is presented here as a method seeking to access the individual in the process of choice of occupation in an understanding manner. It constitutes a new concept in terms of a biography-based, hermeneutic case approach conceived for implementation in the everyday routines of vocational rehabilitation. Two case examples serve to explicate the method of Biographical Diagnostics and set out the relevancy of a biographical orientation in the process of occupational choice.

  7. Comparison of health effects between individuals with and without skin lesions in the population exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Banerjee, Mayukh; De Chaudhuri, Sujata; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Das, Jayanta K; Mukherjee, Angshuman; Sarkar, Ajoy K; Mondal, Lakshmikanta; Baidya, Kalipada; Sau, Tanmoy Jyoti; Banerjee, Apurba; Basu, Arindam; Chaudhuri, Keya; Ray, Kunal; Giri, Ashok K

    2007-05-01

    A study was conducted to explore the effect of arsenic causing conjunctivitis, neuropathy and respiratory illness in individuals, with or without skin lesions, as a result of exposure through drinking water, contaminated with arsenic to similar extent. Exposed study population belongs to the districts of North 24 Parganas and Nadia, West Bengal, India. A total of 725 exposed (373 with skin lesions and 352 without skin lesions) and 389 unexposed individuals were recruited as study participants. Participants were clinically examined and interviewed. Arsenic content in drinking water, urine, nail and hair was estimated. Individuals with skin lesion showed significant retention of arsenic in nail and hair and lower amount of urinary arsenic compared to the group without any skin lesion. Individuals with skin lesion also showed higher risk for conjunctivitis ((odd's ratio) OR: 7.33, 95% CI: 5.05-10.59), peripheral neuropathy (OR: 3.95, 95% CI: 2.61-5.93) and respiratory illness (OR: 4.86, 95% CI: 3.16-7.48) compared to the group without any skin lesion. The trend test for OR of the three diseases in three groups was found to be statistically significant. Again, individuals without skin lesion in the exposed group showed higher risk for conjunctivitis (OR: 4.66, 95% CI: 2.45-8.85), neuropathy (OR: 3.99, 95% CI: 1.95-8.09), and respiratory illness (OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.65-6.26) when compared to arsenic unexposed individuals. Although individuals with skin lesions were more susceptible to arsenic-induced toxicity, individuals without skin lesions were also subclinically affected and are also susceptible to arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity when compared to individuals not exposed to arsenic.

  8. Deuterium occupation of vacancy-type defects in argon-damaged tungsten exposed to high flux and low energy deuterium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Long; Yuan, Yue; De Temmerman, Gregory; Wang, Bao-Yi; Cao, Xing-Zhong; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Doppler broadening spectroscopy in the positron annihilation technique (DBS-PA) has been employed to investigate the defect properties in argon-damaged tungsten exposed to low-energy and high flux deuterium plasma. Argon ion irradiations with energy 500 keV are performed for tungsten samples with various levels of damage. The remarkable increment of the S parameter in DBS-PA indicates the introduction of vacancy-type defects in argon irradiated tungsten. An increase of ion fluence results in a continuous increase of the S parameter until saturation. Unexpectedly, a much higher fluence leads to a decrease of the S parameter in the near surface, and the (S,W) slope changes greatly. This should be associated with the formation of argon-vacancy complexes in the near surface produced by the excessive implanted argon ions. With deuterium plasma exposure, a significant decrease of the S parameter occurs in the pre-irradiated tungsten, suggesting the sharp reduction of the number and density of the vacancy-type defects. The thermal desorption spectroscopy results demonstrate that the argon-damaged tungsten, compared to the pristine one, exhibits an enhanced low-temperature desorption peak and an additional and broad high-temperature desorption peak, which indicates that deuterium atoms are trapped in both low-energy and high-energy sites. All these observations directly indicate the deuterium occupation of irradiation-induced vacancy defects in damaged tungsten, which is responsible for the remarkable increase of the deuterium retention in comparison with the pristine one.

  9. MUTATION SPECTRA OF SMOKY COAL COMBUSTION EMMISSIONS IN SALMONELLA REFLECTS THE TP53 AND KRAS MUTATIONS IN LUNG TUMORS FROM SMOKY COAL EXPOSED INDIVIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Mutation Spectra of Smoky Coal Combustion Emissions in Salmonella Reflect the TP53
    and KRAS Mutations in Lung Tumors from Smoky Coal-Exposed Individuals

    Abstract
    Nonsmoking women in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China who use smoky coal for cooking and h...

  10. Early Detection of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Asbestos-Exposed Individuals with a Noninvasive Proteomics-Based Surveillance Tool

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alex; Ayers, Deborah; Brody, Edward N.; Williams, Stephen A.; Levin, Stephen; Black, Brad; Harbut, Michael; Carbone, Michele; Goparaju, Chandra; Pass, Harvey I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related pulmonary cancer that is increasing in incidence. Because diagnosis is difficult and the disease is relatively rare, most patients present at a clinically advanced stage where possibility of cure is minimal. To improve surveillance and detection of MM in the high-risk population, we completed a series of clinical studies to develop a noninvasive test for early detection. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted multi-center case-control studies in serum from 117 MM cases and 142 asbestos-exposed control individuals. Biomarker discovery, verification, and validation were performed using SOMAmer proteomic technology, which simultaneously measures over 1000 proteins in unfractionated biologic samples. Using univariate and multivariate approaches we discovered 64 candidate protein biomarkers and derived a 13-marker random forest classifier with an AUC of 0.99±0.01 in training, 0.98±0.04 in independent blinded verification and 0.95±0.04 in blinded validation studies. Sensitivity and specificity at our pre-specified decision threshold were 97%/92% in training and 90%/95% in blinded verification. This classifier accuracy was maintained in a second blinded validation set with a sensitivity/specificity of 90%/89% and combined accuracy of 92%. Sensitivity correlated with pathologic stage; 77% of Stage I, 93% of Stage II, 96% of Stage III and 96% of Stage IV cases were detected. An alternative decision threshold in the validation study yielding 98% specificity would still detect 60% of MM cases. In a paired sample set the classifier AUC of 0.99 and 91%/94% sensitivity/specificity was superior to that of mesothelin with an AUC of 0.82 and 66%/88% sensitivity/specificity. The candidate biomarker panel consists of both inflammatory and proliferative proteins, processes strongly associated with asbestos-induced malignancy. Significance The SOMAmer biomarker panel discovered and validated in

  11. MFISH Measurements of Chromosomal Aberrations Individuals Exposed in Utero to Gamma-ray Doses from 5 to 20 cGy

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-11-17

    Our plan was to identify and obtain blood from 36 individuals from the Mayak-in-utero exposed cohort who were exposed in utero only to gamma ray does doses fro 5 to 20 cGy. Our goal is to do mFISH and in a new development, single-arm mFISH on these samples to measure stable chromosome aberrations in these now adult individuals. The results were compared with matched control individuals (same age, same gender) available from the large control population which we are studying in the context of our plutonium worker study. The long term goal was to assess the results both in terms of the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to low doses of ionizing radiation, and in terms of different potential mechanisms (expanded clonal origin vs. induced instability) for an increased risk.

  12. Career Guidance Techniques for Classroom Teachers. Occupational Information. Individualized Learning Systems for: Career/Vocational Education Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Career guidance techniques in this package focus on the competency area of occupational information. The package is one of eight, each covering one of the following career guidance competencies that were identified and validated as needed by teachers to assist in the career development of their students: Valuing, decisionmaking, lifestyle,…

  13. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  14. A longitudinal application of three health behaviour models in the context of skin protection behaviour in individuals with occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Matterne, Uwe; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2011-09-01

    Occupational skin disease (OSD) is common, associated with poor prognosis and poses a significant burden to the individual and society. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the prototype-willingness model (PWM) and the health action process approach (HAPA) to the prediction and explanation of occupationally relevant skin protection behaviour in individuals with OSD. We used a longitudinal design. In this study, 150 individuals participating in a 3-week inpatient tertiary prevention programme completed measures assessing the constructs of the TPB, PWM and HAPA at admission (T 0), discharge (T 1) and once the individual had returned to work and worked for 4 consecutive weeks (T 2) (n = 117). Intention was measured at T 0 and skin protection behaviour at T 2. Path analysis was used to assess the longitudinal associations of the models' constructs with intention and skin protection behaviour. TPB as well as PWM variables accounted for 30% of variance in behaviour, HAPA variables for 33%. While not all predictions were confirmed by the data, all three models are able to inform us about the formation of skin protection intention and behaviour in individuals with OSD. The findings are discussed in light of future interventions and research. PMID:21678190

  15. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  16. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  17. N-Acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol), N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide in urine samples from the general population, individuals exposed to aniline and paracetamol users.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Modick, Hendrik; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest associations between the use of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) during pregnancy and increased risks of reproductive disorders in the male offspring. Previously we have reported a ubiquitous urinary excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population. Possible sources are (1) direct intake of paracetamol through medication, (2) paracetamol residues in the food chain and (3) environmental exposure to aniline or related substances that are metabolized into N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. In order to elucidate the origins of the excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in urine and to contribute to the understanding of paracetamol and aniline metabolism in humans we developed a rapid, turbulent-flow HPLC-MS/MS method with isotope dilution for the simultaneous quantification of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol and two other aniline related metabolites, N-acetyl-2-aminophenol and acetanilide. We applied this method to three sets of urine samples: (1) individuals with no known exposure to aniline and also no recent paracetamol medication; (2) individuals after occupational exposure to aniline but no paracetamol medication and (3) paracetamol users. We confirmed the omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-4-aminophenol. Additionally we revealed an omnipresent excretion of N-acetyl-2-aminophenol. In contrast, acetanilide was only found after occupational exposure to aniline, not in the general population or after paracetamol use. The results lead to four preliminary conclusions: (1) other sources than aniline seem to be responsible for the major part of urinary N-acetyl-4-aminophenol in the general population; (2) acetanilide is a metabolite of aniline in man and a valuable biomarker for aniline in occupational settings; (3) aniline baseline levels in the general population measured after chemical hydrolysis do not seem to originate from acetanilide and hence not from a direct exposure to aniline itself and (4) N-acetyl-2-aminophenol does not seem to be

  18. Association of Polymorphisms of Phase I Metabolizing Genes with Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Occupational Workers Exposed to Toluene Used in Paint Thinners

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Kanu; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Gulati, Sachin; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Gupta, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated genetic damage in paint workers mainly exposed to toluene as it is a major solvent used in paint thinners. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay was used as biomarker of genotoxicity. Blood samples were collected from 30 paint workers and 30 control subjects matched with respect to age and other confounding factors except for exposure to toluene. SCE frequency was found to be significantly higher in paint workers (4.81 ± 0.92) as compared to control individuals (1.73 ± 0.54) (p < 0.05). We also investigated influence of polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1m2 genes on SCE frequency. Our results showed that there was significant increase in frequencies of SCE among the mutant genotypes of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1m2 as compared to wild genotypes. Our study indicated that long term exposure of toluene can increase genotoxic risk in paint workers. PMID:26688756

  19. Proteomic analysis of a model fish species exposed to individual pesticides and a binary mixture--Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are nearly ubiquitous in surface waters of the United States, where they often are found as mixtures. The molecular mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of sub-lethal exposure to pesticides as both individual and mixtures are unclear. The current work aims to ident...

  20. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  1. An overview of occupational benzene exposures and occupational exposure limits in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Capleton, Alexander C; Levy, Leonard S

    2005-05-30

    Benzene has become one of the most intensely regulated substances in the world. Its ubiquitous use as a solvent has led to many working populations being exposed; in the early days often in uncontrolled conditions, leading to high exposures. Current occupational exposures are tightly controlled and are largely confined to workers in the petrochemical industry, vehicle mechanics, firefighters, workers exposed to automobile emissions, and some other occupational groups. Typically, occupational exposure levels are currently at or below 3.25 mg/m3 (1 ppm), and environmental exposures are typically below 50 microg/m3 (15 ppb). Smoking remains a significant source of exposure in both occupationally and non-occupationally exposed individuals. The early experiences of high occupational exposures led to the identification of haematopoietic effects of benzene and the need for improved control and regulation. As with most occupational standards, there has been a reduction in exposure limits as effects have been identified at ever-lower levels, accompanied by a societal concern for improved standards of occupational health. In 1946, the United States occupational exposure limit for benzene, promulgated by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, was 325 mg/m3 (100 ppm), but nowadays most European and North American countries have harmonised at 1.63-3.25mg/m3 (0.5-1 ppm). This latter figure was agreed within the European Union in 1997 and was adopted within national legislation by all Member States. The data on which this limit is set are essentially the same as those used by other standard-setting committees; this is an excellent example of how standards are set using science, pragmatism and societal values in the absence of complete information. PMID:15935799

  2. Macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes from two multiply exposed, uninfected individuals resist infection with primary non-syncytium-inducing isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, R I; Paxton, W A; Sheridan, K E; Koup, R A

    1996-01-01

    Despite multiple, high-risk sexual exposures, some individuals remain uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). CD4+ lymphocytes from these individuals are less susceptible to infection in vitro with some strains of HIV-1, suggesting that the phenotype of the virus may influence its ability to interact with certain CD4+ cells. In the present study, we examined the susceptibility of CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages from two exposed uninfected individuals (EU2 and EU3) to infection with a panel of biologically cloned isolates of HIV-1 having either a non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) or a syncytium-inducing (SI) phenotype. Our results indicate that CD4+ T lymphocytes from EU2 and EU3 are resistant to infection with NSI isolates of HIV-1 but are susceptible to infection with primary SI isolates. In addition, we found that macrophages from EU2 and EU3 are resistant to infection with both NSI and SI isolates. The latter finding was confirmed by using several uncloned NSI and SI isolates obtained from patients during acute HIV-1 infection. In further experiments, env clones encoding glycoproteins characteristic of NSI or SI viruses were used in single-cycle infectivity assays to evaluate infection of CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages from EU2 and EU3. Consistent with our previous results, we found that macrophages from these individuals are resistant to infection with NSI and SI env-pseudotyped viruses, while CD4+ T lymphocytes are resistant to NSI, but not SI, pseudotyped viruses. Overall, our results demonstrate that CD4+ cells from two exposed uninfected individuals resist infection in vitro with primary, macrophage-tropic, NSI isolates of HIV-1, which is the predominant viral phenotype found following HIV-1 transmission. Furthermore, infection with NSI isolates was blocked in both CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages from these individuals, suggesting that there may be a common mechanism for resistance in both cell types. PMID:8971004

  3. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  4. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    PubMed

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  5. Plasma vitamin concentrations and incidence of mesothelioma and lung cancer in individuals exposed to crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Helman S; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Ambrosini, Gina L; Beilby, John; Olsen, Nola; Musk, Arthur William

    2006-08-01

    Increased rates of death from asbestos-related diseases have been reported in former workers and residents exposed to crocidolite (blue asbestos) at Wittenoom (Western Australia). The relationships between plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E and incidence of mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of people from this town were examined. The relationships were evaluated by survival analyses using data obtained at the first visit, at each visit and with the rate of change of each vitamin during the period of follow-up. Of 1953 study participants, 65 developed mesothelioma during the follow-up, and 47 developed lung cancer. A lower incidence of mesothelioma was related to plasma concentrations of retinol at the first visit [hazard ratio (HR)=0.63, 95% confidence interval=0.41-0.99], and to measurements at each visit (HR=0.71, 95% confidence interval=0.50-1.00). Plasma carotene concentrations at the first measurement, but not during the follow-up period, were associated with lower incidence of lung cancer in men and in workers. No significant associations were found between carotene concentrations and incidence of mesothelioma. Vitamin E concentrations were not significantly associated with mesothelioma or lung cancer incidence. These findings suggest that people with chronically low plasma levels of retinol have increased risk of developing mesothelioma and lung cancer.

  6. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Nan; Wang, Cong; Wang, Tong; Huang, Jian-Jun; Sun, Chen-Ming; Liang, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77%) and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P) scale and EPQ-RSC(L) scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094–0.800), age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032–0.900), work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328–0.774), workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385–0.919), length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287–3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230–3.504) and EPQ-RSC(E) score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334–0.867). Conclusions Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers’ behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so

  7. Investigation of 5-HT3A receptor gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals who had been exposed to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahangari, Ghasem; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Mozafari, Sona; Majeidi, Ali; Deilami, Gholamreza Derkhshan

    2013-12-01

    The role of air pollution in exacerbation of allergic symptoms is well known. Several studies have shown the effect of air pollution on serotonergic system. The changes in serotonergic system could trigger several allergic symptoms. 5-HT(3A) is among serotonin receptors on the peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) as well as other cells. In the present study we compared the 5-HT(3A) gene expression in PBMCs of the asthmatic patients as well as individuals who had been exposed to the air pollution. Normal individuals were also included in the study as control for comparison of 5-HT(3A) gene expression. Following the synthesis of the cDNA using mRNA extracted from PBMCs the level of 5- HT(3A) gene expression was measured using real-time PCR. The results showed t a significant increase in the relative expression level of 5-HT(3A) receptor in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and individuals exposed to the air pollutants compared to normal controls. Our result indicates that significant increase in 5-HT(3A) receptor may contribute to the pathogenesis as well as allergic symptoms which resulted from air pollution.

  8. Trace elements in scalp hair from potentially exposed individuals in the vicinity of the Bayan Obo mine in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2015-11-01

    Mining activities including mineral excavation and ore transportation produce and release large amounts of pollutants to the surrounding environment, raising concerns regarding the effects of environmental exposure to pollutants on human health. The concentration of elements in hair can be used as a biomarker of exposure to chemical elements. In the present study, hair samples from 89 relatively healthy volunteers aged 11-77 years old (57 living near Bayan Obo giant REE-Nb-Fe ore deposit and 32 in non-mining areas) from Baotou (Inner Mongolia, China) were analyzed to determine the contents of 25 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Tl, U, V and Zn) with the aim of gaining insights about the potential exposure to chemical elements of the population living within the Bayan Obo opencast mining area. The effects of gender and living area on element concentrations in hair were also investigated. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the target elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Cs, Ga, Rb, U, Bi, Mo, As, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn) in human hair from the mining area (MA) were primarily higher than that in non-mining areas (NMA). The area of residence had an influence on the presence of select trace elements (As, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, U and Zn) in human hair. In addition, the hair samples from MA showed statistically significant differences between males and females for a larger number of elements than those in NMA in which only Ag, Bi and Se were significantly different. This result implies a potential influence of mining activities on residents living in the vicinity. These findings confirm the need for competent authorities to act as early as possible and to implement strategies aimed to protect exposed populations and the entire ecosystem.

