Science.gov

Sample records for occurring cranial cruciate

  1. Prevalence of lymphoplasmacytic synovitis in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Erne, Jay B; Goring, Robert L; Kennedy, Fidelma A; Schoenborn, William C

    2009-08-15

    To determine the prevalence of lymphoplasmacytic synovitis (LPS) in dogs with naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and compare clinical, radiographic, cytologic, and histologic findings in dogs with and without LPS. Cross-sectional study. 110 dogs with naturally occurring CCL rupture. Histologic examination of synovial biopsy specimens obtained at the time of surgical treatment was used to identify dogs with LPS. Clinical, radiographic, cytologic, and histologic findings were compared between dogs with and without LPS. 56 (51%) dogs had histologic evidence of LPS. There were no significant differences in age, body weight, duration of lameness, severity of lameness, severity of radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease, extent of CCL rupture (partial vs complete), or gross appearance of the medial meniscus between dogs with and without LPS. Mean tibial plateau angle was significantly lower in dogs with LPS than in dogs without LPS, and dogs with LPS were significantly more likely to have neutrophils in their synovial fluid. Lymphocytes were seen in synovial fluid from a single dog with LPS. Results suggested that LPS was common in dogs with naturally occurring CCL rupture. However, only minor clinical, radiographic, cytologic, and histologic differences were identified between dogs with and without LPS.

  2. Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy: a technique for eliminating cranial tibial thrust in cranial cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1984-03-01

    Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy, surgical technique for cranial cruciate ligament rupture, was performed on 19 stifles in dogs. This procedure leveled the tibial plateau, thus causing weight-bearing forces to be compressive and eliminating cranial tibial thrust. Without cranial tibial thrust, which was antagonistic to the cranial cruciate ligament and its surgical reconstruction, cruciate ligament repairs were allowed to heal without constant loads. This technique was meant to be used as an adjunct to other cranial cruciate ligament repair techniques.

  3. Contralateral Cruciate Survival in Dogs with Unilateral Non-Contact Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Peter; Schwartz, Zeev; Malek, Sarah; Kreines, Abigail; Cabrera, Sady Y.; Buote, Nicole J.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Holzman, Gerianne; Hao, Zhengling

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-contact cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR) is an important cause of lameness in client-owned dogs and typically occurs without obvious injury. There is a high incidence of bilateral rupture at presentation or subsequent contralateral rupture in affected dogs. Although stifle synovitis increases risk of contralateral CrCLR, relatively little is known about risk factors for subsequent contralateral rupture, or whether therapeutic intervention may modify this risk. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a longitudinal study examining survival of the contralateral CrCL in client-owned dogs with unilateral CrCLR in a large baseline control population (n = 380), and a group of dogs that received disease-modifying therapy with arthroscopic lavage, intra-articular hyaluronic acid and oral doxycycline (n = 16), and were followed for one year. Follow-up in treated dogs included analysis of mobility, radiographic evaluation of stifle effusion and arthritis, and quantification of biomarkers of synovial inflammation. We found that median survival of the contralateral CrCL was 947 days. Increasing tibial plateau angle decreased contralateral ligament survival, whereas increasing age at diagnosis increased survival. Contralateral ligament survival was reduced in neutered dogs. Our disease-modifying therapy did not significantly influence contralateral ligament survival. Correlative analysis of clinical and biomarker variables with development of subsequent contralateral rupture revealed few significant results. However, increased expression of T lymphocyte-associated genes in the index unstable stifle at diagnosis was significantly related to development of subsequent non-contact contralateral CrCLR. Conclusion Subsequent contralateral CrCLR is common in client-owned dogs, with a median ligament survival time of 947 days. In this naturally occurring model of non-contact cruciate ligament rupture, cranial tibial translation is preceded by

  4. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    PubMed

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  5. Cranial cruciate stability in the rottweiler and racing greyhound: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, C; Amis, A A; Stead, A C; Law, H T

    2000-05-01

    An in vitro biomechanical study of cadaver stifles from rottweilers and racing greyhounds was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of the cranial cruciate ligament to stifle joint stability. This was performed at differing stifle joint angles, first with the joint capsules and ligaments intact and then with all structures removed except for the cranial cruciate ligament. Craniocaudal laxity increased in both breeds as stifle flexion increased. The rottweiler stifle showed greater craniocaudal joint laxity than the racing greyhound at all joint angles between 150 degrees and 110 degrees, but the actual increases in joint laxity between these joint angles were similar for both breeds. Tibial rotation during craniocaudal loading of the stifle increased craniocaudal laxity in both breeds during joint flexion. The relative contribution of the cranial cruciate ligament to cranial stability of the stifle joint increased as the joint flexed and was similar in both breeds.

  6. Cranial cruciate ligament injury in the dog: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Jerram, R M; Walker, A M

    2003-08-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in the dog is a multifactorial complex problem that requires a thorough understanding of the biomechanics of the stifle joint to be understood. Successful treatment of rupture of the CCL should be based on managing underlying anatomical and conformational abnormalities rather than attempting to eliminate the tibial cranial drawer sign. The cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments, the patella ligament and quadriceps mechanism, the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, the medial and lateral menisci and the joint capsule provide stability of the joint and load-sharing. The function of the stifle is also significantly influenced by the musculature of the pelvic limb. An active model of biomechanics of the stifle has been described that incorporates not only the ligamentous structures of the stifle but also the forces created by weight-bearing and the musculature of the pelvic limb. This model recognises a force called cranial tibial thrust, which occurs during weight-bearing, and causes compression of the femoral condyles against the tibial plateau. In middle-aged, large-breed dogs, forces acting on the CCL together with conformation-related mild hyperextension of the stifle and slightly increased tibial plateau slopes are suspected to cause progressive degeneration of the ligament. Palpation of craniolateral stifle laxity has become pathognomonic for CCL rupture; however, chronic periarticular fibrosis, a partial CCL rupture, and a tense patient, may make evaluation of instability of the stifle difficult. Surgical treatment is broadly separated into three groups: intracapsular, extracapsular, and tibial osteotomy techniques. Tibial osteotomy techniques do not serve to provide stability of the stifle but rather alter the geometry of the joint to eliminate cranial tibial thrust such that functional joint stability is achieved during weight-bearing. Visualisation of both menisci is a critical aspect of CCL surgery, irrespective

  7. Comparison of the biomechanical properties of rottweiler and racing greyhound cranial cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, C; Amis, A A; Stead, A C; Law, H T

    2000-07-01

    An in vitro study of rottweiler and racing greyhound cranial cruciate ligaments revealed that the rottweiler ligaments had a significantly greater cross-sectional area at their distal attachments. Mechanical testing showed that the ultimate load related to body mass was significantly higher in the extended racing greyhound stifle during cranial tibial loading to failure, as were linear stiffness, tensile strength and tangent modulus. During ligament axis loading to failure, the only significant difference in structural and mechanical properties recorded between the two breeds was a greater ultimate strain for the greyhound ligament with the stifle joint flexed. Energy absorbed by the ligament complex at failure during cranial tibial loading was twice that for ligament axis loading for both breeds. The clinical significance is that the rottweiler cranial cruciate ligament is more vulnerable to damage as it requires half the load per unit body mass that the greyhound requires to cause a rupture.

  8. Collagenolytic protease expression in cranial cruciate ligament and stifle synovial fluid in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Muir, Peter; Danova, Nichole A; Argyle, David J; Manley, Paul A; Hao, Zhengling

    2005-01-01

    To determine expression of collagenolytic genes and collagen degradation in stifle tissues of dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). Six dogs with CCL rupture and 11 dogs with intact CCL. Gene expression in CCL tissue and synovial fluid cells was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Collagen degradation was studied using CCL explant cultures and a synovial fluid bioassay. Expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMP) was not found in young Beagles with intact CCL; however, increased expression of MMP-3 was found in CCL tissue from older hounds with intact CCL, when compared with young Beagles. In dogs with ruptured CCL, expression of MMP-2 and -9 was increased in stifle tissues, when compared with dogs with intact CCL. Similar to MMP-9, expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin S was only found in stifle tissues from dogs with ruptured CCL; in contrast, expression of cathepsin K was found in all ruptured and intact CCL. Collagen degradation was increased in ruptured CCL, when compared with intact CCL. Rupture of the CCL is associated with up-regulation of expression of MMP-2 and -9 (gelatinase A and B), TRAP, and cathepsin S, and increased degradation of collagen. These findings suggest that MMP-2, -9, cathepsin S, and TRAP may be important mediators of progressive joint destruction in dogs with CCL rupture. These genes are markers for macrophages and dendritic cells. MMP and cathepsin S pathways may offer novel targets for anti-inflammatory medical therapy aimed at ameliorating joint degradation associated with inflammatory arthritis.

  9. Abnormal reflex activation of hamstring muscles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Graham M; Granger, Nicolas; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J; Jeffery, Nick D

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs are poorly understood. In this study hamstring muscle reflexes in response to cranial tibial translation were analysed to determine whether these active stabilisers of the stifle joint are differently activated in dogs with CCLR compared to control dogs. In a prospective clinical study reflex muscle activity from the lateral and medial hamstring muscles (biceps femoris and semimembranosus) was recorded using surface electrodes in control dogs (n=21) and dogs with CCLR (n=22). These electromyographic recordings were analysed using an algorithm previously validated in humans. The hamstring reflex was reliably and reproducibly recorded in normal dogs. Both a short latency response (SLR, 17.6±2.1ms) and a medium latency response (MLR, 37.7±2.7ms) could be identified. In dogs with unilateral CCLR, the SLR and MLR were not significantly different between the affected and the unaffected limbs, but the MLR latency of both affected and unaffected limbs in CCLR dogs were significantly prolonged compared to controls. In conclusion, the hamstring reflex can be recorded in dogs and the MLR is prolonged in dogs with CCLR. Since both affected and unaffected limbs exhibit prolonged MLR, it is possible that abnormal hamstring reflex activation is a mechanism by which progressive CCL damage may occur. The methodology allows for further investigation of the relationship between neuromuscular imbalance and CCLR or limitations in functional recovery following surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Cranial Tibial Subluxation in the Feline Cranial Cruciate Deficient Stifle Joint: An Ex Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Bilmont, A; Retournard, M; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2018-06-11

     This study evaluated the effects of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle in a model of feline cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle joint.  Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated with cables, turnbuckles and a spring in an ex vivo limb model. Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were measured radiographically before and after cranial cruciate ligament section, and after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, at postoperative tibial plateau angles of +5°, 0° and -5°.  Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were not significantly altered after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy with a tibial plateau angle of +5°. Additional rotation of the tibial plateau to a tibial plateau angle of 0° and -5° had no significant effect on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle, although 2 out of 10 specimens were stabilized by a postoperative tibial plateau angle of -5°. No stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was observed in this model of the feline stifle, after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  Given that stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was not obtained in this model, simple transposition of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy technique from the dog to the cat may not be appropriate. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  11. Assessing the efficacy of perioperative oral carprofen after cranial cruciate surgery using noninvasive, objective pressure platform gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Horstman, Christopher L; Conzemius, Michael G; Evans, Richard; Gordon, Wanda J

    2004-01-01

    To document, using pressure platform gait analysis, the effect of perioperative oral carprofen on limb function and pain after cranial cruciate ligament surgery in dogs. Blinded, prospective clinical investigation. Twenty dogs with naturally occurring unilateral cranial cruciate disease. Physiologic indices, subjective pain scoring, and pressure platform gait analyses were performed before and 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Correlations were assessed between methods of evaluation and the data was compared across treatment groups. No strong correlations were noted between physiologic data, subjective scoring systems, or gait analysis data at a walk or stance. Although average measures of limb function were nearly twice as large in dogs treated with carprofen, no significant differences between groups over time were identified. No significant differences were noted in any other measure of pain or limb function. Power analysis of peak vertical force at a walk indicated that significant difference would have been detected had the number of dogs in each group been increased to 35. When limb function was assessed with pressure platform gait analysis no statistical difference was noted between groups with respect to PVF and VI at a walk or stance, although average ground reaction forces for dogs in the carprofen group were greater than the traditional pain management group at all time points. Oral carprofen appears to provide some benefit for the treatment of postoperative orthopedic pain.

  12. Peak vertical force in a stabilized canine cranial cruciate deficient stifle model: A one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lussier, Bertrand; Gagnon, Alexandre; Moreau, Maxim; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Troncy, Éric

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the peak vertical force (PVF) over a 1-year period in a stabilized canine cranial cruciate deficient stifle model. Our hypothesis was that PVF would be restored to Baseline (intact) at the end of the follow-up. Fifteen (> 20 kg) mixed-breed dogs were included in this study. Cranial cruciate ligament was transected on Day (D) 0 followed by lateral suture stabilization at D28. Peak vertical force was acquired at D-1, D14, D26, D91, D210 and D357. When compared to Baseline, the PVF was significantly decreased at D14, D26, and D91. Values at D210 and D357 were not statistically different to Baseline. This study suggests a return to normal baseline peak vertical force in a canine cranial cruciate deficient stifle model when lateral suture stabilization has been performed 28 days after surgical transection.

  13. Evaluation of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair System® in Surgery for Laryngeal Hemiplegia in Heavy Draft Horses

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Naoki; MORITA, Yoshinori; MORIYAMA, Tomoe; YAMADA, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the canine cranial cruciate ligament repair system on laryngeal hemiplegia in heavy draft horses. Twenty-four heavy draft horses diagnosed with grade 4 laryngeal hemiplegia were allocated to either the prosthetic laryngoplasty (PL) group (n=14) or a canine cranial cruciate ligament repair system (CCCLRS) group (n=10). Right to left angle quotients (RLQs) of abductions of the arytenoid cartilages were endoscopically evaluated before and after surgery. Post-operative RLQs in the CCCLRS group were significantly lower than those of the PL group (P<0.01). The canine cranial cruciate ligament repair system was revealed to be a good surgical procedure for laryngeal hemiplegia in heavy draft horses. PMID:24833966

  14. Owner Evaluation of a CORA-Based Leveling Osteotomy for Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injury in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Erin N; Hulse, Don

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate a center of rotation of angulation (CORA)-based leveling osteotomy for cranial cruciate ligament injury in dogs. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n=70). Medical records (March 2011 to March 2012) of dogs diagnosed with a cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury treated with a CORA-based leveling osteotomy and stabilized using a bone plate and headless compression screw were reviewed. Radiographs were reviewed for tibial plateau angle and radiographic healing at final evaluation graded on a 5-point scale. Follow-up for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively was conducted by owner completion of a questionnaire regarding their dog's function after surgery. Based on owner responses, clinical outcomes were established. CORA-based leveling osteotomy was used for 70 stifles with CCL injury. The mean time to final radiographic recheck was 107 days (range, 32-424 days). Radiographic healing scores were 42 dogs (69%) with grade 4, 17 dogs (28%) with grade 3, and 2 dogs (3%) with grade 2. The mean time to follow-up was 11.9 months (range 6-18 months). Fifty-four of the 70 (77%) dogs had full function, 13 (19%) had acceptable function, and 3 (4%) had unacceptable function. Complications occurred in 11 stifles (16%), including 3 incisional, 6 late-onset meniscal tears, and 2 implant related. The described method of a CORA-based leveling osteotomy can be successfully performed for treatment of CCL injury in dogs. At the time of mid-term and long-term owner follow-up, most dogs in this case series had returned to full function. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Popliteal tendon transposition for stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle joint in dogs: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Monnet, E; Schwarz, P D; Powers, B

    1995-01-01

    Popliteal tendon transposition was performed in five dogs with surgically induced cranial cruciate ligament rupture. After a lateral approach to the stifle joint, the popliteal tendon was severed distal to the sesamoid bone and transposed cranially onto the tibial crest to mimic the sagittal orientation of the cranial cruciate ligament. The origin of the popliteal tendon on the lateral femoral condyle was preserved. Lameness was not clinically detectable 2 months after surgery. At 6 months postoperatively, there was minimal radiographic and histopathologic evidence of degenerative joint disease in the stifle joints that had underwent surgery. There was no gross or microscopic evidence of meniscal damage found at necropsy 6 months after surgery. Biomechanical studies are warranted before recommending the procedure.

  16. Evaluation of an intra-articular synthetic ligament for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs: a six-month prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Matthew D; Maritato, Karl; Schankereli, Kemal; Wotton, Harry; Naber, Steven

    2016-11-23

    Evaluate the short-term outcomes of a novel synthetic ligament for treatment of naturally occurring canine cranial cruciate ligament disease. Prospective clinical study. Dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease (n = 50). Patient parameters evaluated included a five-point lameness score, evaluation of craniocaudal stifle instability, and radiographic findings over 24 weeks. Any postoperative complications were recorded. Thirty-four out of 42 dogs experienced significant improvements in lameness between the preoperative and 24 week time points. Lameness scores in those dogs improved significantly at all measured time intervals after postoperative week 2. Recurrence of stifle instability increased significantly over the study period from immediate postoperative measurements. Cranial drawer recurred in seven out of 42 of dogs by week 4 and 18/42 by week 24. Implant changes were not noted between the immediate and six-month postoperative radiographs except where complications occurred. Overall, 25 dogs experienced a total of 32 complications (22 major and 10 minor). Sixteen dogs had major complications, and nine had minor complications. The procedure was generally effective at improving lameness scores, but did not consistently maintain postoperative stifle stability and had an unacceptably high complication rate. This synthetic ligament procedure cannot be recommended for use in its current form.

  17. A review of extra-articular prosthetic stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle.

    PubMed

    Tonks, C A; Lewis, D D; Pozzi, A

    2011-01-01

    Extra-articular prosthetic stabilization techniques have been used as a method of stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle for decades. During extra-articular prosthetic stabilization, the prosthesis is anchored to the femur and tibia, and tensioned in the attempt to resolve femorotibial instability. The position of the anchor points of the prosthesis is crucial for restoring a normal range of joint motion and mitigating alterations in prosthesis tension during motion. Recently developed techniques offer several innovations with potential advantages such as bone-to-bone fixation, prosthetic materials with better mechanical properties, and improved isometry of the anchor points. Whether these innovations provide clinically superior results to the traditional techniques such as lateral circumfabellar-tibial suture techniques has yet to be determined.

  18. Radiographic Risk Factors for Contralateral Rupture in Dogs with Unilateral Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Connie; Ramaker, Megan A.; Kaur, Sirjaut; Csomos, Rebecca A.; Kroner, Kevin T.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Complete cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2) and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3) of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. Rupture of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. Conclusion Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are significant factors in the

  19. Long digital extensor tendon mineralization and cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Katie C; Perry, James A; Duncan, Colleen G; Duerr, Felix M

    2014-07-01

    To report clinical and histopathologic features of long digital extensor (LDE) tendon mineralization with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in a dog. Case report. 1.5-year-old, male castrated, English bulldog mix weighing 31.5 kg. Pre- and postoperative orthogonal radiographs, arthroscopic evaluation, arthrotomy with en bloc surgical excision, and histopathologic analysis of the excised LDE tendon. There was radiographic evidence of mineralization in the region of the proximal LDE and stifle instability suggestive of CCL rupture. Arthroscopy, and subsequent arthrotomy, showed complete tearing of the CCL and an intact but grossly thickened LDE. No evidence of avulsion or bony proliferation associated with the LDE was appreciated. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tenectomy of the LDE returned the dog to normal weight-bearing. No evidence of ectopic mineralization in the affected limb or similar clinical signs in the contralateral limb have been observed in 12 months follow-up. LDE tenectomy followed by stabilization of the stifle by TPLO resulted in a functional outcome. Mineralization without concurrent avulsion of the LDE has not been reported in dogs; however, posterolateral tendon injury in people has been linked to knee instability and cruciate ligament rupture. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Aquatic treadmill water level influence on pelvic limb kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament-deficient dogs with surgically stabilised stifles.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, G; Smalley, C; Brown, N; Bialczak, K; Carroll, D

    2018-02-01

    To compare pelvic limb joint kinematics and temporal gait characteristics during land-based and aquatic-based treadmill walking in dogs that have undergone surgical stabilisation for cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Client-owned dogs with surgically stabilised stifles following cranial cruciate ligament deficiency performed three walking trials consisting of three consecutive gait cycles on an aquatic treadmill under four water levels. Hip, stifle and hock range of motion; peak extension; and peak flexion were assessed for the affected limb at each water level. Gait cycle time and stance phase percentage were also determined. Ten client-owned dogs of varying breeds were evaluated at a mean of 55·2 days postoperatively. Aquatic treadmill water level influenced pelvic limb kinematics and temporal gait outcomes. Increased stifle joint flexion was observed as treadmill water level increased, peaking when the water level was at the hip. Similarly, hip flexion increased at the hip water level. Stifle range of motion was greatest at stifle and hip water levels. Stance phase percentage was significantly decreased when water level was at the hip. Aquatic treadmill walking has become a common rehabilitation modality following surgical stabilisation of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. However, evidence-based best practice guidelines to enhance stifle kinematics do not exist. Our findings suggest that rehabilitation utilising a water level at or above the stifle will achieve the best stifle kinematics following surgical stifle stabilisation. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Long-term functional outcome after surgical repair of cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mölsä, Sari H; Hyytiäinen, Heli K; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M

    2014-11-19

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is a very common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Few studies, using objective and validated outcome evaluation methods, have been published to evaluate long-term (>1 year) outcome after CCL repair. A group of 47 dogs with CCL rupture treated with intracapsular, extracapsular, and osteotomy techniques, and 21 healthy control dogs were enrolled in this study. To evaluate long-term surgical outcome, at a minimum of 1.5 years after unilateral CCL surgery, force plate, orthopedic, radiographic, and physiotherapeutic examinations, including evaluation of active range of motion (AROM), symmetry of thrust from the ground, symmetry of muscle mass, and static weight bearing (SWB) of pelvic limbs, and goniometry of the stifle and tarsal joints, were done. At a mean of 2.8 ± 0.9 years after surgery, no significant differences were found in average ground reaction forces or SWB between the surgically treated and control dog limbs, when dogs with no other orthopedic findings were included (n = 21). However, in surgically treated limbs, approximately 30% of the dogs had decreased static or dynamic weight bearing when symmetry of weight bearing was evaluated, 40-50% of dogs showed limitations of AROM in sitting position, and two-thirds of dogs had weakness in thrust from the ground. The stifle joint extension angles were lower (P <0.001) and flexion angles higher (P <0.001) in surgically treated than in contralateral joints, when dogs with no contralateral stifle problems were included (n = 33). In dogs treated using the intracapsular technique, the distribution percentage per limb of peak vertical force (DPVF) in surgically treated limbs was significantly lower than in dogs treated with osteotomy techniques (P =0.044). The average long-term dynamic and static weight bearing of the surgically treated limbs returned to the level of healthy limbs. However, extension and flexion angles of the surgically treated stifles

  2. Surgical treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial deformity associated with partial caudal and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and patella baja.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, S; Knell, S; Pozzi, A

    2017-04-01

    Caudal cruciate ligament injury can be a complication following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) (Slocum und Slocum, 1993) especially if the post-operative Tibial Plateau Angle (TPA) is less than 5 degree. We describe a case of negative TPA associated with partial cranial and caudal ligament rupture treated with a center of rotation of angulation (CORA) based cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transposition. A 13 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographically a bilateral patella baja and a malformed tibia tuberosity along with a bilateral TPA of -8 degree were detected. Arthroscopically a partial rupture of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments were found. A cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy of 23 degree and a fibular ostectomy were performed. The osteotomy was fixed with a 8 holes ALPS 9 (KYON, Switzerland) and a 3-holes 2.0mm UniLock plate (Synthes, Switzerland). Then a proximal tibial tuberosity transposition of 10mm was performed and fixed with a pin and tension band construct. The postoperative TPA was 15 degree. The radiographic controls at 6, 10 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery revealed an unchanged position of the implants and progressive healing of the osteotomies. At the 6 and 12 months recheck evaluation the dog had no evidence of lameness or stifle pain and radiographs revealed complete healing of the osteotomy site and no implant failure. The diaphyseal CORA based osteotomy allowed accurate correction of a proximal tibial deformity associated with negative TPA.

  3. The effectiveness of 3D animations to enhance understanding of cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dylan N; Broadhurst, Henry; Clarke, Stephen P; Farrell, Michael; Bennett, David; Mosley, John R; Mellanby, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture is one of the most important orthopedic diseases taught to veterinary undergraduates. The complexity of the anatomy of the canine stifle joint combined with the plethora of different surgical interventions available for the treatment of the disease means that undergraduate veterinary students often have a poor understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of CCL rupture. We designed, developed, and tested a three dimensional (3D) animation to illustrate the pertinent clinical anatomy of the stifle joint, the effects of CCL rupture, and the mechanisms by which different surgical techniques can stabilize the joint with CCL rupture. When compared with a non-animated 3D presentation, students' short-term retention of functional anatomy improved although they could not impart a better explanation of how different surgical techniques worked. More students found the animation useful than those who viewed a comparable non-animated 3D presentation. Multiple peer-review testing is required to maximize the usefulness of 3D animations during development. Free and open access to such tools should improve student learning and client understanding through wide-spread uptake and use.

  4. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement on the radiographical diagnosis of canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Evelien; Van der Vekens, Elke; Verhoeven, Geert; de Rooster, Hilde; Van Ryssen, Bernadette; Samoy, Yves; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Van Tilburg, Johan; Devriendt, Nausikaa; Weekers, Frederik; Bertal, Mileva; Houdellier, Blandine; Scheemaeker, Stephanie; Versteken, Jeroen; Lamerand, Maryline; Feenstra, Laurien; Peelman, Luc; Nieuwerburgh, Filip Van; Saunders, Jimmy H; Broeckx, Bart J G

    2018-04-28

    Even though radiography is one of the most frequently used imaging techniques for orthopaedic disorders, it has been demonstrated that the interpretation can vary between assessors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the intraobserver and interobserver agreement and the influence of level of expertise on the interpretation of radiographs of the stifle in dogs with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Sixteen observers, divided in four groups according to their level of experience, evaluated 30 radiographs (15 cases with CCLR and 15 control stifles) twice. Each observer was asked to evaluate joint effusion, presence and location of degenerative joint disease, joint instability and whether CCLR was present or absent. Overall, intraobserver and interobserver agreement ranged from fair to almost perfect with a trend towards increased agreement for more experienced observers. Additionally, it was found that stifles that were classified with high agreement have either overt disease characteristics or no disease characteristics at all, in comparison to the ones that are classified with a low agreement. Overall, the agreement on radiographic interpretation of CCLR was high, which is important, as it is the basis of a correct diagnosis and treatment. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. MMP-2 as an early synovial biomarker for cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Boland, L; Danger, R; Cabon, Q; Rabillard, M; Brouard, S; Bouvy, B; Gauthier, O

    2014-01-01

    To measure the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 in synovial fluid from the stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture and to compare that to values from contralateral stifle joints and dogs with clinically normal stifle joints. Additionally, the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also measured. Fourteen large breed dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture and 11 large breed normal dogs were included in this prospective clinical study. Synovial fluid was collected from CrCL-ruptured stifle joints, contralateral clinically normal stifle joints of the same dogs, and stifle joints of normal dogs. Serum was also collected. Synovial fluid activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and serum CRP level were measured. The MMP-2 activity in synovial fluid was significantly higher in CrCL-ruptured joints compared to contralateral joints and to stifles from normal dogs. There was no significant difference in activity of MMP-2 in contralateral joints of CrCL-ruptured dogs compared to normal dogs. Both serum CRP level and MMP-9 activity did not differ significantly between the studied conditions. It was confirmed that MMP-2 activity is significantly related to CrCL rupture, but there was a failure to demonstrate any significant increase in the contralateral joints compared to the stifle joints of normal dogs. The MMP-2 involvement in progressing CrCL disease still has to be defined.

  6. Immunohistochemical and histomorphometric evaluation of vascular distribution in intact canine cranial cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kei; Bhandal, Jitender; Kim, Sun Young; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Entwistle, Rachel; Naydan, Diane; Kapatkin, Amy; Stover, Susan M

    2011-02-01

    To (1) describe vascular distribution in the grossly intact canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) using immunohistochemical techniques specific to 2 components of blood vessels (factor VIII for endothelial cells, laminin for basement membrane); and (2) compare the vascularity in different areas of interest (craniomedial versus caudolateral bands; core versus epiligamentous regions; and proximal versus middle versus distal portions) in the intact normal canine CCL. In vitro study. Large, mature dogs (n=7) of breeds prone to CCL disease that were euthanatized for nonorthopedic conditions. Intact CCL were collected from fresh canine cadavers free from stifle pathology. CCL tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry and stained for factor VIII and laminin. Vascular density was determined by histomorphometric analysis. Specific vascular staining was sparsely identified throughout the CCL; however, the proximal portion of the CCL appears to have a greater number of vessels than the middle or distal portion of the ligament. The CCL is a hypovascular tissue and its vascular distribution is not homogeneous. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Effect of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, and tibial tuberosity advancement on contact mechanics and alignment of the stifle in flexion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2010-04-01

    To assess contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3-D) joint alignment in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifles before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) with the stifle in 90 degrees of flexion. In vitro biomechanical study. Cadaveric pelvic limb pairs (n=8) from dogs weighing 28-35 kg. Contralateral limbs were assigned to receive TPLO or TTA. Digital pressure sensors were used to measure femorotibial contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under a load of 30% body weight and stifle flexion angle of 90 degrees . 3-D poses were obtained using a Microscribe digitizer. Specimens were tested under normal, CCL deficient, and treatment conditions. Significant disturbances in alignment were not observed after CCL transection, although medial contact area was 10% smaller than normal (P=.003). There were no significant differences in contact mechanics or alignment between normal and TTA conditions; TPLO induced 6 degrees varus angulation (P<.001), 26% decrease in lateral peak pressure (P=.027), and 18% increase in medial mean pressure (P=.008) when compared with normal. Cranial tibial subluxation is nominal in CCL-deficient stifles loaded in flexion. Stifle alignment and contact mechanics are not altered by TTA, whereas TPLO causes mild varus and a subsequent increase in medial compartment loading. Cranial tibial subluxation of CCL-deficient stifles may not occur during postures that load the stifle in flexion. The significance of minor changes in loading patterns after TPLO is unknown.

  8. Hamstring Graft Technique for Stabilization of Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Deficient Stifles

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ, MANDI J.; MARKEL, MARK D.; KALSCHEUR, VICKI; LU, YAN; MANLEY, PAUL A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the harvest and application of hamstring grafts for canine cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) reconstruction. Study Design Experimental study. Animals Four adult female hounds, weighing 26.3 ± 1.6 kg (mean ± SEM). Methods One stifle in each dog was randomly chosen for hamstring graft CrCL reconstruction after native CrCL transection. Arthroscopy was performed to evaluate graft integrity at 12 weeks. Gait analysis and stifle radiographs were performed preoperatively and up to 52 weeks after graft placement. Dogs were killed 12 (n = 2) or 52 weeks (n = 2) after CrCL reconstruction. Tissues were evaluated grossly and with light and confocal laser microscopy. Results Hamstring grafts were intact in all stifles at 12 weeks (n = 4) and 52 weeks (n = 2). Grossly, there was no osteoarthritis in stifles at 12 weeks and only chondrophytes along the trochlear ridges at 52 weeks. Minimal radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis developed in stifles with grafts during the study. Lameness in limbs with grafts resolved by 52 weeks. Graft tissue was highly vascular, ligamentized, and undergoing active remodeling at 12 weeks. Fifty-two weeks after graft placement, intraarticular graft tissue was well vascularized, mature, and encapsulated by synovium, and graft-bone interfaces were characterized by Sharpey’s fiber insertions. There was no evidence of graft necrosis using confocal laser microscopy at either time point. Conclusions The hamstring graft technique may be a viable method of canine CrCL reconstruction. Clinical Relevance Hamstring grafts may be an alternative technique for canine CrCL reconstruction. Further study is needed before clinical application. PMID:12866003

  9. Engraftment of autologous bone marrow cells into the injured cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    PubMed

    Linon, E; Spreng, D; Rytz, U; Forterre, S

    2014-12-01

    Current research indicates that exogenous stem cells may accelerate reparative processes in joint disease but, no previous studies have evaluated whether bone marrow cells (BMCs) target the injured cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs. The objective of this study was to investigate engraftment of BMCs following intra-articular injection in dogs with spontaneous CCL injury. Autologous PKH26-labelled BMCs were injected into the stifle joint of eight client-owned dogs with CCL rupture. The effects of PKH26 staining on cell viability and PKH26 fluorescence intensity were analysed in vitro using a MTT assay and flow cytometry. Labelled BMCs in injured CCL tissue were identified using fluorescence microscopy of biopsies harvested 3 and 13 days after intra-articular BMC injection. The intensity of PKH26 fluorescence declines with cell division but was still detectable after 16 days. Labelling with PKH26 had no detectable effect on cell viability or proliferation. Only rare PKH26-positive cells were present in biopsies of the injured CCL in 3/7 dogs and in synovial fluid in 1/7 dogs. No differences in transforming growth factor-β1, and interleukin-6 before and after BMC treatment were found and no clinical complications were noted during a 1 year follow-up period. In conclusion, BMCs were shown to engraft to the injured CCL in dogs when injected into the articular cavity. Intra-articular application of PKH26-labelled cultured mesenchymal stem cells is likely to result in higher numbers of engrafted cells that can be tracked using this method in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging predicts severity of cruciate ligament fiber damage and synovitis in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Molly A.; Hans, Eric C.; Volstad, Nicola J.; Holzman, Gerianne; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Waller, Kenneth R.; Hao, Zhengling; Block, Walter F.

    2017-01-01

    Cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition in dogs. Dogs frequently develop a second contralateral CR. This study tested the hypothesis that the degree of stifle synovitis and cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) matrix damage in dogs with CR is correlated with non-invasive diagnostic tests, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 29 client-owned dogs with an unstable stifle due to complete CR and stable contralateral stifle with partial CR. We evaluated correlation of stifle synovitis and CrCL fiber damage with diagnostic tests including bilateral stifle radiographs, 3.0 Tesla MR imaging, and bilateral stifle arthroscopy. Histologic grading and immunohistochemical staining for CD3+ T lymphocytes, TRAP+ activated macrophages and Factor VIII+ blood vessels in bilateral stifle synovial biopsies were also performed. Serum and synovial fluid concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and synovial total nucleated cell count were determined. Synovitis was increased in complete CR stifles relative to partial CR stifles (P<0.0001), although total nucleated cell count in synovial fluid was increased in partial CR stifles (P<0.01). In partial CR stifles, we found that 3D Fast Spin Echo Cube CrCL signal intensity was correlated with histologic synovitis (SR = 0.50, P<0.01) and that radiographic OA was correlated with CrCL fiber damage assessed arthroscopically (SR = 0.61, P<0.001). Taken together, results of this study show that clinical diagnostic tests predict severity of stifle synovitis and cruciate ligament matrix damage in stable partial CR stifles. These data support use of client-owned dogs with unilateral complete CR and contralateral partial CR as a clinical trial model for investigation of disease-modifying therapy for partial CR. PMID:28575001

  11. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging predicts severity of cruciate ligament fiber damage and synovitis in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Sample, Susannah J; Racette, Molly A; Hans, Eric C; Volstad, Nicola J; Holzman, Gerianne; Bleedorn, Jason A; Schaefer, Susan L; Waller, Kenneth R; Hao, Zhengling; Block, Walter F; Muir, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition in dogs. Dogs frequently develop a second contralateral CR. This study tested the hypothesis that the degree of stifle synovitis and cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) matrix damage in dogs with CR is correlated with non-invasive diagnostic tests, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 29 client-owned dogs with an unstable stifle due to complete CR and stable contralateral stifle with partial CR. We evaluated correlation of stifle synovitis and CrCL fiber damage with diagnostic tests including bilateral stifle radiographs, 3.0 Tesla MR imaging, and bilateral stifle arthroscopy. Histologic grading and immunohistochemical staining for CD3+ T lymphocytes, TRAP+ activated macrophages and Factor VIII+ blood vessels in bilateral stifle synovial biopsies were also performed. Serum and synovial fluid concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and synovial total nucleated cell count were determined. Synovitis was increased in complete CR stifles relative to partial CR stifles (P<0.0001), although total nucleated cell count in synovial fluid was increased in partial CR stifles (P<0.01). In partial CR stifles, we found that 3D Fast Spin Echo Cube CrCL signal intensity was correlated with histologic synovitis (SR = 0.50, P<0.01) and that radiographic OA was correlated with CrCL fiber damage assessed arthroscopically (SR = 0.61, P<0.001). Taken together, results of this study show that clinical diagnostic tests predict severity of stifle synovitis and cruciate ligament matrix damage in stable partial CR stifles. These data support use of client-owned dogs with unilateral complete CR and contralateral partial CR as a clinical trial model for investigation of disease-modifying therapy for partial CR.

  12. Arthroscopic Assessment of Stifle Synovitis in Dogs with Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Little, Jeffrey P.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Sutherland, Brian J.; Sullivan, Ruth; Kalscheur, Vicki L.; Ramaker, Megan A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Hao, Zhengling; Muir, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) is a degenerative condition in dogs that typically has a non-contact mechanism. Subsequent contralateral rupture often develops in dogs with unilateral CR. Synovitis severity is an important factor that promotes ligament degradation. Consequently, we wished to evaluate the utility of arthroscopy for assessment of stifle synovitis in dogs with CR. Herein, we report results of a prospective study of 27 dogs with unilateral CR and bilateral radiographic osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic images and synovial biopsies from the lateral and medial joint pouches were obtained bilaterally and graded for synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and synovitis. Synovial tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) macrophages, CD3+ T lymphocytes, Factor VIII+ blood vessels, and synovial intima thickness were quantified histologically and related to arthroscopic observations. Risk of subsequent contralateral CR was examined using survival analysis. We found that arthroscopic scores were increased in the index stifle, compared with the contralateral stifle (p<0.05). Numbers of CD3+ T lymphocytes (SR = 0.50, p<0.05) and TRAP+ cells in joint pouches (SR = 0.59, p<0.01) were correlated between joint pairs. Arthroscopic grading of vascularity and synovitis was correlated with number density of Factor VIII+ vessels (SR>0.34, p<0.05). Arthroscopic grading of villus hypertrophy correlated with numbers of CD3+ T lymphocytes (SR = 0.34, p<0.05). Synovial intima thickness was correlated with arthroscopic hypertrophy, vascularity, and synovitis (SR>0.31, p<0.05). Strong intra-observer and moderate inter-observer agreement for arthroscopic scoring was found. Dog age and arthroscopic vascularity significantly influenced risk of contralateral CR over time. We conclude that arthroscopic grading of synovitis is a precise tool that correlates with histologic synovitis. Arthroscopy is useful for assessment of stifle synovitis in client-owned dogs

  13. Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joint: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reif, Ullrich; Hulse, Donald A; Hauptman, Joe G

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau leveling on joint motion in canine stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) had been severed. In vitro cadaver study. Six canine cadaver hind legs. Radiographs of the stifle joints were made to evaluate the tibial plateau angle with respect to the long axis of the tibia. The specimens were mounted in a custom-made testing device to measure cranio-caudal translation of the tibia with respect to the femur. An axial load was applied to the tibia, and its position was recorded in the normal stifle, after transection of the CCL, and after tibial plateau leveling. Further, the amount of caudal tibial thrust was measured in the tibial plateau leveled specimen while series of eight linearly increasing axial tibial loads were applied. Transection of the CCL resulted in cranial tibial translation when axial tibial load was applied. After tibial plateau leveling, axial loading resulted in caudal translation of the tibia. Increasing axial tibial load caused a linear increase in caudal tibial thrust in all tibial plateau-leveled specimens. After tibial plateau leveling, axial tibial load generates caudal tibial thrust, which increases if additional axial load is applied. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may prevent cranial translation during weight bearing in dogs with CCL rupture by converting axial load into caudal tibial thrust. The amount of caudal tibial thrust seems to be proportional to the amount of weight bearing. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  14. Effect of perioperative oral carprofen on postoperative pain in dogs undergoing surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, James S; Brevard, Sean; Mallinckrodt, Craig; Baker, Geri; Wander, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of oral carprofen for the control of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing knee surgery for stabilization of ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments. Dogs were randomly assigned to treatment with carprofen (n = 10) or placebo (n = 9). Pain was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours and 10 and 21 days postoperatively. Eight of 10 dogs treated with carprofen and five of nine dogs treated with placebo were given at least one dose of morphine as rescue therapy. The mean relative dose of morphine given at 1 hour (P =.01) and 24 hours (P =.02) after surgery was greater for dogs treated with carprofen than for dogs given a placebo. There were no significant postoperative differences in cortisol levels or any measured variable. It appears that the scoring system used was not sensitive enough to detect differences in pain between a known analgesic and a placebo.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase activity in stifle synovial fluid of cranial cruciate ligament deficient dogs and effect of postoperative doxycycline treatment.

    PubMed

    Rabillard, M; Danger, R; Doran, I P; Niebauer, G W; Brouard, S; Gauthier, O

    2012-07-01

    This prospective clinical study investigated the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in stifle synovial fluid (SF) of 13 dogs with acute cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture, and the effect of a postoperative doxycycline treatment. MMP-2, 3, 9 and 13 activities were compared with respect to the time of sampling (preoperatively or 1 month after surgical stabilisation) and the type of postoperative adjuvant treatment (doxycycline or not). No significant activity was detected for both MMP-3 and MMP-13. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were found to be significantly highly increased in SF of CCL ruptured stifles compared to control stifles of unaffected dogs. No significant effect from surgical stabilisation and postoperative doxycycline treatment on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities was found, indicating that doxycycline may not be an appropriate postoperative medical treatment after CCL rupture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical comparison of a novel extracapsular stabilization procedure and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cook, James L; Luther, Jill K; Beetem, Jodi; Karnes, Josh; Cook, Cristi R

    2010-04-01

    To develop and test a novel extracapsular technique, TightRope CCL technique (TR), and compare its 6-month clinical outcomes to tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency. Prospective clinical cohort study. Medium, large, and giant breed dogs (n=47) with CCL deficiency. Before clinical use, TR was evaluated by mechanical testing and the surgical technique was developed and evaluated in canine cadavers. For the clinical study, dogs were assigned to either TR (n=24) or TPLO (n=23) groups and the assigned technique performed after arthroscopic assessment and treatment of joint pathology. Postoperative management was standardized for both groups. Outcome measures were performed immediately postoperatively and up to 6 months after surgery and included complication types and rate, subjective measurement of cranial drawer and tibial thrust, subjective assessment of radiographic progression of osteoarthritis (OA), and function using a validated client questionnaire (6 months only). TR with a fiber tape suture had superior mechanical properties for creep, stiffness, yield load, and load at failure. Duration of anesthesia, total surgical time, and stabilization procedure (TR versus TPLO) were all significantly (P<.001) shorter for TR compared with TPLO. Complications requiring further treatment occurred in 12.5% of TR cases and 17.4% of TPLO cases. No significant differences were noted between groups for cranial tibial thrust, but cranial drawer was significantly (P<.05) lower in TR stifles at all postoperative time points. No significant differences were noted between groups for radiographic OA scores. No statistically or clinically significant differences were noted between TR and TPLO for scores for each of the client questionnaire categories. TR resulted in 6-month outcomes that were not different than TPLO in terms of radiographic progression of OA and client-evaluated level of function. TR was associated with

  17. Outcome of Tibial Closing Wedge Osteotomy in 55 Cranial Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Stifles of Small Dogs (<15 kg).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kathryn A; Payne, John T; Doornink, Michael T; Haggerty, Jamie

    2016-11-01

    To describe the outcome of cranial closing wedge osteotomy (CWO) of the tibia for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles in dogs with a body weight of <15 kg. Retrospective case series. Forty-five client-owned dogs (n=55 stifles). Medical records (2005-2014), radiographs, and owner questionnaire were used to identify the surgical procedure performed, associated complications and outcome in 45 dogs undergoing CWO in 55 stifles. Data for 55 stifles from 45 dogs were included. Bichon Frise was the most frequent dog breed (n=11). Mean pre- and postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA) were 36.3° (95% CI 35.1-37.5) and 7.5° (95% CI 6.7-8.2), respectively. Pin and tension bands were placed in 38/55 stifles (69%). The most frequent complication at short-term follow-up (2 weeks) was incisional complications in 8 stifles; all resolved with systemic antibiotic administration alone. Data were available for all stifles at 8 week follow-up with an overall complication occurrence in 16/55 stifles (28%); 1 dog required revision surgery. Tibial osteotomy healing was evident on radiographs at 8 weeks postoperative in 53 stifles (96%), considered complete in 27 stifles, and good in 26 stifles. Follow-up owner questionnaire was available for 36 dogs at a mean of 24 months and 34/36 owners (94%) were satisfied with the procedure and considered their dog had a good quality of life with minimal long-term complications. Dogs with a body weight <15 kg undergoing CWO for treatment of a CrCL-deficient stifle had a good outcome based on clinical status, radiographic evaluation, and owner questionnaire. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Assessing the efficacy of perioperative carprofen administration in dogs undergoing surgical repair of a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Reese, C J; Trotter, E J; Short, C E; Erb, H N; Barlow, L L

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one otherwise healthy dogs that presented for surgical repair of a ruptured cranial cruciate ligament were blindly and randomly given either carprofen (2.2 mg/kg body weight, orally) or a placebo beginning 12 hours preoperatively and continuing every 12 hours for a total of three doses. The patients were assessed for postoperative pain using a subjective pain score and given oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg body weight, intramuscularly) every four hours if the pain score was 2 or greater. Blood samples were also collected to determine serum cortisol levels. There was a significant increase in serum cortisol levels in the immediate postoperative period in both the placebo group and the carprofen group (p less than 0.05). There was no significant difference in the percentage of increase in serum cortisol levels between the two groups. No correlation was evident between the serum cortisol levels and the corresponding pain scores in either group. This subjective method of assessing postoperative pain was not accurate and should not be relied upon for determination of postoperative analgesic administration. Perioperative oral administration of carprofen did not appear to be effective in controlling postoperative pain in these patients.

  19. Lymphocyte populations in joint tissues from dogs with inflammatory stifle arthritis and associated degenerative cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Muir, Peter; Kelly, Jennifer L; Marvel, Sarah Jane; Heinrich, Daniel A; Schaefer, Susan L; Manley, Paul A; Tewari, Kavita; Singh, Anju; Suresh, M; Hao, Zhengling; Plisch, Erin

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate lymphocyte populations in stifle synovium and synovial fluid of dogs with degenerative cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=25) with stifle arthritis and CCLR, 7 dogs with arthritis associated with cartilage degeneration (osteoarthritis [OA]), and 12 healthy Beagle dogs with intact CCL. Arthritis was graded radiographically in CCLR dogs. After collection of joint tissues, mononuclear cells were isolated and subsequently analyzed using flow cytometry for expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD21. The proportions of CD4(+) T helper lymphocytes, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes were increased in synovium from dogs with CCLR compared with synovium from healthy Beagle dogs (P<.05). The proportion of CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes in synovial fluid was increased in dogs with CCLR compared with dogs with OA (P<.05). In dogs with CCLR, the proportion of CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes in synovial fluid was inversely correlated with radiographic arthritis (S(R) =-0.68, P<.005). Lymphocytic inflammation of stifle synovium and synovial fluid is an important feature of the CCLR arthropathy. Lymphocyte populations include T lymphocytes expressing CD4 and CD8, and CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes. Presence of CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) T lymphocytes was associated with development of stifle synovitis. Further work is needed to fully identify the phenotype of these cells. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Epidemiology of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Disease Diagnosis in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, Frances E; Meeson, Richard L; Brodbelt, Dave C; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; O'Neill, Dan G

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease in dogs and to describe the management of such cases attending primary-care veterinary practices. Historical cohort with a nested case-control study. Nine hundred and fifty-three dogs diagnosed with CCL disease from 171,522 dogs attending 97 primary-care practices in England. Medical records of dogs attending practices participating in the VetCompass project that met selection criteria were assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to evaluate association of possible risk factors with diagnosis of CCL disease. The prevalence of CCL disease diagnosis was estimated at 0.56% (95% confidence interval 0.52-0.59). Compared with crossbred dogs, Rottweilers, West Highland White Terriers, Golden Retrievers, Yorkshire Terriers, and Staffordshire Bull Terriers showed increased odds of CCL disease diagnosis while Cocker Spaniels showed reduced odds. Increasing bodyweight within breeds was associated with increased odds of diagnosis. Dogs aged over 3 years had increased odds of diagnosis compared with dogs aged less than 3 years. Neutered females had 2.1 times the odds of diagnosis compared with entire females. Insured dogs had 4 times the odds of diagnosis compared with uninsured dogs. Two-thirds of cases were managed surgically, with insured and heavier dogs more frequently undergoing surgery. Overall, 21% of cases were referred, with referral more frequent in heavier and insured dogs. Referred dogs more frequently had surgery and an osteotomy procedure. Breed predispositions and demographic factors associated with diagnosis and case management of CCL disease in dogs identified in this study can be used to help direct future research and management strategies. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells in osteotomy repair after tibial tuberosity advancement in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Rocha Dos Santos, Clarissa; da Rocha Filgueiras, Richard; Furtado Malard, Patrícia; Rodrigues da Cunha Barreto-Vianna, Andre; Nogueira, Kaique; da Silva Leite, Carolina; Maurício Mendes de Lima, Eduardo

    2018-06-14

    The cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is the most commonly encountered orthopedic condition in dogs. Among the various techniques to treat this condition, tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) has been used to obtain rapid recovery of the affected knee. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) implanted in the osteotomy site obtained by TTA in nine dogs diagnosed with CCLR. The MSC were isolated from the adipose tissue of the dogs and cultured for eight days, the animals were divided into two groups. Animals from the treated group (GT) received cell transport medium containing about 1.5 millions MSC, and the animals from the control group (GC) received only the cell transport medium. The study was performed in a double-blind manner using radiographs acquired on days 15, 30, 60 and 120 after the procedure. Evaluations of the density of the trabecular bone were performed using image analysis software. The results were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, followed by the normality test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Tukey's multiple comparison test for p ≤ 0.05. After 30 days of the procedure, the animals of the GT presented an ossification mean 36.45% greater (p ≤ 0.033) than the GC, and there were no statistical differences for the other periods. Despite the total bone ossification within the expected period, there was no minimization of the estimated recovery time with the application of MSC, and inflammatory factors should be considered for reassessment of the therapeutic intervention time.

  2. Articular cartilage scores in cranial cruciate ligament-deficient dogs with or without bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Kathryn; Beale, Brian S; Thames, Howard D; Saunders, W Brian

    2017-01-01

    To compare articular cartilage scores in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient dogs with or without concurrent bucket handle tears (BHT) of the medial meniscus. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs treated with arthroscopy and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or extracapsular repair for complete CCL rupture (290 stifles from 264 dogs). Medical records and arthroscopic images were reviewed. Medial femoral condyle (MFC) and medial tibial plateau (MTP) cartilage was scored using the modified Outerbridge scale. Periarticular osteophytosis (PAO) and injury to the medial meniscus were recorded. Data were analyzed using Student's t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and Fisher's exact test for changes in the stifle based on meniscal condition, body weight, and duration of lameness. PAO, MFC, and MTP articular cartilage scores were not significantly different in dogs with or without BHT. There were no significant differences in MFC or MTP scores when dogs were evaluated based on bodyweight and the presence or absence of a BHT. However, PAO formation was significantly increased in dogs weighing >13.6 kg and concurrent meniscal injury vs. dogs weighing <13.6 kg and concurrent meniscal injury (P < .001). Significantly more stifles with chronic lameness (40 of 89; 44.9%) had the highest PAO score of 2 reported compared to only 42 of 182 stifles (23.1%) with acute lameness (P < .001). The presence of a BHT of the medial meniscus was not associated with more severe arthroscopic articular cartilage lesions in the medial joint compartment at the time of surgery. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. A new technique of extracapsular restoration with a tie made of ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, E; Imayama, Y; Katano, S; Nagashima, F; Shibata, T

    1996-06-01

    A new extracapsular technique for repair of canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture using an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) tie was presented. Eighteen dogs (body weight: 6.0-46 kg) with this problem were used for this study. The advantages of this method were 1) the operation was easily performed. 2) Joint could be stabilized by proper fixation with microadjustment during operation. 3) This method presented less surgical invasion than the intracapsular one, since wide incision was not conducted over peripheral tissue of the stifle joint.

  4. Rheological study of synovial fluid obtained from dogs: healthy, pathological, and post-surgery, after spontaneous rupture of cranial cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Goudoulas, Thomas B; Kastrinakis, Eleftherios G; Nychas, Stavros G; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Kazakos, George M; Kosmas, Panagiotis V

    2010-01-01

    In the present study synovial fluid (SF) obtained from the stifle joint of healthy adult dogs and of dogs after cranial cruciate ligament rupture was analyzed regarding its rheological characteristics according to the condition of the joint. The viscoelastic and shear flow properties were measured at 25 and 38 degrees C. The results showed that the healthy SF exhibits practically temperature independent viscosity curve and satisfactory viscoelastic characteristics, i.e. G' > G'', over frequencies of 0.05-5 Hz, and characteristic relaxation time lambda of the order of magnitude of 100 s. Creep measurements demonstrate that the zero shear viscosity was in the range of 10-100 Pa s. In shear flow viscosity measurements, by increasing gamma from 10(-4) s(-1) up to 10(3) s(-1), non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior was observed and the viscosity values were decreased from 10(3) to 0.1 Pa s. On the contrary, in pathological conditions of cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR), the measured viscosity was found drastically reduced, i.e. between 100 and 10 mPa s. The CCLR synovial fluid, similar to healthy SF, exhibits insignificant temperature dependence. The present study showed also that about one week after a surgery for CCLR repair the SF exhibits non-Newtonian behavior of dilute polymers. After two weeks from the operation, however, the rheological behavior converges to the one of healthy SF.

