Science.gov

Sample records for occurring retirement community

  1. Therapeutic Recreation in the Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC): Benefitting "Aging in Place."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Describes how therapeutic recreation in naturally occurring retirement communities (neighborhoods where most residents are older) can promote healthy lifestyles, presenting a case report of an in-home therapeutic recreation program offered in conjunction with nursing and social services in a such a community and discussing implications for…

  2. Characterizing Older Adults' Involvement in Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) Supportive Service Programs.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Emily A; Fedor, James P

    2015-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC) Supportive Service Programs constitute one of the longest-standing models for age-friendly community initiatives. As a support-focused model, NORC programs typically offer a range of benefits--including direct services, group activities, and broader community development activities--that are intended to engage older adults with diverse needs, preferences, and interests. Moreover, NORC programs are designed to be used according to the needs of the particular participant engaging with them at a particular point in time. This range and flexibility of benefits indicate the importance of more systematically characterizing the ways in which older adults are involved with NORC programs. For this purpose, we used data from in-depth interviews with 35 residents across 6 NORC programs in New York City. Qualitative analysis revealed 6 ordered categories of involvement: (a) consciously no involvement; (b) involved, but not consciously; (c) relationship with staff only; (d) selectively involved with a strong sense of security; (e) NORC program leaders; and (f) dependence on the NORC program. Overall, results indicate how older adults' involvement in NORC programs can be characterized beyond their utilization of specific types of services and by their relationship with the program as a whole. Findings suggest the importance for outcomes research on NORC programs and related models to consider subgroup differences by involvement. Results also provide directions for theory development on engagement in voluntary programs, as well as for practice to enhance older adults' involvement in supportive service programs.

  3. The Case of an In-Home Recreation Program for an Older Adult in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an in-home therapeutic recreation (TR) program with an elderly woman living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) by a fourth-year TR student. The program helped meet her physical, social, and cognitive needs and re-stimulate her interests. Results suggest that in-home TR can be beneficial, and TR…

  4. The Case of an In-Home Recreation Program for an Older Adult in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an in-home therapeutic recreation (TR) program with an elderly woman living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) by a fourth-year TR student. The program helped meet her physical, social, and cognitive needs and re-stimulate her interests. Results suggest that in-home TR can be beneficial, and TR…

  5. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  6. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  7. Retirement in Illinois Community Colleges, 1985-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David L.

    This analysis of retirement planning and early retirement incentive plans in Illinois community colleges was drawn from a study of early retirement plans at each of the state's 39 community colleges, and a follow-up survey to clarify information in the documents and determine colleges' plans for the future. After introductory comments on the issue…

  8. Retirement Function and Community Growth in Michigan Nonmetropolitan Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ching-li; Beegle, J. Allan

    In an effort to determine the extent to which the development of the retirement function can contribute to growth and development of rural communities, 42 counties not adjacent to Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in Michigan were studied. The retirement function was treated as a specialized community function, parallel to specialization…

  9. Social Interaction and Alcohol Use in Retirement Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Francesca; Duff, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 260 residents of three retirement communities. Found regular drinking more common in these communities than in general population of older adults. Drinking was associated with social activity rather than with isolation or stresses of aging. Concluded that drinking was integral part of communities' leisure subculture and that social and…

  10. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  11. Baby Boomers in an Active Adult Retirement Community: Comity Interrupted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Erin G.; Keimig, Lynn; Rubinstein, Robert L.; Morgan, Leslie; Eckert, J. Kevin; Goldman, Susan; Peeples, Amanda D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article explores a clash between incoming Baby Boomers and older residents in an active adult retirement community (AARC). We examine issues of social identity and attitudes as these groups encounter each other. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from a multiyear ethnographic study of social relations in senior housing.…

  12. Use of Nutritional Supplements in a Retirement Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffrey; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Based upon self-reports, prevalence of nutritional supplement usage by 236 residents of a retirement community was 53 percent, with 91 percent of supplement users taking them daily and 61 percent for more than five years. Tiredness was the most frequent reason given for use. (Author/BL)

  13. Use of Nutritional Supplements in a Retirement Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffrey; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Based upon self-reports, prevalence of nutritional supplement usage by 236 residents of a retirement community was 53 percent, with 91 percent of supplement users taking them daily and 61 percent for more than five years. Tiredness was the most frequent reason given for use. (Author/BL)

  14. Retirement Migration as a Community Development Option. Attracting Retirees as a Community Development Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Annabel Kirschner; Glasgow, Nina L.

    1990-01-01

    Cook explores the feasibility of a strategy to attract retirees to rural areas using amenities, service availability, and cost-of-living factors. Glasgow examines growth in nonmetropolitan retirement counties and considers strategies for community development. (SK)

  15. Promoting walking among older adults living in retirement communities.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin

    2012-07-01

    The authors tested the feasibility and acceptability, and explored the outcomes, of 2 walking interventions based on ecological models among older adults living in retirement communities. An enhanced intervention (EI) was compared with a standard walking intervention (SI) among residents in 4 retirement facilities (N = 87 at baseline; mean age = 84.1 yr). All participants received a walking intervention including pedometers, printed materials, and biweekly group sessions. EI participants also received phone counseling and environmental-awareness components. Measures included pedometer step counts, activities of daily living, environment-related variables, physical function, depression, cognitive function, satisfaction, and adherence. Results indicated improvements among the total sample for step counts, neighborhood barriers, cognitive function, and satisfaction with walking opportunities. Satisfaction and adherence were high. Both walking interventions were feasible to implement among facility-dwelling older adults. Future studies can build on this multilevel approach.

  16. Pneumococcal Carriage and Vaccine Coverage in Retirement Community Residents.

    PubMed

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Kistler, Christine E; Ward, Kimberly; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Better, Olga Maria; Weber, David J; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Nicholson, Bradly P; Woods, Chris W; Sloane, Philip

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate pneumococcal immunization in older adults living in retirement communities and to measure nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae to better assess the potential for herd protection from the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) in these settings. Cross-sectional observational study of adults aged 65 and older living in retirement communities to determine coverage with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPSV-23), coverage with PCV-13 in immuncompromised individuals according to 2012 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines, and nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae. Two retirement communities in North Carolina. Older adults recruited between December 2013 and April 2014 (N = 21, 64.8% female, mean age 81.4). A survey was used to assess chronic illnesses, immunization history, and potential risk factors for pneumococcal carriage; a chart review was used to confirm immunization history and abstract chronic conditions; and a nasopharyngeal swab was collected and cultured for S. pneumoniae. Eighty-seven percent of participants reported receiving PPSV-23 since age 65. Of the 16.2% of participants with an immunocompromising condition, only one had received PCV-13. Nasopharyngeal carriage with S. pneumoniae was detected in 1.9% (95% confidence interval = 0.0-3.8%) of participants. In this select sample, PPSV-23 coverage was high, but adherence to the ACIP recommendation for PCV-13 in immunocompromised groups was low. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was present, although infrequent, suggesting that immunization with PCV-13 could provide an individual benefit and a small degree of herd protection. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  18. Retirement community residents' physical activity, depressive symptoms, and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N=38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Use of an online survey during an outbreak of clostridium perfringens in a retirement community-Arizona, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Seema; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Stewart, Jennifer; Sunenshine, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal (GI) illness among retirement community residents was reported to the Maricopa County Department of Public Health. Online surveys can be useful for rapid investigation of disease outbreaks, especially when local health departments lack time and resources to perform telephone interviews. Online survey utility among older populations, which may lack computer access or literacy, has not been defined. To investigate and implement prevention measures for a GI outbreak and assess the utility of an online survey among retirement community residents. A retrospective cohort investigation was conducted using an online survey distributed through the retirement community e-mail listserv; a follow-up telephone survey was conducted to assess computer literacy and Internet access. A case was defined as any GI illness occurring among residents during March 1-14, 2012. A barbecue in a retirement community of 3000 residents. Retirement community residents. Residents were directed to discard leftover food and seek health care for symptoms. A telephone survey was conducted to assess the utility of online surveys in this population. Computer literacy and Internet access of retirement community residents. Of 1000 residents on the listserv, 370 (37%) completed the online survey (mean age, 69.7 years; 60.6% women); 66 residents (17.8%) reported a GI illness after the barbecue, 63 (95.5%) reported diarrhea, and 5 (7.6%) reported vomiting. Leftover beef from an attendee's refrigerator grew Clostridium perfringens. Of 552 residents contacted by telephone, 113 completed the telephone survey (mean age, 71.3 years; 63.3% women), 101 (89.4%) reported the ability to send e-mail, 82 (81.2%) checked e-mail daily, and 28 (27.7%) checked e-mail on a handheld device. The attack rate was 17.8% for online versus 2.7% for telephone respondents (P < .001). This outbreak demonstrated the utility of an online survey to rapidly collect information and implement prevention

  20. Patterns of Adjustment: What Happens to Community College Presidents Following Termination or Forced Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimer, Muriel Kay; And Others

    A study was conducted by the Presidents Academy of the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges to examine problems faced by community college presidents following termination or forced retirement from their positions. Interviews were conducted with 12 former presidents who had been officially dismissed by their governing boards or…

  1. Community College Administrative Roles in Identifying Faculty for Future Management Positions: A Phenomenological Study of Retired Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Brian Doyle

    2013-01-01

    The community college system is beginning to see waves of retirements at all levels of the administrative structure. These retirements, in conjunction with expected growth in administrative positions, will result in system-wide administrative vacancies. Community colleges not already seeking new leaders are likely to find themselves in the midst…

  2. Community College Administrative Roles in Identifying Faculty for Future Management Positions: A Phenomenological Study of Retired Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Brian Doyle

    2013-01-01

    The community college system is beginning to see waves of retirements at all levels of the administrative structure. These retirements, in conjunction with expected growth in administrative positions, will result in system-wide administrative vacancies. Community colleges not already seeking new leaders are likely to find themselves in the midst…

  3. New Zealand rugby health study: motor cortex excitability in retired elite and community level rugby players.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gwyn N; Hume, Patria A; Stavric, Verna; Brown, Scott R; Taylor, Denise

    2017-01-13

    Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22). Assessments of corticomotor excitability were made using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Resting motor threshold was significantly higher and long-interval intracortical inhibition was greater in the elite rugby group compared to the control group. Participants in the two rugby groups had sustained significantly more concussions than the control group. We provide some evidence of altered corticomotor excitation and inhibition in retired elite rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. Given the absence of findings in the community rugby group, who had experienced a similar number of concussions, the association with previous brain injury is unclear.

  4. "But I Am Not Moving": Residents' Perspectives on Transitions within a Continuing Care Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how continuing care retirement community (CCRC) residents define transitions between levels of care. Although older adults move to CCRCs to "age in place," moving between levels of care is often stressful. More than half a million older adults live in CCRCs, with numbers continually increasing; yet, no studies…

  5. Impact of an Early Retirement Program: A Case Analysis of a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Lawrence Allen

    This case study examines the impact of Early Retirement Incentive Programs (ERIP) on Ohio's two-year public colleges through a single case study analysis at Monticello Community College. Data came from interviews and an examination of college documents. This study specifically sought to address: (1) the financial impact (savings versus costs) of…

  6. Aging Well in an Upscale Retirement Community: The Relationships among Perceived Stress, Mattering, and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Residents (N = 142) of a southeastern, upscale retirement community completed measures of wellness, perceived stress, and mattering. Participants scored higher than did a group of adults under age 60 on 4 of 5 second-order wellness factors and Total Wellness, with medium to large effect sizes. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 2…

  7. Active aging for individuals with intellectual disability: meaningful community participation through employment, retirement, service, and volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Hall, Allison Cohen; Quinlan, Jerrilyn; Jockell, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    As individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities become more engaged in community employment, it will be critical to consider how their employment experience changes as they age. Similar to other seniors, individuals will need to consider whether they want to maintain their employment, reduce their work commitment, or retire completely. If they do choose to retire, what activities will they choose to engage in, and what service or supports might be necessary? This article considers the issues faced by all aging workers in regard to retirement planning and active aging as well as specific strategies for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities to remain active and engaged. Recommendations for service options, policy consideration, and future research are also discussed.

  8. Needing smart home technologies: the perspectives of older adults in continuing care retirement communities.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Karen L; Demiris, George; Rantz, Marilyn; Skubic, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    At present, the vast majority of older adults reside in the community. Though many older adults live in their own homes, increasing numbers are choosing continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs), which range from independent apartments to assisted living and skilled-nursing facilities. With predictions of a large increase in the segment of the population aged 65 and older, a subsequent increase in demand on CCRCs can be anticipated. With these expectations, researchers have begun exploring the use of smart home information-based technologies in these care facilities to enhance resident quality of life and safety, but little evaluation research exists on older adults' acceptance and use of these technologies. This study investigated the factors that influence the willingness of older adults living in independent and assisted living CCRCs to adopt smart home technology. Participants (n = 14) were recruited from community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 or older, living in one of two mid-western US CCRC facilities (independent living and assisted living type facilities). This study used a qualitative, descriptive approach, guided by principles of grounded theory research. Data saturation (or when no new themes or issues emerged from group sessions) occurred after four focus groups (n = 11 unique respondents) and was confirmed through additional individual interviews (n = 3). The findings from this study indicate that although privacy can be a barrier for older adults' adoption of smart home technology their own perception of their need for the technology can override their privacy concerns. Factors influencing self-perception of need for smart home technology, including the influence of primary care providers, are presented. Further exploration of the factors influencing older adults' perceptions of smart home technology need and the development of appropriate interventions is necessary.

  9. Assessment of the Psychosocial Adjustment of Well Elderly Residing in Retirement Communities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; McKethan, Tamara; Chernecky, Cynthia; Looney, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Moving to a retirement community involves a major life transition that requires adjustment to a new way of life. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to assess the psychosocial adjustment of residents. Using the Life Patterns Model as a conceptual framework, residents of 3 retirement communities (n = 240 residents) were surveyed. Median ages were ∼84 years, Nearly 85% (202) reported that they feel good about themselves and most (92.5%; n = 221) have things to do that they enjoy. Health status was strongly associated with having nearby relatives (rs = -.232, p > .000, n = 239). A factor analysis supported the use of the conceptual framework. Findings indicate that the tool can used for the designed purpose.

  10. Drinking behavior among older adults in a planned retirement community: results from The Villages survey.

    PubMed

    Fishleder, Sarah; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Corvin, Jaime; Tyler, Susan; VandeWeerd, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Research indicates increasing trends among older adults toward heavy and abusive drinking, often associated with depressive symptoms. Possible exceptions are residents of planned retirement communities, whose drinking may be associated with social activities. To better understand these relationships, this study examined the relationship of depressive symptoms and drinking in a large retirement community. The Villages, a retirement community in central Florida with a focus on healthy, active living, has almost 90,000 residents. In 2012, a population-based needs assessment was conducted in partnership with University of South Florida Health. In the present study, 11,102 surveys were completed and returned. A structural equation model was utilized to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol use as measured by the three-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Hazardous drinking was reported in 15.4% of respondents, somewhat higher than the general population of older adults (around 10%). Variables of depressive symptoms, physical activity, total health problems, and poor general health loaded significantly into the factor of depression indicators, which was shown to have a significant, negative correlation with risk of hazardous drinking (λ = 0.16, p < 0.000, R(2) = 0.02). Results suggest at-risk drinking among respondents was not associated with depression, in contrast to studies of older adults living alone where alcohol abuse was often associated with depression. Implications for successful aging are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The continuing care retirement community executive: a manager for all seasons.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R E; Brewer, K P

    1991-01-01

    The continuing care retirement community industry is a growing source of residential and health care services for the elderly population. It is also a relatively new and expanding career path for both health care and hospitality managers. Using in-depth interviews with executives in a sample of 26 communities, this study provides one of the most complete portraits to date of the nature of managing these communities. The findings indicate that these organizations are complex and multifaceted, demanding versatile skills and abilities. Most critical are those skills that enable a manager to interact effectively with residents and staff to build and maintain a hospitable, accommodating community environment. As competition in the industry intensifies, community viability may become synonymous with customer satisfaction. Management training and development will need to be highly attentive to the distinctive features of these intriguing organizations.

  12. Retirement Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edison State Community Coll., Piqua, OH.

    This curriculum guide was developed for use in Edison State Community College's (ESCC's) Community Pre-Retirement Training Program. The first of the guide's seven modules provides a brief look at retirement, retirement planning, and the ESCC program. The second module focuses on relationships, considering issues such as communication, finances,…

  13. Retirement and relevant contemplation.

    PubMed

    Khan, H U; Latif, S A

    2010-01-01

    Retirement literally means withdrawing from the service. The retirement age varies from country to country, generally between 55 and 70 years. There are many effects of retirement upon retirees. The physical and mental health may be disrupted or decline or may remain unaffected. Early retirement have an increased mortality than those who retired lately. Mandatory retirement is applicable to certain occupation like military personnel and airline pilot. Life after retirement from service may have many options like retired community, charities, tourism, and care for grand children or devote to a hobby or sports. The responsibilities of the Government, family and society are the key for the betterment of retired persons. Staying healthy, maintaining social support, spiritual life, good finance and making daily routine prevent stress after retirement.

  14. State unit on aging involvement with continuing care retirement community (CCRC) legislation.

    PubMed

    Netting, F E; Wilson, C C; Stearns, L R; Branch, L G

    1992-09-01

    State units on aging (SUAs) from 29 states with continuing care retirement community (CCRC) legislation were surveyed to (a) assess staff familiarity with CCRC legislation, (b) examine interdepartmental working relationships surrounding such legislation and ask what role(s) ombudspersons are playing in CCRC oversight, (c) determine what role(s) aging units have had in developing legislation, and (d) gain insights regarding legislative impact. Results indicate that SUAs have been active in legislative development but vary greatly in the intensity of their involvement with the implementation and enforcement of CCRC regulation and in their perception of legislative impact.

  15. Volunteering and depressive symptoms among residents in a continuing care retirement community.

    PubMed

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the relationship between volunteer activities, depressive symptoms, and feelings of usefulness among older adults using path analysis. Survey data was collected via interview from residents of a continuing care retirement community. Neither feelings of usefulness nor volunteering were directly associated with depressive symptoms. Volunteering was directly associated with feelings of usefulness and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through total physical activity. Age, fear of falling, pain, physical activity, and physical resilience explained 31% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Engaging in volunteer work may be beneficial for increasing feelings of usefulness and indirectly improving depressive symptoms among older adults.

  16. 5 CFR 839.804 - If my qualifying retirement coverage error occurred while I was a reemployed annuitant, and I am...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Adjusting Retirement Deductions and Contributions Employee Retirement Deductions § 839.804 If my qualifying... the retroactive CSRS or FERS retirement deductions. The employer is responsible for paying to the Fund... is responsible for paying to the Fund any additional retirement deductions under the corrected...

  17. Embodiment and emplacement: identities, representation and landscape in Sun City retirement communities.

    PubMed

    Laws, G

    1995-01-01

    This article focuses on the embodiment, emplacement and representation of aged identities and suggests that more attention be paid to the spatiality of age relations. Identities are both externally imposed and self nominated. Using the example of retirees I explored the ways in which particular places are involved in the creation of identities. Sun City retirement communities are shown to 1) have a material form that serves the retiree identity, 2) be represented in particular ways that contribute to that identity and 3) simultaneously act as a representation. The article asks whether or not these communities are indicative of a shift to postmodernism, characterized by increased emphasis on surveillance, security, simulations, consumerism, and fragmentation of identities, in both life courses and landscapes.

  18. Will baby boomers create new models of retirement community in rural Australia?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Maureen F

    2014-12-01

    Baby boomers are depicted as a cohort who will redefine the ageing process and reject segregated homes for older people. This exploratory study sought to find and interview friendship groups in rural Australia who are actively engaged in creating alternative living arrangements conceptualised around preparations for old age. A purposive sampling frame and snowballing techniques were used to identify groups of interest, who were interviewed by phone using a semistructured survey. Five groups were identified, each with explicit plans to avoid segregated housing by taking care of each other. They believe segregated housing to be undesirable and unsustainable, and perceive a need for alternative solutions. Baby boomers geographically unattached and independent of children recognise they will require the cooperation of others to remain independent for as long as possible, and will strive to create mutually supportive living arrangements - thus creating new models of retirement community. © 2013 ACOTA.

  19. A Computer Services Program for Residents of a Continuing Care Retirement Community: Needs Assessment and Program Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grad, Jane; Berdes, Celia

    2005-01-01

    Preparatory to establishing a computer services program for residents, Presbyterian Homes, a multi-campus continuing care retirement community, conducted an assessment of residents' computer needs, ownership, and usage. Based on the results of the needs assessment, computer resource rooms were established at each facility, with computer hardware…

  20. A Computer Services Program for Residents of a Continuing Care Retirement Community: Needs Assessment and Program Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grad, Jane; Berdes, Celia

    2005-01-01

    Preparatory to establishing a computer services program for residents, Presbyterian Homes, a multi-campus continuing care retirement community, conducted an assessment of residents' computer needs, ownership, and usage. Based on the results of the needs assessment, computer resource rooms were established at each facility, with computer hardware…

  1. Ah, Retirement! Hmm, Retirement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Jack O.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the disadvantages of compulsory retirement at age 65 for senior business executives and suggests several possible ways companies can make good use of the experience and expertise of retirement-age executives. (Available from Business Horizons, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401; $2.50, single copy) (JG)

  2. Retirement Options to Offer College Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felicetti, Daniel A.

    1982-01-01

    Retirement options available to institutions are outlined, including early retirement incentives, phased retirement, facilitating consulting opportunities, travel and outplacement services, maintaining community involvement, annuities, and pensions. Suggestions are made for increasing cost-effectiveness and fitting the options to local…

  3. A little help, a lot of independence. Retirement community advances the cause of aging with dignity.

    PubMed

    Paul, M

    1993-05-01

    Sometimes the elderly need only a little extra help to make it on their own. When this is the case, it behooves providers of healthcare and social services to meet those needs and allow these individuals to maintain the dignity of independent living as they age. At Resurrection Retirement Community, an independent living facility on Chicago's northwest side, the Garden Annex fills this niche in a unique model of independent living with additional services. Services include three meals a day in the common dining room, laundry service for household linen, and weekly maid service. Residents enjoy varied activities, exercise sessions, and socialization with friends and neighbors. They also have access to such amenities as daily religious services, a library, a beauty salon, and banking facilities. To live in the Garden Annex, prospective residents must meet certain physical and mental criteria and be able to function somewhat independently. In contrast to assisted living facilities, the Garden Annex does not provide nursing care or assistance with personal care. However, residents may take advantage of the continuum of care offered by Resurrection Health Care Corporation. They are afforded access to a medical center, a long-term care facility, and physicians' services.

  4. A Multidisciplinary Model of Dementia Care in an Underserved Retirement Community, Made Possible by Telemedicine

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Jason V.; Farinpour, Roxanna; Chui, Helena C.; Liu, Collin Y.

    2016-01-01

    The need for memory specialists is increasing as the incidence of dementia rapidly rises across the globe. In rural areas, demand for these specialists far outstrips supply. It is increasingly difficulty for patients to receive care in a timely manner. In this paper, we document our experience using videoconference telemedicine to bring a multidisciplinary model of care to a rural retirement community in Southern California. To our knowledge, we are one of the first to integrate telemedicine into dementia care on this large a scale. Given the relatively remote location, patients and neurologists have previously had to travel great distances and bear with long wait times. With neurological consultation by telemedicine and a local team consisting of a geriatrician, a neuropsychologist, and a case manager, we have been able to provide comprehensive dementia care in this underserved area, comparable to university-affiliated California Alzheimer’s Disease Centers, typically found only in major metropolitan areas. We have shown that telemedicine can be very effective in improving access and quality of dementia care. PMID:28066313

  5. Time To Retire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    In Solon v. Gray Community School Corporation (Indiana)," the school district offered incentives for early retirement to teachers who retired with a minimum age of 58 and a maximum age of 61. The 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the core of the district court's ruling that the arrangement discriminated against older workers. (MLF)

  6. Preparing for asset retirement.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Randall W; Reinstein, Alan

    2003-04-01

    Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 143 requires organizations to recognize a liability for an asset retirement obligation when it is incurred--even if that occurs far in advance of the asset's planned retirement. For example, organizations must recognize future costs associated with medical equipment disposal that carries hazardous material legal obligations.

  7. A computer services program for residents of a continuing care retirement community: needs assessment and program design.

    PubMed

    Grad, Jane; Berdes, Celia

    2005-01-01

    Preparatory to establishing a computer services program for residents, Presbyterian Homes, a multi-campus continuing care retirement community, conducted an assessment of residents' computer needs, ownership, and usage. Based on the results of the needs assessment, computer resource rooms were established at each facility, with computer hardware and software adapted for the use of seniors. We also deliver adapted computer education for residents, including small-group training in basic software skills; classes on software for computer accessibility; and workshops on themes motivating computer use. Ongoing evaluation shows that half of residents make use of computer resources, and that their computer skills have opened the door to other educational opportunities.

  8. Disability retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Eligibility for disability retirement is discussed. General guidelines and a few standards are given. Usually the same basic medical principles apply to the evaluation of claims for disability retirement as apply to determining medical suitability for initial employment.

  9. Disability retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Eligibility for disability retirement is discussed. General guidelines and a few standards are given. Usually the same basic medical principles apply to the evaluation of claims for disability retirement as apply to determining medical suitability for initial employment.

  10. Independent Associations Between Sedentary Behaviors and Mental, Cognitive, Physical, and Functional Health Among Older Adults in Retirement Communities.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Bellettiere, John; Gardiner, Paul A; Villarreal, Veronica N; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between objective and self-reported sedentary time and health indicators among older adults residing in retirement communities. Our cross-sectional analysis used data from 307 participants who completed baseline measurements of a physical activity trial in 11 retirement communities in San Diego County. Sedentary time was objectively measured with devices (accelerometers) and using self-reports. Outcomes assessed included emotional and cognitive health, physical function, and physical health (eg, blood pressure). Linear mixed-effects models examined associations between sedentary behavior and outcomes adjusting for demographics and accelerometer physical activity. Higher device-measured sedentary time was associated with worse objective physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery, balance task scores, 400-m walk time, chair stand time, gait speed), self-reported physical function, and fear of falling but with less sleep disturbance (all ps < .05). TV viewing was positively related to 400-m walk time (p < .05). Self-reported sedentary behavior was related to better performance on one cognitive task (trails A; p < .05). Sedentary time was mostly related to poorer physical function independently of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and may be a modifiable behavior target in interventions aiming to improve physical function in older adults. Few associations were observed with self-reported sedentary behavior measures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  12. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  13. Mental Retirement*

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927

  14. Why Hyperbonding Occurs in the Learning Community Classroom and What to Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbonding can be a disruptive force in the learning community classroom characterized by nonproductive student behaviors. Research has not identified how frequently hyperbonding occurs in learning communities or why. However, studies have begun to link hyperbonding to the presence of cohorts. I explain how cohorts form and develop, and how they…

  15. Consequences of Stroke in Community-Dwelling Elderly: The Health and Retirement Study 1998-2008

    PubMed Central

    Divani, Afshin A.; Majidi, Shahram; Barrett, Anna M.; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Luft, Andreas R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke survivors are at risk of developing co-morbidities that further reduce their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of developing a secondary health problem after stroke. Methods We performed a case-control analysis using six biennial interview waves (1998 to 2008) of the Health and Retirement Study. We compared 631 non-institutionalized individuals who had suffered a single stroke to 631 controls matched for age, gender and interview-wave. We studied sleep problems, urinary incontinence (UI), motor impairment, falls and memory deficits among the two groups. Results Stroke survivors frequently developed new or worsened motor impairment (33%), sleep problems (up to 33%), falls (30%), UI (19%), and memory deficits (9%). As compared with controls, the risk of developing a secondary health problem was highest for memory deficits (OR: 2.45, 95%CI: 1.34-4.46), followed by UI (OR: 1.86, 95%CI: 1.31-2.66), motor impairment (OR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.16-2.24), falls (OR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.12-2.0) and sleep disturbances (OR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.09-2.03). In contrast, stroke survivors were not more likely to injure themselves during a fall (OR: 1.14, 95%CI: 0.72-1.79). After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, social status, psychiatric symptoms and pain, the risks of falling or developing sleep problems were not different from the control subjects. Conclusions The risk of developing a secondary health problem that can impact daily life is markedly increased after stroke. A better understanding of frequencies and risks for secondary health problems after stroke are necessary for designing better preventive and rehabilitation strategies. PMID:21597018

  16. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bellettiere, John; Carlson, Jordan A.; Rosenberg, Dori; Singhania, Anant; Natarajan, Loki; Berardi, Vincent; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Moran, Kevin; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Total sedentary time varies across population groups with important health consequences. Patterns of sedentary time accumulation may vary and have differential health risks. The purpose of this study is to describe sedentary patterns of older adults living in retirement communities and illustrate gender and age differences in those patterns. Methods Baseline accelerometer data from 307 men and women (mean age = 84±6 years) who wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for ≥ 4 days as part of a physical activity intervention were classified into bouts of sedentary time (<100 counts per minute). Linear mixed models were used to account for intra-person and site-level clustering. Daily and hourly summaries were examined in mutually non-exclusive bouts of sedentary time that were 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+, 60+, 90+ and 120+ minutes in duration. Variations by time of day, age and gender were explored. Results Men accumulated more sedentary time than women in 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+ and 60+ minute bouts; the largest gender-differences were observed in 10+ and 20+ minute bouts. Age was positively associated with sedentary time, but only in bouts of 10+, 20+, 30+, and 40+ minutes. Women had more daily 1+ minute sedentary bouts than men (71.8 vs. 65.2), indicating they break up sedentary time more often. For men and women, a greater proportion of time was spent being sedentary during later hours of the day than earlier. Gender differences in intra-day sedentary time were observed during morning hours with women accumulating less sedentary time overall and having more 1+ minute bouts. Conclusions Patterns identified using bouts of sedentary time revealed gender and age differences in the way in which sedentary time was accumulated by older adults in retirement communities. Awareness of these patterns can help interventionists better target sedentary time and may aid in the identification of health risks associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies

  17. Retired, on Campus, and at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Jerry; Bram, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Describes the retirement community supported by the University of Florida in Gainesville. The Oak Hammock facility is to be an integrated community in which retirees are active participants in the university campus community. The various university colleges will play different roles in the retirement community, whether in health care or…

  18. Retired, on Campus, and at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Jerry; Bram, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Describes the retirement community supported by the University of Florida in Gainesville. The Oak Hammock facility is to be an integrated community in which retirees are active participants in the university campus community. The various university colleges will play different roles in the retirement community, whether in health care or…

  19. Active Aging for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: Meaningful Community Participation through Employment, Retirement, Service, and Volunteerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch; Hall, Allison Cohen; Quinlan, Jerrilyn; Jockell, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    As individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities become more engaged in community employment, it will be critical to consider how their employment experience changes as they age. Similar to other seniors, individuals will need to consider whether they want to maintain their employment, reduce their work commitment, or retire…

  20. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders: Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Joann Y.; Stommel, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes 12 months post-prison release for offenders with co-occurring disorders (n = 185) randomly assigned to either a mental health control treatment (C) or a modified therapeutic community (E). Significant between-group differences were not found for mental health measures, although improvements were observed for each…

  1. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders: Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Joann Y.; Stommel, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes 12 months post-prison release for offenders with co-occurring disorders (n = 185) randomly assigned to either a mental health control treatment (C) or a modified therapeutic community (E). Significant between-group differences were not found for mental health measures, although improvements were observed for each…

  2. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects.