  9. Speciation of Arsenic in Exfoliated Urinary Bladder Epithelial Cells from Individuals Exposed to Arsenic in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Zavala, Araceli; Valenzuela, Olga L.; Matous̆ek, Tomás̆; Drobná, Zuzana; Dĕdina, Jir̆í; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Thomas, David J.; Del Razo, Luz M.; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Background The concentration of arsenic in urine has been used as a marker of exposure to inorganic As (iAs). Relative proportions of urinary metabolites of iAs have been identified as potential biomarkers of susceptibility to iAs toxicity. However, the adverse effects of iAs exposure are ultimately determined by the concentrations of iAs metabolites in target tissues. Objective In this study we examined the feasibility of analyzing As species in cells that originate in the urinary bladder, a target organ for As-induced cancer in humans. Methods Exfoliated bladder epithelial cells (BECs) were collected from urine of 21 residents of Zimapan, Mexico, who were exposed to iAs in drinking water. We determined concentrations of iAs, methyl-As (MAs), and dimethyl-As (DMAs) in urine using conventional hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-CT-AAS). We used an optimized HG-CT-AAS technique with detection limits of 12–17 pg As for analysis of As species in BECs. Results All urine samples and 20 of 21 BEC samples contained detectable concentrations of iAs, MAs, and DMAs. Sums of concentrations of these As species in BECs ranged from 0.18 to 11.4 ng As/mg protein and in urine from 4.8 to 1,947 ng As/mL. We found no correlations between the concentrations or ratios of As species in BECs and in urine. Conclusion These results suggest that urinary levels of iAs metabolites do not necessarily reflect levels of these metabolites in the bladder epithelium. Thus, analysis of As species in BECs may provide a more effective tool for risk assessment of bladder cancer and other urothelial diseases associated with exposures to iAs. PMID:19079716

  10. Trace elements in scalp hair from potentially exposed individuals in the vicinity of the Bayan Obo mine in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2015-11-01

    Mining activities including mineral excavation and ore transportation produce and release large amounts of pollutants to the surrounding environment, raising concerns regarding the effects of environmental exposure to pollutants on human health. The concentration of elements in hair can be used as a biomarker of exposure to chemical elements. In the present study, hair samples from 89 relatively healthy volunteers aged 11-77 years old (57 living near Bayan Obo giant REE-Nb-Fe ore deposit and 32 in non-mining areas) from Baotou (Inner Mongolia, China) were analyzed to determine the contents of 25 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Tl, U, V and Zn) with the aim of gaining insights about the potential exposure to chemical elements of the population living within the Bayan Obo opencast mining area. The effects of gender and living area on element concentrations in hair were also investigated. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the target elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Cs, Ga, Rb, U, Bi, Mo, As, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn) in human hair from the mining area (MA) were primarily higher than that in non-mining areas (NMA). The area of residence had an influence on the presence of select trace elements (As, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, U and Zn) in human hair. In addition, the hair samples from MA showed statistically significant differences between males and females for a larger number of elements than those in NMA in which only Ag, Bi and Se were significantly different. This result implies a potential influence of mining activities on residents living in the vicinity. These findings confirm the need for competent authorities to act as early as possible and to implement strategies aimed to protect exposed populations and the entire ecosystem. PMID:26407230

  11. Occupancies of individual orbits, and the nuclear matrix element of the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.; Poves, A.

    2009-10-15

    We discuss the variation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) for the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 76}Ge when the wave functions are constrained to reproduce the experimental occupancies of the two nuclei involved in the transition. In the interacting shell model description the value of the NME is enhanced about 15% compared to previous calculations, whereas in the QRPA the NME's are reduced by 20%-30%. This diminishes the discrepancies between both approaches. In addition, we discuss the effect of the short-range correlations on the NME in light of the recently proposed parametrizations based on a consistent renormalization of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} transition operator.

  12. Vocational Knowledge in Rural Children: A Study of Individual Differences and Predictors of Occupational Aspirations and Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-Wilson, Sarah; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have identified individual differences in vocational knowledge or its association with career aspirations or expectations of children. We investigated whether individual differences in grade, gender, academic achievement, and SES predict levels of vocational knowledge, and further examined the relationship between vocational knowledge…

  13. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  14. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  15. Stereotypes of Males and Females in Two Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchner, Robert W.; More, Douglas M.

    1975-01-01

    Male and female raters evaluated a male or a female civil engineer or custodian on six characteristics. Likability ratings exposed an interaction between sex of rater and sex of ratee. It was concluded that the sex of an occupational incumbent may have important effects on stereotypical image associated with that individual. (Author/PC)

  16. Health-related quality of life in posttraumatic stress disorder: 4 years follow-up study of individuals exposed to urban violence.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Mariana Cadrobbi; Serafim, Paula Maria; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó

    2015-08-30

    Evidence suggests that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with substantially reduced Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to explore the impact of PTSD symptoms in HRQoL and its predictors in individuals exposed to urban violence. We follow-up a cohort of 267 individuals exposed to urban violence, derived from an epidemiological survey and clinical cases from an outpatient program of victims of violence, with and without PTSD, by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 4 years apart. PTSD symptom severity was associated with poorer quality of life at baseline and at follow-up. Higher levels of depression and anxiety, new trauma experiences, more traumas in childhood and more PTSD arousal symptoms were all predictors of lower HRQoL over time. Results strongly suggest the need to assess HRQoL in addition to symptoms in order to assess the true severity of PTSD. These results have implications for the functional recovery in the treatment of PTSD.

  17. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheelock, C.E.; Eder, K.J.; Werner, I.; Huang, H.; Jones, P.D.; Brammell, B.F.; Elskus, A.A.; Hammock, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 ??g/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 ??g/l), but not a low dose (1.2 ??g/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ???30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  18. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Craig E.; Eder, Kai J.; Werner, Inge; Huang, Huazhang; Jones, Paul D.; Brammell, Benjamin F.; Elskus, Adria A.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 μg/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 μg/l), but not a low dose (1.2 μg/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ∼30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  19. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37±2.15 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail% DNA, p<0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p<0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions.

  20. The Heath Occupational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  1. Real-time measurement of individual occupational radon exposures in tombs of the Valley of the Kings, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E; Salama, E; Rühm, W

    2011-03-01

    The active radon exposure meter developed recently at the German Research Center for Environmental Health (Helmholtz Zentrum München) was used to measure radon concentrations in 12 tombs located in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. Radon concentrations in air between 50 ± 7 and 12 100 ± 600 Bq m(-3) were obtained. The device was also used to measure individual radon exposures of those persons working as safeguards inside the tombs. For a measurement time of 2-3 d, typical individual radon exposures ranged from 1800 ± 400 to 240 000 ± 13 000 Bq h m(-3), depending on the duration of measurement and radon concentration in the different tombs. Based on current ICRP dose conversion conventions for workers and on equilibrium factors published in the literature for these tombs, individual effective dose rates that range from 1.5 ± 0.3 to 860 ± 50 µSv d(-1) were estimated. If it is assumed that the climatic conditions present at the measurement campaign persist for about half a year, in this area, then effective doses up to ∼ 66 mSv could be estimated for half a year, for some of the safeguards of tombs where F-values were known. To reduce the exposure of the safeguards, some recommendations are proposed. PMID:21183552

  2. Linking sub-individual and population level toxicity effects in Daphnia schoedleri (Cladocera: Anomopoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of the pesticide α-cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Arzate-Cárdenas, Mario; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocío

    2013-08-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are classified as moderately toxic to mammals and birds; nevertheless, they are highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms such as fish and zooplankters. Chemical pollutants produce different effects in exposed organisms, ranging from biochemical to population responses. Cladocerans can modify the energy content of their offspring according to the surrounding medium as a way to improve their odds in case they have to cope with stressful conditions at birth. In this study, the effect of a synthetic pesticide on two levels of response in a Daphnia species different from those traditionally used as test organisms was evaluated. With this aim, Daphnia schoedleri neonates (<24 h) were exposed for 21 days to three sublethal concentrations of α-cypermethrin, 0.54, 5.4, and 54 ng L(-1), which correspond to 48-h EC1/100, EC1/10, and EC1, respectively. Effects were measured through a life table analysis for fecundity and survivorship. For effects on progeny, protein, carbohydrates, and lipids were determined and then transformed to caloric content. Biomarkers (BM) were expected to be the most sensitive evaluated response; nevertheless, population parameters such as survivorship and net reproductive rate (R0) were more sensitive since they presented significant differences with respect to controls at the lowest tested concentration. Neonates' caloric content varied during the reproductive period assessed and was negatively correlated to fecundity: as more neonates were born, less energy was provided by the adult females. Macromolecules concentration and caloric content values in cypermethrin-exposed adults were not different from those recorded in the control at the end of exposure time. The results herein presented suggest that stressed daphnids allocate more energy reserves to their offspring, although this strategy can vary depending on the number of reproductive events during the lifecycle, and on the toxicant's concentration. Sub-individual

  3. Effects on health of non-occupational exposure to airborne mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M J; Saracci, R

    1989-01-01

    The most prominent potential marker of disease-related non-occupational exposure to mineral fibres is mesothelioma. Although many cases of mesothelioma have resulted from occupational exposure to asbestos, some have been associated with para-occupational domestic and/or neighbourhood exposure and have been reported in case series, case-control studies and a cohort study among non-occupationally exposed subjects. However, little information is available on mesothelioma as a direct consequence of general environmental asbestos exposure. Such cases of mesothelioma related to non-occupational exposure to asbestos as have occurred to date are likely to have resulted from past exposures much higher than those prevailing at the present time (in the developed countries); numbers will therefore probably decrease in the future. Very high rates of mesothelioma have been reported as a result of exposure to erionite. No studies are available on the effects of non-occupational exposure to man-made mineral fibres but, among occupationally exposed workers, a risk of mesothelioma is not apparent. There are suggestions of raised lung cancer rates among household contacts of asbestos workers and among individuals exposed to erionite. Non-malignant parenchymal and pleural abnormalities have been observed in subjects exposed non-occupationally to asbestos and erionite, but these are not necessarily associated with malignant lesions. Quantitative risk estimates of adverse effects on health have not been derived from these studies, essentially because of the absence of fibre exposure measurements.

  4. Evaluation of DNA damage in exfoliated tear duct epithelial cells from individuals exposed to air pollution assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Rojas, E; Valverde, M; Lopez, M C; Naufal, I; Sanchez, I; Bizarro, P; Lopez, I; Fortoul, T I; Ostrosky-Wegman, P

    2000-06-22

    The search for relevant target cells for human monitoring purposes has increased during the last few years. Cells such as sperm, buccal or nasal and gastric epithelium are being used. In this study, we report the use of exfoliated tear duct epithelial cells as a potential material for human biomonitoring studies, since these cells are a target for environmental pollutants. We employed the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay to evaluate for differences in the basal level of DNA damage between young adults from the south (exposed mainly to high levels of ozone) and from the north (exposed principally to hydrocarbons) regions of Mexico City. We found an increase in DNA migration in tear duct epithelial cells from individuals who live in the southern part of the city compared to those living in the northern part. Moreover, young people who live in the southwest part of the city with the highest values of ozone presented the highest values of DNA damage. These results show the feasibility of using exfoliated tear duct epithelial cells in human biomonitoring studies. PMID:10863153

  5. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EURADOS SURVEY ON INDIVIDUAL MONITORING DATA AND INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENTS OF FOREIGNERS EXPOSED IN JAPAN FOLLOWING THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NPP ACCIDENT.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Fojtik, P; Franck, D; Osko, J; Gerstmann, U; Scholl, C; Lebacq, A L; Breustedt, B; Del Risco Norrlid, L

    2016-09-01

    European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V. (EURADOS) survey on individual monitoring data and dose assessment has been carried out for 550 foreigners returning home after being exposed in Japan to intakes of radionuclides (mainly (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) as a consequence of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. In vivo and in vitro measurements were performed in their respective countries at an early stage after that accident. Intakes of radionuclides were detected in 208 persons from Europe and Canada, but the committed effective dose E(50) was below the annual dose limit for the public (<1 mSv) in all the cases. Lessons learned from this EURADOS survey are presented here regarding not only internal dosimetry issues, but also the management of the emergency situation, the perception of the risk of health effects due to radiation and the communication with exposed persons who showed anxiety and lack of trust in monitoring data and dose assessments. PMID:26705360

  6. Individuals Who Believe in the Paranormal Expose Themselves to Biased Information and Develop More Causal Illusions than Nonbelievers in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Fernando; Barberia, Itxaso; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In the reasoning literature, paranormal beliefs have been proposed to be linked to two related phenomena: a biased perception of causality and a biased information-sampling strategy (believers tend to test fewer hypotheses and prefer confirmatory information). In parallel, recent contingency learning studies showed that, when two unrelated events coincide frequently, individuals interpret this ambiguous pattern as evidence of a causal relationship. Moreover, the latter studies indicate that sampling more cause-present cases than cause-absent cases strengthens the illusion. If paranormal believers actually exhibit a biased exposure to the available information, they should also show this bias in the contingency learning task: they would in fact expose themselves to more cause-present cases than cause-absent trials. Thus, by combining the two traditions, we predicted that believers in the paranormal would be more vulnerable to developing causal illusions in the laboratory than nonbelievers because there is a bias in the information they experience. In this study, we found that paranormal beliefs (measured using a questionnaire) correlated with causal illusions (assessed by using contingency judgments). As expected, this correlation was mediated entirely by the believers' tendency to expose themselves to more cause-present cases. The association between paranormal beliefs, biased exposure to information, and causal illusions was only observed for ambiguous materials (i.e., the noncontingent condition). In contrast, the participants' ability to detect causal relationships which did exist (i.e., the contingent condition) was unaffected by their susceptibility to believe in paranormal phenomena. PMID:26177025

  7. A prospective study of the potential moderating role of social support in preventing marginalization among individuals exposed to bullying and abuse in junior high school.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Sagatun, Åse; Dyb, Grete

    2014-10-01

    Negative physical and psychological long-term consequences of abuse and bullying are well documented. It is reasonable to assume that abuse and bullying early in life also may have an impact on the ability to work and stay economically independent later in life, but such prospective studies are lacking. This study investigates the consequences of exposure to abuse and bullying in junior high school, as measured by receiving long-term social welfare benefits in young adulthood. In addition, it explores the potential protective role of social support. Self-reported data from 13,633 (50.3% female) junior high school students were linked to registry data on their use of social welfare benefits from the age of 18 and for eight consecutive years. Cox regression analyses were applied to test the relationship between exposure to life adversities and the use of social welfare benefits, and the potential moderating role of social support. The analyses showed that individuals exposed to abuse and bullying had an increased likelihood of receiving social-welfare benefits compared with individuals not exposed to these types of abuse. Exposure to multiple types of abuse led to a higher likelihood of using social welfare benefits compared with single types of abuse and no abuse. The findings on the potential moderating role of social support were mixed, depending on the source of social support. Family support and classmate relationships were protective in reducing the likelihood of the use of social welfare benefits, whereas peer and teachers' support showed inconsistent patterns. These results are promising in terms of preventing the long-term negative consequences of abuse and bullying.

  8. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  9. Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in the blood of subjects exposed to occupational airborne contamination from coal mining extraction and incineration of hospital residues.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm Filho, D; Avila, S; Possamai, F P; Parisotto, E B; Moratelli, A M; Garlet, T R; Inácio, D B; Torres, M A; Colepicolo, P; Dal-Pizzol, F

    2010-10-01

    Coal mining and incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) generate several contaminants that are delivered into the environment, such as heavy metals and dioxins. These xenobiotics can lead to oxidative stress overgeneration in organisms and cause different kinds of pathologies, including cancer. In the present study the concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the urine, as well as several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, protein carbonyls = PC, protein thiols = PT, α-tocopherol = AT, reduced glutathione = GSH, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of six different groups (n = 20 each) of subjects exposed to airborne contamination related to coal mining as well as incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) after vitamin E (800 mg/day) and vitamin C (500 mg/day) supplementation during 6 months, which were compared to the situation before the antioxidant intervention (Ávila et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1150-1157, 2009; Possamai et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1158-1164, 2009). Except for the decreased manganese contents, heavy metal concentrations were elevated in all groups exposed to both sources of airborne contamination when compared to controls. TBARS and PC concentrations, which were elevated before the antioxidant intervention decreased after the antioxidant supplementation. Similarly, the contents of PC, AT and GSH, which were decreased before the antioxidant intervention, reached values near those found in controls, GPx activity was reestablished in underground miners, and SOD, CAT and GST activities were reestablished in all groups. The results showed that the oxidative stress condition detected previously to the antioxidant supplementation in both directly and indirectly subjects

  10. Mineral fiber content of lung tissue in patients with environmental exposures: household contacts vs building occupants

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Longo, W.E. )

    1991-12-31

    Analysis of tissue mineral fiber content in patients with environmental exposures has seldom been reported in the past. Our studies of six household contacts of asbestos workers indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos concentrations similar to some occupationally exposed individuals. In contrast, our studies of four occupants of buildings with asbestos-containing materials indicate that these individuals often have pulmonary asbestos burdens indistinguishable from the general nonoccupationally exposed population. However, one such building occupant exposed for many years and who later developed pleural mesothelioma was studied in detail, and it was concluded that her exposure as a teacher's aide in a school building containing acoustical plaster was the likely cause of her mesothelioma.

  11. Individual phenolic response and peroxidase activity in peel of differently sun-exposed apples in the period favorable for sunburn occurrence.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-11-15

    Extreme weather events like high solar radiation can cause stress in apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh.). The aim of the study was to make a screening of individual phenols and peroxidase activity in apple peel as a response to sunburn and different sun-exposures in the period when weather conditions are suitable for sunburn occurrence. Apple fruits of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Braeburn' were sampled. Fruit temperature and color were measured prior HPLC-MS(2) and peroxidase activity analyses. Sunburned peel was darker and more yellow-red in comparison to healthy peel, which appeared yellow-green. Fruit temperature, total as well as individual flavonols and dihydrochalcones, total hydroxycinnamics and perixodase activity were highest in sunburned peel in comparison with healthy sun-exposed peel, furthermore both were different than shaded sides of both fruits and peel of apples inside the tree crown; moreover in sunburned peel dihydrochalcones were determined for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was up to 2.5 times higher, 3-hydroxy-phloretin-2'-O-xyloglucoside was up to 10 times higher and quercetin-3-galactoside was up to 33 times higher in sunburned peel, comparing to shaded sided peels. Flavanols did not show a distinct pattern. A deeper insight in phenolic response against environmental stress caused by high solar radiation and high air temperatures has been made.