  5. Factors contributing to the variability of a predictive score for cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Devin P; Mostafa, Ayman A; Gordan-Evans, Wanda J; Boudrieau, Randy J; Griffon, Dominique J

    2017-08-14

    We recently reported that a conformation score derived from the tibial plateau angle (TPA) and the femoral anteversion angle (FAA), best discriminates limbs predisposed to, or affected by cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD), from those that are at low risk for CCLD. The specificity and sensitivity of this score were high enough to support further investigations toward its use for large-scale screening of dogs by veterinarians. The next step, which is the objective of the current study, is to determine inter-observer variability of that CCLD score in a large population of Labrador Retrievers. A total of 167 Labradors were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Limbs of normal dogs over 6 years of age with no history of CCLD were considered at low risk for CCLD. Limbs of dogs with CCLD were considered at high risk for CCLD. Tibial plateau and femoral anteversion angles were measured independently by two investigators to calculate a CCLD score for each limb. Kappa statistics were used to determine the extent of agreement between investigators. Pearson's correlation and intraclass coefficients were calculated to evaluate the correlation between investigators and the relative contribution of each measurement to the variability of the CCLD score. The correlation between CCLD scores calculated by investigators was good (correlation coefficient = 0.68 p < 0.0001). However, interobserver agreement with regards to the predicted status of limbs was fair (kappa value = 0.28), with 37% of limbs being assigned divergent classifications. Variations in CCLD scores correlated best with those of TPA, which was the least consistent parameter between investigators. Absolute interobserver differences were two times greater for FAAs (4.19° ± 3.15) than TPAs (2.23° ± 1.91). The reproducibility of the CCLD score between investigators is fair, justifying caution when interpreting individual scores. Future studies should focus on improving the reproducibility

  6. Expression of immune response genes in the stifle joint of dogs with oligoarthritis and degenerative cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Muir, P; Schaefer, S L; Manley, P A; Svaren, J P; Oldenhoff, W E; Hao, Z

    2007-10-15

    Dysregulation of immune responses within joints plays an important role in development of inflammatory arthritis. We determined expression of a panel of immune response and matrix turnover genes in synovial fluid collected from a group of dogs with stifle oligoarthritis and associated degenerative cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture (n=27). We also studied synovial fluid gene expression in dogs affected with other forms of degenerative arthritis (n=9) and in the stifle joint of healthy dogs with intact CCL (n=14). After collection, synovial cells were pelleted and RNA was isolated. Relative expression of cathepsin K, cathepsin S, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), invariant chain (li), toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), and TLR-9 was determined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Data were normalized to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as an internal control. Relative expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, TRAP, and li was increased in the stifle synovial fluid of dogs with oligoarthritis, when compared with the stifles of healthy dogs (P<0.05). In contrast, relative expression of all of the genes-of-interest in synovial fluid from joints affected with other forms of arthritis was not significantly different from the stifles of healthy dogs. TRAP expression was also significantly increased in the stifle joints of dogs with oligoarthritis, when compared to joint expression of TRAP in dogs with other forms of degenerative arthritis (P<0.05). In the dogs with stifle oligoarthritis, expression of both matrix turnover and immune response genes was increased in stifle synovial fluid, when compared with the internal PBMC control, whereas in healthy dogs and dogs with other forms of arthritis, only expression of matrix turnover genes was increased in synovial fluid, when compared with the internal PBMC control (P<0.05). Taken together, these findings suggest that antigen-specific immune responses within the stifle joint may

  7. Biomechanics of an orthosis-managed cranial cruciate ligament-deficient canine stifle joint predicted by use of a computer model.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina E; Brown, Nathan P; Mich, Patrice M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of an orthosis on biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient canine stifle joint by use of a 3-D quasistatic rigid-body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to investigate influences of orthosis hinge stiffness (durometer). SAMPLE A previously developed computer simulation model for a healthy 33-kg 5-year-old neutered Golden Retriever. PROCEDURES A custom stifle joint orthosis was implemented in the CrCL-deficient pelvic limb computer simulation model. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation in the orthosis-stabilized stifle joint (baseline scenario; high-durometer hinge]) were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of orthosis hinge stiffness on model outcome measures. RESULTS The orthosis decreased loads placed on the caudal cruciate and lateral collateral ligaments and increased load placed on the medial collateral ligament, compared with loads for the CrCL-intact stifle joint. Ligament loads were decreased in the orthosis-managed CrCL-deficient stifle joint, compared with loads for the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial translation and rotation decreased but were not eliminated after orthosis management. Increased orthosis hinge stiffness reduced tibial translation and rotation, whereas decreased hinge stiffness increased internal tibial rotation, compared with values for the baseline scenario. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Stifle joint biomechanics were improved following orthosis implementation, compared with biomechanics of the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Orthosis hinge stiffness influenced stifle joint biomechanics. An orthosis may be a viable option to stabilize a CrCL-deficient canine stifle joint.

  8. 3D FSE Cube and VIPR-aTR 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging predicts canine cranial cruciate ligament structural properties.

    PubMed

    Racette, Molly; Al saleh, Habib; Waller, Kenneth R; Bleedorn, Jason A; McCabe, Ronald P; Vanderby, Ray; Markel, Mark D; Brounts, Sabrina H; Block, Walter F; Muir, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) structural properties in client-owned dogs with incipient cruciate rupture would be advantageous. The objective of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of normal CrCL volume in an ex-vivo canine model predicts structural properties. Stifles from eight dogs underwent 3.0 Tesla 3D MRI. CrCL volume and normalized median grayscale values were determined using 3D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) Cube and Vastly under-sampled Isotropic PRojection (VIPR)-alternative repetition time (aTR) sequences. Stifles were then mechanically tested. After joint laxity testing, CrCL structural properties were determined, including displacement at yield, yield load, load to failure, and stiffness. Yield load and load to failure (R(2)=0.56, P <0.01) were correlated with CrCL volume determined by VIPR-aTR. Yield load was also correlated with CrCL volume determined by 3D FSE Cube (R(2)=0.32, P <0.05). Structural properties were not related to median grayscale values. Joint laxity and CrCL stiffness were not related to MRI parameters, but displacement at yield load was related to CrCL volume for both sequences during testing (R(2)>0.57, P <0.005). In conclusion, 3D MRI offers a predictive method for estimating canine CrCL structural properties. 3D MRI may be useful for monitoring CrCL properties in clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of interleukin-8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the synovial membrane and cranial cruciate ligament of dogs after rupture of the ligament

    PubMed Central

    El-Hadi, Mustafa; Charavaryamath, Chandarshekhar; Aebischer, Andrea; Smith, C. Wayne; Shmon, Cindy; Singh, Baljit

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study compared inflammation, including expression of the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in the stifle joints of 4 control dogs and 23 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). The CCL, synovial membrane, meniscus, cartilage, and synovial fluid from the affected stifle joints of all the dogs were examined. Inflammatory cell counts were performed on the synovial fluid, and the tissues were processed for histologic study and immunohistochemical detection of IL-8 and ICAM-1. The synovial fluid from the stifle joints of the dogs with CCLR had an increased percentage of neutrophils (P = 0.054) and a decreased percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.004) but not macrophages compared with the fluid from the control dogs. There was accumulation of inflammatory cells and increased expression of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the vascular endothelium of the synovial membrane and the CCL of the dogs with CCLR. The increase in inflammatory cells in the stifle joints of dogs with CCLR may therefore be due to increased expression of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the synovial membrane and the CCL after the injury. These data may help in understanding the mechanisms of inflammation associated with CCLR. PMID:22754089

  10. Expression of interleukin-8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the synovial membrane and cranial cruciate ligament of dogs after rupture of the ligament.

    PubMed

    El-Hadi, Mustafa; Charavaryamath, Chandarshekhar; Aebischer, Andrea; Smith, C Wayne; Shmon, Cindy; Singh, Baljit

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study compared inflammation, including expression of the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in the stifle joints of 4 control dogs and 23 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). The CCL, synovial membrane, meniscus, cartilage, and synovial fluid from the affected stifle joints of all the dogs were examined. Inflammatory cell counts were performed on the synovial fluid, and the tissues were processed for histologic study and immunohistochemical detection of IL-8 and ICAM-1. The synovial fluid from the stifle joints of the dogs with CCLR had an increased percentage of neutrophils (P = 0.054) and a decreased percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.004) but not macrophages compared with the fluid from the control dogs. There was accumulation of inflammatory cells and increased expression of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the vascular endothelium of the synovial membrane and the CCL of the dogs with CCLR. The increase in inflammatory cells in the stifle joints of dogs with CCLR may therefore be due to increased expression of IL-8 and ICAM-1 in the synovial membrane and the CCL after the injury. These data may help in understanding the mechanisms of inflammation associated with CCLR.

  11. Serum and synovial fluid concentrations of keratan sulfate and hyaluronan in dogs with induced stifle joint osteoarthritis following cranial cruciate ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Budsberg, Steven C; Lenz, Mary Ellen; Thonar, Eugene J-M A

    2006-03-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in serum and synovial fluid concentrations of keratan sulfate (KS) and hyaluronan (HA) after cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) transection in dogs. 12 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs. Following CCL transection in the right stifle joint, KS and HA concentrations were determined in serum and neat (undiluted) synovial fluid prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 12 months after surgery. Postsurgical dilution of synovial fluid was corrected by use of urea as a passive marker. Synovial fluid KS and HA concentrations decreased at 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery in operated stifle joints, compared with baseline values. Synovial fluid KS concentration decreased in unoperated stifle joints at 1 month. A decrease in synovial fluid KS concentration was found in operated stifle joints, compared with unoperated stifle joints, at 2 and 3 months, and a decrease in synovial fluid HA concentrations was also found in operated stifle joints, compared with unoperated stifle joints, at 1, 2, and 3 months. Serum KS concentrations increased from baseline values at 3 months after surgery. Hyaluronan concentrations in operated stifle joints were lower than baseline values at 1, 2, and 3 months. Urea-adjusted synovial fluid concentrations revealed that dilution did not account for the decline in biomarker concentrations. The initial decrease and subsequent increase in synovial fluid concentrations of HA and KS may be caused by an acute inflammatory response to surgical intervention that negatively affects cartilage metabolism or an increase in production of immature proteoglycans.

  12. Evaluation of changes in vertical ground reaction forces as indicators of meniscal damage after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; Bendele, Alison M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs. 39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1. The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A > or =10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage. In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury.

  13. Do cats with a cranial cruciate ligament injury and osteoarthritis demonstrate a different gait pattern and behaviour compared to sound cats?

    PubMed

    Stadig, Sarah; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Bergh, Anna

    2016-10-20

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of chronic pain and dysfunction in older cats. The majority of cats with OA do not show signs of overt lameness, yet cats with orthopaedic disease are known to redistribute their body weight from the affected limb. OA can cause changes in the cat's behaviour, which is often misinterpreted as signs of aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate if cats with a previous cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury perform differently on the pressure mat and exhibit different behaviour compared to sound cats according to the owner´s subjective assessment. Ten cats with a previous CCL injury were assessed with a pressure mat system and their owners were asked to complete an assessment questionnaire. The results were compared to those of 15 sound cats, matched to have the same weight and body condition score. The front/hind limb index for peak vertical force (PVF) was significantly higher for CCL cats, and there was a decreased PVF and vertical impulse (VI) on the affected hindlimb compared to the unaffected one. The results indicate that cats with a previous CCL injury put less weight, on the affected hindlimb but for a longer time. There was a significantly higher owner assessment questionnaire score for the group of cats with CCL injury compared to sound cats. Cats with a previous CCL injury have a different gait pattern compared to sound cats and a different behaviour according to owner subjective assessment. It is of great importance that further studies are performed to investigate the long term effects of CCL injury as a cause of pain and physical dysfunction, and its role in the development of OA in cats. Improved assessment tools for chronic pain caused by OA in cats are needed, both to facilitate diagnosis and to evaluate pain-relieving treatment.

  14. Increased levels of the 14-3-3 η and γ proteins in the synovial fluid of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Sardari, Kamran; Chavez-Muñoz, Claudia; Kilani, Ruhangiz T; Schiller, Terri; Ghahary, Aziz

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated whether the 14-3-3 η and γ proteins, which are potent matrix metalloprotease (MMP) stimulators, are detectable in the synovial fluid of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Synovial fluid samples from 7 dogs with unilateral CCLR and control samples from 4 dogs without a history of any joint inflammation or any other abnormalities underwent Western blot analysis for the 14-3-3 η, γ, and σ proteins as well as MMP-1 and MMP-3. Craniocaudal and lateral radiographic projections of the stifle joint were evaluated for the presence and severity of 13 specific radiographic markers of osteoarthritis and graded numerically. The Spearman method was used to detect any correlation between the 14-3-3-η level in the synovial fluid and the radiograph-based grade. The η isoform was present only in the samples from the dogs with CCLR. The levels of 14-3-3-γ, MMP-1, and MMP-3 were significantly higher in the samples from the dogs with CCLR than in the control samples (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the CCLR and control samples in the level of the σ isoform. The Spearman method showed a significant correlation between the 14-3-3-η level in the synovial fluid and the presence of either patellar osteophytes or lateral or medial (or both) condylar periarticular osteophytes (P < 0.05). The MMP stimulatory effect of the 14-3-3 η and γ isoforms may be the reason for the high levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 observed. Thus, 14-3-3 proteins, especially the η isoform, may be important markers of osteoarthritis caused by CCLR.

  15. Evaluation of anticollagen type I antibody titers in synovial fluid of both stifle joints and the left shoulder joint of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate disease.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Tanya; de Rooster, Hilde; van Bree, Henri; Cox, Eric

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate anticollagen type I antibodies in synovial fluid of the affected stifle joint, the contralateral stifle joint, and the left shoulder joint of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture during an extended period of 12 to 18 months. 13 client-owned dogs with CrCL rupture and 2 sham-operated dogs. All dogs were examined and arthrocentesis of all 3 joints was performed every 6 months after surgery. Synovial fluid samples were tested for anticollagen type I antibodies by use of an ELISA. Dogs with partial CrCL rupture had higher antibody titers than dogs with complete rupture. Six of 13 dogs ruptured the contralateral CrCL during the study, whereby higher antibody titers were found for the stifle joints than for the shoulder joint. Seronegative dogs or dogs with extremely low antibody titers and 2 dogs with high antibody titers did not sustain a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint. In most dogs that had a CrCL rupture of the contralateral stifle joint, a distinct antibody titer gradient toward the stifle joints was detected, suggesting that there was a local inflammatory process in these joints. However, only a small number of sham-operated dogs were used to calculate the cutoff values used to determine the anticollagen type I antibody titers in these patients. Synovial fluid antibodies against collagen type I alone do not initiate CrCL rupture because not all dogs with high antibody titers sustained a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.

  16. Prevalence and relevance of antibodies to type-I and -II collagen in synovial fluid of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament damage.

    PubMed

    de Rooster, H; Cox, E; van Bree, H

    2000-11-01

    To measure and compare synovial fluid antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen in stifle joints with instability caused by complete or partial cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and joints with osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes in dogs. 82 dogs with diseased stifle joints. Synovial fluid samples were collected from 7 dogs with clinically normal stifles (control group) and 82 dogs with diseased joints (50 stifle joints with complete rupture of the CCL, 20 with partial damage of the CCL, and 12 joints with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis secondary to other arthropathies). Synovial fluid samples were tested for autoantibodies to type-I and -II collagen by an ELISA. In dogs with complete and partial CCL rupture, synovial fluid antibody titers to type-I and -II collagen were significantly increased, compared with control dogs. Forty-eight percent (24/50) of samples from dogs with complete CCL rupture and 35% (7/20) of samples from dogs with partial CCL rupture had antibody titers to type-I collagen that were greater than the mean plus 2 standard deviations of the control group titers. Synovial fluid antibody titers to type-II collagen were high in 40% of the dogs with partial or (8/20) complete (20/50) CCL rupture. Dogs with osteoarthrosis secondary to other pathologic changes had significantly increased synovial fluid antibodies to type-I and -II collagen, compared with control dogs. Increases in autoantibodies to collagen in synovial fluid are not specific for the type of joint disorder. It is unlikely that the anticollagen antibodies play an active role in the initiation of weakening of the CCL.

  17. Proinflammatory cytokine activities, matrix metalloproteinase-3 activity, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content in synovial fluid of dogs with naturally acquired cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukihiro; Hara, Yasushi; Nezu, Yoshinori; Schulz, Kurt S; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2006-06-01

    To measure and compare activities of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3); as well as sulfated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG) content in synovial fluid from dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) and dogs with clinically normal stifles. To determine whether correlations exist between demographic and disease-related variables and these synovial markers. Prospective clinical study. Dogs with CCLR (n=23) and Beagles with normal stifle joints (n=21). Synovial fluid activities of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) were determined by bioassay. MMP-3 activity was measured using fluorogenic substrate. S-GAG contents were determined by dimethylmethylene blue dye-binding assay. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare results from CCLR joints with normal controls. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to evaluate associations between demographic and disease-related markers and synovial markers. Mean values for synovial markers were significantly higher in CCLR joints compared with controls. IL-1beta and MMP-3 were positively correlated with lameness duration. Activities of proinflammatory cytokines, MMP-3 activity and S-GAG contents were significantly elevated in synovial fluid from canine stifle joints with naturally acquired CCLR. These results indicate that there is joint inflammation and increased release of GAGs into synovial fluid, suggesting that these inflammatory changes are associated with depletion of proteoglycan from articular cartilage. Medical and surgical treatments designed to decrease joint inflammation and breakdown of proteoglycans may be of value in the management of CCLR in the dog.

  18. Increased levels of the 14-3-3 η and γ proteins in the synovial fluid of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    PubMed Central

    Sardari, Kamran; Chavez-Muñoz, Claudia; Kilani, Ruhangiz T.; Schiller, Terri; Ghahary, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the 14-3-3 η and γ proteins, which are potent matrix metalloprotease (MMP) stimulators, are detectable in the synovial fluid of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Synovial fluid samples from 7 dogs with unilateral CCLR and control samples from 4 dogs without a history of any joint inflammation or any other abnormalities underwent Western blot analysis for the 14-3-3 η, γ, and σ proteins as well as MMP-1 and MMP-3. Craniocaudal and lateral radiographic projections of the stifle joint were evaluated for the presence and severity of 13 specific radiographic markers of osteoarthritis and graded numerically. The Spearman method was used to detect any correlation between the 14-3-3-η level in the synovial fluid and the radiograph-based grade. The η isoform was present only in the samples from the dogs with CCLR. The levels of 14-3-3-γ, MMP-1, and MMP-3 were significantly higher in the samples from the dogs with CCLR than in the control samples (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the CCLR and control samples in the level of the σ isoform. The Spearman method showed a significant correlation between the 14-3-3-η level in the synovial fluid and the presence of either patellar osteophytes or lateral or medial (or both) condylar periarticular osteophytes (P < 0.05). The MMP stimulatory effect of the 14-3-3 η and γ isoforms may be the reason for the high levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3 observed. Thus, 14-3-3 proteins, especially the η isoform, may be important markers of osteoarthritis caused by CCLR. PMID:22468024

  19. Partial Cranial Cruciate Ligament Tears Treated with Stem Cell and Platelet-Rich Plasma Combination Therapy in 36 Dogs: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Canapp, Sherman O; Leasure, Christopher S; Cox, Catherine; Ibrahim, Victor; Carr, Brittany J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate outcomes in 36 dogs with a partial cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) tear treated with autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) or adipose-derived progenitor cells (ADPC) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combination. Medical records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with an early partial (≤50%) tear of the craniomedial band of the CCL that was treated with BMAC-PRP or ADPC-PRP were reviewed from 2010 to 2015. Signalment, medical history, physical and orthopedic examination, objective temporospatial gait analyses, radiographs, day 0 and day 90 diagnostic arthroscopy findings, treatment, and outcome were among the data collected. A functional owner questionnaire, including the validated Helsinki chronic pain index (HCPI), was sent to owners whose dog was known to not have had a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Statistical analysis was performed on data, where significance was established at p  < 0.05. Stifle arthroscopy findings at 90 days posttreatment were available on 13 of the 36 dogs. In nine dogs, a fully intact CCL with marked neovascularization and a normal fiber pattern was found with all previous regions of disruption healed. One dog revealed significant improvement and received an additional injection. The remaining three dogs had a >50% CCL tear, and a TPLO was performed. Four additional dogs were known to have had a TPLO performed elsewhere. Baseline and day 90 posttreatment objective gait analyses were available on 11 of the 36 dogs. A significant difference was found between the treated limb total pressure index percent (TPI%) at day 0 and day 90 ( p  = 0.0124), and between the treated limb and contralateral limb TPI% at day 0 ( p  = 0.0003). No significant difference was found between the treated limb and contralateral limb TPI% at day 90 ( p  = 0.7466). Twelve questionnaires were returned, of which eight were performance/sporting dogs. Seven of the eight had returned to sport; the remaining dog had just

  20. Cranial tibial thrust: a primary force in the canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1983-08-15

    A cranially directed force identified within the canine stifle joint was termed cranial tibial thrust. It was generated during weight bearing by tibial compression, of which the tarsal tendon of the biceps femoris is a major contributor, and by the slope of the tibial plateau, found to have a mean cranially directed inclination of 22.6 degrees. This force may be an important factor in cranial cruciate ligament rupture and in generation of cranial drawer sign.

  1. Correlation of prostaglandin E2 concentrations in synovial fluid with ground reaction forces and clinical variables for pain or inflammation in dogs with osteoarthritis induced by transection of the cranial cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the temporal pattern of prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in synovial fluid after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs and to correlate PGE2 concentrations with ground reaction forces and subjective clinical variables for lameness or pain. 19 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. Force plate measurements, subjective clinical analysis of pain or lameness, and samples of synovial fluid were obtained before (baseline) and at various time points after arthroscopic transection of the right CCL. Concentrations of PGE2 were measured in synovial fluid samples, and the PGE2 concentrations were correlated with ground reaction forces and clinical variables. The PGE2 concentration increased significantly above the baseline value throughout the entire study, peaking 14 days after transection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse significantly decreased by day 14 after transection, followed by an increase over time without returning to baseline values. All clinical variables (eg, lameness, degree of weight bearing, joint extension, cumulative pain score, effusion score, and total protein content of synovial fluid, except for WBC count in synovial fluid) increased significantly above baseline values. Significant negative correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and peak vertical force (r, -0.5720) and vertical impulse (r, -0.4618), and significant positive correlations were detected between PGE2 concentrations and the subjective lameness score (r, 0.5016) and effusion score (r, 0.6817). Assessment of the acute inflammatory process by measurement of PGE2 concentrations in synovial fluid may be correlated with the amount of pain or lameness in dogs.

  2. Use of proteomic analysis to determine the protein constituents of synovial fluid samples from the stifle joints of dogs with and without osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Manchi, George; Brunnberg, Leo; Raila, Jens

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To use proteomic analysis to determine the protein constituents of synovial fluid samples from the stifle joints of dogs with and without osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). ANIMALS 12 dogs with clinically normal stifle joints (controls) and 16 dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to CCLR. PROCEDURES A synovial fluid sample was obtained from all dogs. Synovial fluid total protein concentration was determined by the Bradford assay. Proteins were separated by use of a 1-D SDS-PAGE to detect protein bands that differed between dogs with and without osteoarthritis. Those protein bands then underwent trypsin digestion and were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the results of which were compared with a curated protein sequence database for protein identification. One of the most frequently identified proteins, apoprotein (apo) A-I, was then quantified in all synovial fluid samples by use of a competitive-inhibition ELISA. Results were compared between dogs with and without osteoarthritis. RESULTS Median synovial fluid total protein and apo A-I concentrations for dogs with osteoarthritis were significantly greater than those for control dogs. The most abundant proteins identified in the synovial fluid were albumin and apo A-I. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that quantification of synovial fluid total protein and apo A-I concentrations might facilitate diagnosis of osteoarthritis secondary to CCLR in dogs. Further research and validation of synovial fluid apo A-I concentration as a biomarker for osteoarthritis in dogs are necessary before it can be recommended for clinical use.

  3. Seasonal variation in detection of bacterial DNA in arthritic stifle joints of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Muir, Peter; Fox, Robin; Wu, Qiang; Baker, Theresa A; Zitzer, Nina C; Hudson, Alan P; Manley, Paul A; Schaefer, Susan L; Hao, Zhengling

    2010-02-24

    An underappreciated cause and effect relationship between environmental bacteria and arthritis may exist. Previously, we found that stifle arthritis in dogs was associated with the presence of environmental bacteria within synovium. Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is often associated with stifle arthritis in dogs. We now wished to determine whether seasonal variation in detection of bacterial material may exist in affected dogs, and to also conduct analyses of both synovium and synovial fluid. We also wished to analyze a larger clone library of the 16S rRNA gene to further understanding of the microbial population in the canine stifle. Synovial biopsies were obtained from 117 affected dogs from January to December 2006. Using PCR, synovium and synovial fluid were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DNA. Broad-ranging 16S rRNA primers were also used and PCR products were cloned and sequenced for bacterial identification. Overall, 41% of arthritic canine stifle joints contained bacterial DNA. Detection of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid samples was increased, when compared with synovium (p<0.01). Detection rates were highest in the winter and spring and lowest in the summer period, suggesting environmental factors influence the risk of translocation to the stifle. Organisms detected were predominately Gram's negative Proteobacteria, particularly the orders Rhizobiales (32.8% of clones) and Burkholderiales (20.0% of clones), usually as part of a polymicrobial population. PCR-positivity was inversely correlated with severity of arthritis assessed radiographically and with dog age. Bacterial translocation to the canine stifle may be associated with changes to the indoor environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of proteins in serum, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament disease and dogs without stifle joint arthritis.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bridget C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2013-03-01

    To identify proteins with differential expression between healthy dogs and dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease. Serum and synovial fluid samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis before (n = 10) and after (8) surgery and control dogs without osteoarthritis (9) and archived synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis (5) and dogs without arthritis (5). Serum and synovial fluid samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; results were compared against a nonredundant protein database. Expression of complement component 3 in archived tissue samples was determined via immunohistochemical methods. No proteins had significantly different expression between serum samples of control dogs versus those of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis. Eleven proteins (complement component 3 precursor, complement factor I precursor, apolipoprotein B-100 precursor, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein precursor, serum amyloid A, transthyretin precursor, retinol-binding protein 4 precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, angiotensinogen precursor, and fibronectin 1 isoform 1 preproprotein) had significantly different expression (> 2.0-fold) between synovial fluid samples obtained before surgery from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis versus those obtained from control dogs. Complement component 3 was strongly expressed in all (5/5) synovial membrane samples of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis and weakly expressed in 3 of 5 synovial membrane samples of dogs without stifle joint arthritis. Findings suggested that the complement system and proteins involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism may have a role in stifle joint osteoarthritis, CCL disease, or both.

  5. Morphologic and functional features of the canine cruciate ligaments.

    PubMed

    de Rooster, Hilde; de Bruin, Tanya; van Bree, Henri

    2006-12-01

    To review the gross, microscopic, and functional anatomy of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in dogs. Literature review. Reports of the anatomy and function of the cruciate ligaments in dogs were retrieved by search of the 1975-2005 PubMed database. The CCL has an important biomechanical function resisting cranial drawer, hyperextension, and internal rotation and acts to fine tune and guide the stifle through its rolling and sliding motion. It has a complex architecture, and distinct geographic regions within the ligament have different functional roles depending on the angle and loading conditions. Collagen type I is the main component of the extracellular matrix; the fibrils have a crimped structure. The cruciate ligaments are almost completely covered by synovium, protecting them from synovial fluid. Cruciate blood supply is mainly of soft tissue origin. The intraligamentous network is relatively limited whereas the core of the middle third of the CCL is even less well vascularized. Neurohistologic studies are very limited in the dog. Various mechanoreceptors and proprioceptive receptors have been identified within the substance of the cruciate ligaments. CCL structural characteristics play an important part in its complex behaviour with the crimped pattern of the collagen fibrils being an important determinant of its biomechanical properties. In contrast to reports of managing CCL rupture, there are few reports describing the microanatomy and neurovascular morphology of the cruciate ligaments. Cruciate disease is likely multi-factorial. Improved understanding of CCL degradation leading to CCL rupture is critical to development of new diagnostic tests for cruciate disease in dogs. Appropriate intervention during the early stages of disease process might preserve CCL structural properties by preventing further collagen degradation. Accurate knowledge of functional and fiber bundle anatomy is imperative for reconstruction and restoration of normal stifle joint

  6. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... tear. Contact sports. Athletes in sports such as football and soccer can tear their posterior cruciate ligament ... vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors ...

  7. Use of an extracapsular stabilization technique to repair cruciate ligament ruptures in two avian species.

    PubMed

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Spodnick, Gary; Degernes, Laurel; DeVoe, Ryan S; Marcellin-Little, Denis J

    2009-12-01

    An extracapsular stabilization technique was used to repair cruciate ligament ruptures in a trumpeter hornbill (Bycanistes bucinator) and an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The hornbill demonstrated cranial drawer motion and severe rotational instability of the stifle from ruptures of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments and stifle joint capsule. The luxation was reduced, and the fibula was cranially transposed, in relation to the tibiotarsus, and anchored with 2 positive profile threaded acrylic pins. A lateral extracapsular stabilization was then performed. The African grey parrot had a traumatic stifle luxation, and an open reduction and a lateral extracapsular stabilization were performed. Both birds regained function of the affected leg by 1 month after surgery. Extracapsular stabilization allows motion of the stifle joint to be maintained during the postoperative recovery period, an advantage over rigid stabilization. Maintaining motion in the stifle joint facilitates physical therapy and can aid in full recovery after avian stifle injuries.

  8. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies in Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael; Bursztyn, Lulu; Superstein, Rosanne; Gans, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis of medium and large arteries often with ophthalmic involvement, including ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal artery occlusion, and ocular motor cranial nerve palsies. This last complication occurs in 2%-15% of patients, but typically involves only 1 cranial nerve. We present 2 patients with biopsy-proven GCA associated with multiple cranial nerve palsies.

  9. Causes of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Vladimir; Ninković, Srdan; Harhaji, Vladimir; Milankov, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries it is necessary to define risk factors and to analyze the most frequent causes of injuries--that being the aim of this study. The study sample consisted of 451 surgically treated patients, including 400 sportsmen (65% of them being active and 35% recreational sportsmen), 29% female and 71% male; of whom 90% were younger than 35. Sports injuries, as the most frequent cause of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, were recorded in 88% of patients (non-contact ones in 78% and contact ones in 22%), injuries occurring in everyday activities in 11% and in traffic in 1%. Among sportsmen, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was most frequently performed in football players (48%), then in handball players (22%), basketball players (13%), volleyball players (8%), martial arts fighters (4%). However, the injury incidence was the highest among the active basketball players (1 injured among 91 active players). Type of footwear, warming up before the activity, genetic predisposition and everyday therapy did not have a significant influence on getting injured. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries happened three times more often during matches, in the middle and at the end of a match and training session (79%), at landing after the jump or when changing direction of movement (75%) without a contact with other competitors, on dry surfaces (79%), among not so well prepared sportsmen.

  10. Lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    MedlinePlus

    ... palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... with: Brain aneurysms Nerve damage from diabetes( diabetic neuropathy ) Gradenigo syndrome (which also causes discharge from the ...

  12. Variations in cell morphology in the canine cruciate ligament complex.

    PubMed

    Smith, K D; Vaughan-Thomas, A; Spiller, D G; Clegg, P D; Innes, J F; Comerford, E J

    2012-08-01

    Cell morphology may reflect the mechanical environment of tissues and influence tissue physiology and response to injury. Normal cruciate ligaments (CLs) from disease-free stifle joints were harvested from dog breeds with a high (Labrador retriever) and low (Greyhound) risk of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Antibodies against the cytoskeletal components vimentin and alpha tubulin were used to analyse cell morphology; nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and images were collected using conventional and confocal microscopy. Both cranial and caudal CLs contained cells of heterogenous morphologies. Cells were arranged between collagen bundles and frequently had cytoplasmic processes. Some of these processes were long (type A cells), others were shorter, thicker and more branched (type B cells), and some had no processes (type C cells). Processes were frequently shown to contact other cells, extending longitudinally and transversely through the CLs. Cells with longer processes had fusiform nuclei, and those with no processes had rounded nuclei and were more frequent in the mid-substance of both CLs. Cells with long processes were more commonly noted in the CLs of the Greyhound. As contact between cells may facilitate direct communication, variances in cell morphology between breeds at a differing risk of CCL rupture may reflect differences in CL physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring.

    PubMed

    Harper, C Michel

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of intraoperative monitoring is to preserve function and prevent injury to the nervous system at a time when clinical examination is not possible. Cranial nerves are delicate structures and are susceptible to damage by mechanical trauma or ischemia during intracranial and extracranial surgery. A number of reliable electrodiagnostic techniques, including nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and the recording of evoked potentials have been adapted to the study of cranial nerve function during surgery. A growing body of evidence supports the utility of intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerve nerves during selected surgical procedures.

  14. Cranial mononeuropathy III

    MedlinePlus

    ... is one of the cranial nerves that control eye movement. Causes may include: Brain aneurysm Infections Abnormal blood ... show: Enlarged (dilated) pupil of the affected eye Eye movement abnormalities Eyes that are not aligned Your health ...

  15. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ivan (Inventor); Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  16. Secular trends in Cherokee cranial morphology: Eastern vs Western bands.

    PubMed

    Sutphin, Rebecca; Ross, Ann H; Jantz, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The research objective was to examine if secular trends can be identified for cranial data commissioned by Boas in 1892, specifically for cranial breadth and cranial length of the Eastern and Western band Cherokee who experienced environmental hardships. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the degree of relationship between each of the cranial measures: cranial length, cranial breadth and cephalic index, along with predictor variables (year-of-birth, location, sex, admixture); the model revealed a significant difference for all craniometric variables. Additional regression analysis was performed with smoothing Loess plots to observe cranial length and cranial breadth change over time (year-of-birth) separately for Eastern and Western Cherokee band females and males born between 1783-1874. This revealed the Western and Eastern bands show a decrease in cranial length over time. Eastern band individuals maintain a relatively constant head breadth, while Western Band individuals show a sharp decline beginning around 1860. These findings support negative secular trend occurring for both Cherokee bands where the environment made a detrimental impact; this is especially marked with the Western Cherokee band.

  17. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Jeffrey; Bedi, Asheesh; Altchek, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common surgical procedures, with more than 200,000 ACL tears occurring annually. Although primary ACL reconstruction is a successful operation, success rates still range from 75% to 97%. Consequently, several thousand revision ACL reconstructions are performed annually and are unfortunately associated with inferior clinical outcomes when compared with primary reconstructions. Evidence Acquisition: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database (1988-2013) as well as from textbook chapters and surgical technique papers. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The clinical outcomes after revision ACL reconstruction are largely based on level IV case series. Much of the existing literature is heterogenous with regard to patient populations, primary and revision surgical techniques, concomitant ligamentous injuries, and additional procedures performed at the time of the revision, which limits generalizability. Nevertheless, there is a general consensus that the outcomes for revision ACL reconstruction are inferior to primary reconstruction. Conclusion: Excellent results can be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability but are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction. A staged approach with autograft reconstruction is recommended in any circumstance in which a single-stage approach results in suboptimal graft selection, tunnel position, graft fixation, or biological milieu for tendon-bone healing. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): Good results may still be achieved with regard to graft stability, return to play, and functional knee instability, but results are generally inferior to primary ACL reconstruction: Level B. PMID:25364483

  18. Forces necessary for the disruption of the cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Manipulation of the cisternal segment of cranial nerves is often performed by the neurosurgeon. To date, attempts at quantifying the forces necessary to disrupt these nerves in situ, to our knowledge, has not been performed. The present study seeks to further elucidate the forces necessary to disrupt the cranial nerves while within the subarachnoid space. The cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII were exposed in six unfixed cadavers, all less than 6 hr postmortem. Forces to failure were then measured. Mean forces necessary to disrupt nerves for left sides in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, III, VIII, XI, VI, V, and II, respectively. Mean forces for right-sided cranial nerves in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, VIII, V, VI, XI, III, and II, respectively. Overall, cranial nerves requiring the least amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV, VII, and IX. Those requiring the highest amount of force included cranial nerves II, V, VI, and XI. There was an approximately ten-fold difference between the least and greatest forces required to failure. Cranial nerve III was found to require significantly (P < 0.05) greater forces to failure for right versus left sides. To date, the neurosurgeon has had no experimentally derived data from humans for the in situ forces necessary to disrupt the cisternal segment of cranial nerves II through XII. We found that cranial nerve IX consistently took the least amount of force until its failure and cranial nerve II took the greatest. Other cranial nerves that took relatively small amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV and VII. Although in vivo damage can occur prior to failure of a cranial nerve, our data may serve to provide a rough estimation for the maximal amount of tension that can be applied to a cranial nerve that is manipulated while within its cistern.

  19. Posterior cruciate ligament: anatomy, biomechanics, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Voos, James E; Mauro, Craig S; Wente, Todd; Warren, Russell F; Wickiewicz, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    The optimal treatment of posterior cruciate ligament ruptures remains controversial despite numerous recent basic science advances on the topic. The current literature on the anatomy, biomechanics, and clinical outcomes of posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is reviewed. Recent studies have quantified the anatomic location and biomechanical contribution of each of the 2 posterior cruciate ligament bundles on tunnel placement and knee kinematics during reconstruction. Additional laboratory and cadaveric studies have suggested double-bundle reconstructions of the posterior cruciate ligament may better restore normal knee kinematics than single-bundle reconstructions although clinical outcomes have not revealed such a difference. Tibial inlay posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (either open or arthroscopic) are preferred by many authors to avoid the "killer turn" and graft laxity with cyclic loading. Posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction improves subjective patient outcomes and return to sport although stability and knee kinematics may not return to normal.

  20. [Magnetic resonance imaging features of a caudal cruciate ligament rupture associated with a suspected bone bruise lesion in a dog].

    PubMed

    Schmohl, M; Konar, M; Tassani-Prell, M; Rupp, S

    2014-04-16

    In this case study we describe a surgically confirmed caudal cruciate ligament rupture in a 10-year-old Border Collie. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a complete rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament, a suspected bone bruise lesion on the proximolateral tibia and a muscle strain injury of the M. flexor digitorum lateralis. In human medicine, bone bruise lesions in MRI have been described as "footprint injuries" and can thereby explain the mechanism of trauma in ligament injuries. The combination of the MRI findings in this case can help to understand how the rarely diagnosed isolated rupture of the caudal cruciate ligament occurred in this dog.

  1. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  2. Intracranial meningiomas related to external cranial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Spallone, A.; Gagliardi, F.M.; Vagnozzi, R.

    1979-08-01

    Three cases are presented of meningiomas following small-dose external cranial irradiation in which several features clearly indicate a causal relationship between radiotherapy and tumor development. The length of the latent period separates meningiomas following high-dose irradiation from those which followed small-dose irradiation. Therefore the oncogenic mechanism seems to act differently in the two groups. This demonstration that multiple meningiomas can occur in patients irradiated for Tinea capitis should enable other similar cases to be recognized.

  3. Acute torn meniscus combined with acute cruciate ligament injury. Second look arthroscopy after 3-month conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Ihara, H; Miwa, M; Takayanagi, K; Nakayama, A

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate arthroscopically the natural healing of an acute torn meniscus combined with an acute cruciate ligament injury treated nonoperatively. There were 30 lateral and 10 medial meniscus tears associated with 25 acute anterior cruciate ligament and 7 posterior cruciate ligament injuries in 32 patients. There was more than 1 tear on some menisci for a total of 51 tear sites. Injuries to the menisci and ligaments were allowed to heal without surgery, but were given protective mobilization immediately in order to stimulate stress oriented healing of injured collagen fibers and promote circulation of synovial fluid to the meniscus and ligament. A Kyuro knee brace with a coil spring traction system was used to add adequate but not excessive stress to the associated injured cruciate ligament. All knees were examined and arthroscoped before and after a 3-month treatment period. Results indicated that 69% of the lateral menisci healed completely and 18% healed partially, whereas 58% of the medial menisci healed completely and none healed partially. Twenty of 25 anterior cruciate ligaments and 3 of 7 posterior cruciate ligaments healed satisfactorily. This study indicated that acute tears of the meniscus, even when they occur in association with a cruciate ligament injury, can heal morphologically with nonsurgical treatment.

  4. A Review on Biomechanics of Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Materials for Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Marieswaran, M.; Jain, Ishita; Garg, Bhavuk; Sharma, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the six ligaments in the human knee joint that provides stability during articulations. It is relatively prone to acute and chronic injuries as compared to other ligaments. Repair and self-healing of an injured anterior cruciate ligament are time-consuming processes. For personnel resuming an active sports life, surgical repair or replacement is essential. Untreated anterior cruciate ligament tear results frequently in osteoarthritis. Therefore, understanding of the biomechanics of injury and properties of the native ligament is crucial. An abridged summary of the prominent literature with a focus on key topics on kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint and various loads acting on the anterior cruciate ligament as a function of flexion angle is presented here with an emphasis on the gaps. Briefly, we also review mechanical characterization composition and anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament as well as graft materials used for replacement/reconstruction surgeries. The key conclusions of this review are as follows: (a) the highest shear forces on the anterior cruciate ligament occur during hyperextension/low flexion angles of the knee joint; (b) the characterization of the anterior cruciate ligament at variable strain rates is critical to model a viscoelastic behavior; however, studies on human anterior cruciate ligament on variable strain rates are yet to be reported; (c) a significant disparity on maximum stress/strain pattern of the anterior cruciate ligament was observed in the earlier works; (d) nearly all synthetic grafts have been recalled from the market; and (e) bridge-enhanced repair developed by Murray is a promising technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, currently in clinical trials. It is important to note that full extension of the knee is not feasible in the case of most animals and hence the loading pattern of human ACL is different from animal models. Many of the published reviews on

  5. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  6. Cruciate retaining and cruciate substituting ultra-congruent insert

    PubMed Central

    Deledda, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Ratto, Nicola; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) conservation and the polyethylene insert constraint in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are still debated. The PCL is one of the primary stabilizers of the joint, but cruciate retaining (CR) implants have the disadvantage of a difficult balancing of the PCL. Postero-stabilized (PS) implants were introduced to reduce this problem. However, also the PS implants have some disadvantages, due to the cam-mechanism, such as high risk of cam-mechanism polyethylene wear. To minimize the polyethylene wear of the cam-mechanism and the bone sacrifice due to the intercondylar box, different types of inserts were developed, trying to increase the implant conformity and to reduce stresses on the bone-implant interface. In this scenario ultra-congruent (UC) inserts were developed. Those inserts are characterized by a high anterior wall and a deep-dished plate. This conformation should guarantee a good stability without the posterior cam. Few studies on both kinematic and clinical outcomes of UC inserts are available. Clinical and radiological outcomes, as well as kinematic data are similar between UC mobile bearing (MB) and standard PS MB inserts at short to mid-term follow-up. In this manuscript biomechanics and clinical outcomes of UC inserts will be described, and they will be compared to standard PS or CR inserts. PMID:26855938

  7. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  8. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes . It causes double vision and eyelid drooping . ... Cooper ME, Vinik AI, Plutzky J, Boulton AJM. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  9. Traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome: assessment of cranial nerve recovery in 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Wang, Theresa Y; Tsay, Pei-Kwei; Huang, Faye; Lai, Jui-Pin; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-07-01

    Superior orbital fissure syndrome is a rare complication that occurs in association with craniofacial trauma. The characteristics of superior orbital fissure syndrome are attributable to a constellation of cranial nerve III, IV, and VI palsies. This is the largest series describing traumatic superior orbital fissure syndrome that assesses the recovery of individual cranial nerve function after treatment. In a review from 1988 to 2002, 33 patients with superior orbital fissure syndrome were identified from 11,284 patients (0.3 percent) with skull and facial fractures. Severity of cranial nerve injury and functional recovery were evaluated by extraocular muscle movement. Patients were evaluated on average 6 days after initial injury, and average follow-up was 11.8 months. There were 23 male patients. The average age was 31 years. The major mechanism of injury was motorcycle accident (67 percent). Twenty-two received conservative treatment, five were treated with steroids, and six patients underwent surgical decompression of the superior orbital fissure. After initial injury, cranial nerve VI suffered the most damage, whereas cranial nerve IV sustained the least. In the first 3 months, recovery was greatest in cranial nerve VI. At 9 months, function was lowest in cranial nerve VI and highest in cranial nerve IV. Eight patients (24 percent) had complete recovery of all cranial nerves. Functional recovery of all cranial nerves reached a plateau at 6 months after trauma. Cranial nerve IV suffered the least injury, whereas cranial nerve VI experienced the most neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve palsies improved to their final recovery endpoints by 6 months. Surgical decompression is considered when there is evidence of bony compression of the superior orbital fissure.

  10. Drought occurence

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament allograft transplantation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, P B; Stevenson, S; Gregory, C R; Rodrigo, J J; Pauli, S; Heitter, D; Sharkey, N

    1991-08-01

    The biomechanical and clinical performance of bone-ligament-bone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allografts was studied in eight dogs. Allografts were collected from skeletally mature, healthy dogs using aseptic technique, and stored at -70 degrees for three to five weeks before implantation. The allografts were size-matched to the recipient dogs using ACL length and then rigidly fixed in position with interference screws and Kirschner wires. Three dogs regained a normal gait, and their grafts sustained breaking loads that were 25%, 41%, and 59% of controls. Partial or complete graft failure occurred in the other five dogs at some point in the study. Four had intraligamentous rupture and one had an avulsion fracture of the femoral attachment site. Joint-fluid cytology was normal in all eight dogs. Histologic examination showed persistent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Eventually the allograft cores were incorporated in the host bed. Hyperplasia and fibrosis of the synovial membrane were diffuse and persisted as focal accumulations of mononuclear inflammatory cells.

  12. Precraniate origin of cranial motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Héloïse D.; Chettouh, Zoubida; Deyts, Carole; de Rosa, Renaud; Goridis, Christo; Joly, Jean-Stéphane; Brunet, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The craniate head is innervated by cranial sensory and motor neurons. Cranial sensory neurons stem from the neurogenic placodes and neural crest and are seen as evolutionary innovations crucial in fulfilling the feeding and respiratory needs of the craniate “new head.” In contrast, cranial motoneurons that are located in the hindbrain and motorize the head have an unclear phylogenetic status. Here we show that these motoneurons are in fact homologous to the motoneurons of the sessile postmetamorphic form of ascidians. The motoneurons of adult Ciona intestinalis, located in the cerebral ganglion and innervating muscles associated with the huge “branchial basket,” express the transcription factors CiPhox2 and CiTbx20, whose vertebrate orthologues collectively define cranial motoneurons of the branchiovisceral class. Moreover, Ciona's postmetamorphic motoneurons arise from a hindbrain set aside during larval life and defined as such by its position (caudal to the prosensephalic sensory vesicle) and coexpression of CiPhox2 and CiHox1, whose orthologues collectively mark the vertebrate hindbrain. These data unveil that the postmetamorphic ascidian brain, assumed to be a derived feature, in fact corresponds to the vertebrate hindbrain and push back the evolutionary origin of cranial nerves to before the origin of craniates. PMID:16735475

  13. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  14. Cranial nerve injury after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-W; Chin, B-R; Park, H-S; Lee, S-H; Kwon, T-G

    2011-03-01

    A Le Fort I osteotomy is widely used to correct dentofacial deformity because it is a safe and reliable surgical method. Although rare, various complications have been reported in relation to pterygomaxillary separation. Cranial nerve damage is one of the serious complications that can occur after Le Fort I osteotomy. In this report, a 19-year-old man with unilateral cleft lip and palate underwent surgery to correct maxillary hypoplasia, asymmetry and mandibular prognathism. After the Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, the patient showed multiple cranial nerve damage; an impairment of outward movement of the eye (abducens nerve), decreased vision (optic nerve), and paraesthesia of the frontal and upper cheek area (ophthalmic and maxillary nerve). The damage to the cranial nerve was related to an unexpected sphenoid bone fracture and subsequent trauma in the cavernous sinus during the pterygomaxillary osteotomy. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Cruciate Ligaments in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parcells, Bertrand W; Tria, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    The early knee replacements were hinge designs that ignored the ligaments of the knee and resurfaced the joint, allowing freedom of motion in a single plane. Advances in implant fixation paved the way for modern designs, including the posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that sacrifices both cruciate ligaments while substituting for the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and the cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA designs that sacrifice the anterior cruciate ligament but retain the PCL. The early bicruciate retaining (BCR) TKA designs suffered from loosening and early failures. Townley and Cartier designed BCR knees that had better clinical results but the surgical techniques were challenging.Kinematic studies suggest that normal motion relies on preservation of both cruciate ligaments. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty retains all knee ligaments and closely matches normal motion, while PS and CR TKA deviate further from normal. The 15% to 20% dissatisfaction rate with current TKA has renewed interest in the BCR design. Replication of normal knee kinematics and proprioception may address some of the dissatisfaction.

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rick W.; Haas, Amanda K.; Anderson, Joy; Calabrese, Gary; Cavanaugh, John; Hewett, Timothy E.; Lorring, Dawn; McKenzie, Christopher; Preston, Emily; Williams, Glenn; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation has evolved over the past 20 years. This evolution has been driven by a variety of level 1 and level 2 studies. Evidence Acquisition: The MOON Group is a collection of orthopaedic surgeons who have developed a prospective longitudinal cohort of the ACL reconstruction patients. To standardize the management of these patients, we developed, in conjunction with our physical therapy committee, an evidence-based rehabilitation guideline. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Results: This review was based on 2 systematic reviews of level 1 and level 2 studies. Recently, the guideline was updated by a new review. Continuous passive motion did not improve ultimate motion. Early weightbearing decreases patellofemoral pain. Postoperative rehabilitative bracing did not improve swelling, pain range of motion, or safety. Open chain quadriceps activity can begin at 6 weeks. Conclusion: High-level evidence exists to determine appropriate ACL rehabilitation guidelines. Utilizing this protocol follows the best available evidence. PMID:26131301

  17. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Schwannoma originating from lower cranial nerves: report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Maki, Hideki; Hattori, Kenichi; Noda, Tomoyuki; Wada, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    Four cases of schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves are presented. Case 1 is a schwannoma of the vagus nerve in the parapharyngeal space. The operation was performed by the transcervical approach. Although the tumor capsule was not dissected from the vagus nerve, hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Case 2 is a schwannoma in the jugular foramen. The operation was performed by the infralabyrinthine approach. Although only the intracapsular tumor was enucleated, facial palsy, hoarseness, dysphagia and paresis of the deltoid muscle occurred transiently after the operation. The patient's hearing had also slightly deteriorated. Case 3 is a dumbbell-typed schwannoma originating from the hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal canal was markedly enlarged by the tumor. As the hypoglossal nerves were embedded in the tumor, the tumor around the hypoglossal nerves was not resected. The tumor was significantly enlarged for a while after stereotactic irradiation. Case 4 is an intracranial cystic schwannoma originating from the IXth or Xth cranial nerves. The tumor was resected through the cerebello-medullary fissure. The tumor capsule attached to the brain stem was not removed. Hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Cranial nerve palsy readily occurs after the removal of the schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves. Mechanical injury caused by retraction, extension and compression of the nerve and heat injury during the drilling of the petrous bone should be cautiously avoided.

  19. [Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament suturing].

    PubMed

    Andrtová, M; Chlupatá, I

    1994-01-01

    The authors discuss problems of rehabilitation after suture of the anterior cruciate ligament where frequently errors are committed and where inadequate rehabilitation may cause damage to the patient. Different periods of rehabilitation after LCA sutures are discussed and suitable methods of exercise for different periods are recommended.

  20. Multiple cranial neuropathy: a common diagnostic problem.

    PubMed

    Garg, R K; Karak, B

    1999-10-01

    Syndrome of multiple cranial palsies is a common clinical problem routinely encountered in neurological practice. Anatomical patterns of cranial nerves involvement help in localizing the lesion. Various infections, malignant neoplasms and autoimmune vasculitis are common disorders leading to various syndromes of multiple cranial nerve palsies. A large number of diffuse neurological disorders (e.g. Gullian-Barre syndrome, myopathies) may also present with syndrome of multiple cranial nerve palsies. Despite extensive biochemical and radiological work-up the accurate diagnosis may not be established. Few such patients represent "idiopathic" variety of multiple cranial nerve involvement and show good response to corticosteroids. Widespread and sequential involvements of cranial nerves frequently suggest possibility of malignant infiltration of meninges, however, confirmation of diagnosis may not be possible before autopsy.

  1. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic gait deviations in individuals with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Shiek Abdullah; Button, Kate; Simic, Milena; Van Deursen, Robert; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-06-01

    Altered joint motion that occurs in people with an anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee is proposed to play a role in the initiation of knee osteoarthritis, however, the exact mechanism is poorly understood. Although several studies have investigated gait deviations in individuals with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee in the frontal and transverse planes, no systematic review has summarized the kinematic and kinetic deviations in these two planes. We searched five electronic databases from inception to 14th October 2013, with key words related to anterior cruciate ligament, biomechanics and gait, and limited to human studies only. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility based on predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria and methodological quality was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement checklist. We identified 16 studies, totaling 183 subjects with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee and 211 healthy subjects. Due to the variability in reported outcomes, we could only perform meta-analysis for 13 sagittal plane outcomes. The only significant finding from our meta-analysis showed that individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee demonstrated a significantly greater external hip flexor angular impulse compared to control (P=0.03). No consensus about what constitutes a typical walking pattern in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee can be made, nor can conclusions be derived to explain if gait deviations in the frontal and transverse plane contributed to the development of the knee osteoarthritis among this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Posterior tibial slope and femoral sizing affect posterior cruciate ligament tension in posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-08-01

    During cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, surgeons sometimes encounter increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament. This study investigated the effects of femoral size, posterior tibial slope, and rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components on forces at the posterior cruciate ligament in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty using a musculoskeletal computer simulation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament were assessed with the standard femoral component, as well as with 2-mm upsizing and 2-mm downsizing in the anterior-posterior dimension. These forces were also determined with posterior tibial slope angles of 5°, 7°, and 9°, and lastly, were measured in 5° increments when the femoral (tibial) components were positioned from 5° (15°) of internal rotation to 5° (15°) of external rotation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament increased by up to 718N with the standard procedure during squatting. The 2-mm downsizing of the femoral component decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 47%. The 2° increment in posterior tibial slope decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 41%. In addition, posterior cruciate ligament tension increased by 11% during internal rotation of the femoral component, and increased by 18% during external rotation of the tibial component. These findings suggest that accurate sizing and bone preparation are very important to maintain posterior cruciate ligament forces in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty. Care should also be taken regarding malrotation of the femoral and tibial components because this increases posterior cruciate ligament tension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk: A 3D Tutorial of Cranial Nerves in a Virtual Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways…

  4. Relationship between the cranial base and the mandible in artificially deformed skulls.

    PubMed

    Ferros, I; Mora, M J; Obeso, I F; Jimenez, P; Martinez-Insua, A

    2016-11-01

    There is controversy regarding the relationship between mandibular position and alterations of the cranial base that provoke a more anterior location of the glenoid fossa. Artificially deformed skulls display marked alterations of the cranial base. This study evaluates mandibular changes as function of the morphology of the cranial base in these skulls. A geometric morphometric study was performed on lateral cephalometric X-rays of three groups of skulls: 32 with anteroposterior deformity, 17 with circumferential deformity and 39 with no apparent deformity. In artificially deformed skulls, the cranial base was deformed causing the mandibular condyle to be in a more anterior position. There was a complete remodelling of the mandible involving narrowing and elongation of the mandibular ramus, rotation of the corpus of the mandible and increased vertical height of the symphysis. Forward displacement did not occur. Integration between mandible and cranial base is not altered by deformation of the skull. Deformity of the cranial vault exerts an influence on the mandible, supporting the theory of modular units in complete integration. This also supports the theory that mandibular prognathism is a multifactorial result and not a direct effect of displacement of the cranial base. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The neglected cranial nerve: nervus terminalis (cranial nerve N).

