Science.gov

Sample records for ocean model hycom

  1. Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassignet, E.

    A broad partnership of institutions is collaborating in developing and demonstrating the performance and application of eddy-resolving, real-time global and Atlantic ocean prediction systems using the the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). These systems will be transitioned for operational use by both the U.S. Navy at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), Stennis Space Center, MS, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Centre (FNMOC), Monterey, CA, and by NOAA at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), Washington, D.C. These systems will run efficiently on a variety of massively parallel computers and will include sophisticated data assimilation techniques for assimilation of satellite altimeter sea surface height and sea surface temperature as well as in situ temperature, salinity, and float displacement. The Partnership addresses the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) goals of three-dimensional (3D) depiction of the ocean state at fine resolution in real-time and provision of boundary conditions for coastal and regional models. An overview of the effort will be presented.

  2. The HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) Data Assimilative System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Systems Inc., Stennis Space Center. MS, USA d SHOM/CMO, Toulouse. France € Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. USA Received 1 October 2004...Global Ocean Data Assimilation ’U. of Miami, NRL, Los Alamos, NOAA/NCEP, NOAA/AOML, Experiment (GODAE). GODAE is a coordinated inter- NOAA/PMEL, PSI...of Miami, the Naval all three approaches and the optimal distribution is Research Laboratory (NRL), and the Los Alamos chosen at every time step. The

  3. Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliwell, George R.

    Vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms included in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are evaluated in low-resolution climatological simulations of the Atlantic Ocean. The hybrid vertical coordinates are isopycnic in the deep ocean interior, but smoothly transition to level (pressure) coordinates near the ocean surface, to sigma coordinates in shallow water regions, and back again to level coordinates in very shallow water. By comparing simulations to climatology, the best model performance is realized using hybrid coordinates in conjunction with one of the three available differential vertical mixing models: the nonlocal K-Profile Parameterization, the NASA GISS level 2 turbulence closure, and the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure. Good performance is also achieved using the quasi-slab Price-Weller-Pinkel dynamical instability model. Differences among these simulations are too small relative to other errors and biases to identify the "best" vertical mixing model for low-resolution climate simulations. Model performance deteriorates slightly when the Kraus-Turner slab mixed layer model is used with hybrid coordinates. This deterioration is smallest when solar radiation penetrates beneath the mixed layer and when shear instability mixing is included. A simulation performed using isopycnic coordinates to emulate the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), which uses Kraus-Turner mixing without penetrating shortwave radiation and shear instability mixing, demonstrates that the advantages of switching from isopycnic to hybrid coordinates and including more sophisticated turbulence closures outweigh the negative numerical effects of maintaining hybrid vertical coordinates.

  4. Assimilation of satellite surface-height anomalies data into a Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanajura, C. A. S.; Lima, L. N.; Belyaev, K. P.

    2015-09-01

    The data of sea height anomalies calculated along the tracks of the Jason-1 and Jason-2 satellites are assimilated into the HYCOM hydrodynamic ocean model developed at the University of Miami, USA. We used a known method of data assimilation, the so-called ensemble method of the optimal interpolation scheme (EnOI). In this work, we study the influence of the assimilation of sea height anomalies on other variables of the model. The behavior of the time series of the analyzed and predicted values of the model is compared with a reference calculation (free run), i.e., with the behavior of model variables without assimilation but under the same initial and boundary conditions. The results of the simulation are also compared with the independent data of observations on moorings of the Pilot Research Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) and the data of the ARGO floats using objective metrics. The investigations demonstrate that data assimilation under specific conditions results in a significant improvement of the 24-h prediction of the ocean state. The experiments also show that the assimilated fields of the ocean level contain a clearly pronounced mesoscale variability; thus they quantitatively differ from the dynamics obtained in the reference experiment.

  5. The Global Ocean Forecast System, Version 3.0 (GOFS 3.0) or the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    System (GOFS) V3.0 – 1/12 HYCOM/NCODA: Phase I‖ by Metzger et al., dated 26 November 2008 (NRL/MR/7320—08- 9148). The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean...C. Lozano, H.L. Tolman, A. Srinivasan, S. Hankin, P. Cornillon, R. Weisberg, A. Barth, R. He, F. Werner, and J. Wilkin , 2009. U.S. GODAE: Global...E.J. Metzger, J.F. Shriver, O.M. Smedstad, A.J. Wallcraft, and C.N. Barron, 2008 : Eddy-resolving global ocean prediction. In "Eddy-Resolving Ocean

  6. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction With the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM- YYYY) 12-08-2009 2. REPORT TYPE Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. GODAE: Global ...the lerformance and application of eddy-resolving, real-time global - and basin-scale ocean prediction systems using the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean...prediction system outputs. In addnion to providing real-time, eddy-resolving global - and basin-scale ocean prediction systems for the US Navy and NOAA, this

  7. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Cummings, G. Jacobs, H. Ngodock, C.A. Blain, P. Hogan , J. Kindle), NAVOCEANO (F. Bub), FNMOC (M. Clancy), NRL/MONTEREY (R. Hodur, J. Pullen, P. May...Carolina (C. Werner), Rutgers (J. Wilkin ), U. of S. Florida (R. Weisberg), Horizon Marine Inc. (J. Feeney, S. Anderson), ROFFS (M. Roffer), Shell Oil... 2008 and 2009, the Coastal Ocean Observing Lab at Rutgers University attempted two trans-Atlantic flights using Slocum gliders. These began off the

  8. Software Design Description for the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), Version 2.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    scalars. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32: 240–264. Carnes, M., (2002). Data base description for the Generalized Digital Environmental Model ( GDEM -V) (U...Direction FCT Flux-Corrected Transport scheme GDEM Generalized Digital Environmental Model GISS NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies GRD

  9. The FIM-iHYCOM Model in SubX: Evaluation of Subseasonal Errors and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, B.; Sun, S.; Benjamin, S.; Grell, G. A.; Bleck, R.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA/ESRL/GSD has produced both real-time and retrospective forecasts for the Subseasonal Experiment (SubX) using the FIM-iHYCOM model. FIM-iHYCOM couples the atmospheric Flow-following finite volume Icosahedral Model (FIM) to an icosahedral-grid version of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). This coupled model is unique in terms of its grid structure: in the horizontal, the icosahedral meshes are perfectly matched for FIM and iHYCOM, eliminating the need for a flux interpolator; in the vertical, both models use adaptive arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hybrid coordinates. For SubX, FIM-iHYCOM initializes four time-lagged ensemble members around each Wednesday, which are integrated forward to provide 32-day forecasts. While it has already been shown that this model has similar predictive skill as NOAA's operational CFSv2 in terms of the RMM index, FIM-iHYCOM is still fairly new and thus its overall performance needs to be thoroughly evaluated. To that end, this study examines model errors as a function of forecast lead week (1-4) - i.e., model drift - for key variables including 2-m temperature, precipitation, and SST. Errors are evaluated against two reanalysis products: CFSR, from which FIM-iHYCOM initial conditions are derived, and the quasi-independent ERA-Interim. The week 4 error magnitudes are similar between FIM-iHYCOM and CFSv2, albeit with different spatial distributions. Also, intraseasonal variability as simulated in these two models will be compared with reanalyses. The impact of hindcast frequency (4 times per week, once per week, or once per day) on the model climatology is also examined to determine the implications for systematic error correction in FIM-iHYCOM.

  10. Ocean state and uncertainty forecasts using HYCOM with Local Ensemble Transfer Kalman Filter (LETKF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mozheng; Hogan, Pat; Rowley, Clark; Smedstad, Ole-Martin; Wallcraft, Alan; Penny, Steve

    2017-04-01

    An ensemble forecast system based on the US Navy's operational HYCOM using Local Ensemble Transfer Kalman Filter (LETKF) technology has been developed for ocean state and uncertainty forecasts. One of the advantages is that the best possible initial analysis states for the HYCOM forecasts are provided by the LETKF which assimilates the operational observations using ensemble method. The background covariance during this assimilation process is supplied with the ensemble, thus it avoids the difficulty of developing tangent linear and adjoint models for 4D-VAR from the complicated hybrid isopycnal vertical coordinate in HYCOM. Another advantage is that the ensemble system provides the valuable uncertainty estimate corresponding to every state forecast from HYCOM. Uncertainty forecasts have been proven to be critical for the downstream users and managers to make more scientifically sound decisions in numerical prediction community. In addition, ensemble mean is generally more accurate and skilful than the single traditional deterministic forecast with the same resolution. We will introduce the ensemble system design and setup, present some results from 30-member ensemble experiment, and discuss scientific, technical and computational issues and challenges, such as covariance localization, inflation, model related uncertainties and sensitivity to the ensemble size.

  11. Ocean Data Impacts in Global HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of assimilation is to reduce the model initial condition error. Improved initial con- ditions should lead to an improved forecast...the determination of locations where forecast errors are sensitive to the initial conditions are essential for improving the data assimilation system...longwave radiation, total (large scale plus convective) precipitation, ground/sea temperature, zonal and me- ridional wind velocities at 10m, mean sea

  12. Current State and Recent Changes in the Arctic Ocean from the HYCOM-NCODA Global Ocean and Sea Ice Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Chassignet, E. P.; Hogan, P. J.; Metzger, E. J.; Posey, P.; Smedstad, O. M.; Stefanova, L. B.; Wallcraft, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The great potential of numerical models to provide a high-resolution continuous picture of the environmental characteristics of the Arctic system is related to the problem of reliability and accuracy of the simulations. Recent Arctic Ocean model intercomparison projects have identified substantial disagreements in water mass distribution and circulation among the models over the last two decades. In situ and satellite observations cannot yield enough continuous in time and space information to interpret the observed changes in the Arctic system. Observations combined with Arctic Ocean models via data assimilation provide perhaps the most complete knowledge about the state of the Arctic system. We use outputs from the US Navy Global Ocean Forecast System (20-year reanalysis + analysis) to investigate several hypotheses that have been put forward regarding the current state and recent changes in the Arctic Ocean. The system is based on the 0.08-degree HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and can be run with two-way coupling to the Los Alamos Community Ice CodE (CICE) or with an energy-loan ice model. Observations are assimilated by the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) algorithm. HYCOM temperature and salinity fields are shown to be in good agreement with observational data in the Arctic and North Atlantic. The model reproduces changes in the freshwater budget in the Arctic as reported in other studies. The modeled freshwater fluxes between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic are analyzed to document and discuss the interaction between the two regions over the last two decades.

  13. Salt Transport in the Near-Surface Layer in the Monsoon-Influenced Indian Ocean Using HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-04

    A copy is filed in this office. Office of Counsel,Code 1008.3 ADOR/Director NCST E. R. Franchi , 7000 .^SLjdM/fc^- */?//<» Public Affairs...mechanisms for the transport of salt in the Indian Ocean are not fully understood. Global HYCOM simulated SSS data, validated with in situ observations...included in the HYCOM SSS simulations. 2. Data and Methods [6] This study uses the 4 year period (2003-2006) monthly SSS from the global HYbrid

  14. Simulated and Observed Circulation in the Indonesian Seas: 1/12 degree Global HYCOM and the INSTANT Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Circulation in the Indonesian Seas: 1/12 degree Global HYCOM and the INSTANT Observations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A l/l 2 global version of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) using 3-hourly atmospheric forcing is analyzed and...TERMS Indonesian Throughflow, global HYCOM, INSTANT, Inter-ocean exchange, ocean modeling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT Unclassified b

  15. Develop and Test Coupled Physical Parameterizations and Tripolar Wave Model Grid: NAVGEM / WaveWatch III / HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Tripolar Wave Model Grid: NAVGEM / WaveWatch III / HYCOM W. Erick Rogers Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7322 Stennis Space Center, MS 39529...Parameterizations and Tripolar Wave Model Grid: NAVGEM / WaveWatch III / HYCOM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  16. Detection of Rossby Waves in Multi-Parameters in Multi-Mission Satellite Observations and HYCOM Simulations in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Heffner, David M.; Cromwell, David; Shriver, Jay F.

    2009-01-01

    Rossby waves are difficult to detect with in situ methods. However, as we show in this paper, they can be clearly identified in multi-parameters in multi-mission satellite observations of sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color observations of chlorophyll-a (chl-a), as well as 1/12-deg global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) simulations of SSH, SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Indian Ocean. While the surface structure of Rossby waves can be elucidated from comparisons of the signal in different sea surface parameters, models are needed to gain direct information about how these waves affect the ocean at depth. The first three baroclinic modes of the Rossby waves are inferred from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and two-dimensional Radon Transform (2D RT). At many latitudes the first and second baroclinic mode Rossby wave phase speeds from satellite observations and model parameters are identified.

  17. Toward a Global 1/25deg HYCOM Ocean Prediction System with Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    global, regional, and coastal applications. Figure 1 shows the cross-vertical section of the zonal baroclinic velocity after 5 days for two of the...Lorenzo et al., 2003). Figure 1: Snapshots (~4.7 days) of cross-vertical section of zonal baroclinic velocity for HYCOM (left panels) and ROMS...MITgcm, we used two idealized configurations: 1) the well known lock exchange problem (Haidvogel and Beckman, 1999) as a reference and 2) the pure

  18. SOCCOM Biogeochemical Profiling Floats: Representativeness and Deployment Strategies Utilizing GO-SHIP/Argo Observations and SOSE/Hycom Model Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L. D.; Riser, S.; Johnson, K. S.; Wang, J.; Kamenkovich, I. V.; Rosso, I.; Mazloff, M. R.; Ogle, S.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Biogeochemical profiling floats are being deployed in the Southern Ocean south of 30°S, including within the seasonal sea ice zone, as part of the SOCCOM project. The floats carry oxygen, nitrate, pH, fluorescence and backscatter sensors, in addition to standard T/S measurements that contribute to the Argo program. The total array size over the expected 6 years of deployment will be 180 to 200 floats. At the conclusion of Year 2 (2015-2016), 58 floats had been deployed and 50 were still active (see figure from http://soccom.princeton.edu). In order to calibrate the biogeochemical sensors using shipboard measurements, deployment takes place from research ships. As the ship tracks are dictated by other programs, care is taken prior to deployment to maximize the probability that the floats sample varied oceanographic regimes, and that all important regimes present along a deployment track are seeded with at least one float. Prior GO-SHIP hydrographic sections are used to locate water mass regimes that are targeted for deployments, yielding a background description of the oceanography along each of these sections. Simulations of Argo floats in the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) and data-assimilating HYCOM model and previous Argo trajectories are used to predict ensemble float trajectories. Trajectories and water mass regimes from floats after deployment have generally agreed well with those projected prior to deployment. The exercise of examining this suite of information prior to the deployment cruises provides valuable regional information for interpreting the actual SOCCOM float profiles and trajectories. Particularly useful are demarcation of the major frontal regimes and their relation to sea ice and topography, regions of upwelling from the deep ocean to the surface, and upper ocean mode water regions associated with both the Subantarctic and Polar Fronts.

  19. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  20. Toward a Global 1/25 degree HYCOM Ocean Prediction System with Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Generalized Digital Environmental Model [ GDEM , Carnes, 2009], and were spun-up from rest using the climatological surface forcing from the ECMWF...depth of isopycnal interface are restored to the monthly GDEM with an e-folding time of 5-60 days that increases with distance from the boundary

  1. Inferring Dynamics from the Wavenumber Spectra of an Eddying Global Ocean Model with Embedded Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-12

    MODEL WAVENUMBER SPECTRA (12(112 Ocean Model (HYCOM) [Chassignet et al., 2007 ; Metzger et al., 2010] with 1/12.5° (approximately 9 km) equatorial...Chassignet, E. P., H. E. Ilurlburt. O. M. Smedstad, G. R. Halliwcll, P. J. Hogan, A. J. Wallcraft, R. Baraille. and R. Bleck ( 2007 ), The HYCOM (HYbrid...tide models, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25,173 25,194, doi:10.1029/97JC00445. Stammer , D. (1997), Global characteristics of ocean variability estimated

  2. Evaluating the Ocean Component of the US Navy Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean currents, temperature, and salinity observations are used to evaluate the ocean component of the US Navy Earth System Model. The ocean and atmosphere components of the system are an eddy-resolving (1/12.5° equatorial resolution) version of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and a T359L50 version of the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), respectively. The system was integrated in hindcast mode and the ocean results are compared against unassimilated observations, a stand-alone version of HYCOM, and the Generalized Digital Environment Model ocean climatology. The different observation types used in the system evaluation are: drifting buoys, temperature profiles, salinity profiles, and acoustical proxies (mixed layer depth, sonic layer depth, below layer gradient, and acoustical trapping). To evaluate the system's performance in each different metric, a scorecard is used to translate the system's errors into scores, which provide an indication of the system's skill in both space and time.

  3. US GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Administration, New York, NY, USA, and Earth Systems Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO, USA. Remy Baraille is Research Scientist, Service Hydrographique...Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. John Wilkin is Associate Professor, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers...University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Oceanography June 2009 67 coordinates (depth, density, and terrain- following) provide universal optimality, it is

  4. Study of the Formation and Evolution of Precipitation Induced Sea Surface Salinity Minima in the Tropical Pacific Using HYCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    During heavy rain events in the tropics, areas of relatively low salinity water collect on the ocean surface. Rainfall events increase the buoyancy of the ocean surface and impact upper ocean salinity and temperature profiles. This resists downward mixing and as a result can persist (SPURS II planning group, 2012; Oceanography 28(1) 150-159). Salinity at the surface adjusts through advective and diffusive mixing processes (Scott, J. et al, 2013; AGU Fall meeting abstracts). This project investigates the upper ocean salinity response in both advection and diffusion dominated regions. The changes in ocean surface salinity are tracked before, during, and after rainfall events. Data from a standard oceanographic model, HYCOM, are used to identify areas where each surface process is significant. Rainfall events are identified using a TRMM dataset. It provides a tropical rainfall analysis which uses amalgamated satellite data to develop detailed global precipitation grids between 50 o north and south latitude. TRMM is useful due its high temporal and spatial resolutions. The salinity response in HYCOM is tested against simple theoretical advective and diffusive mixing models. The magnitude of sea surface salinity minima, their persistence and the precision by which HYCOM can resolve these phenomena are of interest.

  5. Comparisons between data assimilated HYCOM output and in situ Argo measurements in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. A.; Riser, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluates the performance of data assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) output for the Bay of Bengal from September 2008 through July 2013. We find that while HYCOM assimilates Argo data, the model still suffers from significant temperature and salinity biases in this region. These biases are most severe in the northern Bay of Bengal, where the model tends to be too saline near the surface and too fresh at depth. The maximum magnitude of these biases is approximately 0.6 PSS. We also find that the model's salinity biases have a distinct seasonal cycle. The most problematic periods are the months following the summer monsoon (Oct-Jan). HYCOM's near surface temperature estimates compare more favorably with Argo, but significant errors exist at deeper levels. We argue that optimal interpolation will tend to induce positive salinity biases in the northern regions of the Bay. Further, we speculate that these biases are introduced when the model relaxes to climatology and assimilates real-time data.

  6. Evaluation of hydrodynamic ocean models as a first step in larval dispersal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Roxana; Hartmann, Klaas; Hobday, Alistair J.; Oliver, Eric; Tracey, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Larval dispersal modelling, a powerful tool in studying population connectivity and species distribution, requires accurate estimates of the ocean state, on a high-resolution grid in both space (e.g. 0.5-1 km horizontal grid) and time (e.g. hourly outputs), particularly of current velocities and water temperature. These estimates are usually provided by hydrodynamic models based on which larval trajectories and survival are computed. In this study we assessed the accuracy of two hydrodynamic models around Australia - Bluelink ReANalysis (BRAN) and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) - through comparison with empirical data from the Australian National Moorings Network (ANMN). We evaluated the models' predictions of seawater parameters most relevant to larval dispersal - temperature, u and v velocities and current speed and direction - on the continental shelf where spawning and nursery areas for major fishery species are located. The performance of each model in estimating ocean parameters was found to depend on the parameter investigated and to vary from one geographical region to another. Both BRAN and HYCOM models systematically overestimated the mean water temperature, particularly in the top 140 m of water column, with over 2 °C bias at some of the mooring stations. HYCOM model was more accurate than BRAN for water temperature predictions in the Great Australian Bight and along the east coast of Australia. Skill scores between each model and the in situ observations showed lower accuracy in the models' predictions of u and v ocean current velocities compared to water temperature predictions. For both models, the lowest accuracy in predicting ocean current velocities, speed and direction was observed at 200 m depth. Low accuracy of both model predictions was also observed in the top 10 m of the water column. BRAN had more accurate predictions of both u and v velocities in the upper 50 m of water column at all mooring station locations. While HYCOM

  7. Impact of Targeted Ocean Observations for Improving Ocean Model Initialization for Coupled Hurricane Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliwell, G. R.; Srinivasan, A.; Kourafalou, V. H.; Yang, H.; Le Henaff, M.; Atlas, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    The accuracy of hurricane intensity forecasts produced by coupled forecast models is influenced by errors and biases in SST forecasts produced by the ocean model component and the resulting impact on the enthalpy flux from ocean to atmosphere that powers the storm. Errors and biases in fields used to initialize the ocean model seriously degrade SST forecast accuracy. One strategy for improving ocean model initialization is to design a targeted observing program using airplanes and in-situ devices such as floats and drifters so that assimilation of the additional data substantially reduces errors in the ocean analysis system that provides the initial fields. Given the complexity and expense of obtaining these additional observations, observing system design methods such as OSSEs are attractive for designing efficient observing strategies. A new fraternal-twin ocean OSSE system based on the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is used to assess the impact of targeted ocean profiles observed by hurricane research aircraft, and also by in-situ float and drifter deployments, on reducing errors in initial ocean fields. A 0.04-degree HYCOM simulation of the Gulf of Mexico is evaluated as the nature run by determining that important ocean circulation features such as the Loop Current and synoptic cyclones and anticyclones are realistically simulated. The data-assimilation system is run on a 0.08-degree HYCOM mesh with substantially different model configuration than the nature run, and it uses a new ENsemble Kalman Filter (ENKF) algorithm optimized for the ocean model's hybrid vertical coordinates. The OSSE system is evaluated and calibrated by first running Observing System Experiments (OSEs) to evaluate existing observing systems, specifically quantifying the impact of assimilating more than one satellite altimeter, and also the impact of assimilating targeted ocean profiles taken by the NOAA WP-3D hurricane research aircraft in the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater

  8. Northern Indian Ocean Salt Transport (NIOST): Estimation of Fresh and Salt Water Transports in the Indian Ocean using Remote Sensing, Hydrographic Observations and HYCOM Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Here we use the newly launched Aquarius satellite derived Sea Surface Salinity ( SSS ) data as well as Argo salinity profiles, model simulations and...dipolar sea surface salinity ( SSS ) structure with the salty Arabian Sea (AS) on the west and the fresher Bay of Bengal (BoB) on the east. At the surface...interconnected, region is quantified. PRELIMINARY RESULTS Figure 1 shows the mean Aquarius SSS during August 2011-May 2014 and several boxes that

  9. The Use of the Regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (RNCOM) by the US Navy in Operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayburn, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    The operational RNCOM is a 1/30° resolution nested model run daily by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. Operational RNCOM areas are used in combination with the Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to provide full global model coverage with enhanced resolution for temperature, salinity, currents in key areas. This talk will discuss two aspects of RNCOM. First, it will focus on how the model is configured. As a nested model, issues to consider include the source of boundary condition, boundary placement, and observational inputs. Secondly, this talk will focus on the strengths and weaknesses RNCOM demonstrates in accurately characterizing ocean condition with respect to HYCOM and how this regional model's output is used by NAVOCEANO Ocean Forecasters to develop operational forecasts.

  10. Dynamical Evaluation of Ocean Models using the Gulf Stream as an Example

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    transport for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) as the 3 nonlinear solutions discussed in Section 2. The model boundary is...Hellerman and Rosenstein (1983) wind stress climatology and the northward upper ocean flow (14 Sv) of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation ... overturning circulation (AMOC) streamfunction with a 5 Sv contour interval from (a) 1/12° Atlantic MICOM, (b) 1/12° Atlantic HYCOM, and (c) 1/12

  11. Towards the use of HYCOM in Coupled ENSO Prediction: Assessment of ENSO Skill in Forced Global HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-10

    CICE spun-up state forced with climatological surface atmospheric fluxes. This run was initialized from Generalized Digital Environmental Model4...GDEM4) climatological temperature and salinity. It was configured with 41layers. 2. Global 0.72° HYCOM/CICE forced with NOGAPS for 2003-2012. The same...surface temperature, sea-ice concentration, and precipitation products. It was initialized from Levitus-PHC2 climatology . It was configured with 32 layers

  12. The internal gravity wave spectrum in two high-resolution global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Buijsman, M. C.; Kunze, E. L.; Menemenlis, D.; Müller, M.; Richman, J. G.; Savage, A.; Shriver, J. F.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Zamudio, L.

    2016-02-01

    We examine the internal gravity wave (IGW) spectrum in two sets of high-resolution global ocean simulations that are forced concurrently by atmospheric fields and the astronomical tidal potential. We analyze global 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, and global 1/12th, 1/24th, and 1/48th degree simulations of the MITgcm. We are motivated by the central role that IGWs play in ocean mixing, by operational considerations of the US Navy, which runs HYCOM as an ocean forecast model, and by the impact of the IGW continuum on the sea surface height (SSH) measurements that will be taken by the planned NASA/CNES SWOT wide-swath altimeter mission. We (1) compute the IGW horizontal wavenumber-frequency spectrum of kinetic energy, and interpret the results with linear dispersion relations computed from the IGW Sturm-Liouville problem, (2) compute and similarly interpret nonlinear spectral kinetic energy transfers in the IGW band, (3) compute and similarly interpret IGW contributions to SSH variance, (4) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy frequency spectra with moored current meter observations, and (5) perform comparisons of modeled IGW kinetic energy vertical wavenumber-frequency spectra with moored observations. This presentation builds upon our work in Muller et al. (2015, GRL), who performed tasks (1), (2), and (4) in 1/12th and 1/25th degree HYCOM simulations, for one region of the North Pacific. New for this presentation are tasks (3) and (5), the inclusion of MITgcm solutions, and the analysis of additional ocean regions.

  13. Oregon Washington Coastal Ocean Forecast System: Real-time Modeling and Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeeva, S.; Kurapov, A. L.; Pasmans, I.

    2016-02-01

    Three-day forecasts of ocean currents, temperature and salinity along the Oregon and Washington coasts are produced daily by a numerical ROMS-based ocean circulation model. NAM is used to derive atmospheric forcing for the model. Fresh water discharge from Columbia River, Fraser River, and small rivers in Puget Sound are included. The forecast is constrained by open boundary conditions derived from the global Navy HYCOM model and once in 3 days assimilation of recent data, including HF radar surface currents, sea surface temperature from the GOES satellite, and SSH from several satellite altimetry missions. 4-dimensional variational data assimilation is implemented in 3-day time windows using the tangent linear and adjoint codes developed at OSU. The system is semi-autonomous - all the data, including NAM and HYCOM fields are automatically updated, and daily operational forecast is automatically initiated. The pre-assimilation data quality control and post-assimilation forecast quality control require the operator's involvement. The daily forecast and 60 days of hindcast fields are available for public on opendap. As part of the system model validation plots to various satellites and SEAGLIDER are also automatically updated and available on the web (http://ingria.coas.oregonstate.edu/rtdavow/). Lessons learned in this pilot real-time coastal ocean forecasting project help develop and test metrics for forecast skill assessment for the West Coast Operational Forecast System (WCOFS), currently at testing and development phase at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  14. Upper-Ocean Processes under the Stratus Cloud Deck in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    resolving Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Both are compared with estimates based on Woods Hole Oceano - graphic Institution (WHOI) Improved...Jason-1 and Jason-2 sea surface heights and geostrophic currents (computed from absolute topography) produced by Segment Sol Multimissions d’Altimétrie

  15. Modeling the Influence of the Dardanelles Outflow on the Aegean Sea Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Sporades Limnos Lesvos Samothraki Evia Trough The North Aegean Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model ( NAEG -HYCOM) •What is the role of outflow properties, strait...11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 March NAEG -HYCOM SST (NOGAPS) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 8 9 10 11 12 13...14 15 16 17 18 19 20 26 March NAEG -HYCOM SST (SKIRON) •Atmospheric fluxes •BSW temperature MODIS SST MODEL  (w/ NOGAPS) MODEL  (w/ SKIRON) 2 April

  16. The 1/12 deg Global HYCOM Nowcast/Forecast System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-13

    DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 13-01-2010 REPORT TYPE Conference Proceeding 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The 1/12° Global HYCOM...advaneed global ocean nowcasting/forecasting system has been of long-time US Navy interest. Such a system will provide the capability to depict (nowcast...73-8677-A8-5 Classification X U Sponsor ONR approval obtained yes 4. AUTHOR Title of Paper or Presentation The MM degree Global

  17. LiveOcean: A Daily Forecast Model of Ocean Acidification for Shellfish Growers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCready, P.; Siedlecki, S. A.; McCabe, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The coastal estuaries of the NE Pacific host a highly productive shellfish industry, but in the past decade they have suffered from many years in which no natural set of oysters occurred. It appears that coastal waters with low Aragonite saturation state may be the cause. This "acidified" water is the result of (i) upwelling of NE Pacific water from near the shelf break that is already low in pH, and (ii) further acidification of that water by productivity and remineralization on the shelf, and (iii) increasing atmospheric CO2. As part of a coordinated research response to this issue, we have developed the LiveOcean modeling system, which creates daily three-day forecasts of circulation and biogeochemical properties in Oregon-Washington-British Columbia coastal and estuarine waters. The system includes realistic tides, atmospheric forcing (from a regional WRF model), ocean boundary conditions (from HYCOM), and rivers (from USGS and Environment Canada). The model is also used for Harmful Algal Bloom prediction. There has been extensive validation of hindcast runs for currents and hydrography, and more limited validation of biogeochemical variables. Model results are pushed daily to the cloud, and made available to the public through the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS). NVS also includes automated model-data comparisons with real-time NDBC and OOI moorings. Future work will focus on optimizing the utility of this system for regional shellfish growers.

  18. Development of an eddy-resolving reanalysis using the 1/12° global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model and the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Richard; Metzger, E. Joseph; Broome, Robert; Franklin, Deborah; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Wallcraft, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Multiple international agencies have performed atmospheric reanalyses using static dynamical models and assimilation schemes while ingesting all available quality controlled observational data. Some are clearly aimed at climate time scales while others focus on the more recent time period in which assimilated satellite data are used to constrain the system. Typically these are performed at horizontal and vertical resolutions that are coarser than the existing operational atmospheric prediction system. Multiple agencies have also performed ocean reanalyses using some of the atmospheric forcing products described above. However, only a few are eddy-permitting and none are capable of resolving oceanic mesoscale features (eddies and current meanders) across the entire globe. To fill this void, the Naval Research Laboratory is performing an eddy-resolving 1993-2010 ocean reanalysis using the 1/12° global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) that employs the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) scheme. A 1/12° global HYCOM/NCODA prediction system has been running in real-time at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) since 22 December 2006. It has undergone operational testing and will become an operational product by early 2013. It is capable of nowcasting and forecasting the oceanic "weather" which includes the 3D ocean temperature, salinity and current structure, the surface mixed layer, and the location of mesoscale features such as eddies, meandering currents and fronts. The system has a mid-latitude resolution of ~7 km and employs 32 hybrid vertical coordinate surfaces. Compared to traditional isopycnal coordinate models, the hybrid vertical coordinate extends the geographic range of applicability toward shallow coastal seas and the unstratified parts of the world ocean. HYCOM contains a built-in thermodynamic ice model, where ice grows and melts due to heat flux and sea surface temperature (SST) changes, but it does not contain advanced rheological

  19. Modeling of oceanic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman-Roisin, B.

    Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.

  20. Seychelles Dome variability in a high resolution ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyadjro, E. S.; Jensen, T.; Richman, J. G.; Shriver, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    The Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR; 5ºS-10ºS, 50ºE-80ºE) in the tropical Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) has been recognized as a region of prominence with regards to climate variability in the Indian Ocean. Convective activities in this region have regional consequences as it affect socio-economic livelihood of the people especially in the countries along the Indian Ocean rim. The SCTR is characterized by a quasi-permanent upwelling that is often associated with thermocline shoaling. This upwelling affects sea surface temperature (SST) variability. We present results on the variability and dynamics of the SCTR as simulated by the 1/12º high resolution HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). It is observed that locally, wind stress affects SST via Ekman pumping of cooler subsurface waters, mixing and anomalous zonal advection. Remotely, wind stress curl in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean generates westward-propagating Rossby waves that impacts the depth of the thermocline which in turn impacts SST variability in the SCTR region. The variability of the contributions of these processes, especially with regard to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are further examined. In a typical positive IOD (PIOD) year, the net vertical velocity in the SCTR is negative year-round as easterlies along the region are intensified leading to a strong positive curl. This vertical velocity is caused mainly by anomalous local Ekman downwelling (with peak during September-November), a direct opposite to the climatology scenario when local Ekman pumping is positive (upwelling favorable) year-round. The anomalous remote contribution to the vertical velocity changes is minimal especially during the developing and peak stages of PIOD events. In a typical negative IOD (NIOD) year, anomalous vertical velocity is positive almost year-round with peaks in May and October. The remote contribution is positive, in contrast to the climatology and most of the PIOD years.

  1. Downscaling Ocean Conditions: Initial Results using a Quasigeostrophic and Realistic Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katavouta, Anna; Thompson, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Previous theoretical work (Henshaw et al, 2003) has shown that the small-scale modes of variability of solutions of the unforced, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, and Burgers' equation, can be reconstructed with surprisingly high accuracy from the time history of a few of the large-scale modes. Motivated by this theoretical work we first describe a straightforward method for assimilating information on the large scales in order to recover the small scale oceanic variability. The method is based on nudging in specific wavebands and frequencies and is similar to the so-called spectral nudging method that has been used successfully for atmospheric downscaling with limited area models (e.g. von Storch et al., 2000). The validity of the method is tested using a quasigestrophic model configured to simulate a double ocean gyre separated by an unstable mid-ocean jet. It is shown that important features of the ocean circulation including the position of the meandering mid-ocean jet and associated pinch-off eddies can indeed be recovered from the time history of a small number of large-scales modes. The benefit of assimilating additional time series of observations from a limited number of locations, that alone are too sparse to significantly improve the recovery of the small scales using traditional assimilation techniques, is also demonstrated using several twin experiments. The final part of the study outlines the application of the approach using a realistic high resolution (1/36 degree) model, based on the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) modeling framework, configured for the Scotian Shelf of the east coast of Canada. The large scale conditions used in this application are obtained from the HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model) + NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation) global 1/12 degree analysis product. Henshaw, W., Kreiss, H.-O., Ystrom, J., 2003. Numerical experiments on the interaction between the larger- and the small-scale motion of

  2. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  3. Open ocean tide modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Two trends evident in global tidal modelling since the first GEOP conference in 1972 are described. The first centers on the incorporation of terms for ocean loading and gravitational self attraction into Laplace's tidal equations. The second centers on a better understanding of the problem of near resonant modelling and the need for realistic maps of tidal elevation for use by geodesists and geophysicists. Although new models still show significant differences, especially in the South Atlantic, there are significant similarities in many of the world's oceans. This allows suggestions to be made for future locations for bottom pressure gauge measurements. Where available, estimates of M2 tidal dissipation from the new models are significantly lower than estimates from previous models.

  4. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System - Develop and Test Coupled Physical Parameterizations: NAVGEM/CICE/HYCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    the Study of the Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) effort. The SIO is an international effort to provide a community-wide...summary of the expected September arctic sea ice minimum. Monthly reports released throughout the summer synthesize community estimates of the current...state and expected minimum of sea ice . Along with the backbone components of this system (NAVGEM/HYCOM/CICE), other data models have been used to

  5. Upper Ocean Measurements from Profiling Floats in the Arabian Sea During NASCar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    top-level goals] OBJECTIVES The work proposed here is designed to examine the seasonal evolution of the upper ocean in the northern Arabian...Sea over several seasonal cycles, with the specific objectives of (1) Documenting the spatial variations in the seasonal cycle of the upper ocean...circulation of the Arabian Sea and the seasonal and spatial evolution of the surface mixed layer, and would be used in conjunction with HYCOM model

  6. A Comparison of Sequential Assimilation Schemes for Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Twin Experiments with Static Forecast Error Covariances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    A.J.. Lozano. C. Tolman, H.L. Srinivasan. A.. Hankin. S„ Cornillon. P.. Weisberg, R.. Barth. A.. He. R.. Werner. C. Wilkin .. J.. 2009. U.S. GODAE...Halliwell. G.R., Wallcrart. A.J.. Metzger, E.J.. Blanton, B.O., a. CL. Rao, D.B., Hogan , P.J.. Srinivasan. A., 2006. Generalized vertical

  7. Natural ocean carbon cycle sensitivity to parameterizations of the recycling in a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanou, A.; Romanski, J.; Gregg, W. W.

    2014-02-01

    Sensitivities of the oceanic biological pump within the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies ) climate modeling system are explored here. Results are presented from twin control simulations of the air-sea CO2 gas exchange using two different ocean models coupled to the same atmosphere. The two ocean models (Russell ocean model and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM) use different vertical coordinate systems, and therefore different representations of column physics. Both variants of the GISS climate model are coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model, NOBM), which computes prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2 and the deep ocean carbon transport and storage. In particular, the model differences due to remineralization rate changes are compared to differences attributed to physical processes modeled differently in the two ocean models such as ventilation, mixing, eddy stirring and vertical advection. GISSEH(GISSER) is found to underestimate mixed layer depth compared to observations by about 55% (10%) in the Southern Ocean and overestimate it by about 17% (underestimate by 2%) in the northern high latitudes. Everywhere else in the global ocean, the two models underestimate the surface mixing by about 12-34%, which prevents deep nutrients from reaching the surface and promoting primary production there. Consequently, carbon export is reduced because of reduced production at the surface. Furthermore, carbon export is particularly sensitive to remineralization rate changes in the frontal regions of the subtropical gyres and at the Equator and this sensitivity in the model is much higher than the sensitivity to physical processes such as vertical mixing, vertical advection and mesoscale eddy transport. At depth, GISSER, which has a significant warm bias, remineralizes nutrients and carbon faster thereby producing more nutrients and carbon at depth, which

  8. Natural Ocean Carbon Cycle Sensitivity to Parameterizations of the Recycling in a Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanou, A.; Romanski, J.; Gregg, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivities of the oceanic biological pump within the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies ) climate modeling system are explored here. Results are presented from twin control simulations of the air-sea CO2 gas exchange using two different ocean models coupled to the same atmosphere. The two ocean models (Russell ocean model and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM) use different vertical coordinate systems, and therefore different representations of column physics. Both variants of the GISS climate model are coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (the NASA Ocean Biogeochemistry Model, NOBM), which computes prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2 and the deep ocean carbon transport and storage. In particular, the model differences due to remineralization rate changes are compared to differences attributed to physical processes modeled differently in the two ocean models such as ventilation, mixing, eddy stirring and vertical advection. GISSEH(GISSER) is found to underestimate mixed layer depth compared to observations by about 55% (10 %) in the Southern Ocean and overestimate it by about 17% (underestimate by 2%) in the northern high latitudes. Everywhere else in the global ocean, the two models underestimate the surface mixing by about 12-34 %, which prevents deep nutrients from reaching the surface and promoting primary production there. Consequently, carbon export is reduced because of reduced production at the surface. Furthermore, carbon export is particularly sensitive to remineralization rate changes in the frontal regions of the subtropical gyres and at the Equator and this sensitivity in the model is much higher than the sensitivity to physical processes such as vertical mixing, vertical advection and mesoscale eddy transport. At depth, GISSER, which has a significant warm bias, remineralizes nutrients and carbon faster thereby producing more nutrients and carbon at depth, which

  9. Natural Air-Sea Flux of CO2 in Simulations of the NASA-GISS Climate Model: Sensitivity to the Physical Ocean Model Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanou, A.; Gregg, Watson W.; Romanski, J.; Kelley, M.; Bleck, R.; Healy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G. A.; Sun, S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Results from twin control simulations of the preindustrial CO2 gas exchange (natural flux of CO2) between the ocean and the atmosphere are presented here using the NASA-GISS climate model, in which the same atmospheric component (modelE2) is coupled to two different ocean models, the Russell ocean model and HYCOM. Both incarnations of the GISS climate model are also coupled to the same ocean biogeochemistry module (NOBM) which estimates prognostic distributions for biotic and abiotic fields that influence the air-sea flux of CO2. Model intercomparison is carried out at equilibrium conditions and model differences are contrasted with biases from present day climatologies. Although the models agree on the spatial patterns of the air-sea flux of CO2, they disagree on the strength of the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean sinks mainly because of kinematic (winds) and chemistry (pCO2) differences rather than thermodynamic (SST) ones. Biology/chemistry dissimilarities in the models stem from the different parameterizations of advective and diffusive processes, such as overturning, mixing and horizontal tracer advection and to a lesser degree from parameterizations of biogeochemical processes such as gravitational settling and sinking. The global meridional overturning circulation illustrates much of the different behavior of the biological pump in the two models, together with differences in mixed layer depth which are responsible for different SST, DIC and nutrient distributions in the two models and consequently different atmospheric feedbacks (in the wind, net heat and freshwater fluxes into the ocean).

  10. Combining Satellite Ocean Color Imagery and Circulation Modeling to Forecast Bio-Optical Properties: Comparison of Models and Advection Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Director NCST E. R. Franchi , 7000 ^^M^4^k ro£— 4// 2^/s y Public Affairs (Unclassified/ Unlimited Only), Code 7030 4 Division, Code Author, Code...from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS, Hogan and Rosmond, 1991) and assimilates data via the Navy Coupled Ocean...forecasts using Global , Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Gulf of Mexico configurations of HYCOM. Proceedings, Ocean Optics XIX, Castelvecchio Pascoli

  11. HYCOM High-resolution Eddying Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Meteorological Organization,the International Council for Science and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO . * 2 ExciJa IJQes I I I I I...forecasting systems (Metzger et al., 2014a ). Within the framework of the multinational Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) and under the...10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.02.011. Metzger, E. J., and Coauthors, 2014a : US Navy operational global ocean and Arctic ice prediction systems. Oceanography

  12. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  13. Assessment of Hybrid Coordinate Model Velocity Fields During Agulhas Return Current 2012 Cruise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Forecasts GDEM Generalized Digital Environmental Model GPS Global Positioning System HYCOM HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model MICOM Miami Isopycnal...speed profiles was climatology from the Generalized Digital Environmental Model ( GDEM ; Teague et al. 1990). Made operational in 1999, the Modular... GDEM was the only tool a naval oceanographer had at his or her disposal to characterize ocean conditions where in-situ observations could not be

  14. Four simple ocean carbon models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the key processes that determine oceanic CO2 uptake and sets this description within the context of four simple ocean carbon models. These models capture, in varying degrees, these key processes and establish a clear foundation for more realistic models that incorporate more directly the underlying physics and biology of the ocean rather than relying on simple parametric schemes. The purpose of this paper is more pedagogical than purely scientific. The problems encountered by current attempts to understand the global carbon cycle not only require our efforts but set a demand for a new generation of scientist, and it is hoped that this paper and the text in which it appears will help in this development.

  15. Southern Ocean vertical iron fluxes; the ocean model effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schourup-Kristensen, V.; Haucke, J.; Losch, M. J.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Voelker, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a key role in the climate system, but commonly used large-scale ocean general circulation biogeochemical models give different estimates of current and future Southern Ocean net primary and export production. The representation of the Southern Ocean iron sources plays an important role for the modeled biogeochemistry. Studies of the iron supply to the surface mixed layer have traditionally focused on the aeolian and sediment contributions, but recent work has highlighted the importance of the vertical supply from below. We have performed a model study in which the biogeochemical model REcoM2 was coupled to two different ocean models, the Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) and the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) and analyzed the magnitude of the iron sources to the surface mixed layer from below in the two models. Our results revealed a remarkable difference in terms of mechanism and magnitude of transport. The mean iron supply from below in the Southern Ocean was on average four times higher in MITgcm than in FESOM and the dominant pathway was entrainment in MITgcm, whereas diffusion dominated in FESOM. Differences in the depth and seasonal amplitude of the mixed layer between the models affect on the vertical iron profile, the relative position of the base of the mixed layer and ferricline and thereby also on the iron fluxes. These differences contribute to differences in the phytoplankton composition in the two models, as well as in the timing of the onset of the spring bloom. The study shows that the choice of ocean model has a significant impact on the iron supply to the Southern Ocean mixed layer and thus on the modeled carbon cycle, with possible implications for model runs predicting the future carbon uptake in the region.

  16. Climate Ocean Modeling on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P.; Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change. However, modeling the ocean circulation at various spatial and temporal scales is a very challenging computational task.

  17. How Stationary Are the Internal Tides in a High-Resolution Global Ocean Circulation Model?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-12

    Egbert et al., 1994] and that the model global internal tide amplitudes compare well with an altimetric-based tidal analysis [Ray and Byrne, 2010]. The... analysis [Foreman, 1977] applied to the HYCOM total SSH. We will follow Shriver et al. [2012], analyzing the tides along satellite altimeter tracks...spots,’’ the comparison between the model and altimetric analysis is not as good due, in part, to two prob- lems, errors in the model barotropic tides and

  18. Impact of Remote Forcing, Model Resolution and Bathymetry on Predictions of Currents on the Shelf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    San Diego467. Zamudio, L. Hogan , P.J., Metzger. E.J.. 2008 . Summer generation of the southern Gulf of California eddy train. J. Geophys. Res. 113...1987; Zamudio et al., 2008 . 2011). These anomalies therefore represent remote forcing which will impact the Monterey Bay area, and a smaller region...Werner. F.. Wilkin . J., 2009. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Oceanography 22 (2). 64-75. Chelton

  19. Ocean Predictability and Uncertainty Forecasts Using Local Ensemble Transfer Kalman Filter (LETKF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M.; Hogan, P. J.; Rowley, C. D.; Smedstad, O. M.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Penny, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean predictability and uncertainty are studied with an ensemble system that has been developed based on the US Navy's operational HYCOM using the Local Ensemble Transfer Kalman Filter (LETKF) technology. One of the advantages of this method is that the best possible initial analysis states for the HYCOM forecasts are provided by the LETKF which assimilates operational observations using ensemble method. The background covariance during this assimilation process is implicitly supplied with the ensemble avoiding the difficult task of developing tangent linear and adjoint models out of HYCOM with the complicated hybrid isopycnal vertical coordinate for 4D-VAR. The flow-dependent background covariance from the ensemble will be an indispensable part in the next generation hybrid 4D-Var/ensemble data assimilation system. The predictability and uncertainty for the ocean forecasts are studied initially for the Gulf of Mexico. The results are compared with another ensemble system using Ensemble Transfer (ET) method which has been used in the Navy's operational center. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  20. Operational Ocean Modelling with the Harvard Ocean Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV2008 A417 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) dr. F.P.A. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten dr. L.A. te Raa...area of theory and implementation of numerical schemes and parameterizations, ocean models have grown from experimental tools to full-blown ocean...sound propagation through mesoscale features using 3-D coupled mode theory , Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA. 1992. [9] Robinson

  1. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Variations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  2. Estimation of the barrier layer thickness in the Indian Ocean using Aquarius Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, Clifford S.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Murty, V. S. N.; Shriver, Jay F.

    2014-07-01

    Monthly barrier layer thickness (BLT) estimates are derived from satellite measurements using a multilinear regression model (MRM) within the Indian Ocean. Sea surface salinity (SSS) from the recently launched Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius SAC-D salinity missions are utilized to estimate the BLT. The MRM relates BLT to sea surface salinity (SSS), sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface height anomalies (SSHA). Three regions where the BLT variability is most rigorous are selected to evaluate the performance of the MRM for 2012; the Southeast Arabian Sea (SEAS), Bay of Bengal (BoB), and Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean (EEIO). The MRM derived BLT estimates are compared to gridded Argo and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) BLTs. It is shown that different mechanisms are important for sustaining the BLT variability in each of the selected regions. Sensitivity tests show that SSS is the primary driver of the BLT within the MRM. Results suggest that salinity measurements obtained from Aquarius and SMOS can be useful for tracking and predicting the BLT in the Indian Ocean. Largest MRM errors occur along coastlines and near islands where land contamination skews the satellite SSS retrievals. The BLT evolution during 2012, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the current model are discussed. BLT estimations using HYCOM simulations display large errors that are related to model layer structure and the selected BLT methodology.

  3. An operational global ocean forecast system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, A.; Tolman, H. L.; Rivin, I.; Rajan, B.; Spindler, T.; Garraffo, Z. D.; Kim, H.

    2012-12-01

    A global Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) was implemented in operations at NCEP/NWS/NOAA on 10/25/2011. This system is based on an eddy resolving 1/12 degree global HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinates Ocean Model) and is part of a larger national backbone capability of ocean modeling at NWS in strong partnership with US Navy. The forecast system is run once a day and produces a 6 day long forecast using the daily initialization fields produced at NAVOCEANO using NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation), a 3D multi-variate data assimilation methodology. As configured within RTOFS, HYCOM has a horizontal equatorial resolution of 0.08 degrees or ~9 km. The HYCOM grid is on a Mercator projection from 78.64 S to 47 N and north of this it employs an Arctic dipole patch where the poles are shifted over land to avoid a singularity at the North Pole. This gives a mid-latitude (polar) horizontal resolution of approximately 7 km (3.5 km). The coastline is fixed at 10 m isobath with open Bering Straits. This version employs 32 hybrid vertical coordinate surfaces with potential density referenced to 2000 m. Vertical coordinates can be isopycnals, often best for resolving deep water masses, levels of equal pressure (fixed depths), best for the well mixed unstratified upper ocean and sigma-levels (terrain-following), often the best choice in shallow water. The dynamic ocean model is coupled to a thermodynamic energy loan ice model and uses a non-slab mixed layer formulation. The forecast system is forced with 3-hourly momentum, radiation and precipitation fluxes from the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) fields. Results include global sea surface height and three dimensional fields of temperature, salinity, density and velocity fields used for validation and evaluation against available observations. Several downstream applications of this forecast system will also be discussed which include search and rescue operations at US Coast Guard, navigation safety information

  4. Ocean foam generation and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the physical and microwave properties of ocean foam. Special foam generators were designed and fabricated, using porous glass sheets, known as glass frits, as the principal element. The glass frit was sealed into a water-tight vertical box, a few centimeters from the bottom. Compressed air, applied to the lower chamber, created ocean foam from sea water lying on the frit. Foam heights of 30 cm were readily achieved, with relatively low air pressures. Special photographic techniques and analytical procedures were employed to determine foam bubble size distributions. In addition, the percentage water content of ocean foam was determined with the aid of a particulate sampling procedure. A glass frit foam generator, with pore diameters in the range 70 - 100 micrometers, produced foam with bubble distributions very similar to those found on the surface of natural ocean foam patches.

  5. Scripps Ocean Modeling and Remote Sensing (SOMARS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-20

    Topics in this brief reports include: Kalman filtering of oceanographic data; Remote sensing of sea surface temperature; Altimetry and Surface heat fluxes; Ocean models of the marine mixed layer; Radar altimetry; Mathematical model of California current eddies.

  6. Nested ocean models: Work in progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, A. Louise

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing work of combining three existing software programs into a nested grid oceanography model is detailed. The HYPER domain decomposition program, the SPEM ocean modeling program, and a quasi-geostrophic model written in England are being combined into a general ocean modeling facility. This facility will be used to test the viability and the capability of two-way nested grids in the North Atlantic.

  7. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  8. Modeling Ocean Ecosystems: The PARADIGM Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    of biological reality: the wonderful com- 2. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and archaea our concept of a species (e.g., Venter et plexity of ocean...ecosystems will never be ( diazotrophs ), which convert atmo- al., 2004; Doney et al., 2004; DeLong and fully described with numerical models of spheric...applying ocean inventory of nitrogen nutrients. numerical models, we are confronted Specifying "Functional Groups" Some diazotrophs fix both CO 2 and with

  9. A one ocean model of biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dor, Ronald K.; Fennel, Katja; Berghe, Edward Vanden

    2009-09-01

    The history of life is written in the ocean, and the history of the ocean is written in DNA. Geologists have shown us that hundreds of millions of years of ocean history can be revealed from records of a single phylum in cores of mud from abyssal plains. We are now accumulating genetic tools to unravel the relationships of hundreds of phyla to track this history back billions of years. The technologies demonstrated by the Census of Marine Life (CoML) mean that the ocean is no longer opaque or unknowable. The secrets of the largest component of the biosphere are knowable. The cost of understanding the history of ocean life is not cheap, but it is also not prohibitive. A transparent, open ocean is available for us to use to understand ourselves. This article develops a model of biodiversity equilibration in a single, physically static ocean as a step towards biodiversity in physically complex real oceans. It attempts to be quantitative and to simultaneously account for biodiversity patterns from bacteria to whales focusing on emergent properties rather than details. Biodiversity reflects long-term survival of DNA sequences, stabilizing "ecosystem services" despite environmental change. In the ocean, mechanisms for ensuring survival range from prokaryotes maintaining low concentrations of replicable DNA throughout the ocean volume, anticipating local change, to animals whose mobility increases with mass to avoid local change through movement. Whales can reach any point in the ocean in weeks, but prokaryotes can only diffuse. The high metabolic costs of mobility are offset by the dramatically lower number of DNA replicates required to ensure survival. Reproduction rates probably scale more or less inversely with body mass. Bacteria respond in a week, plankton in a year, whales in a century. We generally lack coherent theories to explain the origins of animals (metazoans) and the contributions of biodiversity to ecosystems. The One Ocean Model suggests that mobile

  10. Modeling tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, A. A.; Adcroft, A.; Sergienko, O.; Marques, G.

    2017-08-01

    Large tabular icebergs calved from Antarctic ice shelves have long lifetimes (due to their large size), during which they drift across large distances, altering ambient ocean circulation, bottom-water formation, sea-ice formation, and biological primary productivity in the icebergs' vicinity. However, despite their importance, the current generation of ocean circulation models usually do not represent large tabular icebergs. In this study, we develop a novel framework to model large tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean. In this framework, tabular icebergs are represented by pressure-exerting Lagrangian elements that drift in the ocean. The elements are held together and interact with each other via bonds. A breaking of these bonds allows the model to emulate calving events (i.e., detachment of a tabular iceberg from an ice shelf) and tabular icebergs breaking up into smaller pieces. Idealized simulations of a calving tabular iceberg, its drift, and its breakup demonstrate capabilities of the developed framework.

  11. A review of ocean chlorophyll algorithms and primary production models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwen; Zhou, Song; Lv, Nan

    2015-12-01

    This paper mainly introduces the five ocean chlorophyll concentration inversion algorithm and 3 main models for computing ocean primary production based on ocean chlorophyll concentration. Through the comparison of five ocean chlorophyll inversion algorithm, sums up the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithm,and briefly analyzes the trend of ocean primary production model.

  12. Climate Modeling: Ocean Cavities below Ice Shelves

    SciT

    Petersen, Mark Roger

    The Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME), a new initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, includes unstructured-mesh ocean, land-ice, and sea-ice components using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) framework. The ability to run coupled high-resolution global simulations efficiently on large, high-performance computers is a priority for ACME. Sub-ice shelf ocean cavities are a significant new capability in ACME, and will be used to better understand how changing ocean temperature and currents influence glacial melting and retreat. These simulations take advantage of the horizontal variable-resolution mesh and adaptive vertical coordinate in MPAS-Ocean, in order to place high resolutionmore » below ice shelves and near grounding lines.« less

  13. Serving ocean model data on the cloud

    Meisinger, Michael; Farcas, Claudiu; Farcas, Emilia; Alexander, Charles; Arrott, Matthew; de La Beaujardiere, Jeff; Hubbard, Paul; Mendelssohn, Roy; Signell, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    The NOAA-led Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and the NSF-funded Ocean Observatories Initiative Cyberinfrastructure Project (OOI-CI) are collaborating on a prototype data delivery system for numerical model output and other gridded data using cloud computing. The strategy is to take an existing distributed system for delivering gridded data and redeploy on the cloud, making modifications to the system that allow it to harness the scalability of the cloud as well as adding functionality that the scalability affords.