  12. Sister-chromatid exchanges and cell-cycle kinetics in the lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to a chemical mixture in the tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Sasiadek, M

    1993-08-01

    Cytogenetic studies of clinically healthy workers employed in the rubber industry showed an increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and a decrease in proliferation indices (PIs). The aim of the present study was to establish, using the SCE and PI tests, genotoxic effects of hazardous chemicals in the rubber industry. An increase in mean SCEs in the lymphocytes of vulcanizers as compared to controls was observed. Since the PI in the exposed group was insignificantly decreased as compared to the controls, it could be concluded that the SCE test is the most sensitive cytogenetic test for the detection of a genotoxic effect of chemicals in the rubber industry. There was no evidence in the present study that the genotoxic effect of chemicals in the rubber industry was enhanced by cigarette smoking. PMID:7688857

  13. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  14. DNA damage and decreased DNA repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in individuals exposed to arsenic and lead in a mining site.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Pineda, Yolanda; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Calderón, Jaqueline; Yáñez, Leticia; Carrizales, Leticia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and the capacity for DNA repair in children exposed to arsenic and lead. During 2006, we studied a total of 85 healthy children (aged 4-11 years) who were residents of Villa de la Paz (community A), Matehuala (community B), and Soledad de Graciano Sanchez (community C) in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The quantification of arsenic in urine (AsU) and lead in blood (PbB) was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage and DNA repair. The highest levels of AsU and PbB in children were found in community A (44.5 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 11.4 μg/dL for lead), followed by community B (16.8 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 7.3 μg/dL for lead) and finally by children living in community C (12.8 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 5.3 μg/dL for lead). When DNA damage was assessed, children living in community A had the highest DNA damage. Analysis of these same cells 1 h after a challenge with H(2)O(2) 10 μM showed a dramatic increase in DNA damage in the cells of children living in community B and community C, but not in the cells of children living in community A. Moreover, significantly higher levels of DNA damage were observed 3 h after the challenge ended (repair period) in cells from individuals living in community A. Our results show that children exposed to metals might be more susceptible to DNA alterations. PMID:22016027

  15. DNA damage and decreased DNA repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in individuals exposed to arsenic and lead in a mining site.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Pineda, Yolanda; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Calderón, Jaqueline; Yáñez, Leticia; Carrizales, Leticia; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and the capacity for DNA repair in children exposed to arsenic and lead. During 2006, we studied a total of 85 healthy children (aged 4-11 years) who were residents of Villa de la Paz (community A), Matehuala (community B), and Soledad de Graciano Sanchez (community C) in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The quantification of arsenic in urine (AsU) and lead in blood (PbB) was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage and DNA repair. The highest levels of AsU and PbB in children were found in community A (44.5 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 11.4 μg/dL for lead), followed by community B (16.8 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 7.3 μg/dL for lead) and finally by children living in community C (12.8 μg/g creatinine for arsenic and 5.3 μg/dL for lead). When DNA damage was assessed, children living in community A had the highest DNA damage. Analysis of these same cells 1 h after a challenge with H(2)O(2) 10 μM showed a dramatic increase in DNA damage in the cells of children living in community B and community C, but not in the cells of children living in community A. Moreover, significantly higher levels of DNA damage were observed 3 h after the challenge ended (repair period) in cells from individuals living in community A. Our results show that children exposed to metals might be more susceptible to DNA alterations.

  16. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  17. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  18. Occupational Stress among Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Larry M.; Kagan, Dona M.

    1987-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the degree to which occupational stress among teachers could be attributed to personal characteristics of the individuals themselves. The first study developed dispositional stress scales. The second examined correlations between these scales, occupational stress scales, and teachers' attitudes toward…

  19. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-01-01

    Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated. PMID:8549481

  20. Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

    1982-01-01

    Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

  1. Occupational exposures and parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Caudle, W Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the contribution of exposure to environmental toxicants has been recognized as a significant contributor to the etiopathogenesis of parkinsonism. Of these toxicants, exposure to pesticides, metals, solvents used in manufacturing processes, as well as flame-retardant chemicals used in consumer and commercial products, has received the greatest attention as possible risk factors. Related to this, individuals who are exposed to these compounds at high concentrations or for prolonged periods of time in an occupational setting appear to be one of the more vulnerable populations to these effects. Our understanding of which compounds are involved and the potential molecular pathways that are susceptible to these chemicals and may underlie the pathogenesis has greatly improved. However, there are still hundreds of chemicals that we are exposed to in the environment for which we do not have any information on their potential neurotoxicity on the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Thus, using our past accomplishments as a blueprint, future endeavors should focus on elaborating upon these initial findings in order to identify specific and relevant chemical toxicants in our environment that can impact the risk of parkinsonism and work towards a means to attenuate or abolish their effects on the human population. PMID:26563792

  2. Cadmium exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and case-control studies among individuals without occupational exposure history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Nishijo, Muneko; Sekikawa, Akira; He, Ka

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer for both genders. Classified as a human carcinogen, cadmium has been related to diverse cancers. However, the association between cadmium exposure and the risk of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. We quantitatively reviewed the observational studies on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk among individuals without occupational exposure history published through July 2014 in PubMed by using a fixed-effect model. Four prospective cohort studies (112,934 participants with 335 events) and two case-control studies (177 cases and 539 controls) were identified. The summarized relative risk (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (95% CI = 1.58-2.66), comparing the highest to the lowest category of cadmium exposure. This positive association persisted in men (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.04-3.05) but not in women (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.63-1.65). Further research is needed to provide more solid evidence on the association of cadmium exposure with pancreatic cancer risk and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism of the potential gender difference.

  3. [Occupational skin diseases in medical personnel].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Occupational skin diseases develop mostly in certain occupational groups at risk. The authors studied features of occupational skin diseases in medical personnel examined over 2003-2007. During this time, occupational skin disease was diagnosed in 118 individuals out of which 24 (20.3%) were medical staffers. All 24 examinees suffered from occupational allergic skin conditions. Most common causes of these were medicines, latex, desinfectants. Nurses are most prone to skin conditions (91.67%). Special risk group covers surgeons, psychiatrists and dentists. As medical staffers are occupational risk group for occupational skin conditions, diagnosed allergic dermatoses in them should be considered as having possible occupational occupational origin.

  4. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  5. Public Utilities Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on public utilities occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the electric power…

  6. Metalworking Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on metalworking occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include blacksmiths, forge shop occupations, welders,…

  7. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  8. [Occupational asthma: current state of the problem].

    PubMed

    Bousová, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Occupational asthma is a disease with serious medical, social and economical consequences. Most patients have to change their jobs and very often they lose their professional qualification. This article gives a current review of the problems of occupational bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis in the region of Eastern Bohemia. The results obtained are compared with the situation in the whole Czech Republic and in the world. The number of new cases of occupational asthma and allergic rhinitis discovered in the contact area of the Department of Occupational Medicine at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové fluctuates around 15-20 cases per year, and 80-100 new cases are reported in the whole republic. The rate of occupational asthma and occupational allergic rhinitis of the total asthma and rhinitis incidence in the Czech population fluctuates between 5-15%. Regarding the number of affected employees, flour is considered the most important allergen. Other important noxas include agricultural allergens, textile dust, diisocyanates and disinfectious preparations. The importance of the alergogenius effect of natural rubber latex and diisocyanates has increased in occupational medicine mainly in the last 20 years. Regarding latex, its harmful effect has been especially demonstrated in health providers who wear protective latex gloves, which results not only in contact eczema-dermatitis, but also in bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Diisocyanates, highly reactive and aggressive substances, originate during polyurethane production which has a wide industrial application (production of polyurethane foam and rubber, paints, adhesives, injected substances, glues, varnishes etc.). The incidence of occupational asthma diseases in workers exposed to diisocyanates is high. Typically, a development of the disease begins after a short time exposure. In this thesis, a diagnostic method in suspected occupational allergic disease of the airways is suggested and

  9. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This article shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change over the 2008-2018 decade. The…

  10. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  11. Occupational rhinitis due to steel welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Castano, Roberto; Suarthana, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to welding fumes is a recognized respiratory hazard. Occupational asthma but not occupational rhinitis has been documented in workers exposed to steel welding fumes. We report a 26-year-old male with work-related rhinitis symptoms as well as lower airways symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma and metal fume fever associated with exposure to steel welding fumes. The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge.

  12. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  13. U.K. standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Adisesh, A; Robinson, E; Nicholson, PJ; Sen, D; Wilkinson, M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is a process that involves fastidious clinical and occupational history taking, clinical examination, patch testing and skin-prick testing. A temporal relationship of work and/or the presence of a rash on the hands only raises suspicion of an occupational cause, and does not necessarily confirm an occupational causation. The identification of allergy by patch or prick tests is a major objective, as exclusion of an offending allergen from the environment can contribute to clinical recovery in the individual worker and avoidance of new cases of disease. This can be a complex process where allergens and irritants, and therefore allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, may coexist. This article provides guidance to healthcare professionals dealing with workers exposed to agents that potentially cause OCD and OCU. Specifically it aims to summarize the 2010 British Occupational Health Research Foundation (BOHRF) systematic review, and also to help practitioners translate the BOHRF guideline into clinical practice. As such, it aims to be of value to physicians and nurses based in primary and secondary care, as well as occupational health and public health clinicians. It is hoped that it will also be of value to employers, interested workers and those with responsibility for workplace standards, such as health and safety representatives. Note that it is not intended, nor should it be taken to imply, that these standards of care override existing statutory and legal obligations. Duties under the U.K. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, the Equality Act 2010 and other relevant legislation and guidance must be given due consideration, as should laws relevant to other countries. PMID:23374107

  14. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  15. Coreceptor Usage, Diversity, and Divergence in Drug-Naive and Drug-Exposed Individuals from Malawi, Infected with HIV-1 Subtype C for More Than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Seager, Ishla; Travers, Simon A.; Leeson, Michael D.; Crampin, Amelia C.; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are few cohorts of individuals who have survived infection with HIV-1 for more than 20 years, reported and followed in the literature, and even fewer from Africa. Here we present data on a cohort of subtype C-infected individuals from rural northern Malawi. By sequencing multiple clones from long-term survivors at different time points, and using multiple genotyping approaches, we show that 5 of the 11 individuals are predicted as CXCR4 using (by ≥3/5 predictors) but only one individual is predicted as CXCR4 using by all five algorithms. Using any one genotyping approach overestimates the number of predicted CXCR4 sequences. Patterns of diversity and divergence were variable between the HIV-1 long-term survivors with some individuals showing very small amounts of variation and change, and others showing a greater amount; both patterns are consistent with what has been described in the literature. PMID:24925099

  16. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it. PMID:26696286

  17. "Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk" A History of Industry's Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Rosner, David; Markowitz, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to Know laws later in that decade were signature moments in the history of occupational safety and health. We have examined how and why industry leaders came to accept that it was the obligation of business to provide information about the dangers to health of the materials that workers encountered. Informing workers about the hazards of the job had plagued labor-management relations and fed labor disputes, strikes, and even pitched battles during the turn of the century decades. Industry's rhetorical embrace of the responsibility to inform was part of its argument that government regulation of the workplace was not necessary because private corporations were doing it.

  18. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

  19. Sales Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on sales occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include automobile sales workers, buyers, insurance…

  20. Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providng current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include building custodians, pest controllers, private…

  1. Factory Production Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on factory production occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include assemblers, blue collar worker…

  2. Social Service Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on social service occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dietitians, home economist, homemaker-home…

  3. Engineering and Related Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on engineering and related occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include aerospace engineers, agricultural…

  4. Business Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on business occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include accountants, advertising workers, collections…

  5. Air and Water Transportation Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on air and water transportation occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include civil aviation workers, air…

  6. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  7. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  8. Occupation and cancer of the larynx: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bayer, O; Cámara, R; Zeissig, S R; Ressing, M; Dietz, A; Locati, L D; Ramroth, H; Singer, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, and laryngeal cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 tobacco and alcohol-adjusted case-control studies including data from 6,906 exposed cases and 10,816 exposed controls was performed to investigate the frequency of laryngeal cancer in different occupations. Job classifications were harmonized using the International Standard Classification of Occupations. Pooled odds ratios (OR [95 % confidence intervals (CI)]) were calculated for the different occupational groups. A significantly increased risk of laryngeal cancer was observed for the occupational category of 'production-related workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers' (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.4]); particularly at risk were occupations as: miners (OR=1.6 [1.2-2.1]), tailors (OR=1.7 [1.2-2.3]), blacksmith and toolmakers (OR=1.5 [1.2-1.7]), painters (OR=1.4 [1.1-1.9]), bricklayers and carpenters (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]), and transport equipment operators (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]). Individuals working as 'professional, technical, and related workers' (OR=0.7 [0.6- 0.8]), 'administrative and managerial workers' (OR=0.6 [0.4-0.7]), or 'clerical and related workers' (OR=0.8 [0.7-0.9]) had laryngeal cancer less frequently. Occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, is likely to be an independent risk factor for laryngeal cancer. Further research on specific occupations with increased risk of laryngeal cancer is warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Protocol for a randomised trial on the effect of group education on skin-protective behaviour versus treatment as usual among individuals with newly notified occupational hand eczema – the Prevention of Hand Eczema (PREVEX) Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of occupational hand eczema is approximately 0.32 per 1,000 person years. The burden of the disease is high, as almost 60% has eczema-related sick leave during the first year after notification, and 15% are excluded from the workforce 12 years after disease onset. New treatments and prevention strategies are needed. Methods/Design Trial design: The PREVEX trial is a randomised, parallel-group, superiority trial. Participants: All individuals from the Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand with a suspected occupational skin disorder notified to the National Board of Industrial Injuries between June 2012 and December 2013 are invited to participate in the trial. Inclusion criteria are: self-reported hand eczema and informed consent. Exclusion criteria are: age <18 years or >65 years; permanent exclusion from the workforce; inability to understand the Danish language; any serious medical condition; and lack of written informed consent. We plan to randomise 742 participants. Interventions: The experimental intervention is an educational course in skin-protective behaviour and written information about skin care related to the participants' specific occupation. Also, a telephone hotline is available and a subgroup will be offered a work-place visit. The experimental and the control group have access to usual care and treatment. All participants are contacted every eighth week with questions regarding number of days with sick leave or other absence from work. 12 months after randomisation follow-up is completed. Objective: To assesses the effect of an educational course versus treatment as usual in participants with newly notified occupational hand eczema. Randomisation: Participants are centrally randomised according to a computer-generated allocation sequence with a varying block size concealed to investigators. Blinding: It is not possible to blind the participants and investigators, however, data obtained from registers, data entry

  10. Cacosmia and neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with occupational exposure to mixtures of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C M; Morrow, L A; Hodgson, M

    1988-11-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among occupational exposure to mixtures of organic solvents, neurobehavioral functioning, and complaints of cacosmia. The latter was defined as nausea, headaches, and subjective distress in individuals exposed to neutral environmental odors. The authors administered a battery of cognitive tests to men with and without a history of solvent exposure and found exposed workers to be impaired across a wide range of cognitive domains. Multiple regression analyses of exposed workers demonstrated a highly significant relationship between a history of cacosmia and performance decrements on measures of learning and memory. PMID:3189606

  11. HLA Class I and KIR Genes Do Not Protect Against HIV Type 1 Infection in Highly Exposed Uninfected Individuals With Hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Vince, Nicolas; Bashirova, Arman A.; Lied, Alexandra; Gao, Xiaojiang; Dorrell, Lucy; McLaren, Paul J.; Fellay, Jacques; Carrington, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving patients with hemophilia A who were exposed to but uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) did not reveal genetic variants associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection, beyond homozygosity for CCR5-Δ32. Since variation in HLA class I and KIR genes is not well interrogated by standard GWAS techniques, we tested whether these 2 loci were involved in protection from HIV-1 infection in the same hemophilia cohort, using controls from the general population. Our data indicate that HLA class I alleles, presence or absence of KIR genes, and functionally relevant combinations of the HLA/KIR genotypes are not involved in resistance to parenterally transmitted HIV-1 infection. PMID:24719475

  12. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  13. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  14. Agricultural Occupations Program Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul E.; Mayer, Leon

    The major program objectives of agricultural occupations courses are (1) to develop agricultural competencies needed by individuals engaged in or preparing to engage in production agriculture, and in agricultural occupations other than production agriculture; (2) to develop an understanding of the career opportunities in agriculture; (3) to…

  15. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  16. Alternative effector-function profiling identifies broad HIV-specific T-cell responses in highly HIV-exposed individuals who remain uninfected.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-03-15

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine-like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:25249264

  17. Alternative Effector-Function Profiling Identifies Broad HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses in Highly HIV-Exposed Individuals Who Remain Uninfected

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A.; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T.; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine–like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:25249264

  18. Alternative effector-function profiling identifies broad HIV-specific T-cell responses in highly HIV-exposed individuals who remain uninfected.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riol, Marta; Llano, Anuska; Ibarrondo, Javier; Zamarreño, Jennifer; Yusim, Karina; Bach, Vanessa; Mothe, Beatriz; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Fernandez, Marco A; Requena, Gerard; Meulbroek, Michael; Pujol, Ferran; Leon, Agathe; Cobarsi, Patricia; Korber, Bette T; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ganoza, Carmela; Sanchez, Jorge; Coll, Josep; Brander, Christian

    2015-03-15

    The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine-like effector profile and produce cytokines that have been associated with potential control of HIV infection, including interleukin 10, interleukin 13, and interleukin 22. These results establish a novel approach to improve the current understanding of HIV-specific T-cell immunity and identify cellular immune responses and individual cytokines as potential markers of relative HIV resistance. As such, the findings also help develop similar strategies for more-comprehensive assessments of host immune responses to other human infections and immune-mediated disorders.

  19. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  20. Arsenic speciation in the urine and hair of individuals exposed to airborne arsenic through coal-burning in Guizhou, PR China.