  3. Budgeting for Early Retirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald R.

    1999-01-01

    School business administrators are devoting a significant portion of their time to retirement-related issues. Describes the retirement systems in place in Illinois and provides some budgeting examples for retirements and early retirements of school district personnel. (MLF)

  4. Assessing physical and cognitive function of older adults in continuing care retirement communities: Who are we recruiting?

    PubMed Central

    Wrights, Abbie P.; Fain, Christie W.; Miller, Michael E.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marsh, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In partnership with six Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs), the current study focused on the feasibility of recruiting a representative sample of residents and then assessing their functional health. Material and Methods With our guidance, each of the six CCRCs recruited a volunteer (V-Group) and random (R-Group) sample of independent living residents. We provided face-to-face training and ongoing remote electronic support to the CCRC staff on the testing battery and the web-based data entry system. The testing battery was consisted of demographic, physical function, and psychosocial assessments. Results After training, CCRC staff were receptive to the study goals and successfully used the data entry website. In the V-Group (N=189), 76% were already participating in CCRC wellness programs. We attempted to recruit a random, unbiased (R-Group) sample of 20% (n=105) of eligible residents; however, only 30 consented to be tested and 70% of this group (21/30) was also already participating in a wellness program. Mean age of all participants was 82.9 years. The V-Group had a higher Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) total score (least squares mean[SE], 9.4[0.2] vs 8.2[0.4], p=0.014) and SPPB gait speed component score (3.5[0.1] vs 3.0[0.2], p=0.007) and spent more time doing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (300[21] vs 163[49] min/week, p=0.013) compared to the R-Group. Implications While it is feasible to recruit, assess and transmit data on residents’ functional health in partnership with CCRCs, population validity was severely compromised. Attention needs to be given to the development of more effective methods to recruit less interested residents. PMID:25510892

  5. Health and Retirement in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Ronald; Jones, Andrew M.; Rice, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    We use discrete-time hazard models with internationally comparable data from the full eight waves of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) to study the relationship between retirement and health in nine European countries. Our results provide new evidence of the relationship of health shocks to early retirement. The pattern of results across countries reflects international differences in the incentives created by social security systems. PMID:20054462

  6. Modified Therapeutic Community for Co-Occurring Disorders: A Summary of Four Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Stanley; Banks, Steven; McKendrick, Karen; Sacks, Joann Y

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from four research studies (N=902) that examined the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) for clients with co-occurring disorders (most with severe mental disorders). Significantly better outcomes for MTC were found across four E vs. C comparisons on 23.1% (12 of 52) of primary outcome measures of substance use, mental health, crime, HIV risk, employment and housing. Study limitations included the potential for selection bias, limited measurement of program fidelity and insufficient examination of the relationship between treatment dose and outcome. Future research should emphasize clinical trial replications, multiple outcome domains and further development of continuing care models. Given the need for research-based approaches, the MTC warrants consideration when program and policy planners are designing programs for co-occurring disorders. PMID:17574792

  7. It's time to retire. Retirement.

    PubMed

    Dychtwald, Ken; Erickson, Tamara; Morison, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Companies have been so focused on down-sizing to contain costs that they've largely neglected a looming threat to their competitiveness: a severe shortage of talented workers. The general population is aging and with it, the labor pool. People are living longer, healthier lives, and the birthrate is at a historical low. During the next 15 years, 80% of the native-born workforce growth in North America--and even more in much of Western Europe--is going to be in the over-50 age cohort. When these mature workers begin to retire, there won't be nearly enough young people entering the workforce to compensate. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a shortfall of 10 million workers in the United States in 2010, and in countries where the birthrate is well below the population replacement level (particularly in Western Europe), the shortage will hit sooner, be more severe, and remain chronic. The problem won't just be a lack of bodies. Skills, knowledge, experience, and relationships walk out the door every time somebody retires--and they take time and money to replace. And while the brain drain is beginning now, the problem is going to become much more acute in the next decade or so, when baby boomers--more than one-quarter of all Americans, amounting to 76 million people--start hitting their mid sixties. Based on the results of their yearlong research project, the authors of this article offer recommendations for gaining the loyalty of older workers and creating a more flexible approach to retirement that allows people to continue contributing well into their sixties and seventies. Companies can no longer afford to think of retirement as a onetime event, permanently dividing work life from leisure.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Cultivable Communities of Co-occurring Endophytes and Pathogens in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Comby, Morgane; Lacoste, Sandrine; Baillieul, Fabienne; Profizi, Camille; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the diversity of endogenous microbes from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and to study the structure of its microbial communities, with the ultimate goal to provide candidate strains for future evaluation as potential biological control agents against wheat diseases. We sampled plants from two wheat cultivars, Apache and Caphorn, showing different levels of susceptibility to Fusarium head blight, a major disease of wheat, and tested for variation in microbial diversity and assemblages depending on the host cultivar, host organ (aerial organs vs. roots) or host maturity. Fungi and bacteria were isolated using a culture dependent method. Isolates were identified using ribosomal DNA sequencing and we used diversity analysis to study the community composition of microorganisms over space and time. Results indicate great species diversity in wheat, with endophytes and pathogens co-occurring inside plant tissues. Significant differences in microbial communities were observed according to host maturity and host organs but we did not find clear differences between host cultivars. Some species isolated have not yet been reported as wheat endophytes and among all species recovered some might be good candidates as biological control agents, given their known effects toward plant pathogens. PMID:27065969

  9. Making species salinity sensitivity distributions reflective of naturally occurring communities: using rapid testing and Bayesian statistics.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Graeme L; Kefford, Ben J; Dunlop, Jason E; Craig, Peter S

    2008-11-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) may accurately predict the proportion of species in a community that are at hazard from environmental contaminants only if they contain sensitivity data from a large sample of species representative of the mix of species present in the locality or habitat of interest. With current widely accepted ecotoxicological methods, however, this rarely occurs. Two recent suggestions address this problem. First, use rapid toxicity tests, which are less rigorous than conventional tests, to approximate experimentally the sensitivity of many species quickly and in approximate proportion to naturally occurring communities. Second, use expert judgements regarding the sensitivity of higher taxonomic groups (e.g., orders) and Bayesian statistical methods to construct SSDs that reflect the richness (or perceived importance) of these groups. Here, we describe and analyze several models from a Bayesian perspective to construct SSDs from data derived using rapid toxicity testing, combining both rapid test data and expert opinion. We compare these new models with two frequentist approaches, Kaplan-Meier and a log-normal distribution, using a large data set on the salinity sensitivity of freshwater macroinvertebrates from Victoria (Australia). The frequentist log-normal analysis produced a SSD that overestimated the hazard to species relative to the Kaplan-Meier and Bayesian analyses. Of the Bayesian analyses investigated, the introduction of a weighting factor to account for the richness (or importance) of taxonomic groups influenced the calculated hazard to species. Furthermore, Bayesian methods allowed us to determine credible intervals representing SSD uncertainty. We recommend that rapid tests, expert judgements, and novel Bayesian statistical methods be used so that SSDs reflect communities of organisms found in nature.

  10. Factors associated with sustained community employment among adults with autism and co-occurring intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S; Lounds Taylor, Julie; Mailick, Marsha R

    2017-07-01

    Sustaining community employment is a challenge for adults with autism spectrum disorders, especially for those who have co-occurring intellectual disability, but factors contributing to this employment outcome have not been fully evaluated. This study utilized longitudinal data to explore the impact of contextual influences, family factors, and individual characteristics on sustained employment over approximately 18 months ( N = 105). Very few adults with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability achieved sustained employment (14.3%). The results indicated that more independent daily living skills, a higher family income, a larger maternal social network, an inclusive school environment in early childhood, and currently living in an area with a larger population size were associated with significantly greater odds of sustaining employment. Follow-up analyses suggested that managing personal care is particularly important for employment.

  11. Sharing rotting wood in the shade: ectomycorrhizal communities of co-occurring birch and hemlock seedlings.

    PubMed

    Poznanovic, Sarah K; Lilleskov, Erik A; Webster, Christopher R

    2015-02-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF)and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediated effects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominated stands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt) seedling pairs growing on CWD. Seedling foliage and CWD were analyzed chemically, and seedling growth, canopy cover, and canopy species determined. Thirteen fungal taxa, 12 associated with birch, and 6 with hemlock, were identified based on morphology and ITS sequencing. Five species were shared by co-occurring birch and hemlock, representing 75% of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Rarified ECMF taxon richness per seedling was higher on birch than hemlock. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed significant correlations between ordination axes, the mutually exclusive ECMF Tomentella and Lactarius spp., foliar N and K, CWD pH, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Seedlings colonized by Lactarius and T. sublilacina differed significantly in foliar K and N, and CWD differed in exchangeable Ca and Mg. CWD pH and nutrient concentrations were low but foliar macro-nutrient concentrations were not. We hypothesize that the dominant ECMF are adapted to low root carbohydrate availability typical in shaded environments but differ in their relative supply of different nutrients.

  12. Community norms about youth condom use in Western Kenya: is transition occurring?

    PubMed

    Tavrow, Paula; Karei, Eunice Muthengi; Obbuyi, Albert; Omollo, Vidalyne

    2012-06-01

    Most HIV prevention strategies for African youth have been ineffective in changing key behaviors like condom use, partly because community antagonism and structural barriers have rarely been addressed. Through qualitative research in rural Western Kenya, we sought to describe the attitudes of different segments of society towards youth condom use and to identify where transitions may be occurring. We found that about half of community members strongly opposed youth condom use, with many advocating punishment such as beatings and expulsion. Our research revealed significant differences in attitudes by gender, with females generally more opposed to youth condom use. Health providers, teachers and male students seemed to be transitioning to more permissive attitudes. They also had more accurate knowledge about the condom. Building on these transitional views, we would recommend that schools eliminate sanctions for students found with condoms and that clinics discourage providers from interrogating youths about their reasons for wanting condoms. Furthermore, we believe that health campaigns should portray condoms as "disaster preparedness" devices for responsible youths, and more efforts should be made to dispel myths about condoms' efficacy.

  13. Modified therapeutic community for co-occurring disorders: single investigator meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Stanley; McKendrick, Karen; Sacks, JoAnn Y; Cleland, Charles M

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis for a single investigator examining the effectiveness of the modified therapeutic community (MTC) for clients with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD). The flexibility and utility of meta-analytic tools are described, although their application in this context is atypical. The analysis includes 4 comparisons from 3 studies (retrieved N = 569) for various groups of clients with COD (homeless persons, offenders, and outpatients) in substance abuse treatment, comparing clients assigned either to an MTC or a control condition of standard services. An additional study is included in a series of sensitivity tests. The overall findings increase the research base of support for the MTC program for clients with COD, as results of the meta-analysis indicate significant MTC treatment effects for 5 of the 6 outcome domains across the 4 comparisons. Limitations of the approach are discussed. Independent replications, clinical trials, multiple outcome domains, and additional meta-analyses should be emphasized in future research. Given the need for research-based approaches, program and policy planners should consider the MTC when designing programs for co-occurring disorders.

  14. Retired Adults: Perceptions on Successful Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of the perceptions offered by adults who self-identify as being successfully retired. The increase in the percentage of the retiring population in the United States in the immediate future alerts us to the need to identify strategies that have been reported by retirees to successfully transition into retirement.…

  15. Retired Adults: Perceptions on Successful Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of the perceptions offered by adults who self-identify as being successfully retired. The increase in the percentage of the retiring population in the United States in the immediate future alerts us to the need to identify strategies that have been reported by retirees to successfully transition into retirement.…

  16. An Introduction to NCOA's Retirement Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Edmund W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the National Council on the Aging (NCOA)-Industry Consortium Retirement Planning Program, which consists of eight modules corresponding to eight major areas of retirement planning: life-style planning, financial planning, new careers, leisure time, health, interpersonal relationships, living arrangements, and community services. (SK)

  17. Legal immigrants: invasion of alien microbial communities during winter occurring desert dust storms.

    PubMed

    Weil, Tobias; De Filippo, Carlotta; Albanese, Davide; Donati, Claudio; Pindo, Massimo; Pavarini, Lorenzo; Carotenuto, Federico; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Sattler, Birgit; Cavalieri, Duccio; Miglietta, Franco

    2017-03-10

    A critical aspect regarding the global dispersion of pathogenic microorganisms is associated with atmospheric movement of soil particles. Especially, desert dust storms can transport alien microorganisms over continental scales and can deposit them in sensitive sink habitats. In winter 2014, the largest ever recorded Saharan dust event in Italy was efficiently deposited on the Dolomite Alps and was sealed between dust-free snow. This provided us the unique opportunity to overcome difficulties in separating dust associated from "domestic" microbes and thus, to determine with high precision microorganisms transported exclusively by desert dust. Our metagenomic analysis revealed that sandstorms can move not only fractions but rather large parts of entire microbial communities far away from their area of origin and that this microbiota contains several of the most stress-resistant organisms on Earth, including highly destructive fungal and bacterial pathogens. In particular, we provide first evidence that winter-occurring dust depositions can favor a rapid microbial contamination of sensitive sink habitats after snowmelt. Airborne microbial depositions accompanying extreme meteorological events represent a realistic threat for ecosystem and public health. Therefore, monitoring the spread and persistence of storm-travelling alien microbes is a priority while considering future trajectories of climatic anomalies as well as anthropogenically driven changes in land use in the source regions.

  18. Transition to Retirement Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iams, Howard M.

    Many retired persons return to work, to some extent, following their retirement. Data from the 1982 New Beneficiary Survey (NBS) of 4,212 women and 5,307 men were examined to determine the employment of retired-worker beneficiaries who were working 18-30 months after first receiving retired-worker benefits. According to the NBS data, over…

  19. An instrumental variables approach to post-acute care nursing home quality: is there a dime's worth of evidence that continuing care retirement communities provide higher quality?

    PubMed

    Bowblis, John R; McHone, Heather S

    2013-09-01

    For the affluent elderly, continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs) have become a popular option for long term care and other health care needs related to aging. While CCRCs have experienced significant growth over the last few decades, very little is known about the quality of care CCRCs provide. This paper is the first to rigorously study CCRCs on a national scale and the only study that focuses on nursing home quality. Using a national sample from 2005, we determine if the quality of post-acute care provided by CCRC nursing homes is superior to traditional nursing homes. To mimic randomization of patients, instrumental variables analysis is used with relative distance as an exclusion restriction to handle the endogeneity of the type of facility where care is provided. After adjusting for endogeniety, we find that CCRC nursing homes provide post-acute care quality that is similar or lower to traditional nursing homes, depending on the quality measure.

  20. Transition and Adaptation to the Continuing Care Retirement Community From a Life Course Perspective: Something Old, Something New, and Something Borrowed.

    PubMed

    Ayalon, Liat

    2016-03-16

    The study examined the accounts of older adults and their adult children concerning the transition to the continuing care retirement community (CCRC) and the adjustment to it, using a life course perspective. Up to three waves of interviews, consisting of a total of 187 interviews with older adults and their adult children, were conducted between 6 months and 6 years from the transition to the CCRC. Thematic analysis was employed using comparisons across groups of interviewees (older adults and adult children) and waves of interviews (up to three waves) to identify core categories of meaning. Time perception was an organizing principle across interviews. Both older adults and their adult children perceived themselves as moving forward and backward in time following the transition to the CCRC and future expectations for deterioration. The study emphasizes the linked-lives of older adults and their adult children.

  1. Sharing rotting wood in the shade: ectomycorrhizal communities of co-occurring birch and hemlock seedlings

    Treesearch

    Sarah K. Poznanovic; Erik A. Lilleskov; Christopher R. Webster

    2015-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediated effects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominated stands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with...

  2. Pseudo-nitzschia Challenged with Co-occurring Viral Communities Display Diverse Infection Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Michael C. G.; McCary, Nicolette D.; Leach, Terence S.; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are catalysts of biogeochemical cycling, architects of microbial community structure, and terminators of phytoplankton blooms. Viral lysis of diatoms, a key group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has the potential to impact carbon export and marine food webs. However, the impact of viruses on diatom abundance and community composition is unknown. Diatom-virus dynamics were explored by sampling every month at two coastal and estuarine locations in Washington state, USA resulting in 41 new isolates of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and 20 environmental virus samples. We conducted a total of 820 pair-wise crosses of the Pseudo-nitzschia isolates and viral communities. Viral communities infected Pseudo-nitzschia isolates in 8% of the crosses overall and 16% of crosses when the host and viral communities were isolated from the same sample. Isolates ranged in their permissivity to infection with some isolates not infected by any viral samples and others infected by up to 10 viral communities. Isolates that were infected by the most viral communities also had the highest maximum observed viral titers (as high as 16000 infectious units ml-1). Titers of the viral communities were host dependent, as titers for one viral sample on eight different hosts spanned four orders of magnitude. Sequencing of the Pseudo-nitzschia Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) of the revealed multiple subgroups of hosts with 100% ITS1 identities that were infected by different viral communities. Indeed, we repeatedly isolated groups of isolates with identical ITS1 sequences from the same water sample that displayed different viral infection phenotypes. The interactions between Pseudo-nitzschia and the viral communities highlight the diversity of diatoms and emphasize the complexity and variability of diatom-virus dynamics in the ocean. PMID:27148216

  3. Pseudo-nitzschia Challenged with Co-occurring Viral Communities Display Diverse Infection Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Michael C G; McCary, Nicolette D; Leach, Terence S; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are catalysts of biogeochemical cycling, architects of microbial community structure, and terminators of phytoplankton blooms. Viral lysis of diatoms, a key group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has the potential to impact carbon export and marine food webs. However, the impact of viruses on diatom abundance and community composition is unknown. Diatom-virus dynamics were explored by sampling every month at two coastal and estuarine locations in Washington state, USA resulting in 41 new isolates of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and 20 environmental virus samples. We conducted a total of 820 pair-wise crosses of the Pseudo-nitzschia isolates and viral communities. Viral communities infected Pseudo-nitzschia isolates in 8% of the crosses overall and 16% of crosses when the host and viral communities were isolated from the same sample. Isolates ranged in their permissivity to infection with some isolates not infected by any viral samples and others infected by up to 10 viral communities. Isolates that were infected by the most viral communities also had the highest maximum observed viral titers (as high as 16000 infectious units ml(-1)). Titers of the viral communities were host dependent, as titers for one viral sample on eight different hosts spanned four orders of magnitude. Sequencing of the Pseudo-nitzschia Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) of the revealed multiple subgroups of hosts with 100% ITS1 identities that were infected by different viral communities. Indeed, we repeatedly isolated groups of isolates with identical ITS1 sequences from the same water sample that displayed different viral infection phenotypes. The interactions between Pseudo-nitzschia and the viral communities highlight the diversity of diatoms and emphasize the complexity and variability of diatom-virus dynamics in the ocean.

  4. Psychological research on retirement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo; Shi, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Retirement as a research topic has become increasingly prominent in the psychology literature. This article provides a review of both theoretical development and empirical findings in this literature in the past two decades. We first discuss psychological conceptualizations of retirement and empirical operationalizations of retirement status. We then review three psychological models for understanding the retirement process and associated antecedents and outcomes, including the temporal process model of retirement, the multilevel model of retirement, and the resource-based dynamic model for retirement adjustment. We next survey the empirical findings regarding how various individual attributes, job and organizational factors, family factors, and socioeconomic context are related to the retirement process. We also discuss outcomes associated with retirement in terms of retirees' financial well-being, physical well-being, and psychological well-being.

  5. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  6. Classification of Great Basin Plant Communities Occurring on Dugway Proving Ground, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    collection methods used for vegetation mapping at DPG were based on phytosociological methods developed in Europe by Dr. Josiah Braun- Blanquet. The...original purpose of Braun-Blanquet’s phytosociological technique was to describe and classify the world’s plant communities based on floristic...gists. Recently, phytosociological methods have been used extensively for the purposes of plant community classification and vegetation mapping

  7. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Indoor and Outdoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Retirement Communities of the Los Angeles Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at three retirement homes in the Los Angeles Basin during two separate phases (cold and warm) between 2005 and 2006. Indoor-to-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined and sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were evaluated using a molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model. Indoor levels of elemental carbon (EC) along with metals and trace elements were found to be significantly affected by outdoor sources. EC, in particular, displayed very high indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) mass ratios accompanied by strong I/O correlations, illustrating the significant impact of outdoor sources on indoor levels of EC. Similarly, indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes were strongly correlated with their outdoor components and displayed I/O ratios close to unity. On the other hand, concentrations of n-alkanes and organic acids inside the retirement communities were dominated by indoor sources (e.g. food cooking and consumer products), as indicated by their I/O ratios, which exceeded unity. Source apportionment results revealed that vehicular emissions were the major contributor to both indoor and outdoor PM2.5, accounting for 39 and 46% of total mass, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of vehicular sources to indoor levels was generally comparable to its corresponding outdoor estimate. Other water-insoluble organic matter (other WIOM), which accounts for emissions from uncharacterized primary biogenic sources, displayed a wider range of contributions, varying from 2 to 73% of PM2.5, across all sites and phases of the study. Lastly, higher indoor than outdoor contribution of other water-soluble organic matter (other WSOM) was evident at some of the sites, suggesting the production of secondary aerosols as well as direct emissions from primary sources (including cleaning or other consumer products) at the

  8. The King Pre-Retirement Checklist: Assessing Differences in Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Darryl; King, Donald N.

    In an effort to assess the retirement preparedness of Midwestern populations above the age of 28, the King Pre-Retirement Checklist was administered to a sampling of 458 persons randomly selected and proportionally stratified by geographic location and community size. Factors examined were financial, social, family cohesion, mobility/health,…

  9. A comparison of unintentional injury patterns occurring in two Swedish communities in 1978 and in 2008.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Robert; Ekman, Diana Stark; Schyllander, Jan; Schelp, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance and analyses of unintentional injuries can be used to help prioritise community prevention efforts. This study describes changes in local patterns for unintentional injuries resulting in deaths, hospitalisations, and outpatient visits to health care clinics and emergency rooms, comparing information from two different study periods, 1978 and 2008, in the Swedish communities of Falköping and Lidköping. Injury cases were analysed, and confidence intervals were derived. The study results show that while most injuries decreased comparing the first study period to the second, these changes were only significant in terms of decreases in outpatient care. This study points to the importance of more systematic collection data of injury events treated at the outpatient level, particularly for communities where there are relatively low numbers of injury-related deaths and hospitalisations.

  10. Early Retirement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Peter W.

    1984-01-01

    Early retirement programs offer individuals an alternative to the work ethic while allowing them to maintain job security. Examples are given of several early, partial, and phased retirement programs currently being used in universities and public school systems. (DF)

  11. 20 CFR 404.1088 - Retirement payment to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement payment to retired partners. 404... Income § 404.1088 Retirement payment to retired partners. (a) In general. If you are a retired partner... periodic basis by a partnershp on account of your retirement and which are to continue until your...

  12. Symbiont dynamics during ecosystem succession: co-occurring plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    PubMed

    García de León, David; Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Neuenkamp, Lena; Gerz, Maret; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Bueno, C Guillermo; Davison, John; Zobel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Although mycorrhizas are expected to play a key role in community assembly during ecological succession, little is known about the dynamics of the symbiotic partners in natural systems. For instance, it is unclear how efficiently plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi disperse into early successional ecosystems, and which, if either, symbiotic partner drives successional dynamics. This study describes the dynamics of plant and AM fungal communities, assesses correlation in the composition of plant and AM fungal communities and compares dispersal limitation of plants and AM fungi during succession. We studied gravel pits 20 and 50 years post abandonment and undisturbed grasslands in Western Estonia. The composition of plant and AM fungal communities was strongly correlated, and the strength of the correlation remained unchanged as succession progressed, indicating a stable dependence among mycorrhizal plants and AM fungi. A relatively high proportion of the AM fungal taxon pool was present in early successional sites, in comparison with the respective fraction of plants. These results suggest that AM fungi arrived faster than plants and may thus drive vegetation dynamics along secondary vegetation succession.

  13. Military Retirement Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-17

    55, before they qualify for retirement benefits. 5 2. Approximately 94% of companies allow early retirement with reduced pensions. The Hay-Huggins...data indicate that the most common basis for eligibility for reduced early retirement is a combination of age and service (72% of plans). The most common...combination is age 55 and ten years of service. 13 • . . . . . . . . " " - .. . . . " . . . ’ For those companies providing early retirement benefits

  14. Efficacy and feasibility of a novel tri-modal robust exercise prescription in a retirement community: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael K; Kennedy, David J; Bohle, Philip L; Campbell, Deena S; Knapman, Leona; Grady, Jodie; Wiltshire, James; McNamara, Maria; Evans, William J; Atlantis, Evan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    To test the feasibility and efficacy of current guidelines for multimodal exercise programs in older adults. Randomized, controlled trial. Retirement village. Thirty-eight subjects (14 men and 24 women) aged 76.6 +/- 6.1. A wait list control or 10 weeks of supervised exercise consisting of high-intensity (80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)) progressive resistance training (PRT) 3 days per week, moderate-intensity (rating of perceived exertion 11 to 14/20) aerobic training 2 days per week, and progressive balance training 1 day per week. Blinded assessments of dynamic muscle strength (1RM), balance, 6-minute walk, gait velocity, chair stand, stair climb, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and habitual physical activity level. Higher baseline strength and psychological well-being were associated with better functional performance. Strength gains over 10 weeks averaged 39+/-31% in exercise, versus 21+/-24% in controls (P=.10), with greater improvements in hip flexion (P=.01), hip abduction (P=.02), and chest press (P=.04) in the exercise group. Strength adaptations were greatest in exercises in which the intended continuous progressive overload was achieved. Stair climb power (12.3+/-15%, P=.002) and chair stand time (-7.1+/-15%, P=.006) improved significantly and similarly in both groups. Reduction in depressive symptoms was significantly related to compliance (attendance rate r=-0.568, P=.009, PRT progression in loading r=-0.587, P=.02, and total volume of aerobic training r=-0.541, P=.01), as well as improvements in muscle strength (r=-0.498, P=.002). Robust physical and psychological adaptations to exercise are linked, although volumes and intensities of multiple exercise modalities sufficient to cause significant adaptation appear difficult to prescribe and adhere to simultaneously in older adults.

  15. 45 CFR 2553.11 - What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE THE RETIRED AND SENIOR VOLUNTEER PROGRAM General § 2553.11 What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program? The Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP)...

  16. 45 CFR 2553.11 - What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE THE RETIRED AND SENIOR VOLUNTEER PROGRAM General § 2553.11 What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program? The Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) provides...

  17. 45 CFR 2553.11 - What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE THE RETIRED AND SENIOR VOLUNTEER PROGRAM General § 2553.11 What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program? The Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) provides...

  18. 45 CFR 2553.11 - What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE THE RETIRED AND SENIOR VOLUNTEER PROGRAM General § 2553.11 What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program? The Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) provides...

  19. 45 CFR 2553.11 - What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program... FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE THE RETIRED AND SENIOR VOLUNTEER PROGRAM General § 2553.11 What is the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program? The Retired and Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) provides...

  20. Functional Age and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner

    Mandatory retirement because of chronological age is coming under increasing attack and, at least in the United States, it is likely that there may soon be legislative prohibitions against forcing individuals to retire because of age. As a consequence there is renewed interest in redefining retirement criteria in terms of a functional age concept…

  1. Women and retirement.

    PubMed

    Richardson, V E

    1999-01-01

    A feminist analysis of retirement is presented by questioning the applicability of traditional definitions and theories of retirement to retired women. The effects of marriage, caregiving and other family obligations on women's retirement are examined within the context of salient social, psychological and economic factors. An empowerment-oriented perspective that considers interactions and connections between family and work roles, public and private and personal and political levels are recommended to alleviate the high poverty rates among older women, to promote parity among men and women during retirement and to emancipate women from substantial involvement in unpaid work, specifically, caregiving and home labor.