  14. Ocean color modeling: Parameterization and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hui

    The ocean color as observed near the water surface is determined mainly by dissolved and particulate substances, known as "optically-active constituents," in the upper water column. The goal of ocean color modeling is to interpret an ocean color spectrum quantitatively to estimate the suite of optically-active constituents near the surface. In recent years, ocean color modeling efforts have been centering upon three major optically-active constituents: chlorophyll concentration, colored dissolved organic matter, and scattering particulates. Many challenges are still being faced in this arena. This thesis generally addresses and deals with some critical issues in ocean color modeling. In chapter one, an extensive literature survey on ocean color modeling is given. A general ocean color model is presented to identify critical candidate uncertainty sources in modeling the ocean color. The goal for this thesis study is then defined as well as some specific objectives. Finally, a general overview of the dissertation is portrayed, defining each of the follow-up chapters to target some relevant objectives. In chapter two, a general approach is presented to quantify constituent concentration retrieval errors induced by uncertainties in inherent optical property (IOP) submodels of a semi-analytical forward model. Chlorophyll concentrations are retrieved by inverting a forward model with nonlinear IOPs. The study demonstrates how uncertainties in individual IOP submodels influence the accuracy of the chlorophyll concentration retrieval at different chlorophyll concentration levels. The important finding for this study shows that precise knowledge of spectral shapes of IOP submodels is critical for accurate chlorophyll retrieval, suggesting an improvement in retrieval accuracy requires precise spectral IOP measurements. In chapter three, three distinct inversion techniques, namely, nonlinear optimization (NLO), principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network

  15. Modeling Europa's Ice-Ocean Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenousy, A.; Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on modeling the ice-ocean interface on Jupiter's Moon (Europa); mainly from the standpoint of heat and salt transfer relationship with emphasis on the basal ice growth rate and its implications to Europa's tidal response. Modeling the heat and salt flux at Europa's ice/ocean interface is necessary to understand the dynamics of Europa's ocean and its interaction with the upper ice shell as well as the history of active turbulence at this area. To achieve this goal, we used McPhee et al., 2008 parameterizations on Earth's ice/ocean interface that was developed to meet Europa's ocean dynamics. We varied one parameter at a time to test its influence on both; "h" the basal ice growth rate and on "R" the double diffusion tendency strength. The double diffusion tendency "R" was calculated as the ratio between the interface heat exchange coefficient αh to the interface salt exchange coefficient αs. Our preliminary results showed a strong double diffusion tendency R ~200 at Europa's ice-ocean interface for plausible changes in the heat flux due to onset or elimination of a hydrothermal activity, suggesting supercooling and a strong tendency for forming frazil ice.

  16. Experiences in multiyear combined state-parameter estimation with an ecosystem model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Ehouarn; Samuelsen, Annette; Bertino, Laurent; Mouysset, Sandrine

    2015-12-01

    A sequence of one-year combined state-parameter estimation experiments has been conducted in a North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean configuration of the coupled physical-biogeochemical model HYCOM-NORWECOM over the period 2007-2010. The aim is to evaluate the ability of an ensemble-based data assimilation method to calibrate ecosystem model parameters in a pre-operational setting, namely the production of the MyOcean pilot reanalysis of the Arctic biology. For that purpose, four biological parameters (two phyto- and two zooplankton mortality rates) are estimated by assimilating weekly data such as, satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature, along-track Sea Level Anomalies, ice concentrations and chlorophyll-a concentrations with an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The set of optimized parameters locally exhibits seasonal variations suggesting that time-dependent parameters should be used in ocean ecosystem models. A clustering analysis of the optimized parameters is performed in order to identify consistent ecosystem regions. In the north part of the domain, where the ecosystem model is the most reliable, most of them can be associated with Longhurst provinces and new provinces emerge in the Arctic Ocean. However, the clusters do not coincide anymore with the Longhurst provinces in the Tropics due to large model errors. Regarding the ecosystem state variables, the assimilation of satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration leads to significant reduction of the RMS errors in the observed variables during the first year, i.e. 2008, compared to a free run simulation. However, local filter divergences of the parameter component occur in 2009 and result in an increase in the RMS error at the time of the spring bloom.

  17. CMIP5 Historical Simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ronald Lindsay; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.; Tausnev, Nick; Bauer, Susanne E.; DelGenio, Anthony D.; Kelley, Max; Lo, Ken K.; Ruedy, Reto; Shindell, Drew T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Observations of climate change during the CMIP5 extended historical period (1850-2012) are compared to trends simulated by six versions of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE2 Earth System Model. The six models are constructed from three versions of the ModelE2 atmospheric general circulation model, distinguished by their treatment of atmospheric composition and the aerosol indirect effect, combined with two ocean general circulation models, HYCOM and Russell. Forcings that perturb the model climate during the historical period are described. Five-member ensemble averages from each of the six versions of ModelE2 simulate trends of surface air temperature, atmospheric temperature, sea ice and ocean heat content that are in general agreement with observed trends, although simulated warming is slightly excessive within the past decade. Only simulations that include increasing concentrations of long-lived greenhouse gases match the warming observed during the twentieth century. Differences in twentieth-century warming among the six model versions can be attributed to differences in climate sensitivity, aerosol and ozone forcing, and heat uptake by the deep ocean. Coupled models with HYCOM export less heat to the deep ocean, associated with reduced surface warming in regions of deepwater formation, but greater warming elsewhere at high latitudes along with reduced sea ice. All ensembles show twentieth-century annular trends toward reduced surface pressure at southern high latitudes and a poleward shift of the midlatitude westerlies, consistent with observations.

  18. Developments in Coastal Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    Capabilities in modeling continental shelf flow fields have improved markedly in the last several years. Progress is being made toward the long term scientific goal of utilizing numerical circulation models to interpolate, or extrapolate, necessarily limited field measurements to provide additional full-field information describing the behavior of, and providing dynamical rationalizations for, complex observed coastal flow. The improvement in modeling capabilities has been due to several factors including an increase in computer power and, importantly, an increase in experience of modelers in formulating relevant numerical experiments and in analyzing model results. We demonstrate present modeling capabilities and limitations by discussion of results from recent studies of shelf circulation off Oregon and northern California (joint work with Newberger, Gan, Oke, Pullen, and Wijesekera). Strong interactions between wind-forced coastal currents and continental shelf topography characterize the flow regimes in these cases. Favorable comparisons of model and measured alongshore currents and other variables provide confidence in the model-produced fields. The dependence of the mesoscale circulation, including upwelling and downwelling fronts and flow instabilities, on the submodel used to parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence, is discussed. Analyses of model results to provide explanations for the observed, but previously unexplained, alongshore variability in the intensity of coastal upwelling, which typically results in colder surface water south of capes, and the observed development in some locations of northward currents near the coast in response to the relaxation of southward winds, are presented.

  19. Analysis and Modeling of Intense Oceanic Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies using lightning data from geo-location networks such as GLD360 suggest that lightning strokes are more intense over the ocean than over land, even though they are less common [Said et al. 2013]. We present an investigation of the physical differences between oceanic and land lightning. We have deployed a sensitive Low Frequency (1 MHz sampling rate) radio receiver system aboard the NOAA Ronald W. Brown research vessel and have collected thousands of lightning waveforms close to deep oceanic lightning. We analyze the captured waveforms, describe our modeling efforts, and summarize our findings. We model the ground wave (gw) portion of the lightning sferics using a numerical method built on top of the Stanford Full Wave Method (FWM) [Lehtinen and Inan 2008]. The gwFWM technique accounts for propagation over a curved Earth with finite conductivity, and is used to simulate an arbitrary current profile along the lightning channel. We conduct a sensitivity analysis and study the current profiles for land and for oceanic lightning. We find that the effect of ground conductivity is minimal, and that stronger oceanic radio intensity does not result from shorter current rise-time or from faster return stroke propagation speed.

  20. Ocean Modeling in an Eddying Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Matthew W.; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    This monograph is the first to survey progress in realistic simulation in a strongly eddying regime made possible by recent increases in computational capability. Its contributors comprise the leading researchers in this important and constantly evolving field. Divided into three parts, • Oceanographic Processes and Regimes: Fundamental Questions • Ocean Dynamics and State: From Regional to Global Scale, and • Modeling at the Mesoscale: State of the Art and Future Directions the volume details important advances in physical oceanography based on eddy resolving ocean modeling. It captures the state of the art and discusses issues that ocean modelers must consider in order to effectively contribute to advancing current knowledge, from subtleties of the underlying fluid dynamical equations to meaningful comparison with oceanographic observations and leading-edge model development. It summarizes many of the important results which have emerged from ocean modeling in an eddying regime, for those interested broadly in the physical science. More technical topics are intended to address the concerns of those actively working in the field.

  1. Modelling ocean-colour-derived chlorophyll a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Hickman, Anna E.; Jahn, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a proof of concept for using a biogeochemical/ecosystem/optical model with a radiative transfer component as a laboratory to explore aspects of ocean colour. We focus here on the satellite ocean colour chlorophyll a (Chl a) product provided by the often-used blue/green reflectance ratio algorithm. The model produces output that can be compared directly to the real-world ocean colour remotely sensed reflectance. This model output can then be used to produce an ocean colour satellite-like Chl a product using an algorithm linking the blue versus green reflectance similar to that used for the real world. Given that the model includes complete knowledge of the (model) water constituents, optics and reflectance, we can explore uncertainties and their causes in this proxy for Chl a (called derived Chl a in this paper). We compare the derived Chl a to the actual model Chl a field. In the model we find that the mean absolute bias due to the algorithm is 22 % between derived and actual Chl a. The real-world algorithm is found using concurrent in situ measurement of Chl a and radiometry. We ask whether increased in situ measurements to train the algorithm would improve the algorithm, and find a mixed result. There is a global overall improvement, but at the expense of some regions, especially in lower latitudes where the biases increase. Not surprisingly, we find that region-specific algorithms provide a significant improvement, at least in the annual mean. However, in the model, we find that no matter how the algorithm coefficients are found there can be a temporal mismatch between the derived Chl a and the actual Chl a. These mismatches stem from temporal decoupling between Chl a and other optically important water constituents (such as coloured dissolved organic matter and detrital matter). The degree of decoupling differs regionally and over time. For example, in many highly seasonal regions, the timing of initiation and peak of the

  2. A baroclinic quasigeostrophic open ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. N.; Robinson, A. R.; Haidvogel, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    A baroclinic quasigeostrophic open ocean model is presented, calibrated by a series of test problems, and demonstrated to be feasible and efficient for application to realistic mid-oceanic mesoscale eddy flow regimes. Two methods of treating the depth dependence of the flow, a finite difference method and a collocation method, are tested and intercompared. Sample Rossby wave calculations with and without advection are performed with constant stratification and two levels of nonlinearity, one weaker than and one typical of real ocean flows. Using exact analytical solutions for comparison, the accuracy and efficiency of the model is tabulated as a function of the computational parameters and stability limits set; typically, errors were controlled between 1 percent and 10 percent RMS after two wave periods. Further Rossby wave tests with realistic stratification and wave parameters chosen to mimic real ocean conditions were performed to determine computational parameters for use with real and simulated data. Finally, a prototype calculation with quasiturbulent simulated data was performed successfully, which demonstrates the practicality of the model for scientific use.

  3. Towards a suite of test cases and a pycomodo library to assess and improve numerical methods in ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Valérie; Honnorat, Marc; Benshila, Rachid; Boutet, Martial; Cambon, Gildas; Chanut, Jérome; Couvelard, Xavier; Debreu, Laurent; Ducousso, Nicolas; Duhaut, Thomas; Dumas, Franck; Flavoni, Simona; Gouillon, Flavien; Lathuilière, Cyril; Le Boyer, Arnaud; Le Sommer, Julien; Lyard, Florent; Marsaleix, Patrick; Marchesiello, Patrick; Soufflet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The COMODO group (http://www.comodo-ocean.fr) gathers developers of global and limited-area ocean models (NEMO, ROMS_AGRIF, S, MARS, HYCOM, S-TUGO) with the aim to address well-identified numerical issues. In order to evaluate existing models, to improve numerical approaches and methods or concept (such as effective resolution) to assess the behavior of numerical model in complex hydrodynamical regimes and to propose guidelines for the development of future ocean models, a benchmark suite that covers both idealized test cases dedicated to targeted properties of numerical schemes and more complex test case allowing the evaluation of the kernel coherence is proposed. The benchmark suite is built to study separately, then together, the main components of an ocean model : the continuity and momentum equations, the advection-diffusion of the tracers, the vertical coordinate design and the time stepping algorithms. The test cases are chosen for their simplicity of implementation (analytic initial conditions), for their capacity to focus on a (few) scheme or part of the kernel, for the availability of analytical solutions or accurate diagnoses and lastly to simulate a key oceanic processus in a controlled environment. Idealized test cases allow to verify properties of numerical schemes advection-diffusion of tracers, - upwelling, - lock exchange, - baroclinic vortex, - adiabatic motion along bathymetry, and to put into light numerical issues that remain undetected in realistic configurations - trajectory of barotropic vortex, - interaction current - topography. When complexity in the simulated dynamics grows up, - internal wave, - unstable baroclinic jet, the sharing of the same experimental designs by different existing models is useful to get a measure of the model sensitivity to numerical choices (Soufflet et al., 2016). Lastly, test cases help in understanding the submesoscale influence on the dynamics (Couvelard et al., 2015). Such a benchmark suite is an interesting

  4. Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Using Sound Speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Johnson, M. A.

    2002-05-01

    The monthly and annual means from three Arctic ocean - sea ice climate model simulations are compared for the period 1979-1997. Sound speed is used to integrate model outputs of temperature and salinity along a section between Barrow and Franz Josef Land. A statistical approach is used to test for differences among the three models for two basic data subsets. We integrated and then analyzed an upper layer between 2 m - 50 m, and also a deep layer from 500 m to the bottom. The deep layer is characterized by low time-variability. No high-frequency signals appear in the deep layer having been filtered out in the upper layer. There is no seasonal signal in the deep layer and the monthly means insignificantly oscillate about the long-period mean. For the deep ocean the long-period mean can be considered quasi-constant, at least within the 19 year period of our analysis. Thus we assumed that the deep ocean would be the best choice for comparing the means of the model outputs. The upper (mixed) layer was chosen to contrast the deep layer dynamics. There are distinct seasonal and interannual signals in the sound speed time series in this layer. The mixed layer is a major link in the ocean - air interaction mechanism. Thus, different mean states of the upper layer in the models might cause different responses in other components of the Arctic climate system. The upper layer also strongly reflects any differences in atmosphere forcing. To compare data from the three models we have used a one-way t-test for the population mean, the Wilcoxon one-sample signed-rank test (when the requirement of normality of tested data is violated), and one-way ANOVA method and F-test to verify our hypothesis that the model outputs have the same mean sound speed. The different statistical approaches have shown that all models have different mean characteristics of the deep and upper layers of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Mixing parametrizations for ocean climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Moshonkin, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The algorithm is presented of splitting the total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF), which is used to parameterize the viscosity and diffusion coefficients in ocean circulation models. The turbulence model equations are split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage, the following schemes are implemented: the explicit-implicit numerical scheme, analytical solution and the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solutions. The experiments were performed with different mixing parameterizations for the modelling of Arctic and the Atlantic climate decadal variability with the eddy-permitting circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence. The proposed model with the split equations for turbulence characteristics is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. Parameterizations with using the split turbulence model make it possible to obtain more adequate structure of temperature and salinity at decadal timescales, compared to the simpler Pacanowski-Philander (PP) turbulence parameterization. Parameterizations with using analytical solution or numerical scheme at the generation-dissipation step of the turbulence model leads to better representation of ocean climate than the faster parameterization using the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solution. At the same time, the computational efficiency left almost unchanged relative to the simple PP parameterization. Usage of PP parametrization in the circulation model leads to realistic simulation of density and circulation with violation of T,S-relationships. This error is majorly avoided with using the proposed parameterizations containing the split turbulence model

  6. Improving stability of regional numerical ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, Mike

    2009-02-01

    An operational limited-area ocean modelling system was developed to supply forecasts of ocean state out to 3 days. This system is designed to allow non-specialist users to locate the model domain anywhere within the Australasian region with minimum user input. The model is required to produce a stable simulation every time it is invoked. This paper outlines the methodology used to ensure the model remains stable over the wide range of circumstances it might encounter. Central to the model configuration is an alternative approach to implementing open boundary conditions in a one-way nesting environment. Approximately 170 simulations were performed on limited areas in the Australasian region to assess the model stability; of these, 130 ran successfully with a static model parameterisation allowing a statistical estimate of the model’s approach toward instability to be determined. Based on this, when the model was deemed to be approaching instability a strategy of adaptive intervention in the form of constraint on velocity and elevation was invoked to maintain stability.

  7. Ocean modelling aspects for drift applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephane, L.; Pierre, D.

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, many authorities in charge of rescue-at-sea operations lean on operational oceanography products to outline research perimeters. Moreover, current fields estimated with sophisticated ocean forecasting systems can be used as input data for oil spill/ adrift object fate models. This emphasises the necessity of an accurate sea state forecast, with a mastered level of reliability. This work focuses on several problems inherent to drift modeling, dealing in the first place with the efficiency of the oceanic current field representation. As we want to discriminate the relevance of a particular physical process or modeling option, the idea is to generate series of current fields of different characteristics and then qualify them in term of drift prediction efficiency. Benchmarked drift scenarios were set up from real surface drifters data, collected in the Mediterranean sea and off the coasts of Angola. The time and space scales that we are interested in are about 72 hr forecasts (typical timescale communicated in case of crisis), for distance errors that we hope about a few dozen of km around the forecast (acceptable for reconnaissance by aircrafts) For the ocean prediction, we used some regional oceanic configurations based on the NEMO 2.3 code, nested into Mercator 1/12° operational system. Drift forecasts were computed offline with Mothy (Météo France oil spill modeling system) and Ariane (B. Blanke, 1997), a Lagrangian diagnostic tool. We were particularly interested in the importance of the horizontal resolution, vertical mixing schemes, and any processes that may impact the surface layer. The aim of the study is to ultimately point at the most suitable set of parameters for drift forecast use inside operational oceanic systems. We are also motivated in assessing the relevancy of ensemble forecasts regarding determinist predictions. Several tests showed that mis-described observed trajectories can finally be modelled statistically by using uncertainties

  8. Rectification of Atmospheric Intraseasonal Oscillations on Seasonal to Interannual Sea Surface Temperature in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    An ocean general circulation model (the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM) is used to examine the rectification of atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) on lower-frequency seasonal to interannual sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean (IO). Existing studies have shown that ISOs rectify on low-frequency equatorial surface currents, suggesting that they may also have important impacts on low-frequency SST variability. To evaluate these impacts, a hierarchy of experiments is run with HYCOM that isolates the ocean response to atmospheric forcing by 10-30 day (submonthly), 30-90 day (dominated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation), and 10-90 day (all ISO) events. Other experiments isolate the ocean response to a range of forcing processes including shortwave radiation, precipitation, and winds. Results indicate that ISOs have a non-negligible effect on the seasonal and annual cycles of SST in the Arabian Sea. The maximum seasonal SST variability in the Arabian Sea is 1.6°C, while the ISO-forced seasonal SST variability has a maximum of 0.4°C. Because SSTs in the Arabian Sea are already warm (>28°C), a change of 0.4°C can affect convection there. ISOs also have non-negligible effects on the seasonal variability of SST in the south- and west- equatorial IO. The ISO contribution to the seasonal cycle of mixed layer thickness (hmix) in the eastern equatorial IO has a maximum of 9m, while the total hmix seasonal cycle has a maximum of 14m. ISOs affect the hmix seasonal cycle by up to 10m in the Arabian Sea, where the total seasonal cycle has a maximum of 75m. Further work will seek to explain the causes of this observed rectification of ISOs on seasonal SST and mixed layer variability, and to extend our results to include interannual timescales.

  9. Modeling and Assimilating Ocean Color Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2012-01-01

    Radiances are the source of information from ocean color sensors to produce estimates of biological and geochemical constituents. They potentially provide information on various other aspects of global biological and chemical systems, and there is considerable work involved in deriving new information from these signals. Each derived product, however, contains errors that are derived from the application of the radiances, above and beyond the radiance errors. A global biogeochemical model with an explicit spectral radiative transfer model is used to investigate the potential of assimilating radiances. The results indicate gaps in our understanding of radiative processes in the oceans and their relationships with biogeochemical variables. Most important, detritus optical properties are not well characterized and produce important effects of the simulated radiances. Specifically, there does not appear to be a relationship between detrital biomass and its optical properties, as there is for chlorophyll. Approximations are necessary to get beyond this problem. In this reprt we will discuss the challenges in modeling and assimilation water-leaving radiances and the prospects for improving our understanding of biogeochemical process by utilizing these signals.

  10. Sensitivity of the Carolina Coastal Ocean Circulation to Open Boundary and Atmospheric Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L.

    2003-12-01

    The ocean circulation on the continental shelf off the Carolina coast is characterized by a complex flow regime and temporal variability, which is influenced by atmospheric forcing, the Gulf Stream system, complex coastline and bathymetry, river discharge and tidal forcing. In this study, a triple-nested, HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is used to simulate the coastal ocean circulation on the continental shelf off the Carolina coast and its interactions with the offshore large-scale ocean circulation system. The horizontal mesh size in the innermost domain was set to 1 km, whereas the outermost domain coincides with the near real-time 1/12­’ Atlantic HYCOM Nowcast/Forecast System operated at the Naval Research Laboratory. The intermediate domain uses a mesh size of 3 km. Atmospheric forcing fields for the Carolina coastal region are derived from the NOAA operational ETA model, the ECMWF reanalysis fields and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis fields. These forcing fields are derived at 0.8›¦, 1.125›¦ and 1.875›¦ resolutions, and at intervals of 6 hour, daily and monthly. The sensitivity of the model results to the spatial and temporal resolution of the atmospheric forcing fields is analyzed. To study the dependence of the model sensitivity on the model grid size, single-window simulations at resolutions of 1km, 3km and 9km are carried out using the same forcing fields that were applied to the nested system. Comparisons between the nested and the single domain simulation results will be presented.

  11. Interactive Visual Analysis within Dynamic Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, T.

    2012-12-01

    The many observation and simulation based ocean models available today can provide crucial insights for all fields of marine research and can serve as valuable references when planning data collection missions. However, the increasing size and complexity of these models makes leveraging their contents difficult for end users. Through a combination of data visualization techniques, interactive analysis tools, and new hardware technologies, the data within these models can be made more accessible to domain scientists. We present an interactive system that supports exploratory visual analysis within large-scale ocean flow models. The currents and eddies within the models are illustrated using effective, particle-based flow visualization techniques. Stereoscopic displays and rendering methods are employed to ensure that the user can correctly perceive the complex 3D structures of depth-dependent flow patterns. Interactive analysis tools are provided which allow the user to experiment through the introduction of their customizable virtual dye particles into the models to explore regions of interest. A multi-touch interface provides natural, efficient interaction, with custom multi-touch gestures simplifying the otherwise challenging tasks of navigating and positioning tools within a 3D environment. We demonstrate the potential applications of our visual analysis environment with two examples of real-world significance: Firstly, an example of using customized particles with physics-based behaviors to simulate pollutant release scenarios, including predicting the oil plume path for the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. Secondly, an interactive tool for plotting and revising proposed autonomous underwater vehicle mission pathlines with respect to the surrounding flow patterns predicted by the model; as these survey vessels have extremely limited energy budgets, designing more efficient paths allows for greater survey areas.

  12. Lagrangian predictability characteristics of an Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2014-11-01

    The Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) Ocean Model, provided by INGV, has been chosen as case study to analyze Lagrangian trajectory predictability by means of a dynamical systems approach. To this regard, numerical trajectories are tested against a large amount of Mediterranean drifter data, used as sample of the actual tracer dynamics across the sea. The separation rate of a trajectory pair is measured by computing the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent (FSLE) of first and second kind. An additional kinematic Lagrangian model (KLM), suitably treated to avoid "sweeping"-related problems, has been nested into the MFS in order to recover, in a statistical sense, the velocity field contributions to pair particle dispersion, at mesoscale level, smoothed out by finite resolution effects. Some of the results emerging from this work are: (a) drifter pair dispersion displays Richardson's turbulent diffusion inside the [10-100] km range, while numerical simulations of MFS alone (i.e., without subgrid model) indicate exponential separation; (b) adding the subgrid model, model pair dispersion gets very close to observed data, indicating that KLM is effective in filling the energy "mesoscale gap" present in MFS velocity fields; (c) there exists a threshold size beyond which pair dispersion becomes weakly sensitive to the difference between model and "real" dynamics; (d) the whole methodology here presented can be used to quantify model errors and validate numerical current fields, as far as forecasts of Lagrangian dispersion are concerned.

  13. Drivers of Arctic Ocean warming in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgard, Clara; Notz, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    We investigate changes in the Arctic Ocean energy budget simulated by 26 general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 framework. Our goal is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean warming between 1961 and 2099 is primarily driven by changes in the net atmospheric surface flux or by changes in the meridional oceanic heat flux. We find that the simulated Arctic Ocean warming is driven by positive anomalies in the net atmospheric surface flux in 11 models, by positive anomalies in the meridional oceanic heat flux in 11 models, and by positive anomalies in both energy fluxes in four models. The different behaviors are mainly characterized by the different changes in meridional oceanic heat flux that lead to different changes in the turbulent heat loss to the atmosphere. The multimodel ensemble mean is hence not representative of a consensus across the models in Arctic climate projections.

  14. Spectral decomposition of internal gravity wave sea surface height in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Anna C.; Arbic, Brian K.; Alford, Matthew H.; Ansong, Joseph K.; Farrar, J. Thomas; Menemenlis, Dimitris; O'Rourke, Amanda K.; Richman, James G.; Shriver, Jay F.; Voet, Gunnar; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Zamudio, Luis

    2017-10-01

    Two global ocean models ranging in horizontal resolution from 1/12° to 1/48° are used to study the space and time scales of sea surface height (SSH) signals associated with internal gravity waves (IGWs). Frequency-horizontal wavenumber SSH spectral densities are computed over seven regions of the world ocean from two simulations of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and three simulations of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). High wavenumber, high-frequency SSH variance follows the predicted IGW linear dispersion curves. The realism of high-frequency motions (>0.87 cpd) in the models is tested through comparison of the frequency spectral density of dynamic height variance computed from the highest-resolution runs of each model (1/25° HYCOM and 1/48° MITgcm) with dynamic height variance frequency spectral density computed from nine in situ profiling instruments. These high-frequency motions are of particular interest because of their contributions to the small-scale SSH variability that will be observed on a global scale in the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite altimetry mission. The variance at supertidal frequencies can be comparable to the tidal and low-frequency variance for high wavenumbers (length scales smaller than ˜50 km), especially in the higher-resolution simulations. In the highest-resolution simulations, the high-frequency variance can be greater than the low-frequency variance at these scales.

  15. Toward a Global 1/25 deg HYCOM Ocean Prediction System with Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Wallcraft, C. Lozano, H. L.Tolman, A. Srinivasan, S. Hankin, P. Cornillon, R. Weisberg, A. Barth, R. He, C. Werner, and J. Wilkin , 2009. U.S. GODAE...United States. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0988-7. Xu, X., W.J. Schmitz Jr., H.E. Hurlburt, P.J. Hogan , and E.P. Chassignet, 2010. Transport

  16. Toward a Global 1/25degree HYCOM Ocean Prediction System with Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    configurations of ARCc. 6 Figure 4. Annual temperature field at 200 m. Left: ARCc0.72 experiment 040 (2006); Middle: GDEM climatology...Eurasian Basin. Solid lines indicate results from ARCc0.72 experiment 040 (black), 060 (blue) and GDEM climatology (green). Shades delineate 10 – 90...range of the data. Note the Atlantic Layer (positive T) is markedly well simulated in experiment 040 compared to GDEM profile. Figure 7

  17. Ocean Models and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-de-Leon, D. A.

    2007-05-01

    The increasing computational developments and the better understanding of mathematical and physical systems resulted in an increasing number of ocean models. Long time ago, modelers were like a secret organization and recognize each other by using secret codes and languages that only a select group of people was able to recognize and understand. The access to computational systems was reduced, on one hand equipment and the using time of computers were expensive and restricted, and on the other hand, they required an advance computational languages that not everybody wanted to learn. Now a days most college freshman own a personal computer (PC or laptop), and/or have access to more sophisticated computational systems than those available for research in the early 80's. The resource availability resulted in a mayor access to all kind models. Today computer speed and time and the algorithms does not seem to be a problem, even though some models take days to run in small computational systems. Almost every oceanographic institution has their own model, what is more, in the same institution from one office to the next there are different models for the same phenomena, developed by different research member, the results does not differ substantially since the equations are the same, and the solving algorithms are similar. The algorithms and the grids, constructed with algorithms, can be found in text books and/or over the internet. Every year more sophisticated models are constructed. The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition is a technique that allows the reduction of the number of variables to solve keeping the model properties, for which it can be a very useful tool in diminishing the processes that have to be solved using "small" computational systems, making sophisticated models available for a greater community.

  18. Resolving high-frequency internal waves generated at an isolated coral atoll using an unstructured grid ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayson, Matthew D.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Jones, Nicole L.; Fringer, Oliver B.

    2018-02-01

    We apply the unstructured grid hydrodynamic model SUNTANS to investigate the internal wave dynamics around Scott Reef, Western Australia, an isolated coral reef atoll located on the edge of the continental shelf in water depths of 500,m and more. The atoll is subject to strong semi-diurnal tidal forcing and consists of two relatively shallow lagoons separated by a 500 m deep, 2 km wide and 15 km long channel. We focus on the dynamics in this channel as the internal tide-driven flow and resulting mixing is thought to be a key mechanism controlling heat and nutrient fluxes into the reef lagoons. We use an unstructured grid to discretise the domain and capture both the complex topography and the range of internal wave length scales in the channel flow. The model internal wave field shows super-tidal frequency lee waves generated by the combination of the steep channel topography and strong tidal flow. We evaluate the model performance using observations of velocity and temperature from two through water-column moorings in the channel separating the two reefs. Three different global ocean state estimate datasets (global HYCOM, CSIRO Bluelink, CSIRO climatology atlas) were used to provide the model initial and boundary conditions, and the model outputs from each were evaluated against the field observations. The scenario incorporating the CSIRO Bluelink data performed best in terms of through-water column Murphy skill scores of water temperature and eastward velocity variability in the channel. The model captures the observed vertical structure of the tidal (M2) and super-tidal (M4) frequency temperature and velocity oscillations. The model also predicts the direction and magnitude of the M2 internal tide energy flux. An energy analysis reveals a net convergence of the M2 energy flux and a divergence of the M4 energy flux in the channel, indicating the channel is a region of either energy transfer to higher frequencies or energy loss to dissipation. This conclusion is

  19. Nature Run for the North Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Region: System Evaluation and Regional Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, V.; Androulidakis, I.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Kang, H.; Mehari, M. F.; Atlas, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype ocean Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) system, first developed and data validated in the Gulf of Mexico, has been applied on the extended North Atlantic Ocean hurricane region. The main objectives of this study are: a) to contribute toward a fully relocatable ocean OSSE system by expanding the Gulf of Mexico OSSE to the North Atlantic Ocean; b) demonstrate and quantify improvements in hurricane forecasting when the ocean component of coupled hurricane models is advanced through targeted observations and assimilation. The system is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and has been applied on a 1/250 Mercator mesh for the free-running Nature Run (NR) and on a 1/120 Mercator mesh for the data assimilative forecast model (FM). A "fraternal twin" system is employed, using two different realizations for NR and FM, each configured to produce substantially different physics and truncation errors. The NR has been evaluated using a variety of available observations, such as from AVISO, GDEM climatology and GHRSST observations, plus specific regional products (upper ocean profiles from air-borne instruments, surface velocity maps derived from the historical drifter data set and tropical cyclone heat potential maps derived from altimetry observations). The utility of the OSSE system to advance the knowledge of regional air-sea interaction processes related to hurricane activity is demonstrated in the Amazon region (salinity induced surface barrier layer) and the Gulf Stream region (hurricane impact on the Gulf Stream extension).

  20. Diurnal ocean surface layer model validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Jeffrey D.; May, Douglas A.; Abell, Fred, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The diurnal ocean surface layer (DOSL) model at the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center forecasts the 24-hour change in a global sea surface temperatures (SST). Validating the DOSL model is a difficult task due to the huge areas involved and the lack of in situ measurements. Therefore, this report details the use of satellite infrared multichannel SST imagery to provide day and night SSTs that can be directly compared to DOSL products. This water-vapor-corrected imagery has the advantages of high thermal sensitivity (0.12 C), large synoptic coverage (nearly 3000 km across), and high spatial resolution that enables diurnal heating events to be readily located and mapped. Several case studies in the subtropical North Atlantic readily show that DOSL results during extreme heating periods agree very well with satellite-imagery-derived values in terms of the pattern of diurnal warming. The low wind and cloud-free conditions necessary for these events to occur lend themselves well to observation via infrared imagery. Thus, the normally cloud-limited aspects of satellite imagery do not come into play for these particular environmental conditions. The fact that the DOSL model does well in extreme events is beneficial from the standpoint that these cases can be associated with the destruction of the surface acoustic duct. This so-called afternoon effect happens as the afternoon warming of the mixed layer disrupts the sound channel and the propagation of acoustic energy.

  1. Sensitivity of the ocean overturning circulation to wind and mixing: theoretical scalings and global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikurashin, Maxim; Gunn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a planetary-scale oceanic flow which is of direct importance to the climate system: it transports heat meridionally and regulates the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. The MOC is forced by wind and heat and freshwater fluxes at the surface and turbulent mixing in the ocean interior. A number of conceptual theories for the sensitivity of the MOC to changes in forcing have recently been developed and tested with idealized numerical models. However, the skill of the simple conceptual theories to describe the MOC simulated with higher complexity global models remains largely unknown. In this study, we present a systematic comparison of theoretical and modelled sensitivity of the MOC and associated deep ocean stratification to vertical mixing and southern hemisphere westerlies. The results show that theories that simplify the ocean into a single-basin, zonally-symmetric box are generally in a good agreement with a realistic, global ocean circulation model. Some disagreement occurs in the abyssal ocean, where complex bottom topography is not taken into account by simple theories. Distinct regimes, where the MOC has a different sensitivity to wind or mixing, as predicted by simple theories, are also clearly shown by the global ocean model. The sensitivity of the Indo-Pacific, Atlantic, and global basins is analysed separately to validate the conceptual understanding of the upper and lower overturning cells in the theory.

  2. Seasonal Variability of Salt Transports in the Northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, J. M.; Bulusu, S.

    2016-02-01

    Due to limited observational data in the Indian Ocean compared to other regions of the global ocean, past work on the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO) has relied heavily upon model analysis to study the variability of regional salinity advection caused by the monsoon seasons. With the launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite in 2009 and the Aquarius SAC-D mission in 2011 (ended on June 7, 2011), remotely sensed, synoptic scale sea surface salinity (SSS) data is now readily available to study this dynamic region. The new observational data has allowed us to revisit the region to analyze seasonal variability of salinity advection in the NIO using several modeled products, the Aquarius and SMOS satellites, and Argo floats data. The model simulations include the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO2), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ECMWF-ORSA4), Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) Reanalysis, and HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Our analyses of salinity at the surface and at depths up to 200 m, surface salt transport in the top 5 m layer, and depth-integrated salt transports revealed different salinity processes in the NIO that are dominantly related to the semi-annual monsoons. Aquarius and SMOS prove useful tools for observing this dynamic region, and reveal some aspects of SSS that Argo cannot resolve. Meridional depth-integrated salt transports using the modeled products along 6°N revealed dominant advective processes from the surface towards near-bottom depths. Finally, a difference in subsurface salinity stratification causes many of the modeled products to incorrectly estimate the magnitude and seasonality of NIO barrier layer thickness (BLT) when compared to the Argo solution. This problem is also evident in model output from the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR), a region with strong air-sea teleconnections with the Arabian Sea.

  3. Comparison of Two Global Ocean Reanalyses, NRL Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS) and U. Maryland Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, J. G.; Shriver, J. F.; Metzger, E. J.; Hogan, P. J.; Smedstad, O. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Oceanography Division of the Naval Research Laboratory recently completed a 23-year (1993-2015) coupled ocean-sea ice reanalysis forced by NCEP CFS reanalysis fluxes. The reanalysis uses the Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS) framework of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and the Los Alamos Community Ice CodE (CICE) and the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation 3D Var system (NCODA). The ocean model has 41 layers and an equatorial resolution of 0.08° (8.8 km) on a tri-polar grid with the sea ice model on the same grid that reduces to 3.5 km at the North Pole. Sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and temperature-salinity profile data are assimilated into the ocean every day. The SSH anomalies are converted into synthetic profiles of temperature and salinity prior to assimilation. Incremental analysis updating of geostrophically balanced increments is performed over a 6-hour insertion window. Sea ice concentration is assimilated into the sea ice model every day. Following the lead of the Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP), the monthly mean upper ocean heat and salt content from the surface to 300 m, 700m and 1500 m, the mixed layer depth, the depth of the 20°C isotherm, the steric sea surface height and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation for the GOFS reanalysis and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA 3.3.1) eddy-permitting reanalysis have been compared on a global uniform 0.5° grid. The differences between the two ocean reanalyses in heat and salt content increase with increasing integration depth. Globally, GOFS trends to be colder than SODA at all depth. Warming trends are observed at all depths over the 23 year period. The correlation of the upper ocean heat content is significant above 700 m. Prior to 2004, differences in the data assimilated lead to larger biases. The GOFS reanalysis assimilates SSH as profile data, while SODA doesn't. Large differences are found in the Western Boundary Currents

  4. Including eddies in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semtner, Albert J.; Chervin, Robert M.

    The ocean is a turbulent fluid that is driven by winds and by surface exchanges of heat and moisture. It is as important as the atmosphere in governing climate through heat distribution, but so little is known about the ocean that it remains a “final frontier” on the face of the Earth. Many ocean currents are truly global in extent, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the “conveyor belt” that connects the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans by flows around the southern tips of Africa and South America. It has long been a dream of some oceanographers to supplement the very limited observational knowledge by reconstructing the currents of the world ocean from the first principles of physics on a computer. However, until very recently, the prospect of doing this was thwarted by the fact that fluctuating currents known as “mesoscale eddies” could not be explicitly included in the calculation.

  5. A Coupled Ocean General Circulation, Biogeochemical, and Radiative Model of the Global Oceans: Seasonal Distributions of Ocean Chlorophyll and Nutrients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Busalacchi, Antonio (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ocean general circulation, biogeochemical, and radiative model was constructed to evaluate and understand the nature of seasonal variability of chlorophyll and nutrients in the global oceans. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the influences of circulation and turbulence dynamics, irradiance availability. and the interactions among three functional phytoplankton groups (diatoms. chlorophytes, and picoplankton) and three nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and silicate). Basin scale (greater than 1000 km) model chlorophyll results are in overall agreement with CZCS pigments in many global regions. Seasonal variability observed in the CZCS is also represented in the model. Synoptic scale (100-1000 km) comparisons of imagery are generally in conformance although occasional departures are apparent. Model nitrate distributions agree with in situ data, including seasonal dynamics, except for the equatorial Atlantic. The overall agreement of the model with satellite and in situ data sources indicates that the model dynamics offer a reasonably realistic simulation of phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics on synoptic scales. This is especially true given that initial conditions are homogenous chlorophyll fields. The success of the model in producing a reasonable representation of chlorophyll and nutrient distributions and seasonal variability in the global oceans is attributed to the application of a generalized, processes-driven approach as opposed to regional parameterization and the existence of multiple phytoplankton groups with different physiological and physical properties. These factors enable the model to simultaneously represent many aspects of the great diversity of physical, biological, chemical, and radiative environments encountered in the global oceans.

  6. Southern Ocean bottom water characteristics in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuzé, CéLine; Heywood, Karen J.; Stevens, David P.; Ridley, Jeff K.

    2013-04-01

    Southern Ocean deep water properties and formation processes in climate models are indicative of their capability to simulate future climate, heat and carbon uptake, and sea level rise. Southern Ocean temperature and density averaged over 1986-2005 from 15 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) climate models are compared with an observed climatology, focusing on bottom water. Bottom properties are reasonably accurate for half the models. Ten models create dense water on the Antarctic shelf, but it mixes with lighter water and is not exported as bottom water as in reality. Instead, most models create deep water by open ocean deep convection, a process occurring rarely in reality. Models with extensive deep convection are those with strong seasonality in sea ice. Optimum bottom properties occur in models with deep convection in the Weddell and Ross Gyres. Bottom Water formation processes are poorly represented in ocean models and are a key challenge for improving climate predictions.

  7. Validation of Salinity Data from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius Satellites in the Agulhas Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, N.

    2016-02-01

    The Agulhas Current System is an important western boundary current, particularly due to its vital role in the transport of heat and salt from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean, such as through Agulhas rings. Accurate measurements of salinity are necessary for assessing the role of the Agulhas Current System and these rings in the global climate system are necessary. With ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Aquarius/SAC-D satellites, we now have complete spatial and temporal (since 2009 and 2011, respectively) coverage of salinity data. To use this data to understand the role of the Agulhas Current System in the context of salinity within the global climate system, we must first understand validate the satellite data using in situ and model comparisons. In situ comparisons are important because of the accuracy, but they lack in the spatial and temporal coverage to validate the satellite data. For example, there are approximately 100 floats in the Agulhas Return Current. Therefore, model comparisons, such as the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), are used along with the in situ data for the validation. For the validation, the satellite data, Argo float data, and HYCOM simulations were compared within box regions both inside and outside of the Agulhas Current. These boxed regions include the main Agulhas Current, Agulhas Return Current, Agulhas Retroflection, and Agulhas rings, as well as a low salinity and high salinity region outside of the current system. This analysis reveals the accuracy of the salinity measurements from the Aquarius/SAC-D and SMOS satellites within the Agulhas Current, which then provides accurate salinity data that can then be used to understand the role of the Agulhas Current System in the global climate system.

  8. Biogeochemical modelling of dissolved oxygen in a changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Oliver; Buitenhuis, Erik; Le Quéré, Corinne; Suntharalingam, Parvadha

    2017-09-13

    Secular decreases in dissolved oxygen concentration have been observed within the tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and at mid- to high latitudes over the last approximately 50 years. Earth system model projections indicate that a reduction in the oxygen inventory of the global ocean, termed ocean deoxygenation, is a likely consequence of on-going anthropogenic warming. Current models are, however, unable to consistently reproduce the observed trends and variability of recent decades, particularly within the established tropical OMZs. Here, we conduct a series of targeted hindcast model simulations using a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemistry model in order to explore and review biases in model distributions of oceanic oxygen. We show that the largest magnitude of uncertainty is entrained into ocean oxygen response patterns due to model parametrization of p CO 2 -sensitive C : N ratios in carbon fixation and imposed atmospheric forcing data. Inclusion of a p CO 2 -sensitive C : N ratio drives historical oxygen depletion within the ocean interior due to increased organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization. Atmospheric forcing is shown to influence simulated interannual variability in ocean oxygen, particularly due to differences in imposed variability of wind stress and heat fluxes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Biogeochemical modelling of dissolved oxygen in a changing ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Oliver; Buitenhuis, Erik; Le Quéré, Corinne; Suntharalingam, Parvadha

    2017-08-01

    Secular decreases in dissolved oxygen concentration have been observed within the tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and at mid- to high latitudes over the last approximately 50 years. Earth system model projections indicate that a reduction in the oxygen inventory of the global ocean, termed ocean deoxygenation, is a likely consequence of on-going anthropogenic warming. Current models are, however, unable to consistently reproduce the observed trends and variability of recent decades, particularly within the established tropical OMZs. Here, we conduct a series of targeted hindcast model simulations using a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemistry model in order to explore and review biases in model distributions of oceanic oxygen. We show that the largest magnitude of uncertainty is entrained into ocean oxygen response patterns due to model parametrization of pCO2-sensitive C : N ratios in carbon fixation and imposed atmospheric forcing data. Inclusion of a pCO2-sensitive C : N ratio drives historical oxygen depletion within the ocean interior due to increased organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization. Atmospheric forcing is shown to influence simulated interannual variability in ocean oxygen, particularly due to differences in imposed variability of wind stress and heat fluxes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  10. Ocean Modeling and Visualization on Massively Parallel Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Yi; Li, P. Peggy; Wang, Ping; Katz, Daniel S.; Cheng, Benny N.

    1997-01-01

    Climate modeling is one of the grand challenges of computational science, and ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change.

  11. Toward An Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum In Global Ocean Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-14

    advection, thus capturing the full range of nonlinear effects at the expense of identifying specific interactions in detail. We will compute horizontal...spectrum [Garrett and Munk, 1975]. At some locations, HYCOM25 displays peaks at frequencies of 2f and f+ωM2 (f refers to the Coriolis frequency and...specified. By definition , the resulting wave fulfills k3 = k1 ± k2 and ω3 =ω1 ±ω2. Note that Figure 4a is schematic in nature—for simplicity, we have not

  12. Adaptation of a general circulation model to ocean dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Rees, T. H.; Woodbury, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    A primitive-variable general circulation model of the ocean was formulated in which fast external gravity waves are suppressed with rigid-lid surface constraint pressires which also provide a means for simulating the effects of large-scale free-surface topography. The surface pressure method is simpler to apply than the conventional stream function models, and the resulting model can be applied to both global ocean and limited region situations. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are also presented.

  13. Coupled atmosphere-ocean models of Titan's past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Courtin, Regis

    1993-01-01

    The behavior and possible past evolution of fully coupled atmosphere and ocean model of Titan are investigated. It is found that Titan's surface temperature was about 20 K cooler at 4 Gyr ago and will be about 5 K warmer 0.5 Gyr in the future. The change in solar luminosity and the conversion of oceanic CH4 to C2H6 drive the evolution of the ocean and atmosphere over time. Titan appears to have experienced a frozen epoch about 3 Gyr ago independent of whether an ocean is present or not. This finding may have important implications for understanding the inventory of Titan's volatile compounds.

  14. A simple model of the effect of ocean ventilation on ocean heat uptake

    SciT

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Urban, Nathan Mark

    Presentation includes slides on Earth System Models vs. Simple Climate Models; A Popular SCM: Energy Balance Model of Anomalies; On calibrating against one ESM experiment, the SCM correctly captures that ESM's surface warming response with other forcings; Multi-Model Analysis: Multiple ESMs, Single SCM; Posterior Distributions of ECS; However In Excess of 90% of TOA Energy Imbalance is Sequestered in the World Oceans; Heat Storage in the Two Layer Model; Heat Storage in the Two Layer Model; Including TOA Rad. Imbalance and Ocean Heat in Calibration Improves Repr., but Significant Errors Persist; Improved Vertical Resolution Does Not Fix Problem; A Seriesmore » of Expts. Confirms That Anomaly-Diffusing Models Cannot Properly Represent Ocean Heat Uptake; Physics of the Thermocline; Outcropping Isopycnals and Horizontally-Averaged Layers; Local interactions between outcropping isopycnals leads to non-local interactions between horizontally-averaged layers; Both Surface Warming and Ocean Heat are Well Represented With Just 4 Layers; A Series of Expts. Confirms That When Non-Local Interactions are Allowed, the SCMs Can Represent Both Surface Warming and Ocean Heat Uptake; and Summary and Conclusions.« less

  15. Advancing coastal ocean modelling, analysis, and prediction for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Wilkin, John L.; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Allen, Arthur; Baltes, Rebecca; Baptista, Antonio; He, Ruoying; Hogan, Patrick; Kurapov, Alexander; Mehra, Avichal; Quintrell, Josie; Schwab, David; Signell, Richard; Smith, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines strategies that would advance coastal ocean modelling, analysis and prediction as a complement to the observing and data management activities of the coastal components of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). The views presented are the consensus of a group of US-based researchers with a cross-section of coastal oceanography and ocean modelling expertise and community representation drawn from Regional and US Federal partners in IOOS. Priorities for research and development are suggested that would enhance the value of IOOS observations through model-based synthesis, deliver better model-based information products, and assist the design, evaluation, and operation of the observing system itself. The proposed priorities are: model coupling, data assimilation, nearshore processes, cyberinfrastructure and model skill assessment, modelling for observing system design, evaluation and operation, ensemble prediction, and fast predictors. Approaches are suggested to accomplish substantial progress in a 3–8-year timeframe. In addition, the group proposes steps to promote collaboration between research and operations groups in Regional Associations, US Federal Agencies, and the international ocean research community in general that would foster coordination on scientific and technical issues, and strengthen federal–academic partnerships benefiting IOOS stakeholders and end users.

  16. Ocean modelling on the CYBER 205 at GFDL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, M.

    1984-01-01

    At the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, research is carried out for the purpose of understanding various aspects of climate, such as its variability, predictability, stability and sensitivity. The atmosphere and oceans are modelled mathematically and their phenomenology studied by computer simulation methods. The present state-of-the-art in the computer simulation of large scale oceans on the CYBER 205 is discussed. While atmospheric modelling differs in some aspects, the basic approach used is similar. The equations of the ocean model are presented along with a short description of the numerical techniques used to find their solution. Computational considerations and a typical solution are presented in section 4.

  17. The Spectral Ocean Wave Model (SOWM), a Northern Hemisphere Computer Model for Specifying and Forecasting Ocean Wave Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    directions. SIGNIFICANT WAVE HEIGHT A further sua-tion of (3) over the 15 frequency bands yields, within a linear model , the variance of a time history of...SPECTRAL Of.EAN WAVE MODEL (SOWM), A NORTHERN Final Report HEMtISPHEE COMPUTER MODELL Foyt SPECIFYING AND FORECASTING OCEAN WAVE .SftfTRA S EFRIGOG...Ocean Wave Model (SWM() In use at the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center si.nce 1974 has been used to produce spectra for a 20- year ocean wave

  18. Developing an Automated Method for Detection of Operationally Relevant Ocean Fronts and Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers-Cotrone, J. D.; Cadden, D. D. H.; Rivera, P.; Wynn, L. L.

    2016-02-01

    Since the early 90's, the U.S. Navy has utilized an observation-based process for identification of frontal systems and eddies. These Ocean Feature Assessments (OFA) rely on trained analysts to identify and position ocean features using satellite-observed sea surface temperatures. Meanwhile, as enhancements and expansion of the navy's Hybrid Coastal Ocean Model (HYCOM) and Regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (RNCOM) domains have proceeded, the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) has provided Tactical Oceanographic Feature Assessments (TOFA) that are based on data-validated model output but also rely on analyst identification of significant features. A recently completed project has migrated OFA production to the ArcGIS-based Acoustic Reach-back Cell Ocean Analysis Suite (ARCOAS), enabling use of additional observational datasets and significantly decreasing production time; however, it has highlighted inconsistencies inherent to this analyst-based identification process. Current efforts are focused on development of an automated method for detecting operationally significant fronts and eddies that integrates model output and observational data on a global scale. Previous attempts to employ techniques from the scientific community have been unable to meet the production tempo at NAVO. Thus, a system that incorporates existing techniques (Marr-Hildreth, Okubo-Weiss, etc.) with internally-developed feature identification methods (from model-derived physical and acoustic properties) is required. Ongoing expansions to the ARCOAS toolset have shown promising early results.

  19. A simple model of the effect of ocean ventilation on ocean heat uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiga, Balu; Urban, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    Transport of water from the surface mixed layer into the ocean interior is achieved, in large part, by the process of ventilation-a process associated with outcropping isopycnals. Starting from such a configuration of outcropping isopycnals, we derive a simple model of the effect of ventilation on ocean uptake of anomalous radiative forcing. This model can be seen as an improvement of the popular anomaly-diffusing class of energy balance models (AD-EBM) that are routinely employed to analyze and emulate the warming response of both observed and simulated Earth system. We demonstrate that neither multi-layer, nor continuous-diffusion AD-EBM variants can properly represent both surface-warming and the vertical distribution of ocean heat uptake. The new model overcomes this deficiency. The simplicity of the models notwithstanding, the analysis presented and the necessity of the modification is indicative of the role played by processes related to the down-welling branch of global ocean circulation in shaping the vertical distribution of ocean heat uptake.

  20. Satellite and Ocean Model Analysis of Thermal Conditions Affecting Coral Reefs in the Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Delgado, Z.; Ummenhofer, C.; Swales, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    Corals are thought to be one of the smallest yet most productive ecosystems in the world. They have great economic and ecological value, but are increasingly affected by anthropogenic, biological and physical threats, such as a rise in sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification due to an increase in CO2 in the atmosphere, among other factors. Here, specific events are investigated that likely exerted significant stress on corals, focusing particularly on unusual climatic conditions in the Western Indian Ocean during the 2001 to 2007 period as reflected by anomalies in degree heating weeks, hotspots and SST. Anomalous conditions in subsurface temperatures and mixed layer depth across the Indian Ocean region are also examined. We do this by using monthly, year-to-date, and annual composites of twice-weekly 50-km satellite coral bleaching monitoring products from the NOAA Coral Reef Watch and complementing it with output from a high-resolution global ocean model hindcast (1948-2007) forced with observed atmospheric forcing. Two years stand out in our analysis for the satellite data and model output: 2003 and 2005 exhibit strong warming in the Western Indian Ocean and cooling in the East. To establish the physical mechanisms giving rise to the unusual conditions and hotspot origins in 2003 and 2005 we also evaluate regional circulation changes in the Western Indian Ocean.

  1. Scripps Ocean Modeling and Remote Sensing (SOMARS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-10

    1990: Satellite derived estimates of the normal and tangential components of near-surface flow. Internat. J. Rem. Sens., submitted. Mr. Timothy ... Gallaudet - M.S,. in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Sciences (Naval student; not a terminal M.S. degree) Thesis Advisor: Topic will relate to AVIIRR analyses of

  2. Modeling water clarity in oceans and coasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In oceans and coastal waters, phytoplankton is the primary producer of organic compounds which form the base for the food chain. The concentration of phytoplankton is a major factor controlling water clarity and the depth to which light penetrates in the water column. The light i...

  3. A regional ocean model for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region to assess the risk of storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natoo, N.; Paul, A.; Hadfield, M.; Jendersie, S.; Bornman, J.; de Lange, W.; Ye, W.; Schulz, M.

    2012-04-01

    New Zealand's coasts are not only affected by mid-latitude storms, but infrequently also by storms that originate from the tropics. Projections for the southern hemisphere's southwest Pacific island countries for the 21st century show a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks, which consequently might result in changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns. Furthermore, an increase in frequency of intense storms is expected for the New Zealand region, which will very likely increase the risk of storm surges and flooding of coastal and low-lying regions. We employ the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to assess the changes in the storm climate of the New Zealand region. The model set-up uses a resolution of ~50 km for the Southwest Pacific Ocean "parent domain" and ~10 km for the New Zealand "child domain", to well represent the major eddies that influence the climate of North Island. With the aim to later utilize this nested ocean model set-up as part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region, results for the 20th century will be presented. The simulated circulation is shown to be largely consistent with the observed regional oceanography.