    PubMed

    Shraim, Amjad; Cui, Xing; Li, Song; Ng, Jack C; Wang, Jianping; Jin, Yinlong; Liu, Yingchun; Guo, Lei; Li, Dasheng; Wang, Shuquan; Zhang, Ruizhi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2003-01-31

    The extent of exposure of residents of Changqing (Guizhou, PR China) to arsenic through coal-burning was investigated. Despite the low coal-arsenic content (56.3+/-42.5 mg As kg(-1)) when compared with coals collected at different location and times from the same province, more than 30% of the study subjects have shown symptoms of arsenicosis. Coal, urine, hair, and water samples were collected in mid-September 2001 and analysed for arsenic. The average urinary and hair-arsenic concentrations in the exposed subjects were 71.4+/-37.1 microg As g(-1) creatinine (control 41.6+/-12.1) and 7.99+/-8.16 mg kg(-1), respectively. A positive correlation between the hair and urinary-arsenic concentration (R(2)=0.601) was found. There was no significant difference between females and males for both urinary and hair-arsenic concentrations. Females were found to have a higher dimethylarsinic acid but lower percentages of inorganic arsenic and monomethylarsonic acid in their urine than males. PMID:12505431

  1. Occupational Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-term morbidity. Present evidence that prolonged exposure to some work-encountered agents can cause asthma that persists for years after the end of exposure suggests that avoidance is the only acceptable countermeasure against this disease. PMID:7164429

  2. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications. PMID:27083106

  3. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  4. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha

    2015-01-01

    The occupational asthma is the most common form of lung disease caused by factors that are attributed to a specific working environment in industrialized countries. It causes variable limitation of airflow and/or hyper-responsiveness of the airway due to contact with specific agents present in an atmosphere of work and not to stimuli found out of this place. It is recognized more and more frequently, and many agents are capable of causing occupational asthma by different pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 400 agents causing occupational asthma are known and every year new triggers are detected. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of occupational asthma induced chemically, including immunological, non-immunological mechanisms of epithelial damage, airway remodeling, oxidative stress, neurogenic inflammation as well as genetic factors. The most important risk factors for occupational asthma include: atopy, smoking and genetic factors. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, skin tests, immunological tests and functional studies. The fundamental treatment is removing the worker from exposure as soon as possible. The advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of occupational asthma will importantly influence in the prevention and the management of this disease.

  5. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  6. Sweat pore reactivity as a surrogate measure of sympathetic nervous system activity in trauma-exposed individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Familoni, Babajide O; Gregor, Kristin L; Dodson, Thomas S; Krzywicki, Alan T; Lowery, Bobby N; Orr, Scott P; Suvak, Michael K; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    Stress analysis by FLIR (forward-looking infrared) evaluation (SAFE) has been demonstrated to monitor sweat pore activation (SPA) as a novel surrogate measure of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in a normal population. SNS responses to a series of 15 1-s, 82 dB, white noise bursts were measured by skin conductance (SC) and SAFE monitoring of SPA on the fingers (FiP) and face (FaP) in 10 participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 16 trauma-exposed participants without PTSD (Mage  = 48.92 ± 12.00 years; 26.9% female). Within participants, SC and FiP responses across trials were strongly correlated (r = .92, p < .001). Correlations between SC and FaP (r = .76, p = .001) and between FiP and FaP (r = .47, p = .005) were smaller. The habituation of SNS responses across the 15 trials was substantial (SC: d = -2.97; FiP: d = -2.34; FaP: d = -1.02). There was a strong correlation between habituation effects for SC and FiP (r = .76, p < .001), but not for SC and FaP (r = .15, p = .45) or FiP and FaP (r = .29, p = .16). Participants with PTSD showed larger SNS responses to the first loud noise than those without PTSD. PTSD reexperiencing symptoms assessed by the PTSD Checklist on the day of testing were associated with the SNS responses to the first loud noise measured by SC (d = 1.19) and FiP (d = .99), but not FaP (d = .10). This study confirms convergence of SAFE and SC as valid measures of SNS activity. SAFE FiP and SC responses were highly predictive of self-rated PTSD reexperiencing symptoms. SAFE may offer an attractive alternative for applications in PTSD and similar populations. PMID:27286885

  7. Preferential infection of human Ad5-specific CD4 T cells by HIV in Ad5 naturally exposed and recombinant Ad5-HIV vaccinated individuals.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haitao; Eller, Michael A; Zafar, Shah; Zhou, Yu; Gu, Mengnan; Wei, Zhi; Currier, Jeffrey R; Marovich, Mary A; Kibuuka, Hannah N; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Ratto-Kim, Silvia

    2014-09-16

    Efficacy trials of adenovirus 5-vectored candidate HIV vaccines [recombinant Ad5 (rAd5)-HIV] were halted for futility due to lack of vaccine efficacy and unexpected excess HIV infections in the vaccine recipients. The potential immunologic basis for these observations is unclear. We comparatively evaluated the HIV susceptibility and phenotypes of human CD4 T cells specific to Ad5 and CMV, two viruses that have been used as HIV vaccine vectors. We show that Ad5-specific CD4 T cells, either induced by natural Ad5 exposure or expanded by rAd5 vaccination, are highly susceptible to HIV in vitro and are preferentially lost in HIV-infected individuals compared with CMV-specific CD4 T cells. Further investigation demonstrated that Ad5-specific CD4 T cells selectively display a proinflammatory Th17-like phenotype and express macrophage inflammatory protein 3α and α4β7 integrin, suggestive of gut mucosa homing potential of these cells. Analysis of HIV p24 and cytokine coexpression using flow cytometry revealed preferential infection of IL-17- and IL-2-producing, Ad5-specific CD4 T cells by HIV in vitro. Our data suggest a potential mechanism explaining the excess HIV infections in vaccine recipients after rAd5-HIV vaccination and highlight the importance of testing the HIV susceptibility of vaccine-generated, vector and insert-specific CD4 T cells in future HIV vaccine studies. PMID:25197078

  8. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  9. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  10. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  11. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  12. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  14. Occupational neurology.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R G

    1987-01-01

    The nervous system is vulnerable to the effects of certain chemicals and physical conditions found in the work environment. The activities of an occupational neurologist focus on the evaluation of patients with neurological disorders caused by occupational or environmental conditions. When one is making a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological disorders, the possibility of toxic exposure or encounters with physical factors in the workplace must not be overlooked. Central to an accurate clinical diagnosis is the patient's history. A diagnosis of an occupational or environmental neurological problem requires a careful assessment of the clinical abnormalities and confirmation of these disabilities by objective tests such as nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological batteries, or nerve biopsy. On the basis of information about hazards in the workplace, safety standards and environmental and biological monitoring can be implemented in the workplace to reduce the risks of undue injury. Clinical manifestations of headache, memory disturbance, and peripheral neuropathy are commonly encountered presentations of the effects of occupational hazards. Physicians in everyday clinical practice must be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with exposure to possible neurotoxins and work methods. Occupational and environmental circumstances must be explored when evaluating patients with neurologic disorders.

  15. Occupational causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    The relation between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema (CBE), and exposure to coal dust is well established. This paper reviews the evidence relating to other occupational causes of COPD, including industries associated with exposure to fumes, chemical substances, and dusts. A review of key literature has been carried out with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests that elevated risks of developing COPD are clearly associated with several occupations, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders, such as smoking. Of particular concern are agricultural workers who can be exposed to a variety of gases and organic dusts, among whom CBE is clearly elevated, particularly for pig farmers and exposure to endotoxins, with an increased annual decline in lung function. Similarly, cotton textile workers are exposed to a mixture of substances affecting development of atopy, byssinosis, and CBE, and across-shift and long-term decline in lung function. Atopy also has an important role in the development of COPD in flour mill workers and bakers, with those sensitized to bakery allergens having a greater lung function decline than non-sensitized individuals. Welding processes involve a range of potential chemical, physical and radiation hazards. The average reduction in FEV1 associated with welding fumes is similar to that associated with smoking. Challenges in assessing the evidence include variation in diagnostic methods; concurrent exposure to cigarette smoke (direct or second-hand) and multiple work-place irritants; healthy worker selection/survivor effects; poor exposure definition. Raising awareness of occupational causes of COPD among employers, employees, and health service professionals is important.

  16. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  17. Occupational dermatoses in composite production.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, M; Zimerson, E; Bruze, M

    1999-04-01

    In a plant that produces fiber-resin composite by impregnation of cellulose fibers with phenol-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins, a new technique was introduced that resulted in problems in the handling of uncured products. Many workers suffered dermatitis on areas of exposed skin. A primary investigation found that some workers had an occupationally related skin disease with contact allergy to work materials. We undertook a survey of occupational dermatoses, based on a questionnaire, clinical examination, and patch test with a standard series and a series of products and chemicals representing the work environment. Eighty-eight workers participated in the clinical investigation. In six workers, contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resin was seen, and in five workers, contact allergy to melamine-formaldehyde resin was noted. Two workers were allergic to both resins. Occupational dermatitis was diagnosed in nine of 88 (10.2%) workers. In this article, we discuss possible preventive measures for avoiding occupational dermatitis.

  18. [Occupational eczema].

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, J M

    1998-05-01

    Cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis are less frequent nowadays than in the past: for instance the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis to cement chromates is decreasing steadily among building workers. On the other hand, new haptens do occur in our environment, due to the diversification of industrial techniques; e.g. methylchloro- and methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) present as a preservative in paints or varnishes, acrylates and methacrylates, or, at the hospital, glutaraldehyde, propacetamol or various antibiotics. A new entity has been clinically characterized: protein contact dermatitis. The prevention of occupational allergic contact dermatitis is multidisciplinary. It includes all aspects of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. PMID:11767354

  19. Chromosomal aberrations analysis in a Brazilian population exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, G A; de Syllos Cólus, I M

    2000-01-01

    In spite of being harmful, pesticides are widely used in Brazil. Their genotoxic effects might be studied through population monitoring by means of the analysis of chromosomal aberrations in occupationally exposed individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chromosomal aberration frequencies in temporary cultures of lymphocytes from periferic blood of 23 workers professionally exposed to a mixture of pesticides. The workers were employed by the Agronomic Institute of Parana (Brazil) and used all of the prevention measures provided. A detailed history of pesticide use, as well as personal data, smoking habits, and history of recent illnesses and medical treatment were collected through a standardized questionnaire administered to each subject. Nonexposed subjects, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, served as the negative control. A total of 100 cells were analyzed from each individual. A significant increase in chromosomal aberration frequencies was observed in exposed individuals when compared to the control group. Some individual characteristics such as age, sex, time of exposure to the pesticides, and smoking habits showed no correlation with chromosomal aberrations. Therefore, the positive results may be considered true effects of pesticides on human somatic cells. PMID:10992273

  20. [Methodology of occupational fitness examination: problems and ways to solutions].

    PubMed

    Karulina, O A; Boiko, I V

    2013-01-01

    The article covers improvement of occupational fitness examination methodology in workers exposed to occupational hazards, based on longstanding experience of practical work in industrial medicine. The authors examined main causes of controversies and conflict situations in occupational fitness examination, possible ways to solve the problems in accordance with contemporary evidence-based medicine principles.

  1. A Career Story Approach to Management, Business, and Financial Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brott, Pamelia E.

    2012-01-01

    Business, management, and financial occupations are found in organizations in which individuals direct activities and perform tasks related to business and finance. The career cluster includes 144 occupational titles across 57% of the 23 major Standard Occupational Classification groups, with almost half of the occupations considered "bright…

  2. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Pauli, G; Bessot, J C; Gourdon, C

    1992-12-01

    The diagnosis of occupational asthma requires the integration of a multiplicity of data; the history, cutaneous skin tests, biological tests, respiratory function tests and non-specific tests of bronchial hyperreactivity and specific bronchial provocation test. The history search for the presence of an atopic state, the occurrence of similar disorders in members of the same firm and also the timing of symptoms in relation to the occupational activities. Cutaneous tests are particularly helpful in IgE-mediated asthma in relation to the inhalation of animal or vegetable materials of glycoprotein origin. For haptens, the need for their prior coupling to a protein carrier causes problems which have not been entirely resolved. Laboratory tests run into the same snags. Respiratory function and non-specific bronchial provocation tests, confirm the diagnosis of asthma and enable the medium and long term prognostic to be assessed. Specific bronchial provocation tests are the most appropriate tests to establish an aetiological diagnosis in occupational asthma. Different technical methods are possible: quantitative administration of allergen aerosols, realistic tests, and tests using exposure chambers to achieve true test doses. The products responsible for occupational asthma are multiple. The different substances are characterised in a simplified manner: first animal matter (mammalian and arthropod allergens), secondly substances of vegetable origin (roots, leaves, flowers, grain and flour, wood and its derivates) and finally chemical products. The chemical products are primarily from the pharmaceutical and metal industries and above all from the plastics industry. PMID:1296320

  3. Asbestos Surveillance Program Aachen (ASPA): initial results from baseline screening for lung cancer in asbestos-exposed high-risk individuals using low-dose multidetector-row CT.

    PubMed

    Das, Marco; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H; Hering, K G; Sirbu, H; Zschiesche, W; Knoll, Lars; Felten, Michael K; Kraus, Thomas; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of lung cancer in a high-risk asbestos-exposed cohort using low-dose MDCT. Of a population of 5,389 former power-plant workers, 316 were characterized as individuals at highest risk for lung cancer according to a lung-cancer risk model including age, asbestos exposure and smoking habits. Of these 316, 187 (mean age: 66.6 years) individuals were included in a prospective trial. Mean asbestos exposure time was 29.65 years and 89% were smokers. Screening was performed on a 16-slice MDCT (Siemens) with low-dose technique (10/20 mAs(eff.); 1 mm/0.5 mm increment). In addition to soft copy PACS reading analysis on a workstation with a dedicated lung analysis software (LungCARE; Siemens) was performed. One strongly suspicious mass and eight cases of histologically proven lung cancer were found plus 491 additional pulmonary nodules (average volume: 40.72 ml, average diameter 4.62 mm). Asbestos-related changes (pleural plaques, fibrosis) were visible in 80 individuals. Lung cancer screening in this high-risk cohort showed a prevalence of lung cancer of 4.28% (8/187) at baseline screening with an additional large number of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Low-dose MDCT proved to be feasible in this highly selected population.

  4. Lawyers, City Managers, and Social Science Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on lawyers, city managers, and social science occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include city managers,…

  5. New developments in occupational dermatology.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2016-09-01

    Occupational skin diseases according to BK No. 5101 - "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease" - is the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases in Germany. Following the optimization of measures of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, today most individuals affected are able to continue their profession. With the revision of the German ordinance on occupational diseases (BKV) in January 2015, skin cancer caused by UV irradiation was added to the list of occupational diseases. The new occupational disease (BK) 5103 is defined as "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratoses of the skin caused by natural UV irradiation". In this context, "multiple" signifies the occurrence of either more than five individual actinic keratosis lesions over the course of 12 months or the presence of field cancerization of > 4 cm(2) . In the following review, important aspects of this new occupational disease will be highlighted and discussed. PMID:27607027

  6. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  7. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  8. [Occupational liver diseases: (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kuntz, H D; May, B

    1980-07-18

    A large number of exogenous substances with potential liver toxicity are to be found in work places and in the environment. Decisive importance is ascribed to regular supervision of exposed persons and adhering to the appropriate safety provisions without being able to ensure reliable prevention of toxic liver damage thereby. The prognosis of occupational toxic liver damage is good if recognition is timely and the causal noxae are eliminated. The aim of all diagnostic and prophylactic efforts must be rehabilitation, in addition to specific occupational medical and hygienic measures.

  9. Outbreak of invasive pneumococcal disease at a Belfast shipyard in men exposed to welding fumes, Northern Ireland, April-May 2015: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Patterson, L; Irvine, N; Wilson, A; Doherty, L; Loughrey, A; Jessop, L

    2015-05-28

    We report an outbreak of four confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in individuals occupationally exposed to welding fumes, at a Belfast shipyard (Northern Ireland). All cases were hospitalised. A high-risk sub-group of 679 workers has been targeted for antibiotic prophylaxis and pneumococcal vaccination. Physicians and public health institutions outside Northern Ireland should be alert to individuals presenting with pneumonia or IPD and recent links to the shipyard, to facilitate early assessment and treatment.

  10. Enabling occupational performance: optimal experiences in therapy.

    PubMed

    Rebeiro, K L; Polgar, J M

    1999-02-01

    Occupational therapists believe that engagement in occupation contributes to health through an individually balanced use of time, a positive focus for one's physical and mental energy, and the provision of a sense of purpose. Flow is a construct which describes optimal experiences or enjoyment in everyday activities. A review of the literature suggests that the theory of optimal experience is complementary to occupational therapy beliefs and that an understanding of the flow experience may contribute to our understanding of human occupation. Specifically, flow may be useful in understanding those aspects of the occupation, environment and person that contribute to a "just right" challenge, and to enabling occupational performance through enjoyable, structured and purposeful activity. Occupational therapists are encouraged to explore whether optimal experiences facilitate occupational performance for individuals with a disability. Future research could explore whether the occupational opportunities available to persons with a disability provide the degree of challenge required to elicit the optimal experience. Finally, research could explore whether the client-driven selection of meaningful occupation, and therapist enablement of the "just right" challenge, influences optimal experience, occupational performance, and life satisfaction for those with a disability. PMID:10462878

  11. Antigen-driven C–C Chemokine-mediated HIV-1 Suppression by CD4+ T Cells from Exposed Uninfected Individuals Expressing the Wild-type CCR-5 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Furci, Lucinda; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Burastero, Samuele; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Colognesi, Claudia; Quillent, Caroline; Longhi, Renato; Loverro, Patrizia; Borgonovo, Barbara; Gaffi, Davide; Carrow, Emily; Malnati, Mauro; Lusso, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio G.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Beretta, Alberto

    1997-01-01

    Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1, certain individuals remain persistently uninfected. Such exposed uninfected (EU) people show evidence of HIV-1–specific T cell immunity and, in rare cases, selective resistance to infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. The latter has been associated with a 32–base pair deletion in the C–C chemokine receptor gene CCR-5, the major coreceptor of macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. We have undertaken an analysis of the HIV-specific T cell responses in 12 EU individuals who were either homozygous for the wild-type CCR-5 allele or heterozygous for the deletion allele (CCR-5Δ32). We have found evidence of an oligoclonal T cell response mediated by helper T cells specific for a conserved region of the HIV-1 envelope. These cells produce very high levels of C–C chemokines when stimulated by the specific antigen and suppress selectively the replication of macrophage-tropic, but not T cell–tropic, strains of HIV-1. These chemokine-producing helper cells may be part of a protective immune response that could be potentially exploited for vaccine development. PMID:9236198

  12. Occupational Sex Roles and Occupational Prestige.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simerly, D. Emily; Ruback, R. Barry

    Past studies on the sex-typing of occupations have used a single bipolar scale, ranging from masculinity to femininity. An empirical examination of both occupational sex roles and occupational prestige was conducted using two unipolar scales to assess masculinity and femininity. College students (N=183) rated 94 occupations, which were then…

  13. Exposure to potential occupational asthmogens: prevalence data from the National Occupational Exposure Survey.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, R E; Young, R O; Pedersen, D H

    1997-02-01

    Few data are available about the prevalence of occupational exposures to agents which can cause occupational asthma or aggravate preexisting asthma (asthmogens). Using potential occupational exposure data from the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) of 1980-1983, we investigated the number of asthmogen exposures, asthmogen-exposure(s) per production worker, and unprotected occupational asthmogen exposures in different industries and occupations. Data for the entire United States were used to generate estimates of occupational exposure at two selected state and local levels. It was estimated that 7,864,000 workers in the surveyed industries were potentially exposed to one or more occupational asthmogen(s) in the United States. The average number of observed potential exposures per asthmogen-exposed worker was 4.4, and varied from 11.9, in the Water Transportation industry, to 1.2 in Local and Suburban transportation. The largest number of observed potential exposures was recorded in the Apparel and Other Finished Products (garment) industry. This work and further analyses using this approach are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of occupational asthma, and to serve as a guide to target future occupational asthma surveillance efforts.