  2. Using Naturally Occurring Radionuclides To Determine Drinking Water Age in a Community Water System.

    PubMed

    Waples, James T; Bordewyk, Jason K; Knesting, Kristina M; Orlandini, Kent A

    2015-08-18

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of (90)Y/(90)Sr and (234)Th/(238)U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, (90)Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1) capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  3. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGES

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; ...

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Work After Retirement: Examining Predictors of Bridge Employment, Continued Career Employment, and Retirement.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Misty M; Beehr, Terry A; Lepisto, Lawrence R

    2016-09-01

    Older employees are increasingly accepting bridge employment, which occurs when older workers take employment for pay after they retire from their main career. This study examined predictors of workers' decisions to engage in bridge employment versus full retirement and career employment. A national sample of 482 older people in the United States was surveyed regarding various work-related and nonwork related predictors of retirement decisions, and their retirement status was measured 5 years later. In bivariate analyses, both work-related variables (career goal achievement and experienced pressure to retire) and nonwork-related variables (psychological distress and traditional gender role orientation) predicted taking bridge employment, but in multinomial logistic regression, only nonwork variables had unique effects. Few predictors differentiated the bridge employed and fully retired groups. Nonwork variables were salient in making the decision to retire, and bridge employment may be conceptually more similar to full retirement than to career employment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Sex, race and age differences in muscle strength and limitations in community dwelling older adults: Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS).

    PubMed

    Germain, Cassandra M; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Batsis, John A; McQuoid, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related muscle weakness is associated with increased risk of functional limitations and disability. This study examined the association between varying degrees of hand grip strength on functional ability in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of 4289 men and 5860 women ≥60 from 2006 and 2008 waves of the population-based Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were stratified by sex-specific grip strength tertiles (low, mid, high). Prevalence and adjusted odds of physical limitations (PL), and ADL/IADL limitation were calculated by sex, race/ethnicity and age group (60-69, 70-79, 80+). Models were weighted, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, BMI, comorbidities and participation in physical activity. Prevalence of PL, ADL and IADL limitations were significantly lower among adults in the highest grip category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Adjusted odds for PL OR 0.41[0.33,0.52]; ADL OR.51 [0.39,0.67], and IADL OR 0.47 [0.38-0.59] limitations were significantly lower among adults in the highest grip compared to the lowest grip category. However, notable differences were observed in the strength of these associations by gender, race and age group. Demographic characteristics are important factors to consider for risk stratification and the development of effective grip strength training interventions for older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  7. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in retirement communities of the Los Angeles Basin.

    PubMed

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Delfino, Ralph J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-08-15

    Concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at three retirement homes in the Los Angeles Basin during two separate phases (cold and warm) between 2005 and 2006. Indoor-to-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 chemical constituents were determined and sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were evaluated using a molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model. Indoor levels of elemental carbon (EC) along with metals and trace elements were found to be significantly affected by outdoor sources. EC, in particular, displayed very high indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) mass ratios accompanied by strong I/O correlations, illustrating the significant impact of outdoor sources on indoor levels of EC. Similarly, indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and steranes were strongly correlated with their outdoor components and displayed I/O ratios close to unity. On the other hand, concentrations of n-alkanes and organic acids inside the retirement communities were dominated by indoor sources (e.g. food cooking and consumer products), as indicated by their I/O ratios, which exceeded unity. Source apportionment results revealed that vehicular emissions were the major contributor to both indoor and outdoor PM2.5, accounting for 39 and 46% of total mass, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of vehicular sources to indoor levels was generally comparable to its corresponding outdoor estimate. Other water-insoluble organic matter (other WIOM), which accounts for emissions from uncharacterized primary biogenic sources, displayed a wider range of contributions, varying from 2 to 73% of PM2.5, across all sites and phases of the study. Lastly, higher indoor than outdoor contribution of other water-soluble organic matter (other WSOM) was evident at some of the sites, suggesting the production of secondary aerosols as well as direct emissions from primary sources (including cleaning or other consumer products) at the

  8. Caregiving intensity and retirement status in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Josephine C; Laporte, Audrey; Van Houtven, Courtney H; Coyte, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    A number of OECD countries have implemented policies encouraging longer labour force participation in tandem with policies encouraging informal care provision in the community. To better understand how these policies may affect the available pool of caregivers and labour force participants, we need more evidence about how informal caregiving is related to retirement status and timing. We assessed the association between caregiving intensity and retirement status for individuals aged 55 to 69 using the Canadian 2007 General Social Survey, a cross-sectional survey with 23,404 individuals. We used multinomial logistic regressions to determine whether providing different intensities of informal care (i.e. hours of weekly care) was significantly associated with the likelihood that an individual was fully retired, had retired and returned to work, had never retired and was working part-time or full-time, or was a labour market non-participant. We found that higher intensity caregiving was associated with being fully retired (relative to working full-time) for men and women (relative risk ratios, 2.93 and 2.04, respectively). For women, high intensity caregiving was also associated with working part-time (1.84) and being a labour force non-participant (1.99). Male and female high intensity caregivers were more likely to be retired before age 65. Our results highlight the importance of measuring caregiving intensity and multiple paths to retirement, which are often overlooked in the caregiving and retirement literature. They also indicate that a policy context encouraging both later retirement and more informal care may not be reasonable without flexible work arrangement options.

  9. Associations of back and leg pain with health status and functional capacity of older adults: findings from the retirement community back pain study.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Gregory E; Gaines, Jean M; Shardell, Michelle; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    2008-09-15

    Low back pain (LBP) is the most frequently reported musculoskeletal problem in older adults, but its impact on health status is not well understood. Our objective was to determine whether LBP and concurrent leg pain are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and function in a cohort of older adults, and to examine care-seeking behaviors related to LBP. This was a population-based, cross-sectional survey study of 522 community-dwelling men and women (67.4%) ages >or=62 living in 4 retirement communities in Maryland and northern Virginia. LBP status in the past year was categorized as no pain in the low back or leg, LBP only, and LBP with leg pain. HRQOL and function were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36). A total of 26.8% of the sample reported LBP only and 21.3% reported LBP plus leg pain. Participants with LBP and LBP plus leg pain had lower scores in all SF-36 domains, reflecting worse HRQOL (P < 0.0001). LBP and LBP plus leg pain were associated with 2-fold greater odds of falling and increased difficulty lifting grocery bags, walking several blocks, and bathing. LBP plus leg pain was associated with difficulty in social interactions (odds ratio 10.63, 95% confidence interval 3.57-31.60). Less than half sought care for LBP and those who did had poorer health status and greater pain burden. LBP is common among older adults and strongly associated with reduced HRQOL and function. These findings argue strongly for both identifying cases of LBP by health care practitioners and pursuing effective treatments for LBP given the potential consequences.

  10. Preferred Retirement Timing and Retirement Satisfaction in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane

    1987-01-01

    Explored retirement conditions affecting women's preferred retirement timing and retirement satisfaction in 115 women retirees. Revealed that women's life goals, sex role constancy over the years, the economic impact of retirement, and respondents' control over determination of retirement timing were relevant issues. (Author/KS)

  11. Optimizing Early Retirement Decisions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the military. The U.S. Army’s early retirement program is a temporary one designed to allow some soldiers to leave the service prior to 20 years of...whether it makes financial sense for an officer to select early retirement . A spreadsheet formulation is developed and used to indicate if and when...an officer should select early retirement . The program investigates the decision that various civilian salary levels and various assumed discount rates.

  12. Strategies for reaching retirement communities and aging social networks: HIV/AIDS prevention activities among seniors in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Agate, Lisa L; Mullins, Jolene M; Prudent, Ella S; Liberti, Thomas M

    2003-06-01

    Since 1993, the HIV/AIDS Program Office of the Broward County Health Department has recognized the importance of targeting the population of those aged 50 years and older. Close examination of epidemiological data for the south Florida area and requests from health care providers showed that targeted intervention had to address the needs of the seniors as well as the beliefs and perceptions of their health practitioners. Originally designed to provide community training, identify and train volunteer peer educators, and increase awareness and sensitivity among providers of health services, the senior initiative was officially expanded with funding from the Florida Department of Elder Affairs in 1997. The resulting Senior HIV Intervention Project (SHIP) is more comprehensive than the original senior training program, addressing the increased need for early intervention activities, HIV counseling, and testing. SHIP also links HIV-positive seniors to care and treatment services through a network of trained staff and volunteers. SHIP's considerable experience in serving the needs of older adults offers useful insight for others developing successful HIV/AIDS programming for people aged 50 years and older.

  13. Comparison study on functional outcomes and perceived quality of life between all-inclusive and fee-for-service continuing care retirement communities.

    PubMed

    Young, Yuchi; Inamdar, Sumant; Hannan, Edward L

    2010-05-01

    To examine the associations between 2 types of continuing care retirement communities' (CCRC) residents regarding physical function and perceived quality of life. Cross-sectional study (n=406). Eligibility criteria include age 65 years or older, residents of independent living units, and intact cognition (MMSE>or=24). All-inclusive CCRCs provide unlimited access to home health services and nursing home care as needed in return for the entry and monthly fee. Fee-for-service CCRCs offer home health and nursing home services at a full fee-for-service rate. Outcomes were functional status (ADLs and IADLs) and perceived quality of life. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the associations between residents of different types of CCRCs on selected outcomes while adjusting for covariates. The all-inclusive CCRC sample was more likely to be married (53.8% versus 33.4%; P < .001), with more years of education (17.9 versus 14.4; P < .0001), and had few physician visits in the previous year in comparison to the FFS CCRC sample. Multivariate results indicate that the FFS group had worse ADL (beta=0.95; P=.0003), IADL (beta=0.57; P=.02) function than the all-inclusive group. There was no significant difference in perceived quality of life scores between the 2 groups. Residents of both CCRCs reported equally good quality of life scores. Residents of the all-inclusive CCRC seem to have had better ADL and IADL function than the FFS CCRC residents. Prepaid home health services and nursing home care in the all-inclusive CCRC may facilitate ADL and IADL functional independence. Copyright (c) 2010 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metatranscriptomic Evidence for Co-Occurring Top-Down and Bottom-Up Controls on Toxic Cyanobacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Morgan M.; Belisle, B. Shafer; Watson, Sue B.; Boyer, Gregory L.; Bourbonniere, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular and physiological function of co-occurring microbes within freshwater cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs). To address this, community metatranscriptomes collected from the western basin of Lake Erie during August 2012 were examined. Using sequence data, we tested the hypothesis that the activity of the microbial community members is independent of community structure. Predicted metabolic and physiological functional profiles from spatially distinct metatranscriptomes were determined to be ≥90% similar between sites. Targeted analysis of Microcystis aeruginosa, the historical causative agent of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms over the past ∼20 years, as well as analysis of Planktothrix agardhii and Anabaena cylindrica, revealed ongoing transcription of genes involved in microcystin toxin synthesis as well as the acquisition of both nitrogen and phosphorus, nutrients often implicated as independent bottom-up drivers of eutrophication in aquatic systems. Transcription of genes involved in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and metabolism also provided support for the alternate hypothesis that high-pH conditions and dense algal biomass result in CO2-limiting conditions that further favor cyanobacterial dominance. Additionally, the presence of Microcystis-specific cyanophage sequences provided preliminary evidence of possible top-down virus-mediated control of cHAB populations. Overall, these data provide insight into the complex series of constraints associated with Microcystis blooms that dominate the western basin of Lake Erie during summer months, demonstrating that multiple environmental factors work to shape the microbial community. PMID:25662977

  15. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  16. Early Retirement Payoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  17. Retirement Choice 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    calculate the implied APR or interest rate for this loan. For example, an E-7 who retires at age 38 with 20 years of service is paying an implicity... interest rate of 15 percent and would see his or her retired pay reduced by $391,600 if he or she lived to 79 years. Even if the servicemember received

  18. 2012 Retirement Choices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    benefits), and we calculate the implied APR or interest rate for this loan. For example, an E-7 who retires at age 38 with 20 years of service is...paying an implicit interest rate of 14.8% and would see his or her retired pay reduced by $381,203 if he or she lived to 79 years. Even if the service

  19. Retirement Choice: 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    benefits), and we calculate the implied APR or interest rate for this loan. For example, an E-7 who retires at age 38 with 20 years of service is...paying an implicit interest rate of 14.8% and would see his or her retired pay reduced by $381,203 if he or she lived to 79 years. Even if the service

  20. Early Retirement Payoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  1. Faculty Emeriti: Retirement Reframed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Seth Matthew

    2010-01-01

    With the graying of the professoriate continuing and the massive number of baby boomers entering retirement age, universities and college administrations need to adequately prepare for retirement. This is beginning to cause some staffing shortages in the faculty pipeline as well as the loss of institutional history and professional knowledge.…

  2. Sheltering Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, E. Lewis; Cash, L. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Eligibility for an IRA has been severely changed by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. In 1987 educators who have a retirement plan administered by their employer will face new eligibility rules. For self-employment income, a Keogh plan is an excellent way to shelter income and provide retirement income. (MLW)

  3. Sheltering Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, E. Lewis; Cash, L. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Eligibility for an IRA has been severely changed by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. In 1987 educators who have a retirement plan administered by their employer will face new eligibility rules. For self-employment income, a Keogh plan is an excellent way to shelter income and provide retirement income. (MLW)

  4. Retirement of Dietrich Baade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J.

    2016-12-01

    After 35 years as an astronomer at ESO, Dietrich Baade has retired. He held many different scientific positions in ESO during his career and a brief appreciation is presented, together with a glimpse of his astronomical research interests. A retirement party was held in September 2016.

  5. Faculty Emeriti: Retirement Reframed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Seth Matthew

    2010-01-01

    With the graying of the professoriate continuing and the massive number of baby boomers entering retirement age, universities and college administrations need to adequately prepare for retirement. This is beginning to cause some staffing shortages in the faculty pipeline as well as the loss of institutional history and professional knowledge.…

  6. The Retirement Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton; Kreitlow, Doris

    A study examined 140 persons from nine very diverse settings in the United States and England who had retired in a positive way. Interviews with the retirees revealed that despite their diverse geographical, socioeconomic, and racial/ethnic backgrounds, they all had one thing in common--in retirement, all of them had a new and exciting career.…

  7. Does Assertive Community Treatment Increase Medication Adherence for People With Co-occurring Psychotic and Substance Use Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Jennifer I.; Covell, Nancy H.; Jackson, Carlos T.; Essock, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study analyzed data from a randomized trial to examine the impact on medication adherence of integrated treatment delivered via assertive community treatment (ACT) versus standard clinical case management (SCCM). METHOD Data from the original study included 198 study participants with co-occurring psychotic and substance use disorders who were randomly assigned to receive integrated treatment via ACT or SCCM and were followed for 3 years. We applied mixed-effects logistic regression to estimate group (ACT vs. SCCM) by time effects on a self-report measure of medication adherence. Adherence was dichotomized as 20% or more missed medication days (“poor adherence”) versus less than 20% missed medication days (“adequate adherence”). RESULTS Participants who were assigned to ACT reported significant improvement in medication adherence compared with those assigned to SCCM. CONCLUSIONS Integrated treatment delivered via ACT may benefit persons with co-occurring psychotic and substance use disorders who are poorly adherent to medications. PMID:21659294

  8. A comparison of treatment outcomes for adolescent community reinforcement approach participants with and without co-occurring problems.

    PubMed

    Godley, Susan H; Hunter, Brooke D; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Smith, Jane Ellen; Meyers, Robert J; Godley, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) participation with treatment engagement, retention, and satisfaction, and with substance use and emotional problem outcomes. Participants had substance use disorders (SUD) only or co-occurring substance use and psychiatric problems. Those with co-occurring problems reported more days of substance use and emotional problems at intake to treatment than those with SUD only. All groups received equivalent exposure to A-CRA during treatment implementation. At the 12-month follow-up, adolescents classified as externalizers (n = 468) or those with both externalizing and internalizing problems (n = 674) had significantly greater improvement in their days of abstinence and substance problems relative to adolescents with substance use disorders only (n = 666). Additionally, adolescents reporting symptoms of internalizing (n = 154), externalizing, or both externalizing and internalizing disorders had significantly greater improvements in days of emotional problems relative to adolescents with SUD only. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant litter effects on soil nutrient availability and vegetation dynamics: changes that occur when annual grasses invade shrub-steppe communities

    Treesearch

    Sheel Bansal; Roger L. Sheley; Bob Blank; Edward A. Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the quantity and quality of plant litter occur in many ecosystems as they are invaded by exotic species, which impact soil nutrient cycling and plant community composition. Such changes in sagebrush-steppe communities are occurring with invasion of annual grasses (AG) into a perennial grass (PG) dominated system. We conducted a 5-year litter manipulation...

  10. Ecstasy of Emptiness? Reflections of a Retired School Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzara, Judith R.

    2001-01-01

    A retired elementary principal who was actively tied to her community for decades explains how to put a positive spin on retirement. New retirees should treasure their gifts and talents, develop new ones, take advantage of travel opportunities, mentor a new principal, and/or go back to college. (MLH)

  11. Employment Trajectories Beyond Retirement.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Carola; Hochfellner, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Within the political and academic debate on working longer, post-retirement employment is discussed as an alternative to maintain older workers in the labor market. Our article enhances this discussion by studying determinants of transitions into post-retirement jobs within differing work environments of birth cohorts 1940-1942. We estimate proportional subhazard models accounting for competing risks using unique German social security data linked to pension accounts. Our findings suggest that individuals' preferences to take up post-retirement jobs are not mutually exclusive. Our study provides evidence that taking up post-retirement jobs is related to seeking financial security, continuity, and work ability, suggesting that public policy has to develop target-oriented support through a public policy mix of different measures aligned to the different peer groups in the labor market.

  12. Retirement of Lothar Noethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyromilio, J.; Holzlöhner, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lothar Noethe retired in April after 33 years at ESO. An appreciation of his contributions is presented, in particular his pioneering work in active optics and his role in the commissioning of the NTT and VLT.

  13. Elevated Concentrations of U and Co-occurring Metals in Abandoned Mine Wastes in a Northeastern Arizona Native American Community.

    PubMed

    Blake, Johanna M; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi S; Brearley, Adrian J; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; Hirani, Chris; Pacheco, Juan S Lezama; Cerrato, José M

    2015-07-21

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67-169 μg L(-1)) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L(-1). Elevated U (6,614 mg kg(-1)), V (15,814 mg kg(-1)), and As (40 mg kg(-1)) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (∼pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (∼pH 8.3). These results suggest that U-V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As-Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.

  14. Five-factor Model Personality Traits and the Retirement Transition: Longitudinal and Cross-sectional Associations

    PubMed Central

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Terracciano, Antonio; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations between five-factor personality traits and retirement in a diverse community sample. Longitudinal analyses (n=367) compared personality trajectories of participants who remained employed and participants who retired. Personality at baseline did not predict future retirement, but compared to participants who remained employed, retirees increased in Agreeableness and decreased in Activity, a facet of Extraversion. In cross-sectional analyses among retirees (n=144), those low in Neuroticism and high in Extraversion reported higher retirement satisfaction and those high in Extraversion reported higher post-retirement activity levels. Findings suggest that the trait perspective contributes to our understanding of the retirement process. PMID:19739928

  15. Retirement and physical activity: analyses by occupation and wealth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sukyung; Domino, Marisa E; Stearns, Sally C; Popkin, Barry M

    2009-05-01

    Older adults close to retirement age show the lowest level of physical activity. Changes in lifestyle with retirement may alter physical activity levels. This study investigated whether retirement changes physical activity and how the effect differs by occupation type and wealth level. This longitudinal study used the Health and Retirement Study (1996-2002), U.S. population-based data. Analyses were conducted in 2007 and 2008. Physical activity was measured by a composite indicator of participation in either work-related or leisure-time physical activity. Fixed-effects regression models were used to account for confounders and unobserved heterogeneity. The dependent variable was a composite indicator of participation in regular physical activity either at work or during nonworking hours. Physical activity decreased with retirement from a physically demanding job but increased with retirement from a sedentary job. Occupation type interacted with wealth level, with the negative impact on physical activity of retirement exacerbated by lack of wealth and the positive effect of retirement on physical activity enhanced by wealth. Substantial differences in the effect of retirement on physical activity occurred across subgroups. As the number of people approaching retirement age rapidly increases, findings suggest that a growing segment of the nation's population may not sustain an adequate level of physical activity.

  16. Driving Retirement in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Jami; Meuser, Thomas M.; Berg-Weger, Marla; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Carr, David B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the driving and mobility status of older adults with dementia, a questionnaire was mailed to 527 informants; 119 were returned. The majority of patients were diagnosed with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Only 28% were actively driving at the time of survey. Informants rated 53% of current or recently retired drivers as potentially unsafe. Few informants reported using community/educational resources. Individuals with progressive dementia retire from driving for differing reasons, many subsequent to family recognition of impaired driving performance. Opportunities for education and supportive assistance exist but are underutilized. PMID:20161565

  17. Early-Retirement Incentive Programs for Medical School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 115 medical schools concerning early retirement benefits and incentives for faculty found that defined-contribution plans were preferred and were available at 37 percent of institutions. Incentive programs were used by 70 percent of schools during 1987-91. However, few early retirements have occurred. Program characteristics,…

  18. Elevated concentrations of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a northeastern Arizona Native American community

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Johanna M.; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Ali, Abdul -Mehdi S.; Brearley, Adrian J.; Shuey, Christopher; Robinson, Wm. Paul; Nez, Christopher; Bill, Sadie; Lewis, Johnnye; Hirani, Chris; Pacheco, Juan S. Lezama; Cerrato, José M.

    2015-07-09

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67–169 μg L–1) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L–1. Elevated U (6,614 mg kg–1), V (15,814 mg kg–1), and As (40 mg kg–1) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Fe were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). These results suggest that U–V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As–Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.

  19. Elevated concentrations of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a northeastern Arizona Native American community

    DOE PAGES

    Blake, Johanna M.; Avasarala, Sumant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; ...

    2015-07-09

    The chemical interactions of U and co-occurring metals in abandoned mine wastes in a Native American community in northeastern Arizona were investigated using spectroscopy, microscopy and aqueous chemistry. The concentrations of U (67–169 μg L–1) in spring water samples exceed the EPA maximum contaminant limit of 30 μg L–1. Elevated U (6,614 mg kg–1), V (15,814 mg kg–1), and As (40 mg kg–1) concentrations were detected in mine waste solids. Spectroscopy (XPS and XANES) solid analyses identified U (VI), As (-I and III) and Fe (II, III). Linear correlations for the release of U vs V and As vs Femore » were observed for batch experiments when reacting mine waste solids with 10 mM ascorbic acid (~pH 3.8) after 264 h. The release of U, V, As, and Fe was at least 4-fold lower after reaction with 10 mM bicarbonate (~pH 8.3). These results suggest that U–V mineral phases similar to carnotite [K2(UO2)2V2O8] and As–Fe-bearing phases control the availability of U and As in these abandoned mine wastes. Elevated concentrations of metals are of concern due to human exposure pathways and exposure of livestock currently ingesting water in the area. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and mobility of metals in communities located close to abandoned mine waste sites.« less

  20. Planning for Retirement: Longitudinal Effect on Retirement Resources and Post-retirement Well-being.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Retirement is a major life event, and a positive adjustment to retirement is essential for maintaining physical and psychological well-being in later life. Previous research demonstrates that pre-retirement planning predicts post-retirement well-being. This study further explores the underlying mechanism between planning activities and post-retirement well-being. By applying the resource-based dynamic model (Wang et al., 2011), the present longitudinal study examines whether pre-retirement planning activities can increase the total resources of retirees, including tangible, mental and social resources, and consequently contribute to better psychological and physical well-being 1 year after actual retirement. A total of 118 Hong Kong Chinese retirees completed three assessments: Time 1 assessment was conducted 6 months before retirement, and Times 2 and 3 assessments were carried out 6 and 12 months, respectively, after retirement. Latent growth models were employed to examine changes in retirement resources and post-retirement well-being over time. Consistent with the proposition of the resource-based dynamic model, positive changes in well-being were observed in the retirees with increases in retirement resources between pre- and post-retirement phases. The results of the latent growth mediation models also support our prediction: retirees with more preparatory activities before retirement acquire greater resources at the initial stage, which contribute to positive changes in post-retirement well-being over time.

  1. Planning for Retirement: Longitudinal Effect on Retirement Resources and Post-retirement Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Dannii Y.; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Retirement is a major life event, and a positive adjustment to retirement is essential for maintaining physical and psychological well-being in later life. Previous research demonstrates that pre-retirement planning predicts post-retirement well-being. This study further explores the underlying mechanism between planning activities and post-retirement well-being. By applying the resource-based dynamic model (Wang et al., 2011), the present longitudinal study examines whether pre-retirement planning activities can increase the total resources of retirees, including tangible, mental and social resources, and consequently contribute to better psychological and physical well-being 1 year after actual retirement. A total of 118 Hong Kong Chinese retirees completed three assessments: Time 1 assessment was conducted 6 months before retirement, and Times 2 and 3 assessments were carried out 6 and 12 months, respectively, after retirement. Latent growth models were employed to examine changes in retirement resources and post-retirement well-being over time. Consistent with the proposition of the resource-based dynamic model, positive changes in well-being were observed in the retirees with increases in retirement resources between pre- and post-retirement phases. The results of the latent growth mediation models also support our prediction: retirees with more preparatory activities before retirement acquire greater resources at the initial stage, which contribute to positive changes in post-retirement well-being over time. PMID:28798716

  2. Considerations about retirement from clinical practice by obstetrician-gynecologists.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, William F; Strunk, Albert L; Petterson, Stephen M

    2015-09-01

    Retirement of obstetrician-gynecologists is becoming a matter of increasing concern in light of an expected shortage of practicing physicians. Determining a retirement age is often complex. We address what constitutes a usual retirement age range from general clinical practice for an obstetrician-gynecologist, compare this with practitioners in other specialties, and suggest factors of importance to obstetrician-gynecologists before retirement. Although the proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists ≥55 years old is similar to other specialists, obstetrician-gynecologists retire at younger ages than male or female physicians in other specialties. A customary age range of retirement from obstetrician-gynecologist practice would be 59-69 years (median, 64 years). Women, who constitute a growing proportion of obstetrician-gynecologists in practice, retire earlier than men. The large cohort of "baby boomer" physicians who are approaching retirement (approximately 15,000 obstetrician-gynecologists) deserves tracking while an investigation of integrated women's health care delivery models is conducted. Relevant considerations would include strategies to extend the work longevity of those who are considering early retirement or desiring part-time employment. Likewise volunteer work in underserved community clinics or teaching medical students and residents offers continuing personal satisfaction for many retirees and preservation of self-esteem and medical knowledge.

  3. Community Composition, Toxigenicity, and Environmental Conditions during a Cyanobacterial Bloom Occurring along 1,100 Kilometers of the Murray River

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tebrineh, Jamal; Merrick, Chester; Ryan, David; Humpage, Andrew; Bowling, Lee

    2012-01-01

    A cyanobacterial bloom impacted over 1,100 km of the Murray River, Australia, and its tributaries in 2009. Physicochemical conditions in the river were optimal to support a bloom at the time. The data suggest that at least three blooms occurred concurrently in different sections of the river, with each having a different community composition and associated cyanotoxin profile. Microscopic and genetic analyses suggested the presence of potentially toxic Anabaena circinalis, Microcystis flos-aquae, and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii at many locations. Low concentrations of saxitoxins and cylindrospermopsin were detected in Anabaena and Cylindrospermopsis populations. A multiplex quantitative PCR was used, employing novel oligonucleotide primers and fluorescent TaqMan probes, to examine bloom toxigenicity. This single reaction method identified the presence of the major cyanotoxin-producing species present in these environmental samples and also quantified the various toxin biosynthesis genes. A large number of cells present throughout the bloom were not potential toxin producers or were present in numbers below the limit of detection of the assay and therefore not an immediate health risk. Potential toxin-producing cells, possessing the cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis gene (cyrA), predominated early in the bloom, while those possessing the saxitoxin biosynthesis gene (sxtA) were more common toward its decline. In this study, the concentrations of cyanotoxins measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) correlated positively with the respective toxin gene copy numbers, indicating that the molecular method may be used as a proxy for bloom risk assessment. PMID:22081581

  4. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of...