  4. Simulated and Observed Circulation in the Indonesian Seas: 1/12 deg Global HYCOM and the INSTANT Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    for inter- basin exchange, including the net throughflow transport. The simulated total ITF transport (-13.4 Sv) is similar to the observational...May 2004 and 2005, November 2004, 2005 and 2006) appear to be associated with coastally-trapped Kelvin waves propagating eastward along Sumatra coast...in global HYCOM, this submerged multi-passage plateau causes the flow to separate into three branches, an eastern and central branch that feeds the

  5. Intraseasonal and interannual oscillations in coupled ocean-atmosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirst, Anthony C.; Lau, K.-M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation is presented of coupled ocean-atmosphere models' behavior in an environment where atmospheric wave speeds are substantially reduced from dry atmospheric values by such processes as condensation-moisture convergence. Modes are calculated for zonally periodic, unbounded ocean-atmosphere systems, emphasizing the importance of an inclusion of prognostic atmosphere equations in simple coupled ocean-atmosphere models with a view to simulations of intraseasonal variability and its possible interaction with interannual variability. The dynamics of low and high frequency modes are compared; both classes are sensitive to the degree to which surface wind anomalies are able to affect the evaporation rate.

  6. Characteristics of the ocean simulations in the Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPIOM) the ocean component of the MPI-Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Fischer, N.; Haak, H.; Lohmann, K.; Marotzke, J.; Matei, D.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Notz, D.; von Storch, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    MPI-ESM is a new version of the global Earth system model developed at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. This paper describes the ocean state and circulation as well as basic aspects of variability in simulations contributing to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The performance of the ocean/sea-ice model MPIOM, coupled to a new version of the atmosphere model ECHAM6 and modules for land surface and ocean biogeochemistry, is assessed for two model versions with different grid resolution in the ocean. The low-resolution configuration has a nominal resolution of 1.5°, whereas the higher resolution version features a quasiuniform, eddy-permitting global resolution of 0.4°. The paper focuses on important oceanic features, such as surface temperature and salinity, water mass distribution, large-scale circulation, and heat and freshwater transports. In general, these integral quantities are simulated well in comparison with observational estimates, and improvements in comparison with the predecessor system are documented; for example, for tropical variability and sea ice representation. Introducing an eddy-permitting grid configuration in the ocean leads to improvements, in particular, in the representation of interior water mass properties in the Atlantic and in the representation of important ocean currents, such as the Agulhas and Equatorial current systems. In general, however, there are more similarities than differences between the two grid configurations, and several shortcomings, known from earlier versions of the coupled model, prevail.

  7. Advances in a distributed approach for ocean model data interoperability

    Signell, Richard P.; Snowden, Derrick P.

    2014-01-01

    An infrastructure for earth science data is emerging across the globe based on common data models and web services. As we evolve from custom file formats and web sites to standards-based web services and tools, data is becoming easier to distribute, find and retrieve, leaving more time for science. We describe recent advances that make it easier for ocean model providers to share their data, and for users to search, access, analyze and visualize ocean data using MATLAB® and Python®. These include a technique for modelers to create aggregated, Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention datasets from collections of non-standard Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) output files, the capability to remotely access data from CF-1.6-compliant NetCDF files using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Observation Service (SOS), a metadata standard for unstructured grid model output (UGRID), and tools that utilize both CF and UGRID standards to allow interoperable data search, browse and access. We use examples from the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed, a project in which modelers using both structured and unstructured grid model output needed to share their results, to compare their results with other models, and to compare models with observed data. The same techniques used here for ocean modeling output can be applied to atmospheric and climate model output, remote sensing data, digital terrain and bathymetric data.

  8. Investigation of land ice-ocean interaction with a fully coupled ice-ocean model: 1. Model description and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Little, C. M.; Sergienko, O. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Hallberg, R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2012-06-01

    Antarctic ice shelves interact closely with the ocean cavities beneath them, with ice shelf geometry influencing ocean cavity circulation, and heat from the ocean driving changes in the ice shelves, as well as the grounded ice streams that feed them. We present a new coupled model of an ice stream-ice shelf-ocean system that is used to study this interaction. The model is capable of representing a moving grounding line and dynamically responding ocean circulation within the ice shelf cavity. Idealized experiments designed to investigate the response of the coupled system to instantaneous increases in ocean temperature show ice-ocean system responses on multiple timescales. Melt rates and ice shelf basal slopes near the grounding line adjust in 1-2 years, and downstream advection of the resulting ice shelf thinning takes place on decadal timescales. Retreat of the grounding line and adjustment of grounded ice takes place on a much longer timescale, and the system takes several centuries to reach a new steady state. During this slow retreat, and in the absence of either an upward-or downward-sloping bed or long-term trends in ocean heat content, the ice shelf and melt rates maintain a characteristic pattern relative to the grounding line.

  9. Multi-property modeling of ocean basin carbon fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to elucidate the causal mechanisms in some of the most important features of the global ocean/atomsphere carbon system. These included the interaction of physical and biological processes in the seasonal cycle of surface water pCo2, and links between productivity, surface chlorophyll, and the carbon cycle that would aid global modeling efforts. In addition, several other areas of critical scientific interest involving links between the marine biosphere and the global carbon cycle were successfully pursued; specifically, a possible relation between phytoplankton emitted DMS and climate, and a relation between the location of calcium carbonate burial in the ocean and metamorphic source fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere. Six published papers covering the following topics are summarized: (1) Mass extinctions, atmospheric sulphur and climatic warming at the K/T boundary; (2) Sensitivity of climate and atmospheric CO2 to deep-ocean and shallow-ocean carbonate burial; (3) Controls on CO2 sources and sinks in the earthscale surface ocean; (4) pre-anthropogenic, earthscale patterns of delta pCO2 between ocean and atmosphere; (5) Effect on atmospheric CO2 from seasonal variations in the high latitude ocean; and (6) Limitations or relating ocean surface chlorophyll to productivity.

  10. Optimal Combining Data for Improving Ocean Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    hyperbolic or elliptic) and on the Hurst exponent characterizing the dynamics type (local or non-local). 3. Fusion data for estimating RD. Theoretical...1) RD vs time and different values of Hurst exponent h = 0.1 (black), h = 1 (red), h = 2 (blue) γ = 0.1,Ω = 0, 2) Same for γ = 0.1,Ω = 2 ). 3...accurate estimating the upper ocean velocity field and mixing characteristics such as relative dispersion and finite size Lyapunov exponent , (2

  11. Southern Ocean Bottom Water Characteristics in CMIP5 Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuzé, Céline; Heywood, Karen; Stevens, David; Ridley, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    The depiction of Southern Ocean deep water properties and formation processes in climate models is an indicator of their capability to simulate future climate, heat and carbon uptake, and sea level rise. Southern Ocean potential temperature and density averaged over 1986-2005 from fifteen CMIP5 climate models are compared with an observed climatology, focusing on bottom water properties. The mean bottom properties are reasonably accurate for half of the models, but the other half may not yet have approached an equilibrium state. Eleven models create dense water on the Antarctic shelf, but it does not spill off and propagate northwards, alternatively mixing rapidly with less dense water. Instead most models create deep water by open ocean deep convection. Models with large deep convection areas are those with a strong seasonal cycle in sea ice. The most accurate bottom properties occur in models hosting deep convection in the Weddell and Ross gyres.

  12. OceanNOMADS: A New Distribution Node for Operational Ocean Model Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, S.; Vance, T.; Breckenridge, T.

    2009-12-01

    The NOAA National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) is a distributed, web-services based project providing real-time and retrospective access to climate and weather model data and related datasets. OceanNOMADS is a new NOMADS node dedicated to ocean model and related data, with an initial focus on operational ocean models from NOAA and the U.S. Navy. The node offers data access through a Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) server via the commonly used OPeNDAP protocol. The primary server is operated by the National Coastal Data Development Center and hosted by the Northern Gulf Institute at Stennis Space Center, MS. In cooperation with the National Marine Fisheries Service and Mississippi State University (MSU), a duplicate server is being installed at MSU with a 1-gigabit connection to the National Lambda Rail. This setup will allow us to begin to quantify the benefit of high-speed data connections to scientists needing remote access to these large datasets. Work is also underway on the next generation of services from OceanNOMADS, including user-requested server-side data reformatting, regridding, and aggregation, as well as tools for model-data comparison.

  13. How ocean lateral mixing changes Southern Ocean variability in coupled climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradal, M. A. S.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Thomas, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral mixing of tracers represents a major uncertainty in the formulation of coupled climate models. The mixing of tracers along density surfaces in the interior and horizontally within the mixed layer is often parameterized using a mixing coefficient ARedi. The models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 exhibit more than an order of magnitude range in the values of this coefficient used within the Southern Ocean. The impacts of such uncertainty on Southern Ocean variability have remained unclear, even as recent work has shown that this variability differs between different models. In this poster, we change the lateral mixing coefficient within GFDL ESM2Mc, a coarse-resolution Earth System model that nonetheless has a reasonable circulation within the Southern Ocean. As the coefficient varies from 400 to 2400 m2/s the amplitude of the variability varies significantly. The low-mixing case shows strong decadal variability with an annual mean RMS temperature variability exceeding 1C in the Circumpolar Current. The highest-mixing case shows a very similar spatial pattern of variability, but with amplitudes only about 60% as large. The suppression of mixing is larger in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean relatively to the Pacific sector. We examine the salinity budgets of convective regions, paying particular attention to the extent to which high mixing prevents the buildup of low-saline waters that are capable of shutting off deep convection entirely.

  14. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    major contributors to the strength of the Gulf Stream, (1) the wind forcing, (2) the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), and (3) a...convergence and sensitivity studies with North Atlantic circulation models. Part I. The western boundary current system. Ocean Model., 16, 141-159...a baroclinic version of ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC), the latter an unstructured grid model for baroclinic coastal/estuarian applications. NCOM is

  15. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  16. A generalized multivariate regression model for modelling ocean wave heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Feng, Y.; Swail, V. R.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a generalized multivariate linear regression model is developed to represent the relationship between 6-hourly ocean significant wave heights (Hs) and the corresponding 6-hourly mean sea level pressure (MSLP) fields. The model is calibrated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and MSLP fields for 1981-2000, and is validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 2001-2010 and ERA40 reanalysis of Hs and MSLP for 1958-2001. The performance of the fitted model is evaluated in terms of Pierce skill score, frequency bias index, and correlation skill score. Being not normally distributed, wave heights are subjected to a data adaptive Box-Cox transformation before being used in the model fitting. Also, since 6-hourly data are being modelled, lag-1 autocorrelation must be and is accounted for. The models with and without Box-Cox transformation, and with and without accounting for autocorrelation, are inter-compared in terms of their prediction skills. The fitted MSLP-Hs relationship is then used to reconstruct historical wave height climate from the 6-hourly MSLP fields taken from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011), and to project possible future wave height climates using CMIP5 model simulations of MSLP fields. The reconstructed and projected wave heights, both seasonal means and maxima, are subject to a trend analysis that allows for non-linear (polynomial) trends.

  17. Ocean biogeochemistry modeled with emergent trait-based genomics.

    PubMed

    Coles, V J; Stukel, M R; Brooks, M T; Burd, A; Crump, B C; Moran, M A; Paul, J H; Satinsky, B M; Yager, P L; Zielinski, B L; Hood, R R

    2017-12-01

    Marine ecosystem models have advanced to incorporate metabolic pathways discovered with genomic sequencing, but direct comparisons between models and "omics" data are lacking. We developed a model that directly simulates metagenomes and metatranscriptomes for comparison with observations. Model microbes were randomly assigned genes for specialized functions, and communities of 68 species were simulated in the Atlantic Ocean. Unfit organisms were replaced, and the model self-organized to develop community genomes and transcriptomes. Emergent communities from simulations that were initialized with different cohorts of randomly generated microbes all produced realistic vertical and horizontal ocean nutrient, genome, and transcriptome gradients. Thus, the library of gene functions available to the community, rather than the distribution of functions among specific organisms, drove community assembly and biogeochemical gradients in the model ocean. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Ocean biogeochemistry modeled with emergent trait-based genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, V. J.; Stukel, M. R.; Brooks, M. T.; Burd, A.; Crump, B. C.; Moran, M. A.; Paul, J. H.; Satinsky, B. M.; Yager, P. L.; Zielinski, B. L.; Hood, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Marine ecosystem models have advanced to incorporate metabolic pathways discovered with genomic sequencing, but direct comparisons between models and “omics” data are lacking. We developed a model that directly simulates metagenomes and metatranscriptomes for comparison with observations. Model microbes were randomly assigned genes for specialized functions, and communities of 68 species were simulated in the Atlantic Ocean. Unfit organisms were replaced, and the model self-organized to develop community genomes and transcriptomes. Emergent communities from simulations that were initialized with different cohorts of randomly generated microbes all produced realistic vertical and horizontal ocean nutrient, genome, and transcriptome gradients. Thus, the library of gene functions available to the community, rather than the distribution of functions among specific organisms, drove community assembly and biogeochemical gradients in the model ocean.

  19. Near Field Ocean Surface Waves Acoustic Radiation Observation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, F.; Peureux, C.; Royer, J. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The acoustic noise generation by nonlinearly interacting surface gravity waves has been studied for a long time both theoretically and experimentally [Longuet-Higgins 1951]. The associated far field noise is continuously measured by a vast network of seismometers at the ocean bottom and on the continents. It can especially be used to infer the time variability of short ocean waves statistics [Peureux and Ardhuin 2016]. However, better quantitative estimates of the latter are made difficult due to a poor knowledge of the Earth's crust characteristics, whose coupling with acoustic modes can affect large uncertainties to the frequency response at the bottom of the ocean.The pressure field at depths less than an acoustic wave length to the surface is made of evanescent modes which vanish away from their sources (near field) [Cox and Jacobs 1989]. For this reason, they are less affected by the ocean bottom composition. This near field is recorded and analyzed in the frequency range 0.1 to 0.5 Hz approximately, at two locations : at a shallow site in the North-East Atlantic continental shelf and a deep water site in the Southern Indian ocean, where pressure measurements are performed at the ocean bottom (ca. 100 m) and at 300 m water depth respectively. Evanescent and propagating Rayleigh modes are compared against theoretical predictions. Comparisons against surface waves hindcast based on WAVEWATCH(R) III modeling framework help assessing its performances and can be used to help future model improvements.References Longuet-Higgins, M. S., A Theory of the Origin of Microseisms, Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A, 1950, 243, 1-3. Peureux, C. and Ardhuin, F., Ocean bottom pressure records from the Cascadia array and short surface gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 2016, 121, 2862-2873. Cox, C. S. & Jacobs, D. C., Cartesian diver observations of double frequency pressure fluctuations in the upper levels of the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1989, 16, 807-810.

  20. Stochastic Ocean Eddy Perturbations in a Coupled General Circulation Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, N.; Williams, P. D.; Gregory, J. M.; Smith, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution ocean models, which are eddy permitting and resolving, require large computing resources to produce centuries worth of data. Also, some previous studies have suggested that increasing resolution does not necessarily solve the problem of unresolved scales, because it simply introduces a new set of unresolved scales. Applying stochastic parameterisations to ocean models is one solution that is expected to improve the representation of small-scale (eddy) effects without increasing run-time. Stochastic parameterisation has been shown to have an impact in atmosphere-only models and idealised ocean models, but has not previously been studied in ocean general circulation models. Here we apply simple stochastic perturbations to the ocean temperature and salinity tendencies in the low-resolution coupled climate model, FAMOUS. The stochastic perturbations are implemented according to T(t) = T(t-1) + (ΔT(t) + ξ(t)), where T is temperature or salinity, ΔT is the corresponding deterministic increment in one time step, and ξ(t) is Gaussian noise. We use high-resolution HiGEM data coarse-grained to the FAMOUS grid to provide information about the magnitude and spatio-temporal correlation structure of the noise to be added to the lower resolution model. Here we present results of adding white and red noise, showing the impacts of an additive stochastic perturbation on mean climate state and variability in an AOGCM.

  1. Parallel Computation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    SciT

    Wang, P; Song, Y T; Chao, Y

    2005-04-05

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is a regional ocean general circulation modeling system solving the free surface, hydrostatic, primitive equations over varying topography. It is free software distributed world-wide for studying both complex coastal ocean problems and the basin-to-global scale ocean circulation. The original ROMS code could only be run on shared-memory systems. With the increasing need to simulate larger model domains with finer resolutions and on a variety of computer platforms, there is a need in the ocean-modeling community to have a ROMS code that can be run on any parallel computer ranging from 10 to hundreds ofmore » processors. Recently, we have explored parallelization for ROMS using the MPI programming model. In this paper, an efficient parallelization strategy for such a large-scale scientific software package, based on an existing shared-memory computing model, is presented. In addition, scientific applications and data-performance issues on a couple of SGI systems, including Columbia, the world's third-fastest supercomputer, are discussed.« less

  2. Vertical resolution of baroclinic modes in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, K. D.; Hogg, A. McC.; Griffies, S. M.; Heerdegen, A. P.; Ward, M. L.; Spence, P.; England, M. H.

    2017-05-01

    Improvements in the horizontal resolution of global ocean models, motivated by the horizontal resolution requirements for specific flow features, has advanced modelling capabilities into the dynamical regime dominated by mesoscale variability. In contrast, the choice of the vertical grid remains a subjective choice, and it is not clear that efforts to improve vertical resolution adequately support their horizontal counterparts. Indeed, considering that the bulk of the vertical ocean dynamics (including convection) are parameterized, it is not immediately obvious what the vertical grid is supposed to resolve. Here, we propose that the primary purpose of the vertical grid in a hydrostatic ocean model is to resolve the vertical structure of horizontal flows, rather than to resolve vertical motion. With this principle we construct vertical grids based on their abilities to represent baroclinic modal structures commensurate with the theoretical capabilities of a given horizontal grid. This approach is designed to ensure that the vertical grids of global ocean models complement (and, importantly, to not undermine) the resolution capabilities of the horizontal grid. We find that for z-coordinate global ocean models, at least 50 well-positioned vertical levels are required to resolve the first baroclinic mode, with an additional 25 levels per subsequent mode. High-resolution ocean-sea ice simulations are used to illustrate some of the dynamical enhancements gained by improving the vertical resolution of a 1/10° global ocean model. These enhancements include substantial increases in the sea surface height variance (∼30% increase south of 40°S), the barotropic and baroclinic eddy kinetic energies (up to 200% increase on and surrounding the Antarctic continental shelf and slopes), and the overturning streamfunction in potential density space (near-tripling of the Antarctic Bottom Water cell at 65°S).

  3. Submesoscale Flows and Mixing in the Oceanic Surface Layer Using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    continuation of the evolution of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) as a multi-scale, multi-process model and its utilization for...hydrostatic component of ROMS (Kanarska et al., 2007) is required to increase its efficiency and generality. The non-hydrostatic ROMS involves the solution...instability and wind-driven mixing. For the computational regime where those processes can be partially, but not yet fully resolved, it will

  4. On the assimilation of absolute geodetic dynamic topography in a global ocean model: impact on the deep ocean state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androsov, Alexey; Nerger, Lars; Schnur, Reiner; Schröter, Jens; Albertella, Alberta; Rummel, Reiner; Savcenko, Roman; Bosch, Wolfgang; Skachko, Sergey; Danilov, Sergey

    2018-05-01

    General ocean circulation models are not perfect. Forced with observed atmospheric fluxes they gradually drift away from measured distributions of temperature and salinity. We suggest data assimilation of absolute dynamical ocean topography (DOT) observed from space geodetic missions as an option to reduce these differences. Sea surface information of DOT is transferred into the deep ocean by defining the analysed ocean state as a weighted average of an ensemble of fully consistent model solutions using an error-subspace ensemble Kalman filter technique. Success of the technique is demonstrated by assimilation into a global configuration of the ocean circulation model FESOM over 1 year. The dynamic ocean topography data are obtained from a combination of multi-satellite altimetry and geoid measurements. The assimilation result is assessed using independent temperature and salinity analysis derived from profiling buoys of the AGRO float data set. The largest impact of the assimilation occurs at the first few analysis steps where both the model ocean topography and the steric height (i.e. temperature and salinity) are improved. The continued data assimilation over 1 year further improves the model state gradually. Deep ocean fields quickly adjust in a sustained manner: A model forecast initialized from the model state estimated by the data assimilation after only 1 month shows that improvements induced by the data assimilation remain in the model state for a long time. Even after 11 months, the modelled ocean topography and temperature fields show smaller errors than the model forecast without any data assimilation.

  5. Modeling dynamics of large tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adcroft, A.; Stern, A. A.; Sergienko, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Large tabular icebergs account for a major fraction of the ice calved from the Antarctic ice shelves, and have long lifetimes due to their size. They drift for long distances, interacting with the local ocean circulation, impacting bottom-water formation, sea-ice formation, and biological productivity in the vicinity of the icebergs. However, due to their large horizontal extent and mass, it is challenging to consistently represent large tabular icebergs in global ocean circulation models and so large tabular icebergs are not currently represented in climate models. In this study we develop a novel framework to model large tabular icebergs submerged in the ocean. In this framework, a tabular iceberg is represented by a collection of Lagrangian elements that are linked through rigid bonds. The Lagrangian elements are finite-area modifications of the point-particles used in previous studies to represent small icebergs. These elements interact with the ocean by exerting pressure on the ocean surface, and through melt water and momentum exchange. A breaking of the rigid bonds allows the model to emulate calving events (i.e. detachment of a tabular iceberg from an ice shelf), and to emulate the breaking up of tabular icebergs into smaller pieces. Idealized simulations of the calving of a tabular iceberg, subsequent drift and breakup, demonstrate the capabilities of the new framework with a promise that climate models may soon be able to represent large tabular icebergs.

  6. Shipborne LF-VLF oceanic lightning observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M. B.; Said, R. K.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 90% of natural lightning occurs over land, but recent observations, using Global Lightning Detection (GLD360) geolocation peak current estimates and satellite optical data, suggested that cloud-to-ground flashes are on average stronger over the ocean. We present initial statistics from a novel experiment using a Low Frequency (LF) magnetic field receiver system installed aboard the National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) Ronald W. Brown research vessel that allowed the detection of impulsive radio emissions from deep-oceanic discharges at short distances. Thousands of LF waveforms were recorded, facilitating the comparison of oceanic waveforms to their land counterparts. A computationally efficient electromagnetic radiation model that accounts for propagation over lossy and curved ground is constructed and compared with previously published models. We include the effects of Earth curvature on LF ground wave propagation and quantify the effects of channel-base current risetime, channel-base current falltime, and return stroke speed on the radiated LF waveforms observed at a given distance. We compare simulation results to data and conclude that previously reported larger GLD360 peak current estimates over the ocean are unlikely to fully result from differences in channel-base current risetime, falltime, or return stroke speed between ocean and land flashes.

  7. Regional Geoid Modeling Compared to Ocean Surface Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Saleh, J.; Wang, Y. M.

    2007-05-01

    Aerogravity over a limited coastal region of the northern Gulf of Mexico enhanced and rectified the local gravity field signal. In turn, these data improved the derived geoid height model based on comparison with dynamic ocean topography (DOT) and tide gage information at eleven stations. Additionally, lidar observations were analyzed along nearly 50 profiles to estimate the reliability of these models into the offshore region. The overall comparison shows dm-level agreement between the various geoid and DOT models and ocean surface observations. An approximate 30 cm bias must still be explained; however, the results of this study point to the potential for further cooperative studies between oceanographers and geodesists.

  8. Surface wind mixing in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Robin; Hartlipp, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Mixing at the ocean surface is key for atmosphere-ocean interactions and the distribution of heat, energy, and gases in the upper ocean. Winds are the primary force for surface mixing. To properly simulate upper ocean dynamics and the flux of these quantities within the upper ocean, models must reproduce mixing in the upper ocean. To evaluate the performance of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in replicating the surface mixing, the results of four different vertical mixing parameterizations were compared against observations, using the surface mixed layer depth, the temperature fields, and observed diffusivities for comparisons. The vertical mixing parameterizations investigated were Mellor- Yamada 2.5 level turbulent closure (MY), Large- McWilliams- Doney Kpp (LMD), Nakanishi- Niino (NN), and the generic length scale (GLS) schemes. This was done for one temperate site in deep water in the Eastern Pacific and three shallow water sites in the Baltic Sea. The model reproduced the surface mixed layer depth reasonably well for all sites; however, the temperature fields were reproduced well for the deep site, but not for the shallow Baltic Sea sites. In the Baltic Sea, the models overmixed the water column after a few days. Vertical temperature diffusivities were higher than those observed and did not show the temporal fluctuations present in the observations. The best performance was by NN and MY; however, MY became unstable in two of the shallow simulations with high winds. The performance of GLS nearly as good as NN and MY. LMD had the poorest performance as it generated temperature diffusivities that were too high and induced too much mixing. Further observational comparisons are needed to evaluate the effects of different stratification and wind conditions and the limitations on the vertical mixing parameterizations.

  9. Refine of Regional Ocean Tide Model Using GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Zhang, P.; Sun, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Zhang, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Due to lack of regional data constraints, all global ocean tide models are not accuracy enough in offshore areas around China, also the displacements predicted by different models are not consistency. The ocean tide loading effects have become a major source of error in the high precision GPS positioning. It is important for high precision GPS applications to build an appropriate regional ocean tide model. We first process the four offshore GPS tracking station's observation data which located in Guangdong province of China by using PPP aproach to get the time series. Then use the spectral inversion method to acquire eigenvalues of the Ocean Tidal Loading. We get the estimated value of not only 12hour period tide wave (M2, S2, N2, K2) but also 24hour period tide wave (O1, K1, P1, Q1) which has not been got in presious studies. The contrast test shows that GPS estimation value of M2, K1 is consistent with the result of five famous glocal ocean load tide models, but S2, N2, K2, O1, P1, Q1 is obviously larger.

  10. Coupled ocean-shelf ecosystem modelling of northern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harle, J.; Holt, J. T.; Butenschön, M.; Allen, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemistry and ecosystems of the open-ocean and shelf seas are intimately connected. For example Northwest European continental shelf receives a substantial fraction of its nutrients from the wider North Atlantic and exports carbon at depth, sequestering it from atmospheric exchange. In the EC FP7 EuroBasin project (Holt et al 2014) we have developed a 1/12 degree basin-scale NEMO-ERSEM model with specific features relevant to shelf seas (e.g. tides and advanced vertical mixing schemes). This model is eddy resolving in the open-ocean, and resolves barotropic scales on-shelf. We use this model to explore the interaction between finely resolved physical processes and the ecosystem. Here we focus on shelf-sea processes and the connection between the shelf seas and open-ocean, and compare results with a 1/4 degree (eddy permitting) model that does not include shelf sea processes. We find tidal mixing fronts and river plume are well represented in the 1/12 degree model. Using approaches developed for the NW Shelf (Holt et al 2012), we provide estimates of across-shelf break nutrient fluxes to the seas surrounding this basin, and relate these fluxes and their interannual variability to the physical processes driving ocean-shelf exchange. Holt, J., et al, 2012. Oceanic controls on the primary production of the northwest European continental shelf: model experiments under recent past conditions and a potential future scenario. Biogeosciences 9, 97-117. Holt, J., et al, 2014. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to Fish and Coasts to Ocean. Progress in Oceanography doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.04.024.

  11. Quantifying spatial distribution of spurious mixing in ocean models.

    PubMed

    Ilıcak, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Numerical mixing is inevitable for ocean models due to tracer advection schemes. Until now, there is no robust way to identify the regions of spurious mixing in ocean models. We propose a new method to compute the spatial distribution of the spurious diapycnic mixing in an ocean model. This new method is an extension of available potential energy density method proposed by Winters and Barkan (2013). We test the new method in lock-exchange and baroclinic eddies test cases. We can quantify the amount and the location of numerical mixing. We find high-shear areas are the main regions which are susceptible to numerical truncation errors. We also test the new method to quantify the numerical mixing in different horizontal momentum closures. We conclude that Smagorinsky viscosity has less numerical mixing than the Leith viscosity using the same non-dimensional constant.

  12. Assimilation of SeaWiFS Ocean Chlorophyll Data into a Three-Dimensional Global Ocean Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.

    2005-01-01

    Assimilation of satellite ocean color data is a relatively new phenomenon in ocean sciences. However, with routine observations from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), launched in late 1997, and now with new data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradometer (MODIS) Aqua, there is increasing interest in ocean color data assimilation. Here SeaWiFS chlorophyll data were assimilated with an established thre-dimentional global ocean model. The assimilation improved estimates of hlorophyll and primary production relative to a free-run (no assimilation) model. This represents the first attempt at ocean color data assimilation using NASA satellites in a global model. The results suggest the potential of assimilation of satellite ocean chlorophyll data for improving models.

  13. Adapting to life: ocean biogeochemical modelling and adaptive remeshing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J.; Popova, E. E.; Ham, D. A.; Piggott, M. D.; Srokosz, M.

    2013-11-01

    An outstanding problem in biogeochemical modelling of the ocean is that many of the key processes occur intermittently at small scales, such as the sub-mesoscale, that are not well represented in global ocean models. As an example, state-of-the-art models give values of primary production approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in the ocean's oligotrophic gyres, which cover a third of the Earth's surface. This is partly due to their failure to resolve sub-mesoscale phenomena, which play a significant role in nutrient supply. Simply increasing the resolution of the models may be an inefficient computational solution to this problem. An approach based on recent advances in adaptive mesh computational techniques may offer an alternative. Here the first steps in such an approach are described, using the example of a~simple vertical column (quasi 1-D) ocean biogeochemical model. We present a novel method of simulating ocean biogeochemical behaviour on a vertically adaptive computational mesh, where the mesh changes in response to the biogeochemical and physical state of the system throughout the simulation. We show that the model reproduces the general physical and biological behaviour at three ocean stations (India, Papa and Bermuda) as compared to a high-resolution fixed mesh simulation and to observations. The simulations capture both the seasonal and inter-annual variations. The use of an adaptive mesh does not increase the computational error, but reduces the number of mesh elements by a factor of 2-3, so reducing computational overhead. We then show the potential of this method in two case studies where we change the metric used to determine the varying mesh sizes in order to capture the dynamics of chlorophyll at Bermuda and sinking detritus at Papa. We therefore demonstrate adaptive meshes may provide a~suitable numerical technique for simulating seasonal or transient biogeochemical behaviour at high spatial resolution whilst minimising

  14. iMarNet: an ocean biogeochemistry model inter-comparison project within a common physical ocean modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Yool, A.; Allen, J. I.; Anderson, T. R.; Barciela, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Butenschön, M.; Enright, C.; Halloran, P. R.; Le Quéré, C.; de Mora, L.; Racault, M.-F.; Sinha, B.; Totterdell, I. J.; Cox, P. M.

    2014-07-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry (OBGC) models span a wide range of complexities from highly simplified, nutrient-restoring schemes, through nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) models that crudely represent the marine biota, through to models that represent a broader trophic structure by grouping organisms as plankton functional types (PFT) based on their biogeochemical role (Dynamic Green Ocean Models; DGOM) and ecosystem models which group organisms by ecological function and trait. OBGC models are now integral components of Earth System Models (ESMs), but they compete for computing resources with higher resolution dynamical setups and with other components such as atmospheric chemistry and terrestrial vegetation schemes. As such, the choice of OBGC in ESMs needs to balance model complexity and realism alongside relative computing cost. Here, we present an inter-comparison of six OBGC models that were candidates for implementation within the next UK Earth System Model (UKESM1). The models cover a large range of biological complexity (from 7 to 57 tracers) but all include representations of at least the nitrogen, carbon, alkalinity and oxygen cycles. Each OBGC model was coupled to the Nucleus for the European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) ocean general circulation model (GCM), and results from physically identical hindcast simulations were compared. Model skill was evaluated for biogeochemical metrics of global-scale bulk properties using conventional statistical techniques. The computing cost of each model was also measured in standardised tests run at two resource levels. No model is shown to consistently outperform or underperform all other models across all metrics. Nonetheless, the simpler models that are easier to tune are broadly closer to observations across a number of fields, and thus offer a high-efficiency option for ESMs that prioritise high resolution climate dynamics. However, simpler models provide limited insight into more complex marine

  15. iMarNet: an ocean biogeochemistry model intercomparison project within a common physical ocean modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Yool, A.; Allen, J. I.; Anderson, T. R.; Barciela, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Butenschön, M.; Enright, C.; Halloran, P. R.; Le Quéré, C.; de Mora, L.; Racault, M.-F.; Sinha, B.; Totterdell, I. J.; Cox, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry (OBGC) models span a wide variety of complexities, including highly simplified nutrient-restoring schemes, nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) models that crudely represent the marine biota, models that represent a broader trophic structure by grouping organisms as plankton functional types (PFTs) based on their biogeochemical role (dynamic green ocean models) and ecosystem models that group organisms by ecological function and trait. OBGC models are now integral components of Earth system models (ESMs), but they compete for computing resources with higher resolution dynamical setups and with other components such as atmospheric chemistry and terrestrial vegetation schemes. As such, the choice of OBGC in ESMs needs to balance model complexity and realism alongside relative computing cost. Here we present an intercomparison of six OBGC models that were candidates for implementation within the next UK Earth system model (UKESM1). The models cover a large range of biological complexity (from 7 to 57 tracers) but all include representations of at least the nitrogen, carbon, alkalinity and oxygen cycles. Each OBGC model was coupled to the ocean general circulation model Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) and results from physically identical hindcast simulations were compared. Model skill was evaluated for biogeochemical metrics of global-scale bulk properties using conventional statistical techniques. The computing cost of each model was also measured in standardised tests run at two resource levels. No model is shown to consistently outperform all other models across all metrics. Nonetheless, the simpler models are broadly closer to observations across a number of fields and thus offer a high-efficiency option for ESMs that prioritise high-resolution climate dynamics. However, simpler models provide limited insight into more complex marine biogeochemical processes and ecosystem pathways, and a parallel approach of

  16. Optimisation of a parallel ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, M. I.; Stevens, D. P.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a general-purpose parallel ocean circulation model, for use on a wide range of computer platforms, from traditional scalar machines to workstation clusters and massively parallel processors. Parallelism is provided, as a modular option, via high-level message-passing routines, thus hiding the technical intricacies from the user. An initial implementation highlights that the parallel efficiency of the model is adversely affected by a number of factors, for which optimisations are discussed and implemented. The resulting ocean code is portable and, in particular, allows science to be achieved on local workstations that could otherwise only be undertaken on state-of-the-art supercomputers.

  17. Climate Ocean Modeling on a Beowulf Class System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.; Wang, P.; Bondarenko, M.

    2000-01-01

    With the growing power and shrinking cost of personal computers. the availability of fast ethernet interconnections, and public domain software packages, it is now possible to combine them to build desktop parallel computers (named Beowulf or PC clusters) at a fraction of what it would cost to buy systems of comparable power front supercomputer companies. This led as to build and assemble our own sys tem. specifically for climate ocean modeling. In this article, we present our experience with such a system, discuss its network performance, and provide some performance comparison data with both HP SPP2000 and Cray T3E for an ocean Model used in present-day oceanographic research.

  18. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, Matthew H.; Garçon, Véronique C.

    1994-09-01

    The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current) and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC). The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor). Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean exchange of thermocline

  19. Model Scaling of Hydrokinetic Ocean Renewable Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ellenrieder, Karl; Valentine, William

    2013-11-01

    Numerical simulations are performed to validate a non-dimensional dynamic scaling procedure that can be applied to subsurface and deeply moored systems, such as hydrokinetic ocean renewable energy devices. The prototype systems are moored in water 400 m deep and include: subsurface spherical buoys moored in a shear current and excited by waves; an ocean current turbine excited by waves; and a deeply submerged spherical buoy in a shear current excited by strong current fluctuations. The corresponding model systems, which are scaled based on relative water depths of 10 m and 40 m, are also studied. For each case examined, the response of the model system closely matches the scaled response of the corresponding full-sized prototype system. The results suggest that laboratory-scale testing of complete ocean current renewable energy systems moored in a current is possible. This work was supported by the U.S. Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC).

  20. Sensitivity of ocean model simulation in the coastal ocean to the resolution of the meteorological forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The quality of ocean simulations depends on a number of factors such as approximations in governing equations, errors introduced by the numerical scheme, uncertainties in input parameters, and atmospheric forcing. The identification of relations between the uncertainties in input and output data is still a challenge for the development of numerical models. The impacts of ocean variables on ocean models are still not well known (e.g., Kara et al., 2009). Given the considerable importance of the atmospheric forcing to the air-sea interaction, it is essential that researchers in ocean modelling work need a good understanding about how sensitive the atmospheric forcing is to variations of model results, which is beneficial to the development of ocean models. Also, it provides a proper way to choose the atmospheric forcing in ocean modelling applications. Our previous study (Shapiro et al, 2011) has shown that the basin-wide circulation pattern and the temperature structure in the Black Sea produced by the same model is significantly dependent on the source of the meteorological input, giving remarkably different responses. For the purpose of this study we have chosen the Celtic Sea where high resolution meteo data are available from the UK Met office since 2006. The Celtic Sea is tidally dominated water basin, with the tidal stream amplitude varying from 0.25m/s in the southwest to 2 m/s in the Bristol Channel. It is also filled with mesoscale eddies which contribute to the formation of the residual (tidally averaged) circulation pattern (Young et al, 2003). The sea is strongly stratified from April to November, which adds to the formation of density driven currents. In this paper we analyse how sensitive the model output is to variations in the spatial resolution of meteorological using low (1.6°) and high (0.11°) resolution meteo forcing, giving the quantitative relation between variations of met forcing and the resulted differences of model results, as well as

  1. The Navy Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    development of models from the basic research community in the future. Another area of concern is the use of the model in close-in coastal areas. Compensation...34windows" exist in the molecular absorption of the electromagnetic energy through which trans- missions in IR communication can take place. In these...commercial market ) will greatly improve the overall operation of the model. It will do this in conjunction with the optical visibility by pinning down

  2. Equatorial Indian Ocean subsurface current variability in an Ocean General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanaseelan, C.; Deshpande, Aditi

    2018-03-01

    The variability of subsurface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean is studied using high resolution Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) simulations during 1958-2009. February-March eastward equatorial subsurface current (ESC) shows weak variability whereas strong variability is observed in northern summer and fall ESC. An eastward subsurface current with maximum amplitude in the pycnocline is prominent right from summer to winter during strong Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years when air-sea coupling is significant. On the other hand during weak IOD years, both the air-sea coupling and the ESC are weak. This strongly suggests the role of ESC on the strength of IOD. The extension of the ESC to the summer months during the strong IOD years strengthens the oceanic response and supports intensification and maintenance of IODs through modulation of air sea coupling. Although the ESC is triggered by equatorial winds, the coupled air-sea interaction associated with IODs strengthens the ESC to persist for several seasons thereby establishing a positive feedback cycle with the surface. This suggests that the ESC plays a significant role in the coupled processes associated with the evolution and intensification of IOD events by cooling the eastern basin and strengthening thermocline-SST (sea surface temperature) interaction. As the impact of IOD events on Indian summer monsoon is significant only during strong IOD years, understanding and monitoring the evolution of ESC during these years is important for summer monsoon forecasting purposes. There is a westward phase propagation of anomalous subsurface currents which persists for a year during strong IOD years, whereas such persistence or phase propagation is not seen during weak IOD years, supporting the close association between ESC and strength of air sea coupling during strong IOD years. In this study we report the processes which strengthen the IOD events and the air sea coupling associated with IOD. It also unravels

  3. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state‐of‐the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. PMID:27818853

  4. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T; Platov, Gennady A; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C; Nurser, A J George

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.

  5. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  6. Coupled ice sheet-ocean modelling to investigate ocean driven melting of marine ice sheets in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Lenneke; Gladstone, Rupert; Galton-Fenzi, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Ocean induced melting below the ice shelves of marine ice sheets is a major source of uncertainty for predictions of ice mass loss and Antarctica's resultant contribution to future sea level rise. The floating ice shelves provide a buttressing force against the flow of ice across the grounding line into the ocean. Thinning of these ice shelves due to an increase in melting reduces this force and can lead to an increase in the discharge of grounded ice. Fully coupled modelling of ice sheet-ocean interactions is key to improving understanding the influence of the Southern ocean on the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, and to predicting its future behaviour under changing climate conditions. Coupling of ocean and ice sheet models is needed to provide more realistic melt rates at the base of ice shelves and hence make better predictions of the behaviour of the grounding line and the shape of the ice-shelf cavity as the ice sheet evolves. The Framework for Ice Sheet - Ocean Coupling (FISOC) has been developed to provide a flexible platform for performing coupled ice sheet - ocean modelling experiments. We present preliminary results using FISOC to couple the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) with Elmer/Ice in idealised experiments Marine Ice Sheet-Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (MISOMIP). These experiments use an idealised geometry motivated by that of Pine Island glacier and the adjacent Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica, a region which has shown shown signs of thinning ice and grounding line retreat.

  7. Kawase & McDermott revisited with a proper ocean model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Markus; Poulsen, Mads; Nuterman, Roman

    2017-04-01

    A suite of experiments with global ocean models is used to test the hypothesis that Southern Ocean (SO) winds can modify the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It is found that for 3 and 1 degree resolution models the results are consistent with Toggweiler & Samuels (1995): stronger SO winds lead to a slight increase of the AMOC. In the simulations with 1/10 degree resolution, however, stronger SO winds weaken the AMOC. We show that these different outcomes are determined by the models' representation of topographic Rossby and Kelvin waves. Consistent with previous literature based on theory and idealized models, first baroclinic waves are slower in the coarse resolution models, but still manage to establish a pattern of global response that is similar to the one in the eddy-permitting model. Because of its different stratification, however, the Atlantic signal is transmitted by higher baroclinic modes. In the coarse resolution model these higher modes are dissipated before they reach 30N, whereas in the eddy-permitting model they reach the subpolar gyre undiminished. This inability of non-eddy-permitting ocean models to represent planetary waves with higher baroclinic modes casts doubt on the ability of climate models to represent non-local effects of climate change. Ideas on how to overcome these difficulties will be discussed.

  8. Production and export in a global ocean ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, J. R.; Totterdell, I. J.

    2001-05-01

    The Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle (HadOCC) model is a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the ocean carbon cycle. It features an explicit representation of the marine ecosystem, which is assumed to be limited by nitrogen availability. The biogeochemical compartments are dissolved nutrient, total CO 2, total alkalinity, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus. The results of the standard simulation are presented. The annual primary production predicted by the model ( 47.7 Gt C yr -1) compares well to the estimates made by Longhurst et al. (1995, J. Plankton Res., 17, 1245) and Antoine et al. (1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 57). The HadOCC model finds high production in the sub-polar North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, and around the Antarctic convergence, and low production in the sub-tropical gyres. However in disagreement with the observations of Longhurst et al. and Antoine et al., the model predicts very high production in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. The export flux of carbon in the model agrees well with data from deep-water sediment traps. In order to examine the factors controlling production in the ocean, additional simulations have been run. A nutrient-restoring simulation confirms that the areas with the highest primary production are those with the greatest nutrient supply. A reduced wind-stress experiment demonstrates that the high production found in the equatorial Pacific is driven by excessive upwelling of nutrient-rich water. Three further simulations show that nutrient supply at high latitudes, and hence production there, is sensitive to the parameters and climatological forcings of the mixed layer sub-model.

  9. Oceanic dispersion of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans simulated by multiple oceanic general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Furuno, A.; Kobayashi, T.; In, T.; Nakayama, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Miyazawa, Y.; Usui, N.

    2017-12-01

    To understand the concentration and amount of Fukushima-derived Cs-137 in the ocean, this study simulates the oceanic dispersion of Cs-137 by an oceanic dispersion model SEA-GEARN-FDM developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and multiple oceanic general circulation models. The Cs-137 deposition amounts at the sea surface were used as the source term in oceanic dispersion simulations, which were estimated by atmospheric dispersion simulations with a Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information version II (WSPEEDI-II) developed at JAEA. The direct release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into the ocean based on in situ Cs-137 measurements was used as the other source term in oceanic dispersion simulations. The simulated air Cs-137 concentrations qualitatively replicated those measured around the North Pacific. The accumulated Cs-137 ground deposition amount in the eastern Japanese Islands was consistent with that estimated by aircraft measurements. The oceanic dispersion simulations relatively well reproduced the measured Cs-137 concentrations in the coastal and offshore oceans during the first few months after the Fukushima disaster, and in the open ocean during the first year post-disaster. It was suggested that Cs-137 dispersed along the coast in the north-south direction during the first few months post-disaster, and were subsequently dispersed offshore by the Kuroshio Current and Kuroshio Extension. Mesoscale eddies accompanied by the Kuroshio Current and Kuroshio Extension played an important role in dilution of Cs-137. The Cs-137 amounts were quantified in the coastal, offshore, and open oceans during the first year post-disaster. It was demonstrated that Cs-137 actively dispersed from the coastal and offshore oceans to the open ocean, and from the surface layer to the deeper layer in the North Pacific.

  10. A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Brown, James W.; Brown, Otis B.; Evans, Robert H.; Smith, Raymond C.

    1988-01-01

    A semianalytical radiance model is developed which predicts the upwelled spectral radiance at the sea surface as a function of the phytoplankton pigment concentration for Morel Case 1 waters. The model is in good agreement with experimental measurements carried out in waters which were not included in the data base used to derive it. It suggests that the observed variability in the radiance is due to variations in the backscattering of plankton and the associated detrital material. The model is extended to include other material in the water, such as dissolved organic material, referred to as yellow substances, and detached coccoliths from coccolithophorids, e.g., Emiliana huxleyi. Potential applications include an improved biooptical algorithm for the retrieval of pigment concentrations from satellite imagery in the presence of interference from detached coccoliths and an improved atmospheric correction for satellite imagery. The model also serves to identify and to interpret deviations from Case 1 waters.

  11. Downscaling ocean conditions: Experiments with a quasi-geostrophic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katavouta, A.; Thompson, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    The predictability of small-scale ocean variability, given the time history of the associated large-scales, is investigated using a quasi-geostrophic model of two wind-driven gyres separated by an unstable, mid-ocean jet. Motivated by the recent theoretical study of Henshaw et al. (2003), we propose a straightforward method for assimilating information on the large-scale in order to recover the small-scale details of the quasi-geostrophic circulation. The similarity of this method to the spectral nudging of limited area atmospheric models is discussed. Results from the spectral nudging of the quasi-geostrophic model, and an independent multivariate regression-based approach, show that important features of the ocean circulation, including the position of the meandering mid-ocean jet and the associated pinch-off eddies, can be recovered from the time history of a small number of large-scale modes. We next propose a hybrid approach for assimilating both the large-scales and additional observed time series from a limited number of locations that alone are too sparse to recover the small scales using traditional assimilation techniques. The hybrid approach improved significantly the recovery of the small-scales. The results highlight the importance of the coupling between length scales in downscaling applications, and the value of assimilating limited point observations after the large-scales have been set correctly. The application of the hybrid and spectral nudging to practical ocean forecasting, and projecting changes in ocean conditions on climate time scales, is discussed briefly.

  12. Uncertainty in modeled upper ocean heat content change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokmakian, Robin; Challenor, Peter

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines the uncertainty in the change in the heat content in the ocean component of a general circulation model. We describe the design and implementation of our statistical methodology. Using an ensemble of model runs and an emulator, we produce an estimate of the full probability distribution function (PDF) for the change in upper ocean heat in an Atmosphere/Ocean General Circulation Model, the Community Climate System Model v. 3, across a multi-dimensional input space. We show how the emulator of the GCM's heat content change and hence, the PDF, can be validated and how implausible outcomes from the emulator can be identified when compared to observational estimates of the metric. In addition, the paper describes how the emulator outcomes and related uncertainty information might inform estimates of the same metric from a multi-model Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 ensemble. We illustrate how to (1) construct an ensemble based on experiment design methods, (2) construct and evaluate an emulator for a particular metric of a complex model, (3) validate the emulator using observational estimates and explore the input space with respect to implausible outcomes and (4) contribute to the understanding of uncertainties within a multi-model ensemble. Finally, we estimate the most likely value for heat content change and its uncertainty for the model, with respect to both observations and the uncertainty in the value for the input parameters.

  13. Tidal simulation using regional ocean modeling systems (ROMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Chao, Yi; Li, Zhijin; Dong, Changming; Farrara, John; McWilliams, James C.; Shum, C. K.; Wang, Yu; Matsumoto, Koji; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to test the capability of ROMS in simulating tides. The research also serves as a necessary exercise to implement tides in an operational ocean forecasting system. In this paper, we emphasize the validation of the model tide simulation. The characteristics and energetics of tides of the region will be reported in separate publications.

  14. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Oyvind; Bidlot, Jea-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.; Mogensen, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons against parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. Of the two Stokes drift profiles explored here, the profile based on the Phillips spectrum is by far the best. In particular, the shear near the surface is almost identical to that influenced by the f-5 tail of spectral wave models. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. The ECWMF coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system now includes these wave effects in the ocean model component (NEMO).

  15. A New High Resolution Tidal Model in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancet, M.; Andersen, O.; Lyard, F.; Schulz, A.; Cotton, D.; Benveniste, J.

    2016-08-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modelling. The accuracy of the global tidal models decreases by several centimeters in the Polar Regions, which has a large impact on the quality of the satellite altimeter sea surface heights and the altimetry-derived products.NOVELTIS and DTU Space have developed a regional, high-resolution tidal atlas in the Arctic Ocean, in the framework of an extension of the CryoSat Plus for Ocean (CP4O) ESA STSE (Support to Science Element) project. In particular, this atlas benefits from the assimilation of the most complete satellite altimetry dataset ever used in this region, including Envisat data up to 82°N and CryoSat-2 data between 82°N and 88°N. The combination of these satellite altimetry missions gives the best possible coverage of altimetry-derived tidal constituents. The available tide gauge data were also used for data assimilation and validation.This paper presents the implementation methodology and the performance of this new regional tidal model in the Arctic Ocean, compared to the existing global tidal models.

  16. Adapting to life: ocean biogeochemical modelling and adaptive remeshing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J.; Popova, E. E.; Ham, D. A.; Piggott, M. D.; Srokosz, M.

    2014-05-01

    An outstanding problem in biogeochemical modelling of the ocean is that many of the key processes occur intermittently at small scales, such as the sub-mesoscale, that are not well represented in global ocean models. This is partly due to their failure to resolve sub-mesoscale phenomena, which play a significant role in vertical nutrient supply. Simply increasing the resolution of the models may be an inefficient computational solution to this problem. An approach based on recent advances in adaptive mesh computational techniques may offer an alternative. Here the first steps in such an approach are described, using the example of a simple vertical column (quasi-1-D) ocean biogeochemical model. We present a novel method of simulating ocean biogeochemical behaviour on a vertically adaptive computational mesh, where the mesh changes in response to the biogeochemical and physical state of the system throughout the simulation. We show that the model reproduces the general physical and biological behaviour at three ocean stations (India, Papa and Bermuda) as compared to a high-resolution fixed mesh simulation and to observations. The use of an adaptive mesh does not increase the computational error, but reduces the number of mesh elements by a factor of 2-3. Unlike previous work the adaptivity metric used is flexible and we show that capturing the physical behaviour of the model is paramount to achieving a reasonable solution. Adding biological quantities to the adaptivity metric further refines the solution. We then show the potential of this method in two case studies where we change the adaptivity metric used to determine the varying mesh sizes in order to capture the dynamics of chlorophyll at Bermuda and sinking detritus at Papa. We therefore demonstrate that adaptive meshes may provide a suitable numerical technique for simulating seasonal or transient biogeochemical behaviour at high vertical resolution whilst minimising the number of elements in the mesh. More

  17. High-Order/Low-Order methods for ocean modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Newman, Christopher; Womeldorff, Geoff; Chacón, Luis; ...

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examine a High Order/Low Order (HOLO) approach for a z-level ocean model and show that the traditional semi-implicit and split-explicit methods, as well as a recent preconditioning strategy, can easily be cast in the framework of HOLO methods. The HOLO formulation admits an implicit-explicit method that is algorithmically scalable and second-order accurate, allowing timesteps much larger than the barotropic time scale. We show how HOLO approaches, in particular the implicit-explicit method, can provide a solid route for ocean simulation to heterogeneous computing and exascale environments.

  18. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    SciT

    Sarje, Abhinav; Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Williams, Samuel W.

    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  19. The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

  20. Ocean carbon and heat variability in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Waugh, D.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean carbon and heat content are very important for regulating global climate. Furthermore, due to lack of observations and dependence on parameterizations, there has been little consensus in the modeling community on the magnitude of realistic ocean carbon and heat content variability, particularly in the Southern Ocean. We assess the differences between global oceanic heat and carbon content variability in GFDL ESM2Mc using a 500-year, pre-industrial control simulation. The global carbon and heat content are directly out of phase with each other; however, in the Southern Ocean the heat and carbon content are in phase. The global heat mutli-decadal variability is primarily explained by variability in the tropics and mid-latitudes, while the variability in global carbon content is primarily explained by Southern Ocean variability. In order to test the robustness of this relationship, we use three additional pre-industrial control simulations using different mesoscale mixing parameterizations. Three pre-industrial control simulations are conducted with the along-isopycnal diffusion coefficient (Aredi) set to constant values of 400, 800 (control) and 2400 m2 s-1. These values for Aredi are within the range of parameter settings commonly used in modeling groups. Finally, one pre-industrial control simulation is conducted where the minimum in the Gent-McWilliams parameterization closure scheme (AGM) increased to 600 m2 s-1. We find that the different simulations have very different multi-decadal variability, especially in the Weddell Sea where the characteristics of deep convection are drastically changed. While the temporal frequency and amplitude global heat and carbon content changes significantly, the overall spatial pattern of variability remains unchanged between the simulations.

  1. Approximate Stokes Drift Profiles and their use in Ocean Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, O.; Biblot, J.; Janssen, P. A. E. M.

    2016-02-01

    Deep-water approximations to the Stokes drift velocity profile are explored as alternatives to the monochromatic profile. The alternative profiles investigated rely on the same two quantities required for the monochromatic profile, viz the Stokes transport and the surface Stokes drift velocity. Comparisons with parametric spectra and profiles under wave spectra from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and buoy observations reveal much better agreement than the monochromatic profile even for complex sea states. That the profiles give a closer match and a more correct shear has implications for ocean circulation models since the Coriolis-Stokes force depends on the magnitude and direction of the Stokes drift profile and Langmuir turbulence parameterizations depend sensitively on the shear of the profile. The NEMO general circulation ocean model was recently extended to incorporate the Stokes-Coriolis force along with two other wave-related effects. I will show some results from the coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean ensemble forecast system of ECMWF where these wave effects are now included in the ocean model component.

  2. GRACE gravity model: assssment in terms of deep ocean currents from hydrography and from the ECCO ocean model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Stammer, D.; Fukumori, I.

    2003-01-01

    Here we assess the new generation of gravity models, derived from GRACE data. The differences between a global geoid model (one from GRACE data and one the well-known EGM-96), minus a Mean Sea Surface derived from over a decade of altimetric data are compared to hydrographic data from the Levitus compilation and to the ECCO numerical ocean model, which assimilates altimetry and other data.

  3. Ocean Simulation Model for Internal Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    MODEL1.DAT U D 4°NZ Real U,V,W, (U(i),V(i),W(i), Z Z(i), i= 1 ,NZ) MODEL1.AUX U S 3°NZ Real NT,NX,NZ,DT, NTNX,NZDT, DXDZ,T0, LAT , DX,DZ,T0, LAT , LON,AZ LON...Oceanographic and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi 39529-5004. 9 1 .... .... . .. ...8 I I I II I I Foreword The effects of the...I A. Background 1 B. Project Objectives 1 C. Purpose of This Manual 1 II. Background and Derivation of Algorithms 2 A. Stochastic Representation of

  4. Modeling of SAR signatures of shallow water ocean topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kozma, A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrodynamic/electromagnetic model was developed to explain and quantify the relationship between the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observed signatures and the bottom topography of the ocean in the English Channel region of the North Sea. The model uses environmental data and radar system parameters as inputs and predicts SAR-observed backscatter changes over topographic changes in the ocean floor. The model results compare favorably with the actual SEASAT SAR observed backscatter values. The developed model is valid for only relatively shallow water areas (i.e., less than 50 meters in depth) and suggests that for bottom features to be visible on SAR imagery, a moderate to high velocity current and a moderate wind must be present.