  14. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  15. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  16. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises. PMID:17447573

  17. From Awareness to Action: The Community of Sarnia Mobilizes to Protect its Workers from Occupational Disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Desre; McMillan, Keith; Gross, Emily; Kone Pefoyo, Anna J; Bradley, Mike; Holness, Dorothy Linn

    2015-11-01

    An exploratory qualitative case study investigated how different sectors of a highly industrialized community mobilized in the 1990s to help workers exposed to asbestos. For this study, thirty key informants including representatives from industry, workers, the community, and local politicians participated in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The analysis was framed by a "Dimensions of Community Change" model. The informants highlighted the importance of raising awareness, and the need for leadership, social and organizational networks, acquiring skills and resources, individual and community power, holding shared values and beliefs, and perseverance. We found that improvements in occupational health and safety came from persistently communicating a clearly defined issue ("asbestos exposure causes cancer") and having an engaged community that collaborated with union leadership. Notable successes included stronger occupational health services, a support group for workers and widows, the fast-tracking of compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, and a reduction in hazardous emissions. PMID:26391798

  18. Fragrance as an occupational allergen.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D A; Rycroft, R J G; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    2002-02-01

    Sensitization to fragrance is believed to occur mainly outside the workplace. This study addresses the frequency of fragrance allergy in patch test patients of differing occupations during a 15 year period. The occupation most strongly associated with fragrance allergy in both sexes was health care work (positive tests in 11.7% of males and 10.4% of females). Retired individuals also had high rates of fragrance allergy (11.6% of males and 14.5% of females), and the prevalence of sensitization increased with advancing age. Health care workers and metal workers had statistically significantly higher rates of allergy to eugenol than did workers in other occupations. Food handlers had significantly higher rates of allergy to cinnamal and cinnamic alcohol. These findings suggest that sensitization to fragrance occurs more frequently in an occupational setting than is generally understood and could have implications for preventive measures.

  19. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... ammonia, which is found in the petroleum or chemical industries. If you are exposed to any of these ... plastic and resin industries. For example, isocyanates are chemicals that are widely used in many industries, including: spray painting, insulation installation and in manufacturing ...

  20. Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:12883014

  1. Statement--fundamental concepts of occupational therapy: occupation, purposeful activity, and function.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, J; Kramer, P

    1997-01-01

    Deriving from the philosophical basis of the profession, occupation is the core concept of the profession of occupational therapy. However, in the occupational therapy literature, the term occupation is used in a variety of ways. Occupation, a collection of activities that people use to fill their time and give life meaning, is organized around roles or in terms of activities of daily living, work and productive activities, or pleasure, for survival, for necessity, and for their personal meaning. It is the individualized, unique combination of activities that comprises an individual's occupations. Purposeful activities have been described in many different ways: as something all people engage in; as tools or media that therapists use to enhance or facilitate performance; and vehicles for bringing about change. Purposeful activities are seen as part of the process of occupational therapy. Purposeful activities are subset of occupations in that they are goal directed and serve as a major tool in the process of occupational therapy. The term function, viewed as the ability to perform activities required in one's occupations has become increasingly important to society in describing the performance or change in individuals. This societal shift in ideas has prompted the concept of function, viewed as a product, to become more important than the process of bringing about change. Occupational therapy practitioners typically have viewed the process as being just as important as the product. When working to improve function, occupational therapy practitioners use purposeful activities that are meaningful to the person in relation to his or her occupational history, preferences, personal goals, and needs. Occupational therapy practitioners need to keep the individual's occupations in the forefront of their thoughts when using any purposeful activity and to plan interventions toward improving the individual's ability to function within his or her occupations. In the interest

  2. Energy-Producing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in energy-producing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include coal mining, occupations in…

  3. [Allergens responsible for occupational eczemas in hairdressers].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, E

    1982-01-01

    Allergens responsible for occupational contact dermatitis occurring in hairdressers are reviewed. The subject is of topical interest as far as the number of reports on occupational skin diseases shows a considerable increase in the last years. Only a--not yet available--careful analysis of the expertises in the possession of the competent Employers Liability Insurance Association can disclose the relevance of individual sensitizers contained in hair care products to occupational contact eczemas of hairdressers. PMID:6217966

  4. Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. )

    1990-08-15

    The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

  5. [Occupational noise exposure and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Santana, V S; Barberino, J L

    1995-12-01

    The hypothesis that occupational noise exposure is positively associated with hypertension was examined in a cross-sectional study carried out on a group of patients who were enrolled at the Occupational Health Unit of the Unified Health System, situated in Salvador city, the capital of Bahia state, Brazil. Data were obtained from 276 medical records, corresponding to all patients newly registered during the first six months of 1992. Data on noise exposure come from both reported occupational exposure history and clinical diagnosis of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. Hypertension diagnosis complies with World Health Organization criteria, as well as with the history of antihypertensive treatment. Stratified analysis and unconditional logistic regression modeling show results that do not support the study hypothesis: there are no differences between systolic or diastolic blood pressure or between proportion of hypertension for exposed and non exposed groups. However, statiscally significant (alpha = 0.05) increment of the effect measured was reported among workers who reported low educational level (below elementary). This could be another evidence of socially related inequalities underlying exposure distribution among workers at the workplace, which should be addressed, at greater depth, in future studies.

  6. Long-term follow up of workers exposed to solvents.

    PubMed Central

    Edling, C; Ekberg, K; Ahlborg, G; Alexandersson, R; Barregård, L; Ekenvall, L; Nilsson, L; Svensson, B G

    1990-01-01

    Long term occupational exposure to organic solvents may cause adverse effects to the central nervous system. This collaborative study between six Swedish departments of occupational medicine examines the overall prognosis in terms of working capacity, symptoms, and psychometric test performance for individuals occupationally exposed to organic solvents. After re-analyses of the data from an initial clinical investigation of 111 men, the subjects were divided into two subgroups: one group of 65 with symptoms but no impairment on the tests and one group of 46 with toxic encephalopathy (symptoms and test impairment). At least five years after the initial examination the subjects were asked to attend a re-examination that included a structured medical interview and a psychometric investigation. The results indicate that effects on the central nervous system persist even when exposure has ceased. In the group of 46 more men had stopped working and were receiving sickness or early retirement pensions. This group also had reduced activity levels with regard to everyday life, leisure activities, and education or training and more neuropsychiatric symptoms. There was no support for the view that a solvent induced toxic encephalopathy is a progressive disease comparable with presenile dementia such as Alzheimer's disease or Pick's disease. If a worker was removed from exposure when he presented symptoms without signs of impairment in intellectual function recovery was seen in most cases. PMID:2178676

  7. Discretionary Review by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission: Is It Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Deficiencies in the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSAHRC), a court system created to carry out adjudicatory functions under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, are exposed and alternative solutions offered. (JT)

  8. Occupational illness in the arts.

    PubMed

    McCunney, R J; Russo, P K; Doyle, J R

    1987-11-01

    Artists and craftspeople are exposed to the same hazardous materials as workers in industry. Art materials, including solvents, stones, clay, metals and dyes, are all potential health hazards. Patients whose symptoms cannot be easily categorized or who do not respond to initial treatment should be questioned about personal activities in the arts and crafts. A questionnaire devised by the Occupational and Environmental Health Committee of the American Lung Association may be useful. PMID:3318355

  9. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  10. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  11. Role of chest computed tomography in prevention of occupational respiratory disease: review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Weissman, David N

    2015-06-01

    This review provides an update on literature published over the past 5 years that is relevant to using chest computed tomography (CT) as a tool for preventing occupational respiratory disease. An important area of investigation has been in the use of low-dose CT (LDCT) to screen asbestos-exposed populations for lung cancer. Two recent systematic reviews have reached conclusions in support of screening. Based on the limited evidence that is currently available, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health has recommended LDCT screening in asbestos-exposed individuals if their personal combination of risk factors yields a risk for lung cancer equal to that needed for entry into the National Lung Screening Trial. It has also recommended further research, such as to document the optimal frequency of screening and the effectiveness of screening. Recent literature continues to support high-resolution CT (HRCT) as being more sensitive than chest radiography in detecting pneumoconiosis. However, there are insufficient data to determine the effectiveness of HRCT screening in improving individual outcomes if used in screening for pneumoconiosis and its routine use for this purpose cannot be recommended. However, if HRCT is used to evaluate populations, recent literature shows that the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases provides an important tool for reproducible evaluation and recording of findings. HRCT is an important tool for individual patient management and recent literature has documented that chest HRCT findings are significantly associated with outcomes such as pulmonary function and mortality.

  12. Role of Chest Computed Tomography in Prevention of Occupational Respiratory Disease: Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, David N.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an update on literature published over the past 5 years that is relevant to using chest computed tomography (CT) as a tool for preventing occupational respiratory disease. An important area of investigation has been in the use of low-dose CT (LDCT) to screen asbestos-exposed populations for lung cancer. Two recent systematic reviews have reached conclusions in support of screening. Based on the limited evidence that is currently available, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health has recommended LDCT screening in asbestos-exposed individuals if their personal combination of risk factors yields a risk for lung cancer equal to that needed for entry into the National Lung Screening Trial. It has also recommended further research, such as to document the optimal frequency of screening and the effectiveness of screening. Recent literature continues to support high-resolution CT (HRCT) as being more sensitive than chest radiography in detecting pneumoconiosis. However, there are insufficient data to determine the effectiveness of HRCT screening in improving individual outcomes if used in screening for pneumoconiosis and its routine use for this purpose cannot be recommended. However, if HRCT is used to evaluate populations, recent literature shows that the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases provides an important tool for reproducible evaluation and recording of findings. HRCT is an important tool for individual patient management and recent literature has documented that chest HRCT findings are significantly associated with outcomes such as pulmonary function and mortality. PMID:26024350

  13. [Traumatic and occupational deafness].

    PubMed

    Poncet, J L; Kossowski, M; Verdaille, P

    2000-01-15

    The frequency of accidental, traumatic hearing loss is increasing due to a sometimes violently noisy environment and to the development of sports as leisure activities. The diagnosis is based on knowledge of the circumstances of the trauma and on otoscopic examination. Total audiometry localises the damage. Occupational hearing loss forms a special subset of traumatic deafness. This trauma is usually due to intense noise occurring at the work-place. It is of insidious onset, irreversibly progressive and without treatment once under way; Prevention is based on knowledge of the deleterious effects of noise and on the individual factors of the subject at risk.

  14. Emergy of the Occupations. Chapter 43

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we calculated the emergy contributed to the economy of the United States in the work done by the workers of 558 occupations in 2008. We determined the empower (semj/yr) delivered by an individual engaged in each occupation, the transformity of the occupation’s work ...

  15. An Analysis of the Landscaping Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemple, Lynn L.; Dilley, John E.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the landscape services occupation. Depending on the preparation and abilities of the individual student, he may enter the landscape area as (1) nursery worker, (2) landscape planter, (3) landscape…

  16. Occupational Therapy Assistants Program. Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Board of Health, Madison.

    Between November 1964 and June 1967, 85 women and five men completed a 4-month course held in several Wisconsin locations to prepare them as Certified Occupational Therapy Assistants to (1) plan and direct a general activity or supportive program of occupational therapy, (2) train individual patients in independent performance of activities of…

  17. Developing a Model of Occupational Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egner, Joan Roos

    1974-01-01

    Rational and non-rational decision-making models of occupational choice are described. The Blau model provides an alternative to these. This model contains an occupational set of factors and a set related to the individual. Research supporting its conceptual utility and activities illustrating its pragmatic utility are discussed. (EAK)

  18. Architecture & Design Arts Occupations, 1940-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Harry Hillman

    Using data from federal government records and professional membership organizations, this study examines trends in demographics, education, employment, and earnings of architects and individuals in design arts occupations between 1940-1990. Findings indicate that: (1) participation in architecture and design occupations has increased slightly as…

  19. A Skills Map: The General and Specific Competencies Required in Different Occupations. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    To aid in assessing the employability of individuals and of various groups of individuals in different types of occupations, the general abilities and specific skills required of workers in different occupations were studied. Data on a comprehensive set of occupations were obtained from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) job ratings and…

  20. Image processing occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  1. Metallothionein and occupational exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Falck, F Y; Fine, L J; Smith, R G; Garvey, J; Schork, A; England, B; McClatchey, K D; Linton, J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between metallothionein (MT), chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd), and renal function was investigated in 53 men who were occupationally exposed to Cd. The aim was to determine if MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic exposure to Cd which would be useful for preventing Cd nephropathy. In this study MT excretion, serum MT, and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with abnormal renal function who had been exposed to Cd. MT excretion was also linearly related on an individual basis to protein excretion, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) excretion, and cumulative time weighted exposure (dose). MT excretion was also a better predictor of dose than either beta 2-M excretion or Cd excretion. The findings suggest that MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic Cd exposure that would be useful for preventing Cd-induced nephropathy. Further studies of non-specific nephropathies and MT are needed to determine if MT is a specific indicator of proximal tubule function secondary to chronic exposure to Cd. PMID:6347245

  2. [Occupational dermatitis in health care personnel].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick

    2002-09-01

    Occupational dermatosis are frequent among healthcare workers. Irritant hand dermatitis is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. It is enhanced by the exposure to irritants: water, detergents, disinfectants and a history of atopic dermatitis. Natural rubber latex contained in rubber gloves can induce contact urticaria or generalized immediate allergic reactions. Contact eczema can be induced by rubber accelerators such as thiurams, disinfectants (glutaraldehyde, dodecyldimethylammonium). Nurses can become sensitized to handled drugs (antibiotics, propacetamol...). These occupational allergies have to be diagnosed, because sensitized nurses can develop severe generalized cutaneous adverse drug reactions if they are systemically exposed to the same drug than those that has previously induced an occupational contact allergy. PMID:12385152

  3. Administrative Support Occupations Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    This document establishes a set of performance expectations based on current practices in administrative support occupations. It is designed to assist individuals, training providers, employers, management personnel, and professional organizations in matching knowledge, abilities, and interests to knowledge and skills required for success in…

  4. Diesel exhaust and coal mine dust: lung cancer risk in occupational settings

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, B.; Jockel, K.H.

    2006-09-15

    Conflicting evidence on the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (DE) and coal mine dust in occupational settings exist. Exposure measurement in most studies is inferred on the basis of job classifications and may lead to misclassification. Confounding behavioral factors (i.e., smoking) and occupational risk factors (exposure to asbestos, arsenic, radon) need to be considered. We evaluated the epidemiological evidence and current findings of the carcinogenicity of DE and coal mine dust in occupational settings. Pertaining literature was identified through Medline search and recent review articles. Strengths and limitations of recent approaches are discussed. Many epidemiological studies have addressed the question of carcinogenicity in workers exposed to DE, and most showed a low-to-medium increase in the risk of bronchial carcinoma. The pooled relative risk (RR) estimates lie between 1.33 and 1.47, and a consistent rise in risk across various job categories and study designs point to a causal relationship. Data on the carcinogenicity of coal mine dust are less consistent and the potential for confounding by unmeasured risk factors (arsenic, radon, DE) are higher. While silica as one of its components has been evaluated as carcinogenic, there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of pure coal dust according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). There is sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between DE and lung cancer in occupational settings. The evidence for coal mine dust is less convincing, but individual studies show an increase in risk of lung cancer in exposed workers. 4 refs.

  5. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: “Occupational injuries” and “workplace” between 1984 and 2014. Results: Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Conclusions: Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:27051619

  6. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  7. Increases in oxidized low-density lipoprotein and other inflammatory and adhesion molecules with a concomitant decrease in high-density lipoprotein in the individuals exposed to arsenic in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Hossain, Ekhtear; Aziz, Abdul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Md Imam; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Nikkon, Farjana; Hossain, Mostaque; Mandal, Abul; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2013-09-01

    Elevated exposure to arsenic has been suggested to be associated with atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, biochemical events underlying the arsenic-induced atherosclerosis have not yet been fully documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of circulating molecules involved in atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure in the individuals exposed to arsenic in Bangladesh. A total of 324 study subjects, 218 from arsenic-endemic areas and 106 from nonendemic areas in Bangladesh, were recruited. Drinking water, hair, nail, and blood samples were collected from the study subjects for analysis. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were lower in arsenic-endemic subjects than those of nonendemic subjects. Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels were significantly higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than those in nonendemic subjects. All these circulating molecules showed significant correlations with arsenic exposure (water, hair, and nail arsenic concentrations), and all these relations were significant before and after adjusting for relevant covariates. Among the circulating molecules tested in this study, HDL, Ox-LDL, and CRP showed dose-response relationships with arsenic exposure. Ox-LDL/HDL ratios were increased with the increasing concentrations of arsenic in the water, hair, and nails. Furthermore, non-HDL cholesterol and TC/HDL ratios were significantly correlated with arsenic exposure before and after adjusting for relevant covariates. Thus, all the observed associations may be the major features of arsenic exposure-related atherosclerosis leading to CVD.

  8. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  9. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  10. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Corporate Members Current Chapters Individual & Business Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week 2017 Elections - AAOHN Members ... election is essential for members to make your voice heard and set the future direction of the ...