  14. Comparative genomics in acid mine drainage biofilm communities reveals metabolic and structural differentiation of co-occurring archaea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metal sulfide mineral dissolution during bioleaching and acid mine drainage (AMD) formation creates an environment that is inhospitable to most life. Despite dominance by a small number of bacteria, AMD microbial biofilm communities contain a notable variety of coexisting and closely related Euryarchaea, most of which have defied cultivation efforts. For this reason, we used metagenomics to analyze variation in gene content that may contribute to niche differentiation among co-occurring AMD archaea. Our analyses targeted members of the Thermoplasmatales and related archaea. These results greatly expand genomic information available for this archaeal order. Results We reconstructed near-complete genomes for uncultivated, relatively low abundance organisms A-, E-, and Gplasma, members of Thermoplasmatales order, and for a novel organism, Iplasma. Genomic analyses of these organisms, as well as Ferroplasma type I and II, reveal that all are facultative aerobic heterotrophs with the ability to use many of the same carbon substrates, including methanol. Most of the genomes share genes for toxic metal resistance and surface-layer production. Only Aplasma and Eplasma have a full suite of flagellar genes whereas all but the Ferroplasma spp. have genes for pili production. Cryogenic-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography (cryo-ET) strengthen these metagenomics-based ultrastructural predictions. Notably, only Aplasma, Gplasma and the Ferroplasma spp. have predicted iron oxidation genes and Eplasma and Iplasma lack most genes for cobalamin, valine, (iso)leucine and histidine synthesis. Conclusion The Thermoplasmatales AMD archaea share a large number of metabolic capabilities. All of the uncultivated organisms studied here (A-, E-, G-, and Iplasma) are metabolically very similar to characterized Ferroplasma spp., differentiating themselves mainly in their genetic capabilities for biosynthesis, motility, and possibly iron oxidation. These results indicate that

  15. To Retire or Not to Retire? That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    During the 1960s, there was extensive hiring of college and university faculty members. This large group of professors are now at or nearing retirement age. Concerns about the economy, the availability of good health insurance, increased life expectancy, and removal of mandatory retirement laws may influence decisions about when to retire.…

  16. Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project: Money to Retire On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Donna

    This sixth in a series of six packages of instructional materials developed by the Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project contains a student's pre-retirement booklet specifically intended for adults with limited reading ability and teacher's guide, which consider financial planning for retirement, including such topics as types of income, Social…

  17. To Retire or Not to Retire? That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    During the 1960s, there was extensive hiring of college and university faculty members. This large group of professors are now at or nearing retirement age. Concerns about the economy, the availability of good health insurance, increased life expectancy, and removal of mandatory retirement laws may influence decisions about when to retire.…

  18. Retirement Choice 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    on the highest average basic pay for 36 months of a servicemember’s career . These are usually the last 3 years. 2. REDUX retirement plan plus a...services—through empirical research, modeling, and simulation—to help develop , evaluate, and implement policies, practices, and programs that make people

  19. Planning Your Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This guidebook on retirement planning helps potential retirees by raising important issues in such areas as changing roles and relationships, health and fitness, meaningful use of time, working options, financial and estate planning, and housing and lifestyle. The first section, on attitude and role adjustments, discusses support systems, changing…

  20. Claus Madsen Retires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zeeuw, T.; Walsh, J.

    2016-12-01

    Claus Madsen began at ESO as a photographer in 1980 and recently retired as senior advisor on international relations. During his career he authored several books, the most notable being a history of ESO from the late 1980s to the 50th anniversary in 2012. A brief appreciation of his career is presented.

  1. Safeguarding Your Retirement Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1989-01-01

    Faculty members should consider becoming more involved in the oversight of their personal retirement funds. Both price and inflation risks are best controlled by taking a balanced or diversified approach to investing, with a portfolio based on a predetermined percentage of each type of investment. (MSE)

  2. Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Scott

    1981-01-01

    Instead of material trinkets, many companies now offer valuable preretirement programs that are either developed by their own personnel departments or made available through third-party organizations. Typically, most programs help employees prepare for retirement by offering general information, financial and legal counsel, and health guidelines.…

  3. Reflections at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahn, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    A retiring registrar/admissions officer describes his career to encourage others to work with the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. The discussion includes campus/association activities, coping with change, adjusting to campus hierarchy, academic standards, career rewards, etc. (MSE)

  4. Java Tool Retirement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    Date(s):  Wednesday, May 14, 2014 Time:  08:00 am EDT Event Impact:  The ASDC Java Order Tool was officially retired on Wednesday, May 14, 2014.  The HTML Order Tool and additional options are available...

  5. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  6. Retirement: The Challenge of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, E. Michael, Ed.

    Intended for persons in their 50s and 60s who are seriously thinking about retirement and younger people who want to learn about aging and retirement, this book was developed as a companion piece to the training program offered to business and nonprofit organizations by the University of Southern Maine retirement planning team. Most of the…

  7. The Trend toward Retirement Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2008-01-01

    Many library media specialists are deciding to return to the workplace after retiring from full-time employment. This article focuses on general information about the trend of retirees acquiring retirement jobs, how and why retired library media specialists return to work, their perceptions of challenges facing library media programs, and advice…

  8. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  9. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…

  10. 76 FR 20243 - Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE 45 CFR Part 2553 RIN 3045-AA52 Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Amendments AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Corporation for National and Community Service (Corporation) is issuing a final rule that sets forth a competitive process for...

  11. 77 FR 16485 - Compensation, Retirement Programs, and Related Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... investors. The proposed rule would require enhanced reporting of senior officer compensation and retirement programs and reporting to shareholders of significant events that occur between annual reporting periods... completion of their annual reports. The commenters emphasized that System institutions have...

  12. Causal effects of retirement timing on subjective physical and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Esteban; Sarkisian, Natalia; Tamborini, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effects of the timing of retirement on subjective physical and emotional health. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we test 4 theory-based hypotheses about these effects-that retirements maximize health when they happen earlier, later, anytime, or on time. We employ fixed and random effects regression models with instrumental variables to estimate the short- and long-term causal effects of retirement timing on self-reported health and depressive symptoms. Early retirements--those occurring prior to traditional and legal retirement age--dampen health. Workers who begin their retirement transition before cultural and institutional timetables experience the worst health outcomes; this finding offers partial support to the psychosocial-materialist approach that emphasizes the benefits of retiring later. Continued employment after traditionally expected retirement age, however, offers no health benefits. In combination, these findings offer some support for the cultural-institutional approach but suggest that we need to modify our understanding of how cultural-institutional forces operate. Retiring too early can be problematic but no disadvantages are associated with late retirements. Raising the retirement age, therefore, could potentially reduce subjective health of retirees by expanding the group of those whose retirements would be considered early.

  13. [Costs of early retirement--the case of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Clouth, Johannes

    2004-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychic disorder that occurs at young age and often leads to a work disability. The disease not only induces direct costs in the health care system but also indirect costs that show up in the social security system. In this study, we apply statistics from the social security administration on early retirement due to disability. Over 6000-males and females per year retire with the diagnosis schizophrenia (classified as 295, ICD-9). The average retirement age is 39 for males and 42 for females. Schizophrenia is the most important single reason for early retirement before age 40. Of all male cases of disability retirement under the age of 40, 14.7 % are due to schizophrenia. The present discounted value of pensions paid out before the standard retirement age of 65 is 215 000 Euro for an average male. Moreover, the revenue loss in income taxes and payroll contributions amounts to 345 000 Euro. In the year 2000, a total of 125 000 persons under the age of 65, who originally entered retirement with the diagnosis schizophrenia, are estimated to be receiving a pension. The corresponding annual expenditures of the social security system reach 1.3 Billion Euro; the revenue loss (pay-roll plus income taxes) reaches 2 Billion Euro. Since only two thirds of the working age population is covered by the social security system, the costs of early retirement due to schizophrenia are underestimated by a factor of at least one third.

  14. Minor changes in soil bacterial and fungal community composition occur in response to monsoon precipitation in a semiarid grassland.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Theresa A; Koch, George W; Schwartz, Egbert

    2014-08-01

    Arizona and New Mexico receive half of their annual precipitation during the summer monsoon season, making this large-scale rain event critical for ecosystem productivity. We used the monsoon rains to explore the responses of soil bacterial and fungal communities to natural moisture pulses in a semiarid grassland. Through 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS region, we phylogenetically characterized these communities at 22 time points during a summer season. Relative humidity increased before the rains arrived, creating conditions in soil that allowed for the growth of microorganisms. During the course of the study, the relative abundances of most bacterial phyla showed little variation, though some bacterial populations responded immediately to an increase in soil moisture once the monsoon rains arrived. The Firmicutes phylum experienced over a sixfold increase in relative abundance with increasing water availability. Conversely, Actinobacteria, the dominant taxa at our site, were negatively affected by the increase in water availability. No relationship was found between bacterial diversity and soil water potential. Bacterial community structure was unrelated to all environmental variables that we measured, with the exception of a significant relationship with atmospheric relative humidity. Relative abundances of fungal phyla fluctuated more throughout the season than bacterial abundances did. Variation in fungal community structure was unrelated to soil water potential and to most environmental variables. However, ordination analysis showed a distinct fungal community structure late in the season, probably due to plant senescence.

  15. Funding Military Retirement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    FYC5 Pay raises amount transferred to the retirement fund. Analysis by COLAsArroyo %of basic:pay Interest rate Arroyo Center researchers William Hix...changes Treasury t to Important factors: could eventually save the Army as much as $5-6 billion FY8 , COLAs annually... .. Interest rate a0lyear...payment. The money increases, and interest rates . An assumed pay raise means in the fund is invested in nonnegotiable government securi- that the future

  16. Retirement Choice 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Distribution unlimited; cleared for public release Retirement Choice 2016 Anita Hattiangadi, Lewis G. Lee, Robert Shuford...Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be...PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98

  17. Relationship between Perceived Needs and Assessed Needs for Services in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Frank, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the relationship between the perceived needs and assessed needs of community-dwelling seniors. Design and Methods: Trained research assistants administered the Naturally Occurring Retirement Community Baseline Survey to 268 community-dwelling older adults in suburban Maryland. Perceived and assessed needs were measured in the…

  18. Relationship between Perceived Needs and Assessed Needs for Services in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Frank, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the relationship between the perceived needs and assessed needs of community-dwelling seniors. Design and Methods: Trained research assistants administered the Naturally Occurring Retirement Community Baseline Survey to 268 community-dwelling older adults in suburban Maryland. Perceived and assessed needs were measured in the…

  19. Retirement as Meaningful: Positive Retirement Stereotypes Associated with Longevity.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2016-03-01

    Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes.

  20. Retirement as Meaningful: Positive Retirement Stereotypes Associated with Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes. PMID:27346893

  1. Alterations in the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events occurring between February and March 2015 in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Seho; Lee, Dongwook; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lim, Sora; Yang, Dahye; Seo, Taegun

    2016-01-01

    During Asian dust events, a relatively high concentration of particulate matter is transported by wind from arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, to nearby countries, including China, Korea, and Japan. The dust particles contain various microorganisms, which can affect human health as well as the environmental microbe population. In the current study, we investigated the characteristics of the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events between February and March 2015 in South Korea. Bacterial diversity indexes such as operational taxonomic units, Chao1 and Inverse Simpson index were increased, along with total 16S rRNA gene copy number during Asian dust events. The bacterial community structure during Asian dust events was clearly distinguishable from that during non-Asian dust days. The genera Bacillus and Modestobacter were increased 3.9- and 2.7-fold, respectively, while Escherichia-Shigella was decreased by 89.8%. A non-metric multidimensional scaling plot with metadata analysis revealed association of particulate matter concentration, but not temperature, humidity or wind speed, with bacterial community structure, suggesting that the newly transported dust particles contain various microorganisms that influence the airborne bacterial environment. PMID:27849049

  2. Alterations in the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events occurring between February and March 2015 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seho; Lee, Dongwook; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Lim, Sora; Yang, Dahye; Seo, Taegun

    2016-11-16

    During Asian dust events, a relatively high concentration of particulate matter is transported by wind from arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, to nearby countries, including China, Korea, and Japan. The dust particles contain various microorganisms, which can affect human health as well as the environmental microbe population. In the current study, we investigated the characteristics of the airborne bacterial community during Asian dust events between February and March 2015 in South Korea. Bacterial diversity indexes such as operational taxonomic units, Chao1 and Inverse Simpson index were increased, along with total 16S rRNA gene copy number during Asian dust events. The bacterial community structure during Asian dust events was clearly distinguishable from that during non-Asian dust days. The genera Bacillus and Modestobacter were increased 3.9- and 2.7-fold, respectively, while Escherichia-Shigella was decreased by 89.8%. A non-metric multidimensional scaling plot with metadata analysis revealed association of particulate matter concentration, but not temperature, humidity or wind speed, with bacterial community structure, suggesting that the newly transported dust particles contain various microorganisms that influence the airborne bacterial environment.

  3. [Hungary's retirement life table, 1984].

    PubMed

    Klinger, A

    1988-01-01

    "Multivariate tables [for Hungary] present mortality and retirement of [the economically] active male and female subpopulations as well as the mortality order of [the] retired population postulating the probabilities valid for 1984. The author points out large differences in mortality order by sexes at the age of retirement and among pensioners. The computation not only shows the present situation but also provides a basis for the reform of the pension system...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) excerpt

  4. Optimal Retirement with Increasing Longevity*

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Moore, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We develop an optimizing life-cycle model of retirement with perfect capital markets. We show that longer healthy life expectancy usually leads to later retirement, but with an elasticity less than unity. We calibrate our model using data from the US and find that, over the last century, the effect of rising incomes, which promote early retirement, has dominated the effect of rising lifespans. Our model predicts continuing declines in the optimal retirement age, despite rising life expectancy, provided the rate of real wage growth remains as high as in the last century. PMID:24954970

  5. 2014 Retirement Choices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    little different, requiring only a minimum payment per month. We characterize all of these loans by the interest rates and interest payments attached... interest rate , or annual percentage rate (APR). 12 If an E-6 expects to retire at age 40 with 20 years of service and lives to age 79, our calculations...show that, by selecting REDUX/bonus at 15 years of service, the Marine: • Pays an implicit interest rate of 13.5 percent for the cash-out (this is

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure on three co-occurring leguminous canopy tree species in a Neotropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew E; Henkel, Terry W; Catherine Aime, M; Fremier, Alex K; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2011-11-01

    • The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis was historically considered restricted to the temperate zones, but recent studies have shown the importance of this symbiosis across the tropics. We examined ECM fungal diversity, host plant phylogeny and ECM host preferences in a rainforest dominated by the leguminous host plants Dicymbe corymbosa, Dicymbe altsonii and Aldina insignis. • Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequencing and host species were verified with chloroplast trnL sequencing. To test whether Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis, we constructed a Fabaceae phylogeny using MatK and trnL. We identified four independent ECM lineages within the Fabaceae. • We detected a diverse community of 118 ECM species dominated by the /clavulina, /russula-lactarius, /boletus, and /tomentella-thelephora lineages. Ectomycorrhizal species in Agaricales, Atheliales and Polyporales may represent previously unrecognized tropical-endemic ECM lineages. Previous studies suggested that ECM fungi did not diversify in the tropics, but the /clavulina lineage appears to have a center of diversity in tropical South America. • Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis in Fabaceae but their fungal symbionts showed no host preferences. Spatial factors are more important than hosts in structuring the ECM fungal community in this ecosystem. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Hypolithic community shifts occur as a result of liquid water availability along environmental gradients in China's hot and cold hyperarid deserts.

    PubMed

    Pointing, Stephen B; Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley A; Lacap, Donnabella C; Rhodes, Kevin L; McKay, Christopher P

    2007-02-01

    Hypolithic cyanobacterial communities occur in hot and cold hyperarid environments but the physical factors determining their diversity are not well understood. Here we report hypolithic diversity and colonization of a common quartz substrate at several hyperarid locations in the ancient deserts of north-western China, that experience varying mean annual temperature, rainfall and concomitant availability of liquid water in soil. Microscopy and enrichment culture resulted only in Chroococcidiopsis morphotypes which were ubiquitous, but community phylogenetic analysis revealed considerable cyanobacterial and heterotrophic bacterial diversity. Species Richness and Shannon's Diversity Index displayed a significant positive linear correlation with availability of liquid water but not temperature or rainfall alone. Several taxonomic groups occurred only in specific climatically defined locations, while for Chroococcidiopsis, Deinococcus and Phormidium location specific lineages within these genera were also evident. Multivariate analysis was used to illustrate pronounced community shifts due to liquid water availability, although these did not significantly affect the predicted functional relationships within any given assemblage in either hot or cold, wet or dry hyperarid deserts. This study clearly demonstrates that availability of liquid water, rather than temperature or rainfall per se is the key determinant of hypolithic diversity in hyperarid locations, and furthermore that functionally similar yet taxonomically distinct communities occur, characterized by the presence of taxa that are specific to defined levels of aridity.

  8. Five-year all-cause mortality rates across five categories of substantiated elder abuse occurring in the community.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jason; Jackson, Shelly L; Sinha, Arup K; Aschenbrenner, Andrew R; Murphy, Kathleen Pace; Xia, Rui; Diamond, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse increases the likelihood of early mortality, but little is known regarding which types of abuse may be resulting in the greatest mortality risk. This study included N = 1,670 cases of substantiated elder abuse and estimated the 5-year all-cause mortality for five types of elder abuse (caregiver neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and polyvictimization). Statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality risks were found between abuse types and across gender. Caregiver neglect and financial exploitation had the lowest survival rates, underscoring the value of considering the long-term consequences associated with different forms of abuse. Likewise, mortality differences between genders and abuse types indicate the need to consider this interaction in elder abuse case investigations and responses. Further mortality studies are needed in this population to better understand these patterns and implications for public health and clinical management of community-dwelling elder abuse victims.

  9. 78 FR 14233 - Electronic Retirement Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Centers through the electronic data feeds for storage in OPM's Retirement Data Repository databases..., OPM has determined that under future retirement processes, OPM's standard informational material... notices of law enforcement officer, firefighter, or nuclear materials retirement coverage required by...

  10. The Myth of Employee Planning for Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Malcolm H.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of male hourly-wage earners indicates employees face serious problems in planning for income security in retirement. Retirement preparation programs that supply information and technical planning expertise are needed to assist employees in realistic retirement planning. (EA)

  11. Career Options for Retired Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botwinik, Ruth; Press, Marlyn Rothman

    2006-01-01

    This article contains suggestions for teachers wishing to remain active in the field of education but not on a full-time basis, especially considering that the oldest of the baby boomers have begun to retire, that people are living longer, and a growing segment of the workforce views retirement as a transition to a new venture, not the end of an…

  12. The Retirement Choice: FY 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    and we calculate the implied APR or interest rate for this loan. For example, an E-7 who retired in 2005 at age 38 is paying an implied interest ... rate of 13.1% and would see retired pay reduced by $309,460 if he or she lived to 79 years. Even if the servicemember received the bonus tax free, the

  13. Retirement as a Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Ford, Geoff; Hodkinson, Heather; Hawthorn, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article draws upon a major qualitative empirical research investigation in Great Britain to explore the relationships between retirement and learning. Though retirement is frequently viewed as an event leading to a life stage, our data show that it can perhaps be best understood as a lengthy process. This process begins well before actual…

  14. The Gift Package of Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draayer, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    The hunger for significance in life never ends. What changes in one's retirement is how one fills that need. For most school administrators, introspection and investigation into possibilities for post-retirement years begin prior to one's resignation; however, the intensity of thought, feeling, and deliberation moves to a much higher plane once…

  15. Working Women, Marriage, and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Fierst, Edith

    Women are at a disadvantage under both Social Security and private employee pension plans because the retirement systems were set up at a time when most women were non-working spouses of employed men, a condition that no longer exists. Today women workers, divorcees, and widows of retirees often find themselves with inadequate retirement benefits…

  16. Career Options for Retired Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botwinik, Ruth; Press, Marlyn Rothman

    2006-01-01

    This article contains suggestions for teachers wishing to remain active in the field of education but not on a full-time basis, especially considering that the oldest of the baby boomers have begun to retire, that people are living longer, and a growing segment of the workforce views retirement as a transition to a new venture, not the end of an…

  17. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  18. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  19. Genetic diversity of marine Synechococcus and co-occurring cyanophage communities: evidence for viral control of phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Mühling, Martin; Fuller, Nicholas J; Millard, Andrew; Somerfield, Paul J; Marie, Dominique; Wilson, William H; Scanlan, David J; Post, Anton F; Joint, Ian; Mann, Nicholas H

    2005-04-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus are a major component of the picophytoplankton and make a substantial contribution to primary productivity in the oceans. Here we provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that virus infection can play an important role in determining the success of different Synechococcus genotypes and hence of seasonal succession. In a study of the oligotrophic Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, we show a succession of Synechococcus genotypes over an annual cycle. There were large changes in the genetic diversity of Synechococcus, as determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 403- bp rpoC1 gene fragment, which was reduced to one dominant genotype in July. The abundance of co-occurring cyanophage capable of infecting marine Synechococcus was determined by plaque assays and their genetic diversity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of a 118-bp g20 gene fragment. The results indicate that both abundance and genetic diversity of cyanophage covaried with that of Synechococcus. Multivariate statistical analyses show a significant relationship between cyanophage assemblage structure and that of Synechococcus. These observations are consistent with cyanophage infection being a major controlling factor in picophytoplankton succession.

  20. A survey of faith leaders concerning health promotion and the level of healthy living activities occurring in faith communities in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Donna M; Kiger, Alice; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    Faith groups constitute a growing health promotion partner in North America where they help increase community capacity. However, in the United Kingdom this collaboration is seemingly far less developed. This study sought to find evidence of health promotion in faith communities and examine perceptions and attitudes concerning health promotion among faith leaders. It also sought to establish the level to which health-promoting activities currently occur in, and are organized by, places of worship in one Scottish city, Dundee. The authors distributed a self-administered questionnaire to representatives of all faith communities in Dundee (response rate 71%, n = 50). The survey identified existing, well-formed community groups, some of whom already engaged in health-promoting activities, and shared similar interests with health promotion professionals. Generally, faith leaders were positive towards the concept of health promotion and many considered health promotion to be compatible with their mission. Not all denominations were equally involved in health promotion activities, for example, some conducted annual one-off activities, while others had well-established walking groups or exercise classes. The responses suggest a degree of readiness by faith communities to engage, if invited, in health promotion programmes. These results also indicate that faith groups may constitute untapped resources, poised to contribute to local health promotion efforts. The article concludes that as the National Health Service (NHS) invests in community-based health initiatives that can have long-term sustainability, it is reasonable to make links between what is happening in North America, the interest in health promotion reported by faith leaders in this study and the possibilities for their participation in voluntary sector community health partnerships.

  1. Critical issues in the decision to retire: a comparison of retired and retirement-age faculty.

    PubMed

    Cook, Linda Sue; Williamson, Marvel; Salmeron, Lois; Burton, Denise; Goad, Dan M

    2011-12-01

    The nursing faculty workforce is on the verge of a crisis because the number of full-time faculty expected to retire in the next 10 years is predicted to escalate dramatically. To propose evidence-based strategies to retain qualified nursing faculty beyond retirement age, this study built on previous qualitative research. An initial phenomenological study of retirement-age faculty identified 15 critical issues in the decision to remain employed in academia. To determine the degree to which these factors are shared by retired and still-employed faculty and the relative importance of each of these factors, a quasi-experimental comparative study was conducted. A Likert scale questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample drawn from a national population using the snowball sampling technique. ANOVA established the difference between retired and still-working faculty; discriminant analysis identified eight predictor variables for faculty decisions to remain in academia.

  2. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  3. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  4. Community College Approach To Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard A.

    1973-01-01

    Described a program designed to provide educational opportunities for elderly persons and considered how community colleges were able to reach young adult, pre-retirement and retirement populations. (Author/RK)

  5. 78 FR 68981 - Electronic Retirement Processing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Electronic Individual Retirement Record records storage database (formerly known as the Individual Retirement Record Closeout Data Capture or ICDC records storage database). Electronic Official Personnel Record... (ERR) means the certified electronic retirement record submitted to OPM as a retirement data feed...

  6. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  7. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  8. Metaphors for Retirement: Unshackled from Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Leisa D.; Bataille, Christine D.; Vough, Heather C.; Lee, Mary Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study uses metaphor analysis to examine the meanings of retirement for a group of 35 retired Canadian executives and managers. Our analysis identified eight metaphors relating to the meanings of retirement. The findings provide us with a range of insights into the experience of retirement, from loss of purpose and identity to liberation from…

  9. Plan Now to Prepare for Your Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    For teachers, in particular, the importance of early retirement investing has never been more critical. The reality is that, decades from now, when teachers arrive at retirement age, their current state teacher retirement plan may have changed substantially. As a result, they do not want to reach retirement and regret that they never considered…

  10. Survival After Early and Normal Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Suzanne G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an epidemiological study of the patterns and correlates of survival after early (age 62 to 64) and normal retirement (age 65). Death rates were significantly elevated during the first, fourth, and fifth years after early retirement. Pre-retirement health status was the only significant predictor of survival after early retirement.…

  11. Predictors of Perceptions of Involuntary Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Retirement is often treated as a voluntary transition, yet selected circumstances can restrict choice in retirement decision processes. We investigated conditions under which retirees perceive their retirement as "forced" rather than "wanted." Methods: Analyses relied on Waves 1-4 of the Health and Retirement Survey (N = 1,160; 572 men…

  12. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-27

    9 Military Retired Pay, Social Security, and Federal Income Tax...retirement age. 15 For those who elect to receive a lump sum payment, after reaching the eligibility age for social security, they will again...date of retirement and the date of social security eligibility and a monthly annuity of 50% of the monthly retired pay they are otherwise entitled to

  13. Plan Now to Prepare for Your Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    For teachers, in particular, the importance of early retirement investing has never been more critical. The reality is that, decades from now, when teachers arrive at retirement age, their current state teacher retirement plan may have changed substantially. As a result, they do not want to reach retirement and regret that they never considered…

  14. Metaphors for Retirement: Unshackled from Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Leisa D.; Bataille, Christine D.; Vough, Heather C.; Lee, Mary Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study uses metaphor analysis to examine the meanings of retirement for a group of 35 retired Canadian executives and managers. Our analysis identified eight metaphors relating to the meanings of retirement. The findings provide us with a range of insights into the experience of retirement, from loss of purpose and identity to liberation from…

  15. 5 CFR 842.212 - Deferred retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deferred retirement. 842.212 Section 842... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.212 Deferred retirement. (a... this section, an employee or Member who has not attained the minimum retirement age, and who,...

  16. 5 CFR 842.212 - Deferred retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deferred retirement. 842.212 Section 842... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.212 Deferred retirement. (a... this section, an employee or Member who has not attained the minimum retirement age, and who,...

  17. 5 CFR 842.212 - Deferred retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deferred retirement. 842.212 Section 842... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.212 Deferred retirement. (a... this section, an employee or Member who has not attained the minimum retirement age, and who,...

  18. 5 CFR 842.212 - Deferred retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deferred retirement. 842.212 Section 842... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.212 Deferred retirement. (a... this section, an employee or Member who has not attained the minimum retirement age, and who,...

  19. 5 CFR 842.212 - Deferred retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deferred retirement. 842.212 Section 842... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.212 Deferred retirement. (a... this section, an employee or Member who has not attained the minimum retirement age, and who,...

  20. Dental care coverage and retirement.

    PubMed

    Manski, Richard J; Moeller, John; Schimmel, Jody; St Clair, Patricia A; Chen, Haiyan; Magder, Larry; Pepper, John V

    2010-01-01

    To examine the convergence of an aging population and a decreased availability of dental care coverage using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We calculate national estimates of the number and characteristics of those persons age 51 years and above covered by dental insurance by labor force, retirement status, and source of coverage. We also estimate a multivariate model controlling for potentially confounding variables. We show that being in the labor force is a strong predictor of having dental coverage. For older retired adults not in the labor force, the only source for dental coverage is either a postretirement health benefit or spousal coverage. Dental care, generally not covered in Medicare, is an important factor in the decision to seek dental care. It is important to understand the relationship between retirement and dental coverage in order to identify the best ways of improving oral health and access to care among older Americans.

  1. Sweetening Early-Retirement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeffrey S.

    1990-01-01

    Early retirement programs do not necessarily result in the greatest savings. To ensure a successful program, employers must consider all factors that influence an employee's decision to participate. (JOW)

  2. Preparing for Time after Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernau, C.

    1983-01-01

    One important area of activities for which retiring workers could be prepared is undoubtedly that which lies in the field of social services in which trade unions everywhere are increasingly engaged. (SSH)

  3. Retired RNs: perceptions of volunteering.

    PubMed

    Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor.

  4. The Variable Experiences of Becoming Retired and Seeking Retirement Guidance: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Oliver C.; Demetre, James D.; Corney, Roslyn H.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals across the UK who had retired between two and ten years ago, with the aim of exploring the variability of retirement experiences in terms of (a) retirement antecedents/reasons for retirement, (b) change in wellbeing and satisfaction over time, (c) personal relationships and (d) retirement guidance.…

  5. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-17 - Retirement payments to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement payments to retired partners. 1.1402... Retirement payments to retired partners. (a) In general. There shall be excluded, in computing net earnings... account of his retirement. The exclusion applies only if the payments are made pursuant to a plan...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-17 - Retirement payments to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retirement payments to retired partners. 1.1402... Retirement payments to retired partners. (a) In general. There shall be excluded, in computing net earnings... account of his retirement. The exclusion applies only if the payments are made pursuant to a plan...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-17 - Retirement payments to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement payments to retired partners. 1.1402... Retirement payments to retired partners. (a) In general. There shall be excluded, in computing net earnings... account of his retirement. The exclusion applies only if the payments are made pursuant to a plan...

  8. The Variable Experiences of Becoming Retired and Seeking Retirement Guidance: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Oliver C.; Demetre, James D.; Corney, Roslyn H.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals across the UK who had retired between two and ten years ago, with the aim of exploring the variability of retirement experiences in terms of (a) retirement antecedents/reasons for retirement, (b) change in wellbeing and satisfaction over time, (c) personal relationships and (d) retirement guidance.…

  9. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-17 - Retirement payments to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retirement payments to retired partners. 1.1402... Retirement payments to retired partners. (a) In general. There shall be excluded, in computing net earnings... account of his retirement. The exclusion applies only if the payments are made pursuant to a plan...

  10. [The surgeon at retirement].