  5. Framework of distributed coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yuanqiao; Huang, Liwen; Deng, Jian; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Sisi; Wang, Lijun

    2006-05-01

    In order to research the interactions between the atmosphere and ocean as well as their important role in the intensive weather systems of coastal areas, and to improve the forecasting ability of the hazardous weather processes of coastal areas, a coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling system has been developed. The agent-based environment framework for linking models allows flexible and dynamic information exchange between models. For the purpose of flexibility, portability and scalability, the framework of the whole system takes a multi-layer architecture that includes a user interface layer, computational layer and service-enabling layer. The numerical experiment presented in this paper demonstrates the performance of the distributed coupled modeling system.

  6. An ocean scatter propagation model for aeronautical satellite communication applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreland, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper an ocean scattering propagation model, developed for aircraft-to-satellite (aeronautical) applications, is described. The purpose of the propagation model is to characterize the behavior of sea reflected multipath as a function of physical propagation path parameters. An accurate validation against the theoretical far field solution for a perfectly conducting sinusoidal surface is provided. Simulation results for typical L band aeronautical applications with low complexity antennas are presented.

  7. An ice-ocean coupled model for the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Abe; Preller, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    The Hibler ice model has been modified and adapted to a domain that includes most of the sea ice-covered areas in the Northern Hemisphere. This model, joined with the Cox ocean model, is developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Navy's sea ice forecasting, PIPS, and is termed PIPS2.0. Generally, the modeled ice edge is consistent with the Navy-NOAA Joint Ice Center weekly analysis, and the modeled ice thickness distribution agrees with submarine sonar data in the central Arctic basin.

  8. Accuracy Assessment of Recent Global Ocean Tide Models around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Ke, H.; Zhang, Q.; Li, W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the coverage limitation of T/P-series altimeters, the lack of bathymetric data under large ice shelves, and the inaccurate definitions of coastlines and grounding lines, the accuracy of ocean tide models around Antarctica is poorer than those in deep oceans. Using tidal measurements from tide gauges, gravimetric data and GPS records, the accuracy of seven state-of-the-art global ocean tide models (DTU10, EOT11a, GOT4.8, FES2012, FES2014, HAMTIDE12, TPXO8) is assessed, as well as the most widely-used conventional model FES2004. Four regions (Antarctic Peninsula region, Amery ice shelf region, Filchner-Ronne ice shelf region and Ross ice shelf region) are separately reported. The standard deviations of eight main constituents between the selected models are large in polar regions, especially under the big ice shelves, suggesting that the uncertainty in these regions remain large. Comparisons with in situ tidal measurements show that the most accurate model is TPXO8, and all models show worst performance in Weddell sea and Filchner-Ronne ice shelf regions. The accuracy of tidal predictions around Antarctica is gradually improving.

  9. Ocean-Forced Ice-Shelf Thinning in a Synchronously Coupled Ice-Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, James R.; Holland, Paul R.; Goldberg, Dan; Snow, Kate; Arthern, Robert; Campin, Jean-Michel; Heimbach, Patrick; Jenkins, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    The first fully synchronous, coupled ice shelf-ocean model with a fixed grounding line and imposed upstream ice velocity has been developed using the MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model). Unlike previous, asynchronous, approaches to coupled modeling our approach is fully conservative of heat, salt, and mass. Synchronous coupling is achieved by continuously updating the ice-shelf thickness on the ocean time step. By simulating an idealized, warm-water ice shelf we show how raising the pycnocline leads to a reduction in both ice-shelf mass and back stress, and hence buttressing. Coupled runs show the formation of a western boundary channel in the ice-shelf base due to increased melting on the western boundary due to Coriolis enhanced flow. Eastern boundary ice thickening is also observed. This is not the case when using a simple depth-dependent parameterized melt, as the ice shelf has relatively thinner sides and a thicker central "bulge" for a given ice-shelf mass. Ice-shelf geometry arising from the parameterized melt rate tends to underestimate backstress (and therefore buttressing) for a given ice-shelf mass due to a thinner ice shelf at the boundaries when compared to coupled model simulations.

  10. Assimilating data into open ocean tidal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivman, Gennady A.

    The problem of deriving tidal fields from observations by reason of incompleteness and imperfectness of every data set practically available has an infinitely large number of allowable solutions fitting the data within measurement errors and hence can be treated as ill-posed. Therefore, interpolating the data always relies on some a priori assumptions concerning the tides, which provide a rule of sampling or, in other words, a regularization of the ill-posed problem. Data assimilation procedures used in large scale tide modeling are viewed in a common mathematical framework as such regularizations. It is shown that they all (basis functions expansion, parameter estimation, nudging, objective analysis, general inversion, and extended general inversion), including those (objective analysis and general inversion) originally formulated in stochastic terms, may be considered as utilizations of one of the three general methods suggested by the theory of ill-posed problems. The problem of grid refinement critical for inverse methods and nudging is discussed.

  11. Understanding and Improving Ocean Mixing Parameterizations for modeling Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, A. M.; Fells, J.; Clarke, J.; Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is vital. Earth is only habitable due to the atmosphere&oceans' distribution of energy. Our Greenhouse Gas emissions shift overall the balance between absorbed and emitted radiation causing Global Warming. How much of these emissions are stored in the ocean vs. entering the atmosphere to cause warming and how the extra heat is distributed depends on atmosphere&ocean dynamics, which we must understand to know risks of both progressive Climate Change and Climate Variability which affect us all in many ways including extreme weather, floods, droughts, sea-level rise and ecosystem disruption. Citizens must be informed to make decisions such as "business as usual" vs. mitigating emissions to avert catastrophe. Simulations of Climate Change provide needed knowledge but in turn need reliable parameterizations of key physical processes, including ocean mixing, which greatly impacts transport&storage of heat and dissolved CO2. The turbulence group at NASA-GISS seeks to use physical theory to improve parameterizations of ocean mixing, including smallscale convective, shear driven, double diffusive, internal wave and tidal driven vertical mixing, as well as mixing by submesoscale eddies, and lateral mixing along isopycnals by mesoscale eddies. Medgar Evers undergraduates aid NASA research while learning climate science and developing computer&math skills. We write our own programs in MATLAB and FORTRAN to visualize and process output of ocean simulations including producing statistics to help judge impacts of different parameterizations on fidelity in reproducing realistic temperatures&salinities, diffusivities and turbulent power. The results can help upgrade the parameterizations. Students are introduced to complex system modeling and gain deeper appreciation of climate science and programming skills, while furthering climate science. We are incorporating climate projects into the Medgar Evers college curriculum. The PI is both a member of the turbulence group at

  12. A boundary condition for layer to level ocean model interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mask, A.; O'Brien, J.; Preller, R.

    2003-04-01

    A radiation boundary condition based on vertical normal modes is introduced to allow a physical transition between nested/coupled ocean models that are of differing vertical structure and/or differing physics. In this particular study, a fine resolution regional/coastal sigma-coordinate Naval Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) has been successfully nested to a coarse resolution (in the horizontal and vertical) basin scale NCOM and a coarse resolution basin scale Navy Layered Ocean Model (NLOM). Both of these models were developed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA. This new method, which decomposes the vertical structure of the models into barotropic and baroclinic modes, gives improved results in the coastal domain over Orlanski radiation boundary conditions for the test cases. The principle reason for the improvement is that each mode has the radiation boundary condition applied individually; therefore, the packet of information passing through the boundary is allowed to have multiple phase speeds instead of a single-phase speed. Allowing multiple phase speeds reduces boundary reflections, thus improving results.

  13. The Occurrence of Tidal Hybrid Kelvin-Edge Waves in the Global Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, H.; Buijsman, M. C.; Yankovsky, A. E.; Zhang, T.; Jeon, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the analysis of hybrid Kelvin-edge waves on the continental shelves in a global ocean model. Our objective is to find areas where the transition occurs from Kelvin waves to hybrid Kelvin-edge waves. The change in continental shelf width may convert a Kelvin wave into a hybrid Kelvin-edge wave. In this process the group velocity reaches a minimum and tidal energy is radiated on and/or offshore [Zhang 2016]. We extract M2 SSH (Sea Surface Height) and velocity from the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and calculate barotropic energy fluxes. We analyze these three areas: the Bay of Biscay, the Amazon Shelf and North West Africa. In these three regions, the continental shelf widens in the propagation direction and the alongshore flux changes its direction towards the coast. A transect is taken at different points in these areas to compute the dispersion relations of the waves on the continental shelf. In model simulations, we change the bathymetry of the Bay of Biscay to study the behavior of the hybrid Kelvin-edge waves. BibliographyZhang, T., and A. E Yankovsky. (2016), On the nature of cross-isobath energy fluxes in topographically modified barotropic semidiurnal Kelvin waves, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 121, 3058-3074, doi:10.1002/2015JC011617.

  14. Modeling Horizontal GPS Seasonal Signals Caused by Ocean Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlow, N. M.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2014-12-01

    GPS monuments around the world exhibit seasonal signals in both the horizontal and vertical components with amplitudes on the order of centimeters. For analysis of tectonic signals, researchers typically fit and remove a sine wave with an annual period, and sometimes an additional sine wave with a semiannual period. As interest grows in analyzing smaller, slower signals it becomes more important to correct for these seasonal signals accurately. It is well established that the vertical component of seasonal GPS signals is largely due to continental water storage cycles (e.g. van Dam et al., GRL, 2001). Horizontal seasonal signals however are not well explained by continental water storage. We examine horizontal seasonal signals across western North America and find that the horizontal component is coherent at very large spatial scales and is in general oriented perpendicular to the nearest coastline, indicating an oceanic origin. Additionally, horizontal and vertical annual signals are out of phase by approximately 2 months indicating different physical origins. Studies of GRACE and ocean bottom pressure data indicate an annual variation of non-steric, non-tidal ocean height with an average amplitude of 1 cm globally (e.g. Ponte et al., GRL, 2007). We use Some Programs for Ocean Tide Loading (SPOTL; Agnew, SIO Technical Report, 2012) to model predicted displacements due to these (non-tidal) ocean loads and find general agreement with observed horizontal GPS seasonal signals. In the future, this may lead to a more accurate way to predict and remove the seasonal component of GPS displacement time-series, leading to better discrimination of the true tectonic signal. Modeling this long wavelength signal also provides a potential opportunity to probe the structure of the Earth.

  15. A new high resolution tidal model in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancet, Mathilde; Andersen, Ole; Lyard, Florent; Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a challenging region for tidal modeling, because of its complex and not well-documented bathymetry, together combined with the intermittent presence of sea ice and the fact that the in situ tidal observations are scarce at such high latitudes. As a consequence, the accuracy of the global tidal models decreases by several centimeters in the Polar Regions. It has a large impact on the quality of the satellite altimeter sea surface heights in these regions (ERS1/2, Envisat, CryoSat-2, SARAL/AltiKa and the future Sentinel-3 mission), but also on the end-users' applications that need accurate tidal information. Better knowledge of the tides will improve the quality of the high latitudes altimeter sea surface heights and of all derived products, such as the altimetry-derived geostrophic currents, the mean sea surface and the mean dynamic topography. In addition, accurate tidal models are highly strategic information for ever-growing maritime and industrial activities in this region. NOVELTIS and DTU Space have recently developed a regional, high-resolution tidal atlas in the Arctic Ocean, in the framework of an extension of the CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project funded by ESA (STSE program). In particular, this atlas benefits from the assimilation of the most complete satellite altimetry dataset ever used in this region, including the Envisat data up to 82°N and the CryoSat-2 reprocessed data between 82°N and 88°N. The combination of all these satellites gives the best possible coverage of altimetry-derived tidal constituents. Tide gauge data have also been used either for assimilation or validation. This paper presents the methodology followed to develop the model and the performances of this new regional tidal model in the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2015-06-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. A shellfish model that includes growth and physiological interactions of mussels with the ecosystem and is fully embedded in the 3-D numerical modelling framework has been developed at the Marine Institute. This shellfish model has a microbial module designed to predict levels of coliform contamination in mussels. This model can also be used to estimate the carrying capacity of embayments, assess impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds and help to classify shellfish waters. The physical coastal model of southwest Ireland provides a three day forecast of shelf water movement in the region. This is assimilated into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end-users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish killing species. Further services include the use of models to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the marine fisheries resources. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  17. Slush Fund: Modeling the Multiphase Physics of Oceanic Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of ice interacting with an ocean, both on Earth and throughout the solar system, and its crucial role as the mediator of exchange between the hydrosphere below and atmosphere above, have made quantifying the thermodynamic, chemical, and physical properties of the ice highly desirable. While direct observations of these quantities exist, their scarcity increases with the difficulty of obtainment; the basal surfaces of terrestrial ice shelves remain largely unexplored and the icy interiors of moons like Europa and Enceladus have never been directly observed. Our understanding of these entities thus relies on numerical simulation, and the efficacy of their incorporation into larger systems models is dependent on the accuracy of these initial simulations. One characteristic of seawater, likely shared by the oceans of icy moons, is that it is a solution. As such, when it is frozen a majority of the solute is rejected from the forming ice, concentrating in interstitial pockets and channels, producing a two-component reactive porous media known as a mushy layer. The multiphase nature of this layer affects the evolution and dynamics of the overlying ice mass. Additionally ice can form in the water column and accrete onto the basal surface of these ice masses via buoyancy driven sedimentation as frazil or platelet ice. Numerical models hoping to accurately represent ice-ocean interactions should include the multiphase behavior of these two phenomena. While models of sea ice have begun to incorporate multiphase physics into their capabilities, no models of ice shelves/shells explicitly account for the two-phase behavior of the ice-ocean interface. Here we present a 1D multiphase model of floating oceanic ice that includes parameterizations of both density driven advection within the `mushy layer' and buoyancy driven sedimentation. The model is validated against contemporary sea ice models and observational data. Environmental stresses such as supercooling and

  18. Medicanes in an ocean-atmosphere coupled regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, N.; Brauch, J.; Dobler, A.; Béranger, K.; Ahrens, B.

    2014-03-01

    So-called medicanes (Mediterranean hurricanes) are meso-scale, marine, and warm-core Mediterranean cyclones that exhibit some similarities to tropical cyclones. The strong cyclonic winds associated with medicanes threaten the highly populated coastal areas around the Mediterranean basin. To reduce the risk of casualties and overall negative impacts, it is important to improve the understanding of medicanes with the use of numerical models. In this study, we employ an atmospheric limited-area model (COSMO-CLM) coupled with a one-dimensional ocean model (1-D NEMO-MED12) to simulate medicanes. The aim of this study is to assess the robustness of the coupled model in simulating these extreme events. For this purpose, 11 historical medicane events are simulated using the atmosphere-only model, COSMO-CLM, and coupled model, with different setups (horizontal atmospheric grid-spacings of 0.44°, 0.22°, and 0.08°; with/without spectral nudging, and an ocean grid-spacing of 1/12°). The results show that at high-resolution, the coupled model is able to not only simulate most of medicane events but also improve the track length, core temperature, and wind speed of simulated medicanes compared to the atmosphere-only simulations. The results suggest that the coupled model is more proficient for systemic and detailed studies of historical medicane events, and that this model can be an effective tool for future projections.

  19. Medicanes in an ocean-atmosphere coupled regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, N.; Brauch, J.; Dobler, A.; Béranger, K.; Ahrens, B.

    2014-08-01

    So-called medicanes (Mediterranean hurricanes) are meso-scale, marine, and warm-core Mediterranean cyclones that exhibit some similarities to tropical cyclones. The strong cyclonic winds associated with medicanes threaten the highly populated coastal areas around the Mediterranean basin. To reduce the risk of casualties and overall negative impacts, it is important to improve the understanding of medicanes with the use of numerical models. In this study, we employ an atmospheric limited-area model (COSMO-CLM) coupled with a one-dimensional ocean model (1-D NEMO-MED12) to simulate medicanes. The aim of this study is to assess the robustness of the coupled model in simulating these extreme events. For this purpose, 11 historical medicane events are simulated using the atmosphere-only model, COSMO-CLM, and coupled model, with different setups (horizontal atmospheric grid spacings of 0.44, 0.22, and 0.08°; with/without spectral nudging, and an ocean grid spacing of 1/12°). The results show that at high resolution, the coupled model is able to not only simulate most of medicane events but also improve the track length, core temperature, and wind speed of simulated medicanes compared to the atmosphere-only simulations. The results suggest that the coupled model is more proficient for systemic and detailed studies of historical medicane events, and that this model can be an effective tool for future projections.

  20. A Comparison Study and Software Implementation of NORDA Ocean Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-08

    L01?C07 ’EEEEElshhhh A COMPARISON STUDY AND SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF NORDA OCEAN MODELS J&IEA m/ MST* f-....~ cre mx IRSD~I?( J 300 Unicorn Park...34- NOO-79- 741 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA 6 WORK UNIT NUMBERSJAYC0, 300 Unicorn Park Drive...before another execution of the energetics program, move them back to disk. Note that the outputs of the preprocessor reside on disk, they should not be

  1. Atmospheric Models for Over-Ocean Propagation Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    Atmospheric Models For Over-Ocean Propagation Loss Bruce McGuffin1 MIT Lincoln Laboratory Introduction Air -to-surface radio links differ from...from radiosonde profiles collected along the Atlantic coast of the United States, in order to accurately estimate high-reliability SHF/EHF air -to...predict required link performance to achieve high reliability at different locations and times of year. Data Acquisition Radiosonde balloons are

  2. Modeling selective pressures on phytoplankton in the global ocean.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Jason G; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Jahn, Oliver; Follows, Michael J; Chisholm, Sallie W

    2010-03-10

    Our view of marine microbes is transforming, as culture-independent methods facilitate rapid characterization of microbial diversity. It is difficult to assimilate this information into our understanding of marine microbe ecology and evolution, because their distributions, traits, and genomes are shaped by forces that are complex and dynamic. Here we incorporate diverse forces--physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and mutational--into a global ocean model to study selective pressures on a simple trait in a widely distributed lineage of picophytoplankton: the nitrogen use abilities of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria. Some Prochlorococcus ecotypes have lost the ability to use nitrate, whereas their close relatives, marine Synechococcus, typically retain it. We impose mutations for the loss of nitrogen use abilities in modeled picophytoplankton, and ask: in which parts of the ocean are mutants most disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate, and in which parts are they least disadvantaged? Our model predicts that this selective disadvantage is smallest for picophytoplankton that live in tropical regions where Prochlorococcus are abundant in the real ocean. Conversely, the selective disadvantage of losing the ability to use nitrate is larger for modeled picophytoplankton that live at higher latitudes, where Synechococcus are abundant. In regions where we expect Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations to cycle seasonally in the real ocean, we find that model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Prochlorococcus are less disadvantaged by losing the ability to use nitrate than model ecotypes with seasonal population dynamics similar to Synechococcus. The model predictions for the selective advantage associated with nitrate use are broadly consistent with the distribution of this ability among marine picocyanobacteria, and at finer scales, can provide insights into interactions between temporally varying ocean processes and

  3. A Pacific Ocean general circulation model for satellite data assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Y.; Halpern, D.; Mechoso, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    A tropical Pacific Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) to be used in satellite data assimilation studies is described. The transfer of the OGCM from a CYBER-205 at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory to a CRAY-2 at NASA's Ames Research Center is documented. Two 3-year model integrations from identical initial conditions but performed on those two computers are compared. The model simulations are very similar to each other, as expected, but the simulations performed with the higher-precision CRAY-2 is smoother than that with the lower-precision CYBER-205. The CYBER-205 and CRAY-2 use 32 and 64-bit mantissa arithmetic, respectively. The major features of the oceanic circulation in the tropical Pacific, namely the North Equatorial Current, the North Equatorial Countercurrent, the South Equatorial Current, and the Equatorial Undercurrent, are realistically produced and their seasonal cycles are described. The OGCM provides a powerful tool for study of tropical oceans and for the assimilation of satellite altimetry data.

  4. Anisotropic Mesoscale Eddy Transport in Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, S. J.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Bachman, S.; Bryan, F.; Dennis, J.; Danabasoglu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate models are limited to coarse-resolution representations of large-scale ocean circulation that rely on parameterizations for mesoscale eddies. The effects of eddies are typically introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically in general circulation models. Thus, only a single parameter, namely the eddy diffusivity, is used at each spatial and temporal location to impart the influence of mesoscale eddies on the resolved flow. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion, potential vorticity barriers, oceanic turbulence, and instabilities, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters to three: a major diffusivity, a minor diffusivity, and the principal axis of alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the newly introduced parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces global temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved even further by parameterizing the anisotropic transport mechanisms in the ocean.

  5. Ocean modelling for aquaculture and fisheries in Irish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Cusack, C.; Casal, G.; Berry, A.; Nolan, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Marine Institute, Ireland, runs a suite of operational regional and coastal ocean models. Recent developments include several tailored products that focus on the key needs of the Irish aquaculture sector. In this article, an overview of the products and services derived from the models are presented. The authors give an overview of a shellfish model developed in-house and that was designed to predict the growth, the physiological interactions with the ecosystem, and the level of coliform contamination of the blue mussel. As such, this model is applicable in studies on the carrying capacity of embayments, assessment of the impacts of pollution on aquaculture grounds, and the determination of shellfish water classes. Further services include the assimilation of the model-predicted shelf water movement into a new harmful algal bloom alert system used to inform end users of potential toxic shellfish events and high biomass blooms that include fish-killing species. Models are also used to identify potential sites for offshore aquaculture, to inform studies of potential cross-contamination in farms from the dispersal of planktonic sea lice larvae and other pathogens that can infect finfish, and to provide modelled products that underpin the assessment and advisory services on the sustainable exploitation of the resources of marine fisheries. This paper demonstrates that ocean models can provide an invaluable contribution to the sustainable blue growth of aquaculture and fisheries.

  6. High-resolution coupled ice sheet-ocean modeling using the POPSICLES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, E. G.; Martin, D. F.; Asay-Davis, X.; Price, S. F.; Collins, W.

    2014-12-01

    It is expected that a primary driver of future change of the Antarctic ice sheet will be changes in submarine melting driven by incursions of warm ocean water into sub-ice shelf cavities. Correctly modeling this response on a continental scale will require high-resolution modeling of the coupled ice-ocean system. We describe the computational and modeling challenges in our simulations of the full Southern Ocean coupled to a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet model at unprecedented spatial resolutions (0.1 degree for the ocean model and adaptive mesh refinement down to 500m in the ice sheet model). The POPSICLES model couples the POP2x ocean model, a modified version of the Parallel Ocean Program (Smith and Gent, 2002), with the BISICLES ice-sheet model (Cornford et al., 2012) using a synchronous offline-coupling scheme. Part of the PISCEES SciDAC project and built on the Chombo framework, BISICLES makes use of adaptive mesh refinement to fully resolve dynamically-important regions like grounding lines and employs a momentum balance similar to the vertically-integrated formulation of Schoof and Hindmarsh (2009). Results of BISICLES simulations have compared favorably to comparable simulations with a Stokes momentum balance in both idealized tests like MISMIP3D (Pattyn et al., 2013) and realistic configurations (Favier et al. 2014). POP2x includes sub-ice-shelf circulation using partial top cells (Losch, 2008) and boundary layer physics following Holland and Jenkins (1999), Jenkins (2001), and Jenkins et al. (2010). Standalone POP2x output compares well with standard ice-ocean test cases (e.g., ISOMIP; Losch, 2008) and other continental-scale simulations and melt-rate observations (Kimura et al., 2013; Rignot et al., 2013). For the POPSICLES Antarctic-Southern Ocean simulations, ice sheet and ocean models communicate at one-month coupling intervals.

  7. Ocean Hydrodynamics Numerical Model in Curvilinear Coordinates for Simulating Circulation of the Global Ocean and its Separate Basins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The original program complex is proposed for the ocean circulation sigma-model, developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (INM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The complex can be used in various curvilinear orthogonal coordinate systems. In addition to ocean circulation model, the complex contains a sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics model, as well as the original system of the atmospheric forcing implementation on the basis of both prescribed meteodata and atmospheric model results. This complex can be used as the oceanic block of Earth climate model as well as for solving the scientific and practical problems concerning the World ocean and its separate oceans and seas. The developed program complex can be effectively used on parallel shared memory computational systems and on contemporary personal computers. On the base of the complex proposed the ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was developed. The model is realized in the curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system obtained by the conformal transformation of the standard geographical grid that allowed us to locate the system singularities outside the integration domain. The horizontal resolution of the OGCM is 1 degree on longitude, 0.5 degree on latitude, and it has 40 non-uniform sigma-levels in depth. The model was integrated for 100 years starting from the Levitus January climatology using the realistic atmospheric annual cycle calculated on the base of CORE datasets. The experimental results showed us that the model adequately reproduces the basic characteristics of large-scale World Ocean dynamics, that is in good agreement with both observational data and results of the best climatic OGCMs. This OGCM is used as the oceanic component of the new version of climatic system model (CSM) developed in INM RAS. The latter is now ready for carrying out the new numerical experiments on climate and its change modelling according to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios in the

  8. Ocean sea-ice modelling in the Southern Ocean around Indian Antarctic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anurag; Dwivedi, Suneet; Rajak, D. Ram

    2017-07-01

    An eddy-resolving coupled ocean sea-ice modelling is carried out in the Southern Ocean region (9°-78°E; 51°-71°S) using the MITgcm. The model domain incorporates the Indian Antarctic stations, Maitri (11.7{°}E; 70.7{°}S) and Bharati (76.1{°}E; 69.4{°}S). The realistic simulation of the surface variables, namely, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), surface currents, sea ice concentration (SIC) and sea ice thickness (SIT) is presented for the period of 1997-2012. The horizontal resolution of the model varies between 6 and 10 km. The highest vertical resolution of 5 m is taken near the surface, which gradually increases with increasing depths. The seasonal variability of the SST, SSS, SIC and currents is compared with the available observations in the region of study. It is found that the SIC of the model domain is increasing at a rate of 0.09% per month (nearly 1% per year), whereas, the SIC near Maitri and Bharati regions is increasing at a rate of 0.14 and 0.03% per month, respectively. The variability of the drift of the sea-ice is also estimated over the period of simulation. It is also found that the sea ice volume of the region increases at the rate of 0.0004 km3 per month (nearly 0.005 km3 per year). Further, it is revealed that the accumulation of sea ice around Bharati station is more as compared to Maitri station.

  9. Ocean Wave Studies with Applications to Ocean Modeling and Improvement of Satellite Altimeter Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1999-01-01

    Combining analysis of satellite data (altimeter, scatterometer, high-resolution visible and infrared images, etc.) with mathematical modeling of non-linear wave processes, we investigate various ocean wave fields (on scales from capillary to planetary), their role in ocean dynamics and turbulent transport (of heat and biogeochemical quantities), and their effects on satellite altimeter measuring accuracy. In 1998 my attention was focused on long internal gravity waves (10 to 1000 km), known also as baroclinic inertia-gravity (BIG) waves. We found these waves to be a major factor of altimeter measurements "noise," resulting in a greater uncertainty [up to 10 cm in terms of sea surface height (SSH) amplitude] in the measured SSH signal than that caused by the sea state bias variations (up to 5 cm or so). This effect still remains largely overlooked by the satellite altimeter community. Our studies of BIG waves address not only their influence on altimeter measurements but also their role in global ocean dynamics and in transport and turbulent diffusion of biogeochemical quantities. In particular, in collaboration with Prof Peter Weichman, Caltech, we developed a theory of turbulent diffusion caused by wave motions of most general nature. Applied to the problem of horizontal turbulent diffusion in the ocean, the theory yielded the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of BIG wave parameters obtainable from satellite altimeter data. This effort, begun in 1997, has been successfully completed in 1998. We also developed a theory that relates spatial fluctuations of scalar fields (such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, drifting ice concentration, etc.) to statistical characteristics of BIG waves obtainable from altimeter measurements. A manuscript is in the final stages of preparation. In order to verify the theoretical predictions and apply them to observations, we are now analyzing Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Field of

  10. Log-Normal Turbulence Dissipation in Global Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2018-03-01

    Data from turbulent numerical simulations of the global ocean demonstrate that the dissipation of kinetic energy obeys a nearly log-normal distribution even at large horizontal scales O (10 km ) . As the horizontal scales of resolved turbulence are larger than the ocean is deep, the Kolmogorov-Yaglom theory for intermittency in 3D homogeneous, isotropic turbulence cannot apply; instead, the down-scale potential enstrophy cascade of quasigeostrophic turbulence should. Yet, energy dissipation obeys approximate log-normality—robustly across depths, seasons, regions, and subgrid schemes. The distribution parameters, skewness and kurtosis, show small systematic departures from log-normality with depth and subgrid friction schemes. Log-normality suggests that a few high-dissipation locations dominate the integrated energy and enstrophy budgets, which should be taken into account when making inferences from simplified models and inferring global energy budgets from sparse observations.

  11. Hierarchical algorithms for modeling the ocean on hierarchical architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. N.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will describe an approach to using accelerator/co-processor technology that maps hierarchical, multi-scale modeling techniques to an underlying hierarchical hardware architecture. The focus of this work is on making effective use of both CPU and accelerator/co-processor parts of a system, for large scale ocean modeling. In the work, a lower resolution basin scale ocean model is locally coupled to multiple, "embedded", limited area higher resolution sub-models. The higher resolution models execute on co-processor/accelerator hardware and do not interact directly with other sub-models. The lower resolution basin scale model executes on the system CPU(s). The result is a multi-scale algorithm that aligns with hardware designs in the co-processor/accelerator space. We demonstrate this approach being used to substitute explicit process models for standard parameterizations. Code for our sub-models is implemented through a generic abstraction layer, so that we can target multiple accelerator architectures with different programming environments. We will present two application and implementation examples. One uses the CUDA programming environment and targets GPU hardware. This example employs a simple non-hydrostatic two dimensional sub-model to represent vertical motion more accurately. The second example uses a highly threaded three-dimensional model at high resolution. This targets a MIC/Xeon Phi like environment and uses sub-models as a way to explicitly compute sub-mesoscale terms. In both cases the accelerator/co-processor capability provides extra compute cycles that allow improved model fidelity for little or no extra wall-clock time cost.

  12. Can We Infer Ocean Dynamics from Altimeter Wavenumber Spectra?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, James; Shriver, Jay; Arbic, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The wavenumber spectra of sea surface height (SSH) and kinetic energy (KE) have been used to infer the dynamics of the ocean. When quasi-geostrophic dynamics (QG) or surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) turbulence dominate and an inertial subrange exists, a steep SSH wavenumber spectrum is expected with k-5 for QG turbulence and a flatter k-11/3 for SQG turbulence. However, inspection of the spectral slopes in the mesoscale band of 70 to 250 km shows that the altimeter wavenumber slopes typically are much flatter than the QG or SQG predictions over most of the ocean. Comparison of the altimeter wavenumber spectra with the spectra estimated from the output of an eddy resolving global ocean circulation model (the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM, at 1/25 resolution), which is forced by high frequency winds and includes the astronomical forcing of the sun and the moon, suggests that the flatter slopes of the altimeter may arise from three possible sources, the presence of internal waves, the lack of an inertial subrange in the 70 to 250 km band and noise or submesoscales at small scales. When the wavenumber spectra of SSH and KE are estimated near the internal tide generating regions, the resulting spectra are much flatter than the expectations of QG or SQG theory. If the height and velocity variability are separated into low frequency (periods greater than 2 days) and high frequency (periods less than a day), then a different pattern emerges with a relatively flat wavenumber spectrum at high frequency and a steeper wavenumber spectrum at low frequency. The stationary internal tides can be removed from the altimeter spectrum, which steepens the spectral slopes in the energetic internal wave regions. Away from generating regions where the internal waves

  13. Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Gary P; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Gorton, Rebecca; Richardson, Anthony J

    2012-12-01

    An important challenge for conservation is a quantitative understanding of how multiple human stressors will interact to mitigate or exacerbate global environmental change at a community or ecosystem level. We explored the interaction effects of fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification over time on 60 functional groups of species in the southeastern Australian marine ecosystem. We tracked changes in relative biomass within a coupled dynamic whole-ecosystem modeling framework that included the biophysical system, human effects, socioeconomics, and management evaluation. We estimated the individual, additive, and interactive effects on the ecosystem and for five community groups (top predators, fishes, benthic invertebrates, plankton, and primary producers). We calculated the size and direction of interaction effects with an additive null model and interpreted results as synergistic (amplified stress), additive (no additional stress), or antagonistic (reduced stress). Individually, only ocean acidification had a negative effect on total biomass. Fishing and ocean warming and ocean warming with ocean acidification had an additive effect on biomass. Adding fishing to ocean warming and ocean acidification significantly changed the direction and magnitude of the interaction effect to a synergistic response on biomass. The interaction effect depended on the response level examined (ecosystem vs. community). For communities, the size, direction, and type of interaction effect varied depending on the combination of stressors. Top predator and fish biomass had a synergistic response to the interaction of all three stressors, whereas biomass of benthic invertebrates responded antagonistically. With our approach, we were able to identify the regional effects of fishing on the size and direction of the interacting effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Modeling ocean wave propagation under sea ice covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hayley H.; Cheng, Sukun

    2015-02-01

    Operational ocean wave models need to work globally, yet current ocean wave models can only treat ice-covered regions crudely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of ice effects on wave propagation and different research methodology used in studying these effects. Based on its proximity to land or sea, sea ice can be classified as: landfast ice zone, shear zone, and the marginal ice zone. All ice covers attenuate wave energy. Only long swells can penetrate deep into an ice cover. Being closest to open water, wave propagation in the marginal ice zone is the most complex to model. The physical appearance of sea ice in the marginal ice zone varies. Grease ice, pancake ice, brash ice, floe aggregates, and continuous ice sheet may be found in this zone at different times and locations. These types of ice are formed under different thermal-mechanical forcing. There are three classic models that describe wave propagation through an idealized ice cover: mass loading, thin elastic plate, and viscous layer models. From physical arguments we may conjecture that mass loading model is suitable for disjoint aggregates of ice floes much smaller than the wavelength, thin elastic plate model is suitable for a continuous ice sheet, and the viscous layer model is suitable for grease ice. For different sea ice types we may need different wave ice interaction models. A recently proposed viscoelastic model is able to synthesize all three classic models into one. Under suitable limiting conditions it converges to the three previous models. The complete theoretical framework for evaluating wave propagation through various ice covers need to be implemented in the operational ocean wave models. In this review, we introduce the sea ice types, previous wave ice interaction models, wave attenuation mechanisms, the methods to calculate wave reflection and transmission between different ice covers, and the effect of ice floe breaking on shaping the sea ice morphology

  15. Importance of solar subsurface heating in ocean general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochford, Peter A.; Kara, A. Birol; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Arnone, Robert A.

    2001-12-01

    The importance of subsurface heating on surface mixed layer properties in an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is examined using attenuation of solar irradiance with depth below the ocean surface. The depth-dependent attenuation of subsurface heating is given by global monthly mean fields for the attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), kPAR. These global fields of kPAR are derived from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data on the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (k490), and have been processed to have the smoothly varying and continuous coverage necessary for use in OGCM applications. These monthly fields provide the first complete global data sets of subsurface optical fields that can be used for OGCM applications of subsurface heating and bio-optical processes. The effect on global OGCM prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface mixed layer depth (MLD) is examined when solar heating, as given by monthly mean kPAR and PAR fields, is included in the model. It is found that subsurface heating yields a marked increase in the SST predictive skill of the OGCM at low latitudes. No significant improvement in MLD predictive skill is obtained when including subsurface heating. Use of the monthly mean kPAR produces an SST decrease of up to 0.8°C and a MLD increase of up to only 4-5 m for climatological surface forcing, with this primarily confined to the equatorial regions. Remarkably, a constant kPAR value of 0.06 m-1, which is indicative of optically clear open ocean conditions, is found to serve very well for OGCM prediction of SST and MLD over most of the global ocean.

  16. Challenges and potential solutions for European coastal ocean modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Stanev, Emil

    2017-04-01

    Coastal operational oceanography is a science and technological platform to integrate and transform the outcomes in marine monitoring, new knowledge generation and innovative technologies into operational information products and services in the coastal ocean. It has been identified as one of the four research priorities by EuroGOOS (She et al. 2016). Coastal modelling plays a central role in such an integration and transformation. A next generation coastal ocean forecasting system should have following features: i) being able to fully exploit benefits from future observations, ii) generate meaningful products in finer scales e.g., sub-mesoscale and in estuary-coast-sea continuum, iii) efficient parallel computing and model grid structure, iv) provide high quality forecasts as forcing to NWP and coastal climate models, v) resolving correctly inter-basin and inter-sub-basin water exchange, vi) resolving synoptic variability and predictability in marine ecosystems, e.g., for algae bloom, vi) being able to address critical and relevant issues in coastal applications, e.g., marine spatial planning, maritime safety, marine pollution protection, disaster prevention, offshore wind energy, climate change adaptation and mitigation, ICZM (integrated coastal zone management), the WFD (Water Framework Directive), and the MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive), especially on habitat, eutrophication, and hydrographic condition descriptors. This presentation will address above challenges, identify limits of current models and propose correspondent research needed. The proposed roadmap will address an integrated monitoring-modelling approach and developing Unified European Coastal Ocean Models. In the coming years, a few new developments in European Sea observations can expected, e.g., more near real time delivering on profile observations made by research vessels, more shallow water Argo floats and bio-Argo floats deployed, much more high resolution sea level data from SWOT

  17. Atmospheric and Oceanic Response to Southern Ocean Deep Convection Oscillations on Decadal to Centennial Time Scales in Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T.; Reintges, A.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many current coupled global climate models simulate open ocean deep convection in the Southern Ocean as a recurring event with time scales ranging from a few years to centennial (de Lavergne et al., 2014, Nat. Clim. Ch.). The only observation of such event, however, was the occurrence of the Weddell Polynya in the mid-1970s, an open water area of 350 000 km2 within the Antarctic sea ice in three consecutive winters. Both the wide range of modeled frequency of occurrence and the absence of deep convection in the Weddell Sea highlights the lack of understanding concerning the phenomenon. Nevertheless, simulations indicate that atmospheric and oceanic responses to the cessation of deep convection in the Southern Ocean include a strengthening of the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean (increasing SAM index) and a reduction in the export of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), potentially masking the regional effects of global warming (Latif et al., 2013, J. Clim.; Martin et al., 2014, Deep Sea Res. II). It is thus of great importance to enhance our understanding of Southern Ocean deep convection and clarify the associated time scales. In two multi-millennial simulations with the Kiel Climate Model (KCM, ECHAM5 T31 atmosphere & NEMO-LIM2 ~2˚ ocean) we showed that the deep convection is driven by strong oceanic warming at mid-depth periodically overriding the stabilizing effects of precipitation and ice melt (Martin et al., 2013, Clim. Dyn.). Sea ice thickness also affects location and duration of the deep convection. A new control simulation, in which, amongst others, the atmosphere grid resolution is changed to T42 (~2.8˚), yields a faster deep convection flip-flop with a period of 80-100 years and a weaker but still significant global climate response similar to CMIP5 simulations. While model physics seem to affect the time scale and intensity of the phenomenon, the driving mechanism is a rather robust feature. Finally, we compare the atmospheric and

  18. Upper oceanic response to tropical cyclone Phailin in the Bay of Bengal using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Kumar Ravi; Pant, Vimlesh

    2017-01-01

    A numerical simulation of very severe cyclonic storm `Phailin', which originated in southeastern Bay of Bengal (BoB) and propagated northwestward during 10-15 October 2013, was carried out using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. A Model Coupling Toolkit (MCT) was used to make exchanges of fluxes consistent between the atmospheric model `Weather Research and Forecasting' (WRF) and ocean circulation model `Regional Ocean Modelling System' (ROMS) components of the `Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport' (COAWST) modelling system. The track and intensity of tropical cyclone (TC) Phailin simulated by the WRF component of the coupled model agrees well with the best-track estimates reported by the India Meteorological Department (IMD). Ocean model component (ROMS) was configured over the BoB domain; it utilized the wind stress and net surface heat fluxes from the WRF model to investigate upper oceanic response to the passage of TC Phailin. The coupled model shows pronounced sea surface cooling (2-2.5 °C) and an increase in sea surface salinity (SSS) (2-3 psu) after 06 GMT on 12 October 2013 over the northwestern BoB. Signature of this surface cooling was also observed in satellite data and buoy measurements. The oceanic mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals relative roles of different oceanic processes in controlling the mixed layer temperature over the region of observed cooling. The heat budget highlighted major contributions from horizontal advection and vertical entrainment processes in governing the mixed layer cooling (up to -0.1 °C h-1) and, thereby, reduction in sea surface temperature (SST) in the northwestern BoB during 11-12 October 2013. During the post-cyclone period, the net heat flux at surface regained its diurnal variations with a noontime peak that provided a warming tendency up to 0.05 °C h-1 in the mixed layer. Clear signatures of TC-induced upwelling are seen in vertical velocity (about 2.5 × 10-3 m s-1), rise in isotherms and

  19. Failed oceanic transform models: experience of shaking the tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras

    2017-04-01

    In geodynamics, numerical modeling is often used as a trial-and-error tool, which does not necessarily requires full understanding or even a correct concept for a modeled phenomenon. Paradoxically, in order to understand an enigmatic process one should simply try to model it based on some initial assumptions, which must not even be correct… The reason is that our intuition is not always well "calibrated" for understanding of geodynamic phenomena, which develop on space- and timescales that are very different from our everyday experience. We often have much better ideas about physical laws governing geodynamic processes than on how these laws should interact on geological space- and timescales. From this prospective, numerical models, in which these physical laws are self-consistently implemented, can gradually calibrate our intuition by exploring what scenarios are physically sensible and what are not. I personally went through this painful learning path many times and one noteworthy example was my 3D numerical modeling of oceanic transform faults. As I understand in retrospective, my initial literature-inspired concept of how and why transform faults form and evolve was thermomechanically inconsistent and based on two main assumptions (btw. both were incorrect!): (1) oceanic transforms are directly inherited from the continental rifting and breakup stages and (2) they represent plate fragmentation structures having peculiar extension-parallel orientation due to the stress rotation caused by thermal contraction of the oceanic lithosphere. During one year (!) of high-resolution thermomechanical numerical experiments exploring various physics (including very computationally demanding thermal contraction) I systematically observed how my initially prescribed extension-parallel weak transform faults connecting ridge segments rotated away from their original orientation and get converted into oblique ridge sections… This was really an epic failure! However, at the

  20. Skill Assessment of a Spectral Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson, W.; Casey, Nancy W.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean phytoplankton, detrital material, and water absorb and scatter light spectrally. The Ocean- Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is intended to provide surface irradiance over the oceans with sufficient spectral resolution to support ocean ecology, biogeochemistry, and heat exchange investigations, and of sufficient duration to support inter-annual and decadal investigations. OASIM total surface irradiance (integrated 200 nm to 4 microns) was compared to in situ data and three publicly available global data products at monthly 1-degree resolution. OASIM spectrally-integrated surface irradiance had root mean square (RMS) difference= 20.1 W/sq m (about 11%), bias=1.6 W/sq m (about 0.8%), regression slope= 1.01 and correlation coefficient= 0.89, when compared to 2322 in situ observations. OASIM had the lowest bias of any of the global data products evaluated (ISCCP-FD, NCEP, and ISLSCP 11), and the best slope (nearest to unity). It had the second best RMS, and the third best correlation coefficient. OASIM total surface irradiance compared well with ISCCP-FD (RMS= 20.7 W/sq m; bias=-11.4 W/sq m, r=0.98) and ISLSCP II (RMS =25.2 W/sq m; bias= -13.8 W/sq m; r=0.97), but less well with NCEP (RMS =43.0 W/sq m ;bias=-22.6 W/sq m; x=0.91). Comparisons of OASIM photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) with PAR derived from SeaWiFS showed low bias (-1.8 mol photons /sq m/d, or about 5%), RMS (4.25 mol photons /sq m/d ' or about 12%), near unity slope (1.03) and high correlation coefficient (0.97). Coupled with previous estimates of clear sky spectral irradiance in OASIM (6.6% RMS at 1 nm resolution), these results suggest that OASIM provides reasonable estimates of surface broadband and spectral irradiance in the oceans, and can support studies on ocean ecosystems, carbon cycling, and heat exchange.

  1. Oceanic ensemble forecasting in the Gulf of Mexico: An application to the case of the Deep Water Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khade, Vikram; Kurian, Jaison; Chang, Ping; Szunyogh, Istvan; Thyng, Kristen; Montuoro, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of ocean ensemble forecasting in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The Bred Vector (BV) technique with one week rescaling frequency is implemented on a 9 km resolution version of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). Numerical experiments are carried out by using the HYCOM analysis products to define the initial conditions and the lateral boundary conditions. The growth rates of the forecast uncertainty are estimated to be about 10% of initial amplitude per week. By carrying out ensemble forecast experiments with and without perturbed surface forcing, it is demonstrated that in the coastal regions accounting for uncertainties in the atmospheric forcing is more important than accounting for uncertainties in the ocean initial conditions. In the Loop Current region, the initial condition uncertainties, are the dominant source of the forecast uncertainty. The root-mean-square error of the Lagrangian track forecasts at the 15-day forecast lead time can be reduced by about 10 - 50 km using the ensemble mean Eulerian forecast of the oceanic flow for the computation of the tracks, instead of the single-initial-condition Eulerian forecast.

  2. Massive Cloud-Based Big Data Processing for Ocean Sensor Networks and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Until recently, the work required to integrate and analyze data for global-scale environmental issues was prohibitive both in cost and availability. Traditional desktop processing systems are not able to effectively store and process all the data, and super computer solutions are financially out of the reach of most people. The availability of large-scale cloud computing has created tools that are usable by small groups and individuals regardless of financial resources or locally available computational resources. These systems give scientists and policymakers the ability to see how critical resources are being used across the globe with little or no barrier to entry. Google Earth Engine has the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, MODIS Aqua, and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (GLDAS) data catalogs available live online. Here we demonstrate these data to calculate the correlation between lagged chlorophyll and rainfall to identify areas of eutrophication, matching these events to ocean currents from datasets like HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to check if there are constraints from oceanographic configurations. The system can provide addition ground truth with observations from sensor networks like the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set / Voluntary Observing Ship (ICOADS/VOS) and Argo floats. This presentation is intended to introduce users to the datasets, programming idioms, and functionality of Earth Engine for large-scale, data-driven oceanography.

  3. gpuPOM: a GPU-based Princeton Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Huang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Fu, H.; Oey, L.-Y.; Xu, F.; Yang, G.

    2014-11-01

    Rapid advances in the performance of the graphics processing unit (GPU) have made the GPU a compelling solution for a series of scientific applications. However, most existing GPU acceleration works for climate models are doing partial code porting for certain hot spots, and can only achieve limited speedup for the entire model. In this work, we take the mpiPOM (a parallel version of the Princeton Ocean Model) as our starting point, design and implement a GPU-based Princeton Ocean Model. By carefully considering the architectural features of the state-of-the-art GPU devices, we rewrite the full mpiPOM model from the original Fortran version into a new Compute Unified Device Architecture C (CUDA-C) version. We take several accelerating methods to further improve the performance of gpuPOM, including optimizing memory access in a single GPU, overlapping communication and boundary operations among multiple GPUs, and overlapping input/output (I/O) between the hybrid Central Processing Unit (CPU) and the GPU. Our experimental results indicate that the performance of the gpuPOM on a workstation containing 4 GPUs is comparable to a powerful cluster with 408 CPU cores and it reduces the energy consumption by 6.8 times.

  4. Procedures for offline grid nesting in regional ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Evan; Molemaker, Jeroen; Shchepetkin, Alexander F.; Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Sangrà, Pablo

    One-way offline nesting of a primitive-equation regional ocean numerical model (ROMS) is investigated, with special attention to the boundary forcing file creation process. The model has a modified open boundary condition which minimises false wave reflections, and is optimised to utilise high-frequency boundary updates. The model configuration features a previously computed solution which supplies boundary forcing data to an interior domain with an increased grid resolution. At the open boundaries of the interior grid (the child) the topography is matched to that of the outer grid (the parent), over a narrow transition region. A correction is applied to the normal baroclinic and barotropic velocities at the open boundaries of the child to ensure volume conservation. It is shown that these steps, together with a carefully constructed interpolation of the parent data, lead to a high-quality child solution, with minimal artifacts such as persistent rim currents and wave reflections at the boundaries. Sensitivity experiments provide information about the robustness of the model open boundary condition to perturbations in the surface wind stress forcing field, to the perturbation of the volume conservation enforcement in the boundary forcing, and to perturbation of the vertical density structure in the boundary forcing. This knowledge is important when extending the nesting technique to include external data from alien sources, such as ocean models with physics and/or numerics different from ROMS, or from observed climatologies of temperature, salinity and sea level.

  5. Evaluation and Sensitivity Analysis of an Ocean Model Response to Hurricane Ivan (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-18

    analysis of upper-limb meridional overturning circulation interior ocean pathways in the tropical/subtropical Atlantic . In: Interhemispheric Water...diminishing returns are encountered when either resolution is increased. 3 1. Introduction Coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models have become...northwest Caribbean Sea 4 and GOM. Evaluation is difficult because ocean general circulation models incorporate a large suite of numerical algorithms

  6. Climate change and larval transport in the ocean: fractional effects from physical and physiological factors.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Matthew S; Poti, Matt; Karnauskas, Kristopher B

    2016-04-01

    Changes in larval import, export, and self-seeding will affect the resilience of coral reef ecosystems. Climate change will alter the ocean currents that transport larvae and also increase sea surface temperatures (SST), hastening development, and shortening larval durations. Here, we use transport simulations to estimate future larval connectivity due to: (1) physical transport of larvae from altered circulation alone, and (2) the combined effects of altered currents plus physiological response to warming. Virtual larvae from islands throughout Micronesia were moved according to present-day and future ocean circulation models. The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) spanning 2004-2012 represented present-day currents. For future currents, we altered HYCOM using analysis from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model, version 1-Biogeochemistry, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 experiment. Based on the NCAR model, regional SST is estimated to rise 2.74 °C which corresponds to a ~17% decline in larval duration for some taxa. This reduction was the basis for a separate set of simulations. Results predict an increase in self-seeding in 100 years such that 62-76% of islands experienced increased self-seeding, there was an average domainwide increase of ~1-3% points in self-seeding, and increases of up to 25% points for several individual islands. When changed currents alone were considered, approximately half (i.e., random) of all island pairs experienced decreased connectivity but when reduced PLD was added as an effect, ~65% of connections were weakened. Orientation of archipelagos relative to currents determined the directional bias in connectivity changes. There was no universal relationship between climate change and connectivity applicable to all taxa and settings. Islands that presently export large numbers of larvae but that also maintain or enhance this role into the future should be the focus of conservation

  7. Bio-Optical Measurement and Modeling of the California Current and Southern Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Gregg; Mitchell, B. Greg

    2003-01-01

    The SIMBIOS project's principal goals are to validate standard or experimental ocean color products through detailed bio-optical and biogeochemical measurements, and to combine Ocean optical observations with modeling to contribute to satellite vicarious radiometric calibration and algorithm development.

  8. Advancing dynamic and thermodynamic modelling of magma oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron; Sanan, Patrick; Tackley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The techniques for modelling low melt-fraction dynamics in planetary interiors are well-established by supplementing the Stokes equations with Darcy's Law. But modelling high-melt fraction phenomena, relevant to the earliest phase of magma ocean cooling, necessitates parameterisations to capture the dynamics of turbulent flow that are otherwise unresolvable in numerical models. Furthermore, it requires knowledge about the material properties of both solid and melt mantle phases, the latter of which are poorly described by typical equations of state. To address these challenges, we present (1) a new interior evolution model that, in a single formulation, captures both solid and melt dynamics and hence charts the complete cooling trajectory of a planetary mantle, and (2) a physical and intuitive extension of a "Hard Sphere" liquid equation of state (EOS) to describe silicate melt properties for the pressure-temperature (P-T) range of Earth's mantle. Together, these two advancements provide a comprehensive and versatile modelling framework for probing the far-reaching consequences of magma ocean cooling and crystallisation for Earth and other rocky planets. The interior evolution model accounts for heat transfer by conduction, convection, latent heat, and gravitational separation. It uses the finite volume method to ensure energy conservation at each time-step and accesses advanced time integration algorithms by interfacing with PETSc. This ensures it accurately and efficiently computes the dynamics throughout the magma ocean, including within the ultra-thin thermal boundary layers (< 2 cm thickness) at the core-mantle boundary and surface. PETSc also enables our code to support a parallel implementation and quad-precision calculations for future modelling capabilities. The thermodynamics of mantle melting are represented using a pseudo-one-component model, which retains the simplicity of a standard one-component model while introducing a finite temperature interval

  9. Coupled Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Sound in Coastal Ocean for Renewable Ocean Energy Development

    SciT

    Long, Wen; Jung, Ki Won; Yang, Zhaoqing

    An underwater sound model was developed to simulate sound propagation from marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) devices or offshore wind (OSW) energy platforms. Finite difference methods were developed to solve the 3D Helmholtz equation for sound propagation in the coastal environment. A 3D sparse matrix solver with complex coefficients was formed for solving the resulting acoustic pressure field. The Complex Shifted Laplacian Preconditioner (CSLP) method was applied to solve the matrix system iteratively with MPI parallelization using a high performance cluster. The sound model was then coupled with the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) for simulating sound propagation generatedmore » by human activities, such as construction of OSW turbines or tidal stream turbine operations, in a range-dependent setting. As a proof of concept, initial validation of the solver is presented for two coastal wedge problems. This sound model can be useful for evaluating impacts on marine mammals due to deployment of MHK devices and OSW energy platforms.« less

  10. Upper Ocean Mixing Processes and Circulation in the Arabian Sea during Monsoons using Remote Sensing, Hydrographic Observations and HYCOM Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    effecting the salinity of the upper layer and the formation of the barrier layer (BL) within the isothermal layer. The BL in turn controls vertical mixing...daily values over a month with a 1° horizontal resolution [Reynolds et al., 2002]. Daily data (from Coriolis project) and Monthly gridded Argo

  11. Bayesian Inference of High-Dimensional Dynamical Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.; Lolla, S. V. T.; Gupta, A.; Haley, P. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation addresses a holistic set of challenges in high-dimension ocean Bayesian nonlinear estimation: i) predict the probability distribution functions (pdfs) of large nonlinear dynamical systems using stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs); ii) assimilate data using Bayes' law with these pdfs; iii) predict the future data that optimally reduce uncertainties; and (iv) rank the known and learn the new model formulations themselves. Overall, we allow the joint inference of the state, equations, geometry, boundary conditions and initial conditions of dynamical models. Examples are provided for time-dependent fluid and ocean flows, including cavity, double-gyre and Strait flows with jets and eddies. The Bayesian model inference, based on limited observations, is illustrated first by the estimation of obstacle shapes and positions in fluid flows. Next, the Bayesian inference of biogeochemical reaction equations and of their states and parameters is presented, illustrating how PDE-based machine learning can rigorously guide the selection and discovery of complex ecosystem models. Finally, the inference of multiscale bottom gravity current dynamics is illustrated, motivated in part by classic overflows and dense water formation sites and their relevance to climate monitoring and dynamics. This is joint work with our MSEAS group at MIT.