    PubMed

    Vilensky, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (NT; terminal nerve) was clearly identified as an additional cranial nerve in humans more than a century ago yet remains mostly undescribed in modern anatomy textbooks. The nerve is referred to as the nervus terminalis because in species initially examined its fibers were seen entering the brain in the region of the lamina terminalis. It has also been referred to as cranial nerve 0, but because there is no Roman symbol for zero, an N for the Latin word nulla is a better numerical designation. This nerve is very distinct in human fetuses and infants but also has been repeatedly identified in adult human brains. The NT fibers are unmyelinated and emanate from ganglia. The fibers pass through the cribriform plate medial to those of the olfactory nerve fila. The fibers end in the nasal mucosa and probably arise from autonomic/neuromodulatory as well as sensory neurons. The NT has been demonstrated to release luteinizing-releasing luteinizing hormone and is therefore thought to play a role in reproductive behavior. Based on the available evidence, the NT appears to be functional in adult humans and should be taught in medical schools and incorporated into anatomy/neuroanatomy textbooks. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  6. Lateral thrust of anterior cruciate ligament-insufficient knees and posterior cruciate ligament-insufficient knees.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ichiro; Naito, Masatoshi; Zhang, Jingfan

    2002-01-01

    Leaving anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) insufficiency untreated frequently leads to osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamically the lateral thrust of ACL-insufficient knees and PCL-insufficient knees, and from the findings investigate the relationship between cruciate ligament insufficiency and OA occurrence. An acceleration sensor was attached to the affected and control anterior tibial tubercles, acting in medial-lateral and perpendicular directions. The lateral thrust immediately after heel strike was measured continuously by a telemeter under stabilised walking conditions. When compared to the contralateral healthy knee, the peak value of lateral acceleration immediately after heel strike was significantly larger in the ACL-insufficient knee; and lateral thrust was increased, but not significantly, in the PCL-insufficient knee. Given that lateral thrust of the knee during walking increases due to ACL or PCL injury, it may be a principal contributor to OA progression.

  7. Imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wing Hung Alex; Griffith, James Francis; Hung, Esther Hiu Yee; Paunipagar, Bhawan; Law, Billy Kan Yip; Yung, Patrick Shu Hang

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important structure in maintaining the normal biomechanics of the knee and is the most commonly injured knee ligament. However, the oblique course of the ACL within the intercondylar fossa limits the visualization and assessment of the pathology of the ligament. This pictorial essay provides a comprehensive and illustrative review of the anatomy and biomechanics as well as updated information on different modalities of radiological investigation of ACL, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22474639

  8. Epiphyseal osteochondroma of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Chekofsky, K M; Scott, W N; Fielding, J W

    1979-01-01

    An 8-year-old Black boy complained of pain, swelling, and a decreased range of motion in the knee. One arthrotomy operation was reported to show a normal knee joint. Six months later, a second arthrotomy demonstrated an osteochondroma growing from the epiphysis into the anterior cruciate ligament. Epiphyseal osteochondroma should be added to the working differential diagnosis on children with effusion and decrease of knee motion.

  9. Cranial base evolution within the hominin clade

    PubMed Central

    Nevell, L; Wood, B

    2008-01-01

    The base of the cranium (i.e. the basioccipital, the sphenoid and the temporal bones) is of particular interest because it undergoes significant morphological change within the hominin clade, and because basicranial morphology features in several hominin species diagnoses. We use a parsimony analysis of published cranial and dental data to predict the cranial base morphology expected in the hypothetical last common ancestor of the Pan–Homo clade. We also predict the primitive condition of the cranial base for the hominin clade, and document the evolution of the cranial base within the major subclades within the hominin clade. This analysis suggests that cranial base morphology has continued to evolve in the hominin clade, both before and after the emergence of the genus Homo. PMID:18380865

  10. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain In Vivo: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Luque-Seron, Juan Antonio; Medina-Porqueres, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Distinct exercises have been proposed for knee rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. There is a need to understand ACL strain behavior during different rehabilitation exercises to protect the graft from excessive strain that could interfere with its healing process. To critically review studies that directly measured normal ACL strain in vivo during different movements, conditions, or exercises to gain insight into which of them may produce more strain on the ligament or the ligament graft in the case of reconstructed knees. A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PEDro databases was conducted. Keywords included anterior cruciate ligament, strain, stress, deformation, transducer, rehabilitation, rehabilitation exercise, physical therapy, and physiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were (1) peer-reviewed studies published in English or Spanish, (2) research conducted on adult human subjects with normal ACLs and healthy knees, and (3) ACL strain directly measured during different movements, conditions, or exercises by using a transducer. Systematic review. Level 4. Specific data were abstracted from the selected studies, including isometric quadriceps and hamstrings activity, active and passive flexion-extension of the knee, closed kinetic chain exercises, and application of joint compressive load. A total of 10 studies met all criteria and were included in the final analysis. The strain values produced by closed kinetic chain and open kinetic chain exercises were similar. However, closed kinetic chain exercises appear to attenuate the strain increase that occurs in open kinetic chain exercises when increasing resistance. These data may be relevant to develop rehabilitation exercises or programs that do not endanger the healing ACL graft and to provide a basis for future clinical trials. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Motor palsies of cranial nerves (excluding VII) after vaccination: reports to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Woo, Emily Jane; Winiecki, Scott K; Ou, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed cranial nerve palsies, other than VII, that have been reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We examined patterns for differences in vaccine types, seriousness, age, and clinical characteristics. We identified 68 reports of cranial nerve palsies, most commonly involving the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves. Isolated cranial nerve palsies, as well as palsies occurring as part of a broader clinical entity, were reported. Forty reports (59%) were classified as serious, suggesting that a cranial nerve palsy may sometimes be the harbinger of a broader and more ominous clinical entity, such as a stroke or encephalomyelitis. There was no conspicuous clustering of live vs. inactivated vaccines. The patient age range spanned the spectrum from infants to the elderly. Independent data may help to clarify whether, when, and to what extent the rates of cranial nerve palsies following particular vaccines may exceed background levels.

  12. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kishore; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Bajantri, Bharat; Singh, Amandeep; Abbas, Hafsa; Dejesus, Eddy; Khan, Rana Raheel; Niazi, Masooma; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor. PMID:28553221

  13. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  14. Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Mahajan, Vivek; Karnatzikos, Georgios

    2011-05-01

    Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In our patient the tibial plateau fracture occurred after a torsional injury to the involved extremity. The fracture occurred 4.5 years after the ACL reconstruction. The fracture was intra-articular Schatzker type IV and had a significant displacement. The patient was treated operatively by open reduction-internal fixation. He recovered well. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticipatory effects on anterior cruciate ligament loading during sidestep cutting.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Joshua T; Earl-Boehm, Jennifer E; Ebersole, Kyle T; Huddleston, Wendy E; Armstrong, Brian S R; O'Connor, Kristian M

    2013-07-01

    A key to understanding potential anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms is to determine joint loading characteristics associated with an injury-causing event. However, direct measurement of anterior cruciate ligament loading during athletic tasks is invasive. Thus, previous research has been unable to study the association between neuromuscular variables and anterior cruciate ligament loading. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of movement anticipation on anterior cruciate ligament loading using a musculoskeletal modeling approach. Twenty healthy recreationally active females were recruited to perform anticipated and unanticipated sidestep cutting. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of the right leg were calculated. Muscle, joint and anterior cruciate ligament forces were then estimated using a musculoskeletal model. Dependent t-tests were conducted to investigate differences between the two cutting conditions. ACL loading significantly increased during unanticipated sidestep cutting (p<0.05). This increase was primarily due to a significant increase in the sagittal plane ACL loading, which contributed 62% of the total loading. Frontal plane ACL loading contributed 26% and transverse plane ACL loading contributed 12%. These results suggest that anterior cruciate ligament loading resulted from a multifaceted interaction of the sagittal plane shear forces (i.e., quadriceps, hamstrings, and tibiofemoral), as well as the frontal and transverse plane knee moments. Additionally, the results of this study confirm the hypothesis in the current literature that unanticipated movements such as sidestep cutting increase anterior cruciate ligament loading. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MRI appearance of posterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, William; Vinson, Emily N; Helms, Clyde A; Toth, Alison P

    2008-10-01

    There is little in the radiology literature regarding the MRI appearance of a torn posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The purpose of this study was to describe the MRI appearance of surgically proven PCL tears and to emphasize previously unreported signs. The PCL is usually injured as the result of stretching deformation; on MRI, the ligament maintains continuity as a single structure with apparent thickening. On sagittal T2-weighted images, an anteroposterior diameter of 7 mm or more is highly suggestive of a torn PCL. Increased intrasubstance signal intensity in the PCL on proton-density images with lower signal intensity on T2-weighted images is another common feature.

  17. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong Min

    2017-06-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  18. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence. PMID:28534340

  19. Cranial Bone Graft Donor Site Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Muzaffer

    2017-01-01

    My most important concern, in my entire experience with cranial bone grafting procedures, is managing the bone graft donor site such as donor site cavity from harvesting and weakness of the cranium. The most common patient complaint, following cranial bone grafting for aesthetic indications, is the presence of a cavity at the donor site. The authors have managed more than 200 patients since 2001, wherein the cranial bone graft-donor sites were reconstructed with tiny bone chip lamellae harvested from the area adjacent to the donor site. This procedure was associated with a low incidence of patient complaints, thereby suggesting higher patient satisfaction. This approach for cranial bone grafting appears to have a high patient acceptance.

  20. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media.

    PubMed

    Prakash, M; Johnny, J Carlton

    2015-04-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations.

  1. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, M.; Johnny, J. Carlton

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations. PMID:26015748

  2. Cranial trepanation in The Egyptian.

    PubMed

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2014-09-01

    Medicine and literature have been linked from ancient times; proof of this shown by the many doctors who have made contributions to literature and the many writers who have described medical activities and illnesses in their works. An example is The Egyptian, the book by Mika Waltari that provides a masterly narration of the protagonist's medical activity and describes the trepanation technique. The present work begins with the analysis of trepanations since prehistory and illustrates the practice of the trepanation in The Egyptian. The book mentions trepanation frequently and illustrates how to practice it and which instruments are required to perform it. Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical interventions carried out as treatment for cranial trauma and neurological diseases, but it also had the magical and religious purpose of expelling the evil spirits which caused the mental illness, epilepsy, or migraine symptoms. Trepanation is a surgical practice that has been carried out since prehistory to treat post-traumatic epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric illness. The Egyptian is a book that illustrates the trepan, the trepanation technique, and the required set of instruments in full detail. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Howell, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most common procedures in sports medicine. Several areas of controversy exist in ACL tear management which have engaged surgeons and researchers in debates towards identifying an ideal approach for these patients. This instructional review discusses the principles of ACL reconstruction in an attempt to provide guidelines and initiate a critical thinking approach on the most common areas of controversy regarding ACL reconstruction. Using high-level evidence from the literature, as presented in randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, operative versus conservative treatment, timing of surgery, and rehabilitation are discussed. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of autografts, such as patellar tendon and hamstrings as well as allografts are presented. Key considerations for the anatomical, histological, biomechanical and clinical data (‘IDEAL’) graft positioning are reviewed. Cite this article: Paschos NK, Howell SM. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment. EFORT Open Rev 2016;398-408. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160032. PMID:28461919

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment.

    PubMed

    Paschos, Nikolaos K; Howell, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most common procedures in sports medicine. Several areas of controversy exist in ACL tear management which have engaged surgeons and researchers in debates towards identifying an ideal approach for these patients.This instructional review discusses the principles of ACL reconstruction in an attempt to provide guidelines and initiate a critical thinking approach on the most common areas of controversy regarding ACL reconstruction.Using high-level evidence from the literature, as presented in randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, operative versus conservative treatment, timing of surgery, and rehabilitation are discussed. Also, the advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of autografts, such as patellar tendon and hamstrings as well as allografts are presented.Key considerations for the anatomical, histological, biomechanical and clinical data ('IDEAL') graft positioning are reviewed. Cite this article: Paschos NK, Howell SM. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: principles of treatment. EFORT Open Rev 2016;398-408. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160032.

  5. Mechanisms for anterior cruciate ligament injuries in badminton.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki; Tsuda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Tsukada, Harehiko; Toh, Satoshi

    2010-12-01

    A high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries related to sports activities has been reported; however, the injury situation of ACL injury in badminton has not been elucidated. This study investigated the mechanism of ACL injury in badminton using a questionnaire. Information on injury mechanism was gathered from interviews with six male and 15 female badminton players who received a non-contact ACL injury playing badminton and underwent ACL reconstruction. The most common injury mechanism (10 of 21 injuries) was single-leg landing after overhead stroke. Nine of 10 players had injured the knee opposite to the racket-hand side. The second most frequent injury mechanism (eight of 21 injuries) was plant-and-cut while side-stepping or backward stepping. All eight players injured the knee of the racket-hand side. Eleven injuries occurred in the rear court, and six of the 11 injuries occurred during single-leg landing after an overhead stroke. The knee opposite to the racket-hand side tended to sustain the ACL injuries during single-leg landing after a backhand overhead stroke, whereas the knee of the racket-hand side tended to be injured by plant-and-cut during side or backward stepping. These injury patterns appear to be due to specific movements during badminton.

  6. Genome-Wide Profiles of Extra-cranial Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors Reveal Heterogeneity and Dysregulated Developmental Pathways | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare lethal tumors of childhood that most commonly occur in the kidney and brain. MRTs are driven by SMARCB1 loss, but the molecular consequences of SMARCB1 loss in extra-cranial tumors have not been comprehensively described and genomic resources for analyses of extra-cranial MRT are limited.

  7. In vitro cytoprotective effects of acetylsalicylic acid, carprofen, meloxicam, or robenacoxib against apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside in canine cruciate ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Waldherr, Katrin; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Spreng, David E; Forterre, Simone

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether incubation of cruciate ligament cells with acetylsalicylic acid, carprofen, meloxicam, or robenacoxib provides protection against apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Explants of cranial (CCL) and caudal (CaCL) cruciate ligaments from eight 1-day-old Beagles. Primary cultures of CCL and CaCL cells were created via enzymatic dissociation of cruciate explants. Purified cell cultures were incubated for 2 hours without (controls) or with 1 of 3 concentrations of 1 of 4 NSAIDs (10, 100, or 200 μg of acetylsalicylic acid/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of carprofen/mL; 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of meloxicam/mL; or 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of robenacoxib/mL) and subsequently incubated for 18 hours with 1 of 3 concentrations of SNP in an attempt to induce mild, moderate, or severe cytotoxic effects. Cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed via a cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Prostaglandin E(2) concentrations were measured via an ELISA. Cytoprotective effects of NSAIDs were dependent on the extent of SNP-induced apoptosis and were greatest in CCL and CaCL cell cultures with moderate SNP-induced cytotoxic effects. Preincubation with an NSAID improved cell viability by 15% to 45% when CCL and CaCL cells were subsequently incubated with SNP. Carprofen (10 μg/mL) had the greatest cytoprotective effects for CCL and CaCL cells. Incubation with NSAIDs resulted in a nonsignificant decrease in PGE(2) production from SNP-damaged cells. Results indicated that carprofen, meloxicam, and robenacoxib may reduce apoptosis in cells originating from canine cruciate ligaments.

  8. Giant-cell arteritis without cranial manifestations

    PubMed Central

    de Boysson, Hubert; Lambert, Marc; Liozon, Eric; Boutemy, Jonathan; Maigné, Gwénola; Ollivier, Yann; Ly, Kim; Manrique, Alain; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is challenging in the absence of cardinal cranial symptoms/signs. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and disease course of GCA patients without cranial symptoms, and to compare them to those of patients with typical cranial presentation. In this retrospective multicenter study, we enrolled patients with GCA who satisfied at least 3 of the 5 American College of Rheumatology criteria for GCA, or 2 criteria associated with contributory vascular biopsy other than temporal artery biopsy or with demonstration of large-vessel involvement; underwent iconographic evaluation of large arterial vessels (aortic CT scan or a positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan or cardiac echography combined with a large-vessel Doppler) at diagnosis. We divided the cohort into 2 groups, distinguishing between patients without cranial symptoms/signs (i.e., headaches, clinical temporal artery anomaly, jaw claudication, ophthalmologic symptoms) and those with cranial symptoms/signs. In the entire cohort of 143 patients, all of whom underwent vascular biopsy and vascular imaging, we detected 31 (22%) patients with no cranial symptoms/signs. In the latter, diagnosis was biopsy proven in an arterial sample in 23 cases (74% of patients, on a temporal site in 20 cases and on an extratemporal site in 3). One-third of these 31 patients displayed extracranial symptoms/signs whereas the remaining two-thirds presented only with constitutional symptoms and/or inflammatory laboratory test results. Compared to the 112 patients with cardinal cranial clinical symptoms/signs, patients without cranial manifestations displayed lower levels of inflammatory laboratory parameters (C-reactive level: 68 [9–250] mg/L vs 120 [3–120] mg/L; P < 0.01), highest rate of aorta and aortic branch involvement identified (19/31 (61%) vs 42/112 (38%); P = 0.02) and also

  9. Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis: cranial and nasal localization in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, R. J.; Chandler, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental mouse model for paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis) is described. When distribution of cranial lesions following i.v. injection was investigated, invasion of the nasal mucosa with subsequent discharge of budding Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells into the nasal cavity was noted. The possible significance of this finding in terms of the processes associated with naturally occurring paracoccidioidomycosis is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 9 and 10 Fig. 11 PMID:708583

  10. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    PubMed

    Muir, Peter; Hans, Eric C; Racette, Molly; Volstad, Nicola; Sample, Susannah J; Heaton, Caitlin; Holzman, Gerianne; Schaefer, Susan L; Bloom, Debra D; Bleedorn, Jason A; Hao, Zhengling; Amene, Ermias; Suresh, M; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response

  11. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Molecular Markers of Inflammation in Dogs with Cruciate Ligament Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Peter; Hans, Eric C.; Racette, Molly; Volstad, Nicola; Sample, Susannah J.; Heaton, Caitlin; Holzman, Gerianne; Schaefer, Susan L.; Bloom, Debra D.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Hao, Zhengling; Amene, Ermias; Suresh, M.; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mid-substance rupture of the canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) and associated stifle osteoarthritis (OA) is an important veterinary health problem. CR causes stifle joint instability and contralateral CR often develops. The dog is an important model for human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, where rupture of graft repair or the contralateral ACL is also common. This suggests that both genetic and environmental factors may increase ligament rupture risk. We investigated use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to reduce systemic and stifle joint inflammatory responses in dogs with CR. Twelve dogs with unilateral CR and contralateral stable partial CR were enrolled prospectively. BM-MSCs were collected during surgical treatment of the unstable CR stifle and culture-expanded. BM-MSCs were subsequently injected at a dose of 2x106 BM-MSCs/kg intravenously and 5x106 BM-MSCs by intra-articular injection of the partial CR stifle. Blood (entry, 4 and 8 weeks) and stifle synovial fluid (entry and 8 weeks) were obtained after BM-MSC injection. No adverse events after BM-MSC treatment were detected. Circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower after BM-MSC injection. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was decreased at 4 weeks and serum CXCL8 was increased at 8 weeks. Synovial CRP in the complete CR stifle was decreased at 8 weeks. Synovial IFNγ was also lower in both stifles after BM-MSC injection. Synovial/serum CRP ratio at diagnosis in the partial CR stifle was significantly correlated with development of a second CR. Systemic and intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs in dogs with partial CR suppresses systemic and stifle joint inflammation, including CRP concentrations. Intra-articular injection of autologous BM-MSCs had profound effects on the correlation and conditional dependencies of cytokines using causal networks. Such treatment effects could ameliorate risk of a second CR by modifying the stifle joint inflammatory response

  12. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Gilula, Marshall F

    2007-07-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and a great variety of different rheumatologic and neurological symptoms that often resemble multiple sclerosis, dysautonomias, chronic fatigue syndrome and others. However, despite long-standing criteria from the American College of Rheumatology for FM, some physicians believe there is probably no single homogeneous condition that can be labeled as FM. Whether it is a disease, a syndrome or something else, sufferers feel like they are living one disaster after another. Active self-involvement in care usually enhances the therapeutic results of various treatments and also improves the patient's sense of being in control of the condition. D-ribose supplementation may prove to significantly enhance energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain control and well-being in FM patients. A form of evoked potential biofeedback, the EPFX, is a powerful stress reduction technique which assesses the chief stressors and risk factors for illness that can impede the FM patient's built-in healing abilities. Future healthcare will likely expand the diagnostic criteria of FM and/or illuminate a group of related conditions and the ways in which the conditions relate to each other. Future medicine for FM and related conditions may increasingly involve multimodality treatment that features CES as one significant part of the therapeutic regimen. Future medicine may also include CES as an invaluable, cost-effective add-on to many facets of clinical pharmacology and medical therapeutics.

  13. Features extraction in anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments analysis.

    PubMed

    Zarychta, P

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of this research is finding the feature vectors of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL). These feature vectors have to clearly define the ligaments structure and make it easier to diagnose them. Extraction of feature vectors is obtained by analysis of both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. This procedure is performed after the extraction process of both ligaments. In the first stage in order to reduce the area of analysis a region of interest including cruciate ligaments (CL) is outlined in order to reduce the area of analysis. In this case, the fuzzy C-means algorithm with median modification helping to reduce blurred edges has been implemented. After finding the region of interest (ROI), the fuzzy connectedness procedure is performed. This procedure permits to extract the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament structures. In the last stage, on the basis of the extracted anterior and posterior cruciate ligament structures, 3-dimensional models of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament are built and the feature vectors created. This methodology has been implemented in MATLAB and tested on clinical T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices of the knee joint. The 3D display is based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Piyush; Horriat, Saman; Anand, Bobby S

    2018-06-15

    This article provides a detailed narrative review on the history and current concepts surrounding ligamentous repair techniques in athletic patients. In particular, we will focus on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) as a case study in ligament injury and ligamentous repair techniques. PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for papers relating to primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were searched by all participating authors. All relevant historical papers were included for analysis. Additional searches of the same databases were made for papers relating to biological enhancement of ligament healing. The poor capacity of the ACL to heal is one of the main reasons why the current gold standard surgical treatment for an ACL injury in an athletic patient is ACL reconstruction with autograft from either the hamstrings or patella tendon. It is hypothesised that by preserving and repairing native tissues and negating the need for autograft that primary ACL repair may represent a key step change in the treatment of ACL injuries. The history of primary ACL repair will be discussed and the circumstances that led to the near-abandonment of primary ACL repair techniques will be reviewed. There has been a recent resurgence in interest with regards to primary ACL repair. Improvements in imaging now allow for identification of tear location, with femoral-sided injuries, being more suitable for repair. We will discuss in details strategies for improving the mechanical and biological environment in order to allow primary healing to occur. In particular, we will explain mechanical supplementation such as Internal Brace Ligament Augmentation and Dynamic Intraligamentary Stabilisation techniques. These are novel techniques that aim to protect the primary repair by providing a stabilising construct that connects the femur and the tibia, thus bridging the repair. In addition, biological supplementation is being investigated as an adjunct and we will

  15. [Cruciate ligament injuries under gender aspects].

    PubMed

    Grabau, D E; Vitzthum, K; Mache, S; Groneberg, D A; Quarcoo, D

    2011-12-01

    An injury of cruciate ligament is one the most common knee injuries. This accident happens mostly without external impact and towards the end of training and competition sessions. Women, especially athletes playing team sports ball games such as soccer or disciplines such as tennis, are affected 2 to 8 times more often than men. Anatomic, biomechanical and endocrinological differences are currently discussed as potential risk factors. In terms of prevention, biomechanical impact is of greatest importance given its influenceability through various training opportunities. Training programs including endurance aspects, strengthening knee musculature, balance as well as plyometric trainings were most effective. Further studies should focus more on concomitants of course of injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Interactions between COL5A1 Gene and Risk of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    PubMed

    Lulińska-Kuklik, Ewelina; Rahim, Masouda; Domańska-Senderowska, Daria; Ficek, Krzysztof; Michałowska-Sawczyn, Monika; Moska, Waldemar; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Brzeziański, Michał; Brzeziańska-Lasota, Ewa; Cięszczyk, Paweł; September, Alison V

    2018-06-01

    Collagen alpha-1(V) chain, encoded by the COL5A1 gene, plays a crucial role in abundant fibrillar collagens supporting many tissues in the body containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the association between heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen occurring among others in muscles, tendons and ligaments. Taking this fact into consideration we decided to examine the association between COL5A1 rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms, individually and as inferred haplotypes, with anterior cruciate ligament rupture risk (ACLR) in professional soccer players. A total of 134 male professional soccer players with surgically diagnosed primary anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and 211 apparently healthy male professional soccer players, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury, were included in the study. Both the cases and the healthy controls were recruited from the same soccer teams, of a similar age category, and had a comparable level of exposure to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA MiniprepKit. All samples were genotyped for the rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms using a Rotor-Gene realtime polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant differences in the genotype frequencies for the COL5A1 rs13946 polymorphisms in dominant modes of inheritance occurred (p = 0.039). Statistically significant differences were documented only in the dominant model under the representation tendency of the C-C haplotype in the ACLR group compared to controls (p = 0.038). Our results suggest that variation in the COL5A1 gene may be one of the non-modifiable factors associated with the ACL injury in professional soccer players. The C-C rs12722-rs13946 haplotype provides a protective effect against the ACL tear.

  17. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlke, Julia M.; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (<20 Hz) are assumed to have symmetric crania. This study aims to resolve whether mysticete crania are indeed symmetric and whether mysticete cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  18. The cranial nerve skywalk: A 3D tutorial of cranial nerves in a virtual platform.

    PubMed

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways is difficult using two-dimensional (2D) illustrations alone. Three-dimensional (3D) models aid the teacher in describing intricate and complex anatomical structures and help students visualize them. The study of the cranial nerves can be supplemented with 3D, which permits the students to fully visualize their distribution within the craniofacial complex. This article describes the construction and usage of a virtual anatomy platform in Second Life™, which contains 3D models of the cranial nerves III, V, VII, and IX. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk features select cranial nerves and the associated autonomic pathways in an immersive online environment. This teaching supplement was introduced to groups of pre-healthcare professional students in gross anatomy courses at both institutions and student feedback is included. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution.

    PubMed

    Fahlke, Julia M; Hampe, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (<20 Hz) are assumed to have symmetric crania. This study aims to resolve whether mysticete crania are indeed symmetric and whether mysticete cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  20. Subtotal resection for management of large jugular paragangliomas with functional lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Carlson, Matthew L; Latuska, Richard F; Rivas, Alejandro; Bennett, Marc L; Netterville, James L; Haynes, David S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate tumor control following subtotal resection of advanced jugular paragangliomas in patients with functional lower cranial nerves and to investigate the utility of salvage radiotherapy for residual progressive disease. Case series with planned chart review. Tertiary academic referral center. Patients who presented with advanced jugular paragangliomas and functional lower cranial nerves were analyzed. Primary outcome measures included extent of resection, long-term tumor control, need for additional treatment, and postoperative lower cranial nerve function. Twelve patients (mean age, 46.2 years; 7 women, 58.3%) who met inclusion criteria were evaluated between 1999 and 2013. The mean postoperative residual tumor volume was 27.7% (range, 3.5%-75.0%) of the preoperative volume. When the residual tumor volume was less than 20% of the preoperative volume, no tumor growth occurred over an average of 44.6 months of follow-up (P < .01). Four tumors (33.3%) demonstrated serial growth at a mean of 23.5 months following resection, 2 of which were treated with salvage stereotactic radiotherapy providing control through the last recorded follow-up. No patient experienced permanent postoperative lower cranial neuropathy as a result of surgery. Subtotal resection of jugular paragangliomas with preservation of the lower cranial nerves is a viable management strategy. If more than 80% of the preoperative tumor volume is resected, the residual tumor seems less likely to grow. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  1. Early effects of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic-pituitary function

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, K.S.; Tse, V.K.; Wang, C.

    1987-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary function was studied in 31 patients before and after cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The estimated radiotherapy (RT) doses to the hypothalamus and pituitary were 3979 +/- 78 (+/- SD) and 6167 +/- 122 centiGrays, respectively. All patients had normal pituitary function before RT. One year after RT, there was a significant decrease in the integrated serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the male patients, basal serum FSH significantly increased, while basal serum LH and testosterone did not change. Moreover, in response to LHRH, the integrated FSH response was increased while that of LH was decreased. Such discordantmore » changes in FSH and LH may be explained by a defect in LHRH pulsatile release involving predominantly a decrease in pulse frequency. The peak serum TSH response to TRH became delayed in 28 patients, suggesting a defect in TRH release. Twenty-one patients were reassessed 2 yr after RT. Their mean basal serum T4 and plasma cortisol levels had significantly decreased. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhoea was found in 3 women. Further impairment in the secretion of GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH had occurred, and 4 patients had hypopituitarism. Thus, progressive impairment in hypothalamic-pituitary function occurs after cranial irradiation and can be demonstrated as early as 1 yr after RT.« less

  2. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  3. [From anatomy to image: the cranial nerves at MRI].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Renata; Marrone, Valeria; Sardaro, Angela; Faella, Pierluigi; Grassi, Roberta; Cappabianca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the expected course of each of the 12 cranial nerves. Traditional magnetic resonance imaging depicts only the larger cranial nerves but SSFP sequences of magnetic resonance imaging are capable of depicting the cisternal segments of 12 cranial nerves and also provide submillimetric spatial resolution.

  4. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  5. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  6. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  7. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  8. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is used...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  15. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  17. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  18. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  19. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a dull and intermittent pain, of typical distribution so as to identify the nerve, is to be rated on the...

  20. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss of... the scale provided for injury of the nerve involved, with a maximum equal to severe, incomplete...

  1. Potential Therapeutic Use of Relaxin in Healing Cranial Bone Defects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    successful production of chimeric mice after irradiation and GFP+ bone marrow transplantation; reproducible implementation of uniform cranial lesions of ~1.5...cranial defect model in chimeric mice transplanted with GFP+ bone marrow. We follow defect closure by three dimensional microcomputed tomography (µCT...histolomorphometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. 2. Keywords GFP+ chimeric mice, cranial defect closure, relaxin, angiogenesis

  2. Gross, Arthroscopic, and Radiographic Anatomies of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Foundations for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery.

    PubMed

    Irarrázaval, Sebastián; Albers, Marcio; Chao, Tom; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the more studied structures in the knee joint. It is not a tubular structure, but is much narrower in its midsubstance and broader at its ends, producing an hourglass shape. The ACL is composed of 2 functional bundles, the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles, that are named for their location of insertion on the anterior surface of the tibial plateau. Although the relative contribution in terms of total cross-sectional area of the ACL has been noted to be equal in regards to each bundle, dynamically these bundles demonstrate different properties for knee function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Miniature piezoelectric triaxial accelerometer measures cranial accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Rogallo, V. L.

    1966-01-01

    Tiny triaxial accelerometer whose sensing elements are piezoelectric ceramic beams measures human cranial accelerations when a subject is exposed to a centrifuge or other simulators of g environments. This device could be considered for application in dental, medical, and automotive safety research.

  4. Relationship of cranial robusticity to cranial form, geography and climate in Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Baab, Karen L; Freidline, Sarah E; Wang, Steven L; Hanson, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Variation in cranial robusticity among modern human populations is widely acknowledged but not well-understood. While the use of "robust" cranial traits in hominin systematics and phylogeny suggests that these characters are strongly heritable, this hypothesis has not been tested. Alternatively, cranial robusticity may be a response to differences in diet/mastication or it may be an adaptation to cold, harsh environments. This study quantifies the distribution of cranial robusticity in 14 geographically widespread human populations, and correlates this variation with climatic variables, neutral genetic distances, cranial size, and cranial shape. With the exception of the occipital torus region, all traits were positively correlated with each other, suggesting that they should not be treated as individual characters. While males are more robust than females within each of the populations, among the independent variables (cranial shape, size, climate, and neutral genetic distances), only shape is significantly correlated with inter-population differences in robusticity. Two-block partial least-squares analysis was used to explore the relationship between cranial shape (captured by three-dimensional landmark data) and robusticity across individuals. Weak support was found for the hypothesis that robusticity was related to mastication as the shape associated with greater robusticity was similar to that described for groups that ate harder-to-process diets. Specifically, crania with more prognathic faces, expanded glabellar and occipital regions, and (slightly) longer skulls were more robust than those with rounder vaults and more orthognathic faces. However, groups with more mechanically demanding diets (hunter-gatherers) were not always more robust than groups practicing some form of agriculture.

  5. Radiation associated tumors following therapeutic cranial radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Abhineet; Spence, Alex M.; Sales, Lindsay; Rostomily, Robert C.; Rockhill, Jason K.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A serious, albeit rare, sequel of therapeutic ionizing radiotherapy is delayed development of a new, histologically distinct neoplasm within the radiation field. Methods: We identified 27 cases, from a 10-year period, of intracranial tumors arising after cranial irradiation. The original lesions for which cranial radiation was used for treatment included: tinea capitis (1), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 5), sarcoma (1), scalp hemangioma (1), cranial nerve schwannoma (1) and primary (13) and metastatic (1) brain tumors, pituitary tumor (1), germinoma (1), pinealoma (1), and unknown histology (1). Dose of cranial irradiation ranged from 1800 to 6500 cGy, with a mean of 4596 cGy. Age at cranial irradiation ranged from 1 month to 43 years, with a mean of 13.4 years. Results: Latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of a radiation-induced neoplasm ranged from 4 to 47 years (mean 18.8 years). Radiation-induced tumors included: meningiomas (14), sarcomas (7), malignant astrocytomas (4), and medulloblastomas (2). Data were analyzed to evaluate possible correlations between gender, age at irradiation, dose of irradiation, latency, use of chemotherapy, and radiation-induced neoplasm histology. Significant correlations existed between age at cranial irradiation and development of either a benign neoplasm (mean age 8.5 years) versus a malignant neoplasm (mean age 20.3; P = 0.012), and development of either a meningioma (mean age 7.0 years) or a sarcoma (mean age 27.4 years; P = 0.0001). There was also a significant positive correlation between latency and development of either a meningioma (mean latency 21.8 years) or a sarcoma (mean latency 7.7 years; P = 0.001). The correlation between dose of cranial irradiation and development of either a meningioma (mean dose 4128 cGy) or a sarcoma (mean dose 5631 cGy) approached significance (P = 0.059). Conclusions: Our study is the first to show that younger patients had a longer latency period and were more likely

  6. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia): Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Julien; Manger, Paul R.; Fernandez, Vincent; Rubidge, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma), has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays) associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism), its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia). PMID:27548428

  7. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia): Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Julien; Manger, Paul R; Fernandez, Vincent; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2016-01-01

    Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma), has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays) associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism), its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia).

  8. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. Findings: The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Interpretation: Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27347334

  9. Phenytoin Induced Erythema Multiforme after Cranial Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tekkök, İsmail Hakkı

    2015-01-01

    The prophylactic use of phenytoin during and after brain surgery and cranial irradiation is a common measure in brain tumor therapy. Phenytoin has been associated with variety of adverse skin reactions including urticaria, erythroderma, erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. EM associated with phenytoin and cranial radiation therapy (EMPACT) is a rare specific entity among patients with brain tumors receiving radiation therapy while on prophylactic anti-convulsive therapy. Herein we report a 41-year-old female patient with left temporal glial tumor who underwent surgery and then received whole brain radiation therapy and chemotherapy. After 24 days of continous prophylactic phenytoin therapy the patient developed minor skin reactions and 2 days later the patient returned with generalized erythamatous and itchy maculopapuler rash involving neck, chest, face, trunk, extremities. There was significant periorbital and perioral edema. Painful mucosal lesions consisting of oral and platal erosions also occurred and prevented oral intake significantly. Phenytoin was discontinued gradually. Systemic admistration of corticosteroids combined with topical usage of steroids for oral lesions resulted in complete resolution of eruptions in 3 weeks. All cutaneous lesions in patients with phenytoin usage with the radiotherapy must be evoluated with suspicion for EM. PMID:26361537

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain: responses in muscles supplied by cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Benecke, R; Meyer, B U; Schönle, P; Conrad, B

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation demonstrates that time-varying magnetic fields induced over the skull elicit distinct types of responses in muscles supplied by the cranial nerves both on the ipsilateral and the contralateral side. When the center of the copper coil was positioned 4 cm lateral to the vertex on a line from the vertex to the external auditory meatus, bilateral responses in the masseter, orbicularis oculi, mentalis, and sternocleidomastoideus muscles with a delay of about 10 to 14 ms after the stimulus occurred. Similar to the transcranially evoked muscle responses in hand muscles, the responses in the cranial muscles can be influenced in latency and amplitude by background excitation. It is concluded that these responses are induced by excitation of the face-associated motor cortex followed by multiple I-waves in the corticonuclear tract with both ipsilateral and contralateral projections to the corresponding motoneurones. Additionally, at higher stimulation strengths "short-latency" ipsilateral responses in muscles supplied by the trigeminal, facial, and accessory nerves occurred which we suggest are induced by direct stimulation of the peripheral cranial nerves in their intracisternal course. The present study confirms the bilateral projection of corticonuclear tracts in awake unanesthetised human subjects which has been observed by electrical stimulation on the exposed cortex during surgical procedures already decades ago. The present investigation will serve as a basis for the assessment of pathophysiological mechanisms involving the corticonuclear system or the peripheral cranial nerves in their proximal parts in awake humans.

  11. Failure of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Marcano, Alejandro I.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Cugat, Ramon; Farmer, Kevin W; Moser, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The present review classifies and describes the multifactorial causes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery failure, concentrating on preventing and resolving such situations. The article particularly focuses on those causes that require ACL revision due to recurrent instability, without neglecting those that affect function or produce persistent pain. Although primary ACL reconstruction has satisfactory outcome rates as high as 97%, it is important to identify the causes of failure, because satisfactory outcomes in revision surgery can drop to as much as 76%. It is often possible to identify a primary or secondary cause of ACL surgery failure; even the most meticulous planning can give rise to unexpected findings during the intervention. The adopted protocol should therefore be sufficiently flexible to adapt to the course of surgery. Preoperative patient counseling is essential. The surgeon should limit the patient’s expectations for the outcome by explaining the complexity of this kind of procedure. With adequate preoperative planning, close attention to details and realistic patient expectations, ACL revision surgery may offer beneficial and satisfactory results for the patient. PMID:26550585

  12. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulated by a steering group of the Dutch Orthopaedic Association. What is the role of physical examination and additional diagnostic tools? Which patient-related outcome measures should be used? What are the relevant parameters that influence the indication for an ACL reconstruction? Which findings or complaints are predictive of a bad result of an ACL injury treatment? What is the optimal timing for surgery for an ACL injury? What is the outcome of different conservative treatment modalities? Which kind of graft gives the best result in an ACL reconstruction? What is the optimal postoperative treatment concerning rehabilitation, resumption of sports, and physiotherapy? These 8 questions were answered and recommendations were made, using the “Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation” instrument. This instrument seeks to improve the quality and effectiveness of clinical practical guidelines by establishing a shared framework to develop, report, and assess. The steering group has also developed 7 internal indicators to aid in measuring and enhancing the quality of the treatment of patients with an ACL injury, for use in a hospital or practice. PMID:22900914

  13. Rostral cranial fossa as a site for cerebrospinal fluid drainage - volumetric studies in dog breeds of different size and morphotype.

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Wojciech; Czubaj, Norbert; Skibniewski, Michał; Barszcz, Karolina; Kupczyńska, Marta; Kinda, Wojciech; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław

    2018-05-18

    Hydrocephalus is a multifactorial condition, whose aetiology is not fully understood. Congenital hydrocephalus frequently occurs in small and brachycephalic dog breeds. Although it is widely accepted that the cribriform plate located in the rostral cranial fossa (RCF) is a site of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, the RCF has not been studied extensively. Literature reports indicate that a decreased caudal cranial fossa (CCF) volume in the course of the Chiari-like malformation may obstruct CSF circulation. We hypothesised that morphological diversity among different breeds in the volume of the RCF may affect CSF circulation. The aim of the study was to carry out a volumetric analysis of the RCF and the cranial cavity and to determine the ratio between them in dog breeds of different size and morphotype. We performed computed tomography (CT) morphometric analysis of the RCF compartment by obtaining volume measurements from the transverse and reformatted sagittal and dorsal planes. The rostral cranial fossa percentage - volume of the rostral cranial fossa/volume of cranial cavity × 100 (volRCF/volCC × 100) was lower in small and brachycephalic dog breeds than in the other dogs. A reduced RCF volume was detected in small and brachycephalic dog breeds, some of which are predisposed to congenital hydrocephalus. This may lead to overcrowding of brain parenchyma in the RCF and may impede CSF circulation. Our observations may be useful for future studies focusing on the causes and new therapies to treat conditions such as hydrocephalus and syringomyelia.

  14. Cruciate ligament replacement using a meniscus. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mitsou, A; Vallianatos, P; Piskopakis, N; Nicolaou, P

    1988-11-01

    In 30 rabbits, the medial meniscus was used to replace the anterior or posterior cruciate ligament. The changes that took place were followed in histological sections, obtained both from the area of insertion into bone and from the intra-articular part of the graft. There was a gradual differentiation to chondroid tissue, with subsequent calcific deposition and no appearance of normal ligamentous tissue. The strength of the graft after 52 weeks was only one-quarter of that of the normal ligament. Our results do not justify the use of the meniscus to replace a torn cruciate ligament.

  15. Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Gaudin, Pascal; Beaufils, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4 years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, the area of reactive tissue left by the screw resorption in an enlarged bone tunnel may lead to vulnerability of the tibial plateau. Stress risers would occur following ACL reconstruction if either resorption is not complete or bony integration is not complete.

  16. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p < 0.02) and used less narcotic use (average 1.7 tablets, p < 0.02) for the first 36 hours compared with group 1. No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups with regard to demographics, hours of postoperative cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Thieme

  17. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture.

    PubMed

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features.

  18. [Acute palsy of twelfth cranial nerve].

    PubMed

    Munoz del Castillo, F; Molina Nieto, T; De la Riva Aguilar, A; Triviño Tarradas, F; Bravo-Rodríguez, F; Ramos Jurado, A

    2005-01-01

    The hypoglossal nerve or Twelfth-nerve palsy is a rare damage with different causes: tumors or metastases in skull base, cervicals tumors, schwannoma, dissection or aneurysm carotid arteries, stroke, trauma, idiopathic cause, radiation, infections (mononucleosis) or multiple cranial neuropathy. Tumors were responsible for nearly half of the cases in different studies. We studied a female with hypoglossal nerve acute palsy. We made a differential diagnostic with others causes and a review of the literature.

  19. The Morphogenesis of Cranial Sutures in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Topczewska, Jolanta M.; Shoela, Ramy A.; Tomaszewski, Joanna P.; Mirmira, Rupa B.; Gosain, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone. Parietal and frontal bones are formed by intramembranous ossification within a layer of mesenchyme positioned between the dermal mesenchyme and meninges surrounding the brain. The supraoccipital bone has an endochondral origin. Cranial bones are separated by connective tissue with a distinctive architecture of osteogenic cells and collagen fibrils. Here we show RNA in situ hybridization for col1a1a, col2a1a, col10a1, bglap/osteocalcin, fgfr1a, fgfr1b, fgfr2, fgfr3, foxq1, twist2, twist3, runx2a, runx2b, sp7/osterix, and spp1/ osteopontin, indicating that the expression of genes involved in suture development in mammals is preserved in zebrafish. We also present methods for examining the cranium and its sutures, which permit the study of the mechanisms involved in suture patency as well as their pathological obliteration. The model we develop has implications for the study of human disorders, including craniosynostosis, which affects 1 in 2,500 live births. PMID:27829009

  20. An unusual mechanism for injury of the anterior cruciate ligament in figure skating.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Eugene K; Lahurd, Alexandra P; Wilckens, John H

    2012-03-01

    A 20-year-old competitive figure skater presented with an acute disabling knee injury that occurred in the overhead, non-weight-bearing knee during the performance of a Biellmann spin. Examination and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. To our knowledge, no previous cases of acute injury of the ACL sustained during the execution of a Biellmann spin have been reported. The ACL injury we report is unique because it occurred without the blade contacting the ice. The mechanism of injury has some features that are similar to those of other noncontact ACL injuries, with the addition of centrifugal force as a potential contributor to the injury.

  1. Theoretical discrepancy between cage size and efficient tibial tuberosity advancement in dogs treated for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborde, S; Mills, J; Busoni, V; Brunel, L; Balligand, M

    2011-01-01

    To calculate the difference between the desired tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) along the tibial plateau axis and the advancement truly achieved in that direction when cage size has been determined using the method of Montavon and colleagues. To measure the effect of this difference on the final patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) in relation to the ideal 90°. Trigonometry was used to calculate the theoretical actual advancement of the tibial tuberosity in a direction parallel to the tibial plateau that would be achieved by the placement of a cage at the level of the tibial tuberosity in the osteotomy plane of the tibial crest. The same principle was used to calculate the size of the cage that would have been required to achieve the desired advancement. The effect of the difference between the desired advancement and the actual advancement achieved on the final PTA was calculated. For a given desired advancement, the greater the tibial plateau angle (TPA), the greater the difference between the desired advancement and the actual advancement achieved. The maximum discrepancy calculated was 5.8 mm for a 12 mm advancement in a case of extreme TPA (59°). When the TPA was less than 31°, the PTA was in the range of 90° to 95°. A discrepancy does exist between the desired tibial tuberosity advancement and the actual advancement in a direction parallel to the TPA, when the tibial tuberosity is not translated proximally. Although this has an influence on the final PTA, further studies are warranted to evaluate whether this is clinically significant.

  2. A giant cranial aneurysmal bone cyst associated with fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Składzieriń, J; Olés, K; Zagólski, O; Moskała, M; Sztuka, M; Strek, P; Wierzchowski, W; Tomik, J

    2008-01-01

    An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a rare, benign fibro-osseous lesion, considered a vascular phenomenon secondary to fibrous dysplasia or a giant-cell tumour, and occurs mainly in long bones and vertebrae. In this case report a 16-year-old male presented with massive epistaxis. He was admitted with a 3-year history of chronic rhinitis, headaches, right ocular pain and recurrent epistaxis. CT scans showed a predominantly cystic, expansive mass obstructing both nasal cavities, extending to all paranasal sinuses and both orbits, with evidence of anterior cranial fossa skull base destruction. The patient underwent a craniofacial resection of the tumour performed with an external approach and an immediate reconstruction of the dural defect. Histology confirmed the lesion was an ABC associated with fibrous dysplasia. The patient's recovery was complete. A large facial aneurysmal bone cyst can damage the facial skeleton and skull base, and requires excision by a combined external approach.

  3. The naming of the cranial nerves: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew C; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Bosmia, Anand N; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2014-01-01

    The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Familial Idiopathic Cranial Neuropathy in a Chinese Family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liang, Jianfeng; Yu, Yanbing

    Cranial neuropathy is usually idiopathic and familial cases are uncommon. We describe a family with 5 members with cranial neuropathy over 3 generations. All affected patients were women, indicating an X-linked dominant or an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Our cases and a review of the literature suggest that familial idiopathic cranial neuropathy is a rare condition which may be related to autosomal dominant vascular disorders (e.g. vascular tortuosity, sclerosis, elongation or extension), small posterior cranial fossas, anatomical variations of the posterior circulation, hypersensitivity of cranial nerves and other abnormalities. Moreover, microvascular decompression is the treatment of choice because vascular compression is the main factor in the pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of familial cranial neuropathy in China.

  5. Naturally occurring hazardous materials.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-12-01

    The study of naturally occurring hazardous materials (NOHMs) was conceived as a proactive response to assure that the Oregon : Department of Transportation (ODOT) maintenance and construction activities take the presence of NOHMs into account. The la...

  6. Cranial Nerve Palsy after Onyx Embolization as a Treatment for Cerebral Vascular Malformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Min; Whang, Kum; Cho, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Yeon; Oh, Ji Woong; Koo, Youn Moo; Hu, Chul; Pyen, Jinsoo; Choi, Jong Wook

    2017-09-01

    The Onyx liquid embolic system is a relatively safe and commonly used treatment for vascular malformations, such as arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous malformations. However, studies on possible complications after Onyx embolization in patients with vascular malformations are limited, and the occurrence of cranial nerve palsy is occasionally reported. Here we report the progress of two different types of cranial nerve palsy that can occur after embolization. In both cases, Onyx embolization was performed to treat vascular malformations and ipsilateral oculomotor and facial nerve palsies were observed. Both patients were treated with steroids and exhibited symptom improvement after several months. The most common types of neuropathy that can occur after Onyx embolization are facial nerve palsy and trigeminal neuralgia. Although the mechanisms underlying these neuropathies are not clear, they may involve traction injuries sustained while extracting the microcatheter, mass effects resulting from thrombi and edema, or Onyx reflux into the vasa nervorum. In most cases, the neuropathy spontaneously resolves several months following the procedure.

  7. Arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-11-01

    The arterial supply to the upper cranial nerves is derived from a complex network of branches derived from the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the arterial supply of the upper cranial nerves with an emphasis on clinical considerations. Arteries coursing in close proximity to the cranial nerves regularly give rise to small vessels that supply the nerve. Knowledge of the arteries supplying the cranial nerves is of particular importance during surgical approaches to the skull base. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Arterial supply of the lower cranial nerves: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Philipp; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Foreman, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Fisher, Winfield S; Rizk, Elias; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-01-01

    The lower cranial nerves receive their arterial supply from an intricate network of tributaries derived from the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories. A contemporary, comprehensive literature review of the vascular supply of the lower cranial nerves was performed. The vascular supply to the trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, and hypoglossal nerves are illustrated with a special emphasis on clinical issues. Frequently the external carotid, internal carotid, and vertebrobasilar territories all contribute to the vascular supply of an individual cranial nerve along its course. Understanding of the vasculature of the lower cranial nerves is of great relevance for skull base surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Ruikar, Devashish; Surath, Mohandas

    2013-01-01

    Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS) is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth). Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed. PMID:24250180

  10. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Ruikar, Devashish; Surath, Mohandas

    2013-07-01

    Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS) is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth). Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed.

  11. Comparative cranial ontogeny of Tapirus (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Tapiridae).

    PubMed

    Moyano, S Rocio; Giannini, Norberto P

    2017-11-01

    Skull morphology in tapirs is particularly interesting due to the presence of a proboscis with important trophic, sensory and behavioral functions. Several studies have dealt with tapir skull osteology but chiefly in a comparative framework between fossil and recent species of tapirs. Only one study examined an aspect of cranial ontogeny, development of the sagittal crest (Holbrook. J Zool Soc Lond 2002; 256; 215). Our goal is to describe in detail the morphological changes that occur during the postnatal ontogeny of the skull in two representative tapir species, Tapirus terrestris and Tapirus indicus, and to explore possible functional consequences of their developmental trajectories. We compared qualitative features of the skull on a growth series of 46 specimens of T. terrestris ordered on the basis of the sequence of eruption and tooth wear, dividing the sample into three age classes: class Y (very young juvenile), class J (from young juvenile to young adult) and class A (full and old adult). The qualitative morphological analysis consisted of describing changes in the series in each skull bone and major skull structure, including the type and degree of transformation (e.g. appearance, fusion) of cranial features (e.g. processes, foramina) and articulations (sutures, synchondroses, and synovial joints). We then measured 23 cranial variables in 46 specimens of T. terrestris that included the entire ontogenetic series from newborn to old adults. We applied statistical multivariate techniques to describe allometric growth, and compared the results with the allometric trends calculated for a sample of 25 specimens of T. indicus. Results show that the skull structure was largely conserved throughout the postnatal ontogeny in T. terrestris, so class Y was remarkably similar to class A in overall shape, with the most significant changes localized in the masticatory apparatus, specifically the maxillary tuber as a support of the large-sized permanent postcanine

  12. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey R; Bedford, Benjamin B; Andrachuk, John S; Scillia, Anthony J; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-11-01

    To determine common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in baseball players and to quantify the rate of return to play after primary surgical reconstruction and review intermediate clinical outcomes. Surgical injuries involving the ACL in youth, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players were queried for an 11-year period (2001 to 2011). Over the study period, 42 baseball players were identified who had undergone arthroscopically assisted primary ACL reconstruction by 1 of 3 attending surgeons. Retrospective chart review was performed for all 42 patients to evaluate variables of age, level of competition, position, mechanism of injury, graft choice, and associated meniscal injuries. Twenty-six patients were reached for telephone survey and International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire and they answered questions about their original injury and playing history. The most common mechanism of injury was fielding, followed by base running. Infielders and outfielders (32% each) were the most commonly injured position, followed by pitchers (29%). Among the 32 players for whom it could be determined, 30 (94%) were able to return to playing baseball at a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range 1.0 to 9.9 years). The mean International Knee Documentation Committee score was 84.0 (range 63 to 91). Among the 26 patients contacted for telephone interview, no one required revision ACL surgery, but 3 required a subsequent procedure for meniscal tear. Twenty-five patients (96%) denied any episodes of instability in the knee after reconstruction. The overwhelming majority of baseball players that sustain ACL injuries do so while fielding or base running. Outfielders are significantly more likely than infielders to suffer ACL injuries while fielding versus base running. The results with respect to return to play are promising, as nearly all patients were able to return to baseball and none required a revision ACL surgery at a mean follow

  13. Emerging Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Budny, Jacob; Fox, Joseph; Rauh, Michael; Fineberg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed and researched orthopedic procedures. As technology and comparative research have advanced, surgical practices have changed to achieve a superior outcome. Our group performed a survey of orthopedic surgeons to evaluate current practice trends and techniques as a follow-up to similar surveys performed in 1999 and 2006. In a survey between 2013 and 2014 consisting of 35 questions regarding the surgical technique, graft choice, fixation method, and perioperative care in ACL reconstruction was sent electronically to the members of the American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine and the Arthroscopy Association of North America. Responses were recorded and compared with previous results. Survey responses were received from 824 active surgeons. Of the respondents, 89.4% are subspecialty trained, 98% of which in sports medicine. Preoperatively, full-knee extension was the only "very significant" factor in surgical timing. Approach preference via an arthroscopic-assisted single-incision approach predominated (89%)-similar to earlier results. Bone-patellar-tendon-bone use decreased relative to hamstring allograft at 45 and 41%, respectively. Tibial tunnel placement shifted anteriorly and femoral tunnel placement shifted posterosuperiorly as compared with the results obtained 5 years ago. Femoral drilling through a low medial portal was preferred in 47% of responses, increased from 15%. Preferred fixation on both the tibial and femoral sides was either metal or bioabsorbable interference screws. The use of transfixation pins and other devices decreased. Postoperative rehab protocols did not significantly change, 68.7% preferred full-weight bearing, 55% using a range of motion knee brace locked in extension, 66.4% starting physical therapy 1 week postoperatively, with unrestricted activity at 6 to 9 months. Overall, an increasing trend toward using hamstring autograft and drilling the

  14. Probabilistic Tractography of the Cranial Nerves in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Podlesek, Dino; Rieger, Bernhard; Kitzler, Hagen H; Linn, Jennifer; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2017-11-01

    Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic nontensor-based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of subvoxel size. Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited. The probabilistic tracking was run preoperatively and the position of the potential depictions of the facial and cochlear nerves was estimated postoperatively by 3 independent observers in a blinded fashion. The true position of the nerve was determined intraoperatively by the surgeon. Thereafter, the imaging-based estimated position was compared with the intraoperatively determined position. Tumor size, cystic appearance, and postoperative House-Brackmann score were analyzed with regard to the accuracy of the depiction of the nerves. The probabilistic tracking showed a connection that correlated to the position of the facial nerve in 81% of the cases and to the position of the cochlear nerve in 33% of the cases. Altogether, the resulting depiction did not correspond to the intraoperative position of any of the nerves in 3 cases. In a majority of cases, the position of the facial nerve, but not of the cochlear nerve, could be estimated by evaluation of the probabilistic tracking results. However, false depictions not corresponding to any nerve do occur and cannot be discerned as such from the image only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Different Cranial Ontogeny in Europeans and Southern Africans

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Marina L.; Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.