  11. [Prevention of occupational dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Géraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique

    2002-09-01

    The prevention of the occupational skin disease is essential to avoid some clinical complications and to preserve job. The suppression of the responsible factor is rarely possible at work, but when it is possible, it is efficient. The practice of real orders of prevention is the best way to proceed, writing individual and collective prevention prescriptions, which have to be very precise and adapted to every case during one sufficient time to get a good adherence of the patients. The implementation of the prevention consists of a set of advices on the prevention measures carrying on the environment, the processes or the work tools, the bad habits, and advices about the professional gestures to avoid and about the convenient information on the manner to use the means of individual prevention (gloves, protective creams and moisturizers) recommended and adapted to each work sequence. PMID:12385155

  12. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  13. Occupational asthma in sawmills of eastern Canada and United States.

    PubMed

    Malo, J L; Cartier, A; Boulet, L P

    1986-09-01

    Eleven individuals with a history of work-related asthma are described. They were employed in 10 different sawmills of northwestern and southeastern Quebec and Maine where coniferous trees (spruces, firs, and pines) are cut into boards. Duration of exposure and symptomatology varied from 1.5 to 40 years and 0.5 to 10 years, respectively. Ten subjects were atopic and seven demonstrated immediate skin reactivity to mixed tree pollens. The diagnosis of occupational asthma was confirmed by significant and sustained changes in serial peak expiratory flow rates at work as compared with a period off work in every individual and significant changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine at work as compared with a period off work in eight individuals or significant changes in FEV1 at work in the three other subjects. Specific inhalation tests by exposing four workers to sawdust in our laboratory were negative. We conclude that working in this specific type of sawmills of eastern Canada and northeastern United States can cause occupational asthma. Although the causative agent is unknown, the presence of atopy and/or immediate skin reactivity to tree pollens and/or bronchial hyperresponsiveness might be risk factors.

  14. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  15. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  16. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  17. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  18. 42 CFR 410.59 - Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outpatient occupational therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.59 Outpatient occupational therapy services: Conditions. (a) Basic rule... occupational therapy services only if they are furnished by an individual meeting the qualifications in...

  19. 10 CFR 20.2104 - Determination of prior occupational dose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of prior occupational dose. 20.2104 Section....2104 Determination of prior occupational dose. (a) For each individual who is likely to receive an annual occupational dose requiring monitoring under § 20.1502, the licensee shall determine...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1201 - Occupational dose limits for adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupational dose limits for adults. 20.1201 Section 20... Limits § 20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults. (a) The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under § 20.1206, to the following...

  1. Sex, Occupational Membership, and the Measurement of Psychological Androgyny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    This study examines the relationship of androgyny to occupational membership. It was hypothesized that: (1) persons in stereotypically masculine occupations would be characterized by high levels of masculininity; (2) workers in a typically feminine occupation would rate themselves as highly feminine; and (3) androgynous individuals would be…

  2. Occupational formalin asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, D J; Lane, D J

    1977-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to formalin used to sterilise artificial kidney machines was shown by inhalation provocation tests to be responsible for attacks of wheezing accompanied by productive cough in two members of the nursing staff of a haemodialysis unit. Three further members of the staff of 28 who were continually exposed to this substance occupationally had developed similar recurrent but less frequent episodes since joining the unit. Two underwent inhalation provocation tests with formalin which did not reproduce these symptoms.Single episodes of these symptoms had been noted by three additional staff members so that altogether eight (29%) had experienced attacks described as bronchitic since becoming exposed to formalin. We suggest that, while exposure to formalin did not seem to be directly responsible in all cases, it might have increased susceptibility to other provoking agents or induced a hyper-reactive responsiveness of the airways. The responses observed in the two nurses after inhalation provocation tests with fromalin were predominantly of airways obstruction. Wheezing began between two and three hours after exposure, and peak expiratory flow rates fell maximally by approximately 50%. Reactions persisted for 10 hours to 10 days depending on the exposure dose. A productive cough was a prominent feature. The sputum appeared to be mucopurulent, but culture produced a scanty growth of Haemophilus influenzae only, together with upper respiratory tract commensals. The cellular content was not homogeneous, neutrophil leucocytes and eosinophil leucocoytes variably dominating. Variable responses of neutrophil and eosinophil leucocytes were also seen in the peripheral blood. PMID:557329

  3. Measured Occupational Solar UVR Exposures of Lifeguards in Pool Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gies, Peter; Glanz, Karen; O’Riordan, David; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices. Methods Lifeguards (n = 168) wore UVR sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges in wrist bracelets on 2 days and completed a survey and diary covering sun protection use. Analyses were used to describe sun exposure and sun protection practices, to compare UVR exposure across locations, and to compare findings with recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Results The measured UVR exposures varied with location, ranging from high median UVR exposures of 6.2 standard erythemal doses (SEDs) to the lowest median of 1.7 SEDs. More than 74% of the lifeguards’ PS badges showed UVR above recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Thirty-nine percent received more than four times the limit and 65% of cases were sufficient to induce sunburn. The most common protective behaviors were wearing sunglasses and using sunscreen, but sun protection was often inadequate. Conclusions At-risk individuals were exposed to high levels of UVR in excess of occupational limits and though appropriate types of sun protection were used, it was not used consistently and more than 50% of lifeguards reported being sunburnt at least twice during the previous year. PMID:19572325

  4. Models of unexplained symptoms associated with occupational and environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Unexplained illnesses characterized by nonspecific, multisystem complaints are often attributed to occupational or environmental chemical exposures. This raises difficulties for the regulatory authorities, who are frequently unable to agree on the existence, nature, or source of such illnesses. It is proposed that many of these difficulties derive from an adherence to a traditional medical model of disease and that the application of a biopsychosocial approach would be more effective for both research and individual case management. A number of models derived from the field of health psychology are discussed in terms of their application to occupational and environmental syndromes. A specific example is described that relates to the health problems experienced by sheep farmers in the United Kingdom who are exposed to organophosphate-based pesticides. The source of their complaints and the responses of the health professionals and the regulatory authorities are discussed within the context of a biopsychosocial approach that focuses on illness rather than on organic disease as the unit of study and explores the interaction between the various physical and psychosocial variables involved. It is proposed that this approach, which is already well established in the fields of human and social sciences, should be adopted more readily by those concerned with occupational and environmental epidemiology. PMID:12194893

  5. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  6. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex. Methods: A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann–Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p < 0.05, were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 498 subjects from both sexes, and the median age was 69 years. From the comparison between men and women, we obtained the medium hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318) and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p < 0.0001). Comparing the thresholds of individuals with and without a history of occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542) and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure. PMID:25992010

  7. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  8. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  9. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  10. Hairy cell leukaemia and occupational exposure to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, J; Conso, F; Limasset, J C; Mandereau, L; Roche, P; Flandrin, G; Hémon, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The role of occupational exposures in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) was investigated through a multicentre, hospital based, case-control study. This paper analyses the role of exposure to benzene in HCL. METHODS: A population of 226 male cases of HCL and 425 matched controls were included in the study. Benzene exposure was evaluated by expert review of the detailed data on occupational exposures generated by case-control interviews. RESULTS: No association was found between HCL and employment in a job exposed to benzene (odds ratio (OR) 0.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-1.3)). The sample included 125 subjects, 34 cases (15%), and 91 controls (21%) who had been exposed to benzene, as individually assessed by the experts, for at least one hour a month during one of their jobs. Benzene exposure was not associated with a risk of HCL (OR 0.8 (0.5-1.2)). No trend towards an increase in OR was detected for increasing exposures, the percentage of work time involving exposure to > 1 ppm, or the duration of exposure. No findings suggested a particular risk period, when the OR associated with the time since first or last exposure, or since the end of exposure, were examined. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, with the low exposures prevalent in the sample, the study did not show any association between benzene exposure and HCL. PMID:8983464

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  13. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. PMID:27136575

  14. Occupational Stress: Preventing Suffering, Enhancing Wellbeing †

    PubMed Central

    Quick, James Campbell; Henderson, Demetria F.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress is a known health risk for a range of psychological, behavioral, and medical disorders and diseases. Organizations and individuals can mitigate these disorders through preventive stress management and enhanced wellbeing. This article addresses, first, the known health risk evidence related to occupational stress; second, the use of preventive stress management in organizations as the framework for intervention; and third, the emerging domain of enhancing wellbeing, which strengthens the individual. Premature death and disability along with chronic suffering from occupational stress are not inevitable, despite being known outcome risks. PMID:27136575

  15. Sound localization and occupational noise

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos Menezes, Pedro; de Andrade, Kelly Cristina Lira; Tenório Lins Carnaúba, Aline; Cabral, Frantänia B.; de Carvalho Leal, Mariana; Desgualdo Pereira, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source. PMID:24519197

  16. Health Occupations. Dental Auxiliaries, Nursing, Therapy and Rehabilitation, Health Services Administration. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental…

  17. Health Occupations. Medical Technologists, Technicians, and Assistants; Dispensing Opticians; Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians; Medical Record Personnel. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on health occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include dispensing opticians, electrocardiograph…

  18. Occupational therapy practice: focusing on occupational performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, C M; Law, M

    1997-04-01

    Changes in the health system require occupational therapy practitioners to focus their concerns on the long-term health needs of people and to help them develop healthy behaviors not only to improve their health, but also to minimize the health care costs associated with dysfunction. Occupational therapy practitioners must initiate efforts in the community to integrate a range of services that promote, protect, and improve the health of the public. This article shares the experiences of Canadian occupational therapy practitioners, who were challenged by their government nearly 15 years ago to establish a system that demonstrates effectiveness by improving the health of occupational therapy clients. By focusing on occupational performance, occupational therapy practitioners assist clients in becoming actively engaged in their life activities. This requires client-centered and family-centered practice and services that span from the agency or institution to the community. Occupational therapy practitioners must work collaboratively with persons in the client's environment (e.g., family members, teachers, independent living specialists, employers, neighbors, friends) to assist the client in obtaining skills and to make modifications to remove barriers that create a social disadvantage. A focus on occupational performance requires occupational therapy personnel to reframe how we think about occupational therapy to a sociomedical context and to take an active role in building healthy communities. PMID:9085726

  19. Understanding privacy in occupational health services.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Anne; Wickström, Gustav; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of privacy in occupational health services. Data were collected through in-depth theme interviews with occupational health professionals (n = 15), employees (n = 15) and employers (n = 14). Our findings indicate that privacy, in this context, is a complex and multilayered concept, and that companies as well as individual employees have their own core secrets. Co-operation between the three groups proved challenging: occupational health professionals have to consider carefully in which situations and how much they are entitled to release private information on individual employees for the benefit of the whole company. Privacy is thus not an absolute right of an individual, but involves the idea of sharing responsibility. The findings open up useful new perspectives on ethical questions of privacy and on the development of occupational health practices.

  20. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches. PMID:26150284

  1. [Occupational stress and myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Consoli, Silla M

    2015-01-01

    Besides the best-known role of depressed mood, occupational stress deserves to be taken as a coronary risk factor. There are two basic models to define occupational stress: Karasek's model (high job psychological demands associated with low decision latitude, or even low social support at work) and Siegrist's model (imbalance between efforts and rewards received). The combination of the two models better reflects the coronary risk than each model alone. Occupational stress appears both as a risk factor and a prognostic factor after the occurrence of myocardial infarction. The relevance of the models is best in men or in younger age subjects. In women, role conflicts (occupational/domestic), the existence of excessive "intrinsic" efforts (job over investment) and association with marital stress provide more specific information. Burnout, particularly among health professionals, and bullying at work are also linked to cardiovascular risk. Occupational stress is a collective indicator of health at work, valuable to the employer. At an individual level, it can lead to therapeutic preventive approaches.

  2. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, P S; Harries, M G; Lam, W K; O'Brien, I M; Patchett, P A

    1985-01-01

    Bronchial provocation studies on 15 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are described. The results show that formaldehyde exposure can cause asthmatic reactions, and suggest that these are sometimes due to hypersensitivity and sometimes to a direct irritant effect. Three workers had classical occupational asthma caused by formaldehyde fumes, which was likely to be due to hypersensitivity, with late asthmatic reactions following formaldehyde exposure. Six workers developed immediate asthmatic reactions, which were likely to be due to a direct irritant effect as the reactions were shorter in duration than those seen after soluble allergen exposure and were closely related to histamine reactivity. The breathing zone concentrations of formaldehyde required to elicit these irritant reactions (mean 4.8 mg/m3) were higher than those encountered in buildings recently insulated with urea formaldehyde foam, but within levels sometimes found in industry. Images PMID:4023975

  3. Predicting Occupational Persistence: A Comparison of Teachers and Five Other Occupational Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Cynthia J.

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the Class of 1972, a study examined individual and environmental characteristics which predicted occupational turnover in the three-year period after college graduation. Discriminant analysis was used to distinguish determinants of persistence in six occupations. Three were considered to be in the…

  4. An Exploration of the Use of Occupational Language in School-Based Occupational Therapy Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jeryl D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of occupation-based terminology in the documentation of school-based occupational therapists. A retrospective qualitative analysis of school-based documents using a priori codes was completed. Analysis included 33 Individual Educational Program (IEP) documents and 118 OT goals. Analyses showed that…

  5. [Occupational damage of the sense of smell].

    PubMed

    Szmeja, Z; Szyfter, W

    1984-01-01

    Workers occupationally exposed to synthetic lacquers vapours and wood dust underwent olfactometric and laryngological examinations. The findings indicated that the synthetic lacquers vapours induced neurotoxic lesions of the smell sense. The wood dust causes only nasal cavity mucous membrane lesions inhibiting smell stimuli access to the smelling area. It was suggested olfactometric tests should be included into the preemployment examinations. PMID:6738349

  6. Occupational and environmental lung disease: occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Stenton, S C

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposures cause 10-15% of new-onset asthma in adults, and that represents a considerable health and economic burden. Exposure to many causative agents is now well controlled but workplace practices are constantly evolving and new hazards being introduced. Overall, there is no good evidence that the incidence of occupational asthma is decreasing. Evidence-based guidelines such as those published by the British Occupational Health research Foundation and Standards of Care documents should help raise awareness of the problem and improve management. Key targets include the control of occupational exposures, a high index of suspicion in any adult with new onset asthma, and early detailed investigation.

  7. Genetic and oxidative damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes in workers with occupational exposure to coal.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Paula; Kvitko, Kátia; da Silva, Fernanda R; Menezes, Ana Paula Simões; Porto, Carem; Sarmento, Merielen; Decker, Natália; Reyes, Juliana M; Allgayer, Mariangela da C; Furtado, Tatiane Chao; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Catia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-12-12

    Coal is an important fossil fuel used to generate energy. Coal dust is constituted primarily of hydrocarbons and metals. During coal extraction, large quantities of coal dust particles are emitted, contributing to environmental pollution. Coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust and its derivatives. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of coal and oxidative stress in individuals from Candiota who were exposed to coal as part of their occupation. The comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test were used to assess these effects. This study involved 128 male participants of whom 71 reported work that included exposure to coal (exposed group) and 57 reported working at different jobs (unexposed group). The exposed group had a significantly increased damage index and damage frequency, as assessed using the comet assay, and increased MN and nucleoplasmic bridge frequencies, as assessed using the MN assay, compared with unexposed individuals. Significant and positive correlations between MN frequencies in the lymphocytes and buccal cells of control and exposed individuals were observed. The exposed individuals presented lower average levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity (CAT), while the mean superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) levels were higher in this group. The exposed group also had higher hematocrit levels. No correlation between DNA damage and inorganic elements, as identified using PIXE, was found; however, there was a correlation between the damage index and zinc. The evidence that exposure to coal and its derivatives presents a genetic hazard demonstrates the need for protective measures and educational programs for coal miners.

  8. Aluminum, Iron and Steel, and Foundry Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the various metal industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the aluminum…

  9. Chest pain in rubber chemical workers exposed to carbon disulphide and methaemoglobin formers.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, L C; Weber, R P

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional prevalence study of chest pain in 94 rubber chemical workers exposed to carbon disulphide (CS2) and methaemoglobin forming aromatic amines was carried out. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the prevalence of chest pain or coronary heart disease (CHD), or both, in exposed individuals exceeded that of a group of non-exposed individuals from the same plant. Cardiovascular, smoking, and occupational histories were obtained. Blood pressure, height, weight, serum cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained on all study participants, as were exercise stress tests on selected exposed individuals. Matching eliminated important known risk factors for coronary artery disease. Both chest pain and angina were significantly related to exposure, controlling for age and cigarette smoking. This association was not dependent on duration of exposure as defined by 10 or more years of employment in the department of interest. CHD as defined by angina, a history of myocardial infarction, or a coronary ECG or a combination of these occurred more frequently among exposed workers. The number of abnormal ECGs in the exposed group was twice that in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Age rather than exposure appeared to be the important variable associated with raised blood pressure. Neither biological measures of exposure nor ECGs showed an acute effect of workplace exposures on the myocardium. Possible additive or multiplicative effects of individual chemical agents could not be evaluated. Appropriate modification of medical surveillance of rubber chemical workers with exposure to CS2 and aromatic amines is warranted. PMID:6611171

  10. The current status of occupational health in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to summarize the major health problems among Chinese workers, the strategies and measures for occupational hazards control, the network and organizations of occupational health administration, and the achievements and current challenges of occupational health in China. Results The situation of occupational health was found to be still serious in China. Enterprises with occupational hazards were widely distributed, the exposed population and cases of occupational diseases were numerous, and occupational risks were being transferred from the city to the countryside and from developed areas to developing ones. New emerging problems coexisted with traditional occupational hazards. Besides, a lack of occupational health services for migrant workers could be a major problem for a long time. Conclusions It is necessary to improve the fields related to occupational health, such as the supervision and administration of small- and medium-scale enterprises, research into key techniques for the prevention and control of occupational hazards, systems for the diagnosis and reporting of occupational diseases, and the training of health professionals. PMID:21432554

  11. The relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of cardiovascular complications in persons with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2010-11-15

    The chronic exposure to lead represents a risk factor of arterial hypertension development. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is the most prognostically reliable method of measuring of arterial blood pressure. The study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of cardiovascular complications in patients with arterial hypertension. The studies included 73 men (mean age, 54.26 {+-} 8.17 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I-persons occupationally exposed to lead (n = 35) and group II-individuals not exposed to lead (n = 38). An analysis of results obtained during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring disclosed significantly higher values of mean systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and variability of systolic blood pressure in the group of hypertensive patients occupationally exposed to lead as compared to patients with arterial hypertension but not exposed to lead. The logistic regression showed that a more advanced age, higher concentration of blood zinc protoporphyrin, and a higher mean value of pulse pressure represented independent risk factors of left ventricular hypertrophy in the group of persons with arterial hypertension and chronically exposed to lead (OR{sub age} = 1.11; OR{sub ZnPP} = 1.32; OR{sub PP} = 1,43; p < 0.05). In view of the above data demonstration that occupational exposure to lead represents an independent risk factor of increased pulse pressure may be of key importance in the process of shaping general social awareness as to harmful effects of lead compounds on human health.