  12. Assimilation of satellite altimeter data into an open ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeler, Armin; SchröTer, Jens

    1995-08-01

    Geosat sea surface height data are assimilated into an eddy-resolving quasi-geostrophic open ocean model using the adjoint technique. The method adjusts the initial conditions for all layers and is successful on the timescale of a few weeks. Time-varying values for the open boundaries are prescribed by a much larger quasi-geostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Both models have the same resolution of approximately 20×20 km (1/3°×1/6°), have three layers, and include realistic bottom topography and coastlines. The open model box is embedded in the African sector of the ACC. For continuous assimilation of satellite data into the larger model the nudging technique is applied. These results are used for the adjoint optimization procedure as boundary conditions and as a first guess for the initial condition. For the open model box the difference between model and satellite sea surface height that remains after the nudging experiment amounts to a 19-cm root-mean-square error (rmse). By assimilation into the regional model this value can be reduced to a 6-cm rmse for an assimilation period of 20 days. Several experiments which attempt to improve the convergence of the iterative optimization method are reported. Scaling and regularization by smoothing have to be applied carefully. Especially during the first 10 iterations, the convergence can be improved considerably by low-pass filtering of the cost function gradient. The result of a perturbation experiment shows that for longer assimilation periods the influence of the boundary values becomes dominant and they should be determined inversely by data assimilation into the open ocean model.

  13. Evolution of Subducted Oceanic Crust in Dynamic Mantle Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, J.; van Keken, P. E.; Ballentine, C.; Hauri, E.

    2006-12-01

    Isotopic ratios measured in oceanic basalts indicate the persistence of a highly differentiated and ancient mantle component. The provenance and distribution of this component are the subject of much discussion. A number of geodynamic studies have focused on the preservation of a chemically dense layer in the deepest mantle, while a smaller set of studies have explored the possibilities for its generation. We present an evaluation of the hypothesis that such a layer may represent the accumulation of subducted oceanic crust, with critical examination of the role that plate tectonics plays in mantle differentiation. In geodynamic models the treatment of plate tectonics controls crust production, subduction, and modulates the remixing rate. We use two methods for approximating plates in our models; prescription of a velocity boundary condition, and the force-balance method [1]. Emphasis is placed on the force-balance method, in which a numerical solution for the conservation of momentum is constructed by superposition. The force balance method has a minimum of free parameters compared to complex rheological descriptions that yield plate like behavior, and does not have the potential to artificially drive or hinder convection introduced by prescribing velocity boundary conditions. The mixing properties of the various methods are examined by comparison of embedded geochemical models for the isotopic evolution of Pb,U,Sm,Nd,Re,Os, and the noble gases. We find that the incorporation of strong plates leads to a mantle with increased stratification of heterogeneity. Sequestration of old oceanic crust in dense pools in the lowermost mantle is observed. However, the size and longevity of these dense pools decline considerably as realistic convective vigor is approached. Parameter space analysis is used to quantify this variability within the selection of models that reproduce Earth-like heat flow and plate velocities, and for comparison with the work of other authors. The

  14. Verification of the naval oceanic vertical aerosol model during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, K. L.; Deleeuw, G.; Gathman, S. G.; Jensen, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The value of Naval Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model (NOVAM) is illustrated for estimating the non-uniform and non-logarithmic extinction profiles, based on a severe test involving conditions close to and beyond the limits of applicability of NOVAM. A more comprehensive evaluation of NOVAM from the FIRE data is presented, which includes a clear-air case. For further evaluation more data are required on the vertical structure of the extinction in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), preferably for different meteorological conditions and in different geographic areas (e.g., ASTEX).

  15. GIA Model Statistics for GRACE Hydrology, Cryosphere, and Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, L.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E.; Adhikari, S.; Nilsson, J.; Blewitt, G.

    2018-03-01

    We provide a new analysis of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) with the goal of assembling the model uncertainty statistics required for rigorously extracting trends in surface mass from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Such statistics are essential for deciphering sea level, ocean mass, and hydrological changes because the latter signals can be relatively small (≤2 mm/yr water height equivalent) over very large regions, such as major ocean basins and watersheds. With abundant new >7 year continuous measurements of vertical land motion (VLM) reported by Global Positioning System stations on bedrock and new relative sea level records, our new statistical evaluation of GIA uncertainties incorporates Bayesian methodologies. A unique aspect of the method is that both the ice history and 1-D Earth structure vary through a total of 128,000 forward models. We find that best fit models poorly capture the statistical inferences needed to correctly invert for lower mantle viscosity and that GIA uncertainty exceeds the uncertainty ascribed to trends from 14 years of GRACE data in polar regions.

  16. Thermal and mechanical structure of the upper mantle: A comparison between continental and oceanic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, C.; Schubert, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature, velocity, and viscosity profiles for coupled thermal and mechanical models of the upper mantle beneath continental shields and old ocean basins show that under the continents, both tectonic plates and the asthenosphere, are thicker than they are beneath the oceans. The minimum value of viscosity in the continental asthenosphere is about an order of magnitude larger than in the shear zone beneath oceans. The shear stress or drag underneath continental plates is also approximately an order of magnitude larger than the drag on oceanic plates. Effects of shear heating may account for flattening of ocean floor topography and heat flux in old ocean basins.

  17. Development of a new model for short period ocean tidal variations of Earth rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Within project SPOT (Short Period Ocean Tidal variations in Earth rotation) we develop a new high frequency Earth rotation model based on empirical ocean tide models. The main purpose of the SPOT model is its application to space geodetic observations such as GNSS and VLBI.We consider an empirical ocean tide model, which does not require hydrodynamic ocean modeling to determine ocean tidal angular momentum. We use here the EOT11a model of Savcenko & Bosch (2012), which is extended for some additional minor tides (e.g. M1, J1, T2). As empirical tidal models do not provide ocean tidal currents, which are re- quired for the computation of oceanic relative angular momentum, we implement an approach first published by Ray (2001) to estimate ocean tidal current veloci- ties for all tides considered in the extended EOT11a model. The approach itself is tested by application to tidal heights from hydrodynamic ocean tide models, which also provide tidal current velocities. Based on the tidal heights and the associated current velocities the oceanic tidal angular momentum (OTAM) is calculated.For the computation of the related short period variation of Earth rotation, we have re-examined the Euler-Liouville equation for an elastic Earth model with a liquid core. The focus here is on the consistent calculation of the elastic Love num- bers and associated Earth model parameters, which are considered in the Euler- Liouville equation for diurnal and sub-diurnal periods in the frequency domain.

  18. Observed and Modeled Trends in Southern Ocean Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2003-01-01

    Conceptual models and global climate model (GCM) simulations have both indicated the likelihood of an enhanced sensitivity to climate change in the polar regions, derived from the positive feedbacks brought about by the polar abundance of snow and ice surfaces. Some models further indicate that the changes in the polar regions can have a significant impact globally. For instance, 37% of the temperature sensitivity to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 in simulations with the GCM of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is attributable exclusively to inclusion of sea ice variations in the model calculations. Both sea ice thickness and sea ice extent decrease markedly in the doubled CO, case, thereby allowing the ice feedbacks to occur. Stand-alone sea ice models have shown Southern Ocean hemispherically averaged winter ice-edge retreats of 1.4 deg latitude for each 1 K increase in atmospheric temperatures. Observations, however, show a much more varied Southern Ocean ice cover, both spatially and temporally, than many of the modeled expectations. In fact, the satellite passive-microwave record of Southern Ocean sea ice since late 1978 has revealed overall increases rather than decreases in ice extents, with ice extent trends on the order of 11,000 sq km/year. When broken down spatially, the positive trends are strongest in the Ross Sea, while the trends are negative in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas. Greater spatial detail can be obtained by examining trends in the length of the sea ice season, and those trends show a coherent picture of shortening sea ice seasons throughout almost the entire Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula and in the far western Weddell Sea immediately to the east of the Peninsula, with lengthening sea ice seasons around much of the rest of the continent. This pattern corresponds well with the spatial pattern of temperature trends, as the Peninsula region is the one region in the Antarctic with a strong

  19. Modeling the Ocean Tide for Tidal Power Generation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, M.; Gedney, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen renewed interest in the ocean tide as a source of energy for electrical power generation. Unlike in the 1960s, when the tidal barrage was the predominant method of power extraction considered and implemented, the current methodology favors operation of a free-stream turbine or an array of them in strong tidal currents. As tidal power generation moves from pilot-scale projects to actual array implementations, numerical modeling of tidal currents is expected to play an increasing role in site selection, resource assessment, array design, and environmental impact assessment. In this presentation, a simple, coupled ocean/estuary model designed for research into fundamental aspects of tidal power generation is described. The model consists of a Pacific Ocean-size rectangular basin and a connected fjord-like embayment with dimensions similar to that of Puget Sound, Washington, one of the potential power generation sites in the United States. The model is forced by an idealized lunar tide-generating potential. The study focuses on the energetics of a tidal system including tidal power extraction at both global and regional scales. The hyperbolic nature of the governing shallow water equations means consequence of tidal power extraction cannot be limited to the local waters, but is global in extent. Modeling power extraction with a regional model with standard boundary conditions introduces uncertainties of 3 ~ 25% in the power extraction estimate depending on the level of extraction. Power extraction in the model has a well-defined maximum (~800 MW in a standard case) that is in agreement with previous theoretical studies. Natural energy dissipation and tidal power extraction strongly interact; for a turbine array of a given capacity, the higher the level of natural dissipation the lower the power the array can extract. Conversely, power extraction leads to a decrease in the level of natural dissipation (Figure) as well as the tidal range and the

  20. Ocean acidification in the Meso- vs. Cenozoic: lessons from modeling about the geological expression of paleo-ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Kirtland Turner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid climatic and biotic events putatively associated with ocean acidification are scattered throughout the Meso-Cenozoic. Many of these rapid perturbations, variably referred to as hyperthermals (Paleogene) and oceanic anoxic events or mass extinction events (Mesozoic), share a number of characteristic features, including some combination of negative carbon isotopic excursion, global warming, and a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Comparisons between ocean acidification events over the last ~250 Ma are, however, problematic because the types of marine geological archives and carbon reservoirs that can be interrogated are fundamentally different for early Mesozoic vs. late Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Many Mesozoic events are known primarily or exclusively from geological outcrops of relatively shallow water deposits, whereas the more recent Paleogene hyperthermal events have been chiefly identified from deep sea records. In addition, these earlier events are superimposed on an ocean with a fundamentally different carbonate buffering capacity, as calcifying plankton (which created the deep-sea carbonate sink) originate in the mid-Mesozoic. Here, we use both Earth system modeling and reaction transport sediment modeling to explore the ways in which comparable ocean acidification-inducing climate perturbations might manifest in the Mesozoic vs. the Cenozoic geological record. We examine the role of the deep-sea carbonate sink in the expression of ocean acidification, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of surface ocean pH and carbonate saturation state. These results critically inform interpretations of ocean acidification prior to the mid-Mesozoic advent of calcifying plankton and expectations about the recording of these events in geological outcrop.

  1. Anisotropic mesoscale eddy transport in ocean general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, Scott; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2014-11-01

    In modern climate models, the effects of oceanic mesoscale eddies are introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion and potential vorticity barriers, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters from one to three: major diffusivity, minor diffusivity, and alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved by parameterizing the oceanic anisotropic transport mechanisms.

  2. Depths of Intraplate Indian Ocean Earthquakes from Waveform Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baca, A. J.; Polet, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Ocean is a region of complex tectonics and anomalous seismicity. The ocean floor in this region exhibits many bathymetric features, most notably the multiple inactive fracture zones within the Wharton Basin and the Ninetyeast Ridge. The 11 April 2012 MW 8.7 and 8.2 strike-slip events that took place in this area are unique because their rupture appears to have extended to a depth where brittle failure, and thus seismic activity, was considered to be impossible. We analyze multiple intraplate earthquakes that have occurred throughout the Indian Ocean to better constrain their focal depths in order to enhance our understanding of how deep intraplate events are occurring and more importantly determine if the ruptures are originating within a ductile regime. Selected events are located within the Indian Ocean away from major plate boundaries. A majority are within the deforming Indo-Australian tectonic plate. Events primarily display thrust mechanisms with some strike-slip or a combination of the two. All events are between MW5.5-6.5. Event selections were handled this way in order to facilitate the analysis of teleseismic waveforms using a point source approximation. From these criteria we gathered a suite of 15 intraplate events. Synthetic seismograms of direct P-waves and depth phases are computed using a 1-D propagator matrix approach and compared with global teleseismic waveform data to determine a best depth for each event. To generate our synthetic seismograms we utilized the CRUST1.0 software, a global crustal model that generates velocity values at the hypocenter of our events. Our waveform analysis results reveal that our depths diverge from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) depths, which underestimate our deep lithosphere events and overestimate our shallow depths by as much as 17 km. We determined a depth of 45km for our deepest event. We will show a comparison of our final earthquake depths with the lithospheric thickness based on

  3. The CAFE model: A net production model for global ocean phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silsbe, Greg M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon, Absorption, and Fluorescence Euphotic-resolving (CAFE) net primary production model is an adaptable framework for advancing global ocean productivity assessments by exploiting state-of-the-art satellite ocean color analyses and addressing key physiological and ecological attributes of phytoplankton. Here we present the first implementation of the CAFE model that incorporates inherent optical properties derived from ocean color measurements into a mechanistic and accurate model of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and net phytoplankton production (NPP). The CAFE model calculates NPP as the product of energy absorption (QPAR), and the efficiency (ϕμ) by which absorbed energy is converted into carbon biomass (CPhyto), while μ is calculated as NPP normalized to CPhyto. The CAFE model performance is evaluated alongside 21 other NPP models against a spatially robust and globally representative set of direct NPP measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the CAFE model explains the greatest amount of variance and has the lowest model bias relative to other NPP models analyzed with this data set. Global oceanic NPP from the CAFE model (52 Pg C m-2 yr-1) and mean division rates (0.34 day-1) are derived from climatological satellite data (2002-2014). This manuscript discusses and validates individual CAFE model parameters (e.g., QPAR and ϕμ), provides detailed sensitivity analyses, and compares the CAFE model results and parameterization to other widely cited models.

  4. Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: Formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System

    Haidvogel, D.B.; Arango, H.; Budgell, W.P.; Cornuelle, B.D.; Curchitser, E.; Di, Lorenzo E.; Fennel, K.; Geyer, W.R.; Hermann, A.J.; Lanerolle, L.; Levin, J.; McWilliams, J.C.; Miller, A.J.; Moore, A.M.; Powell, T.M.; Shchepetkin, A.F.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Warner, J.C.; Wilkin, J.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic improvements in algorithmic design of regional ocean circulation models have led to significant enhancement in simulation ability across a wide range of space/time scales and marine system types. As an example, we briefly review the Regional Ocean Modeling System, a member of a general class of three-dimensional, free-surface, terrain-following numerical models. Noteworthy characteristics of the ROMS computational kernel include: consistent temporal averaging of the barotropic mode to guarantee both exact conservation and constancy preservation properties for tracers; redefined barotropic pressure-gradient terms to account for local variations in the density field; vertical interpolation performed using conservative parabolic splines; and higher-order, quasi-monotone advection algorithms. Examples of quantitative skill assessment are shown for a tidally driven estuary, an ice-covered high-latitude sea, a wind- and buoyancy-forced continental shelf, and a mid-latitude ocean basin. The combination of moderate-order spatial approximations, enhanced conservation properties, and quasi-monotone advection produces both more robust and accurate, and less diffusive, solutions than those produced in earlier terrain-following ocean models. Together with advanced methods of data assimilation and novel observing system technologies, these capabilities constitute the necessary ingredients for multi-purpose regional ocean prediction systems. 

  5. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 22; A Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Model for Global Ocean Biogeochemical Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Suarez, Max J. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    An ocean-atmosphere radiative model (OARM) evaluates irradiance availability and quality in the water column to support phytoplankton growth and drive ocean thermodynamics. An atmospheric component incorporates spectral and directional effects of clear and cloudy skies as a function of atmospheric optical constituents, and spectral reflectance across the air-sea interface. An oceanic component evaluates the propagation of spectral and directional irradiance through the water column as a function of water, five phytoplankton groups, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter. It tracks the direct and diffuse streams from the atmospheric component, and a third stream, upwelling diffuse irradiance. The atmospheric component of OARM was compared to data sources at the ocean surface with a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.97 and a root mean square of 12.1%.

  6. The Gulf Stream in Ocean Reanalyses: 1993-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, L.; Wolfe, C.; Hameed, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of high-resolution ocean reanalysis products. However, errors are likely to remain because of inadequate coverage of observations, model resolutions, physical parameterizations, etc. We compare the representation of the Gulf Stream (GS) in several widely used global reanalysis products with resolutions ranging from 1° to 1/12°. This intercomparison focuses on the Florida Current transport, the separation of GS near Cape Hatteras, GS properties along the Oleander Line (from New Jersey to Bermuda), GS path and the GS north wall positions between 73°W and 55°W. A large spread exists across the reanalysis products. HYCOM and GLORYS2v4 stand out for their top performance in most metrics. Some common biases are found in all discussed products; for example, the velocity structure of the GS near the Oleander Line is too symmetric and the maximum velocity is weaker than in observations. In addition, the annual mean values of GS separation latitude near Cape Hatteras, the GS transport, and net transport across Oleander Line (which runs from New Jersey to Bermuda), less than half of the reanalysis products are correlated to the observations at 95% confidence level.

  7. Role of the Southwest Tropical Indian Ocean on the Modulation of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. M.; Bulusu, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR), located in the Indian Ocean and bound by 55°E-65°E and 5°S-12°S, is a key region for air-sea interaction. This feature inhabits one of the seven ocean basins where tropical cyclones regularly form and is unique in that the variability of the subsurface can influence cyclogenesis. Tropical cyclone days for this region span from November through April, with peaks in the months of January and February. The influence of thermocline variation is particularly strong during the months of December through May and it is known that a high correlation exists between the depth of the thermocline and sea surface temperature (key ingredient for cyclogenesis). Past research provides evidence that more tropical cyclone days are observed in Southwest Tropical Indian Ocean (SWTIO) during austral summers with a deep thermocline ridge than in austral summers when a shallow thermocline ridge exists. The formation and thickness of the Barrier layer (BL) have also been shown to impact tropical cyclones in this region. BL formation is an important parameter for surface heat exchange. The amount of salt in the boundary layer may also effect heat exchange and thus cyclones. Other ocean basins have verified that salt-stratified barrier layers influence the intensification of tropical cyclones, however, the role that salinity in SWTIO plays in the modulation of tropical cycles has still yet to be explored. This study further explores how the dynamic properties of the SCTR influence the modulation of cyclones. Primarily Argo observations of salinity and temperature along with Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius salinity, and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) simulations are used to examine this influence of the BL and salinity on cyclone formation and intensity in this region. This study is progressed with a particular focus on the austral summer of 2012/2013 when seven tropical cyclones developed in the region.

  8. Unstable behaviour of an upper ocean-atmosphere coupled model: role of atmospheric radiative processes and oceanic heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Solal, E.; Le Treut, H.

    We describe the initial bias of the climate simulated by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The atmospheric component is a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model, whereas the ocean component is limited to the upper ocean and includes a mixed layer whose depth is computed by the model. As the full ocean general circulation is not computed by the model, the heat transport within the ocean is prescribed. When modifying the prescribed heat transport we also affect the initial drift of the model. We analyze here one of the experiments where this drift is very strong, in order to study the key processes relating the changes in the ocean transport and the evolution of the model's climate. In this simulation, the ocean surface temperature cools by 1.5°C in 20 y. We can distinguish two different phases. During the first period of 5 y, the sea surface temperatures become cooler, particularly in the intertropical area, but the outgoing longwave radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere increases very quickly, in particular at the end of the period. An off-line version of the model radiative code enables us to decompose this behaviour into different contributions (cloudiness, specific humidity, air and surface temperatures, surface albedo). This partitioning shows that the longwave radiation evolution is due to a decrease of high level cirrus clouds in the intertropical troposphere. The decrease of the cloud cover also leads to a decrease of the planetary albedo and therefore an increase of the net short wave radiation absorbed by the system. But the dominant factor is the strong destabilization by the longwave cooling, which is able to throw the system out of equilibrium. During the remaining of the simulation (second phase), the cooling induced by the destabilization at the top-of-the-atmosphere is transmitted to the surface by various processes of the climate system. Hence, we show that small variations of ocean heat transport can force the model from a stable

  9. Closing the Seasonal Ocean Surface Temperature Balance in the Eastern Tropical Oceans from Remote Sensing and Model Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The Eastern tropical ocean basins are regions of significant atmosphere-ocean interaction and are important to variability across subseasonal to decadal time scales. The numerous physical processes at play in these areas strain the abilities of coupled general circulation models to accurately reproduce observed upper ocean variability. Furthermore, limitations in the observing system of important terms in the surface temperature balance (e.g., turbulent and radiative heat fluxes, advection) introduce uncertainty into the analyses of processes controlling sea surface temperature variability. This study presents recent efforts to close the surface temperature balance through estimation of the terms in the mixed layer temperature budget using state-of-the-art remotely sensed and model-reanalysis derived products. A set of twelve net heat flux estimates constructed using combinations of radiative and turbulent heat flux products - including GEWEX-SRB, ISCCP-SRF, OAFlux, SeaFlux, among several others - are used with estimates of oceanic advection, entrainment, and mixed layer depth variability to investigate the seasonal variability of ocean surface temperatures. Particular emphasis is placed on how well the upper ocean temperature balance is, or is not, closed on these scales using the current generation of observational and model reanalysis products. That is, the magnitudes and spatial variability of residual imbalances are addressed. These residuals are placed into context within the current uncertainties of the surface net heat fluxes and the role of the mixed layer depth variability in scaling the impact of those uncertainties, particularly in the shallow mixed layers of the Eastern tropical ocean basins.

  10. Simulating Freak Waves in the Ocean with CFD Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolidis, M.; Orzech, M.; Simeonov, J.

    2017-12-01

    Rogue, or freak, waves constitute an active topic of research within the world scientific community, as various maritime authorities around the globe seek to better understand and more accurately assess the risks that the occurrence of such phenomena entail. Several experimental studies have shed some light on the mechanics of rogue wave formation. In our work we numerically simulate the formation of such waves in oceanic conditions by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. For this purpose we implement the NHWAVE and OpenFOAM software packages. Both are non-hydrostatic, turbulent flow solvers, but NHWAVE implements a shock-capturing scheme at the free surface-interface, while OpenFOAM utilizes the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method. NHWAVE has been shown to accurately reproduce highly nonlinear surface wave phenomena, such as soliton propagation and wave shoaling. We conducted a range of tests simulating rogue wave formation and horizontally varying currents to evaluate and compare the capabilities of the two software packages. Then we used each model to investigate the effect of ocean currents and current gradients on the formation of rogue waves. We present preliminary results.

  11. Modeling internal wave generation by seamounts in oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Buijsman, M. C.; Comino, E. L.; Swinney, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recent global bathymetric data at 30 arc-sec resolution has revealed that there are 33,452 seamounts and 138,412 knolls in the oceans. To develop an estimate for the energy converted from tidal flow to internal gravity waves, we have conducted numerical simulations using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology circulation model (MITgcm) to compute the energy conversion by randomly distributed Gaussian-shaped seamounts. We find that for an isolated axisymmetric seamount of height 1100 m and radius 1600 m, which corresponds to the Wessel height-to-radius ratio 0.69, the conversion rate is 100 kW, assuming a tidal speed amplitude 1 cm/s, buoyancy frequency 1e-3 rad/s, and circularly polarized tidal motion, and taking into account the earth's rotation. The 100 kW estimate is about 60% less than the 3-D linear theory prediction because fluid goes around a seamount instead of over it. Our estimate accounts the suppression of energy conversion due to wave interference at the generation site of closely spaced seamounts. We conclude that for randomly distributed Gaussian seamounts of varying widths and separations, separated on average by 18 km as in the oceans, wave interference reduces the energy conversion by seamounts by only about 16%. This result complements previous studies of wave interference for 2-D ridges.

  12. Uncertainty in Earth System Models: Benchmarks for Ocean Model Performance and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Elliott, S.; Collier, N.; Wingenter, O. W.; Deal, C.; Fu, W.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    The mean ocean CO2 sink is a major component of the global carbon budget, with marine reservoirs holding about fifty times more carbon than the atmosphere. Phytoplankton play a significant role in the net carbon sink through photosynthesis and drawdown, such that about a quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions end up in the ocean. Biology greatly increases the efficiency of marine environments in CO2 uptake and ultimately reduces the impact of the persistent rise in atmospheric concentrations. However, a number of challenges remain in appropriate representation of marine biogeochemical processes in Earth System Models (ESM). These threaten to undermine the community effort to quantify seasonal to multidecadal variability in ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2. In a bid to improve analyses of marine contributions to climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, we have developed new analysis methods and biogeochemistry metrics as part of the International Ocean Model Benchmarking (IOMB) effort. Our intent is to meet the growing diagnostic and benchmarking needs of ocean biogeochemistry models. The resulting software package has been employed to validate DOE ocean biogeochemistry results by comparison with observational datasets. Several other international ocean models contributing results to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) were analyzed simultaneously. Our comparisons suggest that the biogeochemical processes determining CO2 entry into the global ocean are not well represented in most ESMs. Polar regions continue to show notable biases in many critical biogeochemical and physical oceanographic variables. Some of these disparities could have first order impacts on the conversion of atmospheric CO2 to organic carbon. In addition, single forcing simulations show that the current ocean state can be partly explained by the uptake of anthropogenic emissions. Combined effects of two or more of these forcings on ocean biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems

  13. The National Ocean Sciences Bowl: An Effective Model for Engaging High School Students in Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    The National Ocean Sciences Bowl (NOSB) is an informal high school education program that engages students in ocean and environmental science and exposes them to the breadth of ocean-related careers. The NOSB strives to train the next generation of interdisciplinary capable scientists and build a STEM-literate society that harnesses the power of ocean and climate science to address environmental, economic, and societal issues. Through the NOSB, students not only learn scientific principles, but also apply them to compelling real-world problems. The NOSB provides a richer STEM education and exposes students to ocean science topics they may not otherwise study through classroom curriculum. A longitudinal study that began in 2007 has shown that NOSB participants have an enhanced interest in ocean-related hobbies and environmental stewardship and an increasing number of these students have remained in the STEM pipeline and workforce.While the NOSB is primarily an academic competition, it has evolved since its creation in 1998 to include a variety of practical and professional development components. One of the program enhancements, the Scientific Expert Briefing (SEB), gives students the opportunity to apply what they have studied and think critically about current and ongoing ocean science challenges. The SEB helps students connect their knowledge of ocean science with current and proposed policy initiatives. Students gain significant research, writing, and presentation skills, while enhancing their ability for collaboration and consensus building, all vital workforce skills. Ultimately, the SEB teaches students how to communicate complex scientific research into digestible information for decision-makers and the general public.This poster will examine the impact of the NOSB and its role in strengthening the workforce pipeline through a combination of independent learning, competition, and opportunities for communication skills development.

  14. Medicanes in an ocean-atmosphere coupled regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Brauch, Jennifer; Ahrens, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    So-called medicanes (Mediterranean hurricanes) are meso-scale, marine and warm core Mediterranean cyclones which exhibit some similarities with tropical cyclones. The strong cyclonic winds associated with them are a potential thread for highly populated coastal areas around the Mediterranean basin. In this study we employ an atmospheric limited-area model (COSMO-CLM) coupled with a one-dimensional ocean model (NEMO-1d) to simulate medicanes. The goal of this study is to assess the robustness of the coupled model to simulate these extreme events. For this purpose 11 historical medicane events are simulated by the atmosphere-only and the coupled models using different set-ups (horizontal grid-spacings: 0.44o, 0.22o, 0.088o; with/with-out spectral nudging). The results show that at high resolution the coupled model is not only able to simulate all medicane events but also improves the simulated track length, warm core, and wind speed of simulated medicanes compared to atmosphere-only simulations. In most of the cases the medicanes trajectories and structures are better represented in coupled simulations compared to atmosphere-only simulations. We conclude that the coupled model is a suitable tool for systemic and detailed study of historical medicane events and also for future projections.

  15. Modelling of upper ocean mixing by wave-induced turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghantous, Malek; Babanin, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Mixing of the upper ocean affects the sea surface temperature by bringing deeper, colder water to the surface. Because even small changes in the surface temperature can have a large impact on weather and climate, accurately determining the rate of mixing is of central importance for forecasting. Although there are several mixing mechanisms, one that has until recently been overlooked is the effect of turbulence generated by non-breaking, wind-generated surface waves. Lately there has been a lot of interest in introducing this mechanism into models, and real gains have been made in terms of increased fidelity to observational data. However our knowledge of the mechanism is still incomplete. We indicate areas where we believe the existing models need refinement and propose an alternative model. We use two of the models to demonstrate the effect on the mixed layer of wave-induced turbulence by applying them to a one-dimensional mixing model and a stable temperature profile. Our modelling experiment suggests a strong effect on sea surface temperature due to non-breaking wave-induced turbulent mixing.

  16. Arctic Ocean Freshwater: How Robust are Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, A.; Aksenov, Y.; deCuevas, B. A.; deSteur, L.; Haekkinen, S.; Hansen, E.; Herbaut, C.; Houssais, M.-N.; Karcher, M.; Kauker, F.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic freshwater (FW) has been the focus of many modeling studies, due to the potential impact of Arctic FW on the deep water formation in the North Atlantic. A comparison of the hindcasts from ten ocean-sea ice models shows that the simulation of the Arctic FW budget is quite different in the investigated models. While they agree on the general sink and source terms of the Arctic FW budget, the long-term means as well as the variability of the FW export vary among models. The best model-to-model agreement is found for the interannual and seasonal variability of the solid FW export and the solid FW storage, which also agree well with observations. For the interannual and seasonal variability of the liquid FW export, the agreement among models is better for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) than for Fram Strait. The reason for this is that models are more consistent in simulating volume flux anomalies than salinity anomalies and volume-flux anomalies dominate the liquid FW export variability in the CAA but not in Fram Strait. The seasonal cycle of the liquid FW export generally shows a better agreement among models than the interannual variability, and compared to observations the models capture the seasonality of the liquid FW export rather well. In order to improve future simulations of the Arctic FW budget, the simulation of the salinity field needs to be improved, so that model results on the variability of the liquid FW export and storage become more robust.

  17. Response of the Antarctic ice sheet to ocean forcing using the POPSICLES coupled ice sheet-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. F.; Asay-Davis, X.; Price, S. F.; Cornford, S. L.; Maltrud, M. E.; Ng, E. G.; Collins, W.

    2014-12-01

    We present the response of the continental Antarctic ice sheet to sub-shelf-melt forcing derived from POPSICLES simulation results covering the full Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Southern Ocean spanning the period 1990 to 2010. Simulations are performed at 0.1 degree (~5 km) ocean resolution and ice sheet resolution as fine as 500 m using adaptive mesh refinement. A comparison of fully-coupled and comparable standalone ice-sheet model results demonstrates the importance of two-way coupling between the ice sheet and the ocean. The POPSICLES model couples the POP2x ocean model, a modified version of the Parallel Ocean Program (Smith and Gent, 2002), and the BISICLES ice-sheet model (Cornford et al., 2012). BISICLES makes use of adaptive mesh refinement to fully resolve dynamically-important regions like grounding lines and employs a momentum balance similar to the vertically-integrated formulation of Schoof and Hindmarsh (2009). Results of BISICLES simulations have compared favorably to comparable simulations with a Stokes momentum balance in both idealized tests like MISMIP3D (Pattyn et al., 2013) and realistic configurations (Favier et al. 2014). POP2x includes sub-ice-shelf circulation using partial top cells (Losch, 2008) and boundary layer physics following Holland and Jenkins (1999), Jenkins (2001), and Jenkins et al. (2010). Standalone POP2x output compares well with standard ice-ocean test cases (e.g., ISOMIP; Losch, 2008) and other continental-scale simulations and melt-rate observations (Kimura et al., 2013; Rignot et al., 2013). A companion presentation, "Present-day circum-Antarctic simulations using the POPSICLES coupled land ice-ocean model" in session C027 describes the ocean-model perspective of this work, while we focus on the response of the ice sheet and on details of the model. The figure shows the BISICLES-computed vertically-integrated ice velocity field about 1 month into a 20-year coupled Antarctic run. Groundling lines are shown in green.

  18. Impact of Parameterized Lee Wave Drag on the Energy Budget of an Eddying Global Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-26

    Teixeira, J., Peng, M., Hogan, T.F., Pauley, R., 2002. Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS): Forcing for ocean models...Impact of parameterized lee wave drag on the energy budget of an eddying global ocean model David S. Trossman a,⇑, Brian K. Arbic a, Stephen T...input and output terms in the total mechanical energy budget of a hybrid coordinate high-resolution global ocean general circulation model forced by winds

  19. Representing grounding line migration in synchronous coupling between a marine ice sheet model and a z-coordinate ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Snow, K.; Holland, P.; Jordan, J. R.; Campin, J.-M.; Heimbach, P.; Arthern, R.; Jenkins, A.

    2018-05-01

    Synchronous coupling is developed between an ice sheet model and a z-coordinate ocean model (the MITgcm). A previously-developed scheme to allow continuous vertical movement of the ice-ocean interface of a floating ice shelf ("vertical coupling") is built upon to allow continuous movement of the grounding line, or point of floatation of the ice sheet ("horizontal coupling"). Horizontal coupling is implemented through the maintenance of a thin layer of ocean ( ∼ 1 m) under grounded ice, which is inflated into the real ocean as the ice ungrounds. This is accomplished through a modification of the ocean model's nonlinear free surface evolution in a manner akin to a hydrological model in the presence of steep bathymetry. The coupled model is applied to a number of idealized geometries and shown to successfully represent ocean-forced marine ice sheet retreat while maintaining a continuous ocean circulation.

  20. Modeling High-Resolution Coastal Ocean Dynamics with COAMPS: System Overview, Applications and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, R. A.; Campbell, T. J.; Edwards, K. L.; Smith, T.; Martin, P.; Hebert, D. A.; Rogers, W.; Dykes, J. D.; Jacobs, G. A.; Spence, P. L.; Bartels, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®) is an atmosphere-ocean-wave modeling system developed by the Naval Research Laboratory which can be configured to cycle regional forecasts/analysis models in single-model (atmosphere, ocean, and wave) or coupled-model (atmosphere-ocean, ocean-wave, and atmosphere-ocean-wave) modes. The model coupling is performed using the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ocean component is the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and the wave components include Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) and WaveWatch-III. NCOM has been modified to include wetting and drying, the effects of Stokes drift current, wave radiation stresses due to horizontal gradients of the momentum flux of surface waves, enhancement of bottom drag in shallow water, and enhanced vertical mixing due to Langmuir turbulence. An overview of the modeling system including ocean data assimilation and specification of boundary conditions will be presented. Results from a high-resolution (10-250m) modeling study from the Surfzone Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment (SCOPE) near Ft. Walton Beach, Florida in December 2013 will be presented. ®COAMPS is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory

  1. A model for the oceanic mass balance of rhenium and implications for the extent of Proterozoic ocean anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Alex I.; Kendall, Brian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bekker, Andrey; Poulton, Simon W.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2018-04-01

    Emerging geochemical evidence suggests that the atmosphere-ocean system underwent a significant decrease in O2 content following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), leading to a mid-Proterozoic ocean (ca. 2.0-0.8 Ga) with oxygenated surface waters and predominantly anoxic deep waters. The extent of mid-Proterozoic seafloor anoxia has been recently estimated using mass-balance models based on molybdenum (Mo), uranium (U), and chromium (Cr) enrichments in organic-rich mudrocks (ORM). Here, we use a temporal compilation of concentrations for the redox-sensitive trace metal rhenium (Re) in ORM to provide an independent constraint on the global extent of mid-Proterozoic ocean anoxia and as a tool for more generally exploring how the marine geochemical cycle of Re has changed through time. The compilation reveals that mid-Proterozoic ORM are dominated by low Re concentrations that overall are only mildly higher than those of Archean ORM and significantly lower than many ORM deposited during the ca. 2.22-2.06 Ga Lomagundi Event and during the Phanerozoic Eon. These temporal trends are consistent with a decrease in the oceanic Re inventory in response to an expansion of anoxia after an interval of increased oxygenation during the Lomagundi Event. Mass-balance modeling of the marine Re geochemical cycle indicates that the mid-Proterozoic ORM with low Re enrichments are consistent with extensive seafloor anoxia. Beyond this agreement, these new data bring added value because Re, like the other metals, responds generally to low-oxygen conditions but has its own distinct sensitivity to the varying environmental controls. Thus, we can broaden our capacity to infer nuanced spatiotemporal patterns in ancient redox landscapes. For example, despite the still small number of data, some mid-Proterozoic ORM units have higher Re enrichments that may reflect a larger oceanic Re inventory during transient episodes of ocean oxygenation. An improved understanding of the modern oceanic Re

  2. Surface Current Skill Assessment of Global and Regional forecast models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has been using SAROPS since January 2007 at all fifty of its operational centers to plan search and rescue missions. SAROPS relies on an Environmental Data Server (EDS) that integrates global, national, and regional ocean and meteorological observation and forecast data. The server manages spatial and temporal aggregation of hindcast, nowcast, and forecast data so the SAROPS controller has the best available data for search planning. The EDS harvests a wide range of global and regional forecasts and data, including NOAA NCEP's global HYCOM model (RTOFS), the U.S. Navy's Global HYCOM model, the 5 NOAA NOS Great Lakes models and a suite of other reginal forecasts from NOS and IOOS Regional Associations. The EDS also integrates surface drifter data as the U.S. Coast Guard regularly deploys Self-Locating Datum Marker Buoys (SLDMBs) during SAR cases and a significant set of drifter data has been collected and the archive continues to grow. This data is critically useful during real-time SAR planning, but also represents a valuable scientific dataset for analyzing surface currents. In 2014, a new initiative was started by the U.S. Coast Guard to evaluate the skill of the various models to support the decision making process during search and rescue planning. This analysis falls into 2 categories: historical analysis of drifter tracks and model predictions to provide skill assessment of models in different regions and real-time analysis of models and drifter tracks during a SAR incident. The EDS, using Liu and Wiesberg's (2014) autonomously determines surface skill measurements of the co-located models' simulated surface trajectories versus the actual drift of the SLDMBs (CODE/Davis style surface drifters GPS positioned at 30min intervals). Surface skill measurements are archived in a database and are user retrieval by lat/long/time cubes. This paper will focus on the comparison of models from in the period from 23 August to 21 September 2015. Surface

  3. Predictability of the Indian Ocean Dipole in the coupled models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huafeng; Tang, Youmin; Chen, Dake; Lian, Tao

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) predictability, measured by the Indian Dipole Mode Index (DMI), is comprehensively examined at the seasonal time scale, including its actual prediction skill and potential predictability, using the ENSEMBLES multiple model ensembles and the recently developed information-based theoretical framework of predictability. It was found that all model predictions have useful skill, which is normally defined by the anomaly correlation coefficient larger than 0.5, only at around 2-3 month leads. This is mainly because there are more false alarms in predictions as leading time increases. The DMI predictability has significant seasonal variation, and the predictions whose target seasons are boreal summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) are more reliable than that for other seasons. All of models fail to predict the IOD onset before May and suffer from the winter (DJF) predictability barrier. The potential predictability study indicates that, with the model development and initialization improvement, the prediction of IOD onset is likely to be improved but the winter barrier cannot be overcome. The IOD predictability also has decadal variation, with a high skill during the 1960s and the early 1990s, and a low skill during the early 1970s and early 1980s, which is very consistent with the potential predictability. The main factors controlling the IOD predictability, including its seasonal and decadal variations, are also analyzed in this study.

  4. Estimation of oceanic subsurface mixing under a severe cyclonic storm using a coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Kumar Ravi; Nigam, Tanuja; Pant, Vimlesh

    2018-04-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model was used to examine mixing in the upper-oceanic layers under the influence of a very severe cyclonic storm Phailin over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during 10-14 October 2013. The coupled model was found to improve the sea surface temperature over the uncoupled model. Model simulations highlight the prominent role of cyclone-induced near-inertial oscillations in subsurface mixing up to the thermocline depth. The inertial mixing introduced by the cyclone played a central role in the deepening of the thermocline and mixed layer depth by 40 and 15 m, respectively. For the first time over the BoB, a detailed analysis of inertial oscillation kinetic energy generation, propagation, and dissipation was carried out using an atmosphere-ocean-wave coupled model during a cyclone. A quantitative estimate of kinetic energy in the oceanic water column, its propagation, and its dissipation mechanisms were explained using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model. The large shear generated by the inertial oscillations was found to overcome the stratification and initiate mixing at the base of the mixed layer. Greater mixing was found at the depths where the eddy kinetic diffusivity was large. The baroclinic current, holding a larger fraction of kinetic energy than the barotropic current, weakened rapidly after the passage of the cyclone. The shear induced by inertial oscillations was found to decrease rapidly with increasing depth below the thermocline. The dampening of the mixing process below the thermocline was explained through the enhanced dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy upon approaching the thermocline layer. The wave-current interaction and nonlinear wave-wave interaction were found to affect the process of downward mixing and cause the dissipation of inertial oscillations.

  5. Monsoon Variability in the Arabian Sea from Global 0.08 deg HYCOM Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    modes to help explain the series of events leading up to the anomalous behavior in the SC, the GW and upwelling strength . WORK COMPLETED...Number: N00014-15-1-2189 LONG-TERM GOALS The Arabian Sea upper ocean circulation switches direction seasonally due to the change in direction ...of the prevailing winds associated with the Indian Monsoon. Predictability of the monsoon circulation however is uncertain due to incomplete

  6. 1/f model for long-time memory of the ocean surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraedrich, Klaus; Luksch, Ute; Blender, Richard

    2004-09-01

    The 1/f spectrum of the ocean surface temperature in the Atlantic and Pacific midlatitudes is explained by a simple vertical diffusion model with a shallow mixed layer on top of a deep ocean. The model is forced at the air-sea interface with the total surface heat flux from a 1000 year climate simulation. The analysis reveals the role of ocean advection and substantiates estimates of internal thermal diffusivities.

  7. Numerical model of the transition from continental rifting to oceanization: the case study of the Ligure-Piemontese ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda, M.; Marotta, A. M.; Conte, K.; Spalla, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The transition from continental rifting to oceanization has been investigated by mean of a 2D thermo-mechanical numerical model in which the formation of oceanic crust by mantle serpentinization, due to the hydration of the uprising peridotite, as been implemented. Model predictions have been compared with natural data related to the Permian-Triassic thinning affecting the continental lithosphere of the Alpine domain, in order to identify which portions of the present Alpine-Apennine system, preserving the imprints of Permian-Triassic high temperature (HT) metamorphism, is compatible, in terms of lithostratigraphy and tectono-metamorphic evolution, with a lithospheric extension preceding the opening of the Ligure-Piemontese oceanic basin. At this purpose age, petrological and structural data from the Alpine and Apennine ophiolite complexes are compared with model predictions from the oceanization stage. Our comparative analysis supports the thesis that the lithospheric extension preceding the opening of the Alpine Tethys did not start on a stable continental lithosphere, but developed by recycling part of the old Variscan collisional suture. The HT Permian-Triassic metamorphic re-equilibration overprints an inherited tectonic and metamorphic setting consequent to the Variscan subduction and collision, making the Alps a key case history to explore mechanisms responsible for the re-activation of orogenic scars.

  8. Seasonal Distributions of Global Ocean Chlorophyll and Nutrients: Analysis with a Coupled Ocean General Circulation Biogeochemical, and Radiative Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.

    1999-01-01

    A coupled general ocean circulation, biogeochemical, and radiative model was constructed to evaluate and understand the nature of seasonal variability of chlorophyll and nutrients in the global oceans. The model is driven by climatological meteorological conditions, cloud cover, and sea surface temperature. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the influences of circulation and turbulence dynamics, irradiance availability, and the interactions among three functional phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chorophytes, and picoplankton) and three nutrient groups (nitrate, ammonium, and silicate). Phytoplankton groups are initialized as homogeneous fields horizontally and vertically, and allowed to distribute themselves according to the prevailing conditions. Basin-scale model chlorophyll results are in very good agreement with CZCS pigments in virtually every global region. Seasonal variability observed in the CZCS is also well represented in the model. Synoptic scale (100-1000 km) comparisons of imagery are also in good conformance, although occasional departures are apparent. Agreement of nitrate distributions with in situ data is even better, including seasonal dynamics, except for the equatorial Atlantic. The good agreement of the model with satellite and in situ data sources indicates that the model dynamics realistically simulate phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics on synoptic scales. This is especially true given that initial conditions are homogenous chlorophyll fields. The success of the model in producing a reasonable representation of chlorophyll and nutrient distributions and seasonal variability in the global oceans is attributed to the application of a generalized, processes-driven approach as opposed to regional parameterization, and the existence of multiple phytoplankton groups with different physiological and physical properties. These factors enable the model to simultaneously represent the great diversity of physical, biological

  9. A coupled ice-ocean model of upwelling in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roed, L. P.; Obrien, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamical coupled ice-ocean numerical model for the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is suggested and used to study upwelling dynamics in the MIZ. The nonlinear sea ice model has a variable ice concentration and includes internal ice stress. The model is forced by stresses on the air/ocean and air/ice surfaces. The main coupling between the ice and the ocean is in the form of an interfacial stress on the ice/ocean interface. The ocean model is a linear reduced gravity model. The wind stress exerted by the atmosphere on the ocean is proportional to the fraction of open water, while the interfacial stress ice/ocean is proportional to the concentration of ice. A new mechanism for ice edge upwelling is suggested based on a geostrophic equilibrium solution for the sea ice medium. The upwelling reported in previous models invoking a stationary ice cover is shown to be replaced by a weak downwelling due to the ice motion. Most of the upwelling dynamics can be understood by analysis of the divergence of the across ice edge upper ocean transport. On the basis of numerical model, an analytical model is suggested that reproduces most of the upwelling dynamics of the more complex numerical model.

  10. Reproducibility and Transparency in Ocean-Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, N.; Adcroft, A.; Hallberg, R.; Griffies, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Reproducibility is a cornerstone of the scientific method. Within geophysical modeling and simulation achieving reproducibility can be difficult, especially given the complexity of numerical codes, enormous and disparate data sets, and variety of supercomputing technology. We have made progress on this problem in the context of a large project - the development of new ocean and sea ice models, MOM6 and SIS2. Here we present useful techniques and experience.We use version control not only for code but the entire experiment working directory, including configuration (run-time parameters, component versions), input data and checksums on experiment output. This allows us to document when the solutions to experiments change, whether due to code updates or changes in input data. To avoid distributing large input datasets we provide the tools for generating these from the sources, rather than provide raw input data.Bugs can be a source of non-determinism and hence irreproducibility, e.g. reading from or branching on uninitialized memory. To expose these we routinely run system tests, using a memory debugger, multiple compilers and different machines. Additional confidence in the code comes from specialised tests, for example automated dimensional analysis and domain transformations. This has entailed adopting a code style where we deliberately restrict what a compiler can do when re-arranging mathematical expressions.In the spirit of open science, all development is in the public domain. This leads to a positive feedback, where increased transparency and reproducibility makes using the model easier for external collaborators, who in turn provide valuable contributions. To facilitate users installing and running the model we provide (version controlled) digital notebooks that illustrate and record analysis of output. This has the dual role of providing a gross, platform-independent, testing capability and a means to documents model output and analysis.

  11. A Southern Ocean variability study using the Argo-based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    The era of satellite observations of the ocean surface that started at the end of the 20th century and the development of the Argo project in the first years of the 21st century, designed to collect information of the upper 2000 m of the ocean using satellites, provides unique opportunities for continuous monitoring of the Global Ocean state. Starting from 2005, measurements with the Argo floats have been performed over the majority of the World Ocean. In November 2007, the Argo program reached coverage of 3000 simultaneously operating floats (one float in a three-degree square) planned during the development of the program. Currently, 4000 Argo floats autonomously profile the upper 2000-m water column of the ocean from Antarctica to Spitsbergen increasing World Ocean temperature and salinity databases by 12000 profiles per month. This makes it possible to solve problems on reconstructing and monitoring the ocean state on an almost real-time basis, study the ocean dynamics, obtain reasonable estimates of the climatic state of the ocean in the last decade and estimate existing intraclimatic trends. We present the newly developed Argo-Based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO), which consists of a block for variational interpolation of the profiles of drifting Argo floats to a regular grid and a block for model hydrodynamic adjustment of variationally interpolated fields. Such a method makes it possible to obtain a full set of oceanographic characteristics - temperature, salinity, density, and current velocity - using irregularly located Argo measurements (the principle of the variational interpolation technique entails minimization of the misfit between the interpolated fields defined on the regular grid and irregularly distributed data; hence the optimal solution passes as close to the data as possible). The simulations were performed for the entire globe limited in the north by 85.5° N using 1° grid spacing in both longitude and latitude. At the

  12. THE EARTH SYSTEM PREDICTION SUITE: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability.

    PubMed

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C; Campbell, T; Liu, F; Saint, K; Vertenstein, M; Chen, J; Oehmke, R; Doyle, J; Whitcomb, T; Wallcraft, A; Iredell, M; Black, T; da Silva, A M; Clune, T; Ferraro, R; Li, P; Kelley, M; Aleinov, I; Balaji, V; Zadeh, N; Jacob, R; Kirtman, B; Giraldo, F; McCarren, D; Sandgathe, S; Peckham, S; Dunlap, R

    2016-07-01

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open source terms or to credentialed users. The ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the U.S. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. This shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multi-agency development of coupled modeling systems, controlled experimentation and testing, and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NavGEM), HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS ® ); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model.

  13. THE EARTH SYSTEM PREDICTION SUITE: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    PubMed Central

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.; Liu, F.; Saint, K.; Vertenstein, M.; Chen, J.; Oehmke, R.; Doyle, J.; Whitcomb, T.; Wallcraft, A.; Iredell, M.; Black, T.; da Silva, AM; Clune, T.; Ferraro, R.; Li, P.; Kelley, M.; Aleinov, I.; Balaji, V.; Zadeh, N.; Jacob, R.; Kirtman, B.; Giraldo, F.; McCarren, D.; Sandgathe, S.; Peckham, S.; Dunlap, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open source terms or to credentialed users. The ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the U.S. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. This shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multi-agency development of coupled modeling systems, controlled experimentation and testing, and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NavGEM), HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model. PMID:29568125

  14. The Earth System Prediction Suite: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.; Liu, F.; Saint, K.; Vertenstein, M.; Chen, J.; Oehmke, R.; Doyle, J.; Whitcomb, T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open source terms or to credentialed users.The ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the U.S. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. This shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multi-agency development of coupled modeling systems, controlled experimentation and testing, and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NavGEM), HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model.

  15. Effects of vertical shear in modelling horizontal oceanic dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanotte, A. S.; Corrado, R.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Schipa, I.; Santoleri, R.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of the South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observation and model data. In situ current measurements reveal that vertical gradients of horizontal velocities in the upper mixing layer decorrelate quite fast ( ˜ 1 day), whereas an eddy-permitting ocean model, such as the Mediterranean Forecasting System, tends to overestimate such decorrelation time because of finite resolution effects. Horizontal dispersion, simulated by the Mediterranean sea Forecasting System, is mostly affected by: (1) unresolved scale motions, and mesoscale motions that are largely smoothed out at scales close to the grid spacing; (2) poorly resolved time variability in the profiles of the horizontal velocities in the upper layer. For the case study we have analysed, we show that a suitable use of deterministic kinematic parametrizations is helpful to implement realistic statistical features of tracer dispersion in two and three dimensions. The approach here suggested provides a functional tool to control the horizontal spreading of small organisms or substance concentrations, and is thus relevant for marine biology, pollutant dispersion as well as oil spill applications.

  16. Modes of Arctic Ocean Change from GRACE, ICESat and the PIOMAS and ECCO2 Models of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta Ferriz, C.; Morison, J. H.; Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.; Kwok, R.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    EOF analysis of month-to-month variations in GRACE derived Arctic Ocean bottom pressure (OBP) with trend and seasonal variation removed yield three dominant modes. The first mode is a basin wide variation in mass associated with high atmospheric pressure (SLP) over Scandinavia mainly in winter. The second mode is a shift of mass from the central Arctic Ocean to the Siberian shelves due to low pressure over the basins, associated with the Arctic Oscillation. The third mode is a shift in mass between the Eastern and Western Siberian shelves, related to strength of the Beaufort High mainly in summer, and to eastward alongshore winds on the Barents Sea in winter. The PIOMAS and ECCO2 modeled OBP show fair agreement with the form of these modes and provide context in terms of variations in sea surface height SSH. Comparing GRACE OBP from 2007 to 2011 with GRACE OBP from 2002 to 2006 reveals a rising trend over most of the Arctic Ocean but declines in the Kara Sea region and summer East Siberian Sea. ECCO2 bears a faint resemblance to the observed OBP change but appears to be biased negatively. In contrast, PIOMAS SSH and ECCO2 especially, show changes between the two periods that are muted but similar to ICESat dynamic ocean topography and GRACE-ICESat freshwater trends from 2005 through 2008 [Morison et al., 2012] with a rising DOT and freshening in the Beaufort Sea and a trough with decreased freshwater on the Russian side of the Arctic Ocean. Morison, J., R. Kwok, C. Peralta-Ferriz, M. Alkire, I. Rigor, R. Andersen, and M. Steele (2012), Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways, Nature, 481(7379), 66-70.

  17. Description and verification of a U.S. Naval Research Lab's loosely coupled data assimilation system for the Navy's Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, N. P.; Metzger, E. J.; Smedstad, O. M.; Ruston, B. C.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Whitcomb, T.; Ridout, J. A.; Zamudio, L.; Posey, P.; Reynolds, C. A.; Richman, J. G.; Phelps, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is developing an Earth System Model (NESM) to provide global environmental information to meet Navy and Department of Defense (DoD) operations and planning needs from the upper atmosphere to under the sea. This system consists of a global atmosphere, ocean, ice, wave, and land prediction models and the individual models include: atmosphere - NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM); ocean - HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM); sea ice - Community Ice CodE (CICE); WAVEWATCH III™; and land - NAVGEM Land Surface Model (LSM). Data assimilation is currently loosely coupled between the atmosphere component using a 6-hour update cycle in the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System - Accelerated Representer (NAVDAS-AR) and the ocean/ice components using a 24-hour update cycle in the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) with 3 hours of incremental updating. This presentation will describe the US Navy's coupled forecast model, the loosely coupled data assimilation, and compare results against stand-alone atmosphere and ocean/ice models. In particular, we will focus on the unique aspects of this modeling system, which includes an eddy resolving ocean model and challenges associated with different update-windows and solvers for the data assimilation in the atmosphere and ocean. Results will focus on typical operational diagnostics for atmosphere, ocean, and ice analyses including 500 hPa atmospheric height anomalies, low-level winds, temperature/salinity ocean depth profiles, ocean acoustical proxies, sea ice edge, and sea ice drift. Overall, the global coupled system is performing with comparable skill to the stand-alone systems.