    PubMed

    Fernández del Castillo-Sánchez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Our vocation has called us to become physicians and we have learned and practiced surgery as part of our medical training and knowledge. Surgery is an art expressed during each intervention carried out with effectiveness and devotion; enjoying the pleasure to perform it without hurry, with harmony, fluency and cleanness. Therefore, medicine and surgery belong to the same vocation being at service of people with the clear mission to heal patients and if we favor it, this activity will get our attention firmly and forever. A physician is a sensitive person that understands the sadness and happiness consequence of his actions at the office, operating room, research and relationships with colleagues. This provides him a pleasant experience of practicing medicine and especially surgery. Medical and surgical professions produce an irresistible attraction and they are very rewarding experiences; however, as time goes by there are effects over physician's health. Surgeons will switch from an active professional role into a passive agent and will need to assess himself and answer if he is still in optimal conditions to practice medicine. Therefore, every surgeon must be prepared to grow old from the start and preserve his Faith once retirement has been accepted as the next step in his career.

  11. Characterizing Retired A Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Johnson, John

    2015-08-01

    A complete understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems depends on the precise characterization of the planets and their host stars. The stellar mass is particularly important because it might influence the planet occurrence and it is used to constrain the planetary masses, thus providing information about the systems' architectures. Single FGK stars on the main sequence usually have precise masses estimated from evolutionary tracks, but the results of this method for subgiants and giants have recently been called into question. In this work, we describe the ongoing efforts to precisely constrain the masses of evolved stars using benchmark subgiants and giants from the literature as well as the sample of retired A stars observed by the California Planet Search survey. Different input atmospheric parameters (from excitation and ionization equilibria, spectral synthesis, interferometry and photometry) and methods (evolutionary tracks, asteroseismology and lithium abundances) are used to critically evaluate the stellar masses and its uncertainties. Preliminary results are discussed and suggest that current mass determinations for evolved stars do not present any significant systematic errors.

  12. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Characterization of Microbial Communities Associated with a Shallow Submarine Hydrothermal System Occurring within a Coral Reef off Taketomi Island, Japan▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Hisako; Sunamura, Michinari; Takai, Ken; Nunoura, Takuro; Noguchi, Takuro; Oida, Hanako; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Oomori, Tamotsu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-01-01

    Microbial communities in a shallow submarine hydrothermal system near Taketomi Island, Japan, were investigated using cultivation-based and molecular techniques. The main hydrothermal activity occurred in a craterlike basin (depth, ∼23 m) on the coral reef seafloor. The vent fluid (maximum temperature, >52°C) contained 175 μM H2S and gas bubbles mainly composed of CH4 (69%) and N2 (29%). A liquid serial dilution cultivation technique targeting a variety of metabolism types quantified each population in the vent fluid and in a white microbial mat located near the vent. The most abundant microorganisms cultivated from both the fluid and the mat were autotrophic sulfur oxidizers, including mesophilic Thiomicrospira spp. and thermophilic Sulfurivirga caldicuralii. Methane oxidizers were the second most abundant organisms in the fluid; one novel type I methanotroph exhibited optimum growth at 37°C, and another novel type I methanotroph exhibited optimum growth at 45°C. The number of hydrogen oxidizers cultivated only from the mat was less than the number of sulfur and methane oxidizers, although a novel mesophilic hydrogen-oxidizing member of the Epsilonproteobacteria was isolated. Various mesophilic to hyperthermophilic heterotrophs, including sulfate-reducing Desulfovibrio spp., iron-reducing Deferribacter sp., and sulfur-reducing Thermococcus spp., were also cultivated. Culture-independent 16S rRNA gene clone analysis of the vent fluid and mat revealed highly diverse archaeal communities. In the bacterial community, S. caldicuralii was identified as the predominant phylotype in the fluid (clonal frequency, 25%). Both bacterial clone libraries indicated that there were bacterial communities involved in sulfur, hydrogen, and methane oxidation and sulfate reduction. Our results indicate that there are unique microbial communities that are sustained by active chemosynthetic primary production rather than by photosynthetic production in a shallow hydrothermal system

  13. Culture-dependent and -independent characterization of microbial communities associated with a shallow submarine hydrothermal system occurring within a coral reef off Taketomi Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hisako; Sunamura, Michinari; Takai, Ken; Nunoura, Takuro; Noguchi, Takuro; Oida, Hanako; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Oomori, Tamotsu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-12-01

    Microbial communities in a shallow submarine hydrothermal system near Taketomi Island, Japan, were investigated using cultivation-based and molecular techniques. The main hydrothermal activity occurred in a craterlike basin (depth, approximately 23 m) on the coral reef seafloor. The vent fluid (maximum temperature, >52 degrees C) contained 175 microM H2S and gas bubbles mainly composed of CH4 (69%) and N2 (29%). A liquid serial dilution cultivation technique targeting a variety of metabolism types quantified each population in the vent fluid and in a white microbial mat located near the vent. The most abundant microorganisms cultivated from both the fluid and the mat were autotrophic sulfur oxidizers, including mesophilic Thiomicrospira spp. and thermophilic Sulfurivirga caldicuralii. Methane oxidizers were the second most abundant organisms in the fluid; one novel type I methanotroph exhibited optimum growth at 37 degrees C, and another novel type I methanotroph exhibited optimum growth at 45 degrees C. The number of hydrogen oxidizers cultivated only from the mat was less than the number of sulfur and methane oxidizers, although a novel mesophilic hydrogen-oxidizing member of the Epsilonproteobacteria was isolated. Various mesophilic to hyperthermophilic heterotrophs, including sulfate-reducing Desulfovibrio spp., iron-reducing Deferribacter sp., and sulfur-reducing Thermococcus spp., were also cultivated. Culture-independent 16S rRNA gene clone analysis of the vent fluid and mat revealed highly diverse archaeal communities. In the bacterial community, S. caldicuralii was identified as the predominant phylotype in the fluid (clonal frequency, 25%). Both bacterial clone libraries indicated that there were bacterial communities involved in sulfur, hydrogen, and methane oxidation and sulfate reduction. Our results indicate that there are unique microbial communities that are sustained by active chemosynthetic primary production rather than by photosynthetic

  14. Ready or Not - Planning for Creative Retirement: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, E. Sharron; Holder, Mary

    This paper describes a retirement planning program designed by four educational institutions in Calgary, Alberta and presents the program workshops that offered participants the basics of finance, health, and lifestyle, along with living arrangements, relationship changes, the aging process, community resources, and consumer affairs. Teaching…

  15. Culture Shock--The Retirement of Veteran Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the wave of retiring faculty--and the new recruits who will replace them--that is due to hit community colleges. Suggests that new teachers familiarize themselves with their "political environment," such as who wields the most influence within the department and who seems accessible for help and advice. (NB)

  16. Recommendations for Developing the Retired Senior Volunteer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Retired Senior Volunteer Program was established to help older Americans avail themselves of opportunities for voluntary service in their communities. Aspects of the program covered in this report include: administration, financing, program development, organization, Standards, recruitment, training and supervision of volunteers, resource…

  17. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders.

  18. Do Species-specific Hydraulic Traits Predict Ecosystem Response and Community Structure? Evidence From Co-occurring Bryophytes of a Sloping Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, H. E.; Russell, M. C.; Hardman, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    Ecosystems comprise a complex assortment species, and each species has a unique set of physiological and anatomical characteristics or traits. Landscape-level forecasts of ecosystem response to climate change can benefit by accounting for species-specific traits. Here, we demonstrate how a hydraulic trait can be quantified and aggregrated to community and ecosystem levels using a model life form and system, bryophytes in a sloping wetland. Growth and reproduction of bryophytes depend on the quantity of external water held, which varies by species. Wetlands provide a soil substrate that supplies either an unlimited amount of water, or at minimum, a shallow water table for part of the year. We hypothesized and confirmed that external water holding capacity of bryophyte species (measured in the laboratory) corresponded to bryophyte community structure along a hydrology gradient in the wetland. In addition, we demonstrated that water holding capacity by species can be aggregated to the level of the wetland ecosystem to reveal an emergent community property, water holding capacity of the bryophyte mat. Our results support ecological theory presented by Paul Keddy (1999) that co-occurring organisms show similarity in resource acquisition along gradients of resource limitation. We promote a conceptual framework that incorporates species-specific traits as modeling currency that can bridge scales.

  19. Assessing the inhalation cancer risk of particulate matter bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for the elderly in a retirement community of a mega city in North China.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Liu, Yating; You, Yan; Xu, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Zhang, Nan; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Bai, Zhipeng

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by the lack of environmental exposure data among different subpopulations. To assess the exposure cancer risk of particulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution for the elderly, this study conducted a personal exposure measurement campaign for particulate PAHs in a community of Tianjin, a city in northern China. Personal exposure samples were collected from the elderly in non-heating (August-September, 2009) and heating periods (November-December, 2009), and 12 PAHs individuals were analyzed for risk estimation. Questionnaire and time-activity log were also recorded for each person. The probabilistic risk assessment model was integrated with Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFs). Considering that the estimation of the applied dose for a given air pollutant is dependent on the inhalation rate, the inhalation rate from both EPA exposure factor book was applied to calculate the carcinogenic risk in this study. Monte Carlo simulation was used as a probabilistic risk assessment model, and risk simulation results indicated that the inhalation-ILCR values for both male and female subjects followed a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.81 × 10(-6) and 4.57 × 10(-6), respectively. Furthermore, the 95 % probability lung cancer risks were greater than the USEPA acceptable level of 10(-6) for both men and women through the inhalation route, revealing that exposure to PAHs posed an unacceptable potential cancer risk for the elderly in this study. As a result, some measures should be taken to reduce PAHs pollution and the exposure level to decrease the cancer risk for the general population, especially for the elderly.

  20. Prospective relationship of depressive symptoms, drinking, and tobacco smoking among middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling adults: Results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hui G; Chen, Shengnan; McBride, Orla; Phillips, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies in Western countries have consistently documented positive associations of smoking and heavy drinking with depressive symptoms but a prospective analysis of these relationships among middle-aged and elderly community members in China have not previously been reported. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a two-wave nationally representative survey conducted in 15,628 adults 45 years of age and older, we estimated the prospective association between depressive symptoms and an array of smoking and drinking behaviors. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) short form. Inverse associations were the dominant pattern of association. For the population as a whole, individuals with baseline depressive symptoms were less likely to start drinking (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5, 0.9) or smoking (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.4, 0.8). Similarly, baseline drinkers and smokers were less likely to develop depressive symptoms (ORdrinkers=0.6, 95% CI=0.5, 0.7; ORsmokers=0.7, 95% CJ=0.6, 0.9). No evidence was found for an increased incidence or persistence of depressive symptoms among high-frequency drinkers or heavy smokers or vice versa. Males who had never smoked prior to the onset of depressive symptoms tended to have more rapid onset of tobacco dependence compared to those without such symptoms. Males and females had different association patterns. The study is observational in nature and provides limited evidence for causality. The results are inconsistent with previous findings in Western countries, throwing into question the presumed universality of the association between alcohol drinking or tobacco use and depression among middle-aged and elderly adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. GRADUAL RETIREMENT: PREFERENCES AND LIMITATIONS1

    PubMed Central

    KANTARCI, TUNGA; VAN SOEST, ARTHUR

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the traditional retirement scenario, individuals work full-time or part-time until a given age, and then stop working abruptly. From the individual’s point of view, it seems more attractive to have a smooth transition, with gradual retirement. In Sweden and other European countries, specific gradual retirement programs have been created in the past 20 years, first in combination with early retirement programs and later to increase labour market participation of older workers. This paper surveys the existing literature on gradual retirement in the US and Europe and analyzes the relevance of gradual retirement in the Netherlands as a tool to keep people employed longer. PMID:20442794

  2. Dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy versus optimized community care for borderline personality disorder co-occurring with alcohol use disorders: a 30-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robert J; DeLucia-Deranja, Evan; Mogle, Jacqueline A

    2010-04-01

    Patients having co-occurring borderline personality disorder and alcohol use disorders represent a common, but particularly severe and refractory subgroup. An individual, time-limited treatment, dynamic deconstructive psychotherapy (DDP), has been shown to be effective for this subgroup, but long-term outcomes are not known. Participants were recruited from a sample of 30 patients enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of DDP versus optimized community care (OCC). Outcomes were assessed after an additional 18 months of naturalistic follow-up. DDP participants received an equivalent amount of individual treatment and less group therapy than those receiving OCC, but demonstrated large, sustained treatment effects over a broad range of outcomes and achieved significantly greater improvement in core BPD symptoms, depression, parasuicide, and recreational drug use over the 30-month study. These results suggest that DDP is a cost-effective treatment that can lead to broad and sustained improvement for the dually diagnosed subgroup.

  3. Use of integrated dual disorder treatment via assertive community treatment versus clinical case management for persons with co-occurring disorders and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Frisman, Linda K; Mueser, Kim T; Covell, Nancy H; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Crocker, Anne; Drake, Robert E; Essock, Susan M

    2009-11-01

    We conducted secondary analyses of data from a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) in delivery of integrated dual disorder treatment (IDDT) to explore the impact of IDDT delivered through ACT teams compared with standard clinical case management for dually-disordered persons with and without antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This analysis included 36 individuals with ASPD and 88 individuals without ASPD. Participants with ASPD assigned to ACT showed a significantly greater reduction in alcohol use and were less likely to go to jail than those in standard clinical case management, whereas participants without ASPD did not differ between the 2 case management approaches. There were no significant differences for other substance use or criminal justice outcomes. This study provides preliminary evidence that persons with co-occurring serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and ASPD may benefit from delivery of IDDT through ACT teams.

  4. Personal Retirement Accounts and Saving†

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Aging populations are leading countries worldwide to social security reforms. Many countries are moving from pay-as-you-go to personal retirement account (PRA) systems because of their financial sustainability and positive impact on private savings. PRA systems boost private savings at a macro level by converting a government liability into financial wealth managed by private fund managers. However, at a micro level, changes in retirement wealth affect individuals' saving and consumption patterns through their working lives. Retirement wealth increased for lower-income workers after Mexico introduced PRAs, crowding out saving, increasing consumption, and offsetting some of the PRA effect on private savings. (JEL D14, E21, H55, J26, O16) PMID:28286607

  5. 20 CFR 404.1088 - Retirement payment to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1088 Section 404.1088 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... must have been paid your full share of the partnership's capital before the close of the partnership's... to D were liquidated, and D's share of the capital of the partnership was paid to him. Retirement...

  6. An Early Retirement Option for Australian Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Over, Ray

    1987-01-01

    Issues of early retirement of college and university faculty are examined as they relate to Australia's aging faculty population, and the conditions necessary to promote early retirement successfully in this context are considered. (MSE)

  7. Early Retirement: A Need for Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis

    1987-01-01

    Institutions must provide good counseling regarding retirement program benefits, since when in doubt about their financial position faculty members are inclined to remain employed. Colleges should consider offering nonfinancial incentives for early retirement as well as financial. (MLW)

  8. Evaluating the Modernization of Military Retirement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    implementing a modernized retirement system, consisting of a blended Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plan . The primary tool used to accomplish this...various scenarios to the current military retirement plan available to service members.

  9. Women and Retirement: A Study and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn Kitchings; Price-Bonham, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Respondents had generally positive attitudes toward retirement, possibly due to preplanning, financial security, and flexibility. Education for retirement must begin early in a woman's career to combat loneliness and possible financial problems. (JAC)

  10. Gender and Relationship Status Interaction and Likelihood of Return to Work Post-Retirement.

    PubMed

    Settels, Jason; McMullin, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Population aging is an issue of mounting importance throughout the industrialized world. Concerns over labour force shortages have led to policies that prolong working life. Accordingly, present-day workforce participation patterns of older individuals are extensively varied. This study utilized the 2007 General Social Survey to examine factors associated with post-retirement paid work, focusing on the interaction between gender and relationship status, among Canadians aged 50 to 74 who had retired at least once. We find that although being in a relationship is associated with a higher likelihood of post-retirement work for men, the opposite is true for women. Our findings suggest that the gendered association between relationship status and post-retirement work results partly from the gendered associations between relationship status and one's motivation for learning and community involvement, career orientation, and sense of independence. Gendered meanings of relationship status are thus revealed through analysis of post-retirement work.

  11. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    international retirement models, public retirement, private retirement, DFRB, DFRDB, MSBS, High-3, REDUX 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 83 16. PRICE CODE 17...ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADF Australian Defence Force COLA cost of living adjustment CPI consumer price index CSB career status bonus CSS...calculations that include income and total assets (with exemptions for house ownership); for example, a retiree with other retirement income over AU$47,605

  12. A Worry-Free Retirement in Korea: Effectiveness of Retirement Coaching Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyejin; Suh, Wookyung; Lee, Jiyoung; Jang, Younju; Kim, Minjung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated a retirement coaching educational program using the mixed method research design. A structured survey was distributed to 48 financial planners who had undergone 50-hour retirement education including retirement coaching. The coaching was conducted in two sessions in 2015. Results revealed that first, the retirement coaching…

  13. Timing of Retirement: Including a Delay Discounting Perspective in Retirement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidewell, John; Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the influence of delay and anticipated health and enjoyment on the amount of retirement savings sacrificed for early retirement. In addition to testing and supporting predictions that willingness to sacrifice retirement savings would be less with shorter delays to retirement, greater anticipated health, and greater…

  14. A Worry-Free Retirement in Korea: Effectiveness of Retirement Coaching Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyejin; Suh, Wookyung; Lee, Jiyoung; Jang, Younju; Kim, Minjung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated a retirement coaching educational program using the mixed method research design. A structured survey was distributed to 48 financial planners who had undergone 50-hour retirement education including retirement coaching. The coaching was conducted in two sessions in 2015. Results revealed that first, the retirement coaching…

  15. 5 CFR 831.1612 - Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 831.1612 Section 831.1612...) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1612 Elections of Retirement Coverage,...

  16. 5 CFR 831.1612 - Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 831.1612 Section 831.1612...) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1612 Elections of Retirement Coverage,...

  17. 5 CFR 831.1612 - Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elections of Retirement Coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 831.1612 Section 831.1612...) RETIREMENT Customs and Border Protection Officers § 831.1612 Elections of Retirement Coverage,...

  18. Retirement Planning the Easy Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl D.

    1996-01-01

    Options available to college faculty for planning their retirement benefits are described, including defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans, and methods for customizing a pension plan. Data for 1993 on American households owning interest-earning assets (passbook savings, money market deposit accounts, certificates of deposit, checking…

  19. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  20. Shelved: The Retired Librarian's Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Jane D.

    Free-lance librarianship is discussed, and retired librarians are urged to start their own information service as a business. Because computer based storage and retrieval systems are not socially, politically, or economically integrated, and one library cannot hold all information, new needs are emerging for information services. For example, a…

  1. Financial planning considerations at retirement.

    PubMed

    Cole, R J

    1998-03-01

    The process of retirement planning is a difficult one for a physician. The Planning process should address the areas of Investment Planning, Estate Planning, and Risk Management. This article examines each of these dimensions with special emphasis on Modern Portfolio Theory as the basis for investment planning.

  2. Retirement Patterns from Career Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin E.; Giandrea, Michael D.; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how older Americans leave their career jobs and estimates the extent of intermediate labor force activity (bridge jobs) between full-time work on a career job and complete labor-force withdrawal. Design and Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we explored the work histories and retirement…

  3. An Evaluation of Mandatory Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Harrison, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues raised by mandatory retirement, the meaning of the new law, the law's specifics, and the uncertainties still ahead. Available from the The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $18.00 annually. (Author)

  4. The Issue of Mandatory Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.

    1978-01-01

    The emerging issue will center on costs to the total economy of early retirement for a growing population whose life expectancy is continuing to rise. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $18.00 annually. (Author/IRT)

  5. Tax Changes, Retirement, and Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumberg, Alfred D.

    1989-01-01

    The 1986 amendments to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and tax reforms from that year will require changes in retirement policies in higher education, especially pension plans, because of the extension of nondiscrimination rules to all tax-deferred annuities. (Author/MSE)

  6. Ordinary Retirement: Commonalities and Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John R.; Westcott, Glyn

    1991-01-01

    Case studies of 25 recent retirees from midwest plant formed basis for profile of ordinary retirement. Found that commonalities of preparation, satisfaction, activity patterns, and relationships far outweighed differences. Exceptions were found for the widowed, divorced, and those with health disabilities. (Author/NB)

  7. Retirement Planning; Choice or Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannini, Peter C.; Sorrano, Vito V.

    1974-01-01

    The staff of the New York Personnel Department's Career Development Division developed a special program for the older employees of the Port Authority of New York. It consisted of five sessions, given on company time, covering; retirement planning, physical and psychological aspects, various benefits offered, estate planning, use of leisure time,…

  8. Retirement: An Ego Alien View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Since knowledge of ego development can be used in professional work, a needed classification of attitudes toward the work ethic is advanced. A radical departure from our retirement policy towards those over 65 years of age requires additional competence on the part of counselors in the field of aging. (Author)

  9. Inflation and the Retired Professor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Dale R.

    1979-01-01

    Problems faced by a TIAA-CREF annuitant retiring in the late 1970s are examined in light of a continuing high rate of inflation. Options available to the annuitant are discussed and two strategies to provide significant inflation protection are suggested. (SF)

  10. Tax and Financial Considerations at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Chris B.; Falkenhagen, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Because of longer life expectancies and individually managed supplements to monthly pension checks, planning at retirement is becoming as important as planning for retirement. This article provides advice for retiring administrators concerning personal budgeting, setting goals, estate and tax planning, choosing medical coverage, converting assets,…

  11. Adjustment to and Satisfaction with Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Scott H.

    1982-01-01

    Utilized National Longitudinal Surveys of Mature Men to test effect of retirement on happiness and to analyze an evaluation of retirement item to discern factors that cause lower satisfaction with retirement. Results suggest health factors, recent widowhood, and income have the greatest impact on happiness with life. (Author)

  12. Planning Ahead: Consumer Expenditure Patterns in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulin, Geofrey D.; Duly, Abby L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at spending patterns for families who are near retirement and compares them with patterns of those who have already retired. Provides information about the impact of retirement on consumer spending. Includes appendices on the results of regression analysis and regression techniques. (Author/JOW)

  13. The Ever-Changing Meanings of Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVittie, Chris; Goodall, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Shultz and Wang (April 2011) drew attention to the ways in which understandings of retirement have changed over time, both in terms of the place of retirement in the lives of individuals and in terms of how retirement can no longer usefully be taken to comprise a single defining event. As the authors pointed out, psychological research has…

  14. Expected and preferred retirement age in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hess, Moritz

    2016-04-28

    Over the last 10 years the German pension system has undergone several reforms including the abandonment of early retirement policies and an increase in the statutory retirement age. Consequently, the average retirement age has increased and future retiree cohorts have adjusted the retirement expectations and preferences as to when they would like to retire. This study was carried out to examine discrepancies between the expected and the preferred retirement age of older workers in Germany and to investigate how these discrepancies differ between groups of older workers. Based on data from the survey "Employment after retirement", the expected and preferred retirement ages of 1500 workers aged 55 years and older were compared. Regression analyses were used to investigate the influence of educational level and professional position on deviances between the expected and preferred retirement ages. On average older workers would like to retire 1.75 years earlier than they actually expect to. The deviance is significantly larger for employees with a lower professional position, lower income and lower educational level. The discrepancy between expected and preferred retirement ages, in particular for older workers in vulnerable labor market positions, indicates a potential social inequality regarding the choice of retirement timing. This must be acknowledged when considering further reforms of the German pension system.

  15. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could…

  16. Household Income of Retired Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Conducted study which attempted to estimate the average household income of recently retired social workers and to compare it with that of retired professionals from similar occupations (nurses, teachers, doctors, and lawyers). Found retired social workers received the lowest income, on average, of all groups studied. (Author)

  17. Born to Retire: The Foreshortened Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekerdt, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Retirement is no longer a concern solely for the second half of life. Rather, the idea that we will someday retire is increasingly present to all adults and it is even urged on adolescents. The earliest reaches of adulthood are being colonized by frequent reminders that it takes individual effort to achieve retirement. The changing nature of…

  18. Learning to Work No Longer: Exploring "Retirement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore learning for and through retirement from the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: First, "retirement" is considered in the light of the existing literature, demonstrating a complex concept. The paper describes the research project from which a theme of retirement as a learning process…

  19. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  20. Predictors of Early Retirement Among University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Deborah J.; Greene, Vernon L.

    1987-01-01

    Interviews with faculty at a university having an incentive early retirement plan revealed that those choosing to retire early were in poorer health, faced smaller proportional income decrement upon retirement, were less satisfied with teaching assignments, and considered themselves lower in research productivity and higher in teaching and…

  1. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  2. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could…

  3. Tax and Financial Considerations at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Chris B.; Falkenhagen, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Because of longer life expectancies and individually managed supplements to monthly pension checks, planning at retirement is becoming as important as planning for retirement. This article provides advice for retiring administrators concerning personal budgeting, setting goals, estate and tax planning, choosing medical coverage, converting assets,…

  4. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  5. Dimensions of Marital Quality and Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Adam; Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether the meaning of marital conflict and marital solidarity are affected by the transition to retirement, whether the retirement transition alters stability and variability of, and cross-spouse influences on, marital quality, and whether retirement influences latent means of marital quality. Data from both waves of the…

  6. Don't Shy from Retirement Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses faculty retirement policy at colleges and universities, particularly findings from a survey by the American Association of University Professors. Explores defined-contribution plans, terminal leaves, phased retirement programs, and prerequisites that can enhance faculty retirements. Also addresses how trustee boards can help with…

  7. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds available under this Act may be used for contributions on behalf of any participant to retirement systems...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1232-2 - Retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retirement. 1.1232-2 Section 1.1232-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1232-2 Retirement. Section 1232(a)(1) provides that any amount received by the holder upon the retirement of an obligation...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1232-2 - Retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Retirement. 1.1232-2 Section 1.1232-2 Internal... TAXES Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1232-2 Retirement. Section 1232(a)(1) provides that any amount received by the holder upon the retirement of an obligation shall be considered...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404... Retirement payments. Payments made after 1983 to you (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities) on account of your retirement for age are not excluded from wages unless— (a)...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404... Retirement payments. Payments made after 1983 to you (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities) on account of your retirement for age are not excluded from wages unless— (a)...

  12. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1232-2 - Retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement. 1.1232-2 Section 1.1232-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1232-2 Retirement. Section 1232(a)(1) provides that any amount received by the holder upon the retirement of an obligation...

  14. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404... Retirement payments. Payments made after 1983 to you (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities) on account of your retirement for age are not excluded from wages unless— (a)...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1232-2 - Retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retirement. 1.1232-2 Section 1.1232-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1232-2 Retirement. Section 1232(a)(1) provides that any amount received by the holder upon the retirement of an obligation...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404... Retirement payments. Payments made after 1983 to you (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities) on account of your retirement for age are not excluded from wages unless— (a)...

  18. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  19. The Ever-Changing Meanings of Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVittie, Chris; Goodall, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Shultz and Wang (April 2011) drew attention to the ways in which understandings of retirement have changed over time, both in terms of the place of retirement in the lives of individuals and in terms of how retirement can no longer usefully be taken to comprise a single defining event. As the authors pointed out, psychological research has…

  20. Women's Caregiving Careers and Retirement Financial Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orel, Nancy A.; Landry-Meyer, Laura; Spence, Maria A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Providing the essential care for children and aged relatives has immediate and long-term financial consequences for women, particularly financial insecurity in retirement. Women's caregiving careers are examined in relationship to the impact on retirement. The need for career and retirement education and counseling aimed at women who assume…

  1. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  2. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  3. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds available under this Act may be used for contributions on behalf of any participant to retirement systems...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404... Retirement payments. Payments made after 1983 to you (including any amount paid by an employer for insurance or annuities) on account of your retirement for age are not excluded from wages unless— (a)...

  5. Psychological Effects of the Transition to Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological effects of disengagement from a work life and the transition to retirement are discussed. These effects include partial identity disruption, decision paralysis, diminished self trust, experience of a post retirement void, the search for meaningful engagement in society, development of a retirement/life structure, the confluence of…

  6. Going... Going... Gone: Thoughts on Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.; Barone, Carole

    2008-01-01

    Many people are ambivalent about retirement. The authors begins this article with a set of bullets describing several reasons for retiring. They then offer ten suggestions for retirees that may help them not only with navigating through the retirement process but also with adjusting to their new position and status. The authors then conclude with…

  7. 26 CFR 1.1232-2 - Retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement. 1.1232-2 Section 1.1232-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1232-2 Retirement. Section 1232(a)(1) provides that any amount received by the holder upon the retirement of an obligation...

  8. A modified therapeutic community for homeless persons with co-occurring disorders of substance abuse and mental illness in a shelter: an outcome study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Darren C

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted to determine the effectiveness of a modified therapeutic community (MTC) shelter on client outcomes. The seven-study hypotheses focused on whether greater effectiveness in the MTC would be demonstrated in longer periods of sobriety, fewer days of psychiatric hospitalization, shorter lengths of stay in a shelter, positive discharge from the shelter, medication compliance, housing placement within the first year, and appropriate housing placement according to level of functioning. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design with two groups: 1) an experimental group (E) homeless persons with co-occurring disorders (COD) of substance abuse/dependence and mental illness who reside in a modified therapeutic community (N = 70); and 2) a comparison group (C) of veterans with CODs living in a general shelter (N = 70). The data collection procedures involved a retrospective review of closed case records for subjects in the facilities from September 1, 1998-June 1, 2000 for the MTC shelter, and from June 1, 1999-June 1, 2000 for the general shelter. Baseline differences between the E and C groups were found in age, length of homelessness, years of education, years of work experience, veteran status, marital status, and psychiatric diagnosis; all except for veteran status were unrelated to outcomes and were controlled in subsequent analyses. Significant difference was found on medication compliance when controlled for both groups. Overall, this study showed some promise for the MTC approach. The study also raised a question as to the contribution of veteran status to the differences between groups and to treatment of CODs.