  12. Self-rated health and occupational conditions in Russia.

    PubMed

    Nazarova, I

    2000-11-01

    A low level of health promotion and disease prevention awareness in Russia, such as disregard for personal health during periods of well-being or illness, have contributed to a decline in general population health over the past decade. The relationship of working conditions and health awareness was explored among a sample of adults in Russia. This research project was conducted, July-August, 1998, in the city of Kazan. Data was collected by probability sampling of addresses and personal interview. Working conditions influence general public and family health. The occupation of the spouse contributed significantly to family conflicts, and financial problems ranked first as the cause of marital conflict. Due to lack of material resources, one-third of respondents, even though employed, reported being dissatisfied with the quality of their nutritional status and one-fifth with the lack of leisure time. Although more than two-thirds were satisfied with their work, every fifth did not consider their wages sufficient, every fourth wanted to change occupations, and every third was afraid of being fired. The majority of employed respondents reported low salaries, worked a full 8-hour day at their primary occupations and one-fifth had a second job. Younger people were especially prone to disregard their health with intensive work schedules. About half of respondents reported being exposed to toxic health hazards in their past or current jobs. Almost one-fifth agreed to work at hazardous occupations because of higher salaries. Social status, indicated by a higher education, was associated with having the opportunity to chose work in more favourable circumstances, and consequently with less health risks. In summary, the research demonstrated that health was an instrumental value in Russia, exploited as a economic resource not only during periods of well-being but also during illness, by individuals not seeking preventive or timely health care because of the fear of losing

  13. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  14. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  15. Occupational Deprivation or Occupational Adaptation of Mexican Americans on Renal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Shirley A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the occupational changes and perceptions experienced by Mexican Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their families living with dialysis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 Mexican Americans with ESRD and 17 family members. The participants with ESRD described altered or lost activity patterns, capacities and freedoms. With a heightened awareness of death, the family members made altered occupational choices, which were consistent with their cultural values. Changes in the physical body, adhering to the dialysis regimen and environmental restrictions created barriers to occupational participation. These findings suggest that living with dialysis facilitate occupational deprivation among individuals with ESRD and adaption among the family members within cultural alignments. This phenomenon could affect the design of occupational therapy intervention and call for research on the role of occupation therapy services with this population.

  16. Health effects of non-occupational exposure to oil extraction.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-04-26

    Oil extraction may cause extensive environmental impact that can affect health of populations living in surrounding areas. Large populations are potentially exposed to oil extraction related contamination through residence in areas where oil extraction is conducted, especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Health effects among people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry contaminants have been poorly studied. Health effects of exposure to oil related contamination have been mainly studied among cleanup workers after oil spills from tankers or offshore platforms.In this paper we aim to identify the type and extension of residential exposures related to oil extraction activities and to comment on the few health studies available. We estimated that 638 million persons in LMICs inhabit rural areas close to conventional oil reservoirs. It is relevant to specifically study people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry for the following reasons: First, persons are exposed during long periods of time to oil related contamination. Second, routes of exposure differ between workers and people living close to oil fields, who can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated waters/foods and by dermal contact with contaminated water and/or land during daily activities (e.g. bathing, agricultural activities, etc.). Third, individuals potentially more susceptible to the effect of oil related contamination and not normally occupationally exposed, such as infants, children, pregnant women, elderly or people with previous health conditions, are also exposed.There are few papers studying the potential health effects of residential exposure to oil related contamination, and most of them share important limitations. There is a need for more research through the conduct of methodologically robust studies in exposed populations worldwide. Despite the difficulties in the conduct of studies in remote areas, novel approaches, such as measurement of individual

  17. Health effects of non-occupational exposure to oil extraction.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Oil extraction may cause extensive environmental impact that can affect health of populations living in surrounding areas. Large populations are potentially exposed to oil extraction related contamination through residence in areas where oil extraction is conducted, especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Health effects among people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry contaminants have been poorly studied. Health effects of exposure to oil related contamination have been mainly studied among cleanup workers after oil spills from tankers or offshore platforms.In this paper we aim to identify the type and extension of residential exposures related to oil extraction activities and to comment on the few health studies available. We estimated that 638 million persons in LMICs inhabit rural areas close to conventional oil reservoirs. It is relevant to specifically study people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry for the following reasons: First, persons are exposed during long periods of time to oil related contamination. Second, routes of exposure differ between workers and people living close to oil fields, who can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated waters/foods and by dermal contact with contaminated water and/or land during daily activities (e.g. bathing, agricultural activities, etc.). Third, individuals potentially more susceptible to the effect of oil related contamination and not normally occupationally exposed, such as infants, children, pregnant women, elderly or people with previous health conditions, are also exposed.There are few papers studying the potential health effects of residential exposure to oil related contamination, and most of them share important limitations. There is a need for more research through the conduct of methodologically robust studies in exposed populations worldwide. Despite the difficulties in the conduct of studies in remote areas, novel approaches, such as measurement of individual

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  19. Socio-Personal Premises for Selecting and Securing an Occupation as Vocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Newton, Jennifer; Ockerby, Cherene M.

    2010-01-01

    When individuals select a particular occupation, they, their families and the community invest significant resources in their preparing for, learning about, and effective participation in that occupation. Yet, given the high attrition rates during that preparation and high levels of early separation from occupations, selection of occupations is…

  20. Further evidence of human silica nephrotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Ng, T P; Lee, H S; Phoon, W H

    1993-10-01

    It has previously been shown that granite workers with heavy exposure to silica had glomerular and proximal tubular dysfunction evidenced by increased urinary excretions of albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin (AMG), and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG). The investigation was replicated in another group of granite workers to further elucidate the exposure effect relation. The urinary excretion of albumin, alpha-1-microglobulin (AMG), beta-2-microglobulin (BMG), and beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) was determined in two groups of granite workers with low and high exposure to silica. Low molecular weight proteinuria and enzymuria were significantly correlated with duration of exposure in the high but not the low exposure group. These increases were most pronounced in those with 10 or more years of heavy exposure, and in those with radiological evidence of pulmonary fibrosis, particularly those with rounded small opacities denoting classical silicosis. These results provide further evidence that prolonged and heavy exposure to silica is associated with nephrotoxic effects in granite workers.

  1. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.; Browdy, B.L.

    1980-07-01

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.

  2. Mortality of workers occupationally exposed to refractory ceramic fibers.

    PubMed

    LeMasters, Grace Kawas; Lockey, James E; Yiin, James H; Hilbert, Timothy J; Levin, Linda S; Rice, Carol H

    2003-04-01

    This study was prompted by refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) inhalation studies at high dose levels in animals that demonstrated positive effects for lung fibrosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Current and former male workers employed between 1952 and 2000 at two RCF manufacturing facilities were followed to investigate a possible excess in mortality. The mortality analytic methods included: (1) standardized mortality ratios comparing this cohort to the general and state populations, and (2) a proportional hazards model that relates risk of death to the lifetime cumulative fiber-months/cc exposure among the RCF cohort, adjusted for age at hire and for race. There was no excess mortality related to all deaths, all cancers, or malignancies or diseases of the respiratory system including mesothelioma, but there was a statistically significant association with cancers of the urinary organs SMR = 344.8 (95% CL of 111.6, 805.4). The quality of the data for job history, exposure, and smoking history were very high. Although the cohort was relatively small and young with an average age of 51, the mean latency period was over 21 years. Because of these limitations, the preliminary findings warrant the continuation of this mortality registry for future analyses.

  3. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk.

  4. Occupational Therapy Students' Perceptions of Spirituality in Training.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Ahmed, Firdous; Nkuna, Thembi; Yaca, Khalipha

    2015-12-01

    Spirituality is recognized as an essential and integral component of a holistic approach in occupational therapy practice. However, little is known about occupational therapy students' perceptions regarding spirituality in learning context. This study used qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore the occupational therapy students' perceptions about spirituality in training. Using purposive sampling, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students, a lecturer and an occupational therapist. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with students in order to collect data. Data collected were audio-taped; transcribed and thematic analysis was used to identify themes. The analysis resulted in emergence of four themes: "Unique to every individual," "Spirituality in occupational therapy," "To be or not to be taught," and "The Real world." Participants perceived spirituality as an individually experienced. The study contributes to the body of knowledge base of occupational therapy education regarding spirituality. However, there is a need for guidelines to integrate spirituality in occupational therapy training.

  5. Dispositional Resistance to Change and Occupational Interests and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oreg, Shaul; Nevo, Ofra; Metzer, Hila; Leder, Naftali; Castro, Dotan

    2009-01-01

    Through two field studies, we examine the role that individuals' orientation toward change has in determining their occupational choices and interests. In Study 1, 139 job applicants' dispositional resistance to change (RTC) scores were associated with occupational choice, such that individuals applying for investigative and enterprising jobs…

  6. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  7. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  8. Occupational justice--bridging theory and practice. Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2010; 17: 57-63.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  9. Occupational exposure to manganese.

    PubMed

    Sarić, M; Markićević, A; Hrustić, O

    1977-05-01

    The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups.

  10. Occupational therapy in adult day-care (position paper). American Occupational Therapy Association.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    Occupational therapy personnel assume central roles in adult day-care regardless of specific program emphasis. Occupational therapy focuses on health rather than illness, on what the individual can do in spite of disabilities. Several of the profession's objectives directly parallel those of adult day-care--to enable individuals to function as independently as possible despite their physical and mental limitations. To achieve this, a variety of intervention strategies are used, including remedial therapeutic activities, environmental modifications, adapted living techniques, and, when necessary, adaptation of the home environment. In this way, occupational therapy contributes significantly to the quality of life of adult day-care participants.

  11. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I –type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear. PMID:23112505

  12. Occupational Choice: A Conditional Logit Model with Special Reference to Wage Subsidies and Occupational Choice. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    A model of occupational choice based on the theory of human capital is developed and estimated by conditional logit analysis. The empirical results estimated the probability of individuals with certain characteristics (such as race, sex, age, and education) entering each of 11 occupational groups. The results indicate that individuals tend to…

  13. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  14. Reduction of Endogenous Melatonin Accelerates Cognitive Decline in Mice in a Simulated Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure Environment

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yufei; Duan, Chunli; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Yun; Cao, Fenghua; Shang, Shuai; Ding, Shumao; Yue, Xiangpei; Gao, Ge; Yang, Hui; Shen, Luxi; Feng, Xueyan; Jia, Jianping; Tong, Zhiqian; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Individuals afflicted with occupational formaldehyde (FA) exposure often suffer from abnormal behaviors such as aggression, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in particular, cognitive impairments. Coincidentally, clinical patients with melatonin (MT) deficiency also complain of cognitive problems associated with the above mental disorders. Whether and how FA affects endogenous MT metabolism and induces cognitive decline need to be elucidated. To mimic occupational FA exposure environment, 16 healthy adult male mice were exposed to gaseous FA (3 mg/m3) for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that FA exposure impaired spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal death. Biochemical analysis revealed that FA exposure elicited an intensive oxidative stress by reducing systemic glutathione levels, in particular, decreasing brain MT concentrations. Inversely, intraperitoneal injection of MT markedly attenuated FA-induced hippocampal neuronal death, restored brain MT levels, and reversed memory decline. At tissue levels, injection of FA into the hippocampus distinctly reduced brain MT concentrations. Furthermore, at cellular and molecular levels, we found that FA directly inactivated MT in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that MT supplementation contributes to the rescue of cognitive decline, and may alleviate mental disorders in the occupational FA-exposed human populations. PMID:26938543

  15. Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper; Loft, Steffen; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH). Method 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. Results Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01). Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 25–55×103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2–11×103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20×103 UFP/cm3). Conclusion The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees. PMID:25203510

  16. No evidence of transmission from an acute case of hepatitis A in a foodhandler: follow-up of almost 1,000 potentially exposed individuals, London, United Kingdom, April 2012.

    PubMed

    Hall, V; Abrahams, A; Turbitt, D; Cathcart, S; Maguire, H; Balasegaram, S

    2014-07-31

    Identification of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a foodhandler in a London hotel led to a large incident response. We identified three potentially exposed groups: hotel staff who had regularly consumed food prepared by the case and shared toilet facilities with the case, patients who shared the same hospital ward as the case and hotel guests who consumed food prepared by the case. We arranged post-exposure HAV vaccination for all 83 potentially exposed hotel staff and all 17 patients. We emailed 887 guests advising them to seek medical care if symptomatic, but did not advise vaccination as it was too late to be effective for most guests. Through the International Health Regulations national focal points and the European Union Early warning and response system (EWRS), we communicated the details of the incident to public health agencies and potential risk of HAV transmission to international guests. Potentially exposed hotel staff and guests were asked to complete an online or telephone-administered questionnaire 50 days following possible exposure, to identify any secondary cases. Survey response was low, with 155 responses from guests and 33 from hotel staff. We identified no secondary cases of HAV infection through follow-up.

  17. No evidence of transmission from an acute case of hepatitis A in a foodhandler: follow-up of almost 1,000 potentially exposed individuals, London, United Kingdom, April 2012.

    PubMed

    Hall, V; Abrahams, A; Turbitt, D; Cathcart, S; Maguire, H; Balasegaram, S

    2014-01-01

    Identification of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a foodhandler in a London hotel led to a large incident response. We identified three potentially exposed groups: hotel staff who had regularly consumed food prepared by the case and shared toilet facilities with the case, patients who shared the same hospital ward as the case and hotel guests who consumed food prepared by the case. We arranged post-exposure HAV vaccination for all 83 potentially exposed hotel staff and all 17 patients. We emailed 887 guests advising them to seek medical care if symptomatic, but did not advise vaccination as it was too late to be effective for most guests. Through the International Health Regulations national focal points and the European Union Early warning and response system (EWRS), we communicated the details of the incident to public health agencies and potential risk of HAV transmission to international guests. Potentially exposed hotel staff and guests were asked to complete an online or telephone-administered questionnaire 50 days following possible exposure, to identify any secondary cases. Survey response was low, with 155 responses from guests and 33 from hotel staff. We identified no secondary cases of HAV infection through follow-up. PMID:25108536

  18. Minimizing Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents.

    PubMed

    Polovich, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The inherent toxicity of antineoplastic drugs used for the treatment of cancer makes them harmful to healthy cells as well as to cancer cells. Nurses who prepare and/or administer the agents potentially are exposed to the drugs and their negative effects. Knowledge about these drugs and the precautions aimed at reducing exposure are essential aspects of infusion nursing practice. This article briefly reviews the mechanisms of action of common antineoplastic drugs, the adverse outcomes associated with exposure, the potential for occupational exposure from preparation and administration, and recommended strategies for minimizing occupational exposure. PMID:27598070

  19. Simulating long-term occupational exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether using C57BL/6 mice: biodistribution and pathology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Hu, Qingliang; Meng, Ge; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zeng, Weihong; Zhang, Xing; Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Decabrominated biphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a fully brominated diphenyl ether compound used widely as an additive brominated flame retardant in a variety of consumer products. In recent years, BDE-209 has been reported to be abundant and persistent in the environment, and comparatively high burdens have been found in occupational environmental compartments and exposed individuals. In the present study, an animal model for simulating long-term occupational exposure to BDE-209 was set up. Female C57BL/6 mice (n=10) were intragastrically administered BDE-209 at a dose of 800 mg kg(-1) bw at 2-d intervals for 2 years with an internal blood level of approximately 200 ng mL(-1), which was comparable to the high level of BDE-209 detected in the occupational population, and the biodistribution and biological effects were evaluated systematically. The results showed that large amounts of the chemical accumulated in most tissues, and the preferential organs were the ovary and uterus, liver and lung. Decreased survival was observed in the exposed mice. The subsequent pathological analysis revealed hepatomegaly in the exposed mice, accompanied by obvious histopathological changes in the liver, lung, brain, spleen, kidney and ovary. No neoplastic lesions were observed in this lifetime exposure study. Although the number of experimental mice was limited, our observations offer a comprehensive understanding of the chronic toxicology of BDE-209 after continuous high-dose exposure. PMID:25687576

  20. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  1. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  2. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Santibañez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesús; Alguacil, Juan; de la Hera, Manuela García; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  3. [Croatian and international regulations on the protection and rights of workers exposed to asbestos at work].

    PubMed

    Zavalić, Marija; Macan, Jelena

    2009-11-01

    New regulations on the protection and rights of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were introduced in Croatia in 2007 and 2008. They have been harmonised with the European Union (EU) and International Labour Organization (ILO) regulations, and make a step forward in safety at work, health protection, social rights, and pension schemes for Croatian workers occupationally exposed to asbestos. The 2007 Croatian regulation on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work defines and describes activities in which workers can be occupationally exposed to asbestos, defines the threshold value of asbestos in the air at work, defines valid methods for measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air, and establishes measures to reduce asbestos exposure at work or protect the exposed workers. Croatian law regulating obligatory health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos from year 2007 defines activities and competent authorities to implement health surveillance of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos and to diagnose occupational diseases related to asbestos. This law also defines "occupational exposure to asbestos", and "occupational asbestos-related diseases", including asbestosis (pulmonary asbestos-related fibrosis), pleural asbestos-related disorders (plaques, pleural thickening, and benign effusion), lung and bronchial cancer, and malignant mesothelioma of serous membranes. These regulations have been harmonised with ILO, Directive 2003/18/EC amending Council Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, and with the Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases. The 2008 Croatian regulation on conditions of health surveillance, diagnostic procedures and criteria for confirmation of occupational asbestos-related diseases "defines the terms and the content of medical examination of workers

  4. Epidemiological assessment of occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Milby, T.H.; Whorton, D.

    1980-02-01

    Occupationally related, chemically induced sperm count suppression is a recently recognized problem, first brought to light in connection with the manufacture and formulation of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). The authors studied sperm count data from four occupational cohorts - two exposed to DBCP and two exposed to epichlorohydrin (ECH). In both DBCP cohorts there was a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between sperm count distribution functions of the exposed group and of the non-exposed group. A much higher percentage of exposed men was oligospermic and the median sperm count for each exposed group was substantially lower than that for the respective non-exposed group. In the ECH cohorts there was no significant difference between sperm count data for the exposed group and for the non-exposed group. The authors concluded that exposure to DBCP, but not to ECH, was positively associated with detectable sperm count suppression. It is suggested that the key to identifying and assessing occupationally related sperm count suppression lies in the proper classification and interpretation of group sperm count data.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  6. Mortality rates in the Federal Republic of Germany following previous occupational exposure to asbestos dust.