    2012-01-01

    Modern human populations differ in developmental processes and in several phenotypic traits. However, the link between ontogenetic variation and human diversification has not been frequently addressed. Here, we analysed craniofacial ontogenies by means of geometric-morphometrics of Europeans and Southern Africans, according to dental and chronological ages. Results suggest that different adult cranial morphologies between Southern Africans and Europeans arise by a combination of processes that involve traits modified during the prenatal life and others that diverge during early postnatal ontogeny. Main craniofacial changes indicate that Europeans differ from Southern Africans by increasing facial developmental rates and extending the attainment of adult size and shape. Since other studies have suggested that native subsaharan populations attain adulthood earlier than Europeans, it is probable that facial ontogeny is linked with other developmental mechanisms that control the timing of maturation in other variables. Southern Africans appear as retaining young features in adulthood. Facial ontogeny in Europeans produces taller and narrower noses, which seems as an adaptation to colder environments. The lack of these morphological traits in Neanderthals, who lived in cold environments, seems a paradox, but it is probably the consequence of a warm-adapted faces together with precocious maturation. When modern Homo sapiens migrated into Asia and Europe, colder environments might establish pressures that constrained facial growth and development in order to depart from the warm-adapted morphology. Our results provide some answers about how cranial growth and development occur in two human populations and when developmental shifts take place providing a better adaptation to environmental constraints. PMID:22558270

  16. Posterior medial meniscus-femoral insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A; Ferrari, D A

    1998-03-01

    Medial meniscal anomalies are rare. The anterior horn insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common. In the course of an arthroscopy for torn lateral meniscus, an anomalous band in continuity with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was observed to insert into the anterior cruciate ligament. Although the tibial portion of the anterior cruciate was redundant, the anomalous band provided tension to the anterior cruciate ligament and a negative pivot shift. A previously unreported posterior medial meniscal femoral insertion is described.

  17. How Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury was averted during Knee Collapse in a NBA Point Guard

    PubMed Central

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Bates, Nathaniel A; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Summary Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur with rapid decelerations and pivoting. A recent injury to a high-level National Basketball Association (NBA) player demonstrated neuromuscular control and injury-sparing mechanisms that resulted in only minor ligament injury to the medial collateral ligament. We analyzed biomechanical mechanisms via publically available orthogonal 2-D video to demonstrate how this potential ACL injury was averted. Analysis of the knee injury mechanism demonstrated that the NBA player experienced low ground reaction force, high sagittal plane flexion, and maintenance of frontal plane stability with neuromuscular control. The outcome of these factors inhibited dynamic valgus collapse of the knee throughout the fall, avoiding ACL injury – a potentially career-altering injury. Many athletes, professional and recreational, will be subjected to similar mechanisms of injury and will have improved outcomes if they can successfully utilize preventive strategies of neuromuscular control to limit injury mechanisms. PMID:28603786

  18. How Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury was averted during Knee Collapse in a NBA Point Guard.

    PubMed

    Schilaty, Nathan D; Bates, Nathaniel A; Krych, Aaron J; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur with rapid decelerations and pivoting. A recent injury to a high-level National Basketball Association (NBA) player demonstrated neuromuscular control and injury-sparing mechanisms that resulted in only minor ligament injury to the medial collateral ligament. We analyzed biomechanical mechanisms via publically available orthogonal 2-D video to demonstrate how this potential ACL injury was averted. Analysis of the knee injury mechanism demonstrated that the NBA player experienced low ground reaction force, high sagittal plane flexion, and maintenance of frontal plane stability with neuromuscular control. The outcome of these factors inhibited dynamic valgus collapse of the knee throughout the fall, avoiding ACL injury - a potentially career-altering injury. Many athletes, professional and recreational, will be subjected to similar mechanisms of injury and will have improved outcomes if they can successfully utilize preventive strategies of neuromuscular control to limit injury mechanisms.

  19. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  20. Cranial Chordoma: A New Preoperative Grading System.

    PubMed

    Brito da Silva, Harley; Straus, David; Barber, Jason K; Rostomily, Robert C; Ferreira, Manuel; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-11-03

    Chordomas are rare but challenging neoplasms involving the skull base. A preoperative grading system will be useful to identify both areas for treatment and risk factors, and correlate to the degree of resection, complications, and recurrence. To propose a new grading system for cranial chordomas designed by the senior author. Its purpose is to enable comparison of different tumors with a similar pathology to clivus chordoma, and statistically correlate with postoperative outcomes. The numerical grading system included tumor size, site of the tumor, vascular encasement, intradural extension, brainstem invasion, and recurrence of the tumor either after surgery or radiotherapy with a range of 2 to 25 points; it was used in 42 patients with cranial chordoma. The grading system was correlated with number of operations for resection, degree of resection, number and type of complications, recurrence, and survival. We found 3 groups: low-risk 0 to 7 points, intermediate-risk 8 to 12 points, and high-risk ≥13 points in the grading system. The 3 groups were correlated with the following: extent of resection (partial, subtotal, or complete; P < .002); number of operative stages to achieve removal (P < .014); tumor recurrence (P = .03); postoperative Karnofsky Performance Status (P < .001); and with successful outcome (P = .005). The grading system itself correlated with the outcome (P = .005). The proposed chordoma grading system can help surgeons to predict the difficulty of the case and know which areas of the skull base will need attention to plan further therapy. © Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2017.

  1. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed

    Rayfield, Emily J

    2004-07-22

    It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society

  2. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    PubMed Central

    Rayfield, Emily J.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals. PMID:15306316

  3. Vasopressin function in familial cranial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, P. H.; Robertson, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    A family suffering from cranial diabetes insipidus, that extends over 4 generations, is described. Inheritance of polyuria was autosomal dominant. Vasopressin function was studied in members of the last 2 generations, 4 of whom had polyuria. Osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion was assessed by infusion of hypertonic saline. Plasma vasopressin remained undetectable in one patient, while 2 others had very blunted vasopressin responses to osmotic stimulation. Three non-osmotic stimuli were applied. Controlled hypotension produced by trimetaphan infusion and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia did not increase plasma vasopressin but apomorphine-induced nausea caused a minimal rise in plasma vasopressin to 0.7 pg/ml. Polyuria and thirst resolved with antidiuretic therapy in all patients studied. Congenital absence of vasopressin as in Brattleboro rats is unlikely to account for diabetes insipidus in this disorder since small increases in vasopressin have been demonstrated in these patients. In view of previous post-mortem findings, familial cranial diabetes insipidus is most likely to be due to degeneration of vasopressin-synthesizing neurones. PMID:7279821

  4. What Strains the Anterior Cruciate Ligament During a Pivot Landing?

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Lipps, David B.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative contributions of an axial tibial torque and frontal plane moment to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain during pivot landings are unknown. Hypothesis The peak normalized relative strain in the anteromedial (AM) bundle of the ACL is affected by the direction of the axial tibial torque but not by the direction of the frontal plane moment applied concurrently during a simulated jump landing. Study Design Controlled and descriptive laboratory studies. Methods Fifteen adult male knees with pretensioned knee muscle-tendon unit forces were loaded under a simulated pivot landing test. Compression, flexion moment, internal or external tibial torque, and knee varus or valgus moment were simultaneously applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibiofemoral kinematics. The AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3-mm differential variable reluctance transducer. The results were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed–rank tests. A 3D dynamic biomechanical knee model was developed using ADAMS and validated to help interpret the experimental results. Results The mean (SD) peak AM-ACL relative strain was 192% greater (P <.001) under the internal tibial torque combined with a knee varus or valgus moment (7.0% [3.9%] and 7.0% [4.1%], respectively) than under external tibial torque with the same moments (2.4% [2.5%] and 2.4% [3.2%], respectively). The knee valgus moment augmented the AM-ACL strain due to the slope of the tibial plateau inducing mechanical coupling (ie, internal tibial rotation and knee valgus moment); this augmentation occurred before medial knee joint space opening. Conclusion An internal tibial torque combined with a knee valgus moment is the worst-case ACL loading condition. However, it is the internal tibial torque that primarily causes large ACL strain. Clinical Relevance Limiting the maximum coefficient of friction between the shoe and playing surface should limit the peak internal tibial torque

  5. Subfailure injury of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Panjabi, M M; Yoldas, E; Oxland, T R; Crisco, J J

    1996-03-01

    Ligamentous injuries range in severity from a simple sprain to a complete rupture. Although sprains occur more frequently than complete failures, only a few studies have investigated the phenomena of these subfailure injuries. The purpose of our study was to document the changes in the load-deformation curve until the failure point, after the ligament has been subjected to an 80% subfailure stretch. Thirteen paired fresh rabbit bone-anterior cruciate ligament-bone preparations were used. One of the pairs (control) was stretched until failure; the other (experimental) was first stretched to 80% of the failure deformation of the control and then stretched to failure. Comparisons were made between the load-deformation curves of the experimental and control specimens. The nonlinear load-deformation curves were characterized by eight parameters: failure load (Ffail), failure deformation (Dfail), energy until failure (Efail), deformations measured at 5, 10, 25, and 50% of the failure load (D5, D10, D25, and D50, respectively), and stiffness measured at 50% of the failure force (K50). There were no significant differences in the values for Ffail, Dfail, and Efail between the experimental and control ligaments (p > 0.33). In contrast, the deformation values were all larger for the experimental than the control ligaments (p > 0.01). The deformations D5, D10, D25, and D50 (mean +/- SD) for the control were 0.36 +/- 0.13, 0.49 +/- 0.23, 0.81 +/- 0.35, and 1.23 +/- 0.41 mm. The corresponding deformations for the experimental ligaments were, respectively, 209, 186, 153, and 130% of the control values. K50 was also greater for the experimental ligament (125.0 +/- 41.7 N/mm compared with 108.7 +/- 31.4 N/mm, p < 0.03). These findings indicate that even though the strength of the ligament did not change due to a subfailure injury, the shape of the load-displacement curve, especially at low loads, was significantly altered. Under the dynamic in vivo loading conditions of daily

  6. Asymmetric type F botulism with cranial nerve demyelination.

    PubMed

    Filozov, Alina; Kattan, Jessica A; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N; Fagan, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients.

  7. Asymmetric Type F Botulism with Cranial Nerve Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jessica A.; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C. Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N.; Fagan, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients. PMID:22257488

  8. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5800 Cranial...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section 882.4325 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial drill handpiece (brace). 882.4325 Section 882.4325 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4370 Pneumatic cranial...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5800 Cranial...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4370 Pneumatic cranial...

  14. Cranial index in a modern people of Thai ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyunwoo

    2018-01-01

    The present research aims to examine the cranial index in a modern people of Thai ancestry. Ultimately, this study will help to create a databank containing a cranial index for the classifications of the people from Asia. In this study, 185 modern crania of people of supposed Thai ancestry were examined. They were collected from the Department of Anatomy at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The maximum cranial length and breadth were measured using standard anthropometric instruments based on Martin's methods. The cranial index was calculated using the equation ([maximum cranial breadth/maximum cranial length]×100). The mean cranial indices for the male and female skulls examined were 81.81±4.23 and 82.99±4.37, respectively. The most common type of skull in the modern Thai people in this study was the brachycranic type with a frequency of 42.7%, followed by the mesocranic (27.03%) and hyperbrachycranic types (25.59%). The rarest type observed in this study was the dolichocranic type (4.32%). The present study provides valuable data pertaining to the cranial index in a modern Thai population and reveals that modern Thai males and females belong to the brachycranic group. The results of this study will be of forensic anthropological importance to populations in close proximity to the location where the skulls studied here were sourced. PMID:29644107

  15. [Anatomy and malformations of the posterior cranial fossa].

    PubMed

    Struffert, T

    2016-11-01

    Many important structures are located in the confined space within the posterior cranial fossa. This article describes the main aspects of the anatomy. As a uniform classification of malformations of the posterior cranial fossa does not exist the main syndromes, such as Chiari malformations, zerebellar hypoplasia and dysplasia are discussed separately.

  16. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies...

  2. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Reconstruction, and the Optimization of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, James Philip

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) provides an established surgical intervention to control pathological tibiofemoral translational and rotational movement. ACLR is a safe and reproducible intervention, but there remains an underlying rate of failure to return to preinjury sporting activity levels. Postoperative pathological laxity and graft reinjury remain concerns. Previously, unrecognized meniscal lesions, disruption of the lateral capsule, and extracapsular structures offer potential avenues to treat and to therefore improve kinematic outcome and functional results, following reconstruction. Addressing laterally based injuries may also improve the durability of intraarticular ACLR. Improving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft replication of the normal ACL attachment points on the femur and the tibia, using either double bundle or anatomical single bundle techniques, improves kinematics, which may benefit outcome and functionality, following reconstruction. PMID:28966384

  4. Neonatal cranial sonography: A concise review for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Cranial sonography continues to hold an important place in neonatal care. Attributes favorable to sonography that make it almost indispensable for routine care of the newborn includes easy access, low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiations and exemption from sedation or anaesthesia. Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL); hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage. Not withstanding this, cranial sonography has yielded results for a repertoire of indications. Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation. Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma. In this review, we discuss the technique, normal and variant anatomy as well as disease entities of neonatal cranial sonography. PMID:27195026

  5. Biomechanical Measures During Landing and Postural Stability Predict Second Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Huang, Bin; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes who return to sport participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a higher risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury (either reinjury or contralateral injury) compared with non–anterior cruciate ligament–injured athletes. Hypotheses Prospective measures of neuromuscular control and postural stability after ACLR will predict relative increased risk for a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Fifty-six athletes underwent a prospective biomechanical screening after ACLR using 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver and postural stability assessment before return to pivoting and cutting sports. After the initial test session, each subject was followed for 12 months for occurrence of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics, and postural stability were assessed and analyzed. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Results Thirteen athletes suffered a subsequent second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Transverse plane hip kinetics and frontal plane knee kinematics during landing, sagittal plane knee moments at landing, and deficits in postural stability predicted a second injury in this population (C statistic = 0.94) with excellent sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.88). Specific predictive parameters included an increase in total frontal plane (valgus) movement, greater asymmetry in internal knee extensor moment at initial contact, and a deficit in single-leg postural stability of the involved limb, as measured by the Biodex stability system. Hip rotation moment independently predicted second anterior cruciate ligament injury (C = 0.81) with high sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.81). Conclusion Altered neuromuscular control of the hip and knee during a dynamic landing task

  6. Quantitative computed tomography and cranial burr holes: a model to evaluate the quality of cranial reconstruction in humans.

    PubMed

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ferreira, Nelson Pires; Ferreira, Marcelo Paglioli; Kraemer, Jorge Luiz; Lenhardt, Rene; Alves, Ronnie Peterson Marcondes; Wunderlich, Ricardo Castilho; Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins

    2012-05-01

    Current methods to evaluate the biologic development of bone grafts in human beings do not quantify results accurately. Cranial burr holes are standardized critical bone defects, and the differences between bone powder and bone grafts have been determined in numerous experimental studies. This study evaluated quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as a method to objectively measure cranial bone density after cranial reconstruction with autografts. In each of 8 patients, 2 of 4 surgical burr holes were reconstructed with autogenous wet bone powder collected during skull trephination, and the other 2 holes, with a circular cortical bone fragment removed from the inner table of the cranial bone flap. After 12 months, the reconstructed areas and a sample of normal bone were studied using three-dimensional QCT; bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Mean (SD) bone density was 1535.89 (141) HU for normal bone (P < 0.0001), 964 (176) HU for bone fragments, and 453 (241) HU for bone powder (P < 0.001). As expected, the density of the bone fragment graft was consistently greater than that of bone powder. Results confirm the accuracy and reproducibility of QCT, already demonstrated for bone in other locations, and suggest that it is an adequate tool to evaluate cranial reconstructions. The combination of QCT and cranial burr holes is an excellent model to accurately measure the quality of new bone in cranial reconstructions and also seems to be an appropriate choice of experimental model to clinically test any cranial bone or bone substitute reconstruction.

  7. A Rare Presentation of Cranial Polyneuropathy Without Rash Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tecellioglu, Mehmet; Kamisli, Suat; Erbay, Mehmet Fatih; Kamisli, Ozden; Ozcan, Cemal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is associated with many disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems including neuralgia, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, vasculopathy, myelopathy, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, and polyneuritis cranialis. Cranial nerves V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and/or XII may be affected. The neurological disorders caused by VZV usually present with rash, but may rarely present without rash. Case report: We herein present a case of polyneuritis cranialis without rash caused by VZV affecting cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX, and X. After excluding other causes of the condition, we diagnosed VZV infection based on VZV DNA in the CSF and an elevated anti-VZV IgG level in serum. The patient responded well to antiviral therapy. Conclusion: VZV infection should be kept in mind during the differential diagnosis of polyneuritis cranialis; it is important to note that VZV re-activation may occur without rash. PMID:28974853

  8. [Localized invasive intracranial aspergillosis with multiple cranial nerve failure -- case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Winkler, F; Seelos, K; Hempel, J M; Pfister, H-W

    2002-12-01

    Contrary to the more frequent hematogenously spread cerebral aspergillosis, localized invasive intracranial aspergillosis is a fungal infection that can also occur in patients who are not severely immunosuppressed. This illness can be effectively treated in some of these patients by early and rigorous therapy. Localized invasion of the fungus, generally from one of the nasal sinuses, causes intracranial growth mainly along the base of the skull and larger vessels,where fibrous, granulomatous tissue develops. This generally leads to damage of the cranial nerves (primarily I-VI) as well as localized pain syndromes. We report on the clinical course documented by MRI of a patient with localized invasive intracranial aspergillosis who had multiple failure of cranial nerves following surgery for an aspergilloma of the maxillary sinus. Clinical course, imaging findings, and treatment of the illness are discussed with a review of the relevant literature.

  9. Effect of Varying Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Recessions on Kinematics and Ligament Strains with Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Laster, Scott K; Cross, Michael B; Lenz, Nathaniel M

    2016-04-01

    Proper ligament tension in flexion with posterior cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has long been associated with clinical success. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of varying levels of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) release on the tibiofemoral kinematics and PCL strain. A computational analysis was performed and varying levels of PCL release were simulated. Tibiofemoral kinematics was evaluated. The maximum PCL strain was determined for each bundle to evaluate the risk of rupture based on the failure strain. The femoral AP position shifted anteriorly as the PCL stiffness was reduced. PCL strain in both bundles increased as stiffness was reduced. The model predicts that the AL bundle should not rupture for a 75% release. Risk of PM bundle rupture is greater than AL bundle. Our findings suggest that a partial PCL release impacts tibiofemoral kinematics and ligament tension and strain. The relationship is dynamic and care should be taken when seeking optimal balance intra-operatively.

  10. Gait perturbation response in chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and repair.

    PubMed

    Ferber, Reed; Osternig, Louis R; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Wasielewski, Noah J; Lee, Ji Hang

    2003-02-01

    To determine how chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient and surgically repaired subjects react to unexpected forward perturbations during gait as compared to healthy controls. Gait testing of 10 chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects prior to and three months following reconstructive surgery, and 10 uninjured controls. The ability of an anterior cruciate ligament injured individual to react and maintain equilibrium during gait perturbations is critical for the prevention of reinjury. No studies have investigated how these individuals respond to unexpected perturbations during normal gait. An unexpected forward perturbation was induced upon heel strike using a force plate capable of translational movement. Prior to surgery, the anterior cruciate ligament subjects exhibited a greater knee extensor moment in response to the perturbation compared to healthy controls. Following surgery, the anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects exhibited a static knee position and a sustained knee extensor moment throughout stance in response to the perturbation as compared to controls. These data suggest that chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects rely heavily on knee extensor musculature to prevent collapse in response to an unexpected perturbation. This same reactive response was more pronounced 3 months following surgery. The results suggest that, prior to and following surgery, chronic anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects respond differently than healthy controls to an unexpected perturbation during gait. Anterior cruciate ligament injured or repaired subjects do not reduce or avoid vigorous contraction of the quadriceps muscles when responding to gait perturbations.

  11. Intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury on MRI.

    PubMed

    Ringler, Michael D; Shotts, Ezekiel E; Collins, Mark S; Howe, B Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Unlike with anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about the prevalence of intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury in the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize and identify the frequency of meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries in these patients, and to see if management might be affected. Altogether, 48 knee MRI exams with isolated PCL tears were evaluated for the presence of: grade and location of PCL tear, meniscal tear, articular chondral lesion, bone bruise, and fracture. Comparisons between PCL tear grade and location, as well as mechanism of injury when known, with the presence of various intra-articular pathologies, were made using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all, 69 % of isolated PCL tears occur in the midsubstance, 27 % proximally. Meniscal tears were seen in 25 % of knees, involving all segments of both menisci, except for the anterior horn medial meniscus. Altogether, 23 % had focal cartilage lesions, usually affecting the central third medial femoral condyle and medial trochlea, while 12.5 % of knees had fractures, and 48 % demonstrated bone bruises, usually involving the central to anterior tibiofemoral joint. The presence of a fracture (p = 0.0123) and proximal location of PCL tear (p = 0.0016) were both associated with the hyperextension mechanism of injury. There were no statistically significant associations between PCL tear grade and presence of intra-articular abnormality. Potentially treatable meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries are relatively prevalent, and demonstrable on MRI in patients with isolated acute PCL injury of the knee.

  12. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture

    PubMed Central

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Conclusion: Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features. PMID:28111622

  13. On the terminology of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Simon, František; Marečková-Štolcová, Elena; Páč, Libor

    2011-10-20

    The present contribution adopts various points of view to discuss the terminology of the twelve nervi craniales. These are paired nerves and have dual names, terms with Roman ordinal numerals, i.e., the nerves are numbered in the top-to-bottom direction, and descriptive historical names. The time of origin and motivation behind the investigated terms are determined. The majority of terms come from the 17th and 18th centuries. The motivation behind most of them is (a) nerve localization, as this is in conformity with anatomical nomenclature in general, (b) nerve function, and rarely (c) nerve appearance. The occurrence of synonymous names and variants is also a focus of attention. In several cases, reference is made to the process called terminologization, meaning when a certain expression acquires technical meaning and the characteristic/feature of the term. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Prophylactic cranial irradiation: recent outcomes and innovations.

    PubMed

    Snider, James W; Gondi, Vinai; Brown, Paul D; Tome, Wolfgang; Mehta, Minesh P

    2014-05-01

    Brain metastases represent a frequent problem in several malignancies. They can shorten survival while causing significant morbidity and impairment in the patient's quality of life. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has become an integral part of the standard of care in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), yet its role in other malignancies remains the subject of significant discussion. Its role has been extensively investigated in non-small cell lung cancer and less so for breast cancer and other malignancies. Improvements in medical care as well as in whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) techniques may improve the risk-benefit ratio of this therapy so as to expand its role in cancer care. The use of memantine in WBRT patients as well as the use of hippocampal avoidance techniques are of particular interest in this effort. Herein, we review the history of PCI, its current use, and areas of investigation in the application of PCI.

  15. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  16. Endoscopic transnasal resection of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas.

    PubMed

    de Divitiis, Enrico; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi M; de Divitiis, Oreste; Esposito, Isabella

    2008-01-01

    The extended transnasal approach, a recent surgical advancements for the ventral skull base, allows excellent midline access to and visibility of the anterior cranial fossa, which was previously thought to be approachable only via a transcranial route. The extended transnasal approach allows early decompression of the optic canals, obviates the need for brain retraction, and reduces neurovascular manipulation. Between 2004 and 2007, 11 consecutive patients underwent transnasal resection of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas--4 olfactory groove (OGM) and 7 tuberculum sellae (TSM) meningiomas. Age at surgery, sex, symptoms, and imaging studies were reviewed. Tumor size and tumor extension were estimated, and the anteroposterior, vertical, and horizontal diameters were measred on MR images. Medical records, surgical complications, and outcomes of the patients were collected. A gross-total removal of the lesion was achieved in 10 patients (91%), and in 1 patient with a TSM only a near-total (> 90%) resection was possible. Four patients with preoperative visual function defect had a complete recovery, whereas 3 patients experienced a transient worsening of vision, fully recovered within few days. In 3 patients (2 with TSMs and 1 with an OGM), a postoperative CSF leak occurred, requiring a endoscopic surgery for skull base defect repair. Another patient (a case involving a TSM) developed transient diabetes insipidus. The operative time ranged from 6 to 10 hours in the OGM group and from 4.5 to 9 hours in the TSM group. The mean duration of the hospital stay was 13.5 and 10 days in the OGM and TSM groups, respectively. Six patients (3 with OGMs and 3 with TSMs) required a blood transfusion. Surgery-related death occurred in 1 patient with TSM, in whom the tumor was successfully removed. The technique offers a minimally invasive route to the midline anterior skull base, allowing the surgeon to avoid using brain retraction and reducing manipulation of the large vessels and

  17. Varus alignment leads to increased forces in the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Gerrit Jan; Arnold, Markus P; Verdonschot, Nico; van Kampen, Albert

    2009-03-01

    Varus thrust of the knee is a dynamic increase of an often preexisting varus angle and it is suspected to be a major reason for failure of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. However, it is not known if a direct relationship exists between varus thrust and forces in the anterior cruciate ligament. Forces in the anterior cruciate ligament increase with increasing varus alignment, and consequently an anterior cruciate ligament deficiency in a varus-aligned leg leads to more lateral tibiofemoral joint opening. Controlled laboratory study. Six human cadaver legs were axially loaded with 3 different weightbearing lines--a neutral weightbearing line, a weightbearing line that passes through the middle of the medial tibial plateau (50% varus), and a line passing the edge of the medial tibial plateau (100% varus)--that were used to create a varus moment. The resulting lateral tibiofemoral joint opening and corresponding anterior cruciate ligament tension were measured. The tests were repeated with and without the anterior cruciate ligament in place. In the neutral aligned legs, there was no apparent lateral joint opening, and no anterior cruciate ligament tension change was noted. The lateral joint opening increased when the weightbearing line increased from 0% to 50% to 100%. The lateral joint opening was significantly higher in 10 degrees of knee flexion compared with knee extension. In the 100% varus weightbearing line, the anterior cruciate ligament tension was significantly higher (53.9 N) compared with neutral (31 N) or the 50% weightbearing line (37.9 N). A thrust could only be observed in the 100% weightbearing line tests. In the absence of an anterior cruciate ligament, there was more lateral joint opening, although this was only significant in the 100% weightbearing line. There is a direct relationship between varus alignment and anterior cruciate ligament tension. In the absence of an anterior cruciate ligament, the amount of lateral opening tends to

  18. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  19. Literature review of cranial nerve injuries during carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Sajid, M S; Vijaynagar, B; Singh, P; Hamilton, G

    2007-01-01

    In the recent prospective randomised trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), the incidence of cranial nerve injuries (CNI) are reported to be higher than in previously published studies. The objective of this study is to review the incidence of post CEA cranial nerve injury and to discover whether it has changed in the last 25 years after many innovations in vascular surgery. Generic terms including carotid endarterectomy, cranial nerve injuries, post CEA complications and cranial nerve deficit after neck surgery were used to search a variety of electronic databases. Based on selection criteria, decisions regarding inclusion and exclusion of primary studies were made. The incidence of CNI before and after 1995 was compared. We found 31 eligible studies from the literature. Patients who underwent CEA through any approach were included in the study. All patients had cranial nerves examined both before and after surgery. The total number of patients who had CEA before 1995 was 3521 with 10.6% CNI (352 patients) and after 1995, 7324 patients underwent CEA with 8.3% CNI (614 patients). Cranial nerves XII, X and VII were most commonly involved (rarely IX and XI). Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of CNI has decreased (X(2) = 5.89 + 0.74 = 6.63 => p-value = 0.0100). CNI is still a significant postoperative complication of carotid endarterectomy. Despite increasing use of CEA, the incidence of CNI has decreased probably because of increased awareness of the possibility of cranial nerve damage.

  20. Robo signaling regulates the production of cranial neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Tan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Münsterberg, Andrea; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    Slit/Robo signaling plays an important role in the guidance of developing neurons in developing embryos. However, it remains obscure whether and how Slit/Robo signaling is involved in the production of cranial neural crest cells. In this study, we examined Robo1 deficient mice to reveal developmental defects of mouse cranial frontal and parietal bones, which are derivatives of cranial neural crest cells. Therefore, we determined the production of HNK1 + cranial neural crest cells in early chick embryo development after knock-down (KD) of Robo1 expression. Detection of markers for pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, PAX7 and AP-2α, showed that production of both was affected by Robo1 KD. In addition, we found that the transcription factor slug is responsible for the aberrant delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells induced by Robo1 KD, which also led to elevated expression of E- and N-Cadherin. N-Cadherin expression was enhanced when blocking FGF signaling with dominant-negative FGFR1 in half of the neural tube. Taken together, we show that Slit/Robo signaling influences the delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells, which is required for cranial bone development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jessica M.; Cohen, Yale E.; Shirley, Harry; Tsunada, Joji; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Veeder, Christin L.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates. PMID:27096188

  2. Evaluation of the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as a blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Degner, D A; Walshaw, R; Arnoczky, S P; Smith, R J; Patterson, J S; Degner, L A; Hamaide, A; Rosenstein, D

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as the sole blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. This flap was composed of a cranially based rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap that was attached to the caudal superficial epigastric island skin flap (including mammary glands 2 to 5) via the pudendoepigastric trunk. Selective angiography of the cranial epigastric artery in eight cadaver dogs proved that the arterial vasculature in the cranial rectus abdominus was contiguous with that in the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. In the live dog study, three of six of the flaps failed because of venous insufficiency. Necrosis of mammary gland 2 occurred in two of six flaps. One of six flaps survived with the exception of the cranial most aspect of mammary gland 2. Angiography of the cranial epigastric artery proved that arterial blood supply to these flaps was intact. Histological evaluation of the failed flaps showed full-thickness necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, the presence of severe congestion, and venous thrombosis. Retrograde venous blood flow through the flap was inconsistent, and hence resulted in failure of this myocutaneous flap. Use of this flap for clinical wound reconstruction cannot be recommended.

  3. Central Topography of Cranial Motor Nuclei Controlled by Differential Cadherin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Astick, Marc; Tubby, Kristina; Mubarak, Waleed M.; Guthrie, Sarah; Price, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neuronal nuclei are prominent, evolutionarily conserved features of vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) organization [1]. Nuclei are clusters of soma of functionally related neurons and are located in highly stereotyped positions. Establishment of this CNS topography is critical to neural circuit assembly. However, little is known of either the cellular or molecular mechanisms that drive nucleus formation during development, a process termed nucleogenesis [2–5]. Brainstem motor neurons, which contribute axons to distinct cranial nerves and whose functions are essential to vertebrate survival, are organized exclusively as nuclei. Cranial motor nuclei are composed of two main classes, termed branchiomotor/visceromotor and somatomotor [6]. Each of these classes innervates evolutionarily distinct structures, for example, the branchial arches and eyes, respectively. Additionally, each class is generated by distinct progenitor cell populations and is defined by differential transcription factor expression [7, 8]; for example, Hb9 distinguishes somatomotor from branchiomotor neurons. We characterized the time course of cranial motornucleogenesis, finding that despite differences in cellular origin, segregation of branchiomotor and somatomotor nuclei occurs actively, passing through a phase of each being intermingled. We also found that differential expression of cadherin cell adhesion family members uniquely defines each motor nucleus. We show that cadherin expression is critical to nucleogenesis as its perturbation degrades nucleus topography predictably. PMID:25308074

  4. Morbid obesity increases risk of morbidity and reoperation in resection of benign cranial nerve neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Meghan E; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Porter, Amanda; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Daniel; Rayan, Tarek; Maloney, Patrick R; Carter, Bob S; Bydon, Mohamad; Gompel, Jamie J Van; Link, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk for postoperative CSF leak in patients with benign cranial nerve tumors. Other measures of postoperative morbidity associated with obesity have not been well characterized. Patients enrolled in the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) from 2007 to 2013 with a diagnosis code of a benign neoplasm of a cranial nerve were included. The primary outcome of postoperative morbidity was analyzed as well as secondary outcomes of readmission and reoperation. The main covariate of interest was body mass index (BMI). A total of 561 patients underwent surgery for a benign cranial nerve neoplasm between 2007 and 2013. Readmission data, available for 2012-2013(n=353), revealed hydrocephalus, facial nerve injury, or CSF leak requiring readmission or reoperation occurred in 0.85%, 1.42%, and 3.12%, respectively. Composite morbidity included wound complications, infection, respiratory insufficiency, transfusion requirement, stroke, venous thromboembolism, coma and cardiac arrest. On multivariable analysis patients with class I (BMI 30-34.9) and II (BMI 35-39.9) obesity showed trends towards increasing return to operating room, though not significant, but there was no trend for composite complications in class I and II obesity patients. However, class III obesity, BMI≥40, was associated with increased odds of composite morbidity (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.24-15.88) and return to the operating room (OR 5.97, 95% CI 1.20-29.6) relative to patients with a normal BMI, 18.5-25. Obesity is an independent and important risk factor for composite morbidity in resection of benign cranial nerve neoplasms, and as such, merits discussion during preoperative counseling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Benchmarking pediatric cranial CT protocols using a dose tracking software system: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    De Bondt, Timo; Mulkens, Tom; Zanca, Federica; Pyfferoen, Lotte; Casselman, Jan W; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-02-01

    To benchmark regional standard practice for paediatric cranial CT-procedures in terms of radiation dose and acquisition parameters. Paediatric cranial CT-data were retrospectively collected during a 1-year period, in 3 different hospitals of the same country. A dose tracking system was used to automatically gather information. Dose (CTDI and DLP), scan length, amount of retakes and demographic data were stratified by age and clinical indication; appropriate use of child-specific protocols was assessed. In total, 296 paediatric cranial CT-procedures were collected. Although the median dose of each hospital was below national and international diagnostic reference level (DRL) for all age categories, statistically significant (p-value < 0.001) dose differences among hospitals were observed. The hospital with lowest dose levels showed smallest dose variability and used age-stratified protocols for standardizing paediatric head exams. Erroneous selection of adult protocols for children still occurred, mostly in the oldest age-group. Even though all hospitals complied with national and international DRLs, dose tracking and benchmarking showed that further dose optimization and standardization is possible by using age-stratified protocols for paediatric cranial CT. Moreover, having a dose tracking system revealed that adult protocols are still applied for paediatric CT, a practice that must be avoided. • Significant differences were observed in the delivered dose between age-groups and hospitals. • Using age-adapted scanning protocols gives a nearly linear dose increase. • Sharing dose-data can be a trigger for hospitals to reduce dose levels.

  6. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  8. MEMO1 drives cranial endochondral ossification and palatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Otterloo, Eric Van; Feng, Weiguo; Jones, Kenneth L; Hynes, Nancy E; Clouthier, David E; Niswander, Lee; Williams, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The cranial base is a component of the neurocranium and has a central role in the structural integration of the face, brain and vertebral column. Consequently, alteration in the shape of the human cranial base has been intimately linked with primate evolution and defective development is associated with numerous human facial abnormalities. Here we describe a novel recessive mutant mouse strain that presented with a domed head and fully penetrant cleft secondary palate coupled with defects in the formation of the underlying cranial base. Mapping and non-complementation studies revealed a specific mutation in Memo1 - a gene originally associated with cell migration. Expression analysis of Memo1 identified robust expression in the perichondrium and periosteum of the developing cranial base, but only modest expression in the palatal shelves. Fittingly, although the palatal shelves failed to elevate in Memo1 mutants, expression changes were modest within the shelves themselves. In contrast, the cranial base, which forms via endochondral ossification had major reductions in the expression of genes responsible for bone formation, notably matrix metalloproteinases and markers of the osteoblast lineage, mirrored by an increase in markers of cartilage and extracellular matrix development. Concomitant with these changes, mutant cranial bases showed an increased zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes accompanied by a reduction in both vascular invasion and mineralization. Finally, neural crest cell-specific deletion of Memo1 caused a failure of anterior cranial base ossification indicating a cell autonomous role for MEMO1 in the development of these neural crest cell derived structures. However, palate formation was largely normal in these conditional mutants, suggesting a non-autonomous role for MEMO1 in palatal closure. Overall, these findings assign a new function to MEMO1 in driving endochondral ossification in the cranium, and also link abnormal development of the cranial base

  9. Arthroscopy Up to Date: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Schillhammer, Carl K; Reid, John B; Rister, Jamie; Jani, Sunil S; Marvil, Sean C; Chen, Austin W; Anderson, Chris G; D'Agostino, Sophia; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-01-01

    To categorize and summarize up-to-date anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) research published in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine and systematically review each subcategory, beginning with ACL anatomy. After searching for "anterior cruciate ligament" OR "ACL" in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine from January 2012 through December 2014, we excluded articles more pertinent to ACL augmentation; open growth plates; and meniscal, chondral, or multiligamentous pathology. Studies were subcategorized for data extraction. We included 212 studies that were classified into 8 categories: anatomy; basic science and biomechanics; tunnel position; graft selection; graft fixation; injury risk and rehabilitation; practice patterns and outcomes; and complications. Anatomic risk factors for ACL injury and post-reconstruction graft failure include a narrow intercondylar notch, low native ACL volume, and increased posterior slope. Regarding anatomic footprints, the femoral attachment is 43% of the proximal-to-distal lateral femoral condylar length whereas the posterior border of the tendon is 2.5 mm from the articular margin. The tibial attachment of the ACL is two-fifths of the medial-to-lateral interspinous distance and 15 mm anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament. Anatomic research using radiology and computed tomography to evaluate ACL graft placement shows poor interobserver and intraobserver reliability. With a mind to improving outcomes, surgeons should be aware of anatomic risk factors (stenotic femoral notch, low ligament volume, and increased posterior slope) for ACL graft failure, have a precise understanding of arthroscopic landmarks identifying femoral and tibial footprint locations, and understand that imaging to evaluate graft placement is unreliable. Level III, systematic review of Level III evidence. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete

    PubMed Central

    Silvers, Holly Jacinda; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2007-01-01

    The relationships of gender, age and training to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are pivotal to developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme to decrease ACL injuries in female athletes. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme may have direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries in female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiological and biomechanical studies to determine the exact mechanism of ACL injury and the most effective intervention for decreasing ACL injuries in this high‐risk population. PMID:17609222

  11. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John; Hutt, Jonathan; Rickman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This report details the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in an 18-year-old man with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The reduced mechanical properties of the tissue in EDS can pose a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. In this case, we describe the use of a hamstring autograft combined with a Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS). There was a good radiographical, clinical, and functional outcome after two years. This technique gave a successful outcome in the reconstruction of the ACL in a patient with EDS and therefore may help surgeons faced with the same clinical scenario. PMID:26221555

  12. Inflammatory pattern of the infrapatellar fat pad in dogs with canine cruciate ligament disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidli, Manuel R; Fuhrer, Bettina; Kurt, Nadine; Senn, David; Drögemüller, Michaela; Rytz, Ulrich; Spreng, David E; Forterre, Simone

    2018-05-16

    Despite the importance of inflammation during the pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) in dogs and despite the latest knowledge suggesting a significant role of adipose tissue in osteoarthritis, the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) was up to now mostly disregarded in veterinary investigations. In the present study, the inflammatory activity of the IFP, the main adipose structure within the stifle joint, was thoroughly investigated to evaluate its potential impact in the pathogenesis of this common disease of our canine companions. Samples of IFP, subcutaneous adipose tissue (ScAT) of the thigh and synovial fluid in both diseased (n = 36) and healthy control (n = 23) dogs were tested for their immune cell composition but also for interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), degradative enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, TIMP-2, iNOS) and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin). Characterization of the immune cell composition was ascertained by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Gene expression and protein release of the inflammatory markers was determined by real RT-qPCR and ELISA. IFPs of dogs with CCLD had a significantly increased immune cell count with T cells (CD3) as the most abundant immune cells. T cells and macrophages (CD14) were significantly increased compared to healthy controls or corresponding ScAT. In addition, IFPs of dogs with CCLD demonstrated a significant increase on gene as well as protein level of multiple inflammatory indicators (IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-1, MMP-13) compared to the other tissues. TNFα was only increased on gene expression. Adipokine analysis showed higher secretion of adiponectin and lower leptin secretion in IFP from dogs with CCLD than from controls. In the synovial fluid from dogs with CCLD concentrations of IL-1β, MMP-1, MMP-13 as well as leptin were significantly increased compared to the synovial fluid from healthy control dogs. The present study indicates that the IFP is a potential contributory factor in the

  13. Tiludronate treatment improves structural changes and symptoms of osteoarthritis in the canine anterior cruciate ligament model.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Maxim; Rialland, Pascale; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Boileau, Christielle; Caron, Judith; Frank, Diane; Lussier, Bertrand; del Castillo, Jerome R E; Beauchamp, Guy; Gauvin, Dominique; Bertaim, Thierry; Thibaud, Dominique; Troncy, Eric

    2011-06-21

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study was to evaluate the effects of tiludronate (TLN), a bisphosphonate, on structural, biochemical and molecular changes and function in an experimental dog model of osteoarthritis (OA). Baseline values were established the week preceding surgical transection of the right cranial/anterior cruciate ligament, with eight dogs serving as OA placebo controls and eight others receiving four TLN injections (2 mg/kg subcutaneously) at two-week intervals starting the day of surgery for eight weeks. At baseline, Week 4 and Week 8, the functional outcome was evaluated using kinetic gait analysis, telemetered locomotor actimetry and video-automated behaviour capture. Pain impairment was assessed using a composite numerical rating scale (NRS), a visual analog scale, and electrodermal activity (EDA). At necropsy (Week 8), macroscopic and histomorphological analyses of synovium, cartilage and subchondral bone of the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus were assessed. Immunohistochemistry of cartilage (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS5)) and subchondral bone (cathepsin K) was performed. Synovial fluid was analyzed for inflammatory (PGE(2) and nitrite/nitrate levels) biomarkers. Statistical analyses (mixed and generalized linear models) were performed with an α-threshold of 0.05. A better functional outcome was observed in TLN dogs than OA placebo controls. Hence, TLN dogs had lower gait disability (P = 0.04 at Week 8) and NRS score (P = 0.03, group effect), and demonstrated behaviours of painless condition with the video-capture (P < 0.04). Dogs treated with TLN demonstrated a trend toward improved actimetry and less pain according to EDA. Macroscopically, both groups had similar level of morphometric lesions, TLN-treated dogs having less joint effusion (P = 0.01), reduced synovial fluid levels of PGE(2) (P = 0

  14. Effect of posterior cruciate ligament rupture on the radial displacement of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Hu, Yihe; Li, Kanghua; Liao, Zhan

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between lateral meniscus tear and posterior cruciate ligament injury is not well understood. The present study aims to investigate and assess the effect of posterior cruciate ligament rupture on lateral meniscus radial displacement at different flexion angles under static loading conditions. Twelve fresh human cadaveric knee specimens were divided into four groups such as posterior cruciate ligament intact, anterolateral band rupture, posteromedial band rupture and posterior cruciate ligament complete rupture groups, according to the purpose and order of testing. Radial displacement of lateral meniscus was measured under different loads (200-1000N) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. Compared with posterior cruciate ligament intact group, the displacement values of lateral meniscus in anterolateral band rupture group increased at 0° flexion with 600N, 800N, and 1000N and at 30°, 60° and 90° flexion under all loading conditions. Posteromedial band rupture group exhibited higher displacement at 0° flexion under all loading conditions, at 30° and 60° flexion with 600, 800N and 1000N, and at 90° flexion with 400N, 600N, 800N, and 1000N than the posterior cruciate ligament intact group. The posterior cruciate ligament complete rupture group had a higher displacement value of lateral medial meniscus at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion under all loading conditions, as compared to the posterior cruciate ligament intact group. The study concludes that partial and complete rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament can trigger the increase of radial displacement on lateral meniscus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cranial Reconstruction Using Autologous Bone and Methylmethacrilate.

    PubMed

    Novaković, Nenad; Malivuković, Ana; Minić, Ljubodrag; Lepić, Milan; Mandić-Rajčević, Stefan; Rasulić, Lukas

    2017-06-01

    Having in mind the importance of reconstruction of the calvaria, our goal was to compare the complication rates following the use of autologous bone and methylmethacrilate grafts, and explain the factors influencing them. The authors collected information of all the patients undergoing cranial reconstructive surgery (N = 149) at the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade. Procedures were performed either using a craniotomy bone flap, removed and replaced in the same act, or using methylmethacrilate. These 2 groups were compared using the Chi-squared test, controlling for the confounding influence of the size of the defect. Intracranial neoplasms were the cause for the reconstruction in 71.1% of patients. The total complication rate was 7.4%, while the infection rate was 5.4%. The infection rate was significantly higher in those procedures done using methylmethacrilate (11.3% compared with 2.1%, P = 0.017), but when controlling for the confounding effect of the size of the defect treated, the difference in infection rate was significant only in large defects (13.9% compared with 2%, P = 0.031), while for small defects the difference was not statistically significant. Our study suggests that the material used for reconstruction of calvaria influences the infection rate only in large and complicated defects. Considering the importance of the reconstruction, further studies should explore and confirm the role of material type on the rate of complications.

  16. Cranial Pair 0: The Nervus Terminalis.

    PubMed

    PeñA-Melian, Angel; Cabello-de la Rosa, Juan Pablo; Gallardo-Alcañiz, Maria Jose; Vaamonde-Gamo, Julia; Relea-Calatayud, Fernanda; Gonzalez-Lopez, Lucia; Villanueva-Anguita, Patricia; Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2018-04-16

    Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults. Fibers originating in the nasal cavity passes into the cranium through the middle area of the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone. Intracranially, fibers joint the telencephalon at several sites including the olfactory trigone and the primordium of the hippocampus to reach preoptic and precommissural regions. The nervus terminalis shows ganglion cells, that sometimes form clusters, normally one or two located at the base of the crista galli, the so-called ganglion of the nervus terminalis. Its function is uncertain. It has been described that its fibers facilitates migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone cells to the hypothalamus thus participating in the development of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis, which alteration may provoke Kallmann's syndrome in humans. This review summarizes current knowledge on this structure, incorporating original illustrations of the nerve at different developmental stages, and focuses on its anatomical and clinical relevance. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Custom implant design for large cranial defects.

    PubMed

    Marreiros, Filipe M M; Heuzé, Y; Verius, M; Unterhofer, C; Freysinger, W; Recheis, W

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to introduce a computer-aided design (CAD) tool that enables the design of large skull defect (>100 [Formula: see text]) implants. Functional and aesthetically correct custom implants are extremely important for patients with large cranial defects. For these cases, preoperative fabrication of implants is recommended to avoid problems of donor site morbidity, sufficiency of donor material and quality. Finally, crafting the correct shape is a non-trivial task increasingly complicated by defect size. We present a CAD tool to design such implants for the neurocranium. A combination of geometric morphometrics and radial basis functions, namely thin-plate splines, allows semiautomatic implant generation. The method uses symmetry and the best fitting shape to estimate missing data directly within the radiologic volume data. In addition, this approach delivers correct implant fitting via a boundary fitting approach. This method generates a smooth implant surface, free of sharp edges that follows the main contours of the boundary, enabling accurate implant placement in the defect site intraoperatively. The present approach is evaluated and compared to existing methods. A mean error of 89.29 % (72.64-100 %) missing landmarks with an error less or equal to 1 mm was obtained. In conclusion, the results show that our CAD tool can generate patient-specific implants with high accuracy.

  18. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles.

  19. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  20. Cranial thickness changes in early childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-11-01

    The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.

  1. Embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula of the anterior cranial fossa through the middle meningeal artery with Onyx.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian-Ping; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Jia; Zhao, Zhen-Wei; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2014-02-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the anterior cranial fossa is usually treated by surgical disconnection or endovascular embolization via the ophthalmic artery. The middle meningeal artery is a rarely used approach. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of embolization of DAVF of the anterior cranial fossa with Onyx through the middle meningeal artery. A retrospective review of a prospective cerebral vascular disease database was performed. Patients with DAVF of the anterior cranial fossa managed with embolization through the middle meningeal artery with Onyx were selected. Information on demography, symptoms and signs, angiographic examinations, interventional treatments, angiographic and clinical results, and follow-up was collected and analyzed. Five patients were included in this study, four of whom had hemorrhage. All fistulas were fed by the bilateral ethmoidal arteries arising from the ophthalmic artery and by the anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery. The abnormal shunt unilaterally drained into the superior sagittal sinus with interposition of the cortical veins all five patients. All endovascular treatments were successful with evidence of an angiographic cure. No complications occurred, and all patients recovered uneventfully without neurologic deficits. There were nearly no symptoms among the patients during follow-up. Embolization of DAVF of the anterior cranial fossa via the middle meningeal artery with Onyx is safe, effective, and a good choice for management of DAVF. More cases are needed to verify these findings. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Healing Potential of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Remnant Stump.

    PubMed

    Trocan, Ilie; Ceausu, Raluca A; Jitariu, Andreea A; Haragus, Horia; Damian, Gratian; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the microstructural architecture and cellular differentiation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) stumps in different stages after injury, as this could augment graft biointegration. The histological appearance and immunoreaction for cluster of differentiation 34 antigen (CD34) of 54 biopsies from 27 remnants were compared to 10 biopsies from 5 normal cruciate ligaments. CD34 reaction in endothelial cells, fibroblasts and fibrocytes was consistently positive in small synovial vessels. Remnants also exhibited CD34(+) cells among collagen fibers. Blood vessel density varied between specimens. The mean vascular microdensity was 43 per ×200 field in remnants compared to 15.2 in controls. A total of 94.44% of remnant ACL samples had significant hyperplasia of stellate and fusiform stromal cells, CD34(+); 22.4% had developed capillary vessels inside the ligament; 33% exhibited ongoing angiogenesis. Significant differences exist between torn and intact ACL regarding microvascularization. The remnants contain stellate stromal cells and CD34(+) fibrocytes, and display angiogenesis both at synovia as well as in the ligament itself. These findings underline the potential contribution to neoligament healing when remnants are preserved. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. The common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in judo: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Koshida, S; Deguchi, T; Miyashita, K; Iwai, K; Urabe, Y

    2010-09-01

    Although high prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries (ACL) in judokas has been reported, there has been very little research concerning events preceding the injury. To determine the common situations and mechanisms of ACL injury in judo. A total of 43 cases of ACL injuries that had occurred during judo competition or practice were investigated, using questionnaires with interviews conducted by a single certified athletic trainer who has 20 years of judo experience to obtain information regarding the situation and mechanism in which the ACL injury occurred. The number of ACL injuries when the participant's grip style was different from the style of the opponent (ie, kenka-yotsu style) (28 cases) was significantly greater than when the participant's grip style was the same as that of the opponent (ie, ai-yotsu style) (15 cases; p<0.001). The number of ACL injuries was significantly higher when the participant was attacked by the opponent than when counterattacked or when attempting the attack (p<0.001). In addition, being attacked with osoto-gari was revealed as the leading cause of ACL injury incidence among the participants (16.8%). Grip style may be associated with ACL injury occurrence in judo. In addition, direct contact due to the opponent's attack may be a common mechanism for ACL injuries in judo.

  4. Mapping genetic variants for cranial vault shape in humans.

    PubMed

    Roosenboom, Jasmien; Lee, Myoung Keun; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Heike, Carrie L; Wehby, George L; Christensen, Kaare; Feingold, Eleanor; Marazita, Mary L; Maga, A Murat; Shaffer, John R; Weinberg, Seth M

    2018-01-01

    The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the genetic basis of normal vault shape in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on three vault measures (maximum cranial width [MCW], maximum cranial length [MCL], and cephalic index [CI]) in a sample of 4419 healthy individuals of European ancestry. All measures were adjusted by sex, age, and body size, then tested for association with genetic variants spanning the genome. GWAS results for the two cohorts were combined via meta-analysis. Significant associations were observed at two loci: 15p11.2 (lead SNP rs2924767, p = 2.107 × 10-8) for MCW and 17q11.2 (lead SNP rs72841279, p = 5.29 × 10-9) for MCL. Additionally, 32 suggestive loci (p < 5x10-6) were observed. Several candidate genes were located in these loci, such as NLK, MEF2A, SOX9 and SOX11. Genome-wide linkage analysis of cranial vault shape in mice (N = 433) was performed to follow-up the associated candidate loci identified in the human GWAS. Two loci, 17q11.2 (c11.loc44 in mice) and 17q25.1 (c11.loc74 in mice), associated with cranial vault size in humans, were also linked with cranial vault size in mice (LOD scores: 3.37 and 3.79 respectively). These results provide further insight into genetic pathways and mechanisms underlying normal variation in human craniofacial morphology.

  5. Mapping genetic variants for cranial vault shape in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoung Keun; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Heike, Carrie L.; Wehby, George L.; Christensen, Kaare; Feingold, Eleanor; Marazita, Mary L.; Weinberg, Seth M.

    2018-01-01

    The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the genetic basis of normal vault shape in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on three vault measures (maximum cranial width [MCW], maximum cranial length [MCL], and cephalic index [CI]) in a sample of 4419 healthy individuals of European ancestry. All measures were adjusted by sex, age, and body size, then tested for association with genetic variants spanning the genome. GWAS results for the two cohorts were combined via meta-analysis. Significant associations were observed at two loci: 15p11.2 (lead SNP rs2924767, p = 2.107 × 10−8) for MCW and 17q11.2 (lead SNP rs72841279, p = 5.29 × 10−9) for MCL. Additionally, 32 suggestive loci (p < 5x10-6) were observed. Several candidate genes were located in these loci, such as NLK, MEF2A, SOX9 and SOX11. Genome-wide linkage analysis of cranial vault shape in mice (N = 433) was performed to follow-up the associated candidate loci identified in the human GWAS. Two loci, 17q11.2 (c11.loc44 in mice) and 17q25.1 (c11.loc74 in mice), associated with cranial vault size in humans, were also linked with cranial vault size in mice (LOD scores: 3.37 and 3.79 respectively). These results provide further insight into genetic pathways and mechanisms underlying normal variation in human craniofacial morphology. PMID:29698431

  6. A review of hedgehog signaling in cranial bone development

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Angel; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; James, Aaron W.