  9. Attitudes toward retirement of ophthalmology department chairs.

    PubMed

    Dodds, David W; Cruz, Oscar A; Israel, Heidi

    2013-07-01

    To identify common perceptions and ideas about preparation and planning for retirement of chairs of academic departments of ophthalmology, determining areas of particular stress and proposing ways to better prepare for retirement. Cross-sectional study. One-hundred sixteen chairs of academic departments of ophthalmology in the United States. A confidential online survey emailed to ophthalmology chairs. Surveys assessed demographics; current work schedule; perceptions, preparation, and planning for retirement; and retirement training for faculty and residents. Ninety-six department chairs responded to the survey (82% response rate). Most chairs anticipate retiring around age 70. Significantly, only 9% are looking forward to retirement. Reasons for delaying retirement include keeping active (37%), income/insurance/benefits (20%), and maintaining lifestyle (17%). The most common concern is financing retirement (46%). Forty percent anticipate their reason for retirement will be because of age or health, whereas 20% anticipate fatigue or burnout. Nearly half of the respondents have no specific plan upon retirement. Most respondents anticipate pursuing other interests (43%); 32% intend to spend time with family, vacationing, and travelling. Younger respondents are more concerned with the financial aspects of retirement while more senior respondents appear to delay retirement to keep active or because they enjoy their work. Retirement is a source of stress for many ophthalmology department chairs and many indicate financial preparation is their major concern. Despite this, the major reason for putting off retirement is a desire to keep active. Developing a retirement plan eases stress and engenders a feeling of confidence about the future. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive function, numeracy and retirement saving trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Banks, James; O’Dea, Cormac; Oldfield, Zoë

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which cognitive abilities relate to differences in trajectories for key economic outcomes as individuals move towards and through their retirement. We look at whether differences in baseline numeracy (measured in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002) and broader cognitive ability predict the subsequent trajectories of outcomes such as wealth, retirement income and key dimensions of retirement expectations. Those with lower numeracy are shown to have different wealth trajectories both pre- and post-retirement than their more numerate counterparts, but the distributions of retirement expectations and net replacement rates are similar across numeracy groups. PMID:22228911

  11. Heterogeneity in spending change at retirement

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The simple one-good model of life-cycle consumption requires that consumption be continuous over retirement; yet prior research based on partial measures of consumption or on synthetic panels indicates that spending drops at retirement, a result that has been called the retirement-consumption puzzle. Using panel data on total spending, nondurable spending and food spending, we find that spending declines at small rates at retirement, rates that could be explained by mechanisms such as the cessation of work-related expenses, unexpected retirement due to a health shock or by the substitution of time for spending. We find substantial heterogeneity in spending change at retirement: in the upper half of the wealth distribution spending increased. In the low-wealth population where spending did decline at higher rates, the main explanation for the decline appears to be early retirement due to poor health, possibly augmented by a short planning horizon by a minority of the population. PMID:24524026

  12. Worries and plans as individuals approach retirement.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of an employment-based retirement plan is to provide a secure and adequate income for workers throughout retirement. In the defined contribution (DC) framework, asset accumulation is a means to the end, but not the end. Drawing retirement income from savings and paying for health care expenses in retirement are the two issues that concern individuals the most as they approach retirement. This article examines the attitudes of near-retirees regarding these risks and their plans for managing them. The author discusses how DC plan design can have a major impact on how individuals convert their retirement savings to retirement income; differences in survey responses between those who have consulted a financial advisor or other financial professional and those who have not; and the role of trust in implementing advice.

  13. A Health Production Model with Endogenous Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Galama, Titus; Kapteyn, Arie; Fonseca, Raquel; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a stylized structural model of health, wealth accumulation and retirement decisions building on the human capital framework of health and derive analytic solutions for the time paths of consumption, health, health investment, savings and retirement. We argue that the literature has been unnecessarily restrictive in assuming that health is always at the “optimal” health level. Exploring the properties of corner solutions we find that advances in population health decrease the retirement age, while at the same time individuals retire when their health has deteriorated. This potentially explains why retirees point to deteriorating health as an important reason for early retirement, while retirement ages have continued to fall in the developed world, despite continued improvements in population health and mortality. In our model, workers with higher human capital invest more in health and because they stay healthier retire later than those with lower human capital whose health deteriorates faster. PMID:22888062

  14. A health production model with endogenous retirement.

    PubMed

    Galama, Titus; Kapteyn, Arie; Fonseca, Raquel; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2013-08-01

    We formulate a stylized structural model of health, wealth accumulation and retirement decisions building on the human capital framework of health and derive analytic solutions for the time paths of consumption, health, health investment, savings and retirement. We argue that the literature has been unnecessarily restrictive in assuming that health is always at the 'optimal' health level. Exploring the properties of corner solutions, we find that advances in population health decrease the retirement age, whereas at the same time, individuals retire when their health has deteriorated. This potentially explains why retirees point to deteriorating health as an important reason for early retirement, whereas retirement ages have continued to fall in the developed world, despite continued improvements in population health and mortality. In our model, workers with higher human capital invest more in health and, because they stay healthier, retire later than those with lower human capital whose health deteriorates faster.

  15. Truly satisfied with your retirement or just resigned? Pathways toward different patterns of retirement satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Potočnik, Kristina; Tordera, Núria; Peiró, José María

    2013-03-01

    The main aim of the present study was to explore different patterns of retirement satisfaction. Following the dynamic model of job satisfaction, we identify different retirement satisfaction forms. We also examined a set of antecedents of observed retirement satisfaction forms and their impact on psychological well-being. Using a sample of 270 Spanish retirees, cluster analytical results showed four retirement satisfaction forms. These were stabilized-progressive, resigned-stabilized, and resigned retirement satisfaction and constructive-fixated retirement dissatisfaction. Gender, retirement intentions, and voluntariness of retirement transition predicted retirement satisfaction forms. Finally, our findings showed that participants experiencing constructive-fixated retirement dissatisfaction reported lower psychological well-being compared with participants from stabilized-progressive and resigned-stabilized retirement satisfaction forms. These findings provide preliminary support for the study of retirement satisfaction from the dynamic perspective and call for more research on this issue. The findings could also imply the potential value of attending to retirement transition factors to achieve better adjustment to retirement.

  16. Modernizing the Military Retirement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    higher than that of average civilians with the same level of education . Enlisted and officer pay now ranks in the top quartile of all high school... higher yielding equities and bonds Findings 5 Findings (Continued) Military retirement is more generous and expensive compared to the...component of overall compensation. Other elements, such as current compensation, and other benefits (e.g. healthcare and education ) constitute the broad

  17. Is retirement beneficial for mental health? Antidepressant use before and after retirement

    PubMed Central

    Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Pentti, Jaana; Sjösten, Noora; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies based on self-reported data suggest that retirement may have beneficial effects on mental health, but studies using objective endpoints remain scarce. This study examines longitudinally the changes in antidepressant medication use across the 9 years spanning the transition to retirement. Methods Participants were Finnish public-sector employees: 7138 retired at statutory retirement age (76% women, mean age 61.2 years), 1238 retired early due to mental health issues (78% women, mean age 52.0 years), and 2643 retired due to physical health issues(72% women, mean age 55.4 years). Purchase of antidepressant medication four years prior to and four years after retirement year were based on comprehensive national pharmacy records in 1994-2005. Results One year before retirement, the use of antidepressants was 4% among those who would retire at statutory age, 61% among those who would retire due to mental health issues, and 14% among those who would retire due to physical health issues. Retirement-related changes in antidepressant use depended on the reason for retirement. Among old-age retirees, antidepressant medication use decreased during the transition period (age- and calendar-year-adjusted prevalence ratio for antidepressant use 1 year after vs. 1 year before retirement = 0.77 [95% confidence interval = 0.68 – 0.88]). Among those whose main reason for disability pension was mental health issues or physical health issues, there was an increasing trend in antidepressant use prior to retirement and, for mental health retirements, a decrease after retirement. Conclusions Trajectories of recorded purchases of antidepressant medication are consistent with the hypothesis that retirement is beneficial for mental health. PMID:21502864

  18. The effect of retirement on cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Coe, Norma B; von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; Lindeboom, Maarten; Maurer, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive impairment has emerged as a major driver of disability in old age, with profound effects on individual well-being and decision making at older ages. In the light of policies aimed at postponing retirement ages, an important question is whether continued labour supply helps to maintain high levels of cognition at older ages. We use data of older men from the US Health and Retirement Study to estimate the effect of continued labour market participation at older ages on later-life cognition. As retirement itself is likely to depend on cognitive functioning and may thus be endogenous, we use offers of early retirement windows as instruments for retirement in econometric models for later-life cognitive functioning. These offers of early retirement are legally required to be nondiscriminatory and thus, inter alia, unrelated to cognitive functioning. At the same time, these offers of early retirement options are significant predictors of retirement. Although the simple ordinary least squares estimates show a negative relationship between retirement duration and various measures of cognitive functioning, instrumental variable estimates suggest that these associations may not be causal effects. Specifically, we find no clear relationship between retirement duration and later-life cognition for white-collar workers and, if anything, a positive relationship for blue-collar workers.

  19. [Burnout, work characteristics and retirement intentions].

    PubMed

    Leenders, M V E; Henkens, K

    2010-06-01

    We investigated whether there is a relationship between burnout and work characteristics and retirement intentions from older workers. Data were taken from a survey held among Dutch older workers (50+) and their spouses (N=2,892). The results show that high workload, heavy physical work, and lack of challenge are related to burnout. No effect, however, was found for competence. Besides the effect of burnout, retirement intentions are related to the level of marital quality. Older workers who report a higher level of marital quality report a stronger intention to retire. Burnout and retirement intentions are related, but appear to be two different processes. While burnout can generally be explained by the work environment, nonwork related factors enhance our understanding of retirement intentions. This study shows that actual retirement is often preceded by feelings of burnout, in particular a mental detachment from work and feelings of exhaustion.

  20. Did the Great Recession influence retirement plans?

    PubMed

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam; Martin, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    The recent recession constitutes one of the macro forces that may have influenced workers' retirement plans. We evaluate a multilevel model that addresses the influence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors on retirement plans, changes in these plans, and expected retirement age. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the Health and Retirement Study (N=2,618), we find that individuals with defined benefit plans are more prone to change toward plans to stop work before the stock market declined, whereas the opposite trend holds for those without pensions. Debts, ability to reduce work hours, and firm unionization also influenced retirement plans. Findings suggest retirement planning education may be particularly important for workers without defined pensions, especially in times of economic volatility.

  1. Physician assistants and their intent to retire.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Jennifer; Hooker, Roderick S; Brunisholz, Kim

    2013-07-01

    To determine predictors of physician assistants (PAs) to retire or to permanently leave clinical practice. The intent was to create a measure of retention and attrition for purposes of forecasting PA supply. All PAs 55 years or older who were nationally certified in 2011 were surveyed. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures utilizing means, standard deviations, range, and proportions for all survey questions. Univariable analysis using χ² test for the categorical variables determined gender differences in participants' intent to retire. A studentized t test analysis for continuous variables was used to compare differences across genders. The estimated time interval until retirement was calculated using reported values from participants and then subtracting their projected retirement age from current age. The same calculation was used for estimating PA career length from date of graduation to retirement. For all analyses, a P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 12,005 were eligible and surveyed online; 4767 responded (38%). The mean age was 60 years and the years in clinical practice was 25. When asked to predict a retirement date or age, the mean duration of working beyond age 55 years was 12 years (range 5 to 21). Most respondents reported being confident they were on track to retire with an adequate income. The significant differences that emerged were that men were more confident than women in preparing to retire, having enough money for medical expenses, and being able to live comfortably in retirement. Men more than women stated that, if forced to retire, they were more confident in the preparation to do so. PAs 55 years and older report they are likely to delay retirement from practice until age 67 years, on average. Women were less confident than men in retirement preparation. This age prediction expands career projections and refines forecasting models for the profession. Correlations based on expectation

  2. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-12

    by the servicemember at the time of retirement multiplied by 2.5% for each year of service. 7 The minimum amount of retired pay to which a member...completing 20 years of qualifying service; there is no minimum age. However, the reservist will usually not become eligible for retired pay until age 60...30 The actual index used to adjust COLA is the CPI-W; the index for urban wage earners and clerical

  3. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-06

    by the servicemember at the time of retirement multiplied by 2.5% for each year of service. 7 The minimum amount of retired pay to which a member is...after completing 20 years of qualifying service; there is no minimum age. However, the reservist will usually not become eligible for retired pay until...30 The actual index used to adjust COLA is the CPI-W; the index for urban wage earners and clerical workers. It represents the buying

  4. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-27

    Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments David F. Burrelli Specialist in Military Manpower Policy Barbara Salazar Torreon...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Recent Developments Congressional Research Service Summary The military retirement system is a noncontributory, defined benefit system that has

  5. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-06

    personnel are eligible for retirement after 20 years of creditable service based on a points system, but do not typically begin to draw retirement...the previous pay table to 40 years, allowed additional longevity raises, and provided additional retirement credit for service beyond 30 years at...the rate of 2.5% per year. 8 7 Partial years of service are credited as well, with each month

  6. Lowering the Retirement Age for Military Reservists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-11

    not bring them to the same level, or equal pay , but it would provide a slightly more equitable treatment than the current age 60 rule. By drawing...receive retirement pay once they have reached the age of 60. For some military reservists this could mean waiting an additional 22 years before...receiving retirement pay after completing 20 years of active military service. By contrast, retired active duty military personnel can start receiving

  7. Retaining nursing faculty beyond retirement age.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Marvel L; Cook, Linda; Salmeron, Lois; Burton, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The number of nursing faculty planning to retire by 2020 is alarming. To develop strategies for retaining faculty, researchers asked: What factors influence the decision by nursing faculty to stay in the workforce past retirement age? What barriers could be removed that would encourage faculty to stay longer? Using Giorgi's analysis method, findings from 6 faculty teaching past retirement age revealed key meaning units and grand themes that match Maslow's Hierarchy of Inborn Needs.

  8. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PARTICULATE AIR SAMPLES COLLECTED IN AND AROUND A RETIREMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential, personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County in 1998. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. Computer-controlled scanning electron microsco...

  9. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL SAMPLES COLLECTED IN AND AROUND A RETIREMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential, personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County in 1998. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. Computer-controlled scanning electron microsco...

  10. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL SAMPLES COLLECTED IN AND AROUND A RETIREMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential, personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County in 1998. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. Computer-controlled scanning electron microsco...

  11. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OUTDOOR, INDOOR, AND PERSONAL PARTICULATE AIR SAMPLES COLLECTED IN AND AROUND A RETIREMENT FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential, personal, indoor, and outdoor sampling of particulate matter was conducted at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County in 1998. Concurrent sampling was conducted at a central community site. Computer-controlled scanning electron microsco...

  12. Early Retirement from Colleges and Universities: Considerations under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Larry E.

    1980-01-01

    Important considerations for institutions wanting to establish supplementary early retirement benefits to encourage the practice are outlined. Regulations concerning pension plans, tax-sheltered annuities, and deferred compensation are reviewed. Individually negotiated early retirement supplements are not recommended. (MSE)

  13. Early Retirement from Colleges and Universities: Considerations under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Larry E.

    1980-01-01

    Important considerations for institutions wanting to establish supplementary early retirement benefits to encourage the practice are outlined. Regulations concerning pension plans, tax-sheltered annuities, and deferred compensation are reviewed. Individually negotiated early retirement supplements are not recommended. (MSE)

  14. Retirement Planning Among Hispanics: In God's Hands?

    PubMed

    Blanco, Luisa R; Aguila, Emma; Gongora, Arturo; Duru, O Kenrik

    2016-12-15

    We conducted a qualitative study on retirement preparedness among middle-aged and older low-income Hispanics in Los Angeles. Data were derived from four focus groups conducted in the greater Los Angeles area. Findings demonstrate how behavioral and cultural factors-family experiences, religiosity, and denial of retirement-explain the lack of savings and preparedness for retirement. Findings also indicate that the majority of participants want to be economically independent and to keep working until they are unable to do so. Participants helped their parents financially but did not feel comfortable asking their own children for help. Instead, participants placed their survival in retirement "in God's hands."

  15. Nurse practitioners and intent to retire.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nancy L; Rudner, Nancy; Chapa, Deborah; Greene, Jessica

    2017-03-01

    Demand for primary care services is rising. Nurse practitioners (NPs) serve vital roles in meeting primary care demands. Workforce planning requires understanding NP retirement intentions. This study examines factors that relate to NPs, aged 55 years and older, and their intent to retire within 5 years. We used the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners to examine the relationship between NP demographic characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, nursing degree), work environment characteristics (part-time vs. full-time status, primary or specialty care, earnings, job satisfaction), and intent to retire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. A total of 3171 working NPs, 55 years of age and older, were included. Fifty-nine percent of NPs 60 years and older and 15% of NPs 55-59 intend to retire in the next 5 years. Working part-time and having less than a master's degree were associated with intent to retire. Being "very satisfied" with one's job was related to lower odds of intent to retire versus being "satisfied." Being "dissatisfied" with one's job and working in primary care were related to intending to retire for the NPs 55-59. Given the relationship between higher job satisfaction and lower intent to retire, efforts to increase NPs' job satisfaction may result in less early retirement. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. Psychiatric Intervention after Retirement for Young Men.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    psychiatric caseloads and prepare for work with depression, alcoholism and schizophrenia . Factors which facilitate transition to the retired role with minimal difficulties are clearly defined. (Author)

  17. 12 CFR 615.5260 - Retirement of eligible borrower stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... course of business means: (i) Retirement upon repayment of a loan or under a retirement or revolvement... institution retires eligible borrower stock in the ordinary course of business, such equities shall be retired at par, even if book value is less than par. (c) When a Farm Credit Bank retires stock for the...

  18. Career's End: A Survey of Faculty Retirement Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed changes in retirement policies for tenured faculty at a large national sample of colleges and universities. Found variations in the characteristics of regular retirement programs, in the existence and nature of retirement-incentive and phased-retirement programs, in institutional policies relating to retired faculty, and in institutions'…

  19. 5 CFR 891.104 - Responsibilities of retirement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities of retirement offices... Provisions § 891.104 Responsibilities of retirement offices. (a) The Office of Worker's Compensation Program... responsible even though the retired employee has retired under another retirement office from which he/she...

  20. 5 CFR 891.104 - Responsibilities of retirement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibilities of retirement offices... Provisions § 891.104 Responsibilities of retirement offices. (a) The Office of Worker's Compensation Program... responsible even though the retired employee has retired under another retirement office from which he/she...

  1. 5 CFR 891.104 - Responsibilities of retirement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibilities of retirement offices... Provisions § 891.104 Responsibilities of retirement offices. (a) The Office of Worker's Compensation Program... responsible even though the retired employee has retired under another retirement office from which he/she...

  2. 5 CFR 891.104 - Responsibilities of retirement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of retirement offices... Provisions § 891.104 Responsibilities of retirement offices. (a) The Office of Worker's Compensation Program... responsible even though the retired employee has retired under another retirement office from which he/she...

  3. 5 CFR 891.104 - Responsibilities of retirement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibilities of retirement offices... Provisions § 891.104 Responsibilities of retirement offices. (a) The Office of Worker's Compensation Program... responsible even though the retired employee has retired under another retirement office from which he/she...

  4. The Retirement Equity Act, Survivor Benefits Protections, and Public Employee Retirement Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebig, Phoebe S.

    The Retirement Equity Act (REA) sets out requirements for joint and survivor annuity coverage for married individuals who participate in federally regulated retirement plans. REA-mandated provisions do not apply to state and local government retirement systems. Because state and local government employees constitute a significant part of the work…

  5. Early Retirement. A New Issue in Higher Education: The Financial Consequences of Early Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.; Acton, Mary Ann

    This essay attempts to do the following: first, offer a definition of early retirement in order to establish boundaries for the discussion. Second, sketch some of the background and reasons why early retirement may be desirable; also it suggests why early retirement might not always be a constructive practice. Then the essay turns to the main…

  6. The Retirement Equity Act, Survivor Benefits Protections, and Public Employee Retirement Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebig, Phoebe S.

    The Retirement Equity Act (REA) sets out requirements for joint and survivor annuity coverage for married individuals who participate in federally regulated retirement plans. REA-mandated provisions do not apply to state and local government retirement systems. Because state and local government employees constitute a significant part of the work…

  7. Extending the Integrated Model of Retirement Adjustment: Incorporating Mastery and Retirement Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Tarryn; Earl, Joanne K.; Muratore, Alexa M.

    2010-01-01

    Extending earlier research, this study explores individual (e.g. demographic and health characteristics), psychosocial (e.g. mastery and planning) and organizational factors (e.g. conditions of workforce exit) influencing retirement adjustment. Survey data were collected from 570 semi-retired and retired men and women aged 45 years and older.…

  8. Managing Your TIAA-CREF Retirement Accounts. Investment Strategies To Maximize Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Leonard E.; Corney, William J.

    This book offers investment strategies for participants in the primary retirement organization for universities and nonprofit organizations, the Teachers Insurance and Annuity-College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF). The investment principles outlined also apply to retirement funds offered by other investment companies. The book's scope…

  9. 12 CFR 619.9335 - Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan. 619.9335 Section 619.9335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9335 Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive...

  10. 5 CFR 842.1009 - Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 842.1009 Section 842.1009... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1009 Elections...

  11. 5 CFR 842.1009 - Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 842.1009 Section 842.1009... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1009 Elections...

  12. The Relation between Self-Determination and Retirement Satisfaction among Active Retired Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Yannick; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the motivational forces leading retired individuals to engage in post-retirement activities and how they could be related to satisfaction with retirement. Using the self-determination framework, the purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine the nature of active retirees' motivation and its impact on satisfaction…

  13. 5 CFR 842.1009 - Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elections of retirement coverage, exclusions from retirement coverage, and proportional annuity computations. 842.1009 Section 842.1009... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Customs and Border Protection Officers § 842.1009 Elections...

  14. 12 CFR 619.9335 - Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan. 619.9335 Section 619.9335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9335 Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive...

  15. Promoting and maintaining physical activity in the transition to retirement: a systematic review of interventions for adults around retirement age.

    PubMed

    Baxter, S; Johnson, M; Payne, N; Buckley-Woods, H; Blank, L; Hock, E; Daley, A; Taylor, A; Pavey, T; Mountain, G; Goyder, E

    2016-02-01

    It has been argued that transition points in life, such as the approach towards, and early years of retirement present key opportunities for interventions to improve the health of the population. Research has also highlighted inequalities in health status in the retired population and in response to interventions which should be addressed. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to synthesise international evidence on the types and effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among people around the time of retirement. A systematic review of literature was carried out between February 2014 and April 2015. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, and citation searching. Systematic search of the literature identified 104 papers which described study populations as being older adults. However, we found only one paper which specifically referred to their participants as being around the time of retirement. The intervention approaches for older adults encompassed: training of health care professionals; counselling and advice giving; group sessions; individual training sessions; in-home exercise programmes; in-home computer-delivered programmes; in-home telephone support; in-home diet and exercise programmes; and community-wide initiatives. The majority of papers reported some intervention effect, with evidence of positive outcomes for all types of programmes. A wide range of different measures were used to evaluate effectiveness, many were self-reported and few studies included evaluation of sedentary time. While the retirement transition is considered a significant point of life change, little research has been conducted to assess whether physical activity interventions at this time may be effective in promoting or maintaining activity, or reducing health

  16. Measuring Years of Inactivity, Years in Retirement, Time to Retirement, and Age at Retirement Within the Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    SKOOG, GARY R.; CIECKA, JAMES E.

    2010-01-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed—all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person’s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38 for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  17. Healthcare use and voluntary health insurance after retirement in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kananurak, Papar

    2014-06-01

    The dramatic changes occurring in the age structure of the Thai population make providing healthcare services for the elderly a major challenge for decision makers. Because the number of the elderly will be increasing, together with the number of retired workers, under the Social Health Insurance (SHI) scheme, there will be the unmet needs for healthcare use after retirement. The SHI scheme does not cover workers after retirement unless they could use free healthcare for the elderly. In addition, the government budget is tight regarding the support of universal healthcare and long-term care services for all of the elderly. Therefore, the government could support retired workers who have the ability to pay by facilitating voluntary health insurance. The main objectives of the present study are to analyze the characteristics of workers that need health insurance after retirement and to identify the factors explaining healthcare use to offer healthcare services to meet the workers' needs and expectations. Four hundred insured workers under the Social Health Insurance (SHI) Scheme in Thailand were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The Anderson-Newman model of healthcare use is the conceptual framework used in this study to understand the factors that explain healthcare use patterns of workers. Multiple regressions are employed extensively to evaluate the variables that predict healthcare use. According to the survey, a person that purchases voluntary health insurance is likely to be female, have a higher personal income, and healthy. The characteristics related to healthcare use were poor health status, a high personal income, and peeople afflicted by chronic illness. There is a gap between healthcare service use and the demand for voluntary health insurance. People that have a high income are more likely to purchase voluntary health insurance, while people in worse health and afflicted by chronic illness may have greater difficulty purchasing voluntary

  18. Overweight and obesity in young and middle age and early retirement: the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between weight status in young and middle age and early retirement in African-American and white men and women. Data were from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Analyses were restricted to participants aged 45-55 years at baseline (n = 6,483). Associations between weight status at age 25 and ages 45-55 and age at early retirement (prior to age 65) over 9 years of follow-up were examined using proportional hazard regression analyses in models stratified by race and gender. Models were adjusted for education, household income, health insurance status, occupation, occupational physical activity, marital status, smoking, and field center. Between 18.7 and 21.6% of African-American and white men and women reported retiring prior to age 65. Although not always statistically significant, overweight and obesity were associated with early retirement in all but white women. Overweight (BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)) at age 25 was significantly associated with early retirement in African-American women (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.62 (1.17-2.23)) and white men (1.32 (1.12-1.57)). There was also a trend between overweight at age 25 and early retirement in African-American men (1.43 (0.99-2.07)). Obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m(2)) in middle age was significantly associated with early retirement in white men only (1.32 (1.03-1.69)). Furthermore, overweight at age 25 and obesity at ages 45-55 were associated with early retirement for health reasons among African-American and white men and women. In conclusion, analyses of the economic impact of obesity may need to consider its effects on early retirement.

  19. You cannot prevent a disease; you only treat diseases when they occur: knowledge, attitudes and practices to water-health in a rural Kenyan community.

    PubMed

    Levison, M M; Elliott, S J; Karanja, D M S; Schuster-Wallace, C J; Harrington, D W

    2011-06-01

    Almost 1 billion individuals lack access to improved water supplies, with 2.6 billion lacking adequate sanitation. This leads to the propagation of multiple waterborne diseases. The objective of this study was to explore local knowledge, attitudes and practices to understand the mechanisms and pre-conditions for sustainable uptake and use of these facilities. Data collection took place in a rural Kenyan community in September 2009. A qualitative approach was taken, with 4 focus groups and 25 in-depth interviews conducted. Participant characteristics varied by age, gender, education, marital status, employment and community standing. Few participants reported current access to improved water and sanitation facilities. Though they expressed desire for latrines and water sources, barriers including lack of funds and social capital, decrease the ability for installation. Participants understood that there was a link between the quality of water and their health, however, perceived benefits of current contaminated sources outweigh the potential health impacts and proliferate their continued use. While water-health links are understood to varying degrees within the community, contextual (physical environment), compositional (individual) and collective (community) factors interact to influence health. Community challenges, such as lack of unity, lack of education and lack control were identified as the main barriers to initiating change, despite a desire for increased access to safe water and sanitation.

  20. Planning for Retirement with a Tax-Sheltered Mutual Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnee, Edward J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Greater attention has been focused on the role that employer-sponsored retirement plans and individual savings must play in ensuring retirement income security. Alternative tax retirement planning opportunities currently available to college personnel are explored. (MLW)

  1. 75 FR 35093 - Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... provide survivor annuity benefits to a spouse based on post-retirement marriage and to retiring employees...- retirement marriage under section 8339(j)(5)(C) or (k)(2) of title 5, United States Code. Under section 11004...

  2. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement... continued to be payable under section 10 of Pub. L. 2, 73d Congress, or under section 1 of Pub. L. 743,...