  18. LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10 m to 10 km

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-20

    ocean on scales of 0.1-10 km that can be implemented in larger-scale ocean models. These parameterizations will incorporate the effects of local...ocean on scales of 0.1-10 km that can be implemented in larger-scale ocean models. These parameterizations will incorporate the effects of local...www.fields.utoronto.ca/video-archive/static/2013/06/166-1766/mergedvideo.ogv) and at the Nonlinear Effects in Internal Waves Conference held at Cornell University

  19. Evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Mark; Proshuntinsky, Andrew; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Nguyen, An T.; Lindsay, Ron; Haas, Christian; Zhang, Jinlun; Diansky, Nikolay; Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; hide

    2012-01-01

    Six Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project model simulations are compared with estimates of sea ice thickness derived from pan-Arctic satellite freeboard measurements (2004-2008); airborne electromagnetic measurements (2001-2009); ice draft data from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea, and the Beaufort Sea (1992-2008) and from submarines (1975-2000); and drill hole data from the Arctic basin, Laptev, and East Siberian marginal seas (1982-1986) and coastal stations (1998-2009). Despite an assessment of six models that differ in numerical methods, resolution, domain, forcing, and boundary conditions, the models generally overestimate the thickness of measured ice thinner than approximately 2 mand underestimate the thickness of ice measured thicker than about approximately 2m. In the regions of flat immobile landfast ice (shallow Siberian Seas with depths less than 25-30 m), the models generally overestimate both the total observed sea ice thickness and rates of September and October ice growth from observations by more than 4 times and more than one standard deviation, respectively. The models do not reproduce conditions of fast ice formation and growth. Instead, the modeled fast ice is replaced with pack ice which drifts, generating ridges of increasing ice thickness, in addition to thermodynamic ice growth. Considering all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observations are from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II and Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System models.

  20. Carbon isotopes in the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1)

    DOE PAGES

    Jahn, A.; Lindsay, K.; Giraud, X.; ...

    2015-08-05

    Carbon isotopes in the ocean are frequently used as paleoclimate proxies and as present-day geochemical ocean tracers. In order to allow a more direct comparison of climate model results with this large and currently underutilized data set, we added a carbon isotope module to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), containing the cycling of the stable isotope 13C and the radioactive isotope 14C. We implemented the 14C tracer in two ways: in the "abiotic" case, the 14C tracer is only subject to air–sea gas exchange, physical transport, and radioactive decay, while in the "biotic" version, themore » 14C additionally follows the 13C tracer through all biogeochemical and ecological processes. Thus, the abiotic 14C tracer can be run without the ecosystem module, requiring significantly fewer computational resources. The carbon isotope module calculates the carbon isotopic fractionation during gas exchange, photosynthesis, and calcium carbonate formation, while any subsequent biological process such as remineralization as well as any external inputs are assumed to occur without fractionation. Given the uncertainty associated with the biological fractionation during photosynthesis, we implemented and tested three parameterizations of different complexity. Compared to present-day observations, the model is able to simulate the oceanic 14C bomb uptake and the 13C Suess effect reasonably well compared to observations and other model studies. Lastly, at the same time, the carbon isotopes reveal biases in the physical model, for example, too sluggish ventilation of the deep Pacific Ocean.« less

  1. Baroclinic stabilization effect of the Atlantic-Arctic water exchange simulated by the eddy-permitting ocean model and global atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Bagno, Alexey; Gritsun, Andrey; Gusev, Anatoly

    2017-04-01

    Numerical experiments were performed with the global atmosphere-ocean model INMCM5 (for version of the international project CMIP6, resolution for atmosphere is 2°x1.5°, 21 level) and with the three-dimensional, free surface, sigma coordinate eddy-permitting ocean circulation model for Atlantic (from 30°S) - Arctic and Bering sea domain (0.25 degrees resolution, Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model or INMOM). Spatial resolution of the INMCM5 oceanic component is 0.5°x0.25°. Both models have 40 s-levels in ocean. Previously, the simulations were carried out for INMCM5 to generate climatic system stable state. Then model was run for 180 years. In the experiment with INMOM, CORE-II data for 1948-2009 were used. As the goal for comparing results of two these numerical models, we selected evolution of the density and velocity anomalies in the 0-300m active ocean layer near Fram Strait in the Greenland Sea, where oceanic cyclonic circulation influences Atlantic-Arctic water exchange. Anomalies were count without climatic seasonal cycle for time scales smaller than 30 years. We use Singular Value Decomposition analysis (SVD) for density-velocity anomalies with time lag from minus one to six months. Both models perform identical stable physical result. They reveal that changes of heat and salt transports by West Spitsbergen and East Greenland currents, caused by atmospheric forcing, produce the baroclinic modes of velocity anomalies in 0-300m layer, thereby stabilizing ocean response on the atmospheric forcing, which stimulates keeping water exchange between the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean at the certain climatological level. The first SVD-mode of density-velocity anomalies is responsible for the cyclonic circulation variability. The second and third SVD-modes stabilize existing ocean circulation by the anticyclonic vorticity generation. The second and third SVD-modes give 35% of the input to the total dispersion of density anomalies and 16-18% of the

  2. Comparison of the ocean surface vector winds over the Nordic Seas and their application for ocean modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Bourassa, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Ocean processes in the Nordic Seas and northern North Atlantic are strongly controlled by air-sea heat and momentum fluxes. The predominantly cyclonic, large-scale atmospheric circulation brings the deep ocean layer up to the surface preconditioning the convective sites in the Nordic Seas for deep convection. In winter, intensive cooling and possibly salt flux from newly formed sea ice erodes the near-surface stratification and the mixed layer merges with the deeper domed layer, exposing the very weakly stratified deep water mass to direct interaction with the atmosphere. Surface wind is one of the atmospheric parameters required for estimating momentum and turbulent heat fluxes to the sea ice and ocean surface. In the ocean models forced by atmospheric analysis, errors in surface wind fields result in errors in air-sea heat and momentum fluxes, water mass formation, ocean circulation, as well as volume and heat transport in the straits. The goal of the study is to assess discrepancies across the wind vector fields from reanalysis data sets and scatterometer-derived gridded products over the Nordic Seas and northern North Atlantic and to demonstrate possible implications of these differences for ocean modeling. The analyzed data sets include the reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis 2 (NCEPR2), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) and satellite wind products Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) wind product version 1.1 and recently released version 2.0, and Remote Sensing Systems QuikSCAT data. Large-scale and mesoscale characteristics of winds are compared at interannual, seasonal, and synoptic timescales. Numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted with a coupled ice-ocean model forced by different wind fields. The sensitivity experiments demonstrate differences in the net surface heat fluxes during storm events. Next, it is hypothesized that discrepancies in the wind vorticity

  3. Tropical Indian Ocean surface salinity bias in Climate Forecasting System coupled models and the role of upper ocean processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Anant; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Sayantani, Ojha; Fousiya, T. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study sea surface salinity (SSS) biases and seasonal tendency over the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in the coupled models [Climate Forecasting System version 1 (CFSv1) and version 2 (CFSv2)] are examined with respect to observations. Both CFSv1 and CFSv2 overestimate SSS over the TIO throughout the year. CFSv1 displays improper SSS seasonal cycle over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), which is due to weaker model precipitation and improper river runoff especially during summer and fall. Over the southeastern Arabian Sea (AS) weak horizontal advection associated with East Indian coastal current during winter limits the formation of spring fresh water pool. On the other hand, weaker Somali jet during summer results for reduced positive salt tendency in the central and eastern AS. Strong positive precipitation bias in CFSv1 over the region off Somalia during winter, weaker vertical mixing and absence of horizontal salt advection lead to unrealistic barrier layer during winter and spring. The weaker stratification and improper spatial distribution of barrier layer thickness (BLT) in CFSv1 indicate that not only horizontal flux distribution but also vertical salt distribution displays large discrepancies. Absence of fall Wyrtki jet and winter equatorial currents in this model limit the advection of horizontal salt flux to the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. The associated weaker stratification in eastern equatorial Indian Ocean can lead to deeper mixed layer and negative Sea Surface Temperature (SST) bias, which in turn favor positive Indian Ocean Dipole bias in CFSv1. It is important to note that improper spatial distribution of barrier layer and stratification can alter the air-sea interaction and precipitation in the models. On the other hand CFSv2 could produce the seasonal evolution and spatial distribution of SSS, BLT and stratification better than CFSv1. However CFSv2 displays positive bias in evaporation over the whole domain and negative bias in

  4. Intermediate Models of Planetary Circulations in the Atmosphere and Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Gent, Peter R.

    1980-08-01

    Large-scale extratropical motions (with dimensions comparable to, or somewhat smaller than, the planetary radius) in the atmosphere and ocean exhibit a more restricted range of phenomena than are admissible in the primitive equations for fluid motions, and there have been many previous proposals for simpler, more phenomenologically limited models of these motions. The oldest and most successful of these is the quasi-geostrophic model. An extensive discussion is made of models intermediate between the quasi-geostrophic and primitive ones, some of which have been previously proposed [e.g., the balance equations (BE), where tendencies in the equation for the divergent component of velocity are neglected, or the geostrophic momentum approximation (GM), where ageostrophic accelerations are neglected relative to geostrophic ones] and some of which are derived here. Virtues of these models are assessed in the dual measure of nearly geostrophic momentum balance (i.e., small Rossby number) and approximate frontal structure (i.e., larger along-axis velocities and length scales than their cross-axis counterparts), since one or both of these circumstances is usually characteristic of planetary motions. Consideration is also given to various coordinate transformations, since they can yield simpler expressions for the governing differential equations of the intermediate models. In particular, a new set of coordinates is proposed, isentropic geostrophic coordinates,(IGC), which has the advantage of making implicit the advections due to ageostrophic horizontal and vertical velocities under various approximations. A generalization of quasi-geostrophy is made. named hypo-geostrophy (HG), which is an asymptotic approximation of one higher order accuracy in Rossby number. The governing equations are simplest in IGC for both HG and GM; we name the latter in these coordinates isentropic semi-geostrophy (ISG), in analogy to Hoskins' (1975) semi-geostrophy (SG). HG, GM and BE are, in our

  5. Adaptation of an unstructured-mesh, finite-element ocean model to the simulation of ocean circulation beneath ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Candy, Adam S.; Holland, Paul R.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Jenkins, Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Several different classes of ocean model are capable of representing floating glacial ice shelves. We describe the incorporation of ice shelves into Fluidity-ICOM, a nonhydrostatic finite-element ocean model with the capacity to utilize meshes that are unstructured and adaptive in three dimensions. This geometric flexibility offers several advantages over previous approaches. The model represents melting and freezing on all ice-shelf surfaces including vertical faces, treats the ice shelf topography as continuous rather than stepped, and does not require any smoothing of the ice topography or any of the additional parameterisations of the ocean mixed layer used in isopycnal or z-coordinate models. The model can also represent a water column that decreases to zero thickness at the 'grounding line', where the floating ice shelf is joined to its tributary ice streams. The model is applied to idealised ice-shelf geometries in order to demonstrate these capabilities. In these simple experiments, arbitrarily coarsening the mesh outside the ice-shelf cavity has little effect on the ice-shelf melt rate, while the mesh resolution within the cavity is found to be highly influential. Smoothing the vertical ice front results in faster flow along the smoothed ice front, allowing greater exchange with the ocean than in simulations with a realistic ice front. A vanishing water-column thickness at the grounding line has little effect in the simulations studied. We also investigate the response of ice shelf basal melting to variations in deep water temperature in the presence of salt stratification.

  6. Effects of Southern Hemisphere Wind Changes on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in Ocean Models.

    PubMed

    Gent, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Observations show that the Southern Hemisphere zonal wind stress maximum has increased significantly over the past 30 years. Eddy-resolving ocean models show that the resulting increase in the Southern Ocean mean flow meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is partially compensated by an increase in the eddy MOC. This effect can be reproduced in the non-eddy-resolving ocean component of a climate model, providing the eddy parameterization coefficient is variable and not a constant. If the coefficient is a constant, then the Southern Ocean mean MOC change is balanced by an unrealistically large change in the Atlantic Ocean MOC. Southern Ocean eddy compensation means that Southern Hemisphere winds cannot be the dominant mechanism driving midlatitude North Atlantic MOC variability.

  7. The influence of the ocean circulation state on ocean carbon storage and CO2 drawdown potential in an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ödalen, Malin; Nycander, Jonas; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Brodeau, Laurent; Ridgwell, Andy

    2018-03-01

    During the four most recent glacial cycles, atmospheric CO2 during glacial maxima has been lowered by about 90-100 ppm with respect to interglacials. There is widespread consensus that most of this carbon was partitioned in the ocean. It is, however, still debated which processes were dominant in achieving this increased carbon storage. In this paper, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to explore the sensitivity of ocean carbon storage to ocean circulation state. We carry out a set of simulations in which we run the model to pre-industrial equilibrium, but in which we achieve different states of ocean circulation by changing forcing parameters such as wind stress, ocean diffusivity and atmospheric heat diffusivity. As a consequence, the ensemble members also have different ocean carbon reservoirs, global ocean average temperatures, biological pump efficiencies and conditions for air-sea CO2 disequilibrium. We analyse changes in total ocean carbon storage and separate it into contributions by the solubility pump, the biological pump and the CO2 disequilibrium component. We also relate these contributions to differences in the strength of the ocean overturning circulation. Depending on which ocean forcing parameter is tuned, the origin of the change in carbon storage is different. When wind stress or ocean diapycnal diffusivity is changed, the response of the biological pump gives the most important effect on ocean carbon storage, whereas when atmospheric heat diffusivity or ocean isopycnal diffusivity is changed, the solubility pump and the disequilibrium component are also important and sometimes dominant. Despite this complexity, we obtain a negative linear relationship between total ocean carbon and the combined strength of the northern and southern overturning cells. This relationship is robust to different reservoirs dominating the response to different forcing mechanisms. Finally, we conduct a drawdown experiment in which we investigate

  8. Simulations of Antarctic ice shelves and the Southern Ocean in the POP2x ocean model coupled with the BISICLES ice-sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay-Davis, Xylar; Martin, Daniel; Price, Stephen; Maltrud, Mathew

    2014-05-01

    We present initial results from Antarctic, ice-ocean coupled simulations using large-scale ocean circulation and ice-sheet evolution models. This presentation focuses on the ocean model, POP2x, which is a modified version of POP, a fully eddying, global-scale ocean model (Smith and Gent, 2002). POP2x allows for circulation beneath ice shelf cavities using the method of partial top cells (Losch, 2008). Boundary layer physics, which control fresh water and salt exchange at the ice-ocean interface, are implemented following Holland and Jenkins (1999), Jenkins (2001), and Jenkins et al. (2010). Standalone POP2x output compares well with standard ice-ocean test cases (e.g., ISOMIP; Losch, 2008) and other continental-scale simulations and melt-rate observations (Kimura et al., 2013; Rignot et al., 2013) and with results from other idealized ice-ocean coupling test cases (e.g., Goldberg et al., 2012). A companion presentation, 'Fully resolved whole-continent Antarctica simulations using the BISICLES AMR ice sheet model coupled with the POP2x Ocean Model', concentrates more on the ice-sheet model, BISICLES (Cornford et al., 2012), which includes a 1st-order accurate momentum balance (L1L2) and uses block structured, adaptive-mesh refinement to more accurately model regions of dynamic complexity, such as ice streams, outlet glaciers, and grounding lines. For idealized test cases focused on marine-ice sheet dynamics, BISICLES output compares very favorably relative to simulations based on the full, nonlinear Stokes momentum balance (MISMIP-3d; Pattyn et al., 2013). Here, we present large-scale (Southern Ocean) simulations using POP2x at 0.1 degree resolution with fixed ice shelf geometries, which are used to obtain and validate modeled submarine melt rates against observations. These melt rates are, in turn, used to force evolution of the BISICLES model. An offline-coupling scheme, which we compare with the ice-ocean coupling work of Goldberg et al. (2012), is then used to

  9. Modeling of subaqueous melting in Petermann Fjord, Northwestern Greenland using an ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C.; Rignot, E. J.; Xu, Y.; An, L.; Tinto, K. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Basal melting of the floating tongue of Petermann Glacier, in northwestern Greenland is by far the largest process of mass ablation. Melting of the floating tongue is controlled by the buoyancy of the melt water plume, the pressure-dependence of the melting point of sea ice, and the mixing of warm subsurface water with fresh buoyant subglacial discharge. In prior simulations of this melting process, the role of subglacial discharge has been neglected because in similar configurations (floating ice shelves) in the Antarctic, surface runoff is negligible; this is however not true in Greenland. Here, we use the Mass Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a high spatial resolution (10 m x 10 m) to simulate the melting process of the ice shelf in 2-D. The model is constrained by ice shelf bathymetry and ice thickness (refined model in the immediate vicinity of the grounding line) from NASA Operation IceBridge (2011), ocean temperature/salinity data from Johnson et al. (2011), ocean tide height and current from the Arctic Ocean Tidal Inverse Model (AOTIM-5) by Padman and Erofeeva (2004) and subglacial discharge at the grounding line calculated by the hydrostatic potential of the ice from estimated products of the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) of Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI). We compare the results obtained in winter (no runoff) with summer, and the sensitivity of the results to thermal forcing from the ocean, and to the variation of tide height and current, and to the magnitude of subglacial runoff. We conclude on the impact of the ocean and surface melting on the melting regime of the floating ice tongue of Petermann. The basal melt rate increases ~20% with summer surface runoff. This work is performed under a contract with NASA Cryosphere Program.

  10. Long-Term Evaluation of Ocean Tidal Variation Models of Polar Motion and UT1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbon, Maria; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Belda, Santiago; Nilsson, Tobias; Hagedoorn, Jan; Schuh, Harald

    2018-04-01

    Recent improvements in the development of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) and other space geodetic techniques such as the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) require very precise a-priori information of short-period (daily and sub-daily) Earth rotation variations. One significant contribution to Earth rotation is caused by the diurnal and semi-diurnal ocean tides. Within this work, we developed a new model for the short-period ocean tidal variations in Earth rotation, where the ocean tidal angular momentum model and the Earth rotation variation have been setup jointly. Besides the model of the short-period variation of the Earth's rotation parameters (ERP), based on the empirical ocean tide model EOT11a, we developed also ERP models, that are based on the hydrodynamic ocean tide models FES2012 and HAMTIDE. Furthermore, we have assessed the effect of uncertainties in the elastic Earth model on the resulting ERP models. Our proposed alternative ERP model to the IERS 2010 conventional model considers the elastic model PREM and 260 partial tides. The choice of the ocean tide model and the determination of the tidal velocities have been identified as the main uncertainties. However, in the VLBI analysis all models perform on the same level of accuracy. From these findings, we conclude that the models presented here, which are based on a re-examined theoretical description and long-term satellite altimetry observation only, are an alternative for the IERS conventional model but do not improve the geodetic results.

  11. Idealised modelling of ocean circulation driven by conductive and hydrothermal fluxes at the seabed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jowan M.; Morales Maqueda, Miguel A.; Polton, Jeff A.; Megann, Alex P.

    2018-02-01

    Geothermal heating is increasingly recognised as an important factor affecting ocean circulation, with modelling studies suggesting that this heat source could lead to first-order changes in the formation rate of Antarctic Bottom Water, as well as a significant warming effect in the abyssal ocean. Where it has been represented in numerical models, however, the geothermal heat flux into the ocean is generally treated as an entirely conductive flux, despite an estimated one third of the global geothermal flux being introduced to the ocean via hydrothermal sources. A modelling study is presented which investigates the sensitivity of the geothermally forced circulation to the way heat is supplied to the abyssal ocean. An analytical two-dimensional model of the circulation is described, which demonstrates the effects of a volume flux through the ocean bed. A simulation using the NEMO numerical general circulation model in an idealised domain is then used to partition a heat flux between conductive and hydrothermal sources and explicitly test the sensitivity of the circulation to the formulation of the abyssal heat flux. Our simulations suggest that representing the hydrothermal flux as a mass exchange indeed changes the heat distribution in the abyssal ocean, increasing the advective heat transport from the abyss by up to 35% compared to conductive heat sources. Consequently, we suggest that the inclusion of hydrothermal fluxes can be an important addition to course-resolution ocean models.

  12. Nudging Satellite Altimeter Data Into Quasi-Geostrophic Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verron, Jacques

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses the efficiency of several variants of the nudging technique (derived from the technique of the same name developed by meteorologists) for assimilating altimeter data into numerical ocean models based on quasi-geostrophic formulation. Assimilation experiments are performed with data simulated in the nominal sampling conditions of the Topex-Poseidon satellite mission. Under experimental conditions it is found that nudging on the altimetric sea level is as efficient as nudging on the vorticity (second derivative in space of the dynamic topography), the technique used thus far in studies of this type. The use of altimetric residuals only, instead of the total altimetric sea level signal, is also explored. The critical importance of having an adequate reference mean sea level is largely confirmed. Finally, the possibility of nudging only the signal of sea level tendency (i.e., the successive time differences of the sea level height) is examined. Apart from the barotropic mode, results are not very successful compared with those obtained by assimilating the residuals.

  13. A hierarchy of ocean biogeochemical comprehensiveness for Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    As Earth System Models mature towards more quantitative explanations of ocean carbon cycle interactions and are applied to an increasingly diverse array of living marine resource communities, the draw towards biogeochemical and ecological comprehensiveness intensifies. However, this draw to comprehensiveness must also be balanced with the added cost of handling additional tracers. One way that GFDL has addressed this constraint is by developing a series of biogeochemical modules based on the 30 tracer TOPAZ formulation used in GFDL's CMIP5 contribution in both simplifying the biogeochemistry down to the 6 tracer BLING formulation and 3 tracer mini-BLING formulation, and in the other direction improving on ecosystem comprehensiveness with the 33 tracer COBALT formulation. We discuss the comparative advantages and disadvantages along this continuum of complexity in terms of both biogeochemical and ecological fidelity and applicability. We also discuss a related approach to separate out other modules for ideal age, 14C, CFCs, SF6, Argon and other tracer suites, allowing use to run an array of experimental designs to suite different needs.

  14. Impact of Typhoons on the Western Pacific Ocean (ITOP) DRI: Numerical Modeling of Ocean Mixed Layer Turbulence and Entrainment at High Winds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Impact of Typhoons on the Western Pacific Ocean (ITOP...The measurement and modeling activities include a focus on the impact of surface waves, air-sea fluxes and the temperature, salinity and velocity...SUBTITLE Impact of Typhoons on the Western Pacific Ocean (ITOP) DRI: Numerical Modeling of Ocean Mixed Layer Turbulence and Entrainment at High Winds

  15. Trends in Ocean Irradiance using a Radiative Model Forced with Terra Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy; Romanou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud information from MODIS on Terra provide enhanced capability to understand surface irradiance over the oceans and its variability. These relationships can be important for ocean biology and carbon cycles. An established radiative transfer model, the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is used to describe ocean irradiance variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. The model is forced with information on aerosols and clouds from the MODIS sensor on Terra and Aqua. A 7-year record (2000-2006) showed no trends in global ocean surface irradiance or photosynthetic available irradiance (PAR). There were significant (P<0.05) negative trends in the Mediterranean Sea, tropical Pacific) and tropical Indian Oceans, of -7.0, -5.0 and -2.7 W/sq m respectively. Global interannual variability was also modest. Regional interannual variability was quite large in some ocean basins, where monthly excursions from climatology were often >20 W/sq m. The trends using MODIS data contrast with results from OASIM using liquid water path estimates from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Here, a global trend of -2 W/sq m was observed, largely dues to a large negative trend in the Antarctic -12 W/sq m. These results suggest the importance of the choice of liquid water path data sets in assessments of medium-length trends in ocean surface irradiance. The choices also impact the evaluation of changes in ocean biogeochemistry.

  16. The Ocean Construct: A Model for Maritime Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allin, Lawrence C.

    1977-01-01

    Described is an organizational construct to help teachers integrate the oceanographic and maritime disciplines within a comprehensible framework. The construct considers three areas: aquasphere, human adaptation to the ocean, and integrative prospects. (Author/AV)

  17. The ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model and global cycle of carbon dioxide in system of atmosphere-ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Alexander; Glushkov, Alexander; Loboda, Nataliya; Khokhlov, Valery; Serbov, Nikoly; Svinarenko, Andrey

    The purpose of this paper is carrying out the detailed model of the CO2 global turnover in system of "atmosphere-ocean" with using the ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model. Practically all carried out models are functioning in the average annual regime and accounting for the carbon distribution in bio-sphere in most general form (Glushkov et al, 2003). We construct a modified model for cycle of the carbon dioxide, which allows to reproduce a season dynamics of carbon turnover in ocean with account of zone ocean structure (up quasi-homogeneous layer, thermocline and deepest layer). It is taken into account dependence of the CO2 transfer through the bounder between atmosphere and ocean upon temperature of water and air, wind velocity, buffer mechanism of the CO2 dissolution. The same program is realized for atmosphere part of whole system. It is obtained a tempo-ral and space distribution for concentration of non-organic carbon in ocean, partial press of dissolute CO2 and value of exchange on the border between atmosphere and ocean. It is estimated a role of the wind intermixing of the up ocean layer. The increasing of this effect leads to increasing the plankton mass and further particles, which are transferred by wind, contribute to more quick immersion of microscopic shells and organic material. It is fulfilled investigation of sen-sibility of the master differential equations system solutions from the model parameters. The master differential equa-tions system, describing a dynamics of the CO2 cycle, is numerically integrated by the four order Runge-Cutt method under given initial values of valuables till output of solution on periodic regime. At first it is indicated on possible real-zation of the chaos scenario in system. On our data, the difference of the average annual values for the non-organic car-bon concentration in the up quasi-homogeneous layer between equator and extreme southern zone is 0.15 mol/m3, be-tween the equator and extreme northern zone is 0

  18. Stochastic Modeling and Global Warming Trend Extraction For Ocean Acoustic Travel Times.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-06

    consideration and that these models can not currently be relied upon by themselves to predict global warming . Experimental data is most certainly needed, not...only to measure global warming itself, but to help improve the ocean model themselves. (AN)

  19. SENSITIVITY OF THE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION MULTILAYER MODEL TO INSTRUMENT ERROR AND PARAMETERIZATION UNCERTAINTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The response of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration multilayer inferential dry deposition velocity model (NOAA-MLM) to error in meteorological inputs and model parameterization is reported. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the uncertainty in NOA...

  20. Painting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  1. Global Bathymetric Prediction For Ocean Modeling and Marine Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We proposed to construct a complete bathymetric map of the oceans at a 3-10 km resolution by combining all of the available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years with high resolution marine gravity information provided by the Geosat, ERS-1/2, and Topex/Poseidon altimeters. Detailed bathymetry is essential for understanding physical oceanography and marine geophysics. Currents and tides are controlled by the overall shapes of the ocean basins as well as the smaller sharp ocean ridges and seamounts. Because erosion rates are low in the deep oceans, detailed bathymetry reveals the mantle convection patterns, the plate boundaries, the cooling/subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere, the oceanic plateaus, and the distribution of off-ridge volcanoes. We proposed to: (1) Accumulate all available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years; (2) Use the short wavelength (< 160 km) satellite gravity information to interpolate between sparse ship soundings; (3) Improve the resolution of the marine gravity field using enhanced estimates along repeat altimeter profiles together with the dense altimeter measurements; (4) Refine/improve bathymetric predictions using the improved resolution gravity field and also by investigating computer-intensive methods for bathymetric prediction such as inverse theory; and (5) Produce a 'Globe of the Earth' similar to the globe of Venus prepared by the NASA Magellan investigation. This will also include the best available digital land data.

  2. Evaluation of Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment Products on South Florida Nested Simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Model 7:285-322 Halliwell GR Jr, Weisberg RH, Mayer DA (2003) A synthetic float analysis of upper-limb meridional overturning circulation ...encompasses a variety of coastal regions (the broad Southwest Florida shelf, the narrow Atlantic Keys shelf, the shallow Florida Bay, and Biscayne...products. The results indicate that the successful hindcasting of circulation patterns in a coastal area that is characterized by complex topography and

  3. Adaptive Error Estimation in Linearized Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chechelnitsky, Michael Y.

    1999-01-01

    representation error, i.e. the dominance of the mesoscale eddies in the T/P signal, which are not part of the 21 by 1" GCM. Therefore, the impact of the observations on the assimilation is very small even after the adjustment of the error statistics. This work demonstrates that simult&neous estimation of the model and measurement error statistics for data assimilation with global ocean data sets and linearized GCMs is possible. However, the error covariance estimation problem is in general highly underdetermined, much more so than the state estimation problem. In other words there exist a very large number of statistical models that can be made consistent with the available data. Therefore, methods for obtaining quantitative error estimates, powerful though they may be, cannot replace physical insight. Used in the right context, as a tool for guiding the choice of a small number of model error parameters, covariance matching can be a useful addition to the repertory of tools available to oceanographers.

  4. Interannual and Decadal Changes in Salinity in the Oceanic Subtropical Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Subrahmanyam

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that the global water cycle has been undergoing an intensification over several decades as a response to increasing atmospheric temperatures, particularly in regions with skewed evaporation - precipitation (E-P) patterns such as the oceanic subtropical gyres. Moreover, observational data (rain gauges, etc.) are quite sparse over such areas due to the inaccessibility of open ocean regions. In this work, a comparison of observational and model simulations are conducted to highlight the potential applications of satellite derived salinity from NASA Aquarius Salinity mission, NASA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and ESA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP). We explored spatial and temporal salinity changes (and trends) in surface and subsurface in the oceanic subtropical gyres using Argo floats salinity data, Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis, Estimating the Circulations & Climate of the Ocean GECCO (German ECCO) model simulations, and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Our results based on SODA reanalysis reveals that a positive rising trend in sea surface salinity in the subtropical gyres emphasizing evidence for decadal intensification in the surface forcing in these regions. Zonal drift in the location of the salinity maximum of the south Pacific, north Atlantic, and south Indian regions implies a change in the mean near-surface currents responsible for advecting high salinity waters into the region. Also we found out that an overall salinity increase within the mixed layer, and a subsurface salinity decrease at depths greater than 200m in the global subtropical gyres over 61 years. We determine that freshwater fluxes at the air-sea interface are the primary drivers of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature over these open ocean regions by quantifying the advective contribution within the surface layer. This was demonstrated through a mixed layer salinity budget in each subtropical gyre based on the vertically

  5. Results from ISOMIP+ and MISOMIP1, two interrelated marine ice sheet and ocean model intercomparison projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asay-Davis, X.; Galton-Fenzi, B.; Gwyther, D.; Jourdain, N.; Martin, D. F.; Nakayama, Y.; Seroussi, H. L.

    2016-12-01

    MISMIP+ (the third Marine Ice Sheet MIP), ISOMIP+ (the second Ice Shelf-Ocean MIP) and MISOMIP1 (the first Marine Ice Sheet-Ocean MIP) prescribe a set of idealized experiments for marine ice-sheet models, ocean models with ice-shelf cavities, and coupled ice sheet-ocean models, respectively. Here, we present results from ISOMIP+ and MISOMIP1 experiments using several ocean-only and coupled ice sheet-ocean models. Among the ocean models, we show that differences in model behavior are significant enough that similar results can only be achieved by tuning model parameters (the heat- and salt-transfer coefficients across the sub-ice-shelf boundary layer) for each model. This tuning is constrained by a desired mean melt rate in quasi-steady state under specified forcing conditions, akin to tuning the models to match observed melt rates. We compare the evolution of ocean temperature transects, melt rate, friction velocity and thermal driving between ocean models for the five ISOMIP+ experiments (Ocean0-4), which have prescribed ice-shelf topography. We find that melt patterns differ between models based on the relative importance of overturning strength and vertical mixing of temperature even when the models have been tuned to achieve similar melt rates near the grounding line. For the two MISOMIP1 experiments (IceOcean1 without dynamic calving and IceOcean2 with a simple calving parameterization), we compare temperature transects, melt rate, ice-shelf topography and grounded area across models and for several model configurations. Consistent with preliminary results from MISMIP+, we find that for a given coupled model, the use of a Coulomb-limited basal friction parameterization below grounded ice and the application of dynamic calving both significantly increase the rate of grounding-line retreat, whereas the rate of retreat appears to be less sensitive to the ice stress approximation (shallow-shelf approximation, higher-order, etc.). We show that models with similar

  6. The DEBOT Model, a New Global Barotropic Ocean Tidal Model: Test Computations and an Application in Related Geophysical Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einspigel, D.; Sachl, L.; Martinec, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We present the DEBOT model, which is a new global barotropic ocean model. The DEBOT model is primarily designed for modelling of ocean flow generated by the tidal attraction of the Moon and the Sun, however it can be used for other ocean applications where the barotropic model is sufficient, for instance, a tsunami wave propagation. The model has been thoroughly tested by several different methods: 1) synthetic example which involves a tsunami-like wave propagation of an initial Gaussian depression and testing of the conservation of integral invariants, 2) a benchmark study with another barotropic model, the LSGbt model, has been performed and 3) results of realistic simulations have been compared with data from tide gauge measurements around the world. The test computations prove the validity of the numerical code and demonstrate the ability of the DEBOT model to simulate the realistic ocean tides. The DEBOT model will be principaly applied in related geophysical disciplines, for instance, in an investigation of an influence of the ocean tides on the geomagnetic field or the Earth's rotation. A module for modelling of the secondary poloidal magnetic field generated by an ocean flow is already implemented in the DEBOT model and preliminary results will be presented. The future aim is to assimilate magnetic data provided by the Swarm satellite mission into the ocean flow model.

  7. Assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Data into a Global Ocean Circulation Model: Are the Results Any Good?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumori, I.; Fu, L. L.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of assimilating satellite altimetry data into a global ocean general ocean general circulation model is studied. Three years of TOPEX/POSEIDON data is analyzed using a global, three-dimensional, nonlinear primitive equation model.

  8. Sensitivity of a climatologically-driven sea ice model to the ocean heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Good, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ocean heat flux sensitivity was studied on a numerical model of sea ice covering the Weddell Sea region of the southern ocean. The model is driven by mean monthly climatological atmospheric variables. For each model run, the ocean heat flux is uniform in both space and time. Ocean heat fluxes below 20 W m to the minus 2 power do not provide sufficient energy to allow the ice to melt to its summertime thicknesses and concentrations by the end of the 14 month simulation, whereas ocean heat fluxes of 30 W m to the minus 2 power and above result in too much ice melt, producing the almost total disappearance of ice in the Weddell Sea by the end of the 14 months. These results are dependent on the atmospheric forcing fields.

  9. Quantifying Key Climate Parameter Uncertainties Using an Earth System Model with a Dynamic 3D Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R.; Sriver, R. L.; Goes, M. P.; Urban, N.; Matthews, D.; Haran, M.; Keller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Climate projections hinge critically on uncertain climate model parameters such as climate sensitivity, vertical ocean diffusivity and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcings. Climate sensitivity is defined as the equilibrium global mean temperature response to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Vertical ocean diffusivity parameterizes sub-grid scale ocean vertical mixing processes. These parameters are typically estimated using Intermediate Complexity Earth System Models (EMICs) that lack a full 3D representation of the oceans, thereby neglecting the effects of mixing on ocean dynamics and meridional overturning. We improve on these studies by employing an EMIC with a dynamic 3D ocean model to estimate these parameters. We carry out historical climate simulations with the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) varying parameters that affect climate sensitivity, vertical ocean mixing, and effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. We use a Bayesian approach whereby the likelihood of each parameter combination depends on how well the model simulates surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content. We use a Gaussian process emulator to interpolate the model output to an arbitrary parameter setting. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the posterior probability distribution function (pdf) of these parameters. We explore the sensitivity of the results to prior assumptions about the parameters. In addition, we estimate the relative skill of different observations to constrain the parameters. We quantify the uncertainty in parameter estimates stemming from climate variability, model and observational errors. We explore the sensitivity of key decision-relevant climate projections to these parameters. We find that climate sensitivity and vertical ocean diffusivity estimates are consistent with previously published results. The climate sensitivity pdf is strongly affected by the prior assumptions, and by the scaling

  10. Customised search and comparison of in situ, satellite and model data for ocean modellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamre, Torill; Vines, Aleksander; Lygre, Kjetil

    2014-05-01

    For the ocean modelling community, the amount of available data from historical and upcoming in situ sensor networks and satellite missions, provides an rich opportunity to validate and improve their simulation models. However, the problem of making the different data interoperable and intercomparable remains, due to, among others, differences in terminology and format used by different data providers and the different granularity provided by e.g. in situ data and ocean models. The GreenSeas project (Development of global plankton data base and model system for eco-climate early warning) aims to advance the knowledge and predictive capacities of how marine ecosystems will respond to global change. In the project, one specific objective has been to improve the technology for accessing historical plankton and associated environmental data sets, along with earth observation data and simulation outputs. To this end, we have developed a web portal enabling ocean modellers to easily search for in situ or satellite data overlapping in space and time, and compare the retrieved data with their model results. The in situ data are retrieved from a geo-spatial repository containing both historical and new physical, biological and chemical parameters for the Southern Ocean, Atlantic, Nordic Seas and the Arctic. The satellite-derived quantities of similar parameters from the same areas are retrieved from another geo-spatial repository established in the project. Both repositories are accessed through standard interfaces, using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS), and OPeNDAP protocols, respectively. While the developed data repositories use standard terminology to describe the parameters, especially the measured in situ biological parameters are too fine grained to be immediately useful for modelling purposes. Therefore, the plankton parameters were grouped according to category, size and if available by element. This grouping

  11. Intercomparison of the Gulf Stream in ocean reanalyses: 1993-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Lequan; Wolfe, Christopher L. P.; Hameed, Sultan

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of high-resolution ocean reanalysis products. This paper compares aspects of the Gulf Stream (GS) from the Florida Straits to south of the Grand Banks-particularly Florida Strait transport, separation of the GS near Cape Hatteras, GS properties along the Oleander Line (from New Jersey to Bermuda), GS path, and the GS north wall positions-in 13 widely used global reanalysis products of various resolutions, including two unconstrained products. A large spread across reanalysis products is found. HYCOM and GLORYS2v4 stand out for their superior performance by most metrics. Some common biases are found in all discussed models; for example, the velocity structure of the GS near the Oleander Line is too symmetrical and the maximum velocity is too weak compared with observations. Less than half of the reanalysis products show significant correlations (at the 95% confidence level) with observations for the GS separation latitude at Cape Hatteras, the GS transport, and net transport across Oleander Line. The cross-stream velocity structure is further discussed by a theoretical model idealizing GS as a smoothed PV front.

  12. Investigation of land ice-ocean interaction with a fully coupled ice-ocean model: 2. Sensitivity to external forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Little, C. M.; Sergienko, O. V.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Hallberg, R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2012-06-01

    A coupled ice stream-ice shelf-ocean cavity model is used to assess the sensitivity of the coupled system to far-field ocean temperatures, varying from 0.0 to 1.8°C, as well as sensitivity to the parameters controlling grounded ice flow. A response to warming is seen in grounding line retreat and grounded ice loss that cannot be inferred from the response of integrated melt rates alone. This is due to concentrated thinning at the ice shelf lateral margin, and to processes that contribute to this thinning. Parameters controlling the flow of grounded ice have a strong influence on the response to sub-ice shelf melting, but this influence is not seen until several years after an initial perturbation in temperatures. The simulated melt rates are on the order of that observed for Pine Island Glacier in the 1990s. However, retreat rates are much slower, possibly due to unrepresented bedrock features.

  13. Isolating Tracers of Phytoplankton with Allometric Zooplankton (TOPAZ) from Modular Ocean Model (MOM5) to Couple it with a Global Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.; Park, H. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Lee, J.; Byun, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    This research is motivated by a need to develop a new coupled ocean-biogeochemistry model, a key tool for climate projections. The Modular Ocean Model (MOM5) is a global ocean/ice model developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) in the US, and it incorporates Tracers of Phytoplankton with Allometric Zooplankton (TOPAZ), which simulates the marine biota associated with carbon cycles. We isolated TOPAZ from MOM5 into a stand-alone version (TOPAZ-SA), and had it receive initial data and ocean physical fields required. Then, its reliability was verified by comparing the simulation results from the TOPAZ-SA with the MOM5/TOPAZ. This stand-alone version of TOPAZ is to be coupled to the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO). Here we present the preliminary results. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the project "Research and Development for KMA Weather, Climate, and Earth system Services" (NIMS-2016-3100) of the National Institute of Meteorological Sciences/Korea Meteorological Administration.

  14. Modeling Vertical Structure and Heat Transport within the Oceans of Ice-covered Worlds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Indirect observational evidence provides a strong case for liquid oceans beneath the icy crust of Europa and several other frozen moons in the outer solar system. However, little is known about the fluid circulation within these exotic oceans. As a first step toward understanding circulations driven by buoyancy (rather than mechanical forcing from tides), one must understand the typical vertical structure of temperature, salinity, and thus density within the ocean. Following a common approach from terrestrial oceanography, I have built a "single column convection model" for icy world oceans, which describes the density structure of the ocean as a function of depth only: horizontal variations are ignored. On Earth, this approach is of limited utility, because of the strong influence of horizontal wind-driven currents and sea-surface temperature gradients set in concert with the overlying atmosphere. Neither of these confounding issues is present in an icy world's ocean. In the model, mixing of fluid properties via overturning convection is modeled as a strong diffusive process which only acts when the ocean is vertically unstable. "Double diffusive" processes (salt fingering and diffusive layering) are included: these are mixing processes resulting from the unequal molecular diffusivities of heat and salt. Other important processes, such as heating on adiabatic compression, and freshwater fluxes from melting overlying ice, are also included. As a simple test case, I considered an ocean of Europa-like depth (~100 km) and gravity, heated from the seafloor. To simplify matters, I specified an equation of state appropriate to terrestrial seawater, and a simple isothermal ocean as an initial condition. As expected, convection gradually penetrates upward, warming the ocean to an adiabatic, unstratified equilibrium density profile on a timescale of 50 kyr if 4.5 TW of heat are emitted by the silicate interior; the same result is achieved in proportionally more/less time

  15. Effect of Ocean Tide Models on the Precise Orbit Determination of Geodetic Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo-Oka, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Otsubo, T.; Gotoh, T.

    2005-12-01

    Several ocean tide models are tested with precise observation data of satellite laser ranging to geodetic satellites, Starlette and Stella. Four ocean models, NAO.99b, CSR 3.0 (standard model in IERS Conventions 2003), CSR 4.0, and GOT99.2b were implemented in our orbit analysis software "concerto ver. 4". NAO.99b model was developed by assimilating tidal solutions from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data into hydrodynamical model. Eight constituents (M2, S2, K1, O1, N2, P1, K2, Q1) were taken into account in each ocean tide model. Moreover, eight additional constituents (M1, J1, OO1, 2N2, Mu2, Nu2, L2, T2) can be included in NAO.99b model. Effect of ocean tides on geopotential coefficients were computed to 20th order. SLR data to Starlette and Stella were divided into arcs of 7 days length and 52 arcs (Jan. 2 - Dec. 30, 2004) were analyzed. Using different ocean tide model, orbits of these satellites were determined and weighted rms of postfit residuals are compared. We found that the NAO.99b model with 16 constituents can reduce weighted rms of postfit residuals using to the level of about 6.0 cm (Starlette) and 9.6 cm (Stella). These values are about 3-5 % smaller compared to other ocean tide models.

  16. A numerical world ocean general circulation model Part I. Basic design and barotropic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-June

    1984-08-01

    A new six-layer world ocean general circulation model based on the primitive system of equations is described in detail and its performance in the case of a homogeneous ocean is described. These test integrations show that the model is capable of reproducing the observed mean barotropic or vertically-integrated transport, as well as the seasonal variability of the major ocean gyres. The surface currents, however, are dominated by the Ekman transport, and such non-linear features as the western boundary currents and the equatorial countercurrents are poorly represented. The abyssal boundary countercurrents are also absent due to the lack of thermohaline forcing. The most conspicuous effect of the bottom topography on a homogeneous ocean is seen in the Southern ocean where the calculated Antarctic circumpolar transport through the Drake passage ( ≈ 10 Sv, with bathymetry included) greatly underestimates the observed transport (≈ 100 Sv).

  17. Response of an eddy-permitting ocean model to the assimilation of sparse in situ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Guo; Killworth, Peter D.; Smeed, David A.

    2003-04-01

    The response of an eddy-permitting ocean model to changes introduced by data assimilation is studied when the available in situ data are sparse in both space and time (typical for the majority of the ocean). Temperature and salinity (T&S) profiles from the WOCE upper ocean thermal data set were assimilated into a primitive equation ocean model over the North Atlantic, using a simple nudging scheme with a time window of about 2 days and a horizontal spatial radius of about 1°. When data are sparse the model returns to its unassimilated behavior, locally "forgetting" or rejecting the assimilation, on timescales determined by the local advection and diffusion. Increasing the spatial weighting radius effectively reduces both processes and hence lengthens the model restoring time (and with it, the impact of assimilation). Increasing the nudging factor enhances the assimilation effect but has little effect on the model restoring time.

  18. The Crossover Time as an Evaluation of Ocean Models Against Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipson, L. M.; Toumi, R.

    2018-01-01

    A new ocean evaluation metric, the crossover time, is defined as the time it takes for a numerical model to equal the performance of persistence. As an example, the average crossover time calculated using the Lagrangian separation distance (the distance between simulated trajectories and observed drifters) for the global MERCATOR ocean model analysis is found to be about 6 days. Conversely, the model forecast has an average crossover time longer than 6 days, suggesting limited skill in Lagrangian predictability by the current generation of global ocean models. The crossover time of the velocity error is less than 3 days, which is similar to the average decorrelation time of the observed drifters. The crossover time is a useful measure to quantify future ocean model improvements.

  19. NEMOTAM: tangent and adjoint models for the ocean modelling platform NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidard, A.; Bouttier, P.-A.; Vigilant, F.

    2015-04-01

    Tangent linear and adjoint models (TAMs) are efficient tools to analyse and to control dynamical systems such as NEMO. They can be involved in a large range of applications such as sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation or the computation of characteristic vectors. A TAM is also required by the 4D-Var algorithm, which is one of the major methods in data assimilation. This paper describes the development and the validation of the tangent linear and adjoint model for the NEMO ocean modelling platform (NEMOTAM). The diagnostic tools that are available alongside NEMOTAM are detailed and discussed, and several applications are also presented.

  20. NEMOTAM: tangent and adjoint models for the ocean modelling platform NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidard, A.; Bouttier, P.-A.; Vigilant, F.

    2014-10-01

    The tangent linear and adjoint model (TAM) are efficient tools to analyse and to control dynamical systems such as NEMO. They can be involved in a large range of applications such as sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation or the computation of characteristics vectors. TAM is also required by the 4-D-VAR algorithm which is one of the major method in Data Assimilation. This paper describes the development and the validation of the Tangent linear and Adjoint Model for the NEMO ocean modelling platform (NEMOTAM). The diagnostic tools that are available alongside NEMOTAM are detailed and discussed and several applications are also presented.

  1. Modeling of submarine melting in Petermann Fjord, Northwestern Greenland using an ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C.; Rignot, E. J.; Xu, Y.; An, L.

    2013-12-01

    Basal melting of the floating tongue of Petermann Glacier, in northwestern Greenland is by far the largest process of mass ablation. Melting of the floating tongue is controlled by the buoyancy of the melt water plume, the pressure-dependence of the melting point of sea ice, and the mixing of warm subsurface water with fresh buoyant subglacial discharge. In prior simulations of this melting process, the role of subglacial discharge has been neglected because in similar configurations (floating ice shelves) in the Antarctic, surface runoff is negligible; this is however not true in Greenland. Here, we use the Mass Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a high spatial resolution (10 m x 10 m) to simulate the melting process of the ice shelf in 2-D. the model is constrained by ice shelf bathymetry and ice thickness from NASA Operation IceBridge, ocean temperature/salinity data from Johnson et al. (2011), and subglacial discharge estimated from output products of the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO). We compare the results obtained in winter (no runoff) with summer, and the sensitivity of the results to thermal forcing from the ocean, and to the magnitude of subglacial runoff. We conclude on the impact of the ocean and surface melting on the melting regime of the floating ice tongue of Petermann. This work is performed under a contract with NASA Cryosphere Program.

  2. Assessment of ocean models in Mediterranean Sea against altimetry and gravimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Uebbing, Bernd; Kusche, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at assessing in a regional study in the Mediterranean Sea the agreement between ocean model outputs and satellite altimetry and satellite gravity observations. Satellite sea level change are from altimeter data made available by the Sea Level Climate Change Initiative (SLCCI) and from satellite gravity data made available by GRACE. We consider two ocean simulations not assimilating satellite altimeter data and one ocean model reanalysis assimilating satellite altimetry. Ocean model simulations can provide some insight on the ocean variability, but they are affected by biases due to errors in model formulation, specification of initial states and forcing, and are not directly constrained by observations. Their trend can be quite different from the altimetric observations due to surface radiation biases, however they are physically consistent. Ocean reanalyses are the combination of ocean models, atmospheric forcing fluxes and ocean observations via data assimilation methods and have the potential to provide more accurate information than observation-only or model-only based ocean estimations. They will be closer to altimetry at long and short timescales, but assimilation may destroy mass consistency. We use two ocean simulations which are part of the Med-CORDEX initiative (https://www.medcordex.eu). The first is the CNRM-RCM4 fully-coupled Regional Climate System Model (RCMS) simulation developed at METEOFRANCE for 1980-2012. The second is the PROTHEUS standalone hindcast simulation developed at ENEA and covers the interval 1960-2012. The third model is the regional model MEDSEA_REANALYSIS_PHIS_006_004 assimilating satellite altimeter data (http://marine.copernicus.eu/) and available over 1987-2014. Comparison at basin and regional scale are made. First the steric, thermo-steric, halosteric and dynamic components output of the models are compared. Then the total sea level given by the models is compared to the altimeter observations. Finally the mass

  3. Atmosphere, ocean, and land: Critical gaps in Earth system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Hartley, Dana

    1992-01-01

    We briefly review current knowledge and pinpoint some of the major areas of uncertainty for the following fundamental processes: (1) convection, condensation nuclei, and cloud formation; (2) oceanic circulation and its coupling to the atmosphere and cryosphere; (3) land surface hydrology and hydrology-vegetation coupling; (4) biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases; and (5) upper atmospheric chemistry and circulation.

  4. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of ade...

  5. Modeling the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami for Introductory Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Rarick, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop materials to address student interest in the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. We discuss the physical characteristics of tsunamis and some of the specific data regarding the 2004 event. Finally, we create an easy-to-make tsunami tank to run simulations in the classroom. The simulations exhibit three dramatic…

  6. Geophysical Global Modeling for Extreme Crop Production Using Photosynthesis Models Coupled to Ocean SST Dipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change appears to have manifested itself along with abnormal meteorological disasters. Instability caused by drought and flood disasters is producing poor harvests because of poor photosynthesis and pollination. Fluctuations of extreme phenomena are increasing rapidly because amplitudes of change are much greater than average trends. A fundamental cause of these phenomena derives from increased stored energy inside ocean waters. Geophysical and biochemical modeling of crop production can elucidate complex mechanisms under seasonal climate anomalies. The models have progressed through their combination with global climate reanalysis, environmental satellite data, and harvest data on the ground. This study examined adaptation of crop production to advancing abnormal phenomena related to global climate change. Global environmental surface conditions, i.e., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. Basic streams of the concepts of modeling rely upon continental energy flow and carbon circulation among crop vegetation, land surface atmosphere combining energy advection from ocean surface anomalies. Global environmental surface conditions, e.g., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. The method of validating the modeling relies upon carbon partitioning in biomass and grains through carbon flow by photosynthesis using carbon dioxide unit in photosynthesis. Results of computations done for this study show global distributions of actual evaporation, stomata opening, and photosynthesis, presenting mechanisms related to advection effects from SST anomalies in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans on global and continental croplands. For North America, climate effects appear clearly in severe atmospheric phenomena, which have caused drought and forest fires

  7. Improving model biases in an ESM with an isopycnic ocean component by accounting for wind work on oceanic near-inertial motions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wet, P. D.; Bentsen, M.; Bethke, I.

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that, when comparing climatological parameters such as ocean temperature and salinity to the output of an Earth System Model (ESM), the model exhibits biases. In ESMs with an isopycnic ocean component, such as NorESM, insufficient vertical mixing is thought to be one of the causes of such differences between observational and model data. However, enhancing the vertical mixing of the model's ocean component not only requires increasing the energy input, but also sound physical reasoning for doing so. Various authors have shown that the action of atmospheric winds on the ocean's surface is a major source of energy input into the upper ocean. However, due to model and computational constraints, oceanic processes linked to surface winds are incompletely accounted for. Consequently, despite significantly contributing to the energy required to maintain ocean stratification, most ESMs do not directly make provision for this energy. In this study we investigate the implementation of a routine in which the energy from work done on oceanic near-inertial motions is calculated in an offline slab model. The slab model, which has been well-documented in the literature, runs parallel to but independently from the ESM's ocean component. It receives wind fields with a frequency higher than that of the coupling frequency, allowing it to capture the fluctuations in the winds on shorter time scales. The additional energy calculated thus is then passed to the ocean component, avoiding the need for increased coupling between the components of the ESM. Results show localised reduction in, amongst others, the salinity and temperature biases of NorESM, confirming model sensitivity to wind-forcing and points to the need for better representation of surface processes in ESMs.

  8. "One-Stop Shopping" for Ocean Remote-Sensing and Model Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, P. Peggy; Vu, Quoc; Chao, Yi; Li, Zhi-Jin; Choi, Jei-Kook

    2006-01-01

    OurOcean Portal 2.0 (http:// ourocean.jpl.nasa.gov) is a software system designed to enable users to easily gain access to ocean observation data, both remote-sensing and in-situ, configure and run an Ocean Model with observation data assimilated on a remote computer, and visualize both the observation data and the model outputs. At present, the observation data and models focus on the California coastal regions and Prince William Sound in Alaska. This system can be used to perform both real-time and retrospective analyses of remote-sensing data and model outputs. OurOcean Portal 2.0 incorporates state-of-the-art information technologies (IT) such as MySQL database, Java Web Server (Apache/Tomcat), Live Access Server (LAS), interactive graphics with Java Applet at the Client site and MatLab/GMT at the server site, and distributed computing. OurOcean currently serves over 20 real-time or historical ocean data products. The data are served in pre-generated plots or their native data format. For some of the datasets, users can choose different plotting parameters and produce customized graphics. OurOcean also serves 3D Ocean Model outputs generated by ROMS (Regional Ocean Model System) using LAS. The Live Access Server (LAS) software, developed by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is a configurable Web-server program designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. The model output can be views as plots in horizontal slices, depth profiles or time sequences, or can be downloaded as raw data in different data formats, such as NetCDF, ASCII, Binary, etc. The interactive visualization is provided by graphic software, Ferret, also developed by PMEL. In addition, OurOcean allows users with minimal computing resources to configure and run an Ocean Model with data assimilation on a remote computer. Users may select the forcing input, the data to be assimilated, the

  9. Application of a Topological Metric for Assessing Numerical Ocean Models with Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, S. L.; Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Hiester, H. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite-based sensors provide a vast amount of observational data over the world ocean. Active microwave radars measure changes in sea surface height and backscattering from surface waves. Data from passive radiometers sensing emissions in multiple spectral bands can directly measure surface temperature, be combined with other data sources to estimate salinity, or processed to derive estimates of optically significant quantities, such as concentrations of biochemical properties. Estimates of the hydrographic variables can be readily used for assimilation or assessment of hydrodynamic ocean models. Optical data, however, have been underutilized in ocean circulation modeling. Qualitative assessments of oceanic fronts and other features commonly associated with changes in optically significant quantities are often made through visual comparison. This project applies a topological approach, borrowed from the field of computer image recognition, to quantitatively evaluate ocean model simulations of features that are related to quantities inferred from satellite imagery. The Modified Hausdorff Distance (MHD) provides a measure of the similarity of two shapes. Examples of applications of the MHD to assess ocean circulation models are presented. The first application assesses several models' representation of the freshwater plume structure from the Mississippi River, which is associated with a significant expression of color, using a satellite-derived ocean color index. Even though the variables being compared (salinity and ocean color index) differ, the MHD allows contours of the fields to be compared topologically. The second application assesses simulations of surface oil transport driven by winds and ocean model currents using surface oil maps derived from synthetic aperture radar backscatter data. In this case, maps of time composited oil coverage are compared between the simulations and satellite observations.