    PubMed

    Woitowitz, H J; Lange, H J; Beierl, L; Rathgeb, M; Schmidt, K; Ulm, K; Giesen, T; Woitowitz, R H; Pache, L; Rödelsperger, K

    1986-01-01

    In 1972, a procedure was introduced by the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes (Berufsgenossenschaften) of the Federal Republic of Germany, which is to be used by the special occupational health service for employees exposed to asbestos dust. Since 1 January 1972, occupational health examinations are performed when exposure to asbestos dust has been of at least 3 years' duration. On 1 January 1977, a prospective cohort study was started with employees formerly exposed to asbestos dust whilst working for companies manufacturing or using asbestos. Data on these persons are collected in the Central Register of Employees Exposed to Asbestos Dust of the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes. A total of 3,070 male and female employees in whom asbestos exposure terminated after 1 January 1972 formed subcohort I of the study. For comparison, 665 persons whose exposure terminated before 1 January 1972 served as subcohort II. In addition to several other inclusion criteria, each individual's permission was required before personal data could be evaluated. Of the subjects in the two subcohorts, 185 and 71, respectively, had died by 31 December 1982. Tumours were more frequently than this cause of death is expected in the general population. In addition to a high incidence of mesothelioma, the standard mortality rate was especially increased for lung cancer. The proportional mortality rates of about 40% for tumours of all sites (with about 17% lung cancer and 8% mesothelioma) especially in subcohort II, seemed to be comparable to the international figures for epidemiological mortality.

  7. Threat to occupational status control and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J; Peter, R

    1996-01-01

    Individuals exposed to chronically stressful social contexts were show n to suffer from increased cardiovascular risk. High effort at work in combination with low reward, and especially with low control over one's occupational status, defines one such stressful social context. In this study an association between high effort, low occupational status control and hypertension as well as the co-manifestation of hypertension and elevated atherogenic lipids [coronary high risk (CHR) status] is explored in a group of 179 middle-aged (48.5+/-6.5 years) male managers. After adjustment for relevant covariates, logistic regression analysis showed independent effects of indicators of high extrinsic effort [time pressure: odds radio (OR)=5.31 95% confidence intervals (95%-C1): 1.10-25.57; severe problems: OR = 4.64 95% Cl: 1.37-15.68] and of low status control (forced job change: OR = 3.92 95% Cl: 1.29-11.92) on CHR. Similar, but less powerful effects were observed with respect to the criterion of hypertension. In conclusion, our findings indicate that effort-reward imbalance at work, and especially threatened status control, defines an independent psychosocial risk constellation with relevance to cardiovascular disease. PMID:8606132

  8. Objectives for the nation: occupational safety and health

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen priority areas were identified in the 1979 Surgeon General's report pertaining to improving health in America, for which objectives were then established. Specific to the problem of occupational safety and health was modification of working conditions where individuals were exposed to toxic chemicals, harmful fibrous dusts, coal dust, cotton fiber, ionizing radiation, physical hazards, excessive noise and stress, and routinized trivial tasks. Various health problems associated with these tasks included lung cancer and other cancers, heart disease, birth defects, sensory deficits, injuries, and psychological problems. Prevention/promotion measures included potential measures aimed at worker education and development of occupational health and safety systems, service measures for preventive and treatment services, technological measures (engineering, control technology, and measurement methods), legislative and regulatory measures, and economic measures. Use of specific measures differed for different problems. Specific objectives for no later than 1990, including improving health status, reducing risk factors, improving public and professional awareness, improving services and protection, and improving surveillance and evaluation were described. Data sources at national and state or local levels were provided.

  9. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation. PMID:21275584

  10. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  11. Untangling occupation and activity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, D

    2001-01-01

    Activity and occupation are two core concepts of occupational therapy that are in need of differentiation. Occupation is defined here as a person's personally constructed, one-time experience within a unique context. Activity is defined as a more general, culturally shared idea about a category of action. The ways in which subjectivity and context are handled within the concepts of occupation and activity are keys to disentangling them. The proposed untangling of the two concepts into distinct definitions is congruent with their historical origins as well as with current definitional trends. Once occupation and activity are recognized as two separate and equally valuable concepts, they offer a rich set of theoretical relations for exploration. The clarity that will result from differentiating occupation and activity will enhance disciplinary discourse and research as well as enhance the intervention efficacy, moral surety, and political strength of the profession.

  12. Global estimates of fatal occupational accidents.

    PubMed

    Takala, J

    1999-09-01

    Data on occupational accidents are not available from all countries in the world. Furthermore, underreporting, limited coverage by reporting and compensation schemes, and non-harmonized accident recording and notification systems undermine efforts to obtain worldwide information on occupational accidents. This paper presents a method and new estimated global figures of fatal accidents at work by region. The fatal occupational accident rates reported to the International Labour Office are extended to the total employed workforce in countries and regions. For areas not covered by the reported information, rates from other countries that have similar or comparable conditions are applied. In 1994, an average estimated fatal occupational accident rate in the whole world was 14.0 per 100,000 workers, and the total estimated number of fatal occupational accidents was 335,000. The rates are different for individual countries and regions and for separate branches of economic activity. In conclusion, fatal occupational accident figures are higher than previously estimated. The new estimates can be gradually improved by obtaining and adding data from countries where information is not yet available. Sectoral estimates for at least key economic branches in individual countries would further increase the accuracy.

  13. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  14. Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Anjuman Gul; Naeem, Zahid; Zaman, Atif; Zahid, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them. PMID:27103909

  15. Ethics in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ted

    1989-11-01

    We know little about perceptions, practices, or constraints of ethics in occupational health because little research has been done. Opinions about the field, however, are abundant. Existing codes of ethical practice in occupational health have not consciously been derived from the fundamental principles of "freedom" and "well-being" or from philosophical premises and methods; rather, they are based on consensus among practitioners. The author outlines useful concepts and methods for making decisions about ethical questions in occupational health.

  16. 1,3-Propane sultone as an extremely potent human carcinogen: description of an exposed cohort in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    1,3-Propane sultone (1,3-PS) is a directly alkylating, genotoxic and carcinogenic substance. In rats, 1,3-PS induces local and systemic tumors at multiple sites, including the mammary gland, intestine, hematopoietic system, kidneys, and the central nervous system (CNS), especially in the form of gliomas. In one particular company, 1,3-PS had been manufactured in limited amounts in the 1950s and 1960s, and for a few purposes until the 1970s. The number of individuals having been in contact with the compound occupationally comprised 55 in total. Data were obtained from this group with an open question of legal compensation regarding an occupational disease. Particular emphasis was placed on malignancies occurring among the occupationally exposed persons. As cerebral gliomas are a major type of tumor induced by 1,3-PS experimentally, the occurrence of two glioblastomas among the previously exposed persons was significant. Three intestinal malignancies were recorded within the cases observed. It is also noteworthy that there was one case of a duodenal carcinoma, which is normally a rare human malignancy. Two hematopoietic/lymphatic malignancies were observed, and there was one case of a renal cell carcinoma. The types of malignancies within a group of only 55 exposed persons are surprisingly consistent with the results from rodent studies. Data clearly indicate that 1,3-PS is carcinogenic in humans. Evidence indicates that 12 cases with various neoplasms were legally compensated within the period of 1985-2010 as an occupational disease, based on the "opening clause" of § 9 (2) SGB VII of legislation in Germany.

  17. Is occupational stress associated with work engagement ?

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.

  18. Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

    2006-01-01

    Background The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. Methods In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Conclusions Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or

  19. Radiological characterisation of disposed phosphogypsum in Brazil: evaluation of the occupational exposure and environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Santos, A J G; Silva, P S C; Mazzilli, B P; Fávaro, D I T

    2006-01-01

    Phosphogypsum, a waste by-product derived from the wet process production of phosphoric acid, represents a serious problem facing the phosphate industry in Brazil. This by-product (mainly calcium sulphate dihydrate) precipitates during the reaction of sulphuric acid with phosphate rock and is stored at a rate of about 4x10(6) kg per day on several piles in Cubatão, Brazil. Contents of natural radionuclides from thorium and uranium series were measured in Brazilian phosphogypsum samples from disposal piles, using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA). These phosphogypsum piles present a potential threat to the surrounding environment and to the individual occupationally exposed. The results obtained in this study show that radionuclides, although present in relatively high concentrations in phosphogypsum, do not imply in significant doses for individuals occupationally exposed. The results obtained for the water activity in the monitor wells showed that the run-off of the piles is influenced by the activity present in the piles, giving indication of a possible groundwater contamination. Sediments from rivers in the area of influence of the pile presented higher concentrations of 238U and 232Th when compared with reference values.

  20. Apparel, Baking, Laundry and Dry Cleaning, and Textile Mill Products Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in the clothing and baking industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in the…

  1. Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft; Office Machine and Computer; Electronics; and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Manufacturing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in various manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in…

  2. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure. PMID:26423288

  3. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  4. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions."

  5. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Environment, occupation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Espina, Carolina; Straif, Kurt; Friis, Søren; Kogevinas, Manolis; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vainio, Harri; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    People are exposed throughout life to a wide range of environmental and occupational pollutants from different sources at home, in the workplace or in the general environment - exposures that normally cannot be directly controlled by the individual. Several chemicals, metals, dusts, fibres, and occupations have been established to be causally associated with an increased risk of specific cancers, such as cancers of the lung, skin and urinary bladder, and mesothelioma. Significant amounts of air pollutants - mainly from road transport and industry - continue to be emitted in the European Union (EU); an increased occurrence of lung cancer has been attributed to air pollution even in areas below the EU limits for daily air pollution. Additionally, a wide range of pesticides as well as industrial and household chemicals may lead to widespread human exposure, mainly through food and water. For most environmental pollutants, the most effective measures are regulations and community actions aimed at reducing and eliminating the exposures. Thus, it is imperative to raise awareness about environmental and occupational carcinogens in order to motivate individuals to be proactive in advocating protection and supporting initiatives aimed at reducing pollution. Regulations are not homogeneous across EU countries, and protective measures in the workplace are not used consistently by all workers all the time; compliance with regulations needs to be continuously monitored and enforced. Therefore, the recommendation on Environment and Occupation of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer, focusing on what individuals can do to reduce their cancer risk, reads: "In the workplace, protect yourself against cancer-causing substances by following health and safety instructions." PMID:26164655

  6. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  7. International occupational health.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2003-08-01

    Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by international agencies. Occupational health and safety laws cover only about 10 percent of the population in developing countries, omitting many major hazardous industries and occupations. With rare exception, most countries defer to the United Nations the responsibility for international occupational health. The UN's international agencies have had limited success in bringing occupational health to the industrializing countries. The International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions are intended to guide all countries in the promotion of workplace safety and in managing occupational health and safety programs. ILO conventions and recommendations on occupational safety and health are international agreements that have legal force only if they are ratified by ILO member states. The most important ILO Convention on Occupational Safety and Health has been ratified by only 37 of the 175 ILO member states. Only 23 countries have ratified the ILO Employment Injury Benefits Convention that lists occupational diseases for which compensation should be paid. The World Health Organization (WHO) is responsible for the technical aspects of occupational health and safety, the promotion of medical services and hygienic standards. Limited WHO and ILO funding severely impedes the development of international occupational health. The U.S. reliance on international agencies to promote health and safety in the industrializing countries is not nearly adequate. This is particularly true if occupational health continues to be regarded primarily as an academic exercise by the developed countries, and a budgetary triviality by the international agencies. Occupational health is not a goal achievable in isolation. It should be part of a major institutional development that touches and reforms every level of government in an industrializing country. Occupational health and safety

  8. Worker awareness of exposure: industries and occupations with low awareness.

    PubMed

    Behrens, V J; Brackbill, R M

    1993-05-01

    A goal of occupational health is to inform workers of hazards on their jobs. This analysis addresses this goal by identifying industries and occupations with low worker awareness of potential exposures. Industries and occupations were ranked by the greatest positive difference between the proportion of workers exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemical and physical hazards. Those with low awareness had the greatest difference, i.e., high exposure and low perception. This analysis was performed by adding exposure data from a national exposure survey to a national health survey with perceived exposure data. The hospital and construction industries and occupations in these industries ranked among the top five for all hazards. For example, for hospital workers the difference between proportion exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemicals was 62% and to radiation was 42%, and for workers in construction the difference was 54% for exposure to noise and 63% for exposure to vibration.

  9. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and breast cancer among Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Harris, Shelley A; Demers, Paul A; Johnson, Kenneth C; Agnew, David A; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Occupational magnetic field (MF) exposure has been suggested as a risk factor for breast cancer in both men and women. Due to the rarity of this disease in men, most epidemiologic studies investigating this relationship have been limited by small sample sizes. Herein, associations of several measures of occupational MF exposure with breast cancer in men were investigated using data from the population-based case-control component of the Canadian National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System. Lifetime job histories were provided by 115 cases and 570 controls. Average MF exposure of individual jobs was classified into three categories (<0.3, 0.3 to <0.6, or ≥0.6 μT) through expert blinded review of participant's lifetime occupational histories. The impact of highest average and cumulative MF exposure, as well as exposure duration and specific exposure-time windows, on cancer risk was examined using logistic regression. The proportion of cases (25%) with a highest average exposure of ≥0.3 μT was higher than among controls (22%). We found an elevated risk of breast cancer in men who were exposed to ≥0.6 μT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80, 95% CI = 0.82-3.95) when compared to those with exposures <0.3 μT. Those exposed to occupational MF fields for at least 30 years had a nearly threefold increase in risk of breast cancer (OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 0.98-7.82) when compared to those with background levels of exposure. Findings for the other time-related MF variables were inconsistent. Our analysis, in one of the largest case-control studies of breast cancer in men conducted to date, provides limited support for the hypothesis that exposure to MF increases the risk breast cancer in men.

  10. Environmental and occupational skin diseases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yu, H S; Lee, C H; Jee, S H; Ho, C K; Guo, Y L

    2001-11-01

    This presentation focuses on the four most important skin diseases in Taiwan thought to be of environmental and/or occupational origin. The majority of work-related dermatoses are contact dermatitis patients. Among occupational contact dermatitis patients, 58.5% involved irritant and 41.5%, allergic dermatitis. Electronics, hairdressing, medical practice, and construction were the most important occupations causing contact dermatitis. An endemic occurrence of chronic arsenism causing hyperpigmentation, keratosis, and cancer has been reported in Taiwan. Arsenical skin cancers present as multiple lesions at different disease stages. The skin cancers are usually found in non-sun-exposed areas. UVB exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of arsenical cancers; this may explain its non-sun-exposed nature. An outbreak of premalignant and malignant skin lesions was reported among paraquat manufacturers in 1985. The skin lesions were mainly distributed over the sun-exposed areas. Photodamage and photocarcinogenesis revealed a strong association with exposure to bipyridines among paraquat manufacturers. In 1979, a mass poisoning occurred in Taiwan from cooking oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Over 60% of patients were in grades O-II by the Japanese classification. The blood PCB levels of the Taiwanese patients were found to be higher than those of the Yusho subjects.

  11. Risk factors for bladder cancer in a cohort exposed to aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, P.A.; Ringen, K.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Altekruse, E.B.; Gullen, W.H.; Tillett, S.; Allsbrook, W.C. Jr.; Crosby, J.H.; Witherington, R.; Stringer, W.

    1986-11-01

    Occupational and nonoccupational risk factors for bladder cancer were analyzed in a cohort of 1385 workers with known exposure to a potent bladder carcinogen, beta-naphthylamine. Bladder cancer was approximately seven times (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9, 12.4) more likely in exposed rather than nonexposed individuals, yet, otherwise, the groups were generally similar in other exogenous or hereditary risk factors. A total of 13 cases of bladder cancer were identified. After the first year of a screening program involving 380 members of the cohort, 9 of the 13 cases of bladder cancer and 36 persons with atypical bladder cytology, histology, or pathology were compared with 335 noncases for distributions of different variables. Occupational variables were significant in a multivariate model that controlled for age, cigarette smoking history, and source of drinking water. The estimated odds ratio for the association for bladder cancer and the duration of employment, when controlling of these other variables, is 4.3 (95% CI = 1.8, 10.3). In addition to the occupational factors, age was significant in the multivariate analysis. Other potential risk factors, such as consumption of coffee or artificial sweeteners, use of phenacetin, or decreased use of vitamin A were not found to be significantly different in cases and noncases.

  12. Characteristics of Occupational Entrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Max L.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is mobile society, and mobility is evident in the jobs people hold. From one year to the next, almost 1 worker in 5 enters or returns to an occupation that he/she did not work in 12 months earlier. A worker's age, sex, race, and ethnicity influence likelihood of changing occupations. (Contains detailed data tables.) (JOW)

  13. OCCUPATION EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIEST, JEANNE; MORSCH, WILLIAM C.

    THE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (OERA) SYSTEM IS A RESEARCH EFFORT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A FEASIBLE METHOD OF PROJECTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS THAT WILL SATISFY LABOR MARKET NEEDS. THE OUTPUTS OF THE OERA WILL BE ANNUAL PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS IN OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THESE…

  14. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  15. Cabinetmaker. Occupational Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This document contains the analysis of the occupation of cabinetmaker, or joiner, that is accepted by the Canadian Council of Directors as the national standard for the occupation. The front matter preceding the analysis includes exploration of the development of the analysis, structure of the analysis, validation method, scope of the cabinetmaker…

  16. Bricklayer. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cap, Orest; Cap, Ihor; Semenovych, Viktor

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a bricklayer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as bricklayer-mason, brick and stone mason, and mason. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To facilitate understanding the…

  17. Counselling for Occupational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwamuo, P. A.; Ugonna, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the general attitude which senior secondary school students display towards counselling for occupational development while determining gender difference in students' attitude towards occupational information. It is also aimed at discovering whether these students seek vocational guidance in their choice of…

  18. Occupational asthma: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis of occupational asthma is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination of exposure to the responsible agent, and early use of inhaled steroids may play important roles in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Persistent occupational asthma is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reducing the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. Future research needs are identified. PMID:10931788

  19. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  20. Occupational Standards: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao, Ed.

    These nine papers from a conference of the International Research Network for Training and Development focus on occupational classification, standards, and certification. "Introduction" (Joao Oliveria) presents synopses with highlights from the papers. Part I offers an overview of recent developments in the United States in "Occupational Standards…