    2013-01-01

    During craniofacial development, the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is essential for mesodermal tissue patterning and differentiation. The HH family consists of three protein ligands: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Desert Hedgehog (DHH), of which two are expressed in the craniofacial complex (IHH and SHH). Dysregulations in HH signaling are well documented to result in a wide range of craniofacial abnormalities, including holoprosencephaly (HPE), hypotelorism, and cleft lip/palate. Furthermore, mutations in HH effectors, co-receptors, and ciliary proteins result in skeletal and craniofacial deformities. Cranial suture morphogenesis is a delicate developmental process that requires control of cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation. This review focuses on both what is known and what remains unknown regarding HH signaling in cranial suture morphogenesis and intramembranous ossification. As demonstrated from murine studies, expression of both SHH and IHH is critical to the formation and fusion of the cranial sutures and calvarial ossification. SHH expression has been observed in the cranial suture mesenchyme and its precise function is not fully defined, although some postulate SHH to delay cranial suture fusion. IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. Unfortunately, neonatal lethality of IHH deficient mice precludes a detailed examination of their postnatal calvarial phenotype. In summary, a number of basic questions are yet to be answered regarding domains of expression, developmental role, and functional overlap of HH morphogens in the calvaria. Nevertheless, SHH and IHH ligands are integral to cranial suture development and regulation of calvarial ossification. When HH signaling goes awry, the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development. PMID:23565096

  7. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in the National Hockey League: Epidemiology and Performance Impact.

    PubMed

    Longstaffe, Robert; Leiter, Jeff; MacDonald, Peter

    2018-03-27

    To determine the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the National Hockey League (NHL) and to examine the effects of this injury on return-to-play status and performance. Case series; level of evidence, 4. This was a 2-phase study. Phase I used the NHL electronic injury surveillance system and Athlete Health Management System to collect data on ACL injuries and man games lost over 10 seasons (2006/2007-2015/2016). Data collected in phase I were received in deidentified form. Phase II examined the performance impact of an ACL injury. Players were identified through publically available sources, and performance-related statistics were analyzed. Data collected in phase II were not linked to data collected in phase I. A paired t test was used to determine any difference in the matching variables between controls and cases in the preinjury time period. A General linear model (mixed) was used to determine the performance impact. Phase I: 67 ACL injuries occurred over 10 seasons. The incidence for all players was 0.42/1000 player game hours (forward, 0.61; defenseman, 0.32, goalie, 0.08) and by game exposure was 0.2/1000 player game exposures (forward, 0.33; defenseman, 0.11; goalie, 0.07). Forwards had a greater incidence rate of ACL tears with both game hours and game exposures when compared with defensemen and goalies (P < 0.001, <0.001; P = 0.008, <0.001, respectively). Phase II: 70 ACL tears (60 players) were identified. Compared with controls, players who suffered an ACL tear demonstrated a decrease in goals/season (P < 0.04), goals/game (P < 0.015), points/season (0.007), and points/game (0.001). Number of games and seasons played after an ACL injury did not differ compared with controls (P = 0.068, 0.122, respectively). Anterior cruciate ligament injuries occur infrequently, as it relates to other hockey injuries. Despite a high return to play, the performance after an ACL injury demonstrated a decrease in points and goals per game and per

  8. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction.

  9. Replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament with a bone-ligament-bone anterior cruciate ligament allograft in dogs.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, P B; Rodrigo, J J; Stevenson, S; Clark, G; Sharkey, N

    1987-06-01

    Acute replacement of the canine anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) with a frozen, bone-ligament-bone anterior cruciate ligament preparation was studied using biochemical, immunologic, and biomechanical testing methods. Nine dogs were used for the study, six dogs received allografts and three received autografts. No tissue antigen matching was performed. All nine dogs were killed nine months after surgery. Necropsy examination revealed that the ACL was not present in three joints (one autograft, two allografts). The two autograft and four allograft ligaments available for mechanical testing sustained mean maximum loads that were 10% and 14%, respectively, of the mean maximum loads sustained by the contralateral ACL. Autoradiography indicated that cellular activity was more pronounced in the autograft specimens. Hydroxyproline uptake was 200% and 45% of normal in the autograft and allograft ligaments, respectively. Both autograft and allograft specimens were producing Type I collagen at the time of killing. Antidonor dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) antibody was detected in the synovial fluid taken at the time of killing from six of six dogs that received allografts and in zero of three dogs that received autografts.

  10. Neurological Imaging in Acquired Cranial Nerve Palsy: Ophthalmologists vs. Neurologists.

    PubMed

    Klein Hesselink, Tessa; Gutter, Mari; Polling, Jan Roelof

    2017-09-01

    Cranial nerve palsies often require neurological imaging by MRI. Guidelines on whether or not to utilize MRI have been absent or lack clarity. In daily practice, both neurologists and ophthalmologists treat patients with cranial nerve palsy and determine whether neuro-imaging is required. There appear to be differences in policy with respect to neuro-imaging. The question, which will be answered in this study, is the following: to what extent do differences in policy exist between ophthalmologists and neurologists regarding imaging by MRI of patients with acquired ocular cranial nerve palsy? PubMed database was searched for literature on acquired cranial nerve palsy and MRI scanning performed by ophthalmologists and neurologists. Case series published between 2000 and 2015 were included. The first author screened the literature on eligibility, profession of the authors, and conducted data abstraction. Ten case series were found eligible for analysis. A total of 889 cranial nerve palsies were described, 770 by ophthalmologists and 119 by neurologists. The age range of patients in all case series was 2 to 96 years of age. The oculomotor nerve was investigated in 162 patients, the trochlear nerve in 131 patients, and the abducens nerve in 486 patients. All neurologists (n=3) and 2 out of 7 investigated ophthalmologists recommended performing MRI scanning in every patient who presented with an ocular cranial nerve palsy, while 5 ophthalmologists (5/7) opted to triage patients for risk factors associated with cranial nerve palsies prior to ordering MRI imaging. When different groups of patients were viewed separately, it became apparent that almost all specialists agreed that every patient with a third nerve palsy and patients under 50 years of age should undergo MRI scanning. In patients with fourth nerve palsy, MRI scanning was not indicated. The neurologists in this study were more likely to perform MRI scanning in every patient presenting with ocular cranial nerve

  11. Younger patients are at increased risk for graft rupture and contralateral injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Webster, Kate E; Feller, Julian A; Leigh, Warren B; Richmond, Anneka K

    2014-03-01

    Graft rupture of the same knee or injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the contralateral knee is a devastating outcome after ACL reconstruction surgery. While a number of factors have been identified as potentially increasing the risk of subsequent ACL injury, the literature is far from definitive. To determine the rates of graft rupture and contralateral ACL injury in a large cohort and to investigate patient characteristics that may be associated with these. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A consecutive cohort of 750 patients who had undergone primary ACL reconstruction surgery with a minimum 3-year follow-up were questioned about the incidence of ACL graft rupture, contralateral ACL injury, family history of ACL injury, and current activity level. Patient databases provided details for age, sex, original injury mechanism, meniscus or articular surface injury, and graft diameter. Responses were received from 561 patients (75%) at a mean ± SD follow-up time of 4.8 ± 1.1 years. Anterior cruciate ligament graft ruptures occurred in 25 patients (4.5%), and contralateral ACL injuries occurred in 42 patients (7.5%). The highest incidence of further ACL injury occurred in patients younger than 20 years at the time of surgery. In this group, 29% sustained a subsequent ACL injury to either knee. The odds for sustaining an ACL graft rupture or contralateral injury increased 6- and 3-fold, respectively, for patients younger than 20 years. Returning to cutting/pivoting sports increased the odds of graft rupture by a factor of 3.9 and contralateral rupture by a factor of 5. A positive family history doubled the odds for both graft rupture and contralateral ACL injury. Patients younger than 20 years who undergo ACL reconstruction are at significantly increased risk for both graft rupture and contralateral ACL injury. Whether age per se is a risk factor or age represents a proxy for other factors remains to be determined.

  12. Infant Positioning, Baby Gear Use, and Cranial Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Zachry, Anne H; Nolan, Vikki G; Hand, Sarah B; Klemm, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify predictors of cranial asymmetry. We hypothesize that among infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry in the sampled region, there is an association between exposure to more time in baby gear and less awake time in prone and side-lying than in infants who do not present with this condition. Methods The study employed a cross sectional survey of caregivers of typically developing infants and infants diagnosed with cranial asymmetry. Results A mutivariable model reveals that caregivers of children who are diagnosed with cranial asymmetry report their children spending significantly less time in prone play than those children without a diagnosis of cranial asymmetry. Side-lying and time spent in baby gear did not attain statistical significance. Conclusions for Practice Occupational therapists, physical therapists, pediatricians, nurses and other health care professionals must provide parents with early education about the importance of varying positions and prone play in infancy and address fears and concerns that may serve as barriers to providing prone playtime.

  13. Calvarial reconstruction using high-density porous polyethylene cranial hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Mokal, Nitin J.; Desai, Mahinoor F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Cranial vault reconstruction can be performed with a variety of autologous or alloplastic materials. We describe our experience using high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE) cranial hemisphere for cosmetic and functional restoration of skull defects. The porous nature of the implant allows soft tissue ingrowth, which decreases the incidence of infection. Hence, it can be used in proximity to paranasal sinuses and where previous alloplastic cranioplasties have failed due to implant infection. Materials and Methods: We used the HDPE implant in seven patients over a three-year period for reconstruction of moderate to large cranial defects. Two patients had composite defects, which required additional soft tissue in the form of free flap and tissue expansion. Results: In our series, decompressive craniectomy following trauma was the commonest aetiology and all defects were located in the fronto-parieto-temporal region. The defect size was 10 cm on average in the largest diameter. All patients had good post-operative cranial contour and we encountered no infections, implant exposure or implant migration. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the biocompatibility and flexibility of the HDPE cranial hemisphere implant make it an excellent alternative to existing methods of calvarial reconstruction. PMID:22279274

  14. Augmentation of autologous hamstring graft during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the bone chip technique.

    PubMed

    Nha, Kyung Wook; Shetty, Gautam M; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Seuk; Chae, Dong Ju; Nam, Hyok Woo; Lee, Dae Hee

    2010-01-01

    The use of autologous quadrupled hamstring tendon graft is a well-known technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. In cases where the diameter of the graft is inadequate, the stability of graft fixation and subsequent bone to tendon healing may be compromised. We describe a new technique to augment the autologous double looped hamstring tendon graft during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using cancellous bone chips. This simple technique effectively enhances graft fixation and stability.

  15. Association of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Width With Anterior Knee Laxity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsin-Min; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

    2016-06-02

    Greater anterior knee laxity (AKL) has been identified as an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk factor. The structural factors that contribute to greater AKL are not fully understood but may include the ACL and bone geometry. To determine the relationship of ACL width and femoral notch angle to AKL. Cross-sectional study. Controlled laboratory. Twenty recreationally active females (age = 21.2 ± 3.1 years, height = 1.66.1 ± 7.3 cm, mass = 66.5 ± 12.0 kg). Anterior cruciate ligament width and femoral notch angle were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging of the knee and AKL was assessed. Anterior cruciate ligament width was measured as the width of a line that transected the ACL and was drawn perpendicular to the Blumensaat line. Femoral notch angle was formed by the intersection of the line parallel to the posterior cortex of the femur and the Blumensaat line. Anterior knee laxity was the anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur (mm) at 130 N of an applied force. Ten participants' magnetic resonance imaging data were assessed on 2 occasions to establish intratester reliability and precision. Using stepwise backward linear regression, we examined the extent to which ACL width, femoral notch angle, and weight were associated with AKL. Strong measurement consistency and precision (intraclass correlation coefficient [2,1] ± SEM) were established for ACL width (0.98 ± 0.3 mm) and femoral notch angle (0.97° ± 1.1°). The regression demonstrated that ACL width (5.9 ± 1.4 mm) was negatively associated with AKL (7.2 ± 2.0 mm; R(2) = 0.22, P = .04). Femoral notch angle and weight were not retained in the final model. A narrower ACL was associated with greater AKL. This finding may inform the development of ACL injury-prevention programs that include components designed to increase ACL size or strength (or both). Future authors should establish which other factors contribute to greater AKL in order to best inform injury-prevention efforts.

  16. The Biomechanics of Cranial Forces During Figure Skating Spinning Elements.

    PubMed

    Wang, David H; Kostyun, Regina O; Solomito, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Several facets of figure skating, such as the forces associated with jumping and landing, have been evaluated, but a comprehensive biomechanical understanding of the cranial forces associated with spinning has yet to be explored. The purpose of this case study was to quantify the cranial rotational acceleration forces generated during spinning elements. This case report was an observational, biomechanical analysis of a healthy, senior-level, female figure skating athlete who is part of an on-going study. A triaxial accelerometer recorded the gravitational forces (G) during seven different spinning elements. Our results found that the layback spin generated significant cranial force and these forces were greater than any of the other spin elements recorded. These forces led to physical findings of ruptured capillaries, dizziness, and headaches in our participant.

  17. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    PubMed

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  18. 3D Printed, Customized Cranial Implant for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogu, Venkata Phanindra; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Asit Kumar, Khanra

    2018-06-01

    The main objective of the present work is to model cranial implant and printed in FDM machine (printer model used: mojo). Actually this is peculiar case and the skull has been damaged in frontal, parietal and temporal regions and a small portion of frontal region damaged away from saggital plane, complexity is to fill this frontal region with proper curvature. The Patient CT-data (Number of slices was 381 and thickness of each slice is 0.488 mm) was processed in mimics14.1 software, mimics file was sent to 3-matic software and calculated thickness of skull at different sections where cranial implant is needed then corrected the edges of cranial implant to overcome CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leakage and proper fitting. Finally the implant average thickness is decided as 2.5 mm and printed in FDM machine with ABS plastic.

  19. A test for paedomorphism in domestic pig cranial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Joseph; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Dobney, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Domestic animals are often described as paedomorphic, meaning that they retain juvenile characteristics into adulthood. Through a three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of cranial morphology at three growth stages, we demonstrate that wild boar (n = 138) and domestic pigs (n = 106) (Sus scrofa) follow distinct ontogenetic trajectories. With the exception of the size ratio between facial and neurocranial regions, paedomorphism does not appear to be the primary pattern describing the observed differences between wild and domestic pig cranial morphologies. The cranial phenotype of domestic pigs instead involves developmental innovation during domestication. This result questions the long-standing assumption that domestic animal phenotypes are paedomorphic forms of their wild counterparts. PMID:28794276

  20. 3D Printed, Customized Cranial Implant for Surgical Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogu, Venkata Phanindra; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Asit Kumar, Khanra

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of the present work is to model cranial implant and printed in FDM machine (printer model used: mojo). Actually this is peculiar case and the skull has been damaged in frontal, parietal and temporal regions and a small portion of frontal region damaged away from saggital plane, complexity is to fill this frontal region with proper curvature. The Patient CT-data (Number of slices was 381 and thickness of each slice is 0.488 mm) was processed in mimics14.1 software, mimics file was sent to 3-matic software and calculated thickness of skull at different sections where cranial implant is needed then corrected the edges of cranial implant to overcome CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leakage and proper fitting. Finally the implant average thickness is decided as 2.5 mm and printed in FDM machine with ABS plastic.

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament injury profile in Italian Serie A1-A2 women's volleyball league.

    PubMed

    Devetag, Francesca; Mazzilli, Massimiliano; Benis, Roberto; LA Torre, Antonio; Bonato, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures with subsequent surgery reconstruction impact on the professional career of A1-A2 Italian women's volleyball league players. Using an observational study with a retrospective case-series design for ACL ruptures, 125 teams with 1488 players were monitored. Subjects had to report level, role, injury modality, lower limb injured, laterality, period of the season and age. A total of 34 ACL ruptures were reported. Thirty-three (97%) were non-contact and 1 (3%) with contact. Twenty-one (61.7%) occurred in landing from a jump attack, 3 (8.8%) in landing from wall jump, 1 (3%) with apparent contact and 9 (26.5%) in other landing conditions. The most injured knee was the left limb (22, 64.7%) respect to the right limb (12, 35.3%). Fourteen (41.2%) ruptures occurred in spikers, 10 (29.4%) in middle blockers, 6 (17.6%) in setters, 3 (8.8%) in liberos and 1 (3%) in opposite hitters. Nine (26.5%) occurred in pre-season period, 16 (47%) in the first round, 4 (11.8%) in the second round, and 5 (14.7%) during play-off. The average age of the first ACL rupture was 23±3 years. We observed that female volleyball players of A1-A2 Italian volleyball league occurred mostly in a left non-contact ACL rupture during a landing condition and the spikers were the players most at risk. Therefore, it is desirable that coaches teach players variations of landing in order to avoid possible chronic overloading of ACL.

  2. Cranial Nerve Palsy after Onyx Embolization as a Treatment for Cerebral Vascular Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Min; Whang, Kum; Cho, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Yeon; Oh, Ji Woong; Koo, Youn Moo; Hu, Chul; Pyen, Jinsoo

    2017-01-01

    The Onyx liquid embolic system is a relatively safe and commonly used treatment for vascular malformations, such as arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous malformations. However, studies on possible complications after Onyx embolization in patients with vascular malformations are limited, and the occurrence of cranial nerve palsy is occasionally reported. Here we report the progress of two different types of cranial nerve palsy that can occur after embolization. In both cases, Onyx embolization was performed to treat vascular malformations and ipsilateral oculomotor and facial nerve palsies were observed. Both patients were treated with steroids and exhibited symptom improvement after several months. The most common types of neuropathy that can occur after Onyx embolization are facial nerve palsy and trigeminal neuralgia. Although the mechanisms underlying these neuropathies are not clear, they may involve traction injuries sustained while extracting the microcatheter, mass effects resulting from thrombi and edema, or Onyx reflux into the vasa nervorum. In most cases, the neuropathy spontaneously resolves several months following the procedure. PMID:29159152

  3. [Cranial nerve damage after neuroaxial methods of anesthesia in puerperas].

    PubMed

    Floka, S E; Shifman, E M

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes cranial nerve damage, a rare complication of neuroaxial anesthesia in obstetric care. In the literature, there are summarized data on 17 cases of neurological deficit developing after subarachnoidal or epidural anesthesia in puerperas. The etiological and pathogenetic factors of the above complications may be suggested to be the high disposition of a local anesthetic, arterial hypotension due to neuroaxial anesthetics, the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid after pachymeningeal puncture (including after unintended puncture during epidural anesthesia), and ischemic injury after the blood packing performed to relieve postpuncture headache. Closer consideration of these risk factors seems to reduce the incidence of cranial nerve damage in puerperas.

  4. Characterization of a Composite Material to Mimic Human Cranial Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    by Wood [3, 4]. The study utilized specimens from the craniums of 30 subjects ranging from age 25 to 95 years with an average age of 54 years...rates ranging from 0.005 to 150 sec-1. The cortical cranial bone data from Wood serves as a basis for comparison to the surrogate material under...78.0±9.7 GPa compared to 72.0±13.8 GPa for the cranial bones as measured in the study by Wood [4]. While the mean strength value of the simulant is

  5. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (<1%), mild, and self-limiting, consisting mainly of skin irritation under the electrodes and headaches. Often used as a stand-alone therapy, because results are usually seen from the first treatment, cranial electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    There are close functional and anatomical relationships between cranial nerves V and VII in both their sensory and motor divisions. Sensation on the face is innervated by the trigeminal nerves (V) as are the muscles of mastication, but the muscles of facial expression are innervated mainly by the facial nerve (VII) as is the sensation of taste. This article briefly reviews the anatomy of these cranial nerves, disorders of these nerves that are of particular importance to psychiatry, and some considerations for differential diagnosis. PMID:20386632

  7. The concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, M; Muller, B; Murawski, C D; van Eck, C F; Fu, F H

    2014-05-01

    To describe the concept of individualized anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The PubMed/Medline database was searched using keywords pertaining to ACL reconstruction. Relevant articles were reviewed in order to summarize important concepts of individualized surgery in ACL reconstruction. Surgical experiences with case examples are also highlighted. Individualized ACL surgery allows for the customization of surgery to each individual patient. Accounting for graft selection and other characteristics such as anatomy, lifestyle and activity preferences may provide the patient with the best potential for a successful outcome. The surgeon should be comfortable with a variety of graft harvests and surgical techniques when practicing individualized surgery. Individualized anatomic ACL reconstruction is founded on the objective evaluation of functional anatomy and individual characteristics, thereby restoring the ACL as closely as possible to the native anatomy and function. The adoption and subsequent use of individualized surgery may facilitate improved clinical as well as objective outcomes, particularly in the long term. V.

  8. Biomimetic tissue-engineered anterior cruciate ligament replacement

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James A.; Sahota, Janmeet S.; Gorum, W. Jay; Carter, Janell; Doty, Stephen B.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2007-01-01

    There are >200,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures each year in the United States, and, due to the poor healing properties of the ACL, surgical reconstruction with autograft or allograft tissue is the current treatment of these injuries. To regenerate the ACL, the ideal matrix should be biodegradable, porous, and exhibit sufficient mechanical strength to allow formation of neoligament tissue. Researchers have developed ACL scaffolds with collagen fibers, silk, biodegradable polymers, and composites with limited success. Our group has developed a biomimetic ligament replacement by using 3D braiding technology. In this preliminary in vivo rabbit model study for ACL reconstruction, the histological and mechanical evaluation demonstrated excellent healing and regeneration with our cell-seeded, tissue-engineered ligament replacement. PMID:17360607

  9. Underappreciated Factors to Consider in Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Current Concepts Review

    PubMed Central

    Southam, Brendan R.; Colosimo, Angelo J.; Grawe, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions (ACLRs) are being performed with increasing frequency. While many of these will have successful outcomes, failures will occur in a subset of patients who will require revision ACLRs. As such, the number of revision procedures will continue to rise as well. While many reviews have focused on factors that commonly contribute to failure of primary ACLR, including graft choice, patient factors, early return to sport, and technical errors, this review focused on several factors that have received less attention in the literature. These include posterior tibial slope, varus malalignment, injury to the anterolateral ligament, and meniscal injury or deficiency. This review also appraised several emerging techniques that may be useful in the context of revision ACL surgery. While outcomes of revision ACLR are generally inferior to those of primary procedures, identifying these potentially underappreciated contributing factors preoperatively will allow the surgeon to address them at the time of revision, ideally improving patient outcomes and preventing recurrent ACL failure. PMID:29399591

  10. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in elite women's netball: a systematic video analysis.

    PubMed

    Stuelcken, Max C; Mellifont, Daniel B; Gorman, Adam D; Sayers, Mark G L

    2016-08-01

    This study involved a systematic video analysis of 16 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries sustained by elite-level netball players during televised games in order to describe the game situation, the movement patterns involved, the player's behaviour, and a potential injury mechanism. Eight of the ACL injuries were classified as "indirect contact" and eight as "non-contact". Two common scenarios were identified. In Scenario A the player was jumping to receive or intercept a pass and whilst competing for the ball experienced a perturbation in the air. As a result the player's landing was unbalanced with loading occurring predominantly on the knee of the injured side. In Scenario B the player was generally in a good position at ground contact, but then noticeably altered the alignment of the trunk before the landing was completed. This involved rotating and laterally flexing the trunk without altering the alignment of the feet. Apparent knee valgus collapse on the knee of the injured side was observed in 3/6 Scenario A cases and 5/6 Scenario B cases. Players may benefit from landing training programmes that incorporate tasks that use a ball and include decision-making components or require players to learn to cope with being unbalanced.

  11. Biological enhancement of graft-tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    SACCOMANNO, MARISTELLA F.; CAPASSO, LUIGI; FRESTA, LUCA; MILANO, GIUSEPPE

    2016-01-01

    The sites where graft healing occurs within the bone tunnel and where the intra-articular ligamentization process takes place are the two most important sites of biological incorporation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, since they help to determine the mechanical behavior of the femur-ACL graft-tibia complex. Graft-tunnel healing is a complex process influenced by several factors, such as type of graft, preservation of remnants, bone quality, tunnel length and placement, fixation techniques and mechanical stress. In recent years, numerous experimental and clinical studies have been carried out to evaluate potential strategies designed to enhance and optimize the biological environment of the graft-tunnel interface. Modulation of inflammation, tissue engineering and gene transfer techniques have been applied in order to obtain a direct-type fibrocartilaginous insertion of the ACL graft, similar to that of native ligament, and to accelerate the healing process of tendon grafts within the bone tunnel. Although animal studies have given encouraging results, clinical studies are lacking and their results do not really support the use of the various strategies in clinical practice. Further investigations are therefore needed to optimize delivery techniques, therapeutic concentrations, maintenance of therapeutic effects over time, and to reduce the risk of undesirable effects in clinical practice. PMID:27900311

  12. Growth Factors and Stem Cells for the Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Giacomo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Lamberti, Alfredo; Khan, Wasim Sardar; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is fundamental for the knee joint stability. ACL tears are frequent, especially during sport activities, occurring mainly in young and active patients. Nowadays, the gold standard for the management of ACL tears remains the surgical reconstruction with autografts or allografts. New strategies are being developed to resolve the problems of ligament grafting and promote a physiological healing process of ligamentous tissue without requiring surgical reconstruction. Moreover, these strategies can be applicable in association surgical reconstruction and may be useful to promote and accelerate the healing process. The use of growth factors and stem cells seems to offer a new and fascinating solution for the management of ACL tears. The injection of stem cell and/or growth factors in the site of ligamentous injury can potentially enhance the repair process of the physiological tissue. These procedures are still at their infancy, and more in vivo and in vitro studies are required to clarify the molecular pathways and effectiveness of growth factors and stem cells therapy for the management of ACL tears. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge in the field of growth factors and stem cells for the management of ACL tears. PMID:23248722

  13. Collagen-Platelet Composite Enhances Biomechanical and Histologic Healing of the Porcine Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shilpa M.; Mastrangelo, Ashley N.; Magarian, Elise M.; Fleming, Braden C.; Murray, Martha M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fails to heal after traumatic rupture. Furthermore, large-animal models have recently shown that 1-month functional ACL healing is augmented after suture repair when a bioactive scaffold is placed in the tear site. Hypothesis At the time of suture repair, placement of a bioactive scaffold in the ACL wound site would improve the structural properties of the tissue. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty-seven knees in immature pigs underwent ACL transection and suture repair. A collagen-platelet composite (CPC) was used to supplement the repair in 14 knees. Knees were harvested at 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months. Mechanical testing and histologic analysis were performed. Results The addition of a CPC to a suture repair resulted in improvements in yield load and linear stiffness of the repair tissue at 3 months, as well as a significant increase in cell density. A reduction in yield load and stiffness occurred at the 6-week time point in both groups, a phase when revascularization was noted. Conclusion The addition of a CPC to a suture repair enhanced the structural properties of the ACL, and the improvement was associated with increased cellularity within the healing ligament. Clinical Relevance The addition of a bioactive scaffold to the wound site improved the functional healing of the ACL after suture repair. The decreased repair strength during revascularization may indicate a need to protect the repair site through this period. PMID:19940313

  14. Current Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Ingole, Sachin; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is an accepted and established surgical technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and is now being practiced across the globe in increasing numbers. Although most patients get good to excellent results in the short-term after ACLR, its consequences in the long-term in prevention or acceleration of knee osteoarthritis (OA) are not yet well-defined. Still, there are many debatable issues related to ACLR, such as the appropriate timing of surgery, graft selection, fixation methods of the graft, operative techniques, rehabilitation after surgery, and healing augmentation techniques. Most surgeons prefer not to wait long after an ACL injury to do an ACLR, as delayed reconstruction is associated with secondary damages to the intra- and periarticular structures of the knee. Autografts are the preferred choice of graft in primary ACLR, and hamstring tendons are the most popular amongst surgeons. Single bundle ACLR is being practiced by the majority, but double bundle ACLR is getting popular due to its theoretical advantage of providing more anatomical reconstruction. A preferred construct is the interference fixation (Bio-screw) at the tibial site and the suspensory method of fixation at the femoral site. In a single bundle hamstring graft, a transportal approach for creating a femoral tunnel has recently become more popular than the trans-tibial technique. Various healing augmentation techniques, including the platelet rich plasma (PRP), have been tried after ACLR, but there is still no conclusive proof of their efficacy. Accelerated rehabilitation is seemingly more accepted immediately after ACLR. PMID:26697280

  15. Volume measurements on three-dimensional photogrammetry after extended strip versus total cranial remodeling for sagittal synostosis: A comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Jippes, Marielle; Carolina, Julius-Carl A; de Rooi, Johan; Dirven, Clemens M F; van Adrichem, Leon N A; Mathijssen, Irene M

    2016-10-01

    Surgery for sagittal synostosis aims at correction of skull shape and restoration of growth potential. Small cranial volume is associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Although many techniques have been described, information on postoperative volume related to early and late remodeling is lacking. Between 2004 and 2008, a total of 95 patients were collected who underwent either early extended strip craniectomy or late total cranial remodeling according to age of presentation. Volume was measured on three-dimensional (3D) photogrammetry. Volume measurements were related to cranial index (CI), head circumference (HCsd), and signs of raised ICP. In a small subset of patients, volume measurements on 3D photogrammetry were assessed for inter- and intrarater reliability and compared to 3D computed tomography (CT). Volume was increased in all patients before and after surgery compared to normative values. Postoperatively, late total cranial remodeling resulted in a slightly larger volume than early extended strip craniectomy. Volume measurements showed a good correlation with HCsd (0.67) and a poor relationship with CI (0.13). Headache occurred more frequently in patients with a lower cranial volume. Although papilledema and reoperation showed the same trend, the numbers were too small for statistical analysis. Reproducibility of volume measurements on 3D photogrammetry was high, as was the correlation with measurements on CT. Late total cranial remodeling results in a larger postoperative volume, as measured on 3D photogrammetry, than extended strip craniectomy. Clinical signs of raised ICP occur more frequently in patients with a smaller volume. To measure volume, 3D photogrammetry is a good alternative to CT. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. ONYX versus n-BCA for embolization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Rabinov, James David; Yoo, Albert J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Carter, Bob S; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Trufill n-BCA) versus ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (ONYX) for the embolization of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF). Fifty-three consecutive patients with cranial dural AVF were treated with liquid embolic agents from November, 2003 to November, 2008. These 53 patients had 56 lesions treated with arterial embolization. Patients embolized to completion underwent follow-up angiography at 3 months to assess for durable occlusion. Twenty-one lesions were treated with n-BCA. Seven patients treated with n-BCA had initial angiographic occlusion of their DAVF, which were durable at 3 months. Six patients had adjunctive treatment with coils and/or polyvinyl alcohol particles, but none of these were occluded by endovascular treatment alone. Eleven patients underwent post-embolization surgery for closure of their DAVF. There was one death related to intractable status epilepticus at presentation. One patient developed a major stroke from venous sinus thrombosis after embolization. Thirty-five lesions were treated with ONYX in 34 patients. Twenty-nine patients treated with ONYX had initial angiographic occlusion of their DAVF by embolization alone. One patient had recurrence at 3 months and was re-treated out of 27 total follow-ups. Four patients underwent post-embolization surgical obliteration of their lesions. No deaths or major strokes occurred in this cohort. Initial angiographic occlusion (p=0.0004) and durable angiographic occlusion (p=0.0018) rates for embolization of cranial DAVF show a statistically significant higher efficacy with ONYX compared with n-BCA. Patients embolized with ONYX underwent surgery less frequently compared with those treated with n-BCA (p=0.0015).

  17. Enhanced Lithium-Induced Brain Recovery Following Cranial Irradiation Is Not Impeded by Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Malaterre, Jordane; McPherson, Cameron S.; Denoyer, Delphine; Lai, Emily; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Lightowler, Sally; Shudo, Koishi; Ernst, Matthias; Ashley, David M.; Short, Jennifer L.; Wheeler, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced brain injury occurs in many patients receiving cranial radiation therapy, and these deleterious effects are most profound in younger patients. Impaired neurocognitive functions in both humans and rodents are associated with inflammation, demyelination, and neural stem cell dysfunction. Here we evaluated the utility of lithium and a synthetic retinoid receptor agonist in reducing damage in a model of brain-focused irradiation in juvenile mice. We found that lithium stimulated brain progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation following cranial irradiation while also preventing oligodendrocyte loss in the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice. In response to inflammation induced by radiation, which may have encumbered the optimal reparative action of lithium, we used the anti-inflammatory synthetic retinoid Am80 that is in clinical use in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Although Am80 reduced the number of cyclooxygenase-2-positive microglial cells following radiation treatment, it did not enhance lithium-induced neurogenesis recovery, and this alone was not significantly different from the effect of lithium on this proinflammatory response. Similarly, lithium was superior to Am80 in supporting the restoration of new doublecortin-positive neurons following irradiation. These data suggest that lithium is superior in its restorative effects to blocking inflammation alone, at least in the case of Am80. Because lithium has been in routine clinical practice for 60 years, these preclinical studies indicate that this drug might be beneficial in reducing post-therapy late effects in patients receiving cranial radiotherapy and that blocking inflammation in this context may not be as advantageous as previously suggested. PMID:23197851

  18. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Competitive Adolescent Alpine Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Westin, Maria; Harringe, Marita L.; Engström, Björn; Alricsson, Marie; Werner, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a high risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in alpine skiers. To reduce or try to prevent these injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors need to be identified. Purpose: To identify possible intrinsic and extrinsic ACL injury risk factors among competitive adolescent alpine skiers. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, a cohort of 339 alpine ski students (176 male, 163 female) from Swedish ski high schools were prospectively observed in terms of ACL injuries. First-time ACL injuries were recorded. In September, prior to each ski season, the skiers were clinically examined according to a specific knee protocol. Results: Overall, 11 male and 14 female skiers sustained a total of 25 first-episode ACL injuries. The majority of injuries occurred in the left knee (P < .05). Skiers who had participated in alpine skiing for >13 years (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68-1.00; P < .05) had a reduced risk of sustaining an ACL injury. Eighteen ACL injuries occurred during training, 12 in the technical discipline of giant slalom, and 8 in slalom. Fourteen skiers reported not to be fatigued at all at the time of injury, and 8 skiers reported that they were somewhat fatigued. Conclusion: ACL injuries occurred more often in the left knee than the right. This should be taken into consideration in the design of ACL injury prevention programs. Those who reported a higher number of active years in alpine skiing showed a reduced risk of sustaining an ACL injury. No other factor among those studied could be identified as an independent risk factor for ACL injury. PMID:29780835

  19. Hypertrophic Cranial Pachymeningitis and Skull Base Osteomyelitis by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, Ana Rita; Brandao, Mariana; Paula, Filipe Seguro; Castro, Elsa; Farinha, Fatima; Marinho, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by localized or diffuse thickening of the dura mater, and it usually presents with multiple cranial neurophaties. It has been associated with a variety of inflammatory, infectious, traumatic, toxic and neoplasic diseases, when no specific cause is found the process is called idiopathic. The infectious cases occur in patients under systemic immunosuppression, which have an evident contiguous source or those who have undergone neurosurgical procedures. We describe a case of a 62-year-old immunosuppressed woman with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, which had HCP and osteomyelitis of the skull base caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa, presenting with headache and diplopia. We believe this is the second documented case of pachymeningitis secondary to this microorganism. As a multifactorial disease, it is essencial to determine the specific causative agent of HCP before making treatment decisions, and great care is needed with immunocompromised patients. Keywords Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Hypertrophic pachymeningitis; Ophtalmoplegia, optical neuropathy; Osteomyelitis; Skull base PMID:22505989

  20. Is the posterior cruciate ligament destabilized after the tibial cut in a cruciate retaining total knee replacement? An anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Liabaud, Barthelemy; Patrick, David A; Geller, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Cruciate retaining total knee replacement has been shown to effectively improve pain and quality of life. Successful outcomes depend on many factors, including the maintenance of a competent posterior cruciate ligament. This study sought to anatomically analyze the percentage of PCL injured during a full transverse, tibial cut, thus altering normal function. One hundred and thirty five consecutive knee MRIs taken from 2006 to 2011 were selected from a single surgeon's database for this study. Only subjects with non-arthritic knees were considered for this study; the lack of degenerative joint disease (DJD) was confirmed via a radiological report. The optimal view of the PCL's tibial attachment was observed using the sagittal view of the knee, with a T1 signal. One hundred and twenty two usable images were viewed electronically, and measurements were made using the standardized transverse cut implant guidelines. The percentage of PCL remaining following the cut was categorized into five different groups: 0% (no PCL undermined), 1-49%, 50-74%, 75-99% and 100% (PCL undermined entirely). Overall only 9.0% (n=11) would have not endured any damage to the PCL with a transverse tibial saw cut, while 79.6% (n=98) would have had 50% or more of the PCL undermined. Of the 98 patients with more than 50% resected, 52.1% (n=51 patients) presented complete destabilization of the PCL. The percentage of PCL destabilized was not significant across age groups (p=0.280), gender (p=0.586), or operative side (p=0.460). Independent of age, gender, and operative side, a majority of PCLs are more than 50% destabilized following the standard transverse tibial cut. II. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and Functional Organization of the Cranial Nerves in Lampreys.

    PubMed

    Pombal, Manuel A; Megías, Manuel

    2018-04-16

    Lampreys, together with hagfishes, are the only extant representatives of the oldest branch of vertebrates, the agnathans, which are the sister group of gnathostomes; therefore, studies on these animals are of great evolutionary significance. Lampreys exhibit a particular life cycle with remarkable changes in their behavior, concomitant, in part, with important modifications in the head and its musculature, which might influence the development of the cranial nerves. In this context, some cranial nerves such as the optic nerve and the ocular motor nerves, which develop slowly during an extremely long larval period lasting more than five years, have been more thoroughly investigated; however, much less experimental information is available about others, such as the facial or the hypoglossal nerves. In addition, the possible existence of a "true" accessory nerve in these animals is still a matter of conjecture. Although growing in last decades, investigations on the physiology of the lamprey cranial nerves is scanty. This review focuses on past and recent findings that have contributed to characterize the anatomical organization of the cranial nerves in lampreys, including their components and nuclei, and their relations in the brain; in addition, comments on their development and functional role are also included. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life. PMID:28405385

  3. Developmental Regulation of the Growth Plate and Cranial Synchondrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, X.; Hu, M.; Mishina, Y.; Liu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Long bones and the cranial base are both formed through endochondral ossification. Elongation of long bones is primarily through the growth plate, which is a cartilaginous structure at the end of long bones made up of chondrocytes. Growth plate chondrocytes are organized in columns along the longitudinal axis of bone growth. The cranial base is the growth center of the neurocranium. Synchondroses, consisting of mirror-image growth plates, are critical for cranial base elongation and development. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in determining the roles of the parathyroid hormone–related protein, Indian hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and Wnt signaling pathways in various aspects of skeletal development. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates the important role of the primary cilia signaling pathway in bone elongation. Here, we review the development of the growth plate and cranial synchondrosis and the regulation by the above-mentioned signaling pathways, highlighting the similarities and differences between these 2 structures. PMID:27250655

  4. Evolution of cranial telescoping in echolocating whales (Cetacea: Odontoceti).

    PubMed

    Churchill, Morgan; Geisler, Jonathan H; Beatty, Brian L; Goswami, Anjali

    2018-05-01

    Odontocete (echolocating whale) skulls exhibit extreme posterior displacement and overlapping of facial bones, here referred to as retrograde cranial telescoping. To examine retrograde cranial telescoping across 40 million years of whale evolution, we collected 3D scans of whale skulls spanning odontocete evolution. We used a sliding semilandmark morphometric approach with Procrustes superimposition and PCA to capture and describe the morphological variation present in the facial region, followed by Ancestral Character State Reconstruction (ACSR) and evolutionary model fitting on significant components to determine how retrograde cranial telescoping evolved. The first PC score explains the majority of variation associated with telescoping and reflects the posterior migration of the external nares and premaxilla alongside expansion of the maxilla and frontal. The earliest diverging fossil odontocetes were found to exhibit a lesser degree of cranial telescoping than later diverging but contemporary whale taxa. Major shifts in PC scores and centroid size are identified at the base of Odontoceti, and early burst and punctuated equilibrium models best fit the evolution of retrograde telescoping. This indicates that the Oligocene was a period of unusually high diversity and evolution in whale skull morphology, with little subsequent evolution in telescoping. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  6. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Haley D

    2017-03-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)-a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca ( Vicugna pacos ), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life.

  7. Dexamethasone minimizes the risk of cranial nerve injury during CEA.

    PubMed

    Regina, Guido; Angiletta, Domenico; Impedovo, Giovanni; De Robertis, Giovanni; Fiorella, Marialuisa; Carratu', Maria Rosaria

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injury during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) ranges from less than 7.6% to more than 50%. Lesions are mainly due to surgical maneuvers such as traction, compression, tissue electrocoagulation, clamping, and extensive dissections. The use of dexamethasone (DEX) and its beneficial effects in spinal cord injuries have already been described. We investigated whether DEX could also be beneficial to minimize the incidence of cranial and cervical nerve injury during CEA. To evaluate whether dexamethasone is able to reduce the incidence of cranial nerve injuries. From March 1999 through April 2006, 1126 patients undergoing CEA because of high-grade carotid stenosis were enrolled and randomized by predetermined randomization tables into two groups. The first group, "A", included 586 patients that all received an intravenous administration of dexamethasone following a therapeutic scheme. The second group, "B", included 540 control subjects that received the standard pre- and postoperative therapy. All patients were submitted to a deep cervical plexus block, eversion carotid endarterectomy, and selective shunting. Three days after the operation, an independent neurologist and otorhinolaryngologist evaluated the presence of cranial nerve deficits. All patients (group A and group B) showing nerve injuries continued the treatment (8 mg of dexamethasone once in the morning) for 7 days and were re-evaluated after 2 weeks, 30 days, and every 3 months for 1 year. Recovery time took from 2 weeks to 12 months, with a mean time of 3.6 months. The chi(2) test was used to compare the two groups and to check for statistical significance. The incidence of cranial nerve dysfunction was higher in group B and the statistical analysis showed a significant effect of dexamethasone in preventing the neurological damage (P = .0081). The incidence of temporary lesions was lower in group A and the chi(2) test yielded a P value of .006. No statistically

  8. The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001). Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and ‘cheek’ tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with the South American

  9. Cranial pole nephrectomy in the pig model: anatomic analysis of arterial injuries in tridimensional endocasts.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Henry, Robert W; Favorito, Luciano A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2012-06-01

    To assess the intrarenal arteries injuries after cranial pole nephrectomy in a pig model to compare these findings with those in humans. Polyester resin was injected through the ureter and the renal artery to make three-dimensional casts of 61 pig kidneys. The cranial pole of the kidneys was sectioned at four different sites before the solidification of the resin, and the casts were examined for arterial damage. Section performed through the hilus (15 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in two (13.33%) cases, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (86.7%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 11 (73.34%) cases. Section at 0.5 cm cranial to the hilus (16 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 1 (6.25%) case, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 14 (87.5%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (81.25%) cases. Section at 1.0 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): The ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in five (33.33%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was injured in five (33.33%) cases. Section at 1.5 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): No lesions were found in the main arteries, only in the interlobular branches. As previously demonstrated in humans, sections at 1.0 cm or more cranially to the hilus in pigs also showed a significant decrease in damage to the major intrarenal arteries. Therefore, as regards arterial damage, the pig kidney is a useful model for partial nephrectomy in the cranial (upper) pole.

  10. [Maxillary swing approach in the management of tumors in the central and lateral cranial base].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hua; Hua, Qing-quan; Wu, Zhan-yuan

    2006-04-01

    A retrospective review of seventeen patients who were operated through the maxillary swing approach was carried out to assess the efficacy of this approach in the management of tumors of the central and lateral cranial base. From May 2000 to January 2005, 17 patients with primary or recurrent neoplasms involving the central cranial or lateral base underwent surgical resection via maxillary swing approach. Ten patients were male, and other seven patients were female, and age range was 7 to 58 years, with a mean age of 42. 6 years. Eight patients had tumors originally involving lateral cranial base, and nine patients had tumors originated from central cranial base. The pathology spectrum was very wide. Among them, five suffered from chordoma, two had rhabdomyosarcoma, two had squamous cell carcinoma, one had malignant fibrous histiocytoma, one had malignant melanoma, one had esthesioneuroblastoma, one had invaded hypophysoma, two had schwannoma, one had pleomorphic adenoma, and one had angiofibroma. Three patients had received previous surgery, two patients had previous radiation therapy and nine patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Sixteen of all seventeen patients had oncologically complete resection, one had near-total resection. This group patients was followed up from 10 to 60 months, with a median follow-up time of 28 months. Two patients died 14 and 26 months after surgery respectively, as a result of local recurrence and metastasis. One patient defaulted follow-up at 12 months after operation, and the other 14 patients were alive at the time of analysis. Of the 12 malignant tumors, the 1-and 2-year survival rate were 91.67% and 72.92%, respectively. The facial wounds of all patients healed primarily, and there were no necrosis of the maxilla, damage of the temporal branch of the facial nerve, lower-lid ectropion, and facial deformity. Epiphora and facial hypoesthesia were detected in all patients. Four patients (23.5%) developed palatal fistula, ten

  11. Cranial suture complexity in caviomorph rodents (Rodentia; Ctenohystrica).

    PubMed

    Buezas, Guido; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo

    2017-08-01

    Due to their flexibility, sutures are regions that experience greater strains than the surrounding rigid cranial bones. Cranial sutures differ in their degree of interdigitation or complexity. There is evidence indicating that a more convoluted suture better enables the absorption of high stresses coming from dynamic masticatory forces, and other functions. The Order Rodentia is an interesting clade to study this because of its taxa with diverse chewing modes. Due to repeated loading resulting from gnawing and grinding, energy absorption by the sutures might be a crucial factor in these mammals. Species within the infraorder Caviomorpha were chosen as a case study because of their ecomorphological and dietary diversity. This study compared five sutures from the rostrum and cranial vault across seven caviomorph families, and assessed their complexity by means of the relative length and fractal dimension. Across these rodents, cranial sutures are morphologically quite diverse. We found that the sutures connecting the rostrum with the vault were relatively more interdigitated than those in the cranial vault itself, especially premaxillofrontal sutures. Suture interdigitation was higher in species that display chisel-tooth digging and burrowing behaviors, especially in the families Ctenomyidae and Octodontidae, than those in families Dasyproctidae and Cuniculidae, which have more gracile masticatory systems. The reconstruction of the ancestral character state, on family and species phylogeny, points toward low suture interdigitation (i.e., low length ratio) as a likely ancestral state for interfrontal, premaxillofrontal and maxillofrontal sutures. Interspecific differences in suture morphology shown here might represent adaptations to different mechanical demands (i.e., soft vs. tough foods) or behaviors (e.g., chisel-tooth digging), which evolved in close association with the diverse environments occupied by caviomorph rodents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament in an uncommon location associated with distal injury to the patellar ligament☆

    PubMed Central

    e Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; da Palma, Idemar Monteiro; Cobra, Hugo; de Paula Mozella, Alan; Vaques, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament in unusual locations are rare injuries. We report the first case in the literature of an avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament associated with distal injury to the patellar ligament. The aim of this study was to present a novel case, the therapy used and the clinical follow-up. PMID:27218089

  15. [Management of arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa accompanied by subdural effusions].

    PubMed

    Abderrahmen, K; Saadaoui, K; Bouhoula, A; Boubaker, A; Jemel, H

    2012-10-01

    Subdural effusions are uncommon but known complications of arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa. They mainly occur after minor head traumas in young patients. Here, we report eight cases of arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa associated with subdural hematoma in five cases and hygroma in three cases. Major symptoms are signs of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan and MRI showed the cyst and the subdural effusion. An excellent therapeutic result was achieved with evacuation of the subdural fluid via burr holes in the five cases of subdural hematoma while in the two cases of hygroma a subduro-peritoneal shunt was necessary. In the last case, a temporal craniotomy was performed with evacuation of the hygroma and fenestration of the cyst. We suggest treating only the complicating event in the case of a subdural hematoma via burr holes evacuation. Whereas, in the case of hygroma we think that craniotomy with fenestration of the cyst or the use of a subdural shunt are more often needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Unilateral severe chronic periodontitis associated with ipsilateral surgical resection of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII.

    PubMed

    Zavarella, Matthew M; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Claman, Lewis J; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2006-01-01

    The central and peripheral nervous systems participate in several local physiological and pathological processes. There is experimental evidence that the inflammatory, local immune, and wound healing responses of a tissue can be modulated by its innervation. The aim of this clinical report is to present a case of unilateral severe periodontitis associated with ipsilateral surgical resection of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves and to discuss the possible contribution of the nervous system to periodontal pathogenesis. A 39-year-old female patient with a history of a cerebrovascular accident caused by a right pontine arteriovenous malformation and destruction of the right fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves was diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis affecting only the right maxillary and mandibular quadrants. The patient's oral hygiene was similar for right and left sides of the mouth. Percentages of tooth surfaces carrying dental plaque were 41% and 36% for right and left sides, respectively. Non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy was performed, and the patient was placed on a regular periodontal maintenance schedule. Healing following initial periodontal therapy and osseous periodontal surgery occurred without complications. Follow-up clinical findings at 1 year revealed stable periodontal health. This case report suggests that periodontal innervation may contribute to the regulation of local processes involved in periodontitis pathogenesis. It also suggests that periodontal therapy can be performed successfully at sites and in patients affected by paralysis.

  17. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. Data Sources PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Main Results Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Conclusions Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors. PMID:27171282

  18. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  19. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  20. A review of ultrasonographic methods for the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament in patients with knee instability – diagnostics using a posterior approach

    PubMed Central

    Kielar, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of the study was to improve the ultrasonographic assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament by an inclusion of a dynamic element. The proposed functional modification aims to restore normal posterior cruciate ligament tension, which is associated with a visible change in the ligament shape. This method reduces the risk of an error resulting from subjectively assessing the shape of the posterior cruciate ligament. It should be also emphasized that the method combined with other ultrasound anterior cruciate ligament assessment techniques helps increase diagnostic accuracy. Methods Ultrasonography is used as an adjunctive technique in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The paper presents a sonographic technique for the assessment of suspected anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency supplemented by the use of a dynamic examination. This technique can be recommended as an additional procedure in routine ultrasound diagnostics of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Results Supplementing routine ultrasonography with the dynamic assessment of posterior cruciate ligament shape changes in patients with suspected anterior cruciate ligament injury reduces the risk of subjective errors and increases diagnostic accuracy. This is important especially in cases of minor anterior knee instability and bilateral anterior knee instability. Conclusions An assessment of changes in posterior cruciate ligament using a dynamic ultrasound examination effectively complements routine sonographic diagnostic techniques for anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency. PMID:27679732

  1. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  2. Basic science of anterior cruciate ligament injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, A. M.; Murray, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most devastating and frequent injuries of the knee. Surgical reconstruction is the current standard of care for treatment of ACL injuries in active patients. The widespread adoption of ACL reconstruction over primary repair was based on early perception of the limited healing capacity of the ACL. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction surgeries successfully restore gross joint stability, post-traumatic osteoarthritis is commonplace following these injuries, even with ACL reconstruction. The development of new techniques to limit the long-term clinical sequelae associated with ACL reconstruction has been the main focus of research over the past decades. The improved knowledge of healing, along with recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, has resulted in the discovery of novel biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques that have satisfactory outcomes in preclinical studies. This instructional review provides a summary of the latest advances made in ACL repair. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:20–31. PMID:24497504

  3. Factors informing fear of reinjury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, Cheryl A; Clifford, Amanda; Louw, Quinette A

    2017-02-01

    Fear of reinjury is associated with cessation of sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction despite normal postoperative knee function. The objective of this study is to describe factors informing athletes' experience of fear of reinjury post ACL reconstruction, in athletes who cited fear as the sole reason for not returning to their pre-injury level of sport. Mixed-methods study design of qualitative and a preliminary quantitative component. A conveniently selected private hospital. Ten male and two female athletes, aged between 19 and 45 years, were eligible for the interview from 68 male and 32 female potential participants (age range 17-50) who underwent an ACL reconstruction using any graft type, excluding revision or multi-ligament surgery. To explore factors informing fear of reinjury in participants citing fear of reinjury as the sole reason for not returning to sport, albeit normal knee function. From the participant interview, four themes emerged: undergoing the surgery and recovery again, nature of the pre-injury sport imposing risk of reinjury, personality traits, and social priorities. Clinicians should be aware of factors informing fear of reinjury post ACL reconstruction. Modifiable fears including pain, mode and length of rehabilitation and psychological factors should be considered during rehabilitation to potentially improve the return to sport rate.

  4. The ESSKA paediatric anterior cruciate ligament monitoring initiative.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Håvard; Engebretsen, Lars; Seil, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To survey and describe the treatment of paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries performed by orthopaedic surgeons affiliated with the European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy (ESSKA). A closed e-survey was submitted to all registered members and affiliates of ESSKA in July 2013. All recipients were invited to participate in the survey by answering 34 questions online. The list of potential respondents was extracted from the ESSKA office database. Invitation was sent to 2236 ESSKA members and affiliates, and received 491 (22%) unique responses. Among the respondents, 445 (91%) were orthopaedic surgeons, with 354 (72%) stating that they were involved in treatment of paediatric ACL injuries. The main findings were that there are substantial differences with regard to preferred treatment algorithms, surgical techniques and long-term follow-up procedures. The summed estimate of skeletally immature children with ACL injury seen by the responders in 2012 was minimum 1923 individuals, and a minimum of 102 clinically relevant post-operative growth disturbances were registered. The present survey documents that the incidences of paediatric ACL injuries and idiopathic growth disturbances may be higher than previously estimated. Treatment algorithms and surgical techniques are highly diverse, and consensus could not be identified. It is worrying that only half the surgeons reported to follow-up children until skeletal maturity after surgical treatment. The results of this survey highlight the importance of international multicentre studies on paediatric ACL treatment and the development of an outcome registry to enable prospective data collections. IV.

  5. Hamstring autograft size importance in anterior cruciate ligament repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2018-01-01

    Graft size in hamstring autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is an important factor directly related to failure. Most of the evidence in the field suggests that the size of the graft in hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction matters when the surgeon is trying to avoid failures. The exact graft diameter needed to avoid failures is not absolutely clear and could depend on other factors, but newer studies suggest than even increases of 0.5 mm up to a graft size of 10 mm are beneficial for the patient. There is still no evidence to recommend the use of grafts > 10 mm. Several methods – e.g. folding the graft in more strands – that are simple and reproducible have been published lately to address the problem of having an insufficient graft size when performing an ACL reconstruction. Due to the evidence presented, we think it is necessary for the surgeon to have them in his or her arsenal before performing an ACL reconstruction. There are obviously other factors that should be considered, especially age. Therefore, a larger graft size should not be taken as the only goal in ACL reconstruction. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:93-97. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170038 PMID:29657850

  6. Hamstring autograft size importance in anterior cruciate ligament repair surgery.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2018-03-01

    Graft size in hamstring autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is an important factor directly related to failure. Most of the evidence in the field suggests that the size of the graft in hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction matters when the surgeon is trying to avoid failures.The exact graft diameter needed to avoid failures is not absolutely clear and could depend on other factors, but newer studies suggest than even increases of 0.5 mm up to a graft size of 10 mm are beneficial for the patient. There is still no evidence to recommend the use of grafts > 10 mm.Several methods - e.g. folding the graft in more strands - that are simple and reproducible have been published lately to address the problem of having an insufficient graft size when performing an ACL reconstruction. Due to the evidence presented, we think it is necessary for the surgeon to have them in his or her arsenal before performing an ACL reconstruction.There are obviously other factors that should be considered, especially age. Therefore, a larger graft size should not be taken as the only goal in ACL reconstruction. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:93-97. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170038.