  10. Surface wave effects in the NEMO ocean model: Forced and coupled experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Mogensen, Kristian; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.

    2015-04-01

    The NEMO general circulation ocean model is extended to incorporate three physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress (modified by growth and dissipation of the oceanic wavefield), the turbulent kinetic energy flux from breaking waves, and the Stokes-Coriolis force. Experiments are done with NEMO in ocean-only (forced) mode and coupled to the ECMWF atmospheric and wave models. Ocean-only integrations are forced with fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. All three effects are noticeable in the extratropics, but the sea-state-dependent turbulent kinetic energy flux yields by far the largest difference. This is partly because the control run has too vigorous deep mixing due to an empirical mixing term in NEMO. We investigate the relation between this ad hoc mixing and Langmuir turbulence and find that it is much more effective than the Langmuir parameterization used in NEMO. The biases in sea surface temperature as well as subsurface temperature are reduced, and the total ocean heat content exhibits a trend closer to that observed in a recent ocean reanalysis (ORAS4) when wave effects are included. Seasonal integrations of the coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model consisting of NEMO, the wave model ECWAM, and the atmospheric model of ECMWF similarly show that the sea surface temperature biases are greatly reduced when the mixing is controlled by the sea state and properly weighted by the thickness of the uppermost level of the ocean model. These wave-related physical processes were recently implemented in the operational coupled ensemble forecast system of ECMWF.

  11. Variability in the mechanisms controlling Southern Ocean phytoplankton bloom phenology in an ocean model and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, Tyler; Long, Matthew C.; Kavanaugh, Maria T.; Lindsay, Keith; Doney, Scott C.

    2017-05-01

    A coupled global numerical simulation (conducted with the Community Earth System Model) is used in conjunction with satellite remote sensing observations to examine the role of top-down (grazing pressure) and bottom-up (light, nutrients) controls on marine phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton seasonal phenology is evaluated in the context of the recently proposed "disturbance-recovery" hypothesis relative to more traditional, exclusively "bottom-up" frameworks. All blooms occur when phytoplankton division rates exceed loss rates to permit sustained net population growth; however, the nature of this decoupling period varies regionally in Community Earth System Model. Regional case studies illustrate how unique pathways allow blooms to emerge despite very poor division rates or very strong grazing rates. In the Subantarctic, southeast Pacific small spring blooms initiate early cooccurring with deep mixing and low division rates, consistent with the disturbance-recovery hypothesis. Similar systematics are present in the Subantarctic, southwest Atlantic during the spring but are eclipsed by a subsequent, larger summer bloom that is coincident with shallow mixing and the annual maximum in division rates, consistent with a bottom-up, light limited framework. In the model simulation, increased iron stress prevents a similar summer bloom in the southeast Pacific. In the simulated Antarctic zone (70°S-65°S) seasonal sea ice acts as a dominant phytoplankton-zooplankton decoupling agent, triggering a delayed but substantial bloom as ice recedes. Satellite ocean color remote sensing and ocean physical reanalysis products do not precisely match model-predicted phenology, but observed patterns do indicate regional variability in mechanism across the Atlantic and Pacific.

  12. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  13. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  14. Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean temperature changes using an isothermal approach.

    PubMed

    Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Both air-sea heat exchanges and changes in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via changes in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean temperature changes for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean temperatures above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean temperatures. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of temperature changes since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.

  15. A conceptual model of oceanic heat transport in the Snowball Earth scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comeau, Darin; Kurtze, Douglas A.; Restrepo, Juan M.

    2016-12-01

    Geologic evidence suggests that the Earth may have been completely covered in ice in the distant past, a state known as Snowball Earth. This is still the subject of controversy, and has been the focus of modeling work from low-dimensional models up to state-of-the-art general circulation models. In our present global climate, the ocean plays a large role in redistributing heat from the equatorial regions to high latitudes, and as an important part of the global heat budget, its role in the initiation a Snowball Earth, and the subsequent climate, is of great interest. To better understand the role of oceanic heat transport in the initiation of Snowball Earth, and the resulting global ice covered climate state, the goal of this inquiry is twofold: we wish to propose the least complex model that can capture the Snowball Earth scenario as well as the present-day climate with partial ice cover, and we want to determine the relative importance of oceanic heat transport. To do this, we develop a simple model, incorporating thermohaline dynamics from traditional box ocean models, a radiative balance from energy balance models, and the more contemporary "sea glacier" model to account for viscous flow effects of extremely thick sea ice. The resulting model, consisting of dynamic ocean and ice components, is able to reproduce both Snowball Earth and present-day conditions through reasonable changes in forcing parameters. We find that including or neglecting oceanic heat transport may lead to vastly different global climate states, and also that the parameterization of under-ice heat transfer in the ice-ocean coupling plays a key role in the resulting global climate state, demonstrating the regulatory effect of dynamic ocean heat transport.

  16. Modeling Studies of the Effects of Winds and Heat Flux on the Tropical Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, R.

    1999-01-01

    Over a decade ago, funding from this NASA grant supported the development of the Cane-Zebiak ENSO prediction model which remains in use to this day. It also supported our work developing schemes for modeling the air-sea heat flux in ocean models used for studying climate variability. We introduced a succession of simple boundary layer models that allow the fluxes to be computed internally in the model and avoid the need to specify the atmospheric thermodynamic state. These models have now reached a level of generality that allows modeling of the global, rather than just tropical, ocean, including sea ice cover. The most recent versions of these boundary layer models have been widely distributed around the world and are in use by many ocean modeling groups.

  17. Development of wavelet-ANN models to predict water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Mohamad Javad; Kavianpour, Mohamad Reza

    2015-09-15

    The main objective of this study is to apply artificial neural network (ANN) and wavelet-neural network (WNN) models for predicting a variety of ocean water quality parameters. In this regard, several water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean, are taken under consideration. Different combinations of water quality parameters are applied as input variables to predict daily values of salinity, temperature and DO as well as hourly values of DO. The results demonstrate that the WNN models are superior to the ANN models. Also, the hourly models developed for DO prediction outperform the daily models of DO. For the daily models, the most accurate model has R equal to 0.96, while for the hourly model it reaches up to 0.98. Overall, the results show the ability of the model to monitor the ocean parameters, in condition with missing data, or when regular measurement and monitoring are impossible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Earth System Prediction Suite: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    SciT

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open-source terms or to credentialed users. Furthermore, the ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the United States. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC)more » Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. Our shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multiagency development of coupled modeling systems; controlled experimentation and testing; and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5), atmospheric general circulation model.« less

  19. The Earth System Prediction Suite: Toward a Coordinated U.S. Modeling Capability

    DOE PAGES

    Theurich, Gerhard; DeLuca, C.; Campbell, T.; ...

    2016-08-22

    The Earth System Prediction Suite (ESPS) is a collection of flagship U.S. weather and climate models and model components that are being instrumented to conform to interoperability conventions, documented to follow metadata standards, and made available either under open-source terms or to credentialed users. Furthermore, the ESPS represents a culmination of efforts to create a common Earth system model architecture, and the advent of increasingly coordinated model development activities in the United States. ESPS component interfaces are based on the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), community-developed software for building and coupling models, and the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC)more » Layer, a set of ESMF-based component templates and interoperability conventions. Our shared infrastructure simplifies the process of model coupling by guaranteeing that components conform to a set of technical and semantic behaviors. The ESPS encourages distributed, multiagency development of coupled modeling systems; controlled experimentation and testing; and exploration of novel model configurations, such as those motivated by research involving managed and interactive ensembles. ESPS codes include the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS); the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) and the Modular Ocean Model (MOM); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); and the NASA ModelE climate model and the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5), atmospheric general circulation model.« less

  20. A coupled ice-ocean model of ice breakup and banding in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedstad, O. M.; Roed, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled ice-ocean numerical model for the marginal ice zone is considered. The model consists of a nonlinear sea ice model and a two-layer (reduced gravity) ocean model. The dependence of the upwelling response on wind stress direction is discussed. The results confirm earlier analytical work. It is shown that there exist directions for which there is no upwelling, while other directions give maximum upwelling in terms of the volume of uplifted water. The ice and ocean is coupled directly through the stress at the ice-ocean interface. An interesting consequence of the coupling is found in cases when the ice edge is almost stationary. In these cases the ice tends to break up a few tenths of kilometers inside of the ice edge.

  1. Schwarz-Christoffel Conformal Mapping based Grid Generation for Global Oceanic Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiming

    2015-04-01

    We propose new grid generation algorithms for global ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). Contrary to conventional, analytical forms based dipolar or tripolar grids, the new algorithm are based on Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) conformal mapping with prescribed boundary information. While dealing with the conventional grid design problem of pole relocation, it also addresses more advanced issues of computational efficiency and the new requirements on OGCM grids arisen from the recent trend of high-resolution and multi-scale modeling. The proposed grid generation algorithm could potentially achieve the alignment of grid lines to coastlines, enhanced spatial resolution in coastal regions, and easier computational load balance. Since the generated grids are still orthogonal curvilinear, they can be readily 10 utilized in existing Bryan-Cox-Semtner type ocean models. The proposed methodology can also be applied to the grid generation task for regional ocean modeling when complex land-ocean distribution is present.

  2. The coupled atmosphere-chemistry-ocean model SOCOL-MPIOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthers, S.; Anet, J. G.; Stenke, A.; Raible, C. C.; Rozanov, E.; Brönnimann, S.; Peter, T.; Arfeuille, F. X.; Shapiro, A. I.; Beer, J.; Steinhilber, F.; Brugnara, Y.; Schmutz, W.

    2014-05-01

    The newly developed atmosphere-ocean-chemistry-climate model SOCOL-MPIOM is presented by demonstrating the influence of the interactive chemistry module on the climate state and the variability. Therefore, we compare pre-industrial control simulations with (CHEM) and without (NOCHEM) interactive chemistry. In general, the influence of the chemistry on the mean state and the variability is small and mainly restricted to the stratosphere and mesosphere. The largest differences are found for the atmospheric dynamics in the polar regions, with slightly stronger northern and southern winter polar vortices in CHEM. The strengthening of the vortex is related to larger stratospheric temperature gradients, which are attributed to a parametrization of the absorption of ozone and oxygen in the Lyman-alpha, Schumann-Runge, Hartley, and Higgins bands. This effect is parametrized in the version with interactive chemistry only. A second reason for the temperature differences between CHEM and NOCHEM is related to diurnal variations in the ozone concentrations in the higher atmosphere, which are missing in NOCHEM. Furthermore, stratospheric water vapour concentrations differ substantially between the two experiments, but their effect on the temperatures is small. In both setups, the simulated intensity and variability of the northern polar vortex is inside the range of present day observations. Sudden stratospheric warming events are well reproduced in terms of their frequency, but the distribution amongst the winter months is too uniform. Additionally, the performance of SOCOL-MPIOM under changing external forcings is assessed for the period 1600-2000 using an ensemble of simulations driven by a spectral solar forcing reconstruction. The amplitude of the reconstruction is large in comparison to other state-of-the-art reconstructions, providing an upper limit for the importance of the solar signal. In the pre-industrial period (1600-1850) the simulated surface temperature trends

  3. The viscous lee wave problem and its implications for ocean modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakespeare, Callum J.; Hogg, Andrew McC.

    2017-05-01

    Ocean circulation models employ 'turbulent' viscosity and diffusivity to represent unresolved sub-gridscale processes such as breaking internal waves. Computational power has now advanced sufficiently to permit regional ocean circulation models to be run at sufficiently high (100 m-1 km) horizontal resolution to resolve a significant part of the internal wave spectrum. Here we develop theory for boundary generated internal waves in such models, and in particular, where the waves dissipate their energy. We focus specifically on the steady lee wave problem where stationary waves are generated by a large-scale flow acting across ocean bottom topography. We generalise the energy flux expressions of [Bell, T., 1975. Topographically generated internal waves in the open ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 80, 320-327] to include the effect of arbitrary viscosity and diffusivity. Applying these results for realistic parameter choices we show that in the present generation of models with O(1) m2s-1 horizontal viscosity/diffusivity boundary-generated waves will inevitably dissipate the majority of their energy within a few hundred metres of the boundary. This dissipation is a direct consequence of the artificially high viscosity/diffusivity, which is not always physically justified in numerical models. Hence, caution is necessary in comparing model results to ocean observations. Our theory further predicts that O(10-2) m2s-1 horizontal and O(10-4) m2s-1 vertical viscosity/diffusivity is required to achieve a qualitatively inviscid representation of internal wave dynamics in ocean models.

  4. Decadal variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface Temperature in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Vikram M.; Delworth, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model's tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA) time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal variability but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale variability in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of variability in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. The second type of variability is considerably weaker than the first. As in the GOSTA time series, the multidecadal variability in the GFDL SST time series has approximately opposite phases between the tropical North and South Atlantic Oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies revealed a north-south bipolar pattern as the dominant pattern of decadal variability. It is suggested that the bipolar pattern can be interpreted as decadal variability of the interhemispheric gradient of SST anomalies. The decadal and multidecadal timescale variability of the tropical Atlantic SST, both in the actual and in the GFDL model, stands out significantly above the background 'red noise' and is coherent within each of the time series, suggesting that specific sets of

  5. Compact Ocean Models Enable Onboard AUV Autonomy and Decentralized Adaptive Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Compact Ocean Models Enable Onboard AUV Autonomy and...transmitted onboard an AUV . 3. Develop algorithms for adaptive planning of AUV surveys. 4. Demonstrate use of compact ocean models onboard a long...range AUV during a field deployment. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of

  6. A Community Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System (ROMS/TOMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Community Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System (ROMS...732) 932-6555 x266 Fax: (732) 932-6520 email: arango@marine.rutgers.edu Award Number: N00014-10- 1 -0322 http://ocean-modeling.org http...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and

  7. Rain Impact Model Assessment of Near-Surface Salinity Stratification Following Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drushka, K.; Jones, L.; Jacob, M. M.; Asher, W.; Santos-Garcia, A.

    2016-12-01

    Rainfall over oceans produces a layer of fresher surface water, which can have a significant effect on the exchanges between the surface and the bulk mixed layer and also on satellite/in-situ comparisons. For satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements, the standard is the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), but there is a significant difference between the remote sensing sampling depth of 0.01 m and the typical range of 5-10 m of in-situ instruments. Under normal conditions the upper layer of the ocean is well mixed and there is uniform salinity; however, under rainy conditions, there is a dilution of the near-surface salinity that mixes downward by diffusion and by mechanical mixing (gravity waves/wind speed). This significantly modifies the salinity gradient in the upper 1-2 m of the ocean, but these transient salinity stratifications dissipate in a few hours, and the upper layer becomes well mixed at a slightly fresher salinity. Based upon research conducted within the NASA/CONAE Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a rain impact model (RIM) was developed to estimate the change in SSS due to rainfall near the time of the satellite observation, with the objective to identify the probability of salinity stratification. RIM uses HYCOM (which does not include the short-term rain effects) and a NOAA global rainfall product CMORPH to model changes in the near-surface salinity profile in 0.5 h increments. Based upon SPURS-2 experimental near-surface salinity measurements with rain, this paper introduces a term in the RIM model that accounts for the effect of wind speed in the mechanical mixing, which translates into a dynamic vertical diffusivity; whereby a Generalized Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is used to investigate the response to rain events of the upper few meters of the ocean. The objective is to determine how rain and wind forcing control the thickness, stratification strength, and lifetime of fresh lenses and to quantify the impacts of rain-formed fresh lenses

  8. Oceanic circulation models help to predict global biogeography of pelagic yellow-bellied sea snake.

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Cotté, Cédric; Lillywhite, Harvey B; Bailleul, Frédéric; Lalire, Maxime; Gaspar, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    It is well recognized that most marine vertebrates, and especially tetrapods, precisely orient and actively move in apparently homogeneous oceanic environments. Here, we investigate the presumptive role of oceanic currents in biogeographic patterns observed in a secondarily marine tetrapod, the yellow-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis [Pelamis] platurus). State-of-the-art world ocean circulation models show how H. platurus, the only pelagic species of sea snake, can potentially exploit oceanic currents to disperse and maintain population mixing between localities that spread over two-thirds of the Earth's circumference. The very close association of these snakes with surface currents seems to provide a highly efficient dispersal mechanism that allowed this species to range extensively and relatively quickly well beyond the central Indo-Pacific area, the centre of origin, abundance and diversity of sea snakes. Our results further suggest that the pan-oceanic population of this species must be extraordinarily large. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Oceanic circulation models help to predict global biogeography of pelagic yellow-bellied sea snake

    PubMed Central

    Cotté, Cédric; Bailleul, Frédéric; Lalire, Maxime; Gaspar, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that most marine vertebrates, and especially tetrapods, precisely orient and actively move in apparently homogeneous oceanic environments. Here, we investigate the presumptive role of oceanic currents in biogeographic patterns observed in a secondarily marine tetrapod, the yellow-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis [Pelamis] platurus). State-of-the-art world ocean circulation models show how H. platurus, the only pelagic species of sea snake, can potentially exploit oceanic currents to disperse and maintain population mixing between localities that spread over two-thirds of the Earth's circumference. The very close association of these snakes with surface currents seems to provide a highly efficient dispersal mechanism that allowed this species to range extensively and relatively quickly well beyond the central Indo-Pacific area, the centre of origin, abundance and diversity of sea snakes. Our results further suggest that the pan-oceanic population of this species must be extraordinarily large. PMID:27555651

  10. Estimation of Interbasin Transport Using Ocean Bottom Pressure: Theory and Model for Asian Marginal Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2006-01-01

    The Asian Marginal Seas are interconnected by a number of narrow straits, such as the Makassar Strait connecting the Pacific Ocean with the Indian Ocean, the Luzon Strait connecting the South China Sea with the Pacific Ocean, and the Korea/Tsushima Strait connecting the East China Sea with the Japan/East Sea. Here we propose a method, the combination of the "geostrophic control" formula of Garrett and Toulany (1982) and the "hydraulic control" theory of Whitehead et al. (1974), allowing the use of satellite-observed sea-surface-height (SSH) and ocean-bottom-pressure (OBP) data for estimating interbasin transport. The new method also allows separating the interbasin transport into surface and bottom fluxes that play an important role in maintaining the mass balance of the regional oceans. Comparison with model results demonstrates that the combined method can estimate the seasonal variability of the strait transports and is significantly better than the method of using SSH or OBP alone.

  11. Efficient Flowline Simulations of Ice Shelf-Ocean Interactions: Sensitivity Studies with a Fully Coupled Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Ryan Thomas; Holland, David; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.; Jenkins, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic flowline and plume models for the ice shelf-ocean system simplify the ice and ocean dynamics sufficiently to allow extensive exploration of parameters affecting ice-sheet stability while including key physical processes. Comparison between geophysically and laboratory-based treatments of ice-ocean interface thermodynamics shows reasonable agreement between calculated melt rates, except where steep basal slopes and relatively high ocean temperatures are present. Results are especially sensitive to the poorly known drag coefficient, highlighting the need for additional field experiments to constrain its value. These experiments also suggest that if the ice-ocean interface near the grounding line is steeper than some threshold, further steepening of the slope may drive higher entrainment that limits buoyancy, slowing the plume and reducing melting; if confirmed, this will provide a stabilizing feedback on ice sheets under some circumstances.

  12. Intercomparison of Operational Ocean Forecasting Systems in the framework of GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main benefits of the GODAE 10-year activity is the implementation of ocean forecasting systems in several countries. In 2008, several systems are operated routinely, at global or basin scale. Among them, the BLUElink (Australia), HYCOM (USA), MOVE/MRI.COM (Japan), Mercator (France), FOAM (United Kingdom), TOPAZ (Norway) and C-NOOFS (Canada) systems offered to demonstrate their operational feasibility by performing an intercomparison exercise during a three months period (February to April 2008). The objectives were: a) to show that operational ocean forecasting systems are operated routinely in different countries, and that they can interact; b) to perform in a similar way a scientific validation aimed to assess the quality of the ocean estimates, the performance, and forecasting capabilities of each system; and c) to learn from this intercomparison exercise to increase inter-operability and collaboration in real time. The intercomparison relies on the assessment strategy developed for the EU MERSEA project, where diagnostics over the global ocean have been revisited by the GODAE contributors. This approach, based on metrics, allow for each system: a) to verify if ocean estimates are consistent with the current general knowledge of the dynamics; and b) to evaluate the accuracy of delivered products, compared to space and in-situ observations. Using the same diagnostics also allows one to intercompare the results from each system consistently. Water masses and general circulation description by the different systems are consistent with WOA05 Levitus climatology. The large scale dynamics (tropical, subtropical and subpolar gyres ) are also correctly reproduced. At short scales, benefit of high resolution systems can be evidenced on the turbulent eddy field, in particular when compared to eddy kinetic energy deduced from satellite altimetry of drifter observations. Comparisons to high resolution SST products show some discrepancies on ocean surface

  13. Impact of GODAE Products on Nested HYCOM Simulations of the West Florida Shelf

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-20

    circulation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation . For temperature, the non-assimilative outer model had a cold...associated with the basin-scale wind-driven gyres and with the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is incor- rectly represented. In contrast...not contain realistic LC transport variability associated with the wind-driven gyre circulation and the Atlantic Meridio- nal Overturning Circulation

  14. Modelling Ocean Dissipation in Icy Satellites: A Comparison of Linear and Quadratic Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, H.; Matsuyama, I.

    2015-12-01

    Although subsurface oceans are confirmed in Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and strongly suspected in Enceladus and Titan, the exact mechanism required to heat and maintain these liquid reservoirs over Solar System history remains a mystery. Radiogenic heating can supply enough energy for large satellites whereas tidal dissipation provides the best explanation for the presence of oceans in small icy satellites. The amount of thermal energy actually contributed to the interiors of these icy satellites through oceanic tidal dissipation is largely unquantified. Presented here is a numerical model that builds upon previous work for quantifying tidally dissipated energy in the subsurface oceans of the icy satellites. Recent semi-analytical models (Tyler, 2008 and Matsuyama, 2014) have solved the Laplace Tidal Equations to estimate the time averaged energy flux over an orbital period in icy satellite oceans, neglecting the presence of a solid icy shell. These models are only able to consider linear Rayleigh friction. The numerical model presented here is compared to one of these semi-analytical models, finding excellent agreement between velocity and displacement solutions for all three terms to the tidal potential. Time averaged energy flux is within 2-6% of the analytical values. Quadratic (bottom) friction is then incorporated into the model, replacing linear friction. This approach is commonly applied to terrestrial ocean dissipation studies where dissipation scales nonlinearly with velocity. A suite of simulations are also run for the quadratic friction case which are then compared to and analysed against recent scaling laws developed by Chen and Nimmo (2013).

  15. Biological production models as elements of coupled, atmosphere-ocean models for climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1991-01-01

    Process models of phytoplankton production are discussed with respect to their suitability for incorporation into global-scale numerical ocean circulation models. Exact solutions are given for integrals over the mixed layer and the day of analytic, wavelength-independent models of primary production. Within this class of model, the bias incurred by using a triangular approximation (rather than a sinusoidal one) to the variation of surface irradiance through the day is computed. Efficient computation algorithms are given for the nonspectral models. More exact calculations require a spectrally sensitive treatment. Such models exist but must be integrated numerically over depth and time. For these integrations, resolution in wavelength, depth, and time are considered and recommendations made for efficient computation. The extrapolation of the one-(spatial)-dimension treatment to large horizontal scale is discussed.

  16. Ocean tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendershott, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  17. Assessment of Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) using new satellite SST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascione Kenov, Isabella; Sykes, Peter; Fiedler, Emma; McConnell, Niall; Ryan, Andrew; Maksymczuk, Jan

    2016-04-01

    There is an increased demand for accurate ocean weather information for applications in the field of marine safety and navigation, water quality, offshore commercial operations, monitoring of oil spills and pollutants, among others. The Met Office, UK, provides ocean forecasts to customers from governmental, commercial and ecological sectors using the Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM), an operational modelling system which covers the global ocean and runs daily, using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model with horizontal resolution of 1/4° and 75 vertical levels. The system assimilates salinity and temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and sea ice concentration observations on a daily basis. In this study, the FOAM system is updated to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) SST data. Model results from one month trials are assessed against observations using verification tools which provide a quantitative description of model performance and error, based on statistical metrics, including mean error, root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient, and Taylor diagrams. A series of hindcast experiments is used to run the FOAM system with AMSR2 and SEVIRI SST data, using a control run for comparison. Results show that all trials perform well on the global ocean and that largest SST mean errors were found in the Southern hemisphere. The geographic distribution of the model error for SST and temperature profiles are discussed using statistical metrics evaluated over sub-regions of the global ocean.

  18. Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model Simulations of Precipitation in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, Stephen D.; Mohr, Karen I.

    2015-01-01

    The meridional extent and complex orography of the South American continent contributes to a wide diversity of climate regimes ranging from hyper-arid deserts to tropical rainforests to sub-polar highland regions. In addition, South American meteorology and climate are also made further complicated by ENSO, a powerful coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. Modelling studies in this region have typically resorted to either atmospheric mesoscale or atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models. The latter offers full physics and high spatial resolution, but it is computationally inefficient typically lack an interactive ocean, whereas the former offers high computational efficiency and ocean-atmosphere coupling, but it lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution to adequate resolve the complex orography and explicitly simulate precipitation. Explicit simulation of precipitation is vital in the Central Andes where rainfall rates are light (0.5-5 mm hr-1), there is strong seasonality, and most precipitation is associated with weak mesoscale-organized convection. Recent increases in both computational power and model development have led to the advent of coupled ocean-atmosphere mesoscale models for both weather and climate study applications. These modelling systems, while computationally expensive, include two-way ocean-atmosphere coupling, high resolution, and explicit simulation of precipitation. In this study, we use the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST), a fully-coupled mesoscale atmosphere-ocean modeling system. Previous work has shown COAWST to reasonably simulate the entire 2003-2004 wet season (Dec-Feb) as validated against both satellite and model analysis data when ECMWF interim analysis data were used for boundary conditions on a 27-9-km grid configuration (Outer grid extent: 60.4S to 17.7N and 118.6W to 17.4W).

  19. Ocean tide models for satellite geodesy and Earth rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    A theory is presented which predicts tides in turbulent, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing linearized bottom friction, realistic bathymetry, and continents (at coastal boundaries no-flow conditions are imposed). The theory is phrased in terms of spherical harmonics, which allows the tide equations to be reduced to linear matrix equations. This approach also allows an ocean-wide mass conservation constraint to be applied. Solutions were obtained for 32 long and short period luni-solar tidal constituents (and the pole tide), including the tidal velocities in addition to the tide height. Calibrating the intensity of bottom friction produces reasonable phase lags for all constituents; however, tidal amplitudes compare well with those from observation and other theories only for long-period constituents. In the most recent stage of grant research, traditional theory (Liouville equations) for determining the effects of angular momentum exchange on Earth's rotation were extended to encompass high-frequency excitations (such as short-period tides).

  20. A data assimilating model for estimating Southern Ocean biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdy, A.; Mazloff, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    A Biogeochemical Southern Ocean State Estimate (B-SOSE) is introduced that includes carbon and oxygen fields as well as nutrient cycles. The state estimate is constrained with observations while maintaining closed budgets and obeying dynamical and thermodynamic balances. Observations from profiling floats, shipboard data, underway measurements, and satellites are used for assimilation. The years 2008-2012 are chosen due to the relative abundance of oxygen observations from Argo floats during this time. The skill of the state estimate at fitting the data is assessed. The agreement is best for fields that are constrained with the most observations, such as surface pCO2 in Drake Passage (44% of the variance captured) and oxygen profiles (over 60% of the variance captured at 200 and 1000 m). The validity of adjoint method optimization for coupled physical-biogeochemical state estimation is demonstrated with a series of gradient check experiments. The method is shown to be mature and ready to synthesize in situ biogeochemical observations as they become more available. Documenting the B-SOSE configuration and diagnosing the strengths and weaknesses of the solution informs usage of this product as both a climate baseline and as a way to test hypotheses. Transport of Intermediate Waters across 32°S supplies significant amounts of nitrate to the Atlantic Ocean (5.57 ± 2.94 Tmol yr-1) and Indian Ocean (5.09 ± 3.06 Tmol yr-1), but much less nitrate reaches the Pacific Ocean (1.78 ± 1.91 Tmol yr-1). Estimates of air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes south of 50°S suggest a mean uptake of 0.18 Pg C/yr for the time period analyzed.

  1. A Community Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    funded NOPP project titled: Toward the Development of a Coupled COAMPS-ROMS Ensemble Kalman filter and adjoint with a focus on the Indian Ocean and the...surface temperature and surface salinity daily averages for 31-Jan-2014. Similarly, Figure 3 shows the sea surface height averaged solution for 31-Jan... temperature (upper panel; Celsius) and surface salinity (lower panel) for 31-Jan-2014. The refined solution for the Hudson Canyon grid is overlaid on

  2. What is Required to Model the Global Ocean Circulation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the upper-ocean, encompassed by mesoscale eddies, meanders and rings of the boundary currents [ Stammer , 1997; Ferrari...Resolution studies [Bryan, et al., 2007 ; Smith, et al., 2000; Hogan and Hurlburt, 2000; Oschlies, 2002] show that increasing the horizontal resolution...energy estimates from surface drifter observations [Lumpkin and Pazos, 2007 ], satellite altimetry (150 m) [Ducet, et al., 2000], ARGO floats at 1,000

  3. Energetics of a Global Ocean Circulation Model Compared to Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    rings of the boundary currents [ Stammer , 1997; Ferrari and Wunsch, 2009, 2010], is generated by instabilities of the mean flow and direct wind forcing...of the abyssal ocean circulation in the OGCMs? [4] Resolution studies [Bryan et al., 2007 ; Smith et al., 2000; Hogan and Hurlburt, 2000; Oschlies...surface drifter observations [Lumpkin and Pazos, 2007 ], satellite altimetry (150 m) [Ducet et al., 2000], ARGO floats at 1000 m [Lebedev et al., 2007 ], and

  4. NCAR CSM ocean model by the NCAR oceanography section. Technical note

    SciT

    NONE

    This technical note documents the ocean component of the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM). The ocean code has been developed from the Modular Ocean Model (version 1.1) which was developed and maintained at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton. As a tribute to Mike Cox, and because the material is still relevant, the first four sections of this technical note are a straight reproduction from the GFDL Technical Report that Mike wrote in 1984. The remaining sections document how the NCAR Oceanography Section members have developed the MOM 1.1 code, and how it is forced, in order tomore » produce the NCAR CSM Ocean Model.« less

  5. M2, S2, K1 models of the global ocean tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, M. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean tidal signals appear in many geophysical measurements. Geophysicists need realistic tidal models to aid in interpretation of their data. Because of the closeness to resonance of dissipationless ocean tides, it is difficult for numerical models to correctly represent the actual open ocean tide. As an approximate solution to this problem, test functions derived by solving Laplace's Tidal Equations with ocean loading and self gravitation are used as a basis for least squares dynamic interpolation of coastal and island tidal data for the constituents M2, S2, and Kl. The resulting representations of the global tide are stable over at least a ?5% variation in the mean depth of the model basin, and they conserve mass. Maps of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each contituent are presented.

  6. Sensitivity studies with a coupled ice-ocean model of the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roed, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical coupled ice-ocean model is considered which is forced by a specified wind stress acting on the open ocean as well as the ice. The analysis supports the conjecture that the upwelling dynamics at ice edges can be understood by means of a simple analytical model. In similarity with coastal problems it is shown that the ice edge upwelling is determined by the net mass flux at the boundaries of the considered region. The model is used to study the sensitivity of the upwelling dynamics in the marginal ice zone to variation in the controlling parameters. These parameters consist of combinations of the drag coefficients used in the parameterization of the stresses on the three interfaces atmosphere-ice, atmosphere-ocean, and ice-ocean. The response is shown to be sensitive to variations in these parameters in that one set of parameters may give upwelling while a slightly different set of parameters may give downwelling.

  7. Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transport as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleckler, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Boer, G.; Colman, R.; Dix, M.; Galin, V.; Helfand, M.; Kiehl, J.; Kitoh, A.; Lau, W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the ocean surface net energy flux simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models constrained by realistically-varying sea surface temperatures and sea ice as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. In general, the simulated energy fluxes are within the very large observational uncertainties. However, the annual mean oceanic meridional heat transport that would be required to balance the simulated surface fluxes is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects of clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean heat transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions. It is suggested that improved treatment of cloud radiative effects should help in the development of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.

  8. A model of ocean basin crustal magnetization appropriate for satellite elevation anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Herman H.

    1987-01-01

    A model of ocean basin crustal magnetization measured at satellite altitudes is developed which will serve both as background to which anomalous magnetizations can be contrasted and as a beginning point for studies of tectonic modification of normal ocean crust. The model is based on published data concerned with the petrology and magnetization of the ocean crust and consists of viscous magnetization and induced magnetization estimated for individual crustal layers. Thermal remanent magnetization and chemical remanent magnetization are excluded from the model because seafloor spreading anomalies are too short in wavelength to be resolved at satellite altitudes. The exception to this generalization is found at the oceanic magnetic quiet zones where thermal remanent magnetization and chemical remanent magnetization must be considered along with viscous magnetization and induced magnetization.

  9. Ocean Model Impact Study for Coupled Hurricane Forecasting: An HFIP Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S. S.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Tallapragada, V.; Black, P. G.; Bond, N.; Chen, S.; Cione, J.; Cronin, M. F.; Ginis, I.; Liu, B.; Miller, L.; Jayne, S. R.; Sanabia, E.; Shay, L. K.; Uhlhorn, E.; Zhu, L.

    2016-02-01

    Established in 2009, the NOAA Hurricane Forecast Improvement Project (HFIP) is a ten-year project to promote accelerated improvements hurricane track and intensity forecasts (Gall et al. 2013). The Ocean Model Impact Tiger Team (OMITT) consisting of model developers and research scientists was formed as one of HFIP working groups in December 2014, to evaluate the impact of ocean coupling in tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts. The team investigated the ocean model impact in real cases for Category 3 Hurricane Edouard in 2014, using simulations and observations that were collected for different stages of the hurricane. Two Eastern North Pacific Hurricanes in 2015, Blanca and Dolores, are also of special interest. These two powerful Category 4 storms followed a similar track, however, they produced dramatically different ocean cooling, about 7.2oC for Hurricane Blanca but only about 2.7oC for Hurricane Dolores, and the corresponding intensity changes were negative 40 ms-1 and 20 ms-1, respectively. Two versions of operational HWRF and COAMPS-TC coupled prediction systems are employed in the study. These systems are configured to have 1D and 3D ocean dynamics coupled to the atmosphere. The ocean components are initialized separately with climatology, analysis and nowcast products to evaluate the impact of ocean initialization on hurricane forecasts. Real storm forecast experiments are being designed and performed with different levels of the ocean model complexity and various model configurations to study model sensitivity. In this talk, we report the OMITT activities conducted during the past year, present preliminary results of on-going investigation of air-sea interactions in the simulations, and discuss future plans toward improving coupled TC predictions. Gall, R., J. Franklin, F. Marks, E.N. Rappaport, and F. Toepfer, 2013: THE HURRICANE FORECAST IMPROVEMENT PROJECT. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 329-343.

  10. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  11. U. S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2008). There are three major contributors to the strength of the Gulf Stream, (1) the wind forcing, (2) the Atlantic meridional overturning ...Smith, 2007. Resolution convergence and sensitivity studies with North Atlantic circulation models. Part I. The western boundary current system...σ-z coordinates, and (3) a baroclinic version of ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC), the latter an unstructured grid model for baroclinic coastal

  12. Understanding variability of the Southern Ocean overturning circulation in CORE-II models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, S. M.; Spence, P.; Hogg, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    The current generation of climate models exhibit a large spread in the steady-state and projected Southern Ocean upper and lower overturning circulation, with mechanisms for deep ocean variability remaining less well understood. Here, common Southern Ocean metrics in twelve models from the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiment Phase II (CORE-II) are assessed over a 60 year period. Specifically, stratification, surface buoyancy fluxes, and eddies are linked to the magnitude of the strengthening trend in the upper overturning circulation, and a decreasing trend in the lower overturning circulation across the CORE-II models. The models evolve similarly in the upper 1 km and the deep ocean, with an almost equivalent poleward intensification trend in the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds. However, the models differ substantially in their eddy parameterisation and surface buoyancy fluxes. In general, models with a larger heat-driven water mass transformation where deep waters upwell at the surface ( ∼ 55°S) transport warmer waters into intermediate depths, thus weakening the stratification in the upper 2 km. Models with a weak eddy induced overturning and a warm bias in the intermediate waters are more likely to exhibit larger increases in the upper overturning circulation, and more significant weakening of the lower overturning circulation. We find the opposite holds for a cool model bias in intermediate depths, combined with a more complex 3D eddy parameterisation that acts to reduce isopycnal slope. In summary, the Southern Ocean overturning circulation decadal trends in the coarse resolution CORE-II models are governed by biases in surface buoyancy fluxes and the ocean density field, and the configuration of the eddy parameterisation.

  13. Eddy-resolving 1/10° model of the World Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, R. A.; Khabeev, R. N.; Ushakov, K. V.

    2012-02-01

    The first results on simulating the intra-annual variability of the World Ocean circulation by use of the eddy-resolving model are considered. For this purpose, a model of the World Ocean with a 1/10° horizontal resolution and 49 vertical levels was developed (a 1/10 × 1/10 × 49 model of the World Ocean). This model is based on the traditional system of three-dimensional equations of the large-scale dynamics of the ocean and boundary conditions with an explicit allowance for water fluxes on the free surface of the ocean. The equations are written in the tripolar coordinate system. The numerical method is based on the separation of the barotropic and baroclinic components of the solution. Discretization in time is implemented using explicit schemes allowing effective parallelization for a large number of processors. The model uses the sub-models of the boundary layer of the atmosphere and the submodel of sea-ice thermodynamics. The model of the World Ocean was developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS) and the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanogy (IO RAS). The formulation of the problem of simulating the intra-annual variability of thermohydrodynamic processes of the World Ocean and the parameterizations that were used are considered. In the numerical experiment, the temporal evolution of the atmospheric effect is determined by the normal annual cycle according to the conditions of the international Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiment (CORE-I). The calculation was carried out on a multiprocessor computer with distributed memory; 1601 computational cores were used. The presented analysis demonstrates that the obtained results are quite satisfactory when compared to the results that were obtained by other eddy-resolving models of the global ocean. The analysis of the model solution is, to a larger extent, of a descriptive character. A detailed analysis of the results is to be presented in following works

  14. Wave–turbulence interaction-induced vertical mixing and its effects in ocean and climate models

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Fangli; Yuan, Yeli; Deng, Jia; Dai, Dejun; Song, Zhenya

    2016-01-01

    Heated from above, the oceans are stably stratified. Therefore, the performance of general ocean circulation models and climate studies through coupled atmosphere–ocean models depends critically on vertical mixing of energy and momentum in the water column. Many of the traditional general circulation models are based on total kinetic energy (TKE), in which the roles of waves are averaged out. Although theoretical calculations suggest that waves could greatly enhance coexisting turbulence, no field measurements on turbulence have ever validated this mechanism directly. To address this problem, a specially designed field experiment has been conducted. The experimental results indicate that the wave–turbulence interaction-induced enhancement of the background turbulence is indeed the predominant mechanism for turbulence generation and enhancement. Based on this understanding, we propose a new parametrization for vertical mixing as an additive part to the traditional TKE approach. This new result reconfirmed the past theoretical model that had been tested and validated in numerical model experiments and field observations. It firmly establishes the critical role of wave–turbulence interaction effects in both general ocean circulation models and atmosphere–ocean coupled models, which could greatly improve the understanding of the sea surface temperature and water column properties distributions, and hence model-based climate forecasting capability. PMID:26953182

  15. Longitudinal biases in the Seychelles Dome simulated by 35 ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagura, Motoki; Sasaki, Wataru; Tozuka, Tomoki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Behera, Swadhin K.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    Seychelles Dome refers to the shallow climatological thermocline in the southwestern Indian Ocean, where ocean wave dynamics efficiently affect sea surface temperature, allowing sea surface temperature anomalies to be predicted up to 1-2 years in advance. Accurate reproduction of the dome by ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is essential for successful seasonal predictions in the Indian Ocean. This study examines the Seychelles Dome as simulated by 35 CGCMs, including models used in phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Among the 35 CGCMs, 14 models erroneously produce an upwelling dome in the eastern half of the basin whereas the observed Seychelles Dome is located in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The annual mean Ekman pumping velocity in these models is found to be almost zero in the southern off-equatorial region. This result is inconsistent with observations, in which Ekman upwelling acts as the main cause of the Seychelles Dome. In the models reproducing an eastward-displaced dome, easterly biases are prominent along the equator in boreal summer and fall, which result in shallow thermocline biases along the Java and Sumatra coasts via Kelvin wave dynamics and a spurious upwelling dome in the region. Compared to the CMIP3 models, the CMIP5 models are even worse in simulating the dome longitudes.

  16. Modeling Oceanic Primary Production: Photoacclimation and Nutrient Effects on Light-saturated Photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Maranon, Emilio; Siegel, David A.; Hooker, Stanford B.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe a new model (the 'PhotoAcc' model) for estimating changes in the light-saturated rate of chlorophyll-normalized phytoplankton carbon fixation (Pbmax). The model is based on measurements conducted during the Atlantic Meridional Transect studies and the Bermuda Time Series program. The PhotoAcc model explained 64% to 82% of the observed variability in Pbmax for our data set, whereas none of the previously published Pbmax models described over the past 44 years explained any of the variance. The significance of this result is that a primary limiting factor for extracting ocean carbon fixation rates from satellite measurements of near surface chlorophyll has been errors in the estimate of Pbmax. Our new model should thus result in much improved calculations of oceanic photosynthesis and thus the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle.

  17. The numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models: State of the art and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingbeil, Knut; Lemarié, Florian; Debreu, Laurent; Burchard, Hans

    2018-05-01

    The state of the art of the numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models is reviewed here. First, some fundamental differences in the hydrodynamics of the coastal ocean, such as the large surface elevation variation compared to the mean water depth, are contrasted against large scale ocean dynamics. Then the hydrodynamic equations as they are used in coastal ocean models as well as in large scale ocean models are presented, including parameterisations for turbulent transports. As steps towards discretisation, coordinate transformations and spatial discretisations based on a finite-volume approach are discussed with focus on the specific requirements for coastal ocean models. As in large scale ocean models, splitting of internal and external modes is essential also for coastal ocean models, but specific care is needed when drying & flooding of intertidal flats is included. As one obvious characteristic of coastal ocean models, open boundaries occur and need to be treated in a way that correct model forcing from outside is transmitted to the model domain without reflecting waves from the inside. Here, also new developments in two-way nesting are presented. Single processes such as internal inertia-gravity waves, advection and turbulence closure models are discussed with focus on the coastal scales. Some overview on existing hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models is given, including their extensions towards non-hydrostatic models. Finally, an outlook on future perspectives is made.

  18. Improved Upper Ocean/Sea Ice Modeling in the GISS GCM for Investigating Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This project built on our previous results in which we highlighted the importance of sea ice in overall climate sensitivity by determining that for both warming and cooling climates, when sea ice was not allowed to change, climate sensitivity was reduced by 35-40%. We also modified the GISS 8 deg x lO deg atmospheric GCM to include an upper-ocean/sea-ice model involving the Semtner three-layer ice/snow thermodynamic model, the Price et al. (1986) ocean mixed layer model and a general upper ocean vertical advection/diffusion scheme for maintaining and fluxing properties across the pycnocline. This effort, in addition to improving the sea ice representation in the AGCM, revealed a number of sensitive components of the sea ice/ocean system. For example, the ability to flux heat through the ice/snow properly is critical in order to resolve the surface temperature properly, since small errors in this lead to unrestrained climate drift. The present project, summarized in this report, had as its objectives: (1) introducing a series of sea ice and ocean improvements aimed at overcoming remaining weaknesses in the GCM sea ice/ocean representation, and (2) performing a series of sensitivity experiments designed to evaluate the climate sensitivity of the revised model to both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, determine the sensitivity of the climate response to initial ice distribution, and investigate the transient response to doubling CO2.

  19. Preliminary testing of turbulence and radionuclide transport modeling in deep ocean environment

    SciT

    Onishi, Y.; Dummuller, D.C.; Trent, D.S.

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed a study for the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs to (1) identify candidate models for regional modeling of low-level waste ocean disposal sites in the mid-Atlantic ocean; (2) evaluate mathematical representation of the model's eddy viscosity/dispersion coefficients; and (3) evaluate the adequacy of the k-{epsilon} turbulence model and the feasibility of one of the candidate models, TEMPEST{copyright}/FLESCOT{copyright}, to deep-ocean applications on a preliminary basis. PNL identified the TEMPEST{copyright}/FLESCOT{copyright}, FLOWER, Blumberg's, and RMA 10 models as appropriate candidates for the regional radionuclide modeling. Among these models, TEMPEST/FLESCOT is currently the only model thatmore » solves distributions of flow, turbulence (with the k-{epsilon} model), salinity, water temperature, sediment, dissolved contaminants, and sediment-sorbed contaminants. Solving the Navier-Stokes equations using higher order correlations is not practical for regional modeling because of the prohibitive computational requirements; therefore, the turbulence modeling is a more practical approach. PNL applied the three-dimensional code, TEMPEST{copyright}/FLESCOT{copyright} with the k-{epsilon} model, to a very simple, hypothetical, two-dimensional, deep-ocean case, producing at least qualitatively appropriate results. However, more detailed testing should be performed for the further testing of the code. 46 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  20. The dependence of the oceans MOC on mesoscale eddy diffusivities: A model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Romanou, Anastasia; Kelley, Maxwell; Leboissetier, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The dependence of the depth and strength of the ocean's global meridional overturning cells (MOC) on the specification of mesoscale eddy diffusivity (K) is explored in two ocean models. The GISS and MIT ocean models are driven by the same prescribed forcing fields, configured in similar ways, spun up to equilibrium for a range of K 's and the resulting MOCs mapped and documented. Scaling laws implicit in modern theories of the MOC are used to rationalize the results. In all calculations the K used in the computation of eddy-induced circulation and that used in the representation of eddy stirring along neutral surfaces, is set to the same value but is changed across experiments. We are able to connect changes in the strength and depth of the Atlantic MOC, the southern ocean upwelling MOC, and the deep cell emanating from Antarctica, to changes in K.

  1. Quantifying predictability variations in a low-order ocean-atmosphere model - A dynamical systems approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nese, Jon M.; Dutton, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The predictability of the weather and climatic states of a low-order moist general circulation model is quantified using a dynamic systems approach, and the effect of incorporating a simple oceanic circulation on predictability is evaluated. The predictability and the structure of the model attractors are compared using Liapunov exponents, local divergence rates, and the correlation and Liapunov dimensions. It was found that the activation of oceanic circulation increases the average error doubling time of the atmosphere and the coupled ocean-atmosphere system by 10 percent and decreases the variance of the largest local divergence rate by 20 percent. When an oceanic circulation develops, the average predictability of annually averaged states is improved by 25 percent and the variance of the largest local divergence rate decreases by 25 percent.

  2. Cryosphere-hydrosphere interactions: numerical modeling using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budgell, W. P.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.

    2005-03-01

    Conveyor belt circulation controls global climate through heat and water fluxes with atmosphere and from tropical to polar regions and vice versa. This circulation, commonly referred to as thermohaline circulation (THC), seems to have millennium time scale and nowadays--a non-glacial period--appears to be as rather stable. However, concern is raised by the buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (IPCC, Third assessment report: Climate Change 2001. A contribution of working group I, II and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge Univ. Press, UK) 2001, http://www.ipcc.ch) as these may affect the THC conveyor paths. Since it is widely recognized that dense-water formation sites act as primary sources in strengthening quasi-stable THC paths (Stommel H., Tellus131961224), in order to simulate properly the consequences of such scenarios a better understanding of these oceanic processes is needed. To successfully model these processes, air-sea-ice-integrated modelling approaches are often required. Here we focus on two polar regions using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). In the first region investigated, the North Atlantic-Arctic, where open-ocean deep convection and open-sea ice formation and dispersion under the intense air-sea interactions are the major engines, we use a new version of the coupled hydrodynamic-ice ROMS model. The second area belongs to the Antarctica region inside the Southern Ocean, where brine rejections during ice formation inside shelf seas origin dense water that, flowing along the continental slope, overflow becoming eventually abyssal waters. Results show how nowadays integrated-modelling tasks have become more and more feasible and effective; numerical simulations dealing with large computational domains or challenging different climate scenarios can be run on multi-processors platforms and on systems like LINUX clusters, made of the same hardware as PCs, and

  3. Global Modeling of Internal Tides Within an Eddying Ocean General Circulation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    atmosphere and ocean (Yu and Weller, 2007 ). Salinities in the upper ocean are set by the difference between evaporation and precipitation at the ocean...surface (Yu, 2007 ; Schmitt, 2008). Because the buoyancy (density) of seawater at the ocean surface is con- trolled by temperature and salinity, the...days, these currents mean- der and generate highly energetic meso- scale eddies (Schmitz, 1996a,b; Stammer , 1997), the spinning oceanic dynamical

  4. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  5. Modeling the 2004Indian Ocean Tsunami for Introductory Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Rarick, Richard A.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we develop materials to address student interest in the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. We discuss the physical characteristics of tsunamis and some of the specific data regarding the 2004 event. Finally, we create an easy-to-make tsunami tank to run simulations in the classroom. The simulations exhibit three dramatic signatures of tsunamis, namely, as a tsunami moves into shallow water its amplitude increases, its wavelength and speed decrease, and its leading edge becomes increasingly steep as if to "break" or "crash." Using our tsunami tank, these realistic features were easy to observe in the classroom and evoked an enthusiastic response from our students.

  6. Natural biogeochemical cycle of mercury in a global three-dimensional ocean tracer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Thompson, LuAnne

    2014-05-01

    We implement mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry in the offline global 3-D ocean tracer model (OFFTRAC) to investigate the natural Hg cycle, prior to any anthropogenic input. The simulation includes three Hg tracers: dissolved elemental (Hg0aq), dissolved divalent (HgIIaq), and particle-bound mercury (HgPaq). Our Hg parameterization takes into account redox chemistry in ocean waters, air-sea exchange of Hg0, scavenging of HgIIaq onto sinking particles, and resupply of HgIIaq at depth by remineralization of sinking particles. Atmospheric boundary conditions are provided by a global simulation of the natural atmospheric Hg cycle in the GEOS-Chem model. In the surface ocean, the OFFTRAC model predicts global mean concentrations of 0.16 pM for total Hg, partitioned as 80% HgIIaq, 14% Hg0aq, and 6% HgPaq. Total Hg concentrations increase to 0.38 pM in the thermocline/intermediate waters (between the mixed layer and 1000 m depth) and 0.82 pM in deep waters (below 1000 m), reflecting removal of Hg from the surface to the subsurface ocean by particle sinking followed by remineralization at depth. Our model predicts that Hg concentrations in the deep North Pacific Ocean (>2000 m) are a factor of 2-3 higher than in the deep North Atlantic Ocean. This is the result of cumulative input of Hg from particle remineralization as deep waters transit from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific on their ~2000 year journey. The model is able to reproduce the relatively uniform concentrations of total Hg observed in the old deep waters of the North Pacific Ocean (observations: 1.2 ± 0.4 pM; model: 1.1 ± 0.04 pM) and Southern Ocean (observations: 1.1 ± 0.2 pM; model: 0.8 ± 0.02 pM). However, the modeled concentrations are factors of 5-6 too low compared to observed concentrations in the surface ocean and in the young water masses of the deep North Atlantic Ocean. This large underestimate for these regions implies a factor of 5-6 anthropogenic enhancement in Hg concentrations.

  7. Optical Measurements and Modeling to Estimate Concentrations and Fluxes of Organic Matter in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramski, Dariusz; Mitchell, B. Greg; Marra, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project was a collaboration between two Principal Investigators, Dr. Dariusz Stramski and Dr. Greg Mitchell of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego. Our overall goal was to conduct optical measurements and modeling to estimate concentrations of organic matter in the Southern Ocean in support of the U.S. JGOFS Process Study in this region. Key variables and processes of high relevance to accomplish the JGOFS goals include time and space resolution of phytoplankton pigments, particulate organic carbon, and the formation and export of organic carbon. Our project focused on establishing the fundamental relationships for parameterization of these variables and processes in terms of the optical properties of seawater, and developing understanding of why the Southern Ocean differs from other low-latitude systems, or has differentiation within. Our approach builds upon historical observations that optical properties provide a useful proxy for key reservoirs of organic matter such as chlorophyll alpha (Chl) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, which are of relevance to the JGOFS objectives. We carried out detailed studies of in situ and water sample optical properties including spectral reflectance, absorption, beam attenuation, scattering, and backscattering coefficients. We evaluated the ability to estimate Chl from the spectral reflectance (ocean color) in the Southern Ocean. We examined relationships between the ocean optical properties and particulate organic carbon. We developed, for the first time, an algorithm for estimating particulate organic carbon concentration in the surface ocean from satellite imagery of ocean color. With this algorithm, we obtained maps of POC distribution in the Southern Ocean showing the seasonal progression of POC in the austral spring-summer season. We also developed a semianalytical reflectance model for the investigated polar waters based on our field measurements of absorption

  8. Finite Element Barotropic Model for the Indian and Western Pacific OceanBasin: Tidal Model Data Comparisons and Sensitivities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-01-11

    From - To) 01/11/2018 Final Technical Report June 01 2016 - Dec 30 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Finite - Element Barotropic Model...grid finite - element barotropic fully hydrodynamic model in order to understand the shallow-water dynamics of the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific Ocean...dissipative dissipative processes are explored. 15. SUBJECTTERMS finite - element , unstructured grid, barotropic tides, bathymetry, internal tide

  9. Application of the generalized vertical coordinate ocean model for better representing satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. T.

    2002-01-01

    It is found that two adaptive parametric functions can be introduced into the basic ocean equations for utilizing the optimal or hybrid features of commonly used z-level, terrain- following, isopycnal, and pressure coordinates in numerical ocean models. The two parametric functions are formulated by combining three techniques: the arbitrary vertical coordinate system of Kasahara (1 974), the Jacobian pressure gradient formulation of Song (1 998), and a newly developed metric factor that permits both compressible (non-Boussinesq) and incompressible (Boussinesq) approximations. Based on the new formulation, an adaptive modeling strategy is proposed and a staggered finite volume method is designed to ensure conservation of important physical properties and numerical accuracy. Implementation of the combined techniques to SCRUM (Song and Haidvogel1994) shows that the adaptive modeling strategy can be applied to any existing ocean model without incurring computational expense or altering the original numerical schemes. Such a generalized coordinate model is expected to benefit diverse ocean modelers for easily choosing optimal vertical structures and sharing modeling resources based on a common model platform. Several representing oceanographic problems with different scales and characteristics, such as coastal canyons, basin-scale circulation, and global ocean circulation, are used to demonstrate the model's capability for multiple applications. New results show that the model is capable of simultaneously resolving both Boussinesq and non-Boussinesq, and both small- and large-scale processes well. This talk will focus on its applications of multiple satellite sensing data in eddy-resolving simulations of Asian Marginal Sea and Kurosio. Attention will be given to how Topex/Poseidon SSH, TRMM SST; and GRACE ocean bottom pressure can be correctly represented in a non- Boussinesq model.