  3. The Role Social Pressures Play in Early Retirement Propensities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwalek, Melanie; And Others

    1982-01-01

    One hundred male industrial workers within five years of retirement eligibility were asked their retirement intentions. Using Fishbein and Ajzen's behavior intention model, the authors suggest that significant others may be the most important component of retirement decisions. (SK)

  4. The evolution of retirement: results of the 1999 Retirement Confidence Survey.

    PubMed

    Ostuw, P; Pierron, B; Yakoboski, P

    1999-12-01

    The ninth annual Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS) shows continued evidence of progress in the drive for retirement income security for American workers. However, there are still hurdles to overcome. The RCS tracks Americans' retirement planning and saving behavior and their confidence regarding various aspects of their retirement. It also categorizes workers and retirees into distinct groups based on their individual views on retirement, retirement planning, and saving. The retirement envisioned by today's workers looks different in many respects from that now experienced by current retirees. Today's workers expect to work longer than current retirees actually worked before retiring--and many say they plan to work for pay after they retire. Twenty-four percent of workers reported that they are very confident they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement, and 45 percent reported that they are somewhat confident. However, there are indications that many may be falsely confident. The good news is that 70 percent of Americans are saving for retirement, and a growing percentage (49 percent) are going further and determining how much they need to save to fund their retirement. The bad news is that 30 percent of Americans have not begun to save for their retirement, and 51 percent have never tried to determine how much they need to save. Employers play a major role in ensuring adequate retirement preparation. Forty percent of all workers said they expect that money provided by their employer will be a major source of retirement income. Forty-six percent expect the money they put into a retirement plan at work to be a major source of income. The availability of a retirement plan at work is credited by 48 percent of savers as motivation to save. While worker education is a point of emphasis among both employers and policymakers, more remains to be done. For example, 59 percent of workers expect to be eligible for full Social Security benefits sooner than

  5. Second Wind: Handbook for Happy Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Philip J.

    Reflecting 10 years of actual retirement experience, the author attempts to prove that older people can live interesting dynamic lives right to the last moment. The book, with its conversational, step-by-step style, has been written for anybody over 50. It presents retirement as a "stepping out" rather than a "stepping down"; the solid realities…

  6. The Future of Retirement in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    There is a strong movement toward legal abolition of fixed-age retirement in Canada. Several factors justify the existing practice, but these arguments are unlikely to prevail, and institutions should consider administrative measures such as facilitation of early retirement, modified benefit plans, and more systematic faculty assessment throughout…

  7. Retirement Systems of the American Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, W. William

    The descriptive-analytical detail of this study provides confirmation of the generality that, if teachers continue with the profession long enough, they will retire with allowance payments close to or even below poverty levels. The research reviews most aspects of teacher retirement including: (1) historical and philosophical background; (2)…

  8. Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning. PMID:19176483

  9. Retirement Counseling: Preparing for the "Golden Years."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuehlsdorff, Harry W.; Baldwin, Cynthia

    Preparing for retirement can sometimes be problematic since it means that one is aging and moving into another life cycle change. This paper will review some factors to consider in making the transition a more positive experience. The impact of retirement on older citizens is frequently neglected in the counseling arena. In the current youth…

  10. Youth Individual Development Accounts: Retirement Planning Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shobe, Marcia A.; Sturm, Stephanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Given the growing interest in a privatized Social Security system and the lack of adequate retirement planning among many people in the United States, many households are often ill prepared for retirement. The outlook for low-income populations is even bleaker because they are often not privy to the same financial education and asset-building…

  11. Youth Individual Development Accounts: Retirement Planning Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shobe, Marcia A.; Sturm, Stephanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Given the growing interest in a privatized Social Security system and the lack of adequate retirement planning among many people in the United States, many households are often ill prepared for retirement. The outlook for low-income populations is even bleaker because they are often not privy to the same financial education and asset-building…

  12. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    12 Accounting for Military Retirement in the Federal Budget...over the past several years. These figures differ somewhat from those in Table 4 due to accrual accounting . The minor differences between the two are...purely technical. The section on “Military Retirement Budgeting and Costs” provides a full discussion of the accrual accounting system. Table 1

  13. The Characteristics of Teacher Retirement Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Sara R.

    By 1976-77 almost four million teachers and other school personnel belonged to teacher retirement systems or public employee retirement systems. To help laypersons better understand these systems, this report describes the institutional characteristics of public pension funds whose members include teachers and explains the concepts behind such…

  14. Mid-Career Change and Early Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Carl V.

    1978-01-01

    An NSF study suggests that important qualitative changes in the faculty may be obtained through increased attention to mid-career change and early retirement programs. Interest in career options, early retirement alternatives, evaluation criteria, mid-career change alternatives, internship, fellowship programs, and retraining programs are…

  15. There's More to Retirement than Financial Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetridge, Guild A.

    1990-01-01

    Since hobbies and recreational activities don't generate the intellectual satisfaction and adrenaline flow of a successful and challenging career, principals need to develop new midlife careers to replace some of the emotional supports that slip away after retirement. This article offers helpful advice on avoiding retirement pitfalls and pursuing…

  16. The Retirement Problem: A Positive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A TIAA-CREF task force reports that there are steps an institution can take in dealing with the new mandatory retirement laws (not before age 70). They include preretirement counseling, provision of "Sweeteners," severance plans, a phased retirement program, and a continuing relationship with the college for retirees. (Author/LBH)

  17. Are You Planning and Saving for Retirement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakoboski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, TIAA-CREF sponsored its first-ever "Retirement Confidence Survey of College and University Faculty" to discover the answer to this question: How well are faculty members taking advantage of employer-sponsored pension plans and saving for retirement? An additional objective of the project was to compare the survey's findings for higher…

  18. Retirement Programs for Faculty. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Kepple, Thomas R., Jr.

    An incentive early retirement program is an arrangement between employer and employee that provides tangible inducement or reward for voluntary early retirement. It may be a formal program or an ad hoc agreement negotiated with the institution. The most common incentives include severance pay, liberalized actuarial reduction, annuity enhancements,…

  19. Policy Issues in Work and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S., Ed.

    This collection consists of papers presented at a 1982 conference on policy issues in work and retirement. Presented first is an introductory overview of the problems of retirement and aging by Herbert S. Parnes. The following conference reports are included in the volume: "Life without Work: Does It Make Sense?" by Eli Ginzberg;…

  20. Colleges Explore New Ways to Manage Retirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    2008-01-01

    At colleges, presidents, provosts, and even faculty senates are taking a fresh look at how to manage professors' retirements. A few institutions that have sought to trim their tenured-faculty ranks for other reasons offer early lessons for those institutions that want to encourage retirements. Many institutions are doing just that, using…

  1. The Retirement Problem: A Positive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A TIAA-CREF task force reports that there are steps an institution can take in dealing with the new mandatory retirement laws (not before age 70). They include preretirement counseling, provision of "Sweeteners," severance plans, a phased retirement program, and a continuing relationship with the college for retirees. (Author/LBH)

  2. Retirement Plan Lawsuits: Preparing for the Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morahan, John; Turner, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Currently, higher education is being roiled by class-action lawsuits filed against high-profile institutions, including MIT, Yale and New York University, over management of their retirement plans. As the lawyers are deployed and the billable hours accrue, it is timely to examine how those who have responsibility for retirement plan…

  3. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No...

  4. Leisure and the Retired Professor: Occupation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine; Kolarik, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the leisure activities of retired professors, whose activity patterns in retirement may be different from those of other occupational groups because of their lifetime commitment to work. This interview study uses both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate: (a) the leisure and professional activities of…

  5. Goal Expectations as Predictors of Retirement Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the contribution of personal goals to retirement decisions. A SMARTER methodology (to assess multiattribute utility) and taxonomy of human goals were used to investigate the relationship between older workers' personal goals and their retirement intentions. Two hundred and fifty-one employees of a large university,…

  6. 5 CFR 842.206 - Involuntary retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Involuntary retirement. 842.206 Section 842.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.206 Involuntary...

  7. 5 CFR 842.206 - Involuntary retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Involuntary retirement. 842.206 Section 842.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.206 Involuntary...

  8. 5 CFR 842.206 - Involuntary retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Involuntary retirement. 842.206 Section 842.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.206 Involuntary...

  9. 5 CFR 842.206 - Involuntary retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Involuntary retirement. 842.206 Section 842.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.206 Involuntary...

  10. Retirement Plan Consortium Structures for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevin, John

    2012-01-01

    As school districts continue to seek administrative efficiencies and cost reductions in the wake of severe budget pressures, the resources they devote to creating or expanding retirement plan consortia is increasing. Understanding how to structure a retirement plan consortium is paramount to successfully achieving the many objectives of…

  11. Superannuation retirement balances: a surprising outcome.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael Brian

    2014-12-01

    Although the guaranteed superannuation system is believed by many to provide a safe and adequate source of funds in retirement, some will be unpleasantly surprised. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the significant effect of the economic cycle on the final accumulated balance in superannuation retirement accounts. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to illustrate the variance in outcomes that can be expected for a hypothetical individual. The expected accumulated superannuation balances for two hypothetical individuals are estimated. The spread of outcomes is used to illustrate the problem of using only the mean of the distribution as a predictor of wealth in the retirement years. Many retirees rely on superannuation to fund their retirement. However regular contributions to superannuation does not ensure a predictable outcome, and active management of contributions is required if retirement goals are to be met. © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. Mythbusters: The Case for Retirement Income in DC Plans.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ron; Shepherd, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Myths persist about retirement income solutions in defined contribution (DC) plans. The authors put six common myths to the test: (1) that few plans offer a retirement income option, (2) that retirement is solely a product decision, (3) that retirement income options lack fiduciary clarity, (4) that it's difficult to implement a retirement income option, (5) that retirement income options can be viewed similarly to an asset class and (6) that retirement solutions are too difficult to communicate to participants. They explain why some chatter on the topic of retirement income solutions in DC plans is unfounded.

  13. Changes in bacterial community composition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 super-shedder cattle occur in the lower intestine

    PubMed Central

    Cousteix, Elodie; Xu, Yong; Munns, Krysty; Selinger, Lorna J.; Barbieri, Rutn; Alexander, Trevor; McAllister, Tim A.; Selinger, L. Brent

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that colonizes ruminants. Cattle are considered the primary reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 with super-shedders, defined as individuals excreting > 104 E. coli O157:H7 CFU g-1 feces. The mechanisms leading to the super-shedding condition are largely unknown. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to examine the composition of the fecal bacterial community in order to investigate changes in the bacterial microbiota at several locations along the digestive tract (from the duodenum to the rectal-anal junction) in 5 steers previously identified as super-shedders and 5 non-shedders. The overall bacterial community structure did not differ by E. coli O157:H7 shedding status; but several differences in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between the two groups. The genus Prevotella was most enriched in the non-shedders while the genus Ruminococcus and the Bacteroidetes phylum were notably enriched in the super-shedders. There was greater bacterial diversity and richness in samples collected from the lower- as compared to the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI). The spiral colon was the only GI location that differed in terms of bacterial diversity between super-shedders and non-shedders. These findings reinforced linkages between E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle and the nature of the microbial community inhabiting the digestive tract of super-shedders. PMID:28141846

  14. Changes in bacterial community composition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 super-shedder cattle occur in the lower intestine.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Rahat; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Holman, Devon; Cousteix, Elodie; Xu, Yong; Munns, Krysty; Selinger, Lorna J; Barbieri, Rutn; Alexander, Trevor; McAllister, Tim A; Selinger, L Brent

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that colonizes ruminants. Cattle are considered the primary reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 with super-shedders, defined as individuals excreting > 104 E. coli O157:H7 CFU g-1 feces. The mechanisms leading to the super-shedding condition are largely unknown. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to examine the composition of the fecal bacterial community in order to investigate changes in the bacterial microbiota at several locations along the digestive tract (from the duodenum to the rectal-anal junction) in 5 steers previously identified as super-shedders and 5 non-shedders. The overall bacterial community structure did not differ by E. coli O157:H7 shedding status; but several differences in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between the two groups. The genus Prevotella was most enriched in the non-shedders while the genus Ruminococcus and the Bacteroidetes phylum were notably enriched in the super-shedders. There was greater bacterial diversity and richness in samples collected from the lower- as compared to the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI). The spiral colon was the only GI location that differed in terms of bacterial diversity between super-shedders and non-shedders. These findings reinforced linkages between E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle and the nature of the microbial community inhabiting the digestive tract of super-shedders.

  15. Relocating to retirement living: an occupational perspective on successful transitions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Emily; McNamara, Beverley

    2013-12-01

    Older adults are increasingly relocating to alternative housing options, such as retirement villages. Relocations can be stressful and these environmental transitions can cause significant disruption to the person-environment and occupational fit, thus influencing health, well-being and quality of life. There is a lack of literature from an occupational therapy perspective in relation to healthy older adults seeking to relocate. This study aimed to identify issues healthy older adults face when relocating to retirement living, what strategies they used during this process, how they maintained a sense of home, and the potential for occupational therapy involvement. Sixteen semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited from retirement living facilities across three stages of relocation; 'Decision', 'Early Days', and 'Established'. A grounded theory approach was used to code and analyse the data. Having control over the decisions surrounding relocation, being proactive rather than reactive and preparing sufficiently for the move all contributed to a positive post-location adjustment. Four main themes emerged from the narratives: timing of decision making, new beginnings, continuity, and strategies for change. This study contributes to literature surrounding how older adults occupy and make meaning of the spaces they call home and also enriches literature regarding environmental transitions. Relocation can be a disruptive process and occupational therapists are uniquely placed to facilitate healthy ageing throughout this transition using preventative and community-based occupational therapy. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  16. Social support, early retirement, and a retirement preference: a study of 10,489 Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Ojanlatva, Ansa; Korkeila, Katariina; Suominen, Sakari; Helenius, Hans; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine associations of social support with early retirement and reported retirement preference. Logistic regression analyses of early retirement (retired before the age of 55) were based on a cohort of 10,489 respondents (5960 female, 4529 male) aged 40-55 years. Analyses of retirement preference (planning of early retirement) were based on a sub-cohort of 7759 full-time employees (4233 female, 3526 male). The measures for social support were the social network size (number of close personal relationships) and social network heterogeneity (number of different roles as sources of social support). Among women, early retirement was associated with small social networks (OR 5.1, 95% CI = 2.8-9.2) and low social network heterogeneity (OR 9.1, 95% CI = 3.2-25.9). Among men, the corresponding associations were somewhat smaller (1.5; 0.9-2.6 and 8.0; 1.8-35.7, respectively). Adjustments for age, occupational training, and spouse at home did not considerably affect these associations. Among men, the association between social network heterogeneity and early retirement was not statistically significant after additional adjustments had been made for marital status and perceived health status. The characteristics of the social network were not associated with a retirement preference among employed men. Among women, the lack of social relations was associated with low retirement preference. Our findings suggested that social support is not independently associated with a retirement preference among men. Socially isolated women prefer retirement less often than other women do. Being retired before the age of 55 years may be predicted by limited social support or it may restrain one's possibilities to establish and maintain social relationships.

  17. An overview of the Railroad Retirement program.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    In the 1930s, amidst concern about the ability of existing pension programs to provide former railroad workers with adequate assistance in old age, Congress established a national Railroad Retirement system. This system is primarily administered by the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB), which is an independent federal agency charged with providing benefits to eligible employees of the railroad industry and their families. Today, the Railroad Retirement program is closely tied to the far better-known Social Security program, and although the Railroad Retirement program and Social Security share a number of common elements, key differences also exist between the two in areas such as funding and benefit structure. This article aims to increase awareness and understanding of the Railroad Retirement program and its relationship with Social Security by examining the parallel development of these two retirement programs while illuminating areas where the two diverge. The history of the Railroad Retirement program, the benefits provided by the program, and RRB's financial operations are reviewed, using elements of the Social Security system as points of reference.

  18. The effect of retirement on physical health.

    PubMed Central

    Ekerdt, D J; Baden, L; Bossé, R; Dibbs, E

    1983-01-01

    This prospective study compared pre- to post-retirement changes in physical health among male retirees with changes among age peers who continued to work. The 229 retirees and 409 workers aged 55-73 at follow-up were all participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study. Physical health at baseline and follow-up (three to four years apart) was rated on a four-point scale according to the findings of medical examinations. Although physical health declined generally over time, regression analyses showed no significant difference between eventual retirees and continuing workers on health change, after controlling for age and excluding men who retired due to illness or disability. Among retirees alone, pre- to post-retirement health change was also not significantly associated with several circumstances which purportedly make the retirement transition more stressful, such as mandatory retirement or retirement to a reduced standard of living. The results of this study of physical health, which corroborate those of other studies based on self-reported health measures and mortality data, support the conclusion that the event of retirement does not influence the risk of health deterioration. PMID:6859363

  19. Cost-effectiveness of assertive community treatment versus standard case management for persons with co-occurring severe mental illness and substance use disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R E; Teague, G B; Ricketts, S K; Bush, P W; Xie, H; McGuire, T G; Drake, R E; McHugo, G J; Keller, A M; Zubkoff, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) in comparison to Standard Case Management (SCM) for persons with severe mental illness and substance use disorders. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Original data on the effectiveness and social costs of ACT and SCM that were collected between 1989 and 1995. Seven community mental health centers in New Hampshire provided both types of treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Persons with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and a concurrent substance use disorder were randomly assigned to ACT or SCM and followed for three years. The primary variables assessed were substance use, psychiatric symptoms, functioning, quality of life, and social costs. DATA COLLECTION METHODS: Effectiveness data were obtained from interviews at six-month intervals with persons enrolled in treatment and with their service providers. Social cost and service utilization data came from client reports; interviews with informal caregivers; provider information systems and Medicaid claims; law enforcement agencies; courts; and community service providers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants in both groups showed significant reductions in substance use over time. Focusing on quality of life and substance use outcomes, ACT and SCM were not significantly different in cost-effectiveness over the entire three-year study period. Longitudinal analyses showed that SCM tended to be more efficient during the first two years but that ACT was significantly more efficient than SCM during the final year of the study. CONCLUSIONS: In an adequately funded system, ACT is not more cost-effective than SCM. However, ACT efficiency appears to improve over time. PMID:9865221

  20. The influence of the early retirement process on satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiró, José María

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group norms about early retirement as antecedents of the early retirement process and subsequent satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-being. In addition, we examined the moderating role of the voluntariness of the early retirement transition in the proposed model. Our hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 early retirees. We found that while high organizational pressures were related to lower retirement age, low perceived ability to continue working and group norms favorable to early retirement were related to higher levels of early retirement intentions. Furthermore, group norms favorable to early retirement

  1. Retirement of J. Gary Eden as Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadish, Chennupati; Jelinkova, Helena; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Dawson, Martin; Ermers, Ysabel

    2016-01-01

    After nine years of dedicated service as Editor-in-Chief of Progress in Quantum Electronics (PQE), J. Gary Eden has retired at the end of December 2015. During his term as the Editor-in-Chief, PQE has grown significantly in size and quality and he has given generously of his time in advising authors, referees, editors, and the journal staff. Gary is an exceptional scientist and a generous individual who has given so much to the community. He is always very positive in every situation, and has created positive environment and supported people with utmost enthusiasm.

  2. Characterisation of the Bacterial and Fungal Communities Associated with Different Lesion Sizes of Dark Spot Syndrome Occurring in the Coral Stephanocoenia intersepta

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael; Burn, Deborah; Croquer, Aldo; Leary, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The number and prevalence of coral diseases/syndromes are increasing worldwide. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) afflicts numerous coral species and is widespread throughout the Caribbean, yet there are no known causal agents. In this study we aimed to characterise the microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) associated with DSS lesions affecting the coral Stephanocoenia intersepta using nonculture molecular techniques. Bacterial diversity of healthy tissues (H), those in advance of the lesion interface (apparently healthy AH), and three sizes of disease lesions (small, medium, and large) varied significantly (ANOSIM R  = 0.052 p<0.001), apart from the medium and large lesions, which were similar in their community profile. Four bacteria fitted into the pattern expected from potential pathogens; namely absent from H, increasing in abundance within AH, and dominant in the lesions themselves. These included ribotypes related to Corynebacterium (KC190237), Acinetobacter (KC190251), Parvularculaceae (KC19027), and Oscillatoria (KC190271). Furthermore, two Vibrio species, a genus including many proposed coral pathogens, dominated the disease lesion and were absent from H and AH tissues, making them candidates as potential pathogens for DSS. In contrast, other members of bacteria from the same genus, such as V. harveyii were present throughout all sample types, supporting previous studies where potential coral pathogens exist in healthy tissues. Fungal diversity varied significantly as well, however the main difference between diseased and healthy tissues was the dominance of one ribotype, closely related to the plant pathogen, Rhytisma acerinum, a known causal agent of tar spot on tree leaves. As the corals’ symbiotic algae have been shown to turn to a darker pigmented state in DSS (giving rise to the syndromes name), the two most likely pathogens are R. acerinum and the bacterium Oscillatoria, which has been identified as the causal agent of the colouration in Black

  3. Attitudes toward Retirement and Preretirement Education Among Nigerian Bank Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunbameru, Olakunle; Bamiwuye, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Retirement is viewed as a passage that can result in psychological, physiological, and economic problems among some retirees. Adequate preparation for retirement through preretirement education, as practiced in the Western-European societies, has been found to ease transition into retirement and adjustment in retirement. Preretirement education is…

  4. Attitudes toward Retirement and Preretirement Education among Nigerian Bank Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunbameru, Olakunle A.; Bamiwuye, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Retirement is viewed as a passage that can result in psychological, physiological, and economic problems among some retirees. Adequate preparation for retirement through preretirement education, as practiced in the Western-European societies, has been found to ease transition into retirement and adjustment in retirement. Preretirement education is…

  5. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  6. Retirement Satisfaction among Coal Miners: A Correlational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Diane J.; And Others

    Because of increases in life expectancy and early retirement, the quality of life during retirement is of concern to many people. Previous research has found that health and adequate income have consistently been related to life satisfaction during retirement. Several satisfaction measures were administered to a group of 55 retired coal miners.…

  7. Effects of Retirement and Grandchild Care on Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how grandchild care in conjunction with grandparents' retirement affects depressive symptoms, using data from the Health and Retirement Survey. The findings demonstrate that retirement moderates the influence of grandchild care obligations on well-being, measured by depressive symptoms. For retired men, freedom from grandchild…

  8. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board...

  9. A Three-Phase Model of Retirement Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Beehr, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    The present article organizes prominent theories about retirement decision making around three different types of thinking about retirement: imagining the possibility of retirement, assessing when it is time to let go of long-held jobs, and putting concrete plans for retirement into action at present. It also highlights important directions for…

  10. Attitudes toward Retirement and Preretirement Education among Nigerian Bank Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunbameru, Olakunle A.; Bamiwuye, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Retirement is viewed as a passage that can result in psychological, physiological, and economic problems among some retirees. Adequate preparation for retirement through preretirement education, as practiced in the Western-European societies, has been found to ease transition into retirement and adjustment in retirement. Preretirement education is…

  11. A Three-Phase Model of Retirement Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Beehr, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    The present article organizes prominent theories about retirement decision making around three different types of thinking about retirement: imagining the possibility of retirement, assessing when it is time to let go of long-held jobs, and putting concrete plans for retirement into action at present. It also highlights important directions for…

  12. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is retired, with or without replacement, the related book cost must be credited to the property... the retirement unit is of a depreciable class, the book cost of the unit retired and credited to... retired and not replaced, the related book cost must be credited to the property account in which it...

  13. 18 CFR 367.59 - Additions and retirements of property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is retired, with or without replacement, the related book cost must be credited to the property... the retirement unit is of a depreciable class, the book cost of the unit retired and credited to... retired and not replaced, the related book cost must be credited to the property account in which it...

  14. Retirement Satisfaction among Coal Miners: A Correlational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Diane J.; And Others

    Because of increases in life expectancy and early retirement, the quality of life during retirement is of concern to many people. Previous research has found that health and adequate income have consistently been related to life satisfaction during retirement. Several satisfaction measures were administered to a group of 55 retired coal miners.…

  15. 29 CFR 4022.10 - Earliest PBGC Retirement Date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. 4022.10 Section 4022.10... § 4022.10 Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date for a participant is the...)(B) of ERISA. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date is determined in accordance with this § 4022.10....

  16. 29 CFR 4022.10 - Earliest PBGC Retirement Date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. 4022.10 Section 4022.10... § 4022.10 Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date for a participant is the...)(B) of ERISA. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date is determined in accordance with this § 4022.10....

  17. 29 CFR 4022.10 - Earliest PBGC Retirement Date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. 4022.10 Section 4022.10... § 4022.10 Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date for a participant is the...)(B) of ERISA. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date is determined in accordance with this § 4022.10....

  18. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  19. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  20. Psychological Perspectives on the Changing Nature of Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Wang, Mo

    2011-01-01

    The concept and the process of retirement are rapidly evolving. As a result, psychologists are in a unique position to understand and explain the dynamics behind the changing face of retirement. We begin this article with a brief overview of the history of retirement and then note the various definitions used when studying retirement. We then…

  1. 26 CFR 1.408-2 - Individual retirement accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individual retirement accounts. 1.408-2 Section... retirement accounts. (a) In general. An individual retirement account must be a trust or a custodial account... in order to qualify as an individual retirement account. It may be established and maintained by...

  2. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  3. 26 CFR 1.219-1 - Deduction for retirement savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for retirement savings. 1.219-1... retirement savings. (a) In general. Subject to the limitations and restrictions of paragraph (b) and the... an individual retirement account described in section 408(a), for an individual retirement...

  4. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  5. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  6. 5 CFR 831.1204 - Filing disability retirement applications: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Filing disability retirement applications...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1204 Filing disability retirement applications: General. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section,...

  7. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  8. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  9. 29 CFR 4022.10 - Earliest PBGC Retirement Date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. 4022.10 Section 4022.10... § 4022.10 Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date for a participant is the...)(B) of ERISA. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date is determined in accordance with this § 4022.10....

  10. 26 CFR 1.408-2 - Individual retirement accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual retirement accounts. 1.408-2 Section... retirement accounts. (a) In general. An individual retirement account must be a trust or a custodial account... in order to qualify as an individual retirement account. It may be established and maintained by...

  11. 26 CFR 1.408-2 - Individual retirement accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Individual retirement accounts. 1.408-2 Section 1... retirement accounts. (a) In general. An individual retirement account must be a trust or a custodial account... in order to qualify as an individual retirement account. It may be established and maintained by...

  12. 5 CFR 352.404 - Retirement and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retirement and insurance. 352.404 Section... Agency § 352.404 Retirement and insurance. (a) Coverage. (1) To obtain retirement benefits for a term of...-sum credit in the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. (2) To retain coverage under...

  13. 5 CFR 831.1203 - Basic requirements for disability retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... retirement. 831.1203 Section 831.1203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1203 Basic requirements for disability retirement. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the following conditions...

  14. 5 CFR 352.404 - Retirement and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retirement and insurance. 352.404 Section... Agency § 352.404 Retirement and insurance. (a) Coverage. (1) To obtain retirement benefits for a term of...-sum credit in the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. (2) To retain coverage under...

  15. 5 CFR 352.404 - Retirement and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retirement and insurance. 352.404 Section... Agency § 352.404 Retirement and insurance. (a) Coverage. (1) To obtain retirement benefits for a term of...-sum credit in the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. (2) To retain coverage under...

  16. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  17. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  18. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  19. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  20. 29 CFR 4022.10 - Earliest PBGC Retirement Date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. 4022.10 Section 4022.10... § 4022.10 Earliest PBGC Retirement Date. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date for a participant is the...)(B) of ERISA. The Earliest PBGC Retirement Date is determined in accordance with this § 4022.10....

  1. 5 CFR 352.404 - Retirement and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retirement and insurance. 352.404 Section... Agency § 352.404 Retirement and insurance. (a) Coverage. (1) To obtain retirement benefits for a term of...-sum credit in the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. (2) To retain coverage under...

  2. 5 CFR 352.404 - Retirement and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retirement and insurance. 352.404 Section... Agency § 352.404 Retirement and insurance. (a) Coverage. (1) To obtain retirement benefits for a term of...-sum credit in the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund. (2) To retain coverage under...

  3. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retirement obligations. 367.22 Section 367.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset retirement obligation represents a liability for the legal obligation associated with the retirement of...

  4. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.754 Emergency officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to...

  5. 5 CFR 831.2010 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2010 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund and...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5280 - Retirement in event of default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., but shall not be required to, retire at book value not to exceed par all or part of such equities....5280(a), they shall be retired at par. All other equities shall be retired at book value not to exceed... institution to reflect its present value on the date of retirement. (d) When the debt of a holder of the...

  7. "Mental retirement?" Trajectories of work engagement preceding retirement among older workers.

    PubMed

    de Wind, Astrid; Leijten, Fenna Rm; Hoekstra, Trynke; Geuskens, Goedele A; Burdorf, Alex; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Before actual retirement, employees may already distance themselves from work, which could be referred to as "mental retirement". However, trajectories of work motivation, ie, work engagement, have not been studied yet. The present study aimed to (i) identify different trajectories of work engagement among older workers approaching the retirement age, and (ii) examine their associations with actual retirement. Methods In total 3171 employees aged 55-62 years, who participated in the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included in this study. Participants completed questionnaires in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Latent class growth mixture modeling was performed to identify groups of employees with similar three-year trajectories in work engagement. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study whether trajectory membership was associated with retirement. Results Of the 3171 employees, 16.2% made a transition from work to (early) retirement (N=513). Four trajectories of work engagement were identified: steady high (76.3%), steady low (12.7%), decreasing (6.2%), and increasing (4.8%). A steady low work engagement trajectory was associated with retirement [odds ratio (OR) 1.46], compared to a steady high work engagement trajectory. Although not statistically significant, an increasing work engagement trajectory seemed to be associated with retirement as well (OR 1.60). Conclusions This study did not support the concept of mental retirement before actual retirement, ie, a decrease in work engagement among those facing retirement. However, as one in eight employees did experience steady low work engagement in the years before retirement, interventions promoting work motivation are recommended to support the employability of these employees.

  8. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  9. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  10. Survey and Analysis of Early Retirement Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alton L.; Coolidge, Herbert E.

    1974-01-01

    Presents data from a study of member institutions of the Association of American Universities to determine the extent to which early retirement is being used in the nation's higher education institutions. (Editor/PG)

  11. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  12. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement.