  7. Dynamic knee joint mechanics after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sarah B; Kenny, Ian C; Harrison, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of information on the long-term adaptations in lower limb biomechanics during game-specific movements after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Particularly, variables such as knee abduction moments and transverse plane knee motion have not been studied during a game-specific landing and cutting task after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare the hip and knee mechanics between the ACL-reconstructed (ACLr) group and a healthy control group. Thirty-eight reconstructed athletes (18 ACLr, 18 control) participated in the study. Three-dimensional hip, knee, and ankle angles were calculated during a maximal drop jump land from a 0.30-m box and unanticipated cutting task at 45°. During the landing phase, ACLr participants had increased hip flexion (P < 0.003) and transverse plane knee range of motion (P = 0.027). During the cutting phase, the ACLr participant's previously injured limb had increased internal knee abduction moment compared with that of the control group (P = 0.032). No significant differences were reported between the previously injured and contralateral uninjured limb. Previously injured participants demonstrated higher knee abduction moment and transverse plane range of motion when compared with those of control participants during a game-specific landing and cutting task.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the posterior cruciate ligament in flexion.

    PubMed

    Craddock, William; Smithers, Troy; Harris, Craig; du Moulin, William; Molnar, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries of the knee are common and sometimes difficult to diagnose. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed using standard orthogonal plane views, is the investigation of choice. It can be particularly difficult to differentiate acute partial and complete tears and identify elongation of chronic healed tears. The aim of the paper is to describe a new method of positioning the patient with the knee flexed at 90°, allowing the PCL to be visualised in a position of greatest length and tension which may assist in differentiating and identifying these injuries. Four symptomatic patients with suspected PCL injuries, two acute and two chronic, were MRI scanned using a routine protocol with the knee in extension before performing oblique sagittal fast spin-echo (FSE) proton-density (PD) sequences with the knee positioned in 90° of flexion. The appearance of the PCLs were then qualitatively assessed. MRI scanning with the knee in flexion identified more extensive PCL injury than standard imaging. In the two patients with acute injuries, partial tears on the standard orthogonal plane views were found to be complete ruptures. In the two patients with chronic injuries, elongation of the PCL not identifiable on the standard orthogonal plane views was apparent. MRI scanning of the PCL with the knee flexed at 90° may help in differentiating partial and complete ruptures of the PCL and identifying elongation of the PCL in chronic injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physiotherapists' experiences of the management of anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    von Aesch, Arlene V; Perry, Meredith; Sole, Gisela

    2016-05-01

    While extensive research has been reported for management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, variation in treatment by physiotherapists is evident. To explore physiotherapists' experiences regarding ACL injury rehabilitation and factors that influenced physiotherapists' decision making for ACL rehabilitation, and to elicit what research physiotherapists perceived would support their management of these patients. Qualitative study. Fifteen physiotherapists from six private clinics in New Zealand participated in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and the general inductive approach was used to develop key themes. Participant's management strengths were evident by their intent and commitment to provide expert rehabilitation, using a biopsychosocial approach and evidence-informed practice. The lengthy management process (including prolonged rehabilitation and referral processes) and interprofessional disconnect concerned participants. Translational research was needed for clear directions for exercise prescription and milestones for return to sports and occupation following ACL injury. Participants provided a biopsychosocial and evidence-based approach to ACL injury management. Potential areas of improvement include simplifying the referral process and enhancing communication between physiotherapists and other health professionals. Future research should focus on clarifying areas of ACL rehabilitation uncertainty, or collating results in an accessible and usable format for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Video Analysis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Victor R.; Sheehan, Frances T.; Boden, Barry P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the most viable method for investigating in vivo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, video analysis is critical for understanding ACL injury mechanisms and advancing preventative training programs. Despite the limited number of published studies involving video analysis, much has been gained through evaluating actual injury scenarios. Methods: Studies meeting criteria for this systematic review were collected by performing a broad search of the ACL literature with use of variations and combinations of video recordings and ACL injuries. Both descriptive and analytical studies were included. Results: Descriptive studies have identified specific conditions that increase the likelihood of an ACL injury. These conditions include close proximity to opposing players or other perturbations, high shoe-surface friction, and landing on the heel or the flat portion of the foot. Analytical studies have identified high-risk joint angles on landing, such as a combination of decreased ankle plantar flexion, decreased knee flexion, and increased hip flexion. Conclusions: The high-risk landing position appears to influence the likelihood of ACL injury to a much greater extent than inherent risk factors. As such, on the basis of the results of video analysis, preventative training should be applied broadly. Kinematic data from video analysis have provided insights into the dominant forces that are responsible for the injury (i.e., axial compression with potential contributions from quadriceps contraction and valgus loading). With the advances in video technology currently underway, video analysis will likely lead to enhanced understanding of non-contact ACL injury. PMID:27922985

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture: differences between males and females.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Karen M; Bullock, James Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    The rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is three times higher in female athletes than in male athletes. Intrinsic factors such as increased quadriceps angle and increased posterior tibial slope may predispose girls and women to ACL injury. Compared with males, females have smaller notch widths and smaller ACL cross-sectional area; however, no conclusive correlation between ACL size and notch dimension exists, especially in relation to risk of ACL injury. Female athletes who land with the knees in inadequate flexion and in greater-than-normal valgus and external rotation are at increased risk of ACL injury. No conclusive link has been made between ACL injury and the menstrual cycle. Neuromuscular intervention protocols have been shown to reduce the rate of injury in girls and women. Females are more likely than males to have a narrow A-shaped intercondylar notch, and special surgical considerations are required in such cases. Following ACL reconstruction, female athletes are more likely than male athletes to rupture the contralateral ACL; however, males and females are equally likely to rupture the reconstructed knee. Although self-reported outcomes in the first 2 years following reconstruction are worse for females than for males, longer-term studies demonstrate no difference between males and females.

  12. Sport-specific outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Warner, Stephen J; Smith, Matthew V; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J; Brophy, Robert H

    2011-08-01

    Although anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been studied extensively in the literature, sport-specific outcomes have not been well-documented. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess sport-specific outcomes after ACL reconstruction in the literature. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify studies reporting sport-specific outcomes after primary ACL reconstruction. Included studies were required to have reported standardized outcomes after primary ACL reconstruction for a single sport or comparing between different sports. In total 8 studies conformed to all inclusion criteria: 2 Level II studies, 1 Level III study, and 5 Level IV case series. Only 1 study reported comparisons of standardized outcomes between different sports, whereas 7 studies reported standardized outcomes in a single sport. Return to activity was the most common sport-specific outcome reported and varied from 19% (soccer) to 100% (bicycling and rugby), although the methods of measuring this outcome differed. Whereas return to activity after ACL reconstruction appears more likely for bicycling and jogging than for cutting and pivoting sports such as soccer and football, the literature on sport-specific outcomes from ACL reconstruction is limited with minimal data. Further studies are needed to report sport-specific outcomes and return to play after ACL reconstruction. Level IV, systematic review of Level II, III, and IV studies. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital multiple cranial neuropathies: Relevance of orofacial electromyography in infants.

    PubMed

    Renault, Francis; Flores-Guevara, Roberto; Baudon, Jean-Jacques; Vazquez, Marie-Paule

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diagnoses and outcomes of infants with 2 or more cranial neuropathies identified using orofacial electromyography (EMG). This retrospective study involved 90 patients. Diagnoses took into account clinical, radiological, and genetic data. EMG examined the orbicularis oculi, genioglossus, and levator veli palatini muscles, and blink responses. To evaluate outcome, neurological disability, respiratory complications, and feeding difficulties were recorded. The patients had malformation syndromes (59), encephalopathies (29), or no underlying disorders (2). Neurogenic EMG signs were detected in a mean of 4 muscles, reflecting a mean of 3 affected nerves. EMG identified a higher number of neuropathies than clinical examination alone (82 vs. 31, facial; 56 vs. 2, pharyngeal; 25 vs. 3, hypoglossal). Poor outcome and death were more frequent when EMG identified ≥4 affected nerves (P = 0.02). EMG highlights multiple cranial neuropathies that can be clinically silent in infants with malformation syndromes or encephalopathies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Clinical image and pathology of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis.

    PubMed

    Shi, C H; Niu, S T; Zhang, Z Q

    2014-12-12

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological features, and treatment experiments of patients with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP). The clinical findings, MRI, and pathological appearances of 9 patients with HCP were analyzed retrospectively. The thickened dura mater was markedly enhanced after contrast media injection. The lesion near the brain hemisphere presented long regions of T1- and T2-weighted abnormal signal intensities. The abnormal signal intensities of the brain tissue were decreased significantly. Pathological examination demonstrated chronic inflammation changes, with cerebral dura mater fibrous tissue showing obvious hyperplasia, and the periphery of the blood vessel showing a great quantity of infiltrating phlegmonosis cells. HCP mainly presents headache and paralysis of multiple cranial nerves. The distinctive signs on brain MRIs involve strengthening the signal in the cerebral dura.

  15. Ontogeny of the cranial musculature in Corydoras aeneus Callichthyidae, Siluriformes.

    PubMed

    Huysentruyt, F; Brunain, M; Adriaens, D

    2009-11-01

    A complete study of the early ontogeny of the cranial muscles of Corydoras aeneus (Callichthyidae) was undertaken and results were compared with those for the loricariid Ancistrus cf. triradiatus. This comparison reveals a high degree of similarity in the ontogeny of both species' cranial muscles. Both species lack a musculus protractor hyoidei, and the musculus intermandibularis posterior is divided into two different parts that have partly obtained a novel function (serving the lower lip) in A. cf. triradiatus. A similar increase in muscular complexity in this species is found in the dorsal constrictor of the hyoid muscle plate. This constrictor gives rise to the same muscles in both C. aeneus and A. cf. triradiatus, but in A. cf. triradiatus the musculus levator operculi later hypertrophies. In C. aeneus the musculus extensor tentaculi forms a single muscle diverging posteriorly, whereas in A. cf. triradiatus the musculus extensor tentaculi differentiates into two separate bundles. Also, a loricariid neoformation is present called the musculus levator tentaculi.

  16. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Mary; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2010-11-01

    More prevalent in women than men, clinical depression affects approximately 15 million American adults in a given year. Psychopharmaceutical therapy accompanied by psychotherapy and wellness interventions (e.g., nutrition, exercise, counseling) is effective in 80% of diagnosed cases. A lesser known adjunctive therapy is that of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES). The major hypothesis for the use of CES in depression is that it may reset the brain to pre-stress homeostasis levels. It is conjectured that the pulsed electrical currents emitted by cranial electrical stimulators affect changes in the limbic system, the reticular activating system, and/or the hypothalamus that result in neurotransmitter secretion and downstream hormone production. While evidence is good for applied research, basic research about the mechanisms of action for CES remains in its infancy. A review of the literature provides an overview of current research findings and implications for clinical mental health practice.

  17. Tracking modern human population history from linguistic and cranial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Harvati, Katerina; Jäger, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Languages and genes arguably follow parallel evolutionary trajectories, descending from a common source and subsequently differentiating. However, although common ancestry is established within language families, it remains controversial whether language preserves a deep historical signal. To address this question, we evaluate the association between linguistic and geographic distances across 265 language families, as well as between linguistic, geographic, and cranial distances among eleven populations from Africa, Asia, and Australia. We take advantage of differential population history signals reflected by human cranial anatomy, where temporal bone shape reliably tracks deep population history and neutral genetic changes, while facial shape is more strongly associated with recent environmental effects. We show that linguistic distances are strongly geographically patterned, even within widely dispersed groups. However, they are correlated predominantly with facial, rather than temporal bone, morphology, suggesting that variation in vocabulary likely tracks relatively recent events and possibly population contact. PMID:27833101

  18. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  19. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief communication: additional cranial remains from Vindija cave, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Smith, F H; Ahern, J C

    1994-02-01

    Two additional cranial specimens from Vindija cave, Croatia, are described. One specimen is a zygomatic, providing the first information about the midfacial anatomy of the Vindija hominids. The other specimen is a frontal/supraorbital torus fragment. Both specimens exhibit morphology typically associated with Neandertals. They derive from level G1 and provide further indication that both the level G3 and G1 hominids at Vindija represent Neandertals.

  1. Development and Tissue Origins of the Mammalian Cranial Base

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, S.; Bamforth, S. D.; Olsen, B. R.; Morriss-Kay, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the “New Head”. PMID:18680740

  2. Repetition Blindness Occurs in Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Catherine L.; Morris, Alison L.

    2004-01-01

    Theorists have predicted that repetition blindness (RB) should be absent for nonwords because they do not activate preexisting mental types. The authors hypothesized that RB would be observed for nonwords because RB can occur at a sublexical level. Four experiments showed that RB is observed for word-nonword pairs (noon noof), orthographically…

  3. Preoperative percutaneous cranial nerve mapping in head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung I

    2003-01-01

    To identify and map the course of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerve preoperatively and percutaneously. Prospective study. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping performed prior to the operation under deep sedation or general anesthesia without muscle paralysis. Private office surgery suite, freestanding surgery center, and regional medical centers. A total of 142 patients undergoing head and neck surgery and facial plastic surgery between August 1994 and July 1999. Monopolar probe was used for nerve stimulation. Electromyographic reading was done through intramuscular bipolar recording electrodes. The equipment used was a nerve monitor. The mandibular divisions were tested in 142 cases, the frontal division in 60 cases, the accessory nerve in 12 cases, and the hypoglossal nerve in 3 cases. Satisfactory mappings were obtained in 115 cases of the mandibular division, 49 cases of the frontal division, 8 cases of the accessory division, and 1 case of the hypoglossal nerve. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping is a new method of identifying the location of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerves. Identifying and mapping the course of peripheral branches of the cranial nerves safely assists the head and neck surgeon in the placement of incisions in a favorable location and in the dissection of the area involving the nerves. Mapping alerts the surgeon to an area containing a nerve and allows the surgeon to avoid just the specific area where a nerve is present, preventing large-scale abandonment of unmapped areas for fear of potential nerve damage.

  4. Robotic Stereotaxy in Cranial Neurosurgery: A Qualitative Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fomenko, Anton; Serletis, Demitre

    2017-12-14

    Modern-day stereotactic techniques have evolved to tackle the neurosurgical challenge of accurately and reproducibly accessing specific brain targets. Neurosurgical advances have been made in synergy with sophisticated technological developments and engineering innovations such as automated robotic platforms. Robotic systems offer a unique combination of dexterity, durability, indefatigability, and precision. To perform a systematic review of robotic integration for cranial stereotactic guidance in neurosurgery. Specifically, we comprehensively analyze the strengths and weaknesses of a spectrum of robotic technologies, past and present, including details pertaining to each system's kinematic specifications and targeting accuracy profiles. Eligible articles on human clinical applications of cranial robotic-guided stereotactic systems between 1985 and 2017 were extracted from several electronic databases, with a focus on stereotactic biopsy procedures, stereoelectroencephalography, and deep brain stimulation electrode insertion. Cranial robotic stereotactic systems feature serial or parallel architectures with 4 to 7 degrees of freedom, and frame-based or frameless registration. Indications for robotic assistance are diversifying, and include stereotactic biopsy, deep brain stimulation and stereoelectroencephalography electrode placement, ventriculostomy, and ablation procedures. Complication rates are low, and mainly consist of hemorrhage. Newer systems benefit from increasing targeting accuracy, intraoperative imaging ability, improved safety profiles, and reduced operating times. We highlight emerging future directions pertaining to the integration of robotic technologies into future neurosurgical procedures. Notably, a trend toward miniaturization, cost-effectiveness, frameless registration, and increasing safety and accuracy characterize successful stereotactic robotic technologies. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  5. A Method for Whole Protein Isolation from Human Cranial Bone

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Sarah M.; Mayampurath, Anoop; Rogers, M. Rose; Wolfgeher, Donald J.; Fisher, Sean M.; Volchenboum, Samuel L.; He, Tong-Chuan; Reid, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the dense hydroxyapatite matrix within human bone limits the applicability of conventional protocols for protein extraction. This has hindered the complete and accurate characterization of the human bone proteome thus far, leaving many bone-related disorders poorly understood. We sought to refine an existing method of protein extraction from mouse bone to extract whole proteins of varying molecular weights from human cranial bone. Whole protein was extracted from human cranial suture by mechanically processing samples using a method that limits protein degradation by minimizing heat introduction to proteins. The presence of whole protein was confirmed by western blotting. Mass spectrometry was used to sequence peptides and identify isolated proteins. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003215. Extracted proteins were characterized as both intra- and extracellular and had molecular weights ranging from 9.4-629 kDa. High correlation scores among suture protein spectral counts support the reproducibility of the method. Ontology analytics revealed proteins of myriad functions including mediators of metabolic processes and cell organelles. These results demonstrate a reproducible method for isolation of whole protein from human cranial bone, representing a large range of molecular weights, origins and functions. PMID:27677936

  6. The management of cranial injuries in antiquity and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Mindea, Stefan A; Batjer, H Hunt

    2007-01-01

    Cranial injuries were among the earliest neurosurgical problems faced by ancient physicians and surgeons. In this review, the authors trace the development of neurosurgical theory and practice for the treatment of cranial injuries beginning from the earliest ancient evidence available to the collapse of the Greco-Roman civilizations. The earliest neurosurgical procedure was trephination, which modern scientists believe was used to treat skull fractures in some civilizations. The Egyptian papyri of Edwin Smith provide a thorough description of 27 head injuries with astute observations of clinical signs and symptoms, but little information on the treatment of these injuries. Hippocrates offered the first classification of skull fractures and discussion of which types required trephining, in addition to refining this technique. Hippocrates was also the first to understand the basis of increased intracranial pressure. After Hippocrates, the physicians of the Alexandrian school provided further insight into the clinical evaluation of patients with head trauma, including the rudiments of a Glasgow Coma Scale. Finally, Galen of Pergamon, a physician to fallen gladiators, substantially contributed to the understanding of the neuroanatomy and physiology. He also described his own classification system for skull fractures and further refined the surgical technique of trephination. From the study of these important ancient figures, it is clearly evident that the knowledge and experience gained from the management of cranial injuries has laid the foundation not only for how these injuries are managed today, but also for the development of the field of neurosurgery.

  7. Brief communication: Artificial cranial modification in Kow Swamp and Cohuna.

    PubMed

    Durband, Arthur C

    2014-09-01

    The crania from Kow Swamp and Cohuna have been important for a number of debates in Australian paleoanthropology. These crania typically have long, flat foreheads that many workers have cited as evidence of genetic continuity with archaic Indonesian populations, particularly the Ngandong sample. Other scientists have alleged that at least some of the crania from Kow Swamp and the Cohuna skull have been altered through artificial modification, and that the flat foreheads possessed by these individuals are not phylogenetically informative. In this study, several Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna are compared to known modified and unmodified comparative samples. Canonical variates analyses and Mahalanobis distances are generated, and random expectation statistics are used to calculate statistical significance for these tests. The results of this study agree with prior work indicating that a portion of this sample shows evidence for artificial modification of the cranial vault. Many Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna display shape similarities with a population of known modified individuals from New Britain. Kow Swamp 1, 5, and Cohuna show the strongest evidence for modification, but other individuals from this sample also show evidence of culturally manipulated changes in cranial shape. This project provides added support for the argument that at least some Pleistocene Australian groups were practicing artificial cranial modification, and suggests that caution should be used when including these individuals in phylogenetic studies. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Vertical stiffness is not related to anterior cruciate ligament elongation in professional rugby union players

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Pickering, Mark R; Ball, Nick B; Perriman, Diana; Warmenhoven, John; Smith, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Background Novel research surrounding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is necessary because ACL injury rates have remained unchanged for several decades. An area of ACL risk mitigation which has not been well researched relates to vertical stiffness. The relationship between increased vertical stiffness and increased ground reaction force suggests that vertical stiffness may be related to ACL injury risk. However, given that increased dynamic knee joint stability has been shown to be associated with vertical stiffness, it is possible that modification of vertical stiffness could help to protect against injury. We aimed to determine whether vertical stiffness is related to measures known to load, or which represent loading of, the ACL. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study of 11 professional Australian rugby players. Knee kinematics and ACL elongation were measured from a 4-dimensional model of a hopping task which simulated the change of direction manoeuvre typically observed when non-contact ACL injury occurs. The model was generated from a CT scan of the participant's knee registered frame by frame to fluoroscopy images of the hopping task. Vertical stiffness was calculated from force plate data. Results There was no association found between vertical stiffness and anterior tibial translation (ATT) or ACL elongation (r=−0.05; p=0.89, and r=−0.07; p=0.83, respectively). ATT was related to ACL elongation (r=0.93; p=0.0001). Conclusions Vertical stiffness was not associated with ACL loading in this cohort of elite rugby players but a novel method for measuring ACL elongation in vivo was found to have good construct validity. PMID:27900192

  9. Vertical stiffness is not related to anterior cruciate ligament elongation in professional rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Serpell, Benjamin G; Scarvell, Jennie M; Pickering, Mark R; Ball, Nick B; Perriman, Diana; Warmenhoven, John; Smith, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Novel research surrounding anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is necessary because ACL injury rates have remained unchanged for several decades. An area of ACL risk mitigation which has not been well researched relates to vertical stiffness. The relationship between increased vertical stiffness and increased ground reaction force suggests that vertical stiffness may be related to ACL injury risk. However, given that increased dynamic knee joint stability has been shown to be associated with vertical stiffness, it is possible that modification of vertical stiffness could help to protect against injury. We aimed to determine whether vertical stiffness is related to measures known to load, or which represent loading of, the ACL. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 11 professional Australian rugby players. Knee kinematics and ACL elongation were measured from a 4-dimensional model of a hopping task which simulated the change of direction manoeuvre typically observed when non-contact ACL injury occurs. The model was generated from a CT scan of the participant's knee registered frame by frame to fluoroscopy images of the hopping task. Vertical stiffness was calculated from force plate data. There was no association found between vertical stiffness and anterior tibial translation (ATT) or ACL elongation (r=-0.05; p=0.89, and r=-0.07; p=0.83, respectively). ATT was related to ACL elongation (r=0.93; p=0.0001). Vertical stiffness was not associated with ACL loading in this cohort of elite rugby players but a novel method for measuring ACL elongation in vivo was found to have good construct validity.

  10. Simulation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency in a Musculoskeletal Model with Anatomical Knees

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Trent M; Stylianou, Antonis

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal knee kinematics and meniscus injury resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency are often implicated in joint degeneration even though changes in tibio-femoral contact location after injury are small, typically only a few millimeters. Ligament reconstruction surgery does not significantly reduce the incidence of early onset osteoarthritis. Increased knowledge of knee contact mechanics would increase our understanding of the effects of ACL injury and help guide ACL reconstruction methods. Presented here is a cadaver specific computational knee model combined with a body-level musculoskeletal model from a subject of similar height and weight as the cadaver donor. The knee model was developed in the multi-body framework and includes representation of the menisci. Experimental body-level measurements provided input to the musculoskeletal model. The location of tibio-menisco-femoral contact as well as contact pressures were compared for models with an intact ACL, partial ACL transection (posterolateral bundle transection), and full ACL transection during a muscle driven forward dynamics simulation of a dual limb squat. During the squat, small changes in femur motion relative to the tibia for both partial and full ACL transection push the lateral meniscus in the posterior direction at extension. The central-anterior region of the lateral meniscus then becomes “wedged” between the tibia and femur during knee flexion. This “wedging” effect does not occur for the intact knee. Peak contact pressure and contact locations are similar for the partial tear and complete ACL transection during the deep flexion portion of the squat, particularly on the lateral side. The tibio-femoral contact location on the tibia plateau shifts slightly to the posterior and lateral direction with ACL transection. PMID:22470411

  11. Performance outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the National Basketball Association.

    PubMed

    Busfield, Benjamin T; Kharrazi, F Daniel; Starkey, Chad; Lombardo, Stephen J; Seegmiller, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of return to play and to quantify the effect on the basketball player's performance after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Surgical injuries involving the ACL were queried for a 10-year period (1993-1994 season through 2004-2005 season) from the database maintained by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Standard statistical categories and player efficiency rating (PER), a measure that accounts for positive and negative playing statistics, were calculated to determine the impact of the injury on player performance relative to a matched comparison group. Over the study period, 31 NBA players had 32 ACL reconstructions. Two patients were excluded because of multiple ACL injuries, one was excluded because he never participated in league play, and another was the result of nonathletic activity. Of the 27 players in the study group, 6 (22%) did not return to NBA competition. Of the 21 players (78%) who did return to play, 4 (15%) had an increase in the preinjury PER, 5 (19%) remained within 1 point of the preinjury PER, and the PER decreased by more than 1 point after return to play in 12 (44%). Although decreases occurred in most of the statistical categories for players returning from ACL surgery, the number of games played, field goal percentage, and number of turnovers per game were the only categories with a statistically significant decrease. Players in the comparison group had a statistically significant increase in the PER over their careers, whereas the study group had a marked, though not statistically significant, increase in the PER in the season after reconstruction. After ACL reconstruction in 27 basketball players, 22% did not return to a sanctioned NBA game. For those returning to play, performance decreased by more than 1 PER point in 44% of the patients, although the changes were not statistically significant relative to the comparison group. Level IV, therapeutic

  12. Rupture of posterior cruciate ligament leads to radial displacement of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Deng, Zhenhan; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan; Li, Kanghua; He, Hongbo

    2017-07-11

    To explore the association between the rupture of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the radial displacement of medial meniscus under the conditions of different flexion and various axial loads. The radial displacement value of medial meniscus was measured for the specimens of normal adult knee joints, including 12 intact PCLs, 6 ruptures of the anterolateral bundle (ALB), 6 ruptures of the postmedial bundle (PMB), and 12 complete ruptures. The measurement was conducted at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion angles under 200 N, 400 N, 600 N, 800 N and 1000 N of axial loads respectively. The displacement values of medial meniscus of the ALB rupture group increased at 0° flexion under 800 N and 1000 N, and at 30°, 60° and 90° flexion under all loads in comparison with the PCL intact group. The displacement values of the PMB rupture group was higher at 0° and 90° flexion under all loads, and at 30° and 60° flexion under 800 N and 1000 N loads. The displacement of the PCL complete rupture group increased at all flexion angles under all loads. Either partial or complete rupture of the PCL can increase in the radial displacement of the medial meniscus, which may explain the degenerative changes that occuring in the medial meniscus due to PCL injury. Therefore, early reestablishment of the PCL is necessarily required in order to maintain stability of the knee joint after PCL injury.

  13. Force measurements in the medial meniscus posterior horn attachment: effects of anterior cruciate ligament removal.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Jackson, Steven R; McAllister, David R

    2012-02-01

    Tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn attachment (PHA) occur clinically, and an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee may be more vulnerable to this injury. The PHA forces from applied knee loadings will increase after removal of the ACL. Controlled laboratory study. A cap of bone containing the medial meniscus PHA was attached to a load cell that measured PHA tensile force. Posterior horn attachment forces were recorded before and after ACL removal during anteroposterior (AP) laxity testing at ±200 N and during passive knee extension tests with 5 N·m tibial torque and varus-valgus moment. Selected tests were also performed with 500 N joint load. For AP tests with no joint load, ACL removal increased laxity between 0° and 90° and increased PHA force generated by applied anterior tibial force between 30° and 90°. For AP tests with an intact ACL, application of joint load approximately doubled PHA forces. Anteroposterior testing of ACL-deficient knees was not possible with joint load because of bone cap failures from high PHA forces. Removal of the ACL during knee extension tests under joint load significantly increased PHA forces between 20° and 90° of flexion. For unloaded tests with applied tibial torque and varus-valgus moment, ACL removal had no significant effect on PHA forces. Applied anterior tibial force and external tibial torque were loading modes that produced relatively high PHA forces, presumably by impingement of the medial femoral condyle against the medial meniscus posterior horn rim. Under joint load, an ACL-deficient knee was particularly susceptible to PHA injury from applied anterior tibial force. Because tensile forces developed in the PHA are also borne by meniscus tissue near the attachment site, loading mechanisms that produce high PHA forces could also produce complete or partial radial tears near the posterior horn, a relatively common clinical observation.

  14. Allograft integration in a rabbit transgenic model for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bachy, M; Sherifi, I; Zadegan, F; Petite, H; Vialle, R; Hannouche, D

    2016-04-01

    Tissue engineering strategies include both cell-based and cell homing therapies. Ligamentous tissues are highly specialized and constitute vital components of the musculoskeletal system. Their damage causes significant morbidity and loss in function. The aim of this study is to analyze tendinous graft integration, cell repopulation and ligamentization by using GFP+/- allografts in GFP+/- transgenic New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Graft implantation was designed to closely mimic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair surgery. Allografts were implanted in 8 NZW rabbits and assessed at 5 days, 3 weeks and 6 weeks through: (1) arthroCT imaging, (2) morphological analysis of the transplanted allograft, (3) histological analysis, (4) collagen type I immunochemistry, and (5) GFP cell tracking. Collagen remodeling was appreciated at 3 and 6 weeks. Graft repopulation with host cells, chondrocyte-like cells at the tendon-bone interface and graft corticalization in the bone tunnels were noticed at 3 weeks. By contrast we noticed a central necrosis aspect in the allografts intra-articularly at 6 weeks with a cell migration towards the graft edge near the synovium. Our study has served to gain a better understanding of tendinous allograft bone integration, ligamentization and allograft repopulation. We believe that both cell-based therapies and cell homing therapies are beneficial in ligament tissue engineering. Future studies may elucidate whether cell repopulation occurs with pre-differentiated or progenitor cells. We believe that both cell-based therapies and cell homing therapies are beneficial in ligament tissue engineering. Level V (animal study). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in Pediatric and Adolescent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Victoria, Australia 2005–2015

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Louise; Finch, Caroline F.

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children and adolescents have been the focus of recent media attention and parental concern, given their potential for adverse long-term health outcomes and healthcare costs. However, there is limited formal evidence on trends in the incidence of ACL injuries in children. This study utilizes the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) to characterize epidemiologic trends of hospital-admitted ACL injuries in those aged 5 to 14 years over a period of 10 years from 2005 to 2015. There was a total of 320 cases and the overall annual rate of ACL injuries increased by 147.8% from 2.74 per 100,000 population in 2005/2006 to 6.79 per 100,000 in 2014/2015. The majority (96.9%) of these injuries were in 10- to 14-year-olds. The main in-hospital procedure provided to over 80% of the hospitalized cases involved ACL reconstruction. Sporting activities accounted for 56.6% of ACL injuries. For females, over half (52.4%) of ACL injuries occurred whilst playing ball sports, compared to 35.4% of males. The large increase in ACL injuries in 5- to 14-year-olds in the state of Victoria, Australia over a 10-year period indicates they are a significant and emerging health burden. Population-wide ACL prevention policies are required to halt these trends. Cost effective prevention programs that involve neuromuscular training must be implemented in schools and junior sports teams. PMID:28587262

  16. Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin sisters with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S

    2014-01-01

    Objective A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Methods Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton–Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Results Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin sister athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Conclusions Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width. PMID:19158132

  17. Assessment of Knee Proprioception in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Position in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Talebian, Saeed; Naseri, Nasrin; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] Knee joint proprioception combines sensory input from a variety of afferent receptors that encompasses the sensations of joint position and motion. Poor proprioception is one of the risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Most studies have favored testing knee joint position sense in the sagittal plane and non-weight-bearing position. One of the most common mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury is dynamic knee valgus. No study has measured joint position sense in a manner relevant to the mechanism of injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy male athletes participated in the study. Joint position sense was evaluated by active reproduction of the anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position and normal condition. The dominant knees of subjects were tested. [Results] The results showed less accurate knee joint position sense in the noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position rather than the normal condition. [Conclusion] The poorer joint position sense in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury risk position compared with the normal condition may contribute to the increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  18. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III

    1993-09-20

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (Universitymore » of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs.« less

  19. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001) and an increased 30-day morbidity rate of 25.9% versus 14.14% in non-anemic patients (P < 0.001). The 30-day morbidity rates for all patients undergoing cranial procedures were stratified by diagnosis: 26.5% aneurysm, 24.7% sellar tumor, 19.7% extra-axial tumor, 14.8% intra-axial tumor, 14.4% arteriovenous malformation, and 5.6% pain. Following multivariable regression, the 30-day mortality in anemic patients was threefold higher than in non-anemic patients (4.1% vs 1.3%; OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.65-4.66). The odds of postoperative morbidity in anemic patients were significantly higher than in non-anemic patients (OR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). There was a significant difference in postoperative morbidity event odds with a hematocrit level above (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.48) and below (OR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55-3.42) 33% [hemoglobin (Hgb) 11 g/dl]. Conclusions: Preoperative anemia in elective cranial neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID

  20. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards theymore » present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).« less

  1. Post-traumatic Unilateral Avulsion of the Abducens Nerve with Damage to Cranial Nerves VII and VIII: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yuji; Tsumura, Ryu; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic injuries of the abducens nerve as a consequence of facial and/or head trauma occur with or without associated cervical or skull base fracture. This is the first report on unilateral avulsion of the abducens nerve in a 29-year-old man with severe right facial trauma. In addition, he exhibited mild left facial palsy, and moderate left hearing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) revealed avulsion of left sixth cranial nerve. We recommend thin-slice MR examination in patients with abducens palsy after severe facial and/or head trauma.

  2. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  3. Medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty combined to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alberto; Legnani, Claudio; Terzaghi, Clara; Iori, Stefano; Borgo, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent combined medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The hypothesis was that this procedure would lead to a high success rate in patients affected by isolated medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis and concomitant ACL deficiency. Fourteen patients with primary ACL lesion and concomitant medial compartment symptomatic osteoarthritis treated from 2006 to 2010 were followed up for an average time of 26.7 months (SD 4.2). Assessment included KOOS score, Oxford Knee score, American Knee Society scores, WOMAC index of osteoarthritis, Tegner activity level and objective examination including instrumented laxity test with KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiological assessment was done with standard simple radiographs in order to get information about any presence of loosening of the components. KOOS score, OKS, WOMAC index and the AKSS improved significantly after surgery (p < 0.001). Regarding AKSS, improvement was noted both in the objective score and in the functional one (p < 0.001). There was no clinical evidence of instability in any of the knees as evaluated with clinical laxity testing. No pathologic radiolucent lines were observed around the components. In one patient signs of osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment were observed 28 months after surgery. UKA combined with ACL reconstruction is a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of combined medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis and ACL deficiency in young and active patients and confirms subjective and objective clinical improvement 2 years after surgery. The use of a fixed-bearing prosthesis represents a reliable feature as it allows to overcome problems of improper ligament tensioning during the implantation of the components. IV.

  4. Primary repair of the anterior cruciate ligament: A paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    van der List, Jelle P; DiFelice, Gregory S

    2017-06-01

    Over the last century, many surgical treatments have been developed in the orthopedic field, including treatments of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. These treatments ideally evolve in a process of trial and error with prospective comparison of new treatments to the current treatment standard. However, these evolutions are sometimes not linear and periodically undergo paradigm shifts. In this article, we review the evolution of ACL treatment and explain how it underwent a paradigm shift. Open primary ACL repair was the most common treatment in the 1970s and 1980s, but because multiple studies noted deterioration of outcomes at mid-term follow-up, in addition to several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that noted better outcomes following ACL reconstruction, the open primary repair technique was abandoned. At the end of the primary repair era, however, several studies showed that outcomes of open primary repair were good to excellent and did not deteriorate when this technique was selectively performed in patients with proximal ACL tears, whereas primary repair led to disappointing and unpredictable results in patients with mid-substance tears. Unfortunately, enrollment of patients in the aforementioned RCTs was already finished, ultimately leading to abandoning of open primary repair, despite the advantages of ligament preservation. In this review, we discuss (I) why the evolution of ACL treatment underwent a paradigm shift, (II) which factors may have played a role in this and (III) what the future role of arthroscopic primary ACL repair is in the evolution of ACL treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A novel MIS technique for posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fractures.

    PubMed

    Gavaskar, Ashok S; Karthik, Bhupesh; Gopalan, Hitesh; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Tummala, Naveen C

    2017-08-01

    Open surgical approaches to treat tibial avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) often use large incisions involving extensive muscle dissection and retraction. The objective of this study was to describe a new mini-invasive approach targeting the fractured zone, to minimize surgical dissection and improve recovery and rehabilitation. The new approach was used in 15 males and seven females with isolated PCL avulsions. The length of the surgical incision, surgical time, need for conversion to open technique, visual analog scores (VAS) and duration of hospital stay were studied to assess the efficacy, learning curve and advantages of the new technique. Neurovascular complications were recorded. At the two-year follow-up, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were recorded to assess function. Patients were followed up for a mean of 29months (range: 34-41). The mean length of the incision was 4.1cm (range: 3.4 to five) measured at the end of the procedure. None of the patients required conversion to an open technique and no neurovascular complications were recorded. The mean surgical time was 40min (range: 25-50). The mean VAS on discharge was 2.2 (range: one to four) and patients stayed at the hospital for a mean of 2.2days (range: one to three). The mean IKDC score at one-year post surgery was 86.4 (range: 83.9-90.8). The new mini-invasive targeted approach provides adequate exposure for performing internal fixation of PCL avulsion fractures without the surgical morbidity associated with conventional open surgical approaches. The procedure is safe, fast and does not require a long learning curve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Clinical and radiographic correlation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    PubMed

    González Perales, Aldo Alán; Negrete Corona, Jorge; Chávez Hinojosa, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to correlate the clinical, functional and radiographic results of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the angulation and orientation of the femoral and tibial tunnels. The ACL is one of the most frequently injured articular structures of the knee. The reason for this being that it is the primary limiting structure of anterior tibial translation; its tear causes kinematic alterations and results in long-term degenerative and functional changes. Repair can restore the kinematics. 26 patients, 20-50 years old, post-ACL reconstruction with the semitendinous-gracilis technique. From November 2006 to July 2007. Clinical and functional assessments: Tegner and Lysholm. Radiographic assessment: anteroposterior view with knee extension and lateral view with 30 degrees flexion. Pearson correlations (r) were used in the analysis. 26 patients (100%), 20 males (76.92%), 6 females (23.08%). Mean of 2.4 in the Lysholm scale (fair to good); standard deviation 1.2. Bernard-Lysholm quadrant r = -0.772. Tegner quadrant r = 0.790. The Lysholm and Tegner scale is associated with the graft quadrant. The situation of the tibial implant in the saggital plane is associated with the Lysholm scale. The correlation of patients with an inadequate placement with respect to the quadrants was associated with good-to-excellent results and fair-to-good results. Two patients had a poor clinical outcome; the orientation of the AP angle and the quadrant were within acceptable parameters, with the exception of the lateral angle-shaft axis.

  7. Teaching of anterior cruciate ligament function in osteopathic medical education.

    PubMed

    Surek, Christopher Chase; Lorimer, Shannon D; Dougherty, John J; Stephens, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee and the function of its anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles are a focus of orthopedic research. Because of the probability that third-year and fourth-year osteopathic medical students will encounter ACL injuries during clinical rotations, it is of paramount importance that students fully understand the functions of the AM and PL bundles as 2 distinct functional components of the ACL. The authors assess the degree to which the AM and PL bundles are discussed within basic science curricula at colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs). In September 2008, a 6-question survey addressing various aspects of ACL education was mailed to instructors of lower-extremity anatomy at all 28 COMs that existed at that time. Nine of the 21 responding institutions (42.9%) indicated that both the AM and PL bundles of the ACL are discussed within their basic science curricula. Four of these 9 COMs indicated that their instruction mentions that the bundles are parallel in extension and crossed in flexion. Nine of the 21 responding COMs (42.9%) indicated that they instruct students that the AM bundle is a major anterior-posterior restrictor, and 12 (57.1%) indicated that they instruct students that the PL bundle is the major rotational stabilizer of the ACL. In 7 of the 21 responding COMs (33.3%), the AM and PL bundles are identified via direct visualization during anatomic dissection of the ACL. The authors conclude that their findings suggest the need for enhanced presentation of the AM and PL bundles within the basic science curricula at COMs to provide osteopathic medical students with a more comprehensive education in anatomy.

  8. The effectiveness of Pilates for partial anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Derya; Turkel, Nilgun

    2017-08-01

    This study explored the effects of Pilates on the muscle strength, function, and instability of patients with partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in situations in which a non-surgical treatment option is preferred. Fifty participants 20-45 years of age who were diagnosed with isolated ACL injuries were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the Pilates exercise group (n = 24) or the control group (n = 26). The subjects in the Pilates exercise group performed basic mat exercises that focused on the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs and core muscles during each class session, which met three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment or home exercise programme. All patients were evaluated using the Lysholm Knee Scale, the Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength. Patient satisfaction regarding improvement in knee stability was assessed using the Global Rating of Change scale. The Pilates group experienced significant improvement over the control group as measured by the difference in quadriceps strength at 12 weeks (p = 0.03). Both groups showed some clinical change over time, but the Pilates group improved for all outcome measurements at the 12-week follow-up, and the control group only improved for functional outcomes. Patient satisfaction with the level of knee stability based on the Global Rating of Change scale was higher in the Pilates group than in the control group. Although both groups exhibited improvements in knee strength and functional outcomes, the results suggest that Pilates is a superior management approach over a control treatment for increasing quadriceps strength in participants with partial ACL injury. Pilates may provide clinicians a novel option when choosing a treatment for a partial ACL injury. Further study is needed to determine whether certain subgroups of individuals might achieve an added

  9. Biologic agents for anterior cruciate ligament healing: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Loibl, Markus; Andriolo, Luca; Filardo, Giuseppe; Zellner, Johannes; Koch, Matthias; Angele, Peter

    2016-01-01

    AIM To systematically review the currently available literature concerning the application of biologic agents such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells to promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of biologic agents (i.e., PRP or stem cells) to favor ACL healing during reconstruction or repair. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: Clinical reports of any level of evidence, written in English language, on the use of PRP or stem cells during ACL reconstruction/repair. Exclusion criteria were articles written in other languages, reviews, or studies analyzing other applications of PRP/stem cells in knee surgery not related to promoting ACL healing. RESULTS The database search identified 394 records that were screened. A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis: In one paper stem cells were applied for ACL healing, in one paper there was a concomitant application of PRP and stem cells, whereas in the remaining 21 papers PRP was used. Based on the ACL injury pattern, two papers investigated biologic agents in ACL partial tears whereas 21 papers in ACL reconstruction. Looking at the quality of the available literature, 17 out of 21 studies dealing with ACL reconstruction were randomized controlled trials. Both studies on ACL repair were case series. CONCLUSION There is a paucity of clinical trials investigating the role of stem cells in promoting ACL healing both in case of partial and complete tears. The role of PRP is still controversial and the only advantage emerging from the literature is related to a better graft maturation over time, without documenting beneficial effects in terms of clinical outcome, bone-graft integration and prevention of bony tunnel enlargement. PMID:27672573

  10. Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kruse, L M; Gray, B; Wright, R W

    2012-10-03

    Rigorous rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is necessary for a successful surgical outcome. A large number of clinical trials continue to assess aspects of this rehabilitation process. Prior systematic reviews evaluated fifty-four Level-I and II clinical trials published through 2005. Eighty-five articles from 2006 to 2010 were identified utilizing multiple search engines. Twenty-nine Level-I or II studies met inclusion criteria and were evaluated with use of the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) criteria. Topics included in this review are postoperative bracing, accelerated strengthening, home-based rehabilitation, proprioception and neuromuscular training, and six miscellaneous topics investigated in single trials. Bracing following ACL reconstruction remains neither necessary nor beneficial and adds to the cost of the procedure. Early return to sports needs further research. Home-based rehabilitation can be successful. Although neuromuscular interventions are not likely to be harmful to patients, they are also not likely to yield large improvements in outcomes or help patients return to sports faster. Thus, they should not be performed to the exclusion of strengthening and range-of-motion exercises. Vibration training may lead to faster and more complete proprioceptive recovery but further evidence is needed. Several new modalities for rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction may be helpful but should not be performed to the exclusion of range-of-motion, strengthening, and functional exercises. Accelerated rehabilitation does not appear to be harmful but further investigation of rehabilitation timing is warranted. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka

    2012-08-15

    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs.

  12. Quadriceps rate of torque development and disability in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Davis, Hope C; Troy Blackburn, J; Ryan, Eric D; Luc-Harkey, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew S; Padua, Darin A; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine associations between self-reported function (International Knee Documentation Committee Index), isometric quadriceps strength and rate of torque development in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Forty-one individuals [31% male, BMI mean 25 (SD 4) kg/m 2 , months post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction mean 49 (SD 40)] completed the self-reported function and isometric quadriceps function testing. Rate of torque development was assessed at 0-100ms (early), 100-200ms (late) ms, and peak following the onset of contraction. Associations were examined between rate of torque development, strength, and self-reported function. Linear regression was used to determine the unique amount of variance explained by the combination of rate of torque development and strength. Higher rate of torque development 100-200ms is weakly associated with higher self-reported function in individuals with a unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (r=0.274, p=0.091); however, rate of torque development 100-200ms does not predict a significant amount of variance in self-reported function after accounting for strength (ΔR 2 =0.003, P=0.721). Quadriceps strength has a greater influence on self-reported function compared to rate of torque development in individuals with an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with time from surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Quadriceps Strengthening Exercises after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael D.; Denegar, Craig R.; Winzenried, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and patellofemoral joint stress, suggesting a combination of the two for quadriceps strengthening after ACL reconstruction. Both OKC and CKC exercises may be modified and implemented for quadriceps strengthening after…

  14. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  15. Training for Women's Basketball: A Biomechanical Emphasis for Preventing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Robert W.; Bryson, Erin R.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes proposed variables linked with higher incidences of anterior cruciate ligament tears in females and the biomechanical aspects of the lower extremity during the performance of common basketball skills, focusing on gender differences in knee joint stability and neuromuscular control, biomechanical aspects of lower extremity skills in…

  16. Morphometric characteristics of caudal cranial nerves at petroclival region in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Ozdogmus, Omer; Saban, Enis; Ozkan, Mazhar; Yildiz, Sercan Dogukan; Verimli, Ural; Cakmak, Ozgur; Arifoglu, Yasin; Sehirli, Umit

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric measurements of cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossa of fetus cadavers were carried out in an attempt to identify any asymmetry in their openings into the cranium. Twenty-two fetus cadavers (8 females, 14 males) with gestational age ranging between 22 and 38 weeks (mean 30 weeks) were included in this study. The calvaria were removed, the brains were lifted, and the cranial nerves were identified. The distance of each cranial nerve opening to midline and the distances between different cranial nerve openings were measured on the left and right side and compared. The mean clivus length and width were 21.2 ± 4.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The distance of the twelfth cranial nerve opening from midline was shorter on the right side when compared with the left side (6.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.038). Openings of other cranial nerves did not show such asymmetry with regard to their distance from midline, and the distances between different cranial nerves were similar on the left and right side. Cranial nerves at petroclival region seem to show minimal asymmetry in fetuses.

  17. Do peak torque angles of muscles change following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring or patellar tendon graft?

    PubMed

    Yosmaoğlu, Hayri Baran; Baltacı, Gül; Sönmezer, Emel; Özer, Hamza; Doğan, Deha

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autogenous hamstring or patellar tendon graft on the peak torque angle. The study included 132 patients (103 males, 29 females; mean age 29±9 year) who were performed ACL reconstruction with autogenous hamstring or patellar tendon graft. The peak torque angles in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles were recorded using an isokinetic dynamometer. Angle of peak knee flexion torque occurred significantly earlier within the range of motion on the operated side than nonoperated side at 180°/second in the hamstring tendon group. Angle of peak knee extension torque occurred significantly earlier within the range of motion on the operated side than nonoperated side at 180°/second in the patellar tendon group. There were no statistically significant differences in the flexion and extension peak torque angles between the operated and nonoperated knees at 60°/second in both groups. The angle of peak torque at relatively high angular velocities is affected after ACL reconstruction in patients with hamstring or patellar tendon grafts. The graft donor site directly influences this parameter. This finding may be important for clinicians in terms of preventing re-injury.

  18. Electromyographic Analysis of Single-Leg, Closed Chain Exercises: Implications for Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, Anthony I.; Cooper, Leslie W.; Kirkendall, Don T.; Garrett, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Many knee rehabilitation studies have examined open and closed kinetic chain exercises. However, most studies focus on 2-legged, closed chain exercise. The purpose of our study was to characterize 1-legged, closed chain exercise in young, healthy subjects. Subjects: Eighteen normal subjects (11 men, 7 women; age, 24.6 ± 1.6 years) performed unsupported, 1-legged squats and step-ups to approximately tibial height. Measurements: Knee angle data and surface electromyographic activity from the thigh muscles were recorded. Results: The maximum angle of knee flexion was 111 ± 23° for squats and 101 ± 16° for step-ups. The peak quadriceps activation was 201 ± 66% maximum voluntary isometric contraction, occurring at an angle of 96 ± 16° for squats. Peak quadriceps activation was 207 ± 50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction and occurred at 83 ± 12° for step-ups. Conclusions: The high and sustained levels of quadriceps activation indicate that 1-legged squats and step-ups would be effective in muscle rehabilitation. As functional, closed chain activities, they may also be protective of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. Because these exercises involve no weights or training equipment, they may prove more cost effective than traditional modes of rehabilitation. PMID:12937438

  19. STREPTOCOCCI OCCURRING IN SOUR MILK

    PubMed Central

    Jones, F. S.

    1921-01-01

    A well defined group of rod-like and coccoid organisms arranged in pairs and chains has been encountered in sour milk. The group comprises at least three species; the largest number ferment dextrose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, and salicin, and fail to ferment saccharose, raffinose, and inulin. A smaller number ferment saccharose in addition to dextrose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, and salicin. A few fail to attack mannitol. All three types grow luxuriantly at room temperature, coagulate milk, reduce litmus, and produce large amounts of acid in fermented bouillon containing dextrose. Specific morphological and cultural differences exist between the lactic acid streptococci and those associated with mastitis and those occurring in the udder. The lactic acid organisms outgrow the udder streptococci in the milk-souring process. When both types are implanted in sterile milk the udder type soon disappears. PMID:19868477

  20. The role of isolated posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in knees with combined posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral complex injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yeong; Park, Young-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Nam, Dae-Cheol; Park, Jin-Sung; Hwang, Sun-Chul

    2017-08-14

    This is a meta-analysis comparing biomechanical outcomes to determine whether an isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction can restore normal knee kinematics in a combined PCL/posterolateral complex (PLC) injury and whether double-bundle (DB) PCL reconstruction is superior in controlling posterior and rotational laxity compared with single-bundle (SB) PCL reconstruction in a PCL/PLC-deficient knee. A number of electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published through August 2016 that compared biomechanical outcomes of PCL reconstruction in patients who underwent reconstruction for combined PCL/PLC deficiencies. Data were searched, extracted, analysed, and assessed for quality according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines, and biomechanical outcomes were evaluated using various outcome values. The results are presented as relative ratios for binary outcomes and standard mean differences for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Five biomechanical studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were significant differences in laxities such as posterior tibial translation (PTT), external rotation, varus rotation, and PTT coupled with external rotation in the isolated PCL reconstruction group compared with the native PCL group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in laxities such as PTT, external rotation, or varus rotation between the SB and DB PCL reconstruction groups. Isolated PCL reconstruction, whether SB or DB, could not restore normal knee kinematics in the PCL/PLC-deficient knee. In such cases, residual laxity after isolated PCL reconstruction can be controlled successfully with PLC reconstruction. Therefore, simultaneous PCL and PLC reconstruction is recommended for patients with combined PCL/PLC injury.

  1. The association between lower extremity energy absorption and biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Goerger, Benjamin M; Padua, Darin A

    2010-12-01

    Greater total energy absorption by the lower extremity musculature during landing may reduce stresses placed on capsuloligamentous tissues with differences in joint contributions to energy absorption potentially affecting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. However, the relationships between energy absorption and prospectively identified biomechanical factors associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury have yet to be demonstrated. Sagittal plane total, hip, knee and ankle energy absorption, and peak vertical ground reaction force, anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion and knee valgus angles, and internal hip extension and knee varus moments were measured in 27 individuals (14 females, 13 males) performing double leg jump landings. Correlation coefficients assessed the relationships between energy absorption during three time intervals (initial impact phase, terminal phase, and total landing) and biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury. More favorable values of biomechanical factors related to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury were associated with: 1) Lesser total (R(2)=0.178-0.558), hip (R(2)=0.229-0.651) and ankle (R(2)=0.280), but greater knee (R(2)=0.147) energy absorption during the initial impact phase; 2) Greater total (R(2)=0.170-0.845), hip (R(2)=0.599), knee (R(2)=0.236-0.834), and ankle (R(2)=0.276) energy absorption during the terminal phase of landing; and 3) Greater knee (R(2)=0.158-0.709), but lesser hip (R(2)=0.309) and ankle (R(2)=0.210-0.319) energy absorption during the total landing period. These results suggest that biomechanical factors related to anterior cruciate ligament injury are influenced by both the magnitude and timing of lower extremity energy absorption during landing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Load response and gap formation in a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Lachlan; Richardson, Martin; Sobol, Tony; Caldow, Jonathon; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Double-row rotator cuff tendon repair techniques may provide superior contact area and strength compared with single-row repairs, but are associated with higher material expenses and prolonged operating time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gap formation, ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair construct, and to compare these results with those of the Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair constructs. Infraspinatus tendons from 24 spring lamb shoulders were harvested and allocated to cruciate suture, Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair groups. Specimens were loaded cyclically between 10 and 62 N for 200 cycles, and gap formation simultaneously measured using a high-speed digital camera. Specimens were then loaded in uniaxial tension to failure, and construct stiffness and repair strength were evaluated. Gap formation in the cruciate suture repair was significantly lower than that of the Mason-Allen repair (mean difference = 0.6 mm, P = 0.009) and no different from that of the SutureBridge repair (P > 0.05). Both the cruciate suture repair (mean difference = 15.7 N/mm, P = 0.002) and SutureBridge repair (mean difference = 15.8 N/mm, P = 0.034) were significantly stiffer than that of the Mason-Allen repair; however, no significant differences in ultimate tensile strength between repair groups were discerned (P > 0.05). The cruciate suture repair construct, which may represent a simple and cost-effective alternative to double-row and double-row equivalent rotator cuff repairs, has comparable biomechanical strength and integrity with that of the SutureBridge repair, and may result in improved construct longevity and tendon healing compared with the Mason-Allen repair. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Trigeminal complications arising after surgery of cranial base meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Ulf; Linderoth, Bengt; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2012-04-01

    Chronic severe facial pain is a feared sequel of cranial base surgery. This study explores the symptomatology, incidence and impact on the individual of postoperative de novo trigeminal nerve affection as well as the recovery potential. Out of 231 patients operated for cranial base meningiomas at the Karolinska University Hospital during 7 years, 25 complained of de novo trigeminal symptoms at clinical follow-up 3 months after surgery. Six were later lost to follow-up leaving 19 participants in the study, which was conducted using a questionnaire and a structured telephone interview. All patients complained of facial numbness, affecting the V1 branch in 10/19 patients (53%), the V2 branch in 18/19 (95%) and the V3 branch in 9/19 (47%). Surprisingly, only three (16%) suffered from trigeminal pain, which could be adequately managed by pharmacotherapy. However, five patients (26%) demonstrated ocular dysaesthetic problems. Twelve (63%) described their handicap to be mild, while seven (37%) had daily or severe symptoms. Five patients (26%) reported no improvement over time, while nine (47%) showed improvement and four (21%) stated good recovery. Only one patient (5%) claimed complete symptom remission. In the present study, 11% of the patients presented with a de novo postoperative affection of the trigeminal nerve after removal of a cranial base meningioma; 37% of these reported daily/severe symptoms. Only 26% showed good recovery, observed in patients without tumour infiltration of the nerve or intraoperative nerve damage. In spite of frequent complaints of numbness, pain was uncommon (16%) and often manageable by pharmacotherapy, while ocular symptoms turned out to be more frequent and more disabling than expected.