  10. Bayesian Hierarchical Model Characterization of Model Error in Ocean Data Assimilation and Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    proof-of-concept results comparing a BHM surface wind ensemble with the increments in the surface momentum flux control vector in a four-dimensional...Surface   Momentum  Flux  Ensembles  from  Summaries  of  BHM  Winds  (Mediterranean)   include  ocean  current  effect   Td...Bayesian Hierarchical Model to provide surface momentum flux ensembles. 3 Figure 2: Domain of interest : squares indicate spatial locations where

  11. A world ocean model for greenhouse sensitivity studies: resolution intercomparison and the role of diagnostic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Warren M.; Meehl, Gerald A.; Verplank, Lynda; Bettge, Thomas W.

    1994-05-01

    We have developed an improved version of a world ocean model with the intention of coupling to an atmospheric model. This article documents the simulation capability of this 1° global ocean model, shows improvements over our earlier 5° version, and compares it to features simulated with a 0.5° model. These experiments use a model spin-up methodology whereby the ocean model can subsequently be coupled to an atmospheric model and used for order 100-year coupled model integrations. With present-day computers, 1° is a reasonable compromise in resolution that allows for century-long coupled experiments. The 1° ocean model is derived from a 0.5°-resolution model developed by A. Semtner (Naval Postgraduate School) and R. Chervin (National Center for Atmospheric Research) for studies of the global eddy-resolving world ocean circulation. The 0.5° bottom topography and continental outlines have been altered to be compatible with the 1° resolution, and the Arctic Ocean has been added. We describe the ocean simulation characteristics of the 1° version and compare the result of weakly constraining (three-year time scale) the three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields to the observations below the thermocline (710 m) with the model forced only at the top of the ocean by observed annual mean wind stress, temperature, and salinity. The 1° simulations indicate that major ocean circulation patterns are greatly improved compared to the 5° version and are qualitatively reproduced in comparison to the 0.5° version. Using the annual mean top forcing alone in a 100-year simulation with the 1° version preserves the general features of the major observed temperature and salinity structure with most climate drift occurring mainly beneath the thermocline in the first 50 75 years. Because the thermohaline circulation in the 1° version is relatively weak with annual mean forcing, we demonstrate the importance of the seasonal cycle by performing two sensitivity experiments

  12. Mapping Global Ocean Surface Albedo from Satellite Observations: Models, Algorithms, and Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Fan, X.; Yan, H.; Li, A.; Wang, M.; Qu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean surface albedo (OSA) is one of the important parameters in surface radiation budget (SRB). It is usually considered as a controlling factor of the heat exchange among the atmosphere and ocean. The temporal and spatial dynamics of OSA determine the energy absorption of upper level ocean water, and have influences on the oceanic currents, atmospheric circulations, and transportation of material and energy of hydrosphere. Therefore, various parameterizations and models have been developed for describing the dynamics of OSA. However, it has been demonstrated that the currently available OSA datasets cannot full fill the requirement of global climate change studies. In this study, we present a literature review on mapping global OSA from satellite observations. The models (parameterizations, the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer (COART), and the three component ocean water albedo (TCOWA)), algorithms (the estimation method based on reanalysis data, and the direct-estimation algorithm), and datasets (the cloud, albedo and radiation (CLARA) surface albedo product, dataset derived by the TCOWA model, and the global land surface satellite (GLASS) phase-2 surface broadband albedo product) of OSA have been discussed, separately.

  13. Effects of Model Resolution and Ocean Mixing on Forced Ice-Ocean Physical and Biogeochemical Simulations Using Global and Regional System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Meibing; Deal, Clara; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Matrai, Patricia; Roberts, Andrew; Osinski, Robert; Lee, Younjoo J.; Frants, Marina; Elliott, Scott; Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Wang, Shanlin

    2018-01-01

    The current coarse-resolution global Community Earth System Model (CESM) can reproduce major and large-scale patterns but is still missing some key biogeochemical features in the Arctic Ocean, e.g., low surface nutrients in the Canada Basin. We incorporated the CESM Version 1 ocean biogeochemical code into the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) and coupled it with a sea-ice algal module to investigate model limitations. Four ice-ocean hindcast cases are compared with various observations: two in a global 1° (40˜60 km in the Arctic) grid: G1deg and G1deg-OLD with/without new sea-ice processes incorporated; two on RASM's 1/12° (˜9 km) grid R9km and R9km-NB with/without a subgrid scale brine rejection parameterization which improves ocean vertical mixing under sea ice. Higher-resolution and new sea-ice processes contributed to lower model errors in sea-ice extent, ice thickness, and ice algae. In the Bering Sea shelf, only higher resolution contributed to lower model errors in salinity, nitrate (NO3), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). In the Arctic Basin, model errors in mixed layer depth (MLD) were reduced 36% by brine rejection parameterization, 20% by new sea-ice processes, and 6% by higher resolution. The NO3 concentration biases were caused by both MLD bias and coarse resolution, because of excessive horizontal mixing of high NO3 from the Chukchi Sea into the Canada Basin in coarse resolution models. R9km showed improvements over G1deg on NO3, but not on Chl-a, likely due to light limitation under snow and ice cover in the Arctic Basin.

  14. Adaptive subdomain modeling: A multi-analysis technique for ocean circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, Alper; Baugh, John

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal and ocean processes of interest operate over large temporal and geographical scales and require a substantial amount of computational resources, particularly when engineering design and failure scenarios are also considered. This study presents an adaptive multi-analysis technique that improves the efficiency of these computations when multiple alternatives are being simulated. The technique, called adaptive subdomain modeling, concurrently analyzes any number of child domains, with each instance corresponding to a unique design or failure scenario, in addition to a full-scale parent domain providing the boundary conditions for its children. To contain the altered hydrodynamics originating from the modifications, the spatial extent of each child domain is adaptively adjusted during runtime depending on the response of the model. The technique is incorporated in ADCIRC++, a re-implementation of the popular ADCIRC ocean circulation model with an updated software architecture designed to facilitate this adaptive behavior and to utilize concurrent executions of multiple domains. The results of our case studies confirm that the method substantially reduces computational effort while maintaining accuracy.

  15. Coupled Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Modeling of the Mount Pinatubo Impact on the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2017-12-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo had dramatic effects on the regional climate in the Middle East. Though acknowledged, these effects have not been thoroughly studied. To fill this gap and to advance understanding of the mechanisms that control variability in the Middle East's regional climate, we simulated the impact of the 1991 Pinatubo eruption using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system set for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) domain. We used the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) framework, which couples the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) model with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). We modified the WRF model to account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Our coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations verified by available observations revealed strong perturbations in the energy balance of the Red Sea, which drove thermal and circulation responses. Our modeling approach allowed us to separate changes in the atmospheric circulation caused by the impact of the volcano from direct regional radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols. The atmospheric circulation effect was significantly stronger than the direct volcanic aerosols effect. We found that the Red Sea response to the Pinatubo eruption was stronger and qualitatively different from that of the global ocean system. Our results suggest that major volcanic eruptions significantly affect the climate in the Middle East and the Red Sea and should be carefully taken into account in assessments of long-term climate variability and warming trends in MENA and the Red Sea.

  16. Combined constraints on global ocean primary production using observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Hashioka, Taketo; Quéré, Corinne Le

    2013-09-01

    production is at the base of the marine food web and plays a central role for global biogeochemical cycles. Yet global ocean primary production is known to only a factor of 2, with previous estimates ranging from 38 to 65 Pg C yr-1 and no formal uncertainty analysis. Here, we present an improved global ocean biogeochemistry model that includes a mechanistic representation of photosynthesis and a new observational database of net primary production (NPP) in the ocean. We combine the model and observations to constrain particulate NPP in the ocean with statistical metrics. The PlankTOM5.3 model includes a new photosynthesis formulation with a dynamic representation of iron-light colimitation, which leads to a considerable improvement of the interannual variability of surface chlorophyll. The database includes a consistent set of 50,050 measurements of 14C primary production. The model best reproduces observations when global NPP is 58 ± 7 Pg C yr-1, with a most probable value of 56 Pg C yr-1. The most probable value is robust to the model used. The uncertainty represents 95% confidence intervals. It considers all random errors in the model and observations, but not potential biases in the observations. We show that tropical regions (23°S-23°N) contribute half of the global NPP, while NPPs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are approximately equal in spite of the larger ocean area in the South.

  17. Estimating the numerical diapycnal mixing in the GO5.0 ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megann, Alex; Nurser, George

    2014-05-01

    Constant-depth (or "z-coordinate") ocean models such as MOM and NEMO have become the de facto workhorse in climate applications, and have attained a mature stage in their development and are well understood. A generic shortcoming of this model type, however, is a tendency for the advection scheme to produce unphysical numerical diapycnal mixing, which in some cases may exceed the explicitly parameterised mixing based on observed physical processes (e.g. Hofmann and Maqueda, 2006), and this is likely to have effects on the long-timescale evolution of the simulated climate system. Despite this, few quantitative estimations have been made of the typical magnitude of the effective diapycnal diffusivity due to numerical mixing in these models. GO5.0 is the latest ocean model configuration developed jointly by the UK Met Office and the National Oceanography Centre (Megann et al, 2013). It uses version 3.4 of the NEMO model, on the ORCA025 global tripolar grid. Two approaches to quantifying the numerical diapycnal mixing in this model are described: the first is based on the isopycnal watermass analysis of Lee et al (2002), while the second uses a passive tracer to diagnose mixing across density surfaces. Results from these two methods will be compared and contrasted. Hofmann, M. and Maqueda, M. A. M., 2006. Performance of a second-order moments advection scheme in an ocean general circulation model. JGR-Oceans, 111(C5). Lee, M.-M., Coward, A.C., Nurser, A.G., 2002. Spurious diapycnal mixing of deep waters in an eddy-permitting global ocean model. JPO 32, 1522-1535 Megann, A., Storkey, D., Aksenov, Y., Alderson, S., Calvert, D., Graham, T., Hyder, P., Siddorn, J., and Sinha, B., 2013: GO5.0: The joint NERC-Met Office NEMO global ocean model for use in coupled and forced applications, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 6, 5747-5799,.

  18. Development and applications of a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. C.; Armstrong, B. N.; He, R.; Zambon, J. B.; Olabarrieta, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Haas, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding processes responsible for coastal change is important for managing both our natural and economic coastal resources. Coastal processes respond from both local scale and larger regional scale forcings. Understanding these processes can lead to significant insight into how the coastal zone evolves. Storms are one of the primary driving forces causing coastal change from a coupling of wave and wind driven flows. Here we utilize a numerical modeling approach to investigate these dynamics of coastal storm impacts. We use the Coupled Ocean - Atmosphere - Wave - Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System that utilizes the Model Coupling Toolkit to exchange prognostic variables between the ocean model ROMS, atmosphere model WRF, wave model SWAN, and the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) sediment routines. The models exchange fields of sea-surface temperature, ocean currents, water levels, bathymetry, wave heights, lengths, periods, bottom orbital velocities, and atmospheric surface heat and momentum fluxes, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, and evaporation. Data fields are exchanged using regridded flux conservative sparse matrix interpolation weights computed from the SCRIP spherical coordinate remapping interpolation package. We describe the modeling components and the model field exchange methods. As part of the system, the wave and ocean models run with cascading, refined, spatial grids to provide increased resolution, scaling down to resolve nearshore wave driven flows simulated by the vortex force formulation, all within selected regions of a larger, coarser-scale coastal modeling system. The ocean and wave models are driven by the atmospheric component, which is affected by wave dependent ocean-surface roughness and sea surface temperature which modify the heat and momentum fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We describe the application of the modeling system to several regions of multi-scale complexity to identify the

  19. Using an atmospheric boundary layer model to force global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Rafael; Böning, Claus

    2014-05-01

    Current practices in the atmospheric forcing of ocean model simulations can lead to unphysical behaviours. The problem lies in the bulk formulation of the turbulent air-sea fluxes in the conjunction with a prescribed, and unresponsive, atmospheric state (as given by reanalysis products). This can have impacts both on mesoscale processes as well as on the dynamics of the large-scale circulation. First, a possible local mismatch between the given atmospheric state and evolving sea surface temperature (SST) signatures can occur, especially for mesoscale features such as frontal areas, eddies, or near the sea ice edge. Any ocean front shift or evolution of mesoscale anomalies results in excessive, unrealistic surface fluxes due to the lack of atmospheric adaptation. Second, a subtle distortion in the sensitive balance of feedback processes being critical for the thermohaline circulation. Since the bulk formulations assume an infinite atmospheric heat capacity, resulting SST anomalies are strongly damped even on basin-scales (e.g. from trends in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation). In consequence, an important negative feedback is eliminated, rendering the system excessively susceptible to small anomalies (or errors) in the freshwater fluxes. Previous studies (Seager et al., 1995, J. Clim.) have suggested a partial forcing issue remedy that aimed for a physically more realistic determination of air-sea fluxes by allowing some (thermodynamic) adaptation of the atmospheric boundary layer to SST changes. In this study a modernized formulation of this approach (Deremble et al., 2013, Mon. Weather Rev.; 'CheapAML') is implemented in a global ocean-ice model with moderate resolution (0.5°; ORCA05). In a set of experiments we explore the solution behaviour of this forcing approach (where only the winds are prescribed, while atmospheric temperature and humidity are computed), contrasting it with the solution obtained from the classical bulk formulation with a non

  20. Upper ocean response to the passage of two sequential typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renhao; Li, Chunyan

    2018-02-01

    Two sequential typhoons, separated by five days, Chan-hom and Nangka in the summer of 2015, provided a unique opportunity to study the oceanic response and cold wake evolution. The upper ocean response to the passage of these two typhoons was investigated using multi-satellite, Argo float data and HYCOM global model output. The sea surface cooling (SSC) induced by Chan-hom was gradually enhanced along its track when the storm was intensified while moving over the ocean with shallow mixed layer. The location of maximum cooling of sea surface was determined by the storm's translation speed as well as pre-typhoon oceanic conditions. As a fast-moving storm, Chan-hom induced significant SSC on the right side of its track. Localized maximum cooling patches are found over a cyclonic eddy (CE). An analysis of data from Argo floats near the track of Chan-hom demonstrated that the mixed layer temperature (MLT) and mixed layer depth (MLD) had more variabilities on the right side than those on the left side of Chan-hom's track, while mixed layer salinity (MLS) response was different from those of MLT and MLD with an increase in salinity to the right side and a decrease in salinity to the left side of the track. Subsequently, because of the remnant effect of Chan-hom, the strong upwelling induced by Typhoon Nangka, the pre-existing CE as well as a slow translation speed (<2 m s-1) of the storm, the most significant SSC ( 6 °C) was observed over the CE region in the wake of the storm. Further, Nangka experienced a rapid weakening suggesting immediate negative feedback from the intensified SSC occurred in the CE region. After these two typhoons, the CE was enhanced and the sea surface height of eddy core was depressed by 10 cm. It took more than one month for SSC to restore to its pre-typhoon conditions, with the anomalous geostrophic current advection playing an important role in the process. The enhancement of chlorophyll-a concentrations was also noticed at both the CE region

  1. ENSO Simulation in Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Models: Are the Current Models Better?

    SciT

    AchutaRao, K; Sperber, K R

    Maintaining a multi-model database over a generation or more of model development provides an important framework for assessing model improvement. Using control integrations, we compare the simulation of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and its extratropical impact, in models developed for the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report with models developed in the late 1990's (the so-called Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-2 [CMIP2] models). The IPCC models tend to be more realistic in representing the frequency with which ENSO occurs, and they are better at locating enhanced temperature variability over the eastern Pacific Ocean. When compared withmore » reanalyses, the IPCC models have larger pattern correlations of tropical surface air temperature than do the CMIP2 models during the boreal winter peak phase of El Nino. However, for sea-level pressure and precipitation rate anomalies, a clear separation in performance between the two vintages of models is not as apparent. The strongest improvement occurs for the modeling groups whose CMIP2 model tended to have the lowest pattern correlations with observations. This has been checked by subsampling the multi-century IPCC simulations in a manner to be consistent with the single 80-year time segment available from CMIP2. Our results suggest that multi-century integrations may be required to statistically assess model improvement of ENSO. The quality of the El Nino precipitation composite is directly related to the fidelity of the boreal winter precipitation climatology, highlighting the importance of reducing systematic model error. Over North America distinct improvement of El Nino forced boreal winter surface air temperature, sea-level pressure, and precipitation rate anomalies in the IPCC models occurs. This improvement, is directly proportional to the skill of the tropical El Nino forced precipitation anomalies.« less

  2. Meridionally propagating interannual-to-interdecadal variability in a linear ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Vikram M.

    1992-01-01

    Meridional oscillation modes in a global, primitive-equation coupled ocean-atmosphere model have been analyzed in order to determine whether they contain such meridionally propagating modes as surface-pressure perturbations with years-to-decades oscillation periods. A two-layer global ocean model and a two-level global atmosphere model were then formulated. For realistic parameter values and basic states, meridional modes oscillating at periods of several years to several decades are noted to be present in the coupled ocean-atmosphere model; the oscillation periods, travel times, and meridional structures of surface pressure perturbations in one of the modes are found to be comparable to the corresponding characteristics of observed sea-level pressure perturbations.

  3. Modeling seasonality of ice and ocean carbon production in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Deal, C. M.; Ji, R.

    2011-12-01

    In the Arctic Ocean, both phytoplankton and sea ice algae are important contributors to the primary production and the arctic food web. Copepod in the arctic regions have developed their feeding habit depending on the timing between the ice algal bloom and the subsequent phytoplankton bloom. A mismatch of the timing due to climate changes could have dramatic consequences on the food web as shown by some regional observations. In this study, a global coupled ice-ocean-ecosystem model was used to assess the seasonality of the ice algal and phytoplankton blooms in the arctic. The ice-ocean ecosystem modules are fully coupled in the physical model POP-CICE (Parallel Ocean Program- Los Alamos Sea Ice Model). The model results are compared with various observations. The modeled ice and ocean carbon production were analyzed by regions and their linkage to the physical environment changes (such as changes of ice concentration and water temperature, and light intensity etc.) between low- and high-ice years.

  4. Global Modeling Study of the Bioavailable Atmospheric Iron Supply to the Global Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Krol, M. C.; van Noije, T.; Le Sager, P.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents acts as a nutrient source to the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients to the global ocean, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in a bioavailable form that can be assimilated by the marine biota. Iron (Fe) is a key micronutrient that significantly modulates gross primary production in the High-Nutrient-Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) oceans, where macronutrients like nitrate are abundant, but primary production is limited by Fe scarcity. The global atmospheric Fe cycle is here parameterized in the state-of-the-art global Earth System Model EC-Earth. The model takes into account the primary emissions of both insoluble and soluble Fe forms, associated with mineral dust and combustion aerosols. The impact of atmospheric acidity and organic ligands on mineral dissolution processes, is parameterized based on updated experimental and theoretical findings. Model results are also evaluated against available observations. Overall, the link between the labile Fe atmospheric deposition and atmospheric composition changes is here demonstrated and quantified. This work has been financed by the Marie-Curie H2020-MSCA-IF-2015 grant (ID 705652) ODEON (Online DEposition over OceaNs; modeling the effect of air pollution on ocean bio-geochemistry in an Earth System Model).

  5. Ocean Chlorophyll as a Precursor of ENSO: An Earth System Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Dunne, John P.; Stock, Charles A.

    2018-02-01

    Ocean chlorophyll concentration, a proxy for phytoplankton, is strongly influenced by internal ocean dynamics such as those associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Observations show that ocean chlorophyll responses to ENSO generally lead sea surface temperature (SST) responses in the equatorial Pacific. A long-term global Earth system model simulation incorporating marine biogeochemical processes also exhibits a preceding chlorophyll response. In contrast to simulated SST anomalies, which significantly lag the wind-driven subsurface heat response to ENSO, chlorophyll anomalies respond rapidly. Iron was found to be the key factor connecting the simulated surface chlorophyll anomalies to the subsurface ocean response. Westerly wind bursts decrease central Pacific chlorophyll by reducing iron supply through wind-driven thermocline deepening but increase western Pacific chlorophyll by enhancing the influx of coastal iron from the maritime continent. Our results mechanistically support the potential for chlorophyll-based indices to inform seasonal ENSO forecasts beyond previously identified SST-based indices.

  6. Biological production in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones - Part 1: refined estimation via the use of a variable compensation depth in ocean carbon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethalekshmi Sreeush, Mohanan; Valsala, Vinu; Pentakota, Sreenivas; Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, Koneru; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2018-04-01

    Biological modelling approach adopted by the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-II) provided amazingly simple but surprisingly accurate rendition of the annual mean carbon cycle for the global ocean. Nonetheless, OCMIP models are known to have seasonal biases which are typically attributed to their bulk parameterisation of compensation depth. Utilising the criteria of surface Chl a-based attenuation of solar radiation and the minimum solar radiation required for production, we have proposed a new parameterisation for a spatially and temporally varying compensation depth which captures the seasonality in the production zone reasonably well. This new parameterisation is shown to improve the seasonality of CO2 fluxes, surface ocean pCO2, biological export and new production in the major upwelling zones of the Indian Ocean. The seasonally varying compensation depth enriches the nutrient concentration in the upper ocean yielding more faithful biological exports which in turn leads to accurate seasonality in the carbon cycle. The export production strengthens by ˜ 70 % over the western Arabian Sea during the monsoon period and achieves a good balance between export and new production in the model. This underscores the importance of having a seasonal balance in the model export and new productions for a better representation of the seasonality of the carbon cycle over upwelling regions. The study also implies that both the biological and solubility pumps play an important role in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones.

  7. The development of an advanced vertical discretisation scheme for a regional ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruciaferri, Diego; Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred

    2017-04-01

    When designing an ocean model, the choice of the vertical coordinate system must be pursued very carefully (Griffies et al., 2000); especially in those regional areas where local multi-scale processes interact with large-scale oceanographic features. Three main vertical coordinates are usually used in ocean modelling, namely the geopotential, terrain-following and isopycnic, but each one presents its own limitations and strengths. In the last decades, much research has been spent to investigate and develop hybrid approaches able to combine the advantages of each vertical coordinate system but minimising their disadvantages. Here we propose the hybrid s-s-z vertical discretisation scheme, an advanced version of the approach used by Shapiro et al. (2013). In our new scheme, the vertical domain is divided into three zones: in the upper and middle zones use s-coordinates while the deeper zone uses z-levels. The s-s-z vertical grid is introduced into the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) model code and we compare the model skill of our new vertical discretisation scheme with the NEMO vertical grid using z-levels with partial steps through a set of idealized numerical experiments for which analytical solutions or theoretical models exist. Modelling results demonstrate that the magnitude of spurious currents arising from the horizontal pressure gradient errors are of the same order (10 ^ -3 m/s ) both with z-partial steps or with s-s-z vertical grids for the conditions favourable for the geopotential grids ( horizontal initial density levels). For a number of more realistic conditions representing a general cyclonic circulation in the sea, the new discretisation scheme produces smaller spurious currents and hence is more accurate than the z-level approach. Moreover, the enhanced capability of the s-s-z scheme to reproduce dense water cascades as compared to the z-partial steps grid is shown. Finally, we show how the new s-s-z grid can be useful to improve

  8. Use of Advanced Meteorological Model Output for Coastal Ocean Modeling in Puget Sound

    SciT

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Wang, Taiping

    2011-06-01

    It is a great challenge to specify meteorological forcing in estuarine and coastal circulation modeling using observed data because of the lack of complete datasets. As a result of this limitation, water temperature is often not simulated in estuarine and coastal modeling, with the assumption that density-induced currents are generally dominated by salinity gradients. However, in many situations, temperature gradients could be sufficiently large to influence the baroclinic motion. In this paper, we present an approach to simulate water temperature using outputs from advanced meteorological models. This modeling approach was applied to simulate annual variations of water temperatures of Pugetmore » Sound, a fjordal estuary in the Pacific Northwest of USA. Meteorological parameters from North American Region Re-analysis (NARR) model outputs were evaluated with comparisons to observed data at real-time meteorological stations. Model results demonstrated that NARR outputs can be used to drive coastal ocean models for realistic simulations of long-term water-temperature distributions in Puget Sound. Model results indicated that the net flux from NARR can be further improved with the additional information from real-time observations.« less

  9. Ocean Heat and Carbon Uptake in Transient Climate Change: Identifying Model Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanou, Anastasia; Marshall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming on decadal and centennial timescales is mediated and ameliorated by the oceansequestering heat and carbon into its interior. Transient climate change is a function of the efficiency by whichanthropogenic heat and carbon are transported away from the surface into the ocean interior (Hansen et al. 1985).Gregory and Mitchell (1997) and Raper et al. (2002) were the first to identify the importance of the ocean heat uptakeefficiency in transient climate change. Observational estimates (Schwartz 2012) and inferences from coupledatmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs; Gregory and Forster 2008; Marotzke et al. 2015), suggest thatocean heat uptake efficiency on decadal timescales lies in the range 0.5-1.5 W/sq m/K and is thus comparable to theclimate feedback parameter (Murphy et al. 2009). Moreover, the ocean not only plays a key role in setting the timing ofwarming but also its regional patterns (Marshall et al. 2014), which is crucial to our understanding of regional climate,carbon and heat uptake, and sea-level change. This short communication is based on a presentation given by A.Romanou at a recent workshop, Oceans Carbon and Heat Uptake: Uncertainties and Metrics, co-hosted by US CLIVARand OCB. As briefly reviewed below, we have incomplete but growing knowledge of how ocean models used in climatechange projections sequester heat and carbon into the interior. To understand and thence reduce errors and biases inthe ocean component of coupled models, as well as elucidate the key mechanisms at work, in the final section we outlinea proposed model intercomparison project named FAFMIP. In FAFMIP, coupled integrations would be carried out withprescribed overrides of wind stress and freshwater and heat fluxes acting at the sea surface.

  10. Introduction to special section on The U.S. IOOS Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettich, Richard A.; Wright, L. Donelson; Signell, Richard; Friedrichs, Carl; Friedrichs, Marjy; Harding, John; Fennel, Katja; Howlett, Eoin; Graves, Sara; Smith, Elizabeth; Crane, Gary; Baltes, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Strong and strategic collaborations among experts from academia, federal operational centers, and industry have been forged to create a U.S. IOOS Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed (COMT). The COMT mission is to accelerate the transition of scientific and technical advances from the coastal and ocean modeling research community to improved operational ocean products and services. This is achieved via the evaluation of existing technology or the development of new technology depending on the status of technology within the research community. The initial phase of the COMT has addressed three coastal and ocean prediction challenges of great societal importance: estuarine hypoxia, shelf hypoxia, and coastal inundation. A fourth effort concentrated on providing and refining the cyberinfrastructure and cyber tools to support the modeling work and to advance interoperability and community access to the COMT archive. This paper presents an overview of the initiation of the COMT, the findings of each team and a discussion of the role of the COMT in research to operations and its interface with the coastal and ocean modeling community in general. Detailed technical results are presented in the accompanying series of 16 technical papers in this special issue.

  11. Decadal-Scale Response of the Antarctic Ice sheet to a Warming Ocean using the POPSICLES Coupled Ice Sheet-Ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. F.; Asay-Davis, X.; Cornford, S. L.; Price, S. F.; Ng, E. G.; Collins, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present POPSICLES simulation results covering the full Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Southern Ocean spanning the period from 1990 to 2010. We use the CORE v. 2 interannual forcing data to force the ocean model. Simulations are performed at 0.1o(~5 km) ocean resolution with adaptive ice sheet resolution as fine as 500 m to adequately resolve the grounding line dynamics. We discuss the effect of improved ocean mixing and subshelf bathymetry (vs. the standard Bedmap2 bathymetry) on the behavior of the coupled system, comparing time-averaged melt rates below a number of major ice shelves with those reported in the literature. We also present seasonal variability and decadal melting trends from several Antarctic regions, along with the response of the ice shelves and the consequent dynamic response of the grounded ice sheet.POPSICLES couples the POP2x ocean model, a modified version of the Parallel Ocean Program, and the BISICLES ice-sheet model. POP2x includes sub-ice-shelf circulation using partial top cells and the commonly used three-equation boundary layer physics. Standalone POP2x output compares well with standard ice-ocean test cases (e.g., ISOMIP) and other continental-scale simulations and melt-rate observations. BISICLES makes use of adaptive mesh refinement and a 1st-order accurate momentum balance similar to the L1L2 model of Schoof and Hindmarsh to accurately model regions of dynamic complexity, such as ice streams, outlet glaciers, and grounding lines. Results of BISICLES simulations have compared favorably to comparable simulations with a Stokes momentum balance in both idealized tests (MISMIP-3d) and realistic configurations.The figure shows the BISICLES-computed vertically-integrated grounded ice velocity field 5 years into a 20-year coupled full-continent Antarctic-Southern-Ocean simulation. Submarine melt rates are painted onto the surface of the floating ice shelves. Grounding lines are shown in green.

  12. Global Modeling of Internal Tides Within an Eddying Ocean General Circulation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-31

    heat between the atmosphere and ocean (Yu and Weller, 2007 ). Salinities in the upper ocean are set by the difference between evaporation and...precipitation at the ocean surface (Yu, 2007 ; Schmitt, 2008). Because the buoyancy (density) of seawater at the ocean surface is con- trolled by...timescales of about 10–200 days, these currents mean- der and generate highly energetic meso- scale eddies (Schmitz, 1996a,b; Stammer , 1997), the spinning

  13. A model for the microwave emissivity of the ocean's surface as a function of wind speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    A quanitative model is presented which describes the ocean surface as a ensemble of flat facets with a normal distribution of slopes. The variance of the slope distribution is linearly related to frequency up to 35 GHz and constant at higher frequencies. These facets are partially covered with an absorbing nonpolarized foam layer. Experimental evidence is presented for this model.

  14. An Isopycnal Box Model with predictive deep-ocean structure for biogeochemical cycling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2012-07-01

    To simulate global ocean biogeochemical tracer budgets a model must accurately determine both the volume and surface origins of each water-mass. Water-mass volumes are dynamically linked to the ocean circulation in General Circulation Models, but at the cost of high computational load. In computationally efficient Box Models the water-mass volumes are simply prescribed and do not vary when the circulation transport rates or water mass densities are perturbed. A new computationally efficient Isopycnal Box Model is presented in which the sub-surface box volumes are internally calculated from the prescribed circulation using a diffusive conceptual model of the thermocline, in which upwelling of cold dense water is balanced by a downward diffusion of heat. The volumes of the sub-surface boxes are set so that the density stratification satisfies an assumed link between diapycnal diffusivity, κd, and buoyancy frequency, N: κd = c/(Nα), where c and α are user prescribed parameters. In contrast to conventional Box Models, the volumes of the sub-surface ocean boxes in the Isopycnal Box Model are dynamically linked to circulation, and automatically respond to circulation perturbations. This dynamical link allows an important facet of ocean biogeochemical cycling to be simulated in a highly computationally efficient model framework.

  15. Effects of Precipitation on Ocean Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity as Simulated in a 2-D Coupled Ocean-Cloud Resolving Atmosphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K-M.; Adamec, D.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled ocean-cloud resolving atmosphere model is used to investigate possible roles of convective scale ocean disturbances induced by atmospheric precipitation on ocean mixed-layer heat and salt budgets. The model couples a cloud resolving model with an embedded mixed layer-ocean circulation model. Five experiment are performed under imposed large-scale atmospheric forcing in terms of vertical velocity derived from the TOGA COARE observations during a selected seven-day period. The dominant variability of mixed-layer temperature and salinity are simulated by the coupled model with imposed large-scale forcing. The mixed-layer temperatures in the coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models show similar variations when salinity effects are not included. When salinity effects are included, however, differences in the domain-mean mixed-layer salinity and temperature between coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models could be as large as 0.3 PSU and 0.4 C respectively. Without fresh water effects, the nocturnal heat loss over ocean surface causes deep mixed layers and weak cooling rates so that the nocturnal mixed-layer temperatures tend to be horizontally-uniform. The fresh water flux, however, causes shallow mixed layers over convective areas while the nocturnal heat loss causes deep mixed layer over convection-free areas so that the mixed-layer temperatures have large horizontal fluctuations. Furthermore, fresh water flux exhibits larger spatial fluctuations than surface heat flux because heavy rainfall occurs over convective areas embedded in broad non-convective or clear areas, whereas diurnal signals over whole model areas yield high spatial correlation of surface heat flux. As a result, mixed-layer salinities contribute more to the density differences than do mixed-layer temperatures.

  16. Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.

  17. Simulation of the global ocean thermohaline circulation with an eddy-resolving INMIO model configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, K. V.; Ibrayev, R. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the first results of a simulation of the mean World Ocean thermohaline characteristics obtained by the INMIO ocean general circulation model configured with 0.1 degree resolution in a 5-year long numerical experiment following the CORE-II protocol are presented. The horizontal and zonal mean distributions of the solution bias against the WOA09 data are analyzed. The seasonal cycle of heat content at a specified site of the North Atlantic is also discussed. The simulation results demonstrate a clear improvement in the quality of representation of the upper ocean compared to the results of experiments with 0.5 and 0.25 degree model configurations. Some remaining biases of the model solution and possible ways of their overcoming are highlighted.

  18. Observation- and model-based estimates of particulate dry nitrogen deposition to the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Alex R.; Kanakidou, Maria; Altieri, Katye E.; Daskalakis, Nikos; Okin, Gregory S.; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Dentener, Frank; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Sarin, Manmohan M.; Duce, Robert A.; Galloway, James N.; Keene, William C.; Singh, Arvind; Zamora, Lauren; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Rohekar, Shital S.; Prospero, Joseph M.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions to the atmosphere have increased significantly the deposition of nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) to the surface waters of the open ocean, with potential impacts on marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. Global-scale understanding of the impacts of N deposition to the oceans is reliant on our ability to produce and validate models of nitrogen emission, atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition. In this work, ˜ 2900 observations of aerosol NO3- and NH4+ concentrations, acquired from sampling aboard ships in the period 1995-2012, are used to assess the performance of modelled N concentration and deposition fields over the remote ocean. Three ocean regions (the eastern tropical North Atlantic, the northern Indian Ocean and northwest Pacific) were selected, in which the density and distribution of observational data were considered sufficient to provide effective comparison to model products. All of these study regions are affected by transport and deposition of mineral dust, which alters the deposition of N, due to uptake of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on mineral surfaces. Assessment of the impacts of atmospheric N deposition on the ocean requires atmospheric chemical transport models to report deposition fluxes; however, these fluxes cannot be measured over the ocean. Modelling studies such as the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), which only report deposition flux, are therefore very difficult to validate for dry deposition. Here, the available observational data were averaged over a 5° × 5° grid and compared to ACCMIP dry deposition fluxes (ModDep) of oxidised N (NOy) and reduced N (NHx) and to the following parameters from the Tracer Model 4 of the Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (TM4): ModDep for NOy, NHx and particulate NO3- and NH4+, and surface-level particulate NO3- and NH4+ concentrations. As a model ensemble, ACCMIP can be expected to be more robust than

  19. The sources of Antarctic bottom water in a global ice ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosse, Hugues; Campin, Jean-Michel; Tartinville, Benoı̂t

    Two mechanisms contribute to the formation of Antarctic bottom water (AABW). The first, and probably the most important, is initiated by the brine released on the Antarctic continental shelf during ice formation which is responsible for an increase in salinity. After mixing with ambient water at the shelf break, this salty and dense water sinks along the shelf slope and invades the deepest part of the global ocean. For the second one, the increase of surface water density is due to strong cooling at the ocean-atmosphere interface, together with a contribution from brine release. This induces deep convection and the renewal of deep waters. The relative importance of these two mechanisms is investigated in a global coupled ice-ocean model. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations simulated by the model compare favourably with observations, suggesting a reasonable deep water ventilation in the Southern Ocean, except close to Antarctica where concentrations are too high. Two artificial passive tracers released at surface on the Antarctic continental shelf and in the open-ocean allow to show clearly that the two mechanisms contribute significantly to the renewal of AABW in the model. This indicates that open-ocean convection is overestimated in our simulation. Additional experiments show that the amount of AABW production due to the export of dense shelf waters is quite sensitive to the parameterisation of the effect of downsloping and meso-scale eddies. Nevertheless, shelf waters always contribute significantly to deep water renewal. Besides, increasing the P.R. Gent, J.C. McWilliams [Journal of Physical Oceanography 20 (1990) 150-155] thickness diffusion can nearly suppress the AABW formation by open-ocean convection.

  20. The Southern Ocean in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, A. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Southern Ocean is an important part of the global climate system, but its complex coupled nature makes both its present state and its response to projected future climate forcing difficult to model. Clear trends in wind, sea-ice extent and ocean properties emerged from multi-model intercomparison in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). Here, we review recent analyses of the historical and projected wind, sea ice, circulation and bulk properties of the Southern Ocean in the updated Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. Improvements to the models include higher resolutions, more complex and better-tuned parametrizations of ocean mixing, and improved biogeochemical cycles and atmospheric chemistry. CMIP5 largely reproduces the findings of CMIP3, but with smaller inter-model spreads and biases. By the end of the twenty-first century, mid-latitude wind stresses increase and shift polewards. All water masses warm, and intermediate waters freshen, while bottom waters increase in salinity. Surface mixed layers shallow, warm and freshen, whereas sea ice decreases. The upper overturning circulation intensifies, whereas bottom water formation is reduced. Significant disagreement exists between models for the response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current strength, for reasons that are as yet unclear. PMID:24891395

  1. Analysis of Atmosphere-Ocean Surface Flux Feedbacks in Recent Satellite and Model Reanalysis Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.; Clayson, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent investigations have examined observations in an attempt to determine when and how the ocean forces the atmosphere, and vice versa. These studies focus primarily on relationships between sea surface temperature anomalies and the turbulent and radiative surface heat fluxes. It has been found that both positive and negative feedbacks, which enhance or reduce sea surface temperature anomaly amplitudes, can be generated through changes in the surface boundary layer. Consequent changes in sea surface temperature act to change boundary layer characteristics through changes in static stability or turbulent fluxes. Previous studies over the global oceans have used coarse-resolution observational and model products such as ICOADS and the NCEP Reanalysis. This study focuses on documenting the atmosphere ocean feedbacks that exist in recently produced higher resolution products, namely the SeaFlux v1.0 product and the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). It has been noted in recent studies that evidence of oceanic forcing of the atmosphere exists on smaller scales than the usually more dominant atmospheric forcing of the ocean, particularly in higher latitudes. It is expected that use of these higher resolution products will allow for a more comprehensive description of these small-scale ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. The SeaFlux intercomparisons have revealed large scatter between various surface flux climatologies. This study also investigates the uncertainty in surface flux feedbacks based on several of these recent satellite based climatologies

  2. Effects of ocean initial perturbation on developing phase of ENSO in a coupled seasonal prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu

    2018-03-01

    Coupled prediction systems for seasonal and inter-annual variability in the tropical Pacific are initialized from ocean analyses. In ocean initial states, small scale perturbations are inevitably smoothed or distorted by the observational limits and data assimilation procedures, which tends to induce potential ocean initial errors for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. Here, the evolution and effects of ocean initial errors from the small scale perturbation on the developing phase of ENSO are investigated by an ensemble of coupled model predictions. Results show that the ocean initial errors at the thermocline in the western tropical Pacific grow rapidly to project on the first mode of equatorial Kelvin wave and propagate to the east along the thermocline. In boreal spring when the surface buoyancy flux weakens in the eastern tropical Pacific, the subsurface errors influence sea surface temperature variability and would account for the seasonal dependence of prediction skill in the NINO3 region. It is concluded that the ENSO prediction in the eastern tropical Pacific after boreal spring can be improved by increasing the observational accuracy of subsurface ocean initial states in the western tropical Pacific.

  3. Influence of the vertical mixing parameterization on the modeling results of the Arctic Ocean hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakshina, D. F.; Golubeva, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    The vertical distribution of the hydrological characteristics in the upper ocean layer is mostly formed under the influence of turbulent and convective mixing, which are not resolved in the system of equations for large-scale ocean. Therefore it is necessary to include additional parameterizations of these processes into the numerical models. In this paper we carry out a comparative analysis of the different vertical mixing parameterizations in simulations of climatic variability of the Arctic water and sea ice circulation. The 3D regional numerical model for the Arctic and North Atlantic developed in the ICMMG SB RAS (Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science) and package GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence Model1,2, http://www.gotm.net/) were used as the numerical instruments . NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data were used for determination of the surface fluxes related to ice and ocean. The next turbulence closure schemes were used for the vertical mixing parameterizations: 1) Integration scheme based on the Richardson criteria (RI); 2) Second-order scheme TKE with coefficients Canuto-A3 (CANUTO); 3) First-order scheme TKE with coefficients Schumann and Gerz4 (TKE-1); 4) Scheme KPP5 (KPP). In addition we investigated some important characteristics of the Arctic Ocean state including the intensity of Atlantic water inflow, ice cover state and fresh water content in Beaufort Sea.

  4. The biological carbon pump in the ocean: Reviewing model representations and its feedbacks on climate perturbations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hülse, Dominik; Arndt, Sandra; Ridgwell, Andy; Wilson, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    The ocean-sediment system, as the biggest carbon reservoir in the Earth's carbon cycle, plays a crucial role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Therefore, it is essential to constrain the importance of marine carbon cycle feedbacks on global warming and ocean acidification. Arguably, the most important single component of the ocean's carbon cycle is the so-called "biological carbon pump". It transports carbon that is fixed in the light-flooded surface layer of the ocean to the deep ocean and the surface sediment, where it is degraded/dissolved or finally buried in the deep sediments. Over the past decade, progress has been made in understanding different factors that control the efficiency of the biological carbon pump and their feedbacks on the global carbon cycle and climate (i.e. ballasting = ocean acidification feedback; temperature dependant organic matter degradation = global warming feedback; organic matter sulphurisation = anoxia/euxinia feedback). Nevertheless, many uncertainties concerning the interplay of these processes and/or their relative significance remain. In addition, current Earth System Models tend to employ empirical and static parameterisations of the biological pump. As these parametric representations are derived from a limited set of present-day observations, their ability to represent carbon cycle feedbacks under changing climate conditions is limited. The aim of my research is to combine past carbon cycling information with a spatially resolved global biogeochemical model to constrain the functioning of the biological pump and to base its mathematical representation on a more mechanistic approach. Here, I will discuss important aspects that control the efficiency of the ocean's biological carbon pump, review how these processes of first order importance are mathematically represented in existing Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) and distinguish different approaches to approximate

  5. Parallel Computation of Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave Coupled Storm Surge Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Yamashita, T.

    2003-12-01

    Ocean-atmosphere interactions are very important in the formation and development of tropical storms. These interactions are dominant in exchanging heat, momentum, and moisture fluxes. Heat flux is usually computed using a bulk equation. In this equation air-sea interface supplies heat energy to the atmosphere and to the storm. Dynamical interaction is most often one way in which it is the atmosphere that drives the ocean. The winds transfer momentum to both ocean surface waves and ocean current. The wind wave makes an important role in the exchange of the quantities of motion, heat and a substance between the atmosphere and the ocean. Storm surges can be considered as the phenomena of mean sea-level changes, which are the result of the frictional stresses of strong winds blowing toward the land and causing the set level and the low atmospheric pressure at the centre of the cyclone can additionally raise the sea level. In addition to the rise in water level itself, another wave factor must be considered. A rise of mean sea level due to white-cap wave dissipation should be considered. In bounded bodies of water, such as small seas, wind driven sea level set up is much serious than inverted barometer effects, in which the effects of wind waves on wind-driven current play an important role. It is necessary to develop the coupled system of the full spectral third-generation wind-wave model (WAM or WAVEWATCH III), the meso-scale atmosphere model (MM5) and the coastal ocean model (POM) for simulating these physical interactions. As the component of coupled system is so heavy for personal usage, the parallel computing system should be developed. In this study, first, we developed the coupling system of the atmosphere model, ocean wave model and the coastal ocean model, in the Beowulf System, for the simulation of the storm surge. It was applied to the storm surge simulation caused by Typhoon Bart (T9918) in the Yatsushiro Sea. The atmosphere model and the ocean model have

  6. Multimillennium changes in dissolved oxygen under global warming: results from an AOGCM and offline ocean biogeochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Oka, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ohgaito, R.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term oceanic oxygen change due to global warming is still unclear; most future projections (such as CMIP5) are only performed until 2100. Indeed, few previous studies using conceptual models project oxygen change in the next thousands of years, showing persistent global oxygen reduction by about 30% in the next 2000 years, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide stops rising. Yet, these models cannot sufficiently represent the ocean circulation change: the key driver of oxygen change. Moreover, considering serious effect oxygen reduction has on marine life and biogeochemical cycling, long-term oxygen change should be projected for higher validity. Therefore, we used a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) and an offline ocean biogeochemical model, investigating realistic long-term changes in oceanic oxygen concentration and ocean circulation. We integrated these models for 2000 years under atmospheric CO2 doubling and quadrupling. After global oxygen reduction in the first 500 years, oxygen concentration in deep ocean globally recovers and overshoots, despite surface oxygen decrease and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea recovers and overshoots, after initial cessation. Thus, enhanced deep convection and associated Antarctic Bottom Water supply oxygen-rich surface waters to deep ocean, resulting global deep ocean oxygenation. We conclude that the change in ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean potentially drives millennial-scale oxygenation in the deep ocean; contrary to past reported long-term oxygen reduction and general expectation. In presentation, we will discuss the mechanism of response of deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea and show the volume changes of hypoxic waters.

  7. A Unified Model for Methylmercury Formation and Bioaccumulation in the Global Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Schartup, A. T.; Soerensen, A.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fish consumption is the main exposure pathway for methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxin, in many countries. The Hg in the ocean is mainly from atmospheric deposition in inorganic forms. How the deposited Hg is methylated and accumulated in biota remain an open question. We develop a 3D model (MITgcm) for MeHg formation and bioaccumulation in the global ocean and evaluate the driving factors. The model is based on a previous published inorganic Hg model and is coupled with the bioaccumulation model for marine methylmercury (BAM3) with ocean biogeochemistry from DARWIN model. We develop a unified scheme that scales methylation by microbe activity and assumes demethylation a function of short wave radiation and temperature. The model result agrees well with currently available observations at the 0-100 m (mod.: 43±52 fM vs obs.: 69±67 fM, 1 fM = 10-15 mol/L), 500 m (360±280 fM vs 340±260 fM), and 1000 m depth (260±170 fM vs 290±210 fM). In the surface ocean, we find the MeHg concentrations are a function of latitude, resulting from photodemethylation. The model reproduces the high concentrations observed over the sub-thermocline of Pacific Subarctic Gyre, which is associated with active microbe activity. On the other hand, both the model and observations suggest low concentrations over oligotrophic regions such as Indian Ocean Gyre. In the tropical oceans, the model predicts the highest MeHg concentrations, consistent with observation, and it is caused by the overlapping high atmospheric deposition and active microbe activities. The model captures the high concentrations in the subsurface of the Arctic and Southern Ocean where low temperature slows down abiotic demethylation. The modeled global average MeHg concentration in phytoplankton is 2.0 ng/g (by wet weight), within the same range of observations. High concentrations are modeled over tropical and high-latitude regions due to the dominance of small sized prochlorococcus and high seawater concentrations

  8. Biogeochemical protocols and diagnostics for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, James C.; Najjar, Raymond G.; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Bullister, John L.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Doney, Scott C.; Dunne, John P.; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Graven, Heather; Griffies, Stephen M.; John, Jasmin G.; Joos, Fortunat; Levin, Ingeborg; Lindsay, Keith; Matear, Richard J.; McKinley, Galen A.; Mouchet, Anne; Oschlies, Andreas; Romanou, Anastasia; Schlitzer, Reiner; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Tanhua, Toste; Yool, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) focuses on the physics and biogeochemistry of the ocean component of Earth system models participating in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). OMIP aims to provide standard protocols and diagnostics for ocean models, while offering a forum to promote their common assessment and improvement. It also offers to compare solutions of the same ocean models when forced with reanalysis data (OMIP simulations) vs. when integrated within fully coupled Earth system models (CMIP6). Here we detail simulation protocols and diagnostics for OMIP's biogeochemical and inert chemical tracers. These passive-tracer simulations will be coupled to ocean circulation models, initialized with observational data or output from a model spin-up, and forced by repeating the 1948-2009 surface fluxes of heat, fresh water, and momentum. These so-called OMIP-BGC simulations include three inert chemical tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6) and biogeochemical tracers (e.g., dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon isotopes, alkalinity, nutrients, and oxygen). Modelers will use their preferred prognostic BGC model but should follow common guidelines for gas exchange and carbonate chemistry. Simulations include both natural and total carbon tracers. The required forced simulation (omip1) will be initialized with gridded observational climatologies. An optional forced simulation (omip1-spunup) will be initialized instead with BGC fields from a long model spin-up, preferably for 2000 years or more, and forced by repeating the same 62-year meteorological forcing. That optional run will also include abiotic tracers of total dissolved inorganic carbon and radiocarbon, CTabio and 14CTabio, to assess deep-ocean ventilation and distinguish the role of physics vs. biology. These simulations will be forced by observed atmospheric histories of the three inert gases and CO2 as well as carbon isotope ratios of CO2. OMIP-BGC simulation protocols are

  9. Biogeochemical Protocols and Diagnostics for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James C.; Najjar, Raymond G.; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Bullister, John L.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Doney, Scott C.; Dunne, John P.; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Graven, Heather; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) focuses on the physics and biogeochemistry of the ocean component of Earth system models participating in the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). OMIP aims to provide standard protocols and diagnostics for ocean models, while offering a forum to promote their common assessment and improvement. It also offers to compare solutions of the same ocean models when forced with reanalysis data (OMIP simulations) vs. when integrated within fully coupled Earth system models (CMIP6). Here we detail simulation protocols and diagnostics for OMIP's biogeochemical and inert chemical tracers. These passive-tracer simulations will be coupled to ocean circulation models, initialized with observational data or output from a model spin-up, and forced by repeating the 1948-2009 surface fluxes of heat, fresh water, and momentum. These so-called OMIP-BGC simulations include three inert chemical tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF [subscript] 6) and biogeochemical tracers (e.g., dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon isotopes, alkalinity, nutrients, and oxygen). Modelers will use their preferred prognostic BGC model but should follow common guidelines for gas exchange and carbonate chemistry. Simulations include both natural and total carbon tracers. The required forced simulation (omip1) will be initialized with gridded observational climatologies. An optional forced simulation (omip1-spunup) will be initialized instead with BGC fields from a long model spin-up, preferably for 2000 years or more, and forced by repeating the same 62-year meteorological forcing. That optional run will also include abiotic tracers of total dissolved inorganic carbon and radiocarbon, CTabio and 14CTabio, to assess deep-ocean ventilation and distinguish the role of physics vs. biology. These simulations will be forced by observed atmospheric histories of the three inert gases and CO2 as well as carbon isotope ratios of CO2. OMIP-BGC simulation

  10. Are Hydrostatic Models Still Capable of Simulating Oceanic Fronts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-10

    Coriolis effect is added to the model momentum equations...nonhydrostatic (NH) models to address the relevance of NH effects on the evolution of density fronts and the development of meso- and submeso-scale vertical...nonhydrostatic (NH) models to address the relevance of NH effects on the evolution of density fronts and the development of meso- and submeso-scale vertical

  11. Calibrating the ECCO ocean general circulation model using Green's functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menemenlis, D.; Fu, L. L.; Lee, T.; Fukumori, I.

    2002-01-01

    Green's functions provide a simple, yet effective, method to test and calibrate General-Circulation-Model(GCM) parameterizations, to study and quantify model and data errors, to correct model biases and trends, and to blend estimates from different solutions and data products.

  12. Initial conditions and ENSO prediction using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larow, T. E.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere initialization scheme using Newtonian relaxation has been developed for the Florida State University coupled ocean-atmosphere global general circulation model. The initialization scheme is used to initialize the coupled model for seasonal forecasting the boreal summers of 1987 and 1988. The atmosphere model is a modified version of the Florida State University global spectral model, resolution T-42. The ocean general circulation model consists of a slightly modified version of the Hamburg's climate group model described in Latif (1987) and Latif et al. (1993). The coupling is synchronous with information exchanged every two model hours. Using ECMWF atmospheric daily analysis and observed monthly mean SSTs, two, 1-year, time-dependent, Newtonian relaxation were performed using the coupled model prior to conducting the seasonal forecasts. The coupled initializations were conducted from 1 June 1986 to 1 June 1987 and from 1 June 1987 to 1 June 1988. Newtonian relaxation was applied to the prognostic atmospheric vorticity, divergence, temperature and dew point depression equations. In the ocean model the relaxation was applied to the surface temperature. Two, 10-member ensemble integrations were conducted to examine the impact of the coupled initialization on the seasonal forecasts. The initial conditions used for the ensembles are the ocean's final state after the initialization and the atmospheric initial conditions are ECMWF analysis. Examination of the SST root mean square error and anomaly correlations between observed and forecasted SSTs in the Niño-3 and Niño-4 regions for the 2 seasonal forecasts, show closer agreement between the initialized forecast than two, 10-member non-initialized ensemble forecasts. The main conclusion here is that a single forecast with the coupled initialization outperforms, in SST anomaly prediction, against each of the control forecasts (members of the ensemble) which do not include such an initialization

  13. LOSCAR: Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    The LOSCAR model is designed to efficiently compute the partitioning of carbon between ocean, atmosphere, and sediments on time scales ranging from centuries to millions of years. While a variety of computationally inexpensive carbon cycle models are already available, many are missing a critical sediment component, which is indispensable for long-term integrations. One of LOSCAR's strengths is the coupling of ocean-atmosphere routines to a computationally efficient sediment module. This allows, for instance, adequate computation of CaCO3 dissolution, calcite compensation, and long-term carbon cycle fluxes, including weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks. The ocean component includes various biogeochemical tracers such as total carbon, alkalinity, phosphate, oxygen, and stable carbon isotopes. We have previously published applications of the model tackling future projections of ocean chemistry and weathering, pCO2 sensitivity to carbon cycle perturbations throughout the Cenozoic, and carbon/calcium cycling during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. The focus of the present contribution is the detailed description of the model including numerical architecture, processes and parameterizations, tuning, and examples of input and output. Typical CPU integration times of LOSCAR are of order seconds for several thousand model years on current standard desktop machines. The LOSCAR source code in C can be obtained from the author by sending a request to loscar.model@gmail.com.

  14. Ocean (de)oxygenation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the twenty-first century: insights from Earth System models.

    PubMed

    Bopp, L; Resplandy, L; Untersee, A; Le Mezo, P; Kageyama, M

    2017-09-13

    All Earth System models project a consistent decrease in the oxygen content of oceans for the coming decades because of ocean warming, reduced ventilation and increased stratification. But large uncertainties for these future projections of ocean deoxygenation remain for the subsurface tropical oceans where the major oxygen minimum zones are located. Here, we combine global warming projections, model-based estimates of natural short-term variability, as well as data and model estimates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ocean oxygenation to gain some insights into the major mechanisms of oxygenation changes across these different time scales. We show that the primary uncertainty on future ocean deoxygenation in the subsurface tropical oceans is in fact controlled by a robust compensation between decreasing oxygen saturation (O 2sat ) due to warming and decreasing apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) due to increased ventilation of the corresponding water masses. Modelled short-term natural variability in subsurface oxygen levels also reveals a compensation between O 2sat and AOU, controlled by the latter. Finally, using a model simulation of the LGM, reproducing data-based reconstructions of past ocean (de)oxygenation, we show that the deoxygenation trend of the subsurface ocean during deglaciation was controlled by a combination of warming-induced decreasing O 2sat and increasing AOU driven by a reduced ventilation of tropical subsurface waters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Ocean (de)oxygenation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the twenty-first century: insights from Earth System models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, L.; Resplandy, L.; Untersee, A.; Le Mezo, P.; Kageyama, M.

    2017-08-01

    All Earth System