  13. Retirement crisis warnings becoming a reality.

    PubMed

    Scott, Graham

    2017-01-04

    The figures are startling: the number of NHS staff applying to retire has surged by a quarter since 2012. The potential consequences are alarming; a serious shortage of nurses and other healthcare professionals now seems inevitable.

  14. Australian baby boomers retiring 'early': understanding the benefits of retirement preparation for involuntary and voluntary retirees.

    PubMed

    Noone, Jack; O'Loughlin, Kate; Kendig, Hal

    2013-08-01

    The first of the baby boomers have reached retirement age, but some have retired 'early' with varying degrees of personal choice. Preparation for retirement can lead to well-being in later life, but few studies have considered the preparations of involuntary retirees or the pathways that link their preparations with retirement outcomes. This research draws on a sample of 304 retirees from the Ageing Baby Boomers in Australia Study (2009) to examine how preparedness for retirement relates to voluntary and involuntary retirees' life satisfaction and how this relationship is explained by psychological, activity-based, and economic theories. Preparedness predicted life satisfaction for voluntary and involuntary retirees and each of theoretical pathways was supported. Although those retiring involuntarily were less prepared than voluntary retirees, their preparatory behaviours were still associated with life satisfaction. These results suggest that retirement policy and planning initiatives should aim to facilitate a holistic approach to retirement planning for future retirees, particularly those facing an early and unexpected retirement.

  15. Is Suicide Higher Among Separated/Retired Police Officers? An Epidemiological Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Violanti, John M.; Gu, Ja Kook; Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    It is often assumed that separated or retired officers are at increased risk for suicide. The goal of this study was to compare police suicide rates between currently working and separated/retired officers. A 55-year retrospective mortality police cohort was utilized consisting of 3,228 officers who worked between January 1, 1950 and December 31, 2005. Poisson regression and survival analysis were used for comparisons. Adjusted for age and years of service, suicide rates were 8.4 (95% CI = 3.8–18.7) times higher in working officers vs. separated/retired officers (110.5 vs. 13.1 per 100,000 person-years respectively). Survival time to suicide was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for current working officers, suggesting suicide in a significantly shorter time span. Previous research indicates that the majority of suicides in working officers occur in the five years just prior to retirement eligibility, suggesting a period of decision anxiety. Results suggest a higher risk of suicide among working compared to separated/retired officers. However, the need for suicide prevention efforts remains important among both active and retired police officers. PMID:22900456

  16. Economic difficulties and subsequent disability retirement.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Mauramo, Elina; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether economic difficulties are associated with subsequent disability retirement while controlling for covariates. Survey data among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002 were linked with the Finnish Centre for Pensions register data on all-cause disability retirement among women (n=4816) and men (n=1354) until the end of 2010. Additionally, disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders (ICD-10) was examined among women. Frequency in difficulties paying pills and buying food and clothes, and covariates (occupational class, income, housing tenure, and work- and health-related covariates) were self-reported at baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Frequent economic difficulties were associated with all-cause disability retirement after adjusting for age among both women (HR=2.11; 95% CI 1.63-2.73) and men (HR=2.69; 95% CI 1.65-4.41). Adjustment for covariates somewhat attenuated the associations, but they remained. Economic difficulties were also associated with disability retirement due to both mental disorders (HR=3.29; 95% CI 1.98-5.46) and musculoskeletal diseases (HR=1.85; 95% CI 1.24-2.75) among women. Adjustments made a minor contribution to the risk of disability retirement due to mental disorders, whereas the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases reduced after considering socioeconomic circumstances. Conclusions: economic difficulties are independently associated with disability retirement. Thus, they should be considered in attempts to tackle early exit from the labour market due to disability. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Reserve Retirement for an Operational Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    officers after they had reached 40 years of service.4 After approximately twenty different Congressional acts between 1861 and 1946 which changed the...the labor force.”17. Beth J. Asch , in a RAND technical report to Congress, explains the difference in the need for immediate receipt of retirement...D.C.: Department of Defense, 2005), 726 9 Beth J. Asch , James Hosek and David S. Loughran, Reserve Retirement Reform; A Viewpoint on Recent

  18. Preparation à la retraite - Preparing for retirement

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-09

    Retirement implies an important change from a working environment to a new lifestyle. Every individual copes with this transition in his own way. In this video, registered already a few years ago, Dr. Sartorius from WHO addresses some of his colleagues close to retirement and explains what situations they can expect to encounter. We make this video available to CERN personnel to stimulate their own thinking on the subject.

  19. Report from the retiring chairman.

    PubMed

    Rieser, L M

    1975-03-21

    In concluding this report, which omits a great deal, the retiring Chairman is probably entitled to a valedictory. (Margaret Mead referred to it as a benediction.) The Association faces two major challenges beyond those obvious ones of maintaining financial solvency and reversing a declining membership. First, there is the necessity to articulate goals for the future. This was started by a series of meetings under the heading of Arden House II, following the tradition of the meeting held in 1951 under the leadership of Warren Weaver. A proposed Committee on Goals can serve this purpose. Second, there is a need to maximize the coherence of all efforts supported by the Association to achieve the greatest effect with the funds available. The proposed Committee on Program and Planning can encourage this. I complete this assignment with the sense of having been very privileged to hold the office of President and Chairman of the Board. I pass on the gavel to Roger Revelle, and to Margaret Mead and Bill McElroy in turn, with great confidence and that certain knowledge that nobody can succeed like a successor.

  20. [The meaning of work during early retirement].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Fasang, A; Schömann, K; Staudinger, U M

    2010-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, many German companies have used the part-time retirement scheme (Altersteilzeit) as an opportunity to release older workers. This was often consistent with the interests of the workers themselves. This paper explores whether workers who participate in this early retirement scheme would like to continue to work. A survey of all the workers in one company who participated in the part-time retirement scheme revealed that those already retired would more often like to continue working than employees who are still awaiting retirement. To a greater extent, early retirees would also like to return to work with shorter working hours or for a time-limited project. Results are explained with the affective forecasting bias that is based on the psychological decision theory and economic utility theory - the future utility of an action cannot be anticipated. The "reflective thinking" approach moreover invites the conclusion that the diverging interest of the two groups in continued employment may be due to the different stage of practical knowledge about the situation in (pre-)retirement.

  1. INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE RETIREMENT HOME STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle sampling was conducted outdoors, indoors, in apartment residences, and on individual residents (i.e., personal samples) at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County. Concurrent particle sampling was conducted at a central community site closer...

  2. Retirement Plan Participation in an Era of Change: The Case of a Rural Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Elizabeth A.; Bokemeier, Janet L.; Loveridge, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Individual savings are critical for retirement as government and employer-based provisions fade or become less secure. Rural communities are vulnerable given their higher proportion of elderly and more who rely on Social Security. Using a telephone survey of working-age residents in Michigan's rural Upper Peninsula, this research investigates…

  3. Focusing on Nutrition, Housing and Health Care: Retirement. High School Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuecher, Ron; Myers, John

    These teaching units, designed for use at the high school level, focus on nutrition, housing, health care, and retirement. The purpose of the unit on nutrition, housing, and health care is to provide an inquiry approach by which the student may become more aware of certain problems of the aged members of the community. The student, upon completion…

  4. INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL SAMPLES FROM THE 1998 BALTIMORE RETIREMENT HOME STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle sampling was conducted outdoors, indoors, in apartment residences, and on individual residents (i.e., personal samples) at a retirement center in the Towson area of northern Baltimore County. Concurrent particle sampling was conducted at a central community site closer...

  5. Focusing on Nutrition, Housing and Health Care: Retirement. High School Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuecher, Ron; Myers, John

    These teaching units, designed for use at the high school level, focus on nutrition, housing, health care, and retirement. The purpose of the unit on nutrition, housing, and health care is to provide an inquiry approach by which the student may become more aware of certain problems of the aged members of the community. The student, upon completion…

  6. Prevalence of teen dating violence and co-occurring risk factors among middle school youth in high-risk urban communities.

    PubMed

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Latzman, Natasha E; Valle, Linda Anne; Kuoh, Henrietta; Burton, Tessa; Taylor, Bruce G; Tharp, Andra T

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the lifetime prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration in a sample of middle school students from high-risk urban communities and examines the relation between TDV and related cognitive and behavioral risk factors. Surveys were administered to 2,895 middle school students in four U.S. cities; 1,673 students (58%) reported having dated and were included in analyses. The sample was 52.3% female, 48.2% non-Hispanic black/African-American, 38.2% Hispanic, 4.8% non-Hispanic white, and 7.6% other race. Six types of TDV perpetration were assessed: threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and stalking. Of the students who had dated, 77% reported perpetrating verbal/emotional abuse, 32% reported perpetrating physical abuse, 20% reported threatening a partner, 15% reported perpetrating sexual abuse, 13% reported perpetrating relational abuse, and 6% reported stalking. Girls were more likely than boys to report perpetrating threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, and physical abuse, and boys were more likely to report perpetrating sexual abuse. Involvement in bullying positively predicted perpetration of TDV, albeit, in different ways for boys and girls. Other risk factors differed by sex. For instance, alcohol use and sex initiation predicted multiple forms of TDV perpetration for boys, whereas weapon carrying and emotional symptoms predicted several forms of TDV perpetration for girls. The prevalence of TDV was high in our sample. Important sex differences in rates of perpetration and risk factors emerged. Comprehensive prevention programs that target TDV and related risk factors, such as bullying and other risk factors, seem warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Program to Encourage Public and Community Service Employment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-29

    Service members requesting early retirement and other DoD personnel or spouses who request registration. Transition Assistance Program Counselors...validation criteria. For organizations which are denied approval as a creditable early retirement organization and which request reconsideration, the...instructions, worship services, or any form of proselytization. 2. Creditable Early Retirement Public or Community Service Employment for Service Members

  8. A community outbreak of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome in children occurring in a large area of northern Italy over a period of several months.

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, A. E.; Niccolini, A.; Caprioli, A.; Luzzi, I.; Montini, G.; Zacchello, G.; Gianviti, A.; Principato, F.; Rizzoni, G.

    1994-01-01

    From March to October 1993, 15 cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS) in children were detected in a large area of northern Italy, where only 8 cases had occurred in the previous 5 years. Analysis of stool and serum specimens obtained from 14 cases showed evidence of Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection in 13. Serum antibodies to the E. coli O157 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were found in 8 patients and to the O111 LPS in 2. An O86 VTEC was isolated from another patient. Fourteen children needed dialysis, and 1 died. No obvious epidemiologic link was observed among cases, most of whom lived in small townships. A case-control study did not show an association between HUS and food or exposure to cattle, but suggested an association with contact with chicken coops (OR = 6.5, 95% C.I. 1.2-34.9). However, VTEC were not isolated from stool samples obtained from the chicken coops involved. The risk factors for VTEC infection related to living in rural settlements, including the exposure to live poultry, should be considered in outbreak investigations. PMID:7925660

  9. Retirement plans, personal saving, and saving adequacy.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, P

    2000-03-01

    This Issue Brief addresses three questions raised by recent trends in personal saving: How are national savings measured and what is the meaning of the trends in measured personal saving rates, given what is included and what is not included in those measures? What is the effect of retirement saving programs--in particular, 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs)--on personal saving levels? What are the implications of existing saving behavior for the retirement income security of today's workers? The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), the most commonly referenced gauge of personal saving, is a widely misunderstood measure. One could argue that a complete measure of saving would include increases in wealth through capital gains, but NIPA does not factor accrued and realized capital gains on stocks and other assets into the saving rate. By one measure, accounting for capital gains results in an aggregate personal saving rate of 33 percent--more than double the rate of four decades ago. A major policy question is the impact of tax-qualified retirement saving plans (i.e., IRAs and 401(k) plans) on personal saving rates. Empirical analysis of this issue is extremely challenging and findings have been contradictory. These programs now represent an enormous store of retirement-earmarked wealth in tax-deferred vehicles: Combined, such tax-deferred retirement accounts currently have assets of about $4 trillion. Ninety percent of IRA contributions are now the result of "rollovers" as employees leave employer plans, like 401(k) plans. While leakage from the system remains a challenge, the majority of the assets in the system can be expected to be available to fund workers' retirements. One could argue that, from a retirement income security perspective, workers in general are better off because IRA and 401(k) programs exist. Surely, many of the dollars in these programs would have been saved even without the programs; but they would not necessarily

  10. Is pre-retirement planning always good? An exploratory study of retirement adjustment among Hong Kong Chinese retirees.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of four types of pre-retirement planning activities (financial, health, social life, and psychological planning) on retirement adjustment were investigated in a sample of Chinese retirees residing in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two phases of data collection, pre-retirement and post-retirement phases. Pre-retirement planning behaviors and psychological health (including attitudes toward retirement, adjustment to retirement, anxiety toward retirement, psychological well-being (PWB), and psychological distress) six months before and after retirement were measured. The final sample consisted of 90 Hong Kong Chinese retirees. Compared with the pre-retirement phase, retirees exhibited more positive attitudes toward retirement and better adjustment after they had actually retired, whereas their level of anxiety and psychological distress remained low over time. Pre-retirement planning was found to be predictive of changes in psychological health, though its impact was not always positive depending on the type of planning activities. In particular, greater psychological planning was associated with positive attitudes toward retirement and better PWB, whereas more social life planning activities were associated with greater psychological distress. In addition to financial and health planning, psychological planning activities should also be prompted to facilitate a smooth adjustment to retirement.

  11. Entering the life care and retirement housing markets.

    PubMed

    Scott, T J

    1986-03-01

    Life care communities and other forms of retirement housing can be compatible ministries for health care sponsors. Successfully financing such projects, however, may be difficult if sponsors do not carefully evaluate the market. Determining the need for a proposed project should include the following steps: Study the elderly population trends in the defined market area, particularly data for the over-70 group. Identify the minimum income level for potential residents; a general guideline is one and one-half to two times the annualized rental fee. Determine the penetration rate to obtain the optimal demand for housing. Determine whether the project is viable by subtracting the number of existing and other planned units from the optimal demand for units; the remainder should be large enough to support the proposed project. Further evaluation of the market should include research to discover potential residents' perceptions about retirement communities and their preferences for services and type of units. Because of increasing interest in providing services for the elderly, numerous financing alternatives are available. Sponsors need not rely on internal financing or debt financing to maintain control. By carefully structuring a limited partnership and working with a private developer, for example, the sponsor can ensure involvement in the project without having to assume responsibility for debt or invest scarce capital.

  12. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-17 - Retirement payments to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by a partnership, pursuant to a written plan of the partnership, to a retired partner on account of... paragraph (c) of this section are met. (b) Retirement plan of partnership. (1) To meet the requirements of section 1402(a)(10), the written plan of the partnership must set forth the terms and conditions of the...

  13. Planning For Retirement: Using Income Replacement Ratios in Setting Retirement Income Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for higher education faculty and staff to assess pension plan objectives by determining a retirement income replacement ratio to maintain the salary-based preretirement standard of living. The paper describes the RETIRE Project which researches income replacement using the federal government's annual "Consumer…

  14. Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project: A Bibliography of Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Donna

    This bibliography cites title, source/publisher, availability, and cost for information and materials on various aspects of pre-retirement planning. Materials may be specifically for the elderly/retired person or of general interest. Bibliographies and periodicals are included. These materials and information are listed under twenty-three…

  15. Retirement issues for radiologists: consensus statement on successful planning by the Commission on Human Resources of the ACR.

    PubMed

    Donner, E Michael; Sze, Gordon; Bluth, Edward I

    2015-03-01

    Successful retirement planning requires a determination of which activities and relationships may replace those associated with the current full-employment position. Next, there must be acceptance of leaving the profession behind. Finally, the individual must determine the specific decisions and actions that must be made to transition to successful retirement in the future. To be successful, the entire process should occur over a period of several years. Alternatively, bridge employment may play a significant role in the transition from full-employment to full-time retirement.

  16. Income replacement in retirement: longitudinal evidence from income tax records.

    PubMed

    Denton, Frank T; Finnie, Ross; Spencer, Byron G

    2011-12-01

    Applying an employment-income-based procedure for determining retirement, we analysed a large longitudinal data file of Canadian personal income tax returns for individuals to determine who has retired and to assess how successful they are in maintaining their incomes after retirement. The methodological approach may be of interest for possible application in other countries that have suitable data. Our main conclusions are as follows. First, in the two years immediately after retirement, the after-tax income replacement ratios average about two thirds when calculated across all ages of retirement. Second, the ratios tend to increase with the age of retirement. Third, the ratios increase with years in retirement, at least in the first few years. Finally, income replacement ratios are highest in the lowest income quartile and generally decline as income increases; within each quartile, the replacement ratios are higher for those who retired later than for those who retired earlier.

  17. Tax reform options: promoting retirement security.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2011-11-01

    TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future

  18. Hippocampal granule cells opt for early retirement.

    PubMed

    Alme, C B; Buzzetti, R A; Marrone, D F; Leutgeb, J K; Chawla, M K; Schaner, M J; Bohanick, J D; Khoboko, T; Leutgeb, S; Moser, E I; Moser, M-B; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2010-10-01

    Increased excitability and plasticity of adult-generated hippocampal granule cells during a critical period suggests that they may "orthogonalize" memories according to time. One version of this "temporal tag" hypothesis suggests that young granule cells are particularly responsive during a specific time period after their genesis, allowing them to play a significant role in sculpting CA3 representations, after which they become much less responsive to any input. An alternative possibility is that the granule cells active during their window of increased plasticity, and excitability become selectively tuned to events that occurred during that time and participate in later reinstatement of those experiences, to the exclusion of other cells. To discriminate between these possibilities, rats were exposed to different environments at different times over many weeks, and cell activation was subsequently assessed during a single session in which all environments were revisited. Dispersing the initial experiences in time did not lead to the increase in total recruitment at reinstatement time predicted by the selective tuning hypothesis. The data indicate that, during a given time frame, only a very small number of granule cells participate in many experiences, with most not participating significantly in any. Based on these and previous data, the small excitable population of granule cells probably correspond to the most recently generated cells. It appears that, rather than contributing to the recollection of long past events, most granule cells, possibly 90-95%, are effectively "retired." If granule cells indeed sculpt CA3 representations (which remains to be shown), then a possible consequence of having a new set of granule cells participate when old memories are reinstated is that new representations of these experiences might be generated in CA3. Whatever the case, the present data may be interpreted to undermine the standard "orthogonalizer" theory of the role of

  19. The 2012 Retirement Confidence Survey: job insecurity, debt weigh on retirement confidence, savings.

    PubMed

    Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack

    2012-03-01

    Americans' confidence in their ability to retire comfortably is stagnant at historically low levels. Just 14 percent are very confident they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement (statistically equivalent to the low of 13 percent measured in 2011 and 2009). Employment insecurity looms large: Forty-two percent identify job uncertainty as the most pressing financial issue facing most Americans today. Worker confidence about having enough money to pay for medical expenses and long-term care expenses in retirement remains well below their confidence levels for paying basic expenses. Many workers report they have virtually no savings and investments. In total, 60 percent of workers report that the total value of their household's savings and investments, excluding the value of their primary home and any defined benefit plans, is less than $25,000. Twenty-five percent of workers in the 2012 Retirement Confidence Survey say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. In 1991, 11 percent of workers said they expected to retire after age 65, and by 2012 that has grown to 37 percent. Regardless of those retirement age expectations, and consistent with prior RCS findings, half of current retirees surveyed say they left the work force unexpectedly due to health problems, disability, or changes at their employer, such as downsizing or closure. Those already in retirement tend to express higher levels of confidence than current workers about several key financial aspects of retirement. Retirees report they are significantly more reliant on Social Security as a major source of their retirement income than current workers expect to be. Although 56 percent of workers expect to receive benefits from a defined benefit plan in retirement, only 33 percent report that they and/or their spouse currently have such a benefit with a current or previous employer. More than half of workers (56 percent) report they and/or their spouse have not tried

  20. 'All those things together made me retire': qualitative study on early retirement among Dutch employees.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; de Wind, Astrid; Westerman, Marjan J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, Allard J; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2013-05-28

    Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early retirement have been identified in quantitative research, but little is known on why and how these factors influence early retirement. The present qualitative study investigated which non-health related factors influence early retirement, and why and how these factors influence early retirement. A qualitative study among 30 Dutch employees (60-64 years) who retired early, i.e. before the age of 65, was performed by means of face-to-face interviews. Participants were selected from the cohort Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). For most employees, a combination of factors played a role in the transition from work to early retirement, and the specific factors involved differed between individuals. Participants reported various factors that pushed towards early retirement ('push factors'), including organizational changes at work, conflicts at work, high work pressure, high physical job demands, and insufficient use of their skills and knowledge by others in the organization. Employees who reported such push factors towards early retirement often felt unable to find another job. Factors attracting towards early retirement ('pull factors') included the wish to do other things outside of work, enjoy life, have more flexibility, spend more time with a spouse or grandchildren, and care for others. In addition, the financial opportunity to retire early played an important role. Factors influenced early retirement via changes in the motivation, ability and opportunity to continue working or retire early. To support the prolongation of working life, it seems important to improve the fit between the physical and psychosocial job characteristics on the one hand, and

  1. Life stress as a mediator and community belonging as a moderator of mood and anxiety disorders and co-occurring disorders with heavy drinking of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual Canadians.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Basia; Carpiano, Richard M; Ratner, Pamela A; Shoveller, Jean A

    2016-08-01

    To examine the extent to which sexual identity disparities in mental health outcomes (anxiety disorder, mood disorder, anxiety-mood disorder, and co-occurring anxiety or mood disorder and heavy drinking) are mediated by life stress or moderated by a sense of community belonging. This study pooled data from a large, national, multi-year sample of Canadians aged 18-59 years, who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or heterosexual (N = 222,548). A series of stratified binary mediation models were fitted. Significance of the indirect effect was determined by using bootstrapping to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals. Sexual minority (versus heterosexual) respondents were significantly more likely to describe their lives as stressful, their sense of community belonging as weak, and had significantly greater odds of the negative mental health outcomes. Perceived life stress partially mediated the effects of sexual identity on the mental health outcomes. The differences between the mediated effects for the gay/lesbian and bisexual subgroups were statistically significant (all p < 0.05). When stratified by sense of community belonging, life stress mediated the relationship with mood disorders for the gay/lesbian group, where a strong sense of community belonging was associated with greater odds of mood disorders for gay/lesbian versus heterosexual respondents. These mediation and moderated mediation models provide further evidence for a social patterning of the mental health disparities experienced by sexual minorities in Canada.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Retired National Football League Players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alice Y.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.; Cannaday, John; Zhang, Song; Patel, Amit; Palmer, M. Dean; Reddy, Gautham P.; Ordovas, Karen G.; Stillman, Arthur E; Janowitz, Warren; Radford, Nina B.; Roberts, Arthur J.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity exists among National Football League (NFL) players as determined by body mass index (BMI). It is not established whether elevated BMI is associated with a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or coronary atherosclerosis in former NFL players as in non-athletes. This study compared cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis among retired NFL players and two groups of community controls, the population-based Dallas Heart Study and the preventive medicine cohort, the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Retired NFL players (n=201) were matched for ethnicity, age and BMI (Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, age only). CV risk factors were assessed by survey and screening visit. Coronary atherosclerosis was measured by computed tomography as coronary artery calcium (CAC). Compared to population-based controls, retired NFL players had a significantly lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome, yet a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and hyperlipidemia. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of detectable CAC (46 v 48.3%, p=0.69) or distribution of CAC (0-10, 10-100, 100-400, 400+, p=0.11). Comparing retired NFL players to the physically active preventive medicine controls, there was no difference in the amount of CAC. Among retired NFL players, age and hyperlipidemia, not body size, were the most significant predictors of CAC. In conclusion, despite their large body size, retired NFL players do not have a greater prevalence of CV risk factors or amount of CAC than community controls. PMID:19733715

  3. No more lock-step retirement: Boomers' shifting meanings of work and retirement.

    PubMed

    Kojola, Erik; Moen, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    Standard pathways for work and retirement are being transformed as the large Boomer cohort moves through typical retirement ages during a moment of economic, social and political change. People are delaying retirement and moving into and out of paid work as the standard lock-step retirement becomes less dominant. However, little research has explored how and why Boomers are taking on these diverse pathways in their later careers. Accordingly, we conduct in-depth interviews with working and retired white-collar Boomers, exploring how they are working and the meanings and motivations for their decisions and plans in their later careers. We find that there is no single dominant pattern for retirement, but rather a diverse mix of pathways shaped by occupational identities, finances, health and perceptions of retirement. Boomers express a desire to have control over their time and to find meaning and purpose in either paid or unpaid activities. However, life course transitions, normative cultural scripts, and gender and class locations as well as workplace and social policies constrain their decisions and plans.

  4. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F

    2014-08-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  5. Family Health Histories and Their Impact on Retirement Confidence.

    PubMed

    Zick, Cathleen D; Mayer, Robert N; Smith, Ken R

    2015-08-01

    Retirement confidence is a key social barometer. In this article, we examine how personal and parental health histories relate to working-age adults' feelings of optimism or pessimism about their overall retirement prospects. This study links survey data on retirement planning with information on respondents' own health histories and those of their parents. The multivariate models control for the respondents' socio-demographic and economic characteristics along with past retirement planning activities when estimating the relationships between family health histories and retirement confidence. Retirement confidence is inversely related to parental history of cancer and cardiovascular disease but not to personal health history. In contrast, retirement confidence is positively associated with both parents being deceased. As members of the public become increasingly aware of how genetics and other family factors affect intergenerational transmission of chronic diseases, it is likely that the link between family health histories and retirement confidence will intensify. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Career and Retirement Theories: Relevance for Older Workers Across Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Megan C; Foley, Pamela F; Cotter, Elizabeth W

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews selected career development theories as well as theories specifically focused on retirement, with an emphasis on their application to retirement decisions and vocational behavior in multicultural populations. Theories are evaluated based on whether: (a) retirement was considered a stage of working life, (b) work satisfaction, motivation, and other work variables at retirement age were addressed, (c) work choices at retirement age were included, and (d) cultural and other minority status issues were either directly considered in the work/retirement decision or if the model could be reasonably applied to retirement across cultures. We provide specific recommendations for research and practice with the aim of helping practitioners and scholars conceptualize the current concerns older adults face in their working lives and during retirement planning.

  7. Rethinking Retirement in the Context of an Aging Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Gerald A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews demographic and retirement trends and ways in which the concept of retirement is changing. Suggests the need to revamp theories of career stages and indicates other workplace changes needed to accommodate older workers. Contains 35 references. (SK)

  8. 29 CFR 1625.9 - Prohibition of involuntary retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other provision of the Act makes it unlawful for a plan to permit individuals to elect early retirement at a specified age at their own option. Nor is it unlawful for a plan to require early retirement...

  9. Innovative Plans to Encourage Senior Faculty to Take Early Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreadbury, Connie

    1984-01-01

    Provides a review of some of the innovative programs university systems are using to encourage faculty to take early retirement, including bridge benefits, bonus plans, guaranteed part-time employment, rehearsal retirement, and 30-and-out plans. (JAC)

  10. Innovative Plans to Encourage Senior Faculty to Take Early Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreadbury, Connie

    1984-01-01

    Provides a review of some of the innovative programs university systems are using to encourage faculty to take early retirement, including bridge benefits, bonus plans, guaranteed part-time employment, rehearsal retirement, and 30-and-out plans. (JAC)

  11. Career and Retirement Theories: Relevance for Older Workers Across Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews selected career development theories as well as theories specifically focused on retirement, with an emphasis on their application to retirement decisions and vocational behavior in multicultural populations. Theories are evaluated based on whether: (a) retirement was considered a stage of working life, (b) work satisfaction, motivation, and other work variables at retirement age were addressed, (c) work choices at retirement age were included, and (d) cultural and other minority status issues were either directly considered in the work/retirement decision or if the model could be reasonably applied to retirement across cultures. We provide specific recommendations for research and practice with the aim of helping practitioners and scholars conceptualize the current concerns older adults face in their working lives and during retirement planning. PMID:26101455

  12. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee... by the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) even though he or she is also entitled to social...

  13. 76 FR 32242 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Intelligence Agency Retirement Act of 1964 for Certain Employees--27.6%; Air traffic controllers--27.3... Retirement Act of 1964 for Certain Employees (when serving abroad)-- 18.0%; and All other employees--12.7...

  14. Age differences in expected satisfaction with life in retirement.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Helen C; Hershey, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Research on expected quality of life in retirement has focused on the perceptions of individuals either living in retirement or nearing retirement age. In this article, data are reported that examine expectations of (future) retirement quality of life among younger and middle-aged adults. Toward this end, a new scale--the Satisfaction with Life in Retirement Scale--is introduced. As part of the study, a pair of age-specific, theoretically-driven, hierarchically-structured path models were tested in which individuals' perceptions of future retirement satisfaction were regressed on indicators of financial knowledge, future time perspective, financial risk tolerance, and parental financial values. Models from both age groups were successful in accounting for variability in perceptions of future retirement satisfaction; however, age differences in the model were observed. The results of this investigation have implications for retirement counselors and intervention specialists who seek to cultivate positive perceptions of late life among individuals of different ages.

  15. Naturally occurring chemical carcinogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural products are chemicals found in nature which have unique pharmacological effects. Humans are exposed to many of these bioactive naturally occurring chemicals via the air breathed, the water drunk and the food eaten. Exposure also occurs in clinical settings. Naturally occurring chemicals ...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes... wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the total... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes... wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the total... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c)...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes... wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the total... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes... wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the total... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A...