  4. Lack of efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular and cranial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Park, J E; Srivanitchapoom, P; Maurer, C W; Mathew, P; Sackett, J; Paine, R; Ramos, V L; Hallett, M

    2017-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of levetiracetam in oromandibular or cranial dystonia. We recruited seven subjects with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. Five completed the study, median age was 71 years (range 42-79 years), median disease duration was 12 years (range 2-30 years). Participants were randomized to receive levetiracetam or placebo and were then crossed over. They titrated up to a total daily dose of 4000 mg or the maximum tolerated dose over 3 weeks and maintained that dose for another 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the percent change of the eyes, mouth, speech, and swallowing Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) subscores from baseline to weeks 6 and 14. Additional endpoints included the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11, and the global dystonia severity (GDS) subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14, as well as all adverse side effects. The mean percent increase in the BFM subscore (placebo: 31.25%, levetiracetam: 12.16%) was not significantly different between the two arms according to the Friedman analysis. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that these percent changes were not significant, indicating that there was no statistical clinical worsening in either arm. The mean percent change of the BFM subscore at weeks 3 and 11 and the mean percent change of the GDS subscore at weeks 3, 6, 11, and 14 were not significantly different between the two arms, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test did not show statistical significance. Levetiracetam does not appear to be efficacious in patients with oromandibular or cranial dystonia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fractionated external beam radiotherapy of skull base metastases with cranial nerve involvement.

    PubMed

    Dröge, L H; Hinsche, T; Canis, M; Alt-Epping, B; Hess, C F; Wolff, H A

    2014-02-01

    Skull base metastases frequently appear in a late stage of various tumor entities and cause pain and neurological disorders which strongly impair patient quality of life. This study retrospectively analyzed fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as a palliative treatment approach with special respect to neurological outcome, feasibility and acute toxicity. A total of 30 patients with skull base metastases and cranial nerve disorders underwent EBRT with a mean total dose of 31.6 Gy. Neurological status was assessed before radiotherapy, during radiotherapy and 2 weeks afterwards categorizing orbital, parasellar, middle fossa, jugular foramen and occipital condyle involvement and associated clinical syndromes. Neurological outcome was scored as persistence of symptoms, partial response, good response and complete remission. Treatment-related toxicity and overall survival were assessed. Before EBRT 37 skull base involvement syndromes were determined with 4 patients showing more than 1 syndrome. Of the patients 81.1 % responded to radiotherapy with 10.8 % in complete remission, 48.6 % with good response and 21.6 % with partial response. Grade 1 toxicity of the skin occurred in two patients and grade 1 hematological toxicity in 1 patient under concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Median overall survival was 3.9 months with a median follow-up of 45 months. The use of EBRT for skull base metastases with symptomatic involvement of cranial nerves is marked by good therapeutic success in terms of neurological outcome, high feasibility and low toxicity rates. These findings underline EBRT as the standard therapeutic approach in the palliative setting.

  6. Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of brain simulants used for cranial gunshot simulation.

    PubMed

    Lazarjan, Milad Soltanipour; Geoghegan, Patrick Henry; Jermy, Mark Christopher; Taylor, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical properties of the human brain at high strain rate were investigated to analyse the mechanisms that cause backspatter when a cranial gunshot wound occurs. Different concentrations of gelatine and a new material (M1) developed in this work were tested and compared to bovine brain samples. Kinetic energy absorption and expansion rate of the samples caused by the impact of a bullet from .22 air rifle (AR) (average velocity (uav) of 290m/s) and .22 long rifle (LR) (average velocity (uav) of 330m/s) were analysed using a high speed camera (24,000fps). The AR projectile had, in the region of interest, an average kinetic energy (Ek) of 42±1.3J. On average, the bovine brain absorbed 50±5% of Ek, and the simulants 46-58±5%. The Ek of the .22 LR was 141±3.7J. The bovine brain absorbed 27% of the .22LR Ek and the simulants 15-29%. The expansion of the sample, after penetration, was measured. The bovine brain experienced significant plastic deformation whereas the gelatine solution exhibited a principally elastic response. The permanent damage patterns in the M1 material were much closer to those in brain tissue, than were the damage patterns in the gelatine. The results provide a first step to developing a realistic experimental simulant for the human brain which can produce the same blood backspatter patterns as a human brain during a cranial gunshot. These results can also be used to improve the 3D models of human heads used in car crash and blast trauma injury research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonshaved cranial surgery in black Africans: technical report and a medium-term prospective outcome study.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Amos O

    2016-07-01

    Nonshaved neurosurgery, cranial or spinal, is well reported among Caucasians but hardly among native Africans. The ungroomed scalp hairs of black Africans have unique anthropological characteristics needing special attention for shaveless cranial surgery. A technical report of the execution of this surgical procedure among an indigenous patient population in a sub-Sahara African country is presented, as well as an outcome analysis in a prospective cohort over a 7-year period. A total of 303 patients (211 males, 70 %) fulfilled the criteria for this study. The surgical procedure was primary in 278 (92 %) and redo in 8 %. It was emergency surgery in 153 (51 %). They were trauma craniotomies or decompressive craniectomies in 95 cases (31 %), craniotomies for tumour resections in 86 (28 %), and the surgical dissections for other conditions in 122 (41 %). The duration of surgery ranged from 30 min to 8.5 h, mean 2.5 (SD, 1.6), median 2. In-hospital clinical outcome was good (normal status or moderate deficit on dichotomized Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)) in 273 (90.1 %) cases while surgical site infections occurred in only 10 cases (3.3 %). The type of surgery, redo or primary, did not have any significant association with the in-hospital outcome (p = 0.5), nor with the presence of surgical site infection (SSI) (p = 0.7). The length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 63 months (mean, 7) with no untoward complications reported so far. Medium-term outcome of nonshaved neurosurgery in this indigenous black Africans remains favourable with no attendant significant adverse after-effects.

  8. Dengue fever with diffuse cerebral hemorrhages, subdural hematoma and cranial diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Nayomi Shermila; Thalagala, Eranga; Wattegama, Milanka; Thirumavalavan, Kanapathipillai

    2016-05-10

    Neurological manifestations in dengue fever occur in <1 % of the patients and known to be due to multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leakage. Occurrence of wide spread cerebral haemorrhages with subdural hematoma during the leakage phase without profound thrombocytopenia and occurrence of cranial diabetes insipidus are extremely rare and had not been reported in published literature earlier, thus we report the first case. A 24 year old previously healthy lady was admitted on third day of fever with thrombocytopenia. Critical phase started on fifth day with evidence of pleural effusion and moderate ascites. Thirty one hours into critical phase she developed headache, altered level of consciousness, limb rigidity and respiratory depression without definite seizures. Non-contrast CT brain done at tertiary care level revealed diffuse intracranial haemorrhages and sub arachnoid haemorrhages in right frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and brainstem, cerebral oedema with an acute subdural hematoma in right temporo- parietal region. Her platelet count was 40,000 at this time with signs of vascular leakage. She was intubated and ventilated with supportive care. Later on she developed features of cranial diabetes insipidus and it responded to intranasal desmopressin therapy. In spite of above measures signs of brainstem herniation developed and she succumbed to the illness on day 8. Dengue was confirmed serologically. Exact pathophysiological mechanism of diffuse cerebral haemorrhages without profound thrombocytopenia is not well understood. Increased awareness and high degree of clinical suspicion is needed among clinicians for timely diagnosis of this extremely rare complication of dengue fever. We postulate that immunological mechanisms may play a role in pathogenesis. However further comprehensive research and studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to this complication.

  9. Cranial Neuropathies and Neuromuscular Weakness: A Case of Mistaken Identity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Daniel Z; King, Andrew; Kaide, Colin

    2017-08-01

    We describe a case of wound botulism initially thought to represent Miller-Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome (MFS). Botulism classically presents with the so-called "four D's" (diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dry mouth) with symmetric, descending weakness. MFS presents with a triad of limb-ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia, with variable cranial nerve and extremity involvement. The distinction can be difficult but is important as early initiation of botulinum antitoxin is associated with improved patient outcomes in cases of botulism. Furthermore, it is important to recognize intravenous drug use as a risk factor in the development of botulism, especially given an increase in injection drug use.

  10. Potential Therapeutic Use of Relaxin in Healing Cranial Bone Defects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    to measure circulating concentrations of relaxin during the infusion by ELISA ; 3. sacrifice the mice at 10-12 days after cranial defect; 4. fix the...osmotic pump for 10-12 days, and to measure circulating concentrations of relaxin during the infusion by ELISA . Values of 0.35, 0.69, 1.61, 0.66, 1.99...vehicle-infused mice, because in our previous work, none was detected. This makes sense, because the ELISA we use does not detect mouse relaxin

  11. Surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy patients without cranial MRI lateralization.

    PubMed

    Gomceli, Y B; Erdem, A; Bilir, E; Kutlu, G; Kurt, S; Erden, E; Karatas, A; Erbas, C; Serdaroglu, A

    2006-03-01

    High resolution MRI is very important in the evaluations of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy in preoperative investigations. Morphologic abnormalities on cranial MRI usually indicate the epileptogenic focus. Intractable TLE patients who have normal cranial MRI or bilateral hippocampal atrophy may have a chance for surgery if a certain epileptogenic focus is determined. We evaluated the patients who were monitorized in Gazi University Medical Faculty Epilepsy Center from October 1997 to April 2004. Seventy three patients, who had a temporal epileptogenic focus, underwent anterior temporal lobectomy at Ankara University Medical Faculty Department of Neurosurgery. Twelve of them (16, 4%), did not have any localizing structural lesion on cranial MRI. Of the 12 patients examined 6 had normal findings and 6 had bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Of these 12 patients, 6 (50%) were women and 6 (50%) were men. The ages of patients ranged from 7 to 37 (mean: 24.5). Preoperatively long-term scalp video-EEG monitoring, cranial MRI, neuropsychological tests, and Wada test were applied in all patients. Five patients, whose investigations resulted in conflicting data, underwent invasive monitoring by the use of subdural strips. The seizure outcome of patients were classified according to Engel with postsurgical follow-up ranging from 11 to 52 (median: 35.7) months. Nine patients (75%) were classified into Engel's Class I and the other 3 patients (25%) were placed into Engel's Class II. One patient who was classified into Engel's Class II had additional psychiatric problems. The other patient had two different epileptogenic foci independent from each other in her ictal EEG. One of them localized in the right anterior temporal area, the other was in the right frontal lobe. She was classified in Engel's Class II and had no seizure originating from temporal epileptic focus, but few seizures originating from the frontal region continued after the surgery. In conclusion

  12. Sphenoidal mucocele presenting as acute cranial nerve palsies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Clarissa S.M.; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yip, Chee Chew; Yuen, Heng-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Sphenoidal sinus mucoceles are indolent lesions that, when sufficiently large, can compress on the optic canal or superior orbital fissure, rapidly causing loss of vision, optic neuropathy, ptosis, pain, ophthalmoplegia, and diplopia. We herein report a 72-year-old gentleman who presented acutely with Cranial Nerve II, III, and IV palsies secondary to a sphenoidal sinus mucocele that was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging and successfully treated with endoscopic drainage. This cause of orbital apex syndrome is important for clinicians to know as early diagnosis and treatment is critical in recovering visual potential. PMID:23961035

  13. The cranial nuchal bursa: anatomy, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Abuja, G A; García-López, J M; Manso-Díaz, G; Spoormakers, T J P; Taeymans, O

    2014-11-01

    Although an uncommon condition, cranial nuchal bursitis can affect the performance of the equine athlete. The anatomy is not well described and there are no reports of diagnostic imaging for endoscopic approaches. To describe the anatomy, ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance features of and endoscopic approach to the cranial nuchal bursa in horses. Experimental cadaver study. Four cranial nuchal bursae were dissected, 4 specimens were frozen to prepare anatomical sections and 2 were injected with latex to document surface landmarks and topographical anatomy and to identify the possible sites for endoscopic access. Six cadaveric specimens were used to describe the ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance features of the cranial nuchal bursa before and after intrabursal injection. Sixteen cadaver specimens were evaluated with a rigid arthroscope and gross dissection to determine the endoscopic appearance of the bursa. The cranial nuchal bursa could be identified consistently in all cadavers, using ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance on both pre- and post injection specimens. Cranial and caudal endoscopic approaches and instrument portals were developed for the cranial nuchal bursa. Using either approach, the entire extent of the bursa could be evaluated, but separate approaches for left and right compartments of the bursa were needed owing to the lack of manoeuvrability when examining the contralateral compartment. The cranial nuchal bursa can be identified on ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images. An endoscopic approach to the cranial nuchal bursa is clinically feasible and offered an easy, repeatable entry into the cranial nuchal bursa, which allowed adequate observation of the structures within the bursa. This may be of help for diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the cranial nuchal bursa in horses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in National Football League Athletes From 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Christopher C.; Secrist, Eric S.; Bhat, Suneel B.; Woods, Daniel P.; Deluca, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among National Football League (NFL) athletes; however, the incidence of reinjury in this population is unknown. Purpose: This retrospective epidemiological study analyzed all publicly disclosed ACL tears occurring in NFL players between 2010 and 2013 to characterize injury trends and determine the incidence of reinjury. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: A comprehensive online search identified any NFL player who had suffered an ACL injury from 2010 to 2013. Position, playing surface, activity, and date were recorded. Each player was researched for any history of previous ACL injury. The NFL games database from USA Today was used to determine the incidence of ACL injuries on artificial turf and grass fields. Databases from Pro Football Focus and Pro Football Reference were used to determine the injury rate for each position. Results: NFL players suffered 219 ACL injuries between 2010 and 2013. Forty players (18.3%) had a history of previous ACL injury, with 27 (12.3%) retears and 16 (7.3%) tears contralateral to a previous ACL injury. Five players (2.28%) suffered their third ACL tear. Receivers (wide receivers and tight ends) and backs (linebackers, fullbacks, and halfbacks) had significantly greater injury risk than the rest of the NFL players, while perimeter linemen (defensive ends and offensive tackles) had significantly lower injury risk than the rest of the players. Interior linemen (offensive guards, centers, and defensive tackles) had significantly greater injury risk compared with perimeter linemen. ACL injury rates per team games played were 0.050 for grass and 0.053 for turf fields (P > .05). Conclusion: In this retrospective epidemiological study of ACL tears in NFL players, retears and ACL tears contralateral to a previously torn ACL constituted a substantial portion (18.3%) of total ACL injuries. The significant majority of ACL injuries in

  15. Effect of Academic Grade Level on Return to Athletic Competition After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Matthew; Feeley, Brian T; Gallo, Robert A

    2016-11-07

    After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, 63% to 87% of high school athletes return to competition. Although physical and psychological factors are known contributors for failure to return to play, little attention has been paid to effect of academic grade level. Our purpose was to determine the influence of effect of academic grade level on return to competitive play. The primary hypothesis is that high school seniors who undergo ACL reconstruction or knee arthroscopy will be less likely to return to competitive play at 1 year than those in grades 9 to 11. We retrospectively reviewed high school athletes who injured their knee during competitive athletic activity and underwent arthroscopic knee surgery, including ACL reconstruction. We included those 14 to 18 years old at time of surgery and analyzed records for grade level, sporting activity, surgery details, and date of return to play. The definition of return to competitive play was return to same preinjury sport within 1 year of surgery and the sport had to be organized. Our study group included 225 patients that underwent an ACL reconstruction and 74 had knee arthroscopy. Athletes undergoing ACL reconstructions were less likely to return to preinjury sport within 1 year than those undergoing knee arthroscopy (P=0.0163). Seniors were significantly less likely to return to play at 1 year than athletes in grades 9 to 11 after both ACL reconstruction (P<0.0001) and knee arthroscopy (P=0.0335). Although return to competitive play rates remained fairly constant within grades 9 to 11, a precipitous decline by 28.9% and 29.4% in return to play rates occurred in the ACL reconstruction and knee arthroscopy groups, respectively, between the junior and senior years of high school. Although return to competition rates were lower for high school athletes undergoing ACL reconstruction than those undergoing knee arthroscopy, both had declines in return when the surgery occurs during their senior season. These

  16. Use of Posterior Hamstring Harvest During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Pediatric and Adolescent Population.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Krishn; Janghala, Abhinav; Pandya, Nirav K

    2018-06-01

    Posterior hamstring harvest has been described in the adult population in a limited fashion, but no study is available describing the use of posterior hamstring harvest in an active pediatric and adolescent cohort. At times, surgeons may be faced with a challenging anterior harvest due to patient anatomic characteristics, particularly the anatomic features and size of the pes tendons. Clinicians need to have multiple harvest approaches at their disposal. Complications with hamstring harvest such as premature graft transection are more problematic in this population due to higher failure rates with allograft tissue. The posterior harvest via its more proximal location may allow for easier tendon identification, visualization of the accessory attachments, and longer preserved tendon length if transection error occurs when the anterior approach is avoided based on surgical technique, patient anatomic characteristics, and surgeon and patient preference. To describe the technique of a posterior hamstring harvest in pediatric and adolescent patients and to analyze complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This study was a retrospective review of a consecutive series of pediatric and adolescent patients who underwent posterior hamstring harvest. During surgery, the patient's leg was abducted and externally rotated to expose the posteromedial aspect of the knee. A 2-cm incision was made overlying the palpable medial hamstring at the popliteal crease. The posterior hamstring tendons were first harvested proximally with an open tendon stripper and distally with a closed stripper. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative findings and complications were analyzed. A total of 214 patients (mean ± SD age, 15.7 ± 4.1 years; range, 8.0-19.8 years) underwent posterior harvest, with a mean ± SD follow-up of 1.83 ± 1.05 years. No complications occurred in our series related to graft harvest-no graft transections, neurovascular injuries, secondary procedures for

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: A persistently difficult diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Parwaiz, Hammad; Teo, Alex Q A; Servant, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Historically anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have been diagnosed poorly. A paper published in Injury in 1996 showed that less than 10% of patients with an ACL injury had the diagnosis made by the first physician to see them and that the average delay from first presentation to diagnosis was 21 months. The aim of our study was to investigate whether an improvement has been made over the last two decades in diagnosing ACL injuries. We identified 160 patients who had an ACL reconstruction performed by a single surgeon between October 2004 and December 2011 and for whom a complete data set was available. Data was extracted retrospectively from the hospital notes and a dedicated patient database. We performed a sub-group analysis comparing patients seen prior to the introduction of an acute knee injury clinic in April 2007 and patients seen after the introduction of the clinic. 75.1% (120/160) of patients presented first to an emergency department (ED) or to their general practitioner (GP), but only 14.4% (23/160) were diagnosed on initial presentation. The median number of healthcare professionals a patient saw prior to a diagnosis of ACL injury was 3. The median delay from injury to presentation was 0 weeks (range 0-885), injury to diagnosis 13 weeks (0-926), presentation to diagnosis 10 weeks (0-924), presentation to a specialist knee clinic 24 weeks (0-1006), and specialist knee clinic to surgery 13 weeks (0-102). The median total time from injury to surgery was 42 weeks (0-1047). Following the implementation of an acute knee injury clinic in 2007, the median delay from presentation to surgery dropped from 59 weeks to 36 weeks (p = 0.050) and there was a significant decrease in the median delay from specialist knee clinic to surgery from 23 to 11 weeks (p=0.002). Over the past two decades there appears to have been little improvement in the early diagnosis of ACL injuries, with only 14.4% of patients being diagnosed correctly at initial presentation. We

  18. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Associated With Military Survival Swim Training.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Michael S; Mason, John S; Posner, Matthew A; Haley, Chad A

    2017-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are relatively common injuries associated with athletic activities and high-energy trauma. Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries frequently accompany injury to the PCL. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires a comprehensive history and physical examination. Patients frequently report vague, nonspecific symptoms and the mechanism of injury is often useful in localizing injured structures. Two of the more common mechanisms for PCL injury include a direct blow to the proximal anterior tibia with the knee flexed, as well as a significant knee hyperextension injury. With a PCL tear, patients rarely describe an audible "pop" that is commonly reported in ACL injuries. On physical exam, a frequent finding in PCL tears is a loss of 10 to 20° of knee flexion. Although the most common clinical tests for PCL tears include the posterior drawer test, the posterior sag sign, and the quadriceps active test, there is a lack of high-quality diagnostic accuracy studies. Two cases of U.S. Military Academy Cadets who sustained PCL injuries while removing combat boots during military survival swim training are presented. The results of the clinical examination are accompanied by magnetic resonance imaging results and intraoperative arthroscopic images to highlight key findings. Both patients were evaluated and diagnosed with PCL injures within 10 days of their injuries. Each reported feeling/hearing a "pop," which is atypical in PCL tears. Both patients demonstrated a lack of active and passive knee flexion, which is a commonly reported impairment. One patient was managed nonsurgically with physical therapy and eventually returned to full duty without limitations 9 months after his injury. The other patient, who sustained a combined PCL-PLC injury, underwent a PCL reconstruction and PLC repair and reconstruction 8 weeks after his injury. He returned all training, with the exception of contact/collision sports, 9 months after surgery. Both

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament deterioration correlates with patella osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Aizawa, Shin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Fu, Freddie H

    2014-04-01

    The correlation between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) condition and patella osteoarthritic (OA) changes has not been well reported. The aim of this study was to reveal the correlation between ACL deterioration and the morphology of OA changes in the patella. The hypothesis was that significant correlation between ACL deterioration and patella OA morphology would be revealed in this study. Two hundred ninety-one cadaveric knees from 151 cadavers were included in this study with a median age of 83 years (54-98). Knees were opened with a sub-vastus approach and the ACL condition was classified as intact or deteriorated. Patella OA lesions were classified using Han's method: type 1, no or minimal lesion; type 2, medial facet lesion without involvement of the ridge; type 3, lateral facet lesion without involvement of the ridge; type 4, lesion involving the ridge only; type 5, medial facet lesion with involvement of the ridge; type 6, lateral facet lesion with involvement of the ridge; and type 7, global lesion. OA depth evaluation was performed following Outerbridge's classification. Statistical analysis of the collected data was performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). The ACL was intact in 277 knees and deteriorated in 14 knees. Patella OA lesions were observed as follows: type 1, 29%; type 2, 15%; type 3, 2%; type 4, 12%; type 5, 18%; type 6, 2%; and type 7, 22%. Outerbridge's classification of over grade 2 OA depth was observed in 73.5% of subjects. When patella OA was divided into types 1-4 and types 5-7, ACL deterioration was correlated with the occurrence of type 5-7 patella OA [OR 6.44, 95%CI 2.27-18.25, p = 0.000]. When patella OA was divided into types 1-6 and type 7, ACL deterioration was correlated with the occurrence of type 7 patella OA [OR 6.02, 95%CI 2.57-14.09, p = 0.000]. When patella OA depth was divided into grades 1-3 and grade 4, ACL deterioration was highly correlated with the occurrence of grade 4 patella OA [OR 9.31, 95

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of Five Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Nuelle, Clayton W; Milles, Jeffrey L; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Stannard, James P; Smith, Patrick A; Kfuri, Mauricio; Cook, James L

    2017-07-01

    No surgical technique recreates native posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) biomechanics. We compared the biomechanics of five different PCL reconstruction techniques versus the native PCL. Cadaveric knees ( n  = 20) were randomly assigned to one of five reconstruction techniques: Single bundle all-inside arthroscopic inlay, single bundle all-inside suspensory fixation, single bundle arthroscopic-assisted open onlay (SB-ONL), double bundle arthroscopic-assisted open inlay (DB-INL), and double bundle all-inside suspensory fixation (DB-SUSP). Each specimen was potted and connected to a servo-hydraulic load frame for testing in three conditions: PCL intact, PCL deficient, and PCL reconstructed. Testing consisted of a posterior force up to 100 N at a rate of 1 N/s at four knee flexion angles: 10, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. Three material properties were measured under each condition: load to 5 mm displacement, maximal displacement, and stiffness. Data were normalized to the native PCL, compared across techniques, compared with all PCL-intact knees and to all PCL-deficient knees using one-way analysis of variance. For load to 5 mm displacement, intact knees required significantly ( p  < 0.03) more load at 30 degrees of flexion than all reconstructions except the DB-SUSP. At 60 degrees of flexion, intact required significantly ( p  < 0.01) more load than all others except the SB-ONL. At 90 degrees, intact, SB-ONL, DB-INL, and DB-SUSP required significantly more load ( p  < 0.05). Maximal displacement testing showed the intact to have significantly ( p  < 0.02) less laxity than all others except the DB-INL and DB-SUSP at 60 degrees. At 90 degrees the intact showed significantly ( p  < 0.01) less laxity than all others except the DB-SUSP. The intact was significantly stiffer than all others at 30 degrees ( p  < 0.03) and 60 degrees ( p  < 0.01). Finally, the intact was significantly ( p  < 0.05) stiffer than all others except the DB

  1. Functional Performance Testing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Harris, Joshua D.; Gupta, Anil K.; McCormick, Frank M.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: When to allow an athlete to return to unrestricted sporting activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. Purpose: To report the results of functional performance testing reported in the literature for individuals at differing time points following ACL reconstruction and to examine differences between graft types. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed using PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were English-language studies that examined any functional rehabilitation test from 6 months to 2 years following ACL reconstruction. All patient-, limb-, and knee-specific demographics were extracted from included investigations. All functional rehabilitation tests were analyzed and compared when applicable. Results: The search term returned a total of 890 potential studies, with 88 meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 4927 patients were included, of which 66% were male. The mean patient age was 26.5 ± 3.4 years. The predominant graft choices for reconstruction were bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autograft (59.8%) and hamstring autograft (37.9%). The most commonly reported functional tests were the hop tests. The results of these functional tests, as reported in the Limb Symmetry Index (LSI), improved with increasing time, with nearly all results greater than 90% at 1 year following primary ACL reconstruction. At 6 months postoperatively, a number of isokinetic strength measurements failed to reach 80% LSI, most commonly isokinetic knee extension testing in both BPTB and hamstring autograft groups. The knee flexion strength deficit was significantly less in the BPTB autograft group as compared with those having hamstring autograft at 1 year postoperatively, while no significant differences were found in isokinetic extension strength between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Hop

  2. Societal and economic impact of anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Mather, Richard C; Koenig, Lane; Kocher, Mininder S; Dall, Timothy M; Gallo, Paul; Scott, Daniel J; Bach, Bernard R; Spindler, Kurt P

    2013-10-02

    An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a common knee injury, particularly among young and active individuals. Little is known, however, about the societal impacts of ACL tears, which could be large given the typical patient age and increased lifetime risk of knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only. A cost-utility analysis of ACL reconstruction compared with structured rehabilitation only was conducted with use of a Markov decision model over two time horizons: the short to intermediate term (six years), on the basis of Level-I evidence derived from the KANON Study and the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) database; and the lifetime, on the basis of a comprehensive literature review. Utilities were assessed with use of the SF-6D. Costs (in 2012 U.S. dollars) were estimated from the societal perspective and included the effects of the ACL tear on work status, earnings, and disability. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. In the short to intermediate term, ACL reconstruction was both less costly (a cost reduction of $4503) and more effective (a QALY gain of 0.18) compared with rehabilitation. In the long term, the mean lifetime cost to society for a typical patient undergoing ACL reconstruction was $38,121 compared with $88,538 for rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction resulted in a mean incremental cost savings of $50,417 while providing an incremental QALY gain of 0.72 compared with rehabilitation. Effectiveness gains were driven by the higher probability of an unstable knee and associated lower utility in the rehabilitation group. Results were most sensitive to the rate of knee instability after initial rehabilitation. ACL reconstruction is the preferred cost-effective treatment strategy for ACL tears and yields reduced societal costs relative to rehabilitation once indirect cost factors, such as work status and earnings

  3. Fifty most-cited articles in anterior cruciate ligament research.

    PubMed

    Voleti, Pramod B; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Rotmil, Gayle; Freedman, Kevin B

    2015-04-01

    The number of times an article has been cited in the peer-reviewed literature is indicative of its impact on its respective medical specialty. No study has used citation analysis to determine the most influential studies pertaining to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The primary aims of this study were to identify the classic works in ACL research using citation analysis and to characterize these articles to determine which types of studies have had the most influence on the field. A systematic query of ISI Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was performed for articles pertaining to the ACL, and the 50 most-cited articles were selected for evaluation. The following characteristics were determined for each article: number of citations, citation density, journal, publication year, country of origin, language, article type, article subtype, and level of evidence. The number of citations ranged from 219 to 1073 (mean, 326), and the citation densities ranged from 4.9 to 55.6 citations per year (mean, 18.2). All articles were published in 1 of 11 journals, with the most being published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (46%) and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American (30%). The most common decades of publication were the 1990s (34%), 1980s (28%), and 2000s (26%). The majority (68%) of articles originated from the United States, and all were written in English. By article type, 42% were basic science, and 58% were clinical. Of the clinical articles, 3% were Level I, 17% were Level II, 28% were Level III, and 52% were Level IV. The articles were heterogeneous with regard to article type, article subtype, and level of evidence and tended to have the following characteristics: high-impact journal of publication, recent publication year, US origin, English language, and low level of evidence. These works represent some of the most popular scientific contributions to ACL research. This list may aid residency and fellowship

  4. The Bridge-Enhanced Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair (BEAR) Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Martha M.; Flutie, Brett M.; Kalish, Leslie A.; Ecklund, Kirsten; Fleming, Braden C.; Proffen, Benedikt L.; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. Hypothesis: The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture). The secondary hypotheses were that patients treated with BEAR would have early postoperative outcomes that were similar to patients treated with ACL reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 20 patients were enrolled in this nonrandomized, first-in-human study. Ten patients received BEAR treatment and 10 received a hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. The BEAR procedure was performed by augmenting a suture repair with a proprietary scaffold, the BEAR scaffold, placed in between the torn ends of the ACL at the time of suture repair. The BEAR scaffold is to our knowledge the only device that fills the gap between the torn ligament ends to have current Investigational Device Exemption approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Ten milliliters of autologous whole blood were added to the scaffold prior to wound closure. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months postoperatively. The outcomes measures included postoperative pain, muscle atrophy, loss of joint range of motion, and implant failure (designated by an International Knee Documentation Committee grade C or D Lachman test and/or an absence of continuous ACL tissue on magnetic resonance images). Results: There were no joint

  5. When Yawning Occurs in Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Zoë T.; Hart, Benjamin L.; Greco, Brian J.; Young, Debbie; Padfield, Clare; Weidner, Lisa; Gates, Jennifer; Hart, Lynette A.

    2017-01-01

    Yawning is a widely recognized behavior in mammalian species. One would expect that elephants yawn, although to our knowledge, no one has reported observations of yawning in any species of elephant. After confirming a behavioral pattern matching the criteria of yawning in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in a zoological setting, this study was pursued with nine captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at a private reserve in the Western Cape, South Africa, the Knysna Elephant Park. Observations were made in June–September and in December. In the daytime, handlers managed seven of the elephants for guided interactions with visitors. At night, all elephants were maintained in a large enclosure with six having limited outdoor access. With infrared illumination, the elephants were continuously recorded by video cameras. During the nights, the elephants typically had 1–3 recumbent sleeping/resting bouts, each lasting 1–2 h. Yawning was a regular occurrence upon arousal from a recumbency, especially in the final recumbency of the night. Yawning was significantly more frequent in some elephants. Yawning was rare during the daytime and during periods of standing around in the enclosure at night. In six occurrences of likely contagious yawning, one elephant yawned upon seeing another elephant yawning upon arousal from a final recumbency; we recorded the sex and age category of the participants. The generality of yawning in both African and Asian elephants in other environments was documented in video recordings from 39 zoological facilities. In summary, the study provides evidence that yawning does occur in both African and Asian elephants, and in African elephants, yawning was particularly associated with arousal from nighttime recumbencies. PMID:28293560

  6. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  8. Cranial sutures and craniometric points detected on MRI.

    PubMed

    Cotton, François; Rozzi, Fernando Ramirez; Vallee, Bernard; Pachai, Chahin; Hermier, Marc; Guihard-Costa, Anne-Marie; Froment, Jean-Claude

    2005-03-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine on MRI the cranial sutures, the craniometric points and craniometric measurements, and to correlate these results with classical anthropometric measurements. For this purpose, we reviewed 150 cerebral MRI examinations considered as normal (Caucasian population aged 20-49 years). For each examination we individualized 11 craniometric landmarks (Glabella, Bregma, Lambda, Opisthocranion, Opisthion, Basion, Inion, Porion, Infra-orbital, Eurion) and three measurements. Measurements were also calculated independently on 498 dry crania (Microscribe 3-DX digitizer). To validate the MRI procedure, we measured four dry crania by MRI and with compass or digital caliper gauges. Cranial sutures always appeared without signal (black), whatever the MRI sequence used, and they are better visualized with a 5 mm slice thickness (compact bone overlapping). Slice dynamic analysis and multiplanar reformatting allowed the detection of all craniometric points, some of these being more difficult to detect than others (Porion, Infra-orbital). The measurements determined by these points were as follows: Vertex-Basion height=135.66+/-6.56 mm; Eurion-Eurion width=141.17+/-5.19 mm; Glabella-Opisthocranion length=181.94+/-6.40 mm. On the midline T1-weighted sagittal image, all median craniometric landmarks can be individualized and the Glabella-Opisthocranion length, Vertex-Basion height and parenchyma indices can be calculated. Craniometric points and measurements between these points can be estimated with a standard cerebral MRI examination, with results that are similar to anthropometric data.

  9. Heterochrony and patterns of cranial suture closure in hystricognath rodents

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laura A B; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2009-01-01

    Sutures, joints that allow one bone to articulate with another through intervening fibrous connective tissue, serve as major sites of bone expansion during postnatal craniofacial growth in the vertebrate skull and represent an aspect of cranial ontogeny which may exhibit functional and phylogenetic correlates. Suture evolution among hystricognath rodents, an ecologically diverse group represented here by 26 species, is examined using sequence heterochrony methods, i.e. event pairing and parsimov. Although minor nuances in suture closure sequence exist between species, the overall sequence was found to be conserved both across the hystricognath group and, to an increasing degree, within selected clades. At species level, suture closure pattern exhibited a significant positive correlation with patterns previously reported for hominoids. Patterns for most clades revealed the first sutures to close are those contacting the exoccipital, interparietal, and palatine bones. Heterochronic shifts were found along 19 of 35 branches within the hystricognath phylogeny. The number of shifts per node ranged from one to seven events and, overall, involved 21 of 34 suture sites. The topology generated by parsimony analyses of the event pair matrix yielded only one grouping that was congruent with the evolutionary relationships, compiled from morphological and molecular studies, taken as framework. Sutures contacting the exoccipital displayed the highest levels of most complete closure across all species. Level of suture closure is negatively correlated with cranial length (P < 0.05). Differing life history and locomotory strategies are coupled in part with differing suture closure patterns among several species. PMID:19245501

  10. Conjoined twin piglets with duplicated cranial and caudal axes.

    PubMed

    McManus, C A; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1994-06-01

    Twins with doubling of the cranial and caudal poles, yet having a single thorax, are rare. One set of diprosopus, dipygus porcine conjoined twins was studied. In addition to the conjoining anomaly, these twins also exhibited ambiguous internal reproductive features. The twins had two snouts, three eyes, a single thorax, and were duplicated from the umbilicus caudally. Radiography indicated a single vertebral column in the cervical region. The vertebral columns were separate caudally from this point. There was a total of six limbs--one pair of forelimbs and two pairs of hindlimbs. Many medial structures failed to develop in these twins. Medial cranial nerves V-XII were absent or displaced although apparently normal laterally. The medial palates were present but shortened, whereas the medial mandibular rami had folded back on themselves rostrally to form a midline mass between the two chins. Each twin had only one lateral kidney and one lateral testis. Medial scrotal sacs were present but devoid of a testis. There was a midline, "uterine"-like structure which crossed between the twins. However, histological analysis of this structure revealed it to be dysplastic testicular tissue. The relationship between the abnormal reproductive features in these twins and the conjoining is unclear. The anatomy of these twins, in addition to the literature reviewed, illustrates the internal anatomical heterogeneity of grossly similar conjoined twins. A review of the literature also suggests that conjoined twinning may be more common in swine than was previously suspected.

  11. Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George

    2008-11-01

    High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.

  12. Posterior cranial base natural growth and development: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Currie, Kris; Sawchuk, Dena; Saltaji, Humam; Oh, Heesoo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Lagravere, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of the published studies evaluating the natural growth and development of the human posterior cranial base (S-Ba). The search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and all EBM Reviews electronic databases. In addition, reference lists of the included studies were hand-searched. Articles were included if they analyzed posterior cranial-base growth in humans specifically. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate. A meta-analysis was not justified. Finally, 23 published studies were selected: 5 cross-sectional and 18 cohort studies. Articles were published between 1955 and 2015, and all were published in English. The sample sizes varied between 20 and 397 individuals and consisted of craniofacial measurements from either living or deceased human skulls. Validity of the measurements was not determined in any of the studies, while six papers reported some form of reliability assessment. All the articles included multiple time points within the same population or data from multiple age groups. Growth of S-Ba was generally agreed to be from spheno-occipital synchondrosis growth. Basion displaced downward and backward and sella turcica moved downward and backward during craniofacial growth. Timing of cessation of S-Ba growth was not conclusive due to limited identified evidence. Current evidence suggests that S-Ba is not totally stable, as its dimensions change throughout craniofacial growth and a minor dimensional change is observed even in late adulthood.

  13. Piezosurgery for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Aanand N; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2015-03-01

    To describe the use of a piezosurgery medical device to perform a craniotomy and produce a split calvarial graft for the repair of middle cranial fossa meningoencephaloceles. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral hospital. Ten consecutive patients undergoing middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of meningoencephaloceles. Therapeutic. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, success rate as defined by the ability to fashion a split calvarial graft that achieves complete closure of the tegmen defect. As a secondary outcome measure, evidence of integration of the split calvarial bone graft with the adjacent skull base was assessed. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. An appropriately sized calvarial bone graft was produced, and complete closure of the tegmen defect was achieved in all 10 cases. Computed tomography demonstrated evidence of integration of the bone graft in eight cases between 4 and 9 months after surgery. The piezosurgery medical device provides a safe and effective means by which the middle fossa craniotomy and split calvarial bone graft can be produced to repair defects of the middle fossa tegmen, with integration of the bone graft in the majority of cases.

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for skull base metastases developing with cranial nerve symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshimasa; Hashizume, Chisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kosaki, Katsura; Nagai, Aiko

    2010-06-01

    Skull base metastases are challenging situations because they often involve critical structures such as cranial nerves. We evaluated the role of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which can give high doses to the tumors sparing normal structures. We treated 11 cases of skull base metastases from other visceral carcinomas. They had neurological symptoms due to cranial nerve involvement including optic nerve (3 patients), oculomotor (3), trigeminal (6), abducens (1), facial (4), acoustic (1), and lower cranial nerves (1). The interval between the onset of cranial nerve symptoms and Novalis SRT was 1 week to 7 months. Eleven tumors of 8-112 ml in volume were treated by Novalis SRT with 30-50 Gy in 10-14 fractions. The tumors were covered by 90-95% isodose. Imaging and clinical follow-up has been obtained in all 11 patients for 5-36 months after SRT. Seven patients among 11 died from primary carcinoma or other visceral metastases 9-36 months after Novalis SRT. All 11 metastatic tumors were locally controlled until the end of the follow-up time or patient death, though retreatment for re-growth was done in 1 patient. In 10 of 11 patients, cranial nerve deficits were improved completely or partially. In some patients, the cranial nerve symptoms were relieved even during the period of fractionated SRT. Novalis SRT is thought to be safe and effective treatment for skull base metastases with involvement of cranial nerves and it may improve cranial nerve symptoms quickly.

  15. Human cranial anatomy and the differential preservation of population history and climate signatures.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Weaver, Timothy D

    2006-12-01

    Cranial morphology is widely used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships, but its reliability in reflecting phylogeny and population history has been questioned. Some cranial regions, particularly the face and neurocranium, are believed to be influenced by the environment and prone to convergence. Others, such as the temporal bone, are thought to reflect more accurately phylogenetic relationships. Direct testing of these hypotheses was not possible until the advent of large genetic data sets. The few relevant studies in human populations have had intriguing but possibly conflicting results, probably partly due to methodological differences and to the small numbers of populations used. Here we use three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics methods to test explicitly the ability of cranial shape, size, and relative position/orientation of cranial regions to track population history and climate. Morphological distances among 13 recent human populations were calculated from four 3D landmark data sets, respectively reflecting facial, neurocranial, and temporal bone shape; shape and relative position; overall cranial shape; and centroid sizes. These distances were compared to neutral genetic and climatic distances among the same, or closely matched, populations. Results indicate that neurocranial and temporal bone shape track neutral genetic distances, while facial shape reflects climate; centroid size shows a weak association with climatic variables; and relative position/orientation of cranial regions does not appear correlated with any of these factors. Because different cranial regions preserve population history and climate signatures differentially, caution is suggested when using cranial anatomy for phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Effect of Kinesiotaping Implementation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ural, İbrahim Halil; Duymaz, Tomris; Özgönenel, Levent

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to measure effects of kinesiotaping on pain and range of motion in the conservative treatment of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) rupture. Material-Methods: A total of 26 patients(24 women, 2 men) who had unilateral ACL rupture 64.46±9.00 years old(46-81years), 13 had physiotherapy only(mean age 64.46±9.35 years),13 had physiotherapy and kinesiotape(mean age 64.46±9.01 years).The patients in both groups received physiotherapy program (ultrasound with 1 MHz, 1W/cm2 during 5minutes; CPM; strength exercise for quadriceps muscle and cold pack during 15 minute). Kinesiotape was applied to the knee and quadriceps of the patient’s leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a only physiotherapy group.The patients were treated 20 times for four weeks. Socio-demographic variables (gender, age, body mass index, Kellgren-Lawrence system for classification of knee osteoarthritis, use of analgesic drug, pain during rest and activity (VAS=Visual Analog Scale), range of motion of knee flexion and extansion (universal goniometer), circumference measurements of the knee and the quadriceps muscle (up to 10 cm of patella) were measured at baseline, mid the treatment program and after the treatment program. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 22.0 for Windows.Frequency and percentage (average, standard deviation)were used as descriptive statistics of the study.The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the differences between before and after treatment measurements.The Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare groups.Significance was accepted as p<0.05. Results: No significant differences were found in age and BMI between groups (p=0.898, 0.505). The data of stage 3(n=22) and 4(n=4) patients with osteoarthritis were gathered according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification. Mean day of use of analgesic drug were 17.30±7.33 in KT group, 18.23±9.84 in physiotherapy

  17. Effects of an age-specific anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program on lower extremity biomechanics in children.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Blackburn, J Troy; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Garrett, William E; Padua, Darin A

    2011-05-01

    Implementing an anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program to athletes before the age at which the greatest injury risk occurs (15-17 years) is important from a prevention standpoint. However, it is unknown whether standard programs can modify lower extremity biomechanics in pediatric populations or if specialized training is required. To compare the effects of traditional and age-specific pediatric anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs on lower extremity biomechanics during a cutting task in youth athletes. The authors hypothesized that the age-specific pediatric program would result in greater sagittal plane motion (ie, hip and knee flexion) and less motion in the transverse and frontal plane (ie, knee valgus, knee and hip rotation) as compared with the traditional program. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Sixty-five youth soccer athletes (38 boys, 27 girls) volunteered to participate. The mean age of participants was 10 ± 1 years. Teams (n, 7) were cluster randomized to a pediatric injury prevention program, a traditional injury prevention program, or a control group. The pediatric program was modified from the traditional program to include more feedback, progressions, and variety. Teams performed their programs as part of their normal warm-up routine. Three-dimensional lower extremity biomechanics were assessed during a sidestep cutting task before and after completion of the 9-week intervention period. The pediatric program reduced the amount of knee external rotation at initial ground contact during the cutting task, F ((2,62)) = 3.79, P = .03 (change: pediatric, 7.73° ± 10.71°; control, -0.35° ± 7.76°), as compared with the control group after the intervention period. No other changes were observed. The injury prevention program designed for a pediatric population modified only knee rotation during the cutting task, whereas the traditional program did not result in any changes in cutting biomechanics. These

  18. Meniscal tears missed on MR imaging: relationship to meniscal tear patterns and anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    De Smet, A A; Graf, B K

    1994-04-01

    MR imaging of the knee is a valuable technique for diagnosing meniscal tears, but some tears found at arthroscopy are not shown on MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not tears were more frequently missed in the presence of an anterior cruciate ligament tear or when tears had certain locations or configurations. We reviewed the original MR reports and surgical records of 400 patients who had both an MR examination and arthroscopy of the knee. Using chi 2 analysis, we examined how the sensitivity for detecting meniscal tears varied with the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, with the location of the tear within the meniscus, and among six configurations of meniscal tears. We also studied whether sensitivity decreased with an increasing delay between MR examination and arthroscopy. In the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, the sensitivity decreased from 0.97 to 0.88 (p = .016) for medial meniscal tears and from 0.94 to 0.69 (p = .0005) for lateral tears. The overall sensitivity for lateral meniscal tears was significantly less for posterior (p = .001) and peripheral (p = .005) tears than for other tear locations or configurations. The sensitivities did not significantly differ between tear locations and configurations in the medial meniscus or with an increasing delay until arthroscopy. Patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament were more likely to have peripheral tears of the medial meniscus (p = .00004) and posterior (p = .0004) and peripheral (p = .04) tears of the lateral meniscus. Because of their location and configuration, meniscal tears associated with an anterior cruciate ligament injury are more difficult to detect on MR images than are tears in knees with an intact ligament. If a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament is detected, special attention should be given to the subtle peripheral tears that may be present in either meniscus, but most commonly in the posterior horn of the

  19. Combined unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in knees with osteoarthritis and deficient anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaoqi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yuanhe; Ha, Chengzhi; Liu, Lun; Sun, Kang

    2016-08-05

    Relative young and more active patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the isolated medial femorotibial compartment in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency are difficult to treat. The aim of this study was to explore the early clinical outcomes of combined Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and ACL reconstruction for the patients presenting ACL deficiency and isolated OA of the medial compartment. Twenty-eight patients were included into the study. All patients were treated by combined Oxford UKA and ACL reconstruction. Plain radiographs in the antero-posterior and lateral view and long-leg standing radiographs were routinely performed prior to and after surgery. Stress radiographs in valgus were additionally available in order to verify the well-preserved lateral compartment. The varus deformity of the knee prior to surgery and the valgus degree after surgery, the posterior slope of the tibial component and the range of motion (ROM) of the knee after surgery were measured and recorded. Clinical evaluations include Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Knee Society Score (KSS-clinical score; KSS-function score) and Tegner activity score. All the patients were followed up for 52 ± 8 months. The leg alignment showed 3.1 ± 0.6° of varus deformity prior to surgery and 4.0 ± 0.7° of valgus after surgery. The OKS, KSS and Tegner activity score improved significantly after surgery (P < 0.05). The mean ROM of the operated knee was 123.5 ± 2.8° at the last follow-up. The posterior slope of the tibial component was 3.9 ± 1.2°. A significant correlation was found between them according to the Pearson's correlation (r = 0.39, P = 0.03). There were 2 patients (7 %) with the complication of mobile bearing dislocation, and a second operation of replacing a thicker mobile bearing was performed for them. The early clinical data have shown that combined surgery of UKA and ACL reconstruction has revealed promising

  20. Return to Sport After Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Its Effect on Subsequent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Travis J; Godin, Jonathan A; Dale, Kevin M; Garrett, William E; Taylor, Dean C; Riboh, Jonathan C

    2017-06-07

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft failure and contralateral ACL tears are more frequent in children and adolescents than adults. The reasons for higher subsequent injury rates in this population are incompletely understood. We analyzed a continuous cohort of patients who were <18 years of age. Subjects underwent isolated, primary ACL reconstruction with autograft between 2006 and January 1, 2014, and had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Return-to-sport characteristics were described, and multivariable Cox regression modeling was used to identify predictors of a second ACL injury. Candidate variables included patient factors (age, sex, physeal status, tibial slope, notch width index), surgical characteristics (graft type, surgical technique), measures of recovery (time to return to sport, duration of physical therapy), and patients' preoperative and postoperative sports involvement (primary and secondary sports, number of sports). A total of 112 subjects met inclusion criteria; of these patients, 85 (76%) had complete follow-up data and were analyzed. The mean age (and standard deviation) was 13.9 ± 2.1 years (range, 6 to 17 years); 77% had open physes. The mean follow-up was 48.3 ± 15.3 months. Seventy-seven patients (91%) returned to sports, and 84% returned to the same sport. The mean Marx activity score at the time of the latest follow-up was 13.7 ± 3.5 points. Patients were involved in fewer sports after ACL reconstruction, 1.48 ± 0.92 compared with 1.83 ± 1.01 sports before reconstruction (p = 0.002). Sixteen patients (19%) sustained an ACL graft rupture, 11 patients (13%) sustained a contralateral ACL tear, and 1 of these patients (1%) sustained both. The overall prevalence of a second ACL injury was 32%. Time to return to sport was the only significant predictor of a second ACL injury, with a slower return being protective (hazard ratio per month, 0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.99]; p = 0.04). Pediatric athletes return to sports at a high rate

  1. Severe localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) manifesting with extensive cranial nerve palsies and cranial diabetes insipidus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Peters, James E; Gupta, Vivek; Saeed, Ibtisam T; Offiah, Curtis; Jawad, Ali S M

    2018-05-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis) is a multisystem vasculitis of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Cranial involvement can result in cranial nerve palsies and, rarely, pituitary infiltration. We describe the case of a 32 year-old woman with limited but severe GPA manifesting as progressive cranial nerve palsies and pituitary dysfunction. Our patient initially presented with localised ENT involvement, but despite treatment with methotrexate, she deteriorated. Granulomatous inflammatory tissue around the skull base resulted in cavernous sinus syndrome, facial nerve palsy, palsies of cranial nerves IX-XII (Collet-Sicard syndrome), and the rare complication of cranial diabetes insipidus due to pituitary infiltration. The glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerve palsies resulted in severe dysphagia and she required nasogastric tube feeding. Her neurological deficits substantially improved with treatment including high dose corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide and rituximab. This case emphasises that serious morbidity can arise from localised cranial Wegener's granulomatosis in the absence of systemic disease. In such cases intensive induction immunosuppression is required. Analysis of previously reported cases of pituitary involvement in GPA reveals that this rare complication predominantly affects female patients.

  2. Cranial dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: clinical features and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, S P; Lang, A E

    1988-01-01

    Blepharospasm, the most frequent feature of cranial dystonia, and hemifacial spasm are two involuntary movement disorders that affect facial muscles. The cause of blepharospasm and other forms of cranial dystonia is not known. Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia may result in severe disability. Hemifacial spasm tends to be much less disabling but may cause considerable distress and embarrassment. Patients affected with these disorders are often mistakenly considered to have psychiatric problems. Although the two disorders are quite distinct pathophysiologically, therapy with botulinum toxin has proven very effective in both. We review the clinical features, proposed pathophysiologic features, differential diagnosis and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin, of cranial dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052771

  3. Computer-aided implant design for the restoration of cranial defects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Li, Xing; Egger, Jan

    2017-06-23

    Patient-specific cranial implants are important and necessary in the surgery of cranial defect restoration. However, traditional methods of manual design of cranial implants are complicated and time-consuming. Our purpose is to develop a novel software named EasyCrania to design the cranial implants conveniently and efficiently. The process can be divided into five steps, which are mirroring model, clipping surface, surface fitting, the generation of the initial implant and the generation of the final implant. The main concept of our method is to use the geometry information of the mirrored model as the base to generate the final implant. The comparative studies demonstrated that the EasyCrania can improve the efficiency of cranial implant design significantly. And, the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the software were stable, which were 87.07 ± 1.6% and 87.73 ± 1.4% respectively.

  4. The Effectiveness of a Functional Knee Brace on Joint-Position Sense in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Dai; LeBlanc, Jessica C; Wooley, Sarah E; Micheli, Lyle J; Kramer, Dennis E

    2016-05-01

    It is estimated that approximately 350,000 individuals undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery in each year in the US. Although ACL-reconstruction surgery and postoperative rehabilitation are successfully completed, deficits in postural control remain prevalent in ACL-reconstructed individuals. In order to assist the lack of balance ability and reduce the risk of retear of the reconstructed ACL, physicians often provide a functional knee brace on the patients' return to physical activity. However, it is not known whether use of the functional knee brace enhances knee-joint position sense in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Thus, the effect of a functional knee brace on knee-joint position sense in an ACL-reconstructed population needs be critically appraised. After systematically review of previously published literature, 3 studies that investigated the effect of a functional knee brace in ACL-reconstructed individuals using joint-position-sense measures were found. They were rated as level 2b evidence in the Centre of Evidence Based Medicine Level of Evidence chart. Synthesis of the reviewed studies indicated inconsistent evidence of a functional knee brace on joint-position improvement after ACL reconstruction. More research is needed to provide sufficient evidence on the effect of a functional knee brace on joint-position sense after ACL reconstruction. Future studies need to measure joint-position sense in closed-kinetic-chain fashion since ACL injury usually occurs under weight-bearing conditions.

  5. [Effectiveness comparison of anatomical single-bundle and over-the-top single-bundle reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Chen, Shiyi; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Jiwu; Hua, Yinghui

    2011-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of anatomical single-bundle (ASB) and over-the-top single-bundle (OSB) reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Between January 2008 and June 2008, 64 patients with ACL injury underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. ASB ACL reconstruction was performed in 28 cases (ASB group) and OSB ACL reconstruction in 36 cases (OSB group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, disease duration, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score, and side-to-side difference between 2 groups (P > 0.05). All incisions healed by first intention; no infection or other complications occurred. All cases were followed up 20-24 months (mean, 21.5 months). There were significant differences in the IKDC score, Lysholm score, and the side-to-side difference between last follow-up and preoperation in 2 groups (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between 2 groups at last follow-up (P > 0.05). Significant differences were found in negative rate of the pivot shift test between last follow-up and preoperation in ASB group and between 2 groups at last follow-up (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between last follow-up and preoperation in OSB group (P > 0.05). The effectiveness of arthroscopic ASB ACL reconstruction is better than that of arthroscopic OSB ACL reconstruction, especially in controlling rotational stability.

  6. 2018 International Olympic Committee Consensus Statement on Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ardern, Clare L.; Ekås, Guri; Grindem, Hege; Moksnes, Håvard; Anderson, Allen F.; Chotel, Franck; Cohen, Moises; Forssblad, Magnus; Ganley, Theodore J.; Feller, Julian A.; Karlsson, Jón; Kocher, Mininder S.; LaPrade, Robert F.; McNamee, Mike; Mandelbaum, Bert; Micheli, Lyle; Mohtadi, Nicholas G.H.; Reider, Bruce; Roe, Justin P.; Seil, Romain; Siebold, Rainer; Silvers-Granelli, Holly J.; Soligard, Torbjørn; Witvrouw, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialize in treating and researching pediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a comprehensive, evidence-informed summary to support the clinician and help children with ACL injury and their parents/guardians make the best possible decisions. Representatives from the following societies attended: American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine; European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society; European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, and Arthroscopy; International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine; Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America; and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla, y Deporte. Physical therapists and orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and research experience in the field and an ethics expert with substantial experience in the area of sports injuries also participated. This consensus statement addresses 6 fundamental clinical questions regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric ACL injuries. Injury management is challenging in the current landscape of clinical uncertainty and limited scientific knowledge. Injury management decisions also occur against the backdrop of the complexity of shared decision making with children and the potential long-term ramifications of the injury. PMID:29594177

  7. Radiation-Induced Cranial Nerve Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients After Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lin, E-mail: konglinj@gmail.co; Lu, Jiade J.; Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute of Singapore

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To address the characteristics and the causative factors of radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy (CNP) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with an extensive period of followed-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 317 consecutive and nonselected patients treated with definitive external-beam radiotherapy between November 1962 and February 1995 participated in this study. The median doses to the nasopharynx and upper neck were 71 Gy (range, 55-86 Gy) and 61 Gy (range, 34-72 Gy), respectively. Conventional fractionation was used in 287 patients (90.5%). Forty-five patients (14.2%) received chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 11.4 years (range, 5.1-38.0 years). Ninety-eight patients (30.9%)more » developed CNP, with a median latent period of 7.6 years (range, 0.3-34 years). Patients had a higher rate of CNP (81 cases, 25.5%) in lower-group cranial nerves compared with upper group (44 cases, 13.9%) ({chi}{sup 2} = 34.444, p < 0.001). Fifty-nine cases experienced CNP in more than one cranial nerve. Twenty-two of 27 cases (68.8%) of intragroup CNP and 11 of 32 cases (40.7%) of intergroup CNP occurred synchronously ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.661, p = 0.031). The cumulative incidences of CNP were 10.4%, 22.4%, 35.5%, and 44.5% at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that CNP at diagnosis, chemotherapy, total radiation dose to the nasopharynx, and upper neck fibrosis were independent risk factors for developing radiation-induced CNP. Conclusion: Radiation-induced fibrosis may play an important role in radiation-induced CNP. The incidence of CNP after definitive radiotherapy for NPC remains high after long-term follow-up and is dose and fractionation dependent.« less

  8. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  9. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sanbing; Cui, Huixian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Lin; Huang, Guannan; Du, Juan; Li, Sha; Tanaka, Hideaki; Su, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal roof of the hindbrain, and a simultaneous reduction in the efferent nerves of some motoneuron axons inside the hindbrain. Our data reveal that draxin might be involved in the fascicular projection of cranial nerves in the hindbrain. PMID:27199282

  10. A Comparison of 2 Tibial Inserts of Different Constraint for Cruciate-Retaining Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Additional Tool for Balancing the Posterior Cruciate Ligament.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Roger H; Barrington, John W; Olugbode, Seun A; Alnachoukati, Omar K

    2016-02-01

    Frequently, a normal posterior-cruciate ligament (PCL) is removed at the surgeon's discretion, converting the normal 4-ligament knee to a 2-ligament knee, thus eliminating the need to balance all 4 ligaments. The development of modular tibial components has led to the availability of differing polyethylene inserts that permit adjustment to the flexion gap independent of the extension gap, permitting PCL balancing not previously available. The purpose of this study is to analyze a specific cruciate-retaining (CR) prosthesis which has 2 polyethylene inserts intended for CR knee use. Between February 2004 and February 2013, the senior author (R.H.E.) has performed 930 total knee arthroplasties using the CR flat insert and 424 knees using the CR lipped insert. The inserts were selected during surgery, based on the assessed tension and function of the PCL. The patients were followed up as part of a prospective total joint program with the Knee Society clinical scoring, range of motion, complications, revisions, preoperative coronal deformity, gender, body mass index, and status of the anterior-cruciate ligament intraoperatively. The average Knee Score was 92.4 for the flat group and 92.1 for the lipped group. Average knee flexion was 116.2° for the flat group and 114.4° for the lipped group (P=.2). Average knee extension (flexion deformity) was 2.1° for the flat group and 0.9° for the lipped group The results reported here show that clinical outcomes and survivorship were no different for either insert option, leading to indirect evidence that appropriate soft tissue balance had been achieved. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Analysis of change in gait in the ovine stifle: normal, injured, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed.

    PubMed

    Heard, B J; Beveridge, J E; Atarod, M; O'Brien, E J; Rolian, C; Frank, C B; Hart, D A; Shrive, N G

    2017-05-23

    Many patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery develop post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). ACL reconstructive surgery may not fully restore pre-injury joint biomechanics, thereby resulting in further joint damage and contributing to the development of PTOA. In an ovine model of idealized ACL reconstruction (ACL-R), it has been shown that signs of PTOA develop within surgical joints by 20 weeks post-surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether altered kinematics contribute to early PTOA development within ACL-R joints of the ovine injury model by comparing the gait of these surgical animals to the gait of a stable normal control group, and an unstable injury group in which the ACL and medial collateral ligament (MCL) had been transected. Fifteen skeletally mature female sheep were allocated evenly into 3 treatment groups: normal control, ACL-R, and ACL/MCL Tx (each group n = 5). Each animal's gait was recorded at baseline, 4 weeks post injury, and 20 weeks post injury. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the kinematic patterns that may be discriminant between treatment groups. Results from previous studies were referenced to present the amount of gross PTOA-like changes that occurred in the joints. ACL-R and ACL/MCL transected (Tx) animals developed a similar amount of early PTOA-like changes within the surgical joints, but differed significantly in the amount of kinematic change present at 20 weeks post-surgery. We showed that the stifle joint kinematics of ACL/MCL Tx differed significantly from those of CTRL and the majority of ACL-R animals, while no significant differences in joint kinematic changes were found between ACL-R and CTRL animals. These results suggest that the early PTOA-like changes reported in the ACL-R model cannot be attributed exclusively to post-surgical kinematic changes, and therefore biologic components in the post-injury environment must be contributing

  12. Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Bach, Bernard R.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Cole, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. Hypotheses: NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Study Design: Case-control. Methods: NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Results: Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P < 0.05) regarding games per season; minutes, points, and rebounds per game; and field goal percentage. However, following the index year, controls’ performances declined significantly in games per season; points, rebounds, assists, blocks, and steals per game; and field goal and free throw percentage. Other than games per season, there was no significant difference between cases and controls. Conclusion: There is a high RTS rate in the NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not

  13. Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M; Gupta, Anil K; Cole, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Case-control. NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P < 0.05) regarding games per season; minutes, points, and rebounds per game; and field goal percentage. However, following the index year, controls' performances declined significantly in games per season; points, rebounds, assists, blocks, and steals per game; and field goal and free throw percentage. Other than games per season, there was no significant difference between cases and controls. There is a high RTS rate in the NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not significantly different from controls. ACL re-tear rate was low. There is

  14. Meniscal pathology associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears in patients with open physes.

    PubMed

    Samora, Walter P; Palmer, Ryan; Klingele, Kevin E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize meniscal pathology associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in skeletally immature patients. We also evaluate the accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting ACL and meniscus pathology. A retrospective chart review was performed on 124 skeletally immature patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction within 3 months of injury. Operative reports and arthroscopic images were reviewed to determine patterns of meniscal injury. The accuracy of preoperative MRI in predicting ACL rupture and meniscus pathology was also compared. One hundred twenty-four patients, including 80 males with an average age of 14.3 years, and 44 females with an average age of 14.1 years were included. The lateral meniscus was torn in 51 patients, the medial meniscus in 17 patients, and both menisci in 19. The prevalence of meniscus tear was 69.3%. Location of the tear occurred in the posterior horn in 69 tears (65.0%), the middle and posterior horn in 31 tears (29.2%), the middle horn in 4 tears (3.7%), and the anterior horn and posterior horn in 2 tears (1.8%). MRI showed 95.6% sensitivity in detecting complete ACL rupture. Further, MRI had a sensitivity of 58.6% and a specificity of 91.3% in characterizing meniscus tears. There are many studies that evaluate ACL rupture in the skeletally immature population, but few studies focus on the meniscus pathology that is associated with these injuries. We reinforce the fact that meniscal injury is commonly associated with ACL rupture in patients with open physes (prevalence of 69.3%). We were able to conclude that lateral meniscus tears are more common than medial meniscus tears, which were equally as common as combined tears in our patient population. The posterior horn is injured in most of patients, and is usually in a repairable configuration and vascular zone. These findings will help to guide surgeons in their clinical evaluation and

  15. How Are We Measuring Patient Satisfaction After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Ferraro, Richard A; Schairer, William W; Steinhaus, Michael E; Allen, Answorth A

    2016-12-01

    Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common orthopaedic operations in the United States. The long-term impact of ACL reconstruction is controversial, however, as longer term data have failed to demonstrate that ACL reconstruction helps alter the natural history of early onset osteoarthritis that occurs after ACL injury. There is significant interest in evaluating the value of ACL reconstruction surgeries. To examine the quality of patient satisfaction reporting after ACL reconstruction surgery. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review of the MEDLINE database was performed using the PubMed interface. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines as well as the PRISMA checklist were employed. The initial search yielded 267 studies. The inclusion criteria were: English language, US patient population, clinical outcome study of ACL reconstruction surgery, and reporting of patient satisfaction included in the study. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies comprised a total of 1984 patients with a mean age of 31.9 years at the time of surgery and a mean follow-up period of 59.3 months. The majority of studies were evidence level 4 (n = 18; 81.8%), had a mean Newcastle-Ottawa scale score of 5.5, and were published before 2006 (n = 17; 77.3%); 5 studies (22.7%) failed to clearly describe their method for determining patient satisfaction. The most commonly used method for assessing satisfaction was a 0 to 10 satisfaction scale (n = 11; 50.0%). Among studies using a 0 to 10 scale, mean satisfaction ranged from 7.4 to 10.0. Patient-reported outcome and objective functional measures for ACL stability and knee function were positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Degenerative knee change was negatively correlated with satisfaction. The level of evidence for studies reporting patient

  16. How Are We Measuring Patient Satisfaction After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A.; Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Ferraro, Richard A.; Schairer, William W.; Steinhaus, Michael E.; Allen, Answorth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common orthopaedic operations in the United States. The long-term impact of ACL reconstruction is controversial, however, as longer term data have failed to demonstrate that ACL reconstruction helps alter the natural history of early onset osteoarthritis that occurs after ACL injury. There is significant interest in evaluating the value of ACL reconstruction surgeries. Purpose: To examine the quality of patient satisfaction reporting after ACL reconstruction surgery. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of the MEDLINE database was performed using the PubMed interface. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines as well as the PRISMA checklist were employed. The initial search yielded 267 studies. The inclusion criteria were: English language, US patient population, clinical outcome study of ACL reconstruction surgery, and reporting of patient satisfaction included in the study. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results: A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies comprised a total of 1984 patients with a mean age of 31.9 years at the time of surgery and a mean follow-up period of 59.3 months. The majority of studies were evidence level 4 (n = 18; 81.8%), had a mean Newcastle-Ottawa scale score of 5.5, and were published before 2006 (n = 17; 77.3%); 5 studies (22.7%) failed to clearly describe their method for determining patient satisfaction. The most commonly used method for assessing satisfaction was a 0 to 10 satisfaction scale (n = 11; 50.0%). Among studies using a 0 to 10 scale, mean satisfaction ranged from 7.4 to 10.0. Patient-reported outcome and objective functional measures for ACL stability and knee function were positively correlated with patient satisfaction. Degenerative knee change was negatively correlated with satisfaction

  17. Free Bone Plug Quadriceps Tendon Harvest and Suspensory Button Attachment for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Khallouki, Youssef

    2016-06-01

    The most commonly used autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are the bone-patellar tendon-bone and hamstring tendons. Each has its advantages and limitations. The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft can lead to more donor-site morbidity, and the hamstring autograft can be unpredictable in size. The quadriceps tendon, with or without a bone block, has been described as an alternative graft source and has been used especially in revision cases, but in recent years, it has attracted attention even for primary cases. We report a technique for harvesting a free bone quadriceps tendon graft and attaching an extracortical button for femoral fixation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  18. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention.

  19. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training.

  20. Disadvantages and advantages of transtibial technique for creating the anterior cruciate ligament femoral socket.

    PubMed

    Robin, Brett N; Lubowitz, James H

    2014-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) femoral socket techniques have distinct advantages and disadvantages when considering the following techniques: transtibial, anteromedial portal, outside-in, and outside-in retroconstruction. There is no one perfect technique and we have an incomplete understanding of anatomical, biomechanical, isometry, stability, and clinical outcomes. Our primary focus is transtibial technique for creating the ACL femoral socket. Advantages include less invasive, isometric graft placement, stable Lachman exam, and minimal graft impingement with the tunnel and notch. Disadvantages include nonanatomic vertical graft placement that can cause rotational instability and positive pivot shift, interference screw divergence, graft-tunnel length mismatch, femoral socket constraint, posterior cruciate ligament impingement, and a short, oblique tibial tunnel that may undermine the medial plateau in an attempt to achieve anatomic ACL reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Surgery for anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Oliver S

    2012-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has entertained scientific minds since the Weber brothers provided biomechanical insight into the importance of the ACL in maintaining normal knee kinematics. Robert Adams described the first clinical case of ACL rupture in 1837 some 175 years to date, followed by Mayo-Robson of Leeds who performed the first ACL repair in 1895. At that time, most patients presented late and clinicians started to appreciate signs and symptoms and disabilities associated with such injuries. Hey Groves of Bristol provided the initial description of an ACL reconstruction with autologous tissue graft in 1917, almost as we know it today. His knowledge and achievements were, however, not uniformly appreciated during his life time. What followed was a period of startling ingenuity which created an amazing variety of different surgical procedures often based more on surgical fashion and the absence of a satisfactory alternative than any indication that continued refinements were leading to improved results. It is hence not surprising that real inventors were forgotten, good ideas discarded and untried surgical methods adopted with uncritical enthusiasm only to be set aside without further explanation. Over the past 100 years, surgeons have experimented with a variety of different graft sources including xenograft, and allografts, whilst autologous tissue has remained the most popular choice. Synthetic graft materials enjoyed temporary popularity in the 1980 and 1990s, in the misguided belief that artificial ligaments may be more durable and better equipped to withstand stresses and strains. Until the 1970s, ACL reconstructions were considered formidable procedures, often so complex and fraught with peril that they remained reserved for a chosen few, never gaining the level of popularity they are enjoying today. The increasing familiarity with arthroscopy, popularised through Jackson and Dandy, and enhancements in surgical technology firmly established

  2. The anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament and its relevance to the technique of reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Śmigielski, R; Zdanowicz, U; Drwięga, M; Ciszek, B; Williams, A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is commonly performed and has been for many years. Despite this, the technical details related to ACL anatomy, such as tunnel placement, are still a topic for debate. In this paper, we introduce the flat ribbon concept of the anatomy of the ACL, and its relevance to clinical practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1020-6. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons. Comparison of 1-, 2-, and 4-Stranded Constructs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy . 1998;14:278-284. 2. Anderson AF, Synder RB, Federspiel CF, Lipscomb AB. Instrumented evaluation of... Arthroscopy . 2003;19(10):14-29. 4. Brand JC Jr, Pienkowski D, Steenlage E, Hamilton D, Johnson DL, Caborn DN. Interference screw fixation strength of a...screws. Arthroscopy . 2003;19:991-996. 8. Chang HC, Nyland J, Nawab A, Burden R, Caborn DN. Biomechanical comparison of the bioabsorbable RetroScrew

  4. Incidence and treatment of intra-articular lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Nistor, Dan; Buescu, Cristian; Pojar, Adina; Lucaciu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to retrospectively review the patients admitted and treated in the "Alexandru Rădulescu" Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Cluj-Napoca for an anterior cruciate ligament tear over a 2-year period and document the intra-articular lesions found at arthroscopy as well as the treatment used for these associated lesions. The case records of 88 patients operated for anterior cruciate ligament tear over a period of 2 years were reviewed. There were 67 males and 21 females with a mean age of 28.9 years, ranging from 14 to 49 years. After recording the patient demographics, we documented all the intra-articular lesions found during knee arthroscopy, as well as all procedures undertaken concomitant with the ACL reconstruction. 50 of the 88 patients (56.8%) had associated intra-articular lesions at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most common injury found was a meniscus tear, 48 patients (54.5%) had a meniscal pathology at the time of ligament reconstruction, medial meniscus being the most frequent injured one, found in 37 patients. Meniscectomy and meniscus suture were the procedures performed for these lesions, meniscectomy being more frequent. Chondral defects were the next associated injuries found with an incidence of 15.9% of the cases. The medial side of the knee was the most common site of chondral pathology. ACL tears are frequently associated with other intra-articular lesions, especially medial meniscus tears and chondral defects affecting the medial compartment. Such pathology most often needs surgical attention during the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  5. Inferior Lateral Genicular Artery Injury during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lamo-Espinosa, J M; Llombart Blanco, R; Valentí, J R

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of inferior lateral genicular artery (ILG) injury during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with lateral partial meniscectomy. This is a rare arthroscopy complication. A review of the literature has been made with the aim to define the anatomy of ILG across the lateral articular line and the risk of lesion during knee arthroscopy. We propose embolization as a good treatment option for this type of injuries.

  6. Pseudoaneurysm of the medial inferior genicular artery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mello, Wilson; de Brito, Wander Edney; Migon, Eduardo Zaniol; Borges, Alexandre

    2011-03-01

    We present a case of pseudoaneurysm formation of the medial inferior genicular artery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The patient presented with repeated knee hemarthrosis. He was diagnosed by means of magnetic resonance angiography and was treated by means of transluminal embolization. The patient's normal was normal after resolution of the vascular pathologic condition. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inferior Lateral Genicular Artery Injury during Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lamo-Espinosa, J. M.; Llombart Blanco, R.; Valentí, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of inferior lateral genicular artery (ILG) injury during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery with lateral partial meniscectomy. This is a rare arthroscopy complication. A review of the literature has been made with the aim to define the anatomy of ILG across the lateral articular line and the risk of lesion during knee arthroscopy. We propose embolization as a good treatment option for this type of injuries. PMID:22957293

  8. A Serious Game for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rehabilitation: Software Development Aspects and Game Engagement Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Santos Machado, Alison; de Moraes, Jefferson Potiguara; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the steps for developing a serious game that allows the interaction through natural gestures, whose main purpose is to contribute to the treatment of individuals who have suffered an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In addition to the serious game development process, the users' gaming experience were performed. Through the evaluation assessment, positive results were obtained in relation to various aspects of the game engagement, proving the playful factor of this activity.

  9. Computer aided analysis of gait patterns in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Alexander, Nathalie; Ofner, Michael; Schwameder, Hermann

    2016-03-01

    Gait analysis is a useful tool to evaluate the functional status of patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Pattern recognition methods can be used to automatically assess walking patterns and objectively support clinical decisions. This study aimed to test a pattern recognition system for analyzing kinematic gait patterns of recently anterior cruciate ligament injured patients and for evaluating the effects of a therapeutic treatment. Gait kinematics of seven male patients with an acute unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture and seven healthy males were recorded. A support vector machine was trained to distinguish the groups. Principal component analysis and recursive feature elimination were used to extract features from 3D marker trajectories. A Classifier Oriented Gait Score was defined as a measure of gait quality. Visualizations were used to allow functional interpretations of characteristic group differences. The injured group was evaluated by the system after a therapeutic treatment. The results were compared against a clinical rating of the patients' gait. Cross validation yielded 100% accuracy. After the treatment the score improved significantly (P<0.01) as well as the clinical rating (P<0.05). The visualizations revealed characteristic kinematic features, which differentiated between the groups. The results show that gait alterations in the early phase after anterior cruciate ligament injury can be detected automatically. The results of the automatic analysis are comparable with the clinical rating and support the validity of the system. The visualizations allow interpretations on discriminatory features and can facilitate the integration of the results into the diagnostic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Editorial Commentary: Size Does Matter-Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Diameter Affects Biomechanical and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft strength is related to graft diameter and how ACL grafts heal. All grafts appear to lose strength during healing. Clinical studies have documented that hamstring grafts less than 8 mm wide are more vulnerable to failure. Tripling the semitendinosus allows to increase the graft diameter and strength. A recent study documents a semitendinosus tripling technique with excellent clinical results. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electromechanical delay of the knee flexor muscles is impaired after harvesting hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ristanis, Stavros; Tsepis, Elias; Giotis, Dimitrios; Stergiou, Nicholas; Cerulli, Guiliano; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2009-11-01

    Changes in electromechanical delay during muscle activation are expected when there are substantial alterations in the structural properties of the musculotendinous tissue. In anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, specific tendons are being harvested for grafts. Thus, there is an associated scar tissue development at the tendon that may affect the corresponding electromechanical delay. This study was conducted to investigate whether harvesting of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction will affect the electromechanical delay of the knee flexors. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors evaluated 12 patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus and gracilis autograft, 2 years after the reconstruction, and 12 healthy controls. Each participant performed 4 maximally explosive isometric contractions with a 1-minute break between contractions. The surface electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus was recorded from both legs during the contractions. The statistical comparisons revealed significant increases of the electromechanical delay of the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee for both investigated muscles. Specifically, the electromechanical delay values were increased for both the biceps femoris (P = .029) and the semitendinosus (P = .005) of the reconstructed knee when compared with the intact knee. Comparing the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee against healthy controls revealed similar significant differences for both muscles (semitendinosus, P = .011; biceps femoris, P = .024). The results showed that harvesting the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction significantly increased the electromechanical delay of the knee flexors. Increased hamstring electromechanical delay might impair knee safety and performance by modifying the transfer time of muscle tension to the tibia and

  12. Hyperfractionated Low-Dose (21 Gy) Radiotherapy for Cranial Skeletal Metastases in Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, Brian H., E-mail: kushnerb@mskcc.or; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Barker, Christopher A.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To present a large experience (73 patients) using a standard radiotherapy (RT) protocol to prevent relapse in cranial sites where measurable metastatic neuroblastoma (NB), an adverse prognostic marker, is common. Methods and Materials: High-risk NB patients with measurable cranial disease at diagnosis or residual cranial disease after induction therapy had those sites irradiated with hyperfractionated 21 Gy; a brain-sparing technique was used for an extensive field. The patients were grouped according to the response to systemic therapy. Thus, when irradiated, Group 1 patients were in complete remission and Group 2 patients had primary refractory disease. Follow-up was from themore » start of cranial RT. Results: At 3 years, the 39 Group 1 patients had a progression-free survival rate of 51%; control of cranial disease was 79%. Two relapses involved irradiated cranial sites. Two other patients relapsed in the irradiated cranial sites 6 and 12 months after a systemic relapse. At 3 years, the 34 Group 2 patients had a progression-free survival rate of 33%; control of cranial disease was 52%. Group 2 included 19 patients who had residual cranial (with or without extracranial) disease. The cranial sites showed major (n = 13), minor (n = 2), or no response (n = 4) to RT. Five patients had progression in the cranial RT field at 10-27 months. Group 2 also included 15 patients who had persistent NB in extracranial, but not cranial, sites. Of these 15 patients, 2 relapsed in the irradiated cranial sites and elsewhere at 8 and 14 months. Cranial RT was well tolerated, with no Grade 2 or greater toxicity. Conclusion: Hyperfractionated 21-Gy cranial RT might help control NB and is feasible without significant toxicity in children.« less

  13. Cranial nerve VI palsy after dural-arachnoid puncture.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Jennifer E; Scavone, Barbara M

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we provide a literature review of cranial nerve (CN) VI injury after dural-arachnoid puncture. CN VI injury is rare and ranges in severity from diplopia to complete lateral rectus palsy with deviated gaze. The proposed mechanism of injury is cerebrospinal fluid leakage causing intracranial hypotension and downward displacement of the brainstem. This results in traction on CN VI leading to stretch and neural demyelination. Symptoms may present 1 day to 3 weeks after dural-arachnoid puncture and typically are associated with a postdural puncture (spinal) headache. Resolution of symptoms may take weeks to months. Use of small-gauge, noncutting spinal needles may decrease the risk of intracranial hypotension and subsequent CN VI injury. When ocular symptoms are present, early administration of an epidural blood patch may decrease morbidity or prevent progression of ocular symptoms.

  14. Repair of tegmen defect using cranial particulate bone graft.

    PubMed

    Greene, Arin K; Poe, Dennis S

    2015-01-01

    Bone paté is used to repair cranial bone defects. This material contains bone-dust collected during the high-speed burring of the cranium. Clinical and experimental studies of bone dust, however, have shown that it does not have biological activity and is resorbed. We describe the use of bone paté using particulate bone graft. Particulate graft is harvested with a hand-driven brace and 16mm bit; it is not subjected to thermal injury and its large size resists resorption. Bone paté containing particulate graft is much more likely than bone dust to contain viable osteoblasts capable of producing new bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cranial Neuropathies and Neuromuscular Weakness: A Case of Mistaken Identity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Daniel Z.; King, Andrew; Kaide, Colin

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of wound botulism initially thought to represent Miller-Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome (MFS). Botulism classically presents with the so-called “four D’s” (diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dry mouth) with symmetric, descending weakness. MFS presents with a triad of limb-ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia, with variable cranial nerve and extremity involvement. The distinction can be difficult but is important as early initiation of botulinum antitoxin is associated with improved patient outcomes in cases of botulism. Furthermore, it is important to recognize intravenous drug use as a risk factor in the development of botulism, especially given an increase in injection drug use. PMID:29849352

  16. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    GUALDI-RUSSO, E.; TASCA, M. A.; BRASILI, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring. PMID:10634693

  17. Cranial malformations in related white lions (Panthera leo krugeri).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Schröder, C; Degiorgi, G; Zeira, O; Bollo, E

    2010-11-01

    White lions (Panthera leo krugeri) have never been common in the wild, and at present, the greatest population is kept in zoos where they are bred for biological and biodiversity conservation. During the years 2003 to 2008 in a zoological garden in northern Italy, 19 white lions were born to the same parents, who were in turn paternally consanguineous. Out of the 19 lions, 4 (21%) were stillborn, 13 (69%) died within 1 month, and 1 (5%) was euthanatized after 6 months because of difficulty with prehension of food. Six lions (32%) showed malformations involving the head (jaw, tongue, throat, teeth, and cranial bones). One lion (5%) still alive at 30 months revealed an Arnold-Chiari malformation upon submission for neurological evaluation of postural and gait abnormalities. Paternal consanguinity of the parents, along with inbreeding among white lions in general, could account for the high incidence of congenital malformations of the head in this pride of white lions.

  18. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Trigeminal and Facial Nerves.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, Iryna M; Estephan, Bachir

    2018-01-01

    The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of these nerves and their pathways adds further accuracy and reliability to the diagnostic investigation and the localization process, especially when different testing methods are combined based on the clinical presentation and the electrophysiological findings. The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes. The other reflexes used in the diagnostic process and lesion localization are very nerve specific and add more diagnostic yield to the workup of certain disorders of the nervous system. This article provides a review of commonly used electrodiagnostic studies and techniques in the evaluation and lesion localization of cranial nerves V and VII.

  19. The reverse Segond fracture: not associated with knee dislocation and rarely with posterior cruciate ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Erno K; Lindahl, Jan; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the incidence of reverse Segond fracture, to examine the associated ligamentous injuries, and to examine how often reverse Segond fracture coexists with a knee dislocation. At a level 1 trauma center, an 11-year period of emergency department multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) examinations for knee trauma was evaluated for reverse Segond and Segond fractures. Surgical findings served as the reference standard for intra-articular injuries. The hospital discharge register was searched for the diagnosis of knee dislocation from August 2000 through the end of August 2011. A total of 1,553 knee MDCT examinations were evaluated. Ten patients with a reverse Segond fracture were found, comprising 0.64 % of emergency room acute knee trauma MDCT examinations. Seven patients who had a reverse Segond fracture were operated: Three had an avulsion fracture of the anterior cruciate ligament, one had an avulsion fracture of posterior cruciate ligament, two had a lateral meniscal tear, and two had a medial collateral ligament tear. The ratio of reverse Segond fractures to Segond fractures was 1:4. None of the 71 knee dislocation patients had a reverse Segond fracture. Reverse Segond fracture is a rare finding even in a level 1 trauma center. Cruciate ligament injuries appear to be associated with avulsion fracture, but every patient does not have PCL injury, as previously reported. Our results do not support the association of knee dislocation with reverse Segond fracture.

  20. Is the posterior cruciate ligament necessary for medial pivot knee prostheses with regard to postoperative kinematics?

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lai, Yu-Shu; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Song, Da-Yong; McClean, Colin J; Kao, Hao-Yuan; Qu, Tie-Bing; Cheng, Cheng-Kung

    2015-11-01

    Excellent clinical and kinematical performance is commonly reported after medial pivot knee arthroplasty. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether the posterior cruciate ligament should be retained. This study simulated how the posterior cruciate ligament, post-cam mechanism and medial tibial insert morphology may affect postoperative kinematics. After the computational intact knee model was validated according to the motion of a normal knee, four TKA models were built based on a medial pivot prosthesis; PS type, modified PS type, CR type with PCL retained and CR type with PCL sacrificed. Anteroposterior translation and axial rotation of femoral condyles on the tibia during 0°-135° knee flexion were analyzed. There was no significant difference in kinematics between the intact knee model and reported data for a normal knee. In all TKA models, normal motion was almost fully restored, except for the CR type with PCL sacrificed. Sacrificing the PCL produced paradoxical anterior femoral translation and tibial external rotation during full flexion. Either the posterior cruciate ligament or post-cam mechanism is necessary for medial pivot prostheses to regain normal kinematics after total knee arthroplasty. The morphology of medial tibial insert was also shown to produce a small but noticeable effect on knee kinematics. V.

  1. In vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Regelsberger, Jan; Eicker, Sven; Siasios, Ioannis; Hänggi, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias; Horn, Peter; Winkler, Peter; Signoretti, Stefano; Fountas, Kostas; Dufour, Henry; Barcia, Juan A; Sakowitz, Oliver; Westermaier, Thomas; Sabel, Michael; Heese, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental education is desirable for neurosurgical training, and the use of human cadaver specimen and virtual reality models is routine. An in vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery was introduced in 2005, and our recent experience with this unique model is outlined here. For the first time, porcine anatomy is illustrated with particular respect to neurosurgical procedures. The pros and cons of this model are described. The aim of the course was to set up a laboratory scenery imitating an almost realistic operating room in which anatomy of the brain and neurosurgical techniques in a mentored environment free from time constraints could be trained. Learning objectives of the course were to learn about the microsurgical techniques in cranial neurosurgery and the management of complications. Participants were asked to evaluate the quality and utility of the programme via standardized questionnaires by a grading scale from A (best) to E (worst). In total, 154 residents have been trained on the porcine model to date. None of the participants regarded his own residency programme as structured. The bleeding and complication management (97%), the realistic laboratory set-up (89%) and the working environment (94%) were favoured by the vast majority of trainees and confirmed our previous findings. After finishing the course, the participants graded that their skills in bone drilling, dissecting the brain and preserving cerebral vessels under microscopic magnification had improved to level A and B. In vivo hands-on courses, fully equipped with microsurgical instruments, offer an outstanding training opportunity in which bleeding management on a pulsating, vital brain represents a unique training approach. Our results have shown that education programmes still lack practical training facilities in which in vivo models may act as a complementary approach in surgical training.

  2. Cranial nerve monitoring during subpial dissection in temporomesial surgery.

    PubMed

    Ortler, Martin; Fiegele, Thomas; Walser, Gerald; Trinka, Eugen; Eisner, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Cranial nerves (CNs) crossing between the brainstem and skull base at the level of the tentorial hiatus may be at risk in temporomesial surgery involving subpial dissection and/or tumorous growth leading to distorted anatomy. We aimed to identify the surgical steps most likely to result in CN damage in this type of surgery. Electromyographic responses obtained with standard neuromonitoring techniques and a continuous free-running EMG were graded as either contact activity or pathological spontaneous activity (PSA) during subpial resection of temporomesial structures in 16 selective amygdalohippocampectomy cases. Integrity of peripheral motor axons was tested by transpial/transarachnoidal electrical stimulation while recording compound muscle action potentials from distal muscle(s). Continuous EMG showed pathological activity in five (31.2%) patients. Nine events with PSA (slight activity, n = 8; strong temporary activity, n = 1) were recorded. The oculomotor nerve was involved three times, the trochlear nerve twice, the facial nerve once, and all monitored nerves on three occasions. Surgical maneuvers associated with PSA were the resection of deep parts of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus (CN IV, twice; CN III, once), lining with or removing cotton patties from the resection cavity (III, twice; all channels, once) and indirect exertion of tension on the intact pia/arachnoid of the uncal region while mobilizing the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus en bloc (all channels, once; III, once). CMAPs were observed at 0.3 mA in two patients and at 0.6 mA in one patient, and without registering the exact amount of intensity in three patients. The most dangerous steps leading to cranial nerve damage during mesial temporal lobe surgery are the final stages of the intervention while the resection is being completed in the deep posterior part and the resection cavity is being lined with patties. Distant traction may act on nerves crossing the tentorial

  3. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se; Abel, Edvard; Wasling, Pontus

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, aftermore » PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.« less

  4. Surface smoothing and template partitioning for cranial implant CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyoung-june; Dean, David

    2005-04-01

    Employing patient-specific prefabricated implants can be an effective treatment for large cranial defects (i.e., > 25 cm2). We have previously demonstrated the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software that starts with the patient"s 3D head CT-scan. A template is accurately matched to the pre-detected skull defect margin. For unilateral cranial defects the template is derived from a left-to-right mirrored skull image. However, two problems arise: (1) slice edge artifacts generated during isosurface polygonalization are inherited by the final implant; and (2) partitioning (i.e., cookie-cutting) the implant surface from the mirrored skull image usually results in curvature discontinuities across the interface between the patient"s defect and the implant. To solve these problems, we introduce a novel space curve-to-surface partitioning algorithm following a ray-casting surface re-sampling and smoothing procedure. Specifically, the ray-cast re-sampling is followed by bilinear interpolation and low-pass filtering. The resulting surface has a highly regular grid-like topological structure of quadrilaterally arranged triangles. Then, we replace the regions to be partitioned with predefined sets of triangular elements thereby cutting the template surface to accurately fit the defect margin at high resolution and without surface curvature discontinuities. Comparisons of the CAD implants for five patients against the manually generated implant that the patient actually received show an average implant-patient gap of 0.45mm for the former and 2.96mm for the latter. Also, average maximum normalized curvature of interfacing surfaces was found to be smoother, 0.043, for the former than the latter, 0.097. This indicates that the CAD implants would provide a significantly better fit.

  5. Cranial irradiation compromises neuronal architecture in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Vipan Kumar; Limoli, Charles L

    2013-07-30

    Cranial irradiation is used routinely for the treatment of nearly all brain tumors, but may lead to progressive and debilitating impairments of cognitive function. Changes in synaptic plasticity underlie many neurodegenerative conditions that correlate to specific structural alterations in neurons that are believed to be morphologic determinants of learning and memory. To determine whether changes in dendritic architecture might underlie the neurocognitive sequelae found after irradiation, we investigated the impact of cranial irradiation (1 and 10 Gy) on a range of micromorphometric parameters in mice 10 and 30 d following exposure. Our data revealed significant reductions in dendritic complexity, where dendritic branching, length, and area were routinely reduced (>50%) in a dose-dependent manner. At these same doses and times we found significant reductions in the number (20-35%) and density (40-70%) of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons of the dentate gyrus. Interestingly, immature filopodia showed the greatest sensitivity to irradiation compared with more mature spine morphologies, with reductions of 43% and 73% found 30 d after 1 and 10 Gy, respectively. Analysis of granule-cell neurons spanning the subfields of the dentate gyrus revealed significant reductions in synaptophysin expression at presynaptic sites in the dentate hilus, and significant increases in postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95) were found along dendrites in the granule cell and molecular layers. These findings are unique in demonstrating dose-responsive changes in dendritic complexity, synaptic protein levels, spine density and morphology, alterations induced in hippocampal neurons by irradiation that persist for at least 1 mo, and that resemble similar types of changes found in many neurodegenerative conditions.

  6. Arterial relationships to the nerves and some rigid structures in the posterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Surchev, N

    2008-09-01

    The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Unconstrained cranial evolution in Neandertals and modern humans compared to common chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Timothy D.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of lines of evidence support the idea that neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) have been important in generating cranial differences between Neandertals and modern humans. But how do Neandertals and modern humans compare with other species? And how do these comparisons illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? To address these questions, we used 27 standard cranial measurements collected on 2524 recent modern humans, 20 Neandertals and 237 common chimpanzees to estimate split times between Neandertals and modern humans, and between Pan troglodytes verus and two other subspecies of common chimpanzee. Consistent with a neutral divergence, the Neandertal versus modern human split-time estimates based on cranial measurements are similar to those based on DNA sequences. By contrast, the common chimpanzee cranial estimates are much lower than DNA-sequence estimates. Apparently, cranial evolution has been unconstrained in Neandertals and modern humans compared with common chimpanzees. Based on these and additional analyses, it appears that cranial differentiation in common chimpanzees has been restricted by stabilizing natural selection. Alternatively, this restriction could be due to genetic and/or developmental constraints on the amount of within-group variance (relative to effective population size) available for genetic drift to act on. PMID:26468243

  8. The role of cranial and thoracic electromyography within diagnostic criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas M; Alix, James J P; Kandler, Rosalind H; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    The contribution of cranial and thoracic region electromyography (EMG) to diagnostic criteria for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not been evaluated. Clinical and EMG data from each craniospinal region were retrospectively assessed in 470 patients; 214 had ALS. Changes to diagnostic classification in Awaji-Shima and revised El Escorial criteria after withdrawal of cranial/thoracic EMG data were ascertained. Sensitivity for lower motor neuron involvement in ALS was highest in the cervical/lumbar regions; specificity was highest in cranial/thoracic regions. Cranial EMG contributed to definite/probable Awaji-Shima categorization in 1.4% of patients. Thoracic EMG made no contribution. For revised El Escorial criteria, cranial and thoracic data reclassified 1% and 5% of patients, respectively. Cranial EMG data make small contributions to both criteria, whereas thoracic data contribute only to the revised El Escorial criteria. However, cranial and thoracic region abnormalities are specific in ALS. Consideration should be given to allowing greater diagnostic contribution from thoracic EMG. Muscle Nerve 54: 378-385, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Does variation in cranial morphology of Myotis occultus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) reflect a greater reliance on certain prey types?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Bogan, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between morphological variation and local feeding habits of bats in the United States. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to compare cranial morphology of Myotis occultus from southern Colorado, and central, and southern New Mexico. We analyzed guano collected from maternity colonies in southern Colorado and central New Mexico to compare food habits. Bats from southern Colorado had the smallest values on the first canonical variate (CV1) that also reflected the smallest measurements of key cranial and dental variables, including height of coronoid process, width of molar, and dentary thickness. Bats from central and southern New Mexico had intermediate and large CV1 values, respectively. Overall, CV1 discriminated individuals occurring in southern Colorado and central New Mexico from those in southern New Mexico. CV2 served best at discriminating bats of southern Colorado from those of central New Mexico. Comparison of food habits revealed that individuals from southern Colorado ate more soft-bodied prey items (e.g., flies) whereas bats from central New Mexico ate more hard-bodied prey items (e.g., beetles). As shown in earlier studies that investigated relationships between morphology and diet of insectivorous bats, we found differences in skull morphology of M. occultusthat were correlated with differences in food habits.

  10. Assessment of sex in a modern Turkish population using cranial anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Can, Ismail Ozgur; Solmaz, Dilek; Aksoy, Sema; Buran, Cudi Ferat; Sayin, Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The utilization of radiological imaging methods in anthropometric studies is being expanded by the application of modern imaging methods, leading to a decrease in costs, a decrease in the time required for analysis and the ability to create three-dimensional images. This retrospective study investigated 400 patients within the 18-45-years age group (mean age: 30.7±11.2years) using cranial computed tomography images. We measured 14 anthropometric parameters (basion-bregma height, basion-prosthion length, maximum cranial length and cranial base lengths, maximum cranial breadth, bizygomatic diameter, upper facial breadth, bimastoid diameter, orbital breadth, orbital length, biorbital breadth, interorbital breadth, foramen magnum breadth and foramen magnum length) of cranial measurements. The intra- and inter-observer repeatability and consistency were good. From the results of logistic regression analysis using morphometric measurements, the most conspicuous measurements in terms of dimorphism were maximum cranial length, bizygomatic diameter, basion-bregma height, and cranial base length. The most dimorphic structure was the bizygomatic diameter with an accuracy rate of 83% in females and 77% in males. In this study, 87.5% of females and 87.0% of males were classified accurately by this model including four parameters with a sensitivity of 91.5% and specificity of 85.0%. In conclusion, CT cranial morphometric analysis may be reliable for the assessment of sex in the Turkish population and is recommended for comparison of data of modern populations with those of former populations. Additionally, cranial morphometric data that we obtained from modern Turkish population may reveal population specific data, which may help current criminal investigations and identification of disaster victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic restraint capacity of the hamstring muscles has important functional implications after anterior cruciate ligament injury and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Adam L; Creaby, Mark W; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between knee functionality of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients and hamstring antagonist torque generated during resisted knee extension. Cross-sectional. Laboratory based. Male ACLD subjects (n=10) (18-35 y) and 27 matched males who had undergone ACLR (14 patella tendon [PT] grafts and 13 combined semitendinosus/gracilis tendon grafts). Not applicable. Knee functionality was rated (0- to 100-point scale) by using the Cincinnati Knee Rating System. Using electromyography data from the semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris muscles, we created a mathematical model to estimate the opposing torque generated by the hamstrings during isokinetic knee extension in 10 degrees intervals from 80 degrees to 10 degrees knee flexion. Pearson product-moment correlations revealed that more functional ACLD subjects generated significantly (P<.05) higher hamstring antagonist torque throughout knee extension. In contrast, more functional PT subjects produced significantly lower hamstring antagonist torque at 80 degrees to 70 degrees knee flexion, whereas no significant associations were found between hamstring antagonist torque and knee functionality for the ST/gracilis tendon subjects. An increased hamstring antagonist torque generated by the more functional ACLD subjects, reflective of increased hamstring contractile force, is thought to represent a protective mechanism to compensate for mechanical instability. The restoration of anterior knee stability through ACLR negates the need for augmented hamstring antagonist torque.

  12. Enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in vanishing white matter: expanding the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eluvathingal Muttikkal, Thomas Jose; Montealegre, Denia Ramirez; Matsumoto, Julie Ann

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal cranial or spinal nerve contrast enhancement on MRI in cases of suspected pediatric leukodystrophy is recognized as an important clue to the diagnosis of either metachromatic leukodystrophy or globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease). We report a case of genetically confirmed childhood vanishing white matter with enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in addition to the more typical intracranial findings. This case expands the limited differential diagnosis of cranial nerve or spinal nerve enhancement in cases of suspected leukodystrophy and may aid in more efficient work-up and earlier diagnosis of vanishing white matter.

  13. Evaluation of an animation tool developed to supplement dental student study of the cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Lone, M; McKenna, J P; Cryan, J F; Vagg, T; Toulouse, A; Downer, E J

    2017-12-30

    The structure/function of the cranial nerves is a core topic for dental students. However, due to the perceived complexity of the subject, it is often difficult for students to develop a comprehensive understanding of key concepts using textbooks and models. It is accepted that the acquisition of anatomical knowledge can be facilitated by visualisation of structures. This study aimed to develop and assess a novel cranial nerve animation as a supplemental learning aid for dental students. A multidisciplinary team of anatomists, neuroscientists and a computer scientist developed a novel animation depicting the cranial nerves. The animation was viewed by newly enrolled first-year dental students, graduate entry dental students (year 1) and dental hygiene students (year 1). A simple life scenario employing the use of the cranial nerves was developed using a cartoon-type animation with a viewing time of 3.58 minutes. The animation was developed with emphasis on a life scenario. The animation was placed online for 2 weeks with open access or viewed once in a controlled laboratory setting. Questionnaires were designed to assess the participants' attitude towards the animation and their knowledge of the cranial nerves before and after visualisation. This study was performed before the delivery of core lectures on the cranial nerves. Our findings indicate that the use of the animation can act as a supplemental tool to improve student knowledge of the cranial nerves. Indeed, data indicate that a single viewing of the animation, in addition to 2-week access to the animation, can act as a supplemental learning tool to assist student understanding of the structure and function of cranial nerves. The animation significantly enhanced the student's opinion that their cranial nerve knowledge had improved. From a qualitative point of view, the students described the animation as an enjoyable and useful supplement to reading material/lectures and indicated that the animation was a

  14. Arachnoid Cyst in the Middle Cranial Fossa Presenting with Pulsatile Exophthalmos: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Atsushi; KON, Hiroyuki; HARYU, Shinya; MINO, Masaki; SASAKI, Tatsuya; NISHIJIMA, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman suffered gradual progression of right pulsatile exophthalmos and slight headache. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated outward and downward displacement of the right globe and an arachnoid cyst in the right middle cranial fossa associated with thinned and anterior protrusion of a bony orbit. Microscopic cystocisternotomy was performed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside of the cyst communicated into the carotid cistern and cistern in the posterior cranial fossa. Pulsatile exophthalmos improved immediately after surgery. Arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa presenting with exophthalmos is rare. Microscopic cystocisternotomy might successfully improve CSF flow and relieve exophthalmos. PMID:24305013

  15. Synthetic devices for reconstructive surgery of the cruciate ligaments: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batty, Lachlan M; Norsworthy, Cameron J; Lash, Nicholas J; Wasiak, Jason; Richmond, Anneka K; Feller, Julian A

    2015-05-01

    The role of synthetic devices in the management of the cruciate ligament-injured knee remains controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the safety and efficacy of synthetic devices in cruciate ligament surgery. A systematic review of the electronic databases Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library (issue 1, 2014) on January 13, 2014, was performed to identify controlled and uncontrolled trials. Trials that assessed the safety and efficacy of synthetic devices for cruciate ligament surgery were included. The main variables assessed included rates of failure, revision, and noninfective effusion and synovitis. Patient-reported outcome assessments and complications were also assessed where reported. From 511 records screened, we included 85 articles published between 1985 and 2013 reporting on 6 synthetic devices (ligament augmentation and reconstruction system [Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System (LARS; Surgical Implants and Devices, Arc-sur-Tille, France)]; Leeds-Keio [Xiros (formerly Neoligaments), Leeds, England]; Kennedy ligament augmentation device [3M, St Paul, MN]; Dacron [Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI]; Gore-Tex [W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ]; and Trevira [Telos (limited liability company), Marburg, Germany]). The heterogeneity of the included studies precluded meta-analysis. The results were analyzed by device and then type of reconstruction (anterior cruciate ligament [ACL]/posterior cruciate ligament [PCL]/combined ACL and PCL). The lowest cumulative rates of failure were seen with the LARS device (2.6% for ACL and 1% for PCL surgery). The highest failure rate was seen in the Dacron ACL group (cumulative rate, 33.6%). Rates of noninfective synovitis and effusion ranged from 0.2% in the LARS ACL group to 27.6% in the Gore-Tex ACL group. Revision rates ranged from 2.6% (LARS) to 11.8% (Trevira-Hochfest; Telos). Recent designs, specifically the LARS, showed good improvement in the outcome scores. The mean preoperative and

  16. Structural change of soft tissue anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with cross-pin fixation between immediate and postoperative 8 weeks: a study with use of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lim, Hong Chul; Kim, Jin Goo; Yoo, Jae Ho; Wang, Joon Ho; Park, Joon Soo

    2009-02-01

    There is some controversy regarding the optional method for proximal fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery using soft tissue grafts. Concern about the strength of fixation has limited rehabilitation during the early postoperative period. Graft slippage occurs after cross-pin femoral fixation during the early healing period when the strength of the tendon-to-bone interface is lowest. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Coronal and sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of arthroscopically reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments performed in 18 consecutive knees were evaluated. The images were taken along the tunnel direction an average of 4 days (after the hemovac removal) and 8 weeks (recovery >120 degrees range of motion) after surgery. The distance was measured from the uppermost point of the graft to the upper border of the superior cross pin. To reduce the intra- and interobserver bias, the measurements were taken twice by 2 orthopaedic surgeons for all patients. Interrater and intrarater reliability were determined twice by 2 orthopaedic surgeons. The intrarater (0.88 and 0.93) and interrater (0.79 and 0.81) agreement ranged from 0.79 to 0.93. One of the 18 patients showed complete breakage of the 2 cross pins 8 weeks after surgery, even though the pins were intact 4 days postoperatively. From an analysis of the remaining 17 patients, there was no significant difference in the coronal and sagittal measurements taken at postoperative 4 days and 8 weeks (P = .170-.737) and all individual cases showed less than 3 mm slippage. The expansion mechanism of the cross pin works well during the early healing period. However, further studies on the long-term outcomes are required. In addition, further study on the strength of this fixation technique is needed because 1 of the 18 patients showed broken pins.

  17. Vertical tears of the cranial horn of the meniscus and its cranial ligament in the equine femorotibial joint: 7 cases and their treatment by arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, J P

    1995-01-01

    Five horses with a vertical tear in the cranial horn and cranial ligament of the medial meniscus and 2 horses with a similar injury in the lateral meniscus were diagnosed from a series of 126 horses which were examined arthroscopically for stifle lameness. All the lesions had similar characteristics. The tear was about 1 cm from the axial border of the meniscus and its ligament and, in all but one case in which it was incomplete, much of the torn tissue was loosely attached in the axial part of the joint from where it was removed. The remaining meniscus, abaxial to the tear, was displaced cranially and abaxially and its torn edges were debrided. Radiographically, 6 cases had proliferative new bone on the cranial aspect of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia and 3 had calcified soft tissue densities in the cranial, medial or lateral femorotibial joint. Following surgery and a 6 month period of rest and controlled exercise, 3 horses returned to full competition work, one was usable for hacking, 2 are convalescing and one is lame after one year. It is postulated that this could be a characteristic meniscal injury in horses which can benefit from arthroscopic surgery. Better techniques for accessing the body and caudal pole of the menisci are needed if a more complete diagnosis and treatment of meniscal injuries are to be achieved.

  18. Incidence and patterns of meniscal tears accompanying the anterior cruciate ligament injury: possible local and generalized risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mansori, Ashraf El; Lording, Timothy; Schneider, Antoine; Dumas, Raphael; Servien, Elvire; Lustig, Sebastien

    2018-05-26

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is frequently accompanied by tears of the menisci. Some of these tears occur at the time of injury, but others develop over time in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the patient characteristics, time from injury (TFI), and posterior tibial slope (PTS) on meniscal tear patterns. Our hypothesis was that meniscal tears would occur more frequently in ACL-deficient knees with increasing age, weight, TFI, PTS, and in male patients. Of the ACL-injured patients, 362 were analyzed, and details of meniscal lesions were collected. The medial and lateral tibial slopes (MTS, LTS) were measured via computed tomography. Patient demographics, TFI, MTS, and LTS were correlated with the diagnosed meniscal tears. Of the patients, 113 had a medial meniscus (MM) tear, 54 patients had a lateral meniscus (LM) tear, 34 patients had tears of both menisci, and 161 patients had no meniscal tear. The most common tear location was the posterior horn (PH) of the MM, followed by tear involving the whole MM. Patient age, BMI, and TFI were significantly associated with the incidence of MM tear. Female patients had a higher incidence of injury than males in all tear sites except in the body and PH. Male patients had more vertical and peripheral tears. The median MTS and LTS for patients with MM tears were 7.0°and 8.7°, respectively, while those of patients with LM tears were 6.9° and 8.1°. Steeper LTS was significantly associated with tears of LM and of both menisci. Older age, male sex, increased BMI, and prolonged TFI were significant factors for the development of MM tears. An increase in the tibial slope, especially of the lateral plateau, seems to increase the risk of tear of the LM and of both menisci. Level III.

  19. Variability of the cranial and dental phenotype in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder involving the cardiovascular system, connective tissue, and the central nervous system, resulting in mild to moderate mental retardation, a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, distinctive facial features, and cardiovascular disease. The majority of individuals with a clinical diagnosis of WS have a contiguous gene deletion at chromosome 7 (7q11.23). Physical features include characteristic facial features with full prominent cheeks, wide mouth, long philtrum, small nose with depressed nasal bridge, heavy orbital ridges, medial eyebrow flare, dental abnormalities, hoarse voice, growth retardation, and cardiovascular abnormalities (most commonly supravalvular aortic stenosis and/or peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis). The cognitive profile is distinctive, consisting of strengths in auditory memory, language, and face-processing, but extreme weakness in visuospatial, numerical and problem-solving abilities. Neurological studies have identified a significantly decreased brain volume in adult individuals with WS with relatively normal development of the limbic, frontal and cerebellar structures. The aims were to analyse the neurocranium, the craniofacial region, and the dentition in a well defined Norwegian group of individuals with WS. In order to accomplish this, normative cephalometric standards for the neurocranium, including the cranial base and the sella turcica, were established for Norwegian males and females from 6 to 21 years of age, using lateral radiographic cephalograms from the Oslo University Craniofacial Growth Archive. The study material comprised radiographic lateral cephalograms, orthopantomograms and dental casts from 62 individuals with WS ranging from 4 to 44 years. The lateral cephalograms, orthopantomograms and dental casts were analysed using standard methods reported in the literature. Neurocranium: The results from the cephalometric analyses showed that the size

  20. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    PubMed Central

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27738402

  1. Growing skull fracture of the posterior cranial fossa and of the orbital roof.

    PubMed

    Caffo, M; Germanò, A; Caruso, G; Meli, F; Calisto, A; Tomasello, F

    2003-03-01

    Growing Skull Fractures (GSF) are rare complications of head trauma, primarily reported in infancy and early childhood. GSF are commonly located on calvaria, and rarely in other locations, including the skull base. In this study, we report two cases of GSF occurring in unusual locations. The first, a 8-month old girl, with a GSF of the suboccipital posterior fossa region, and the second, a 4-year old boy with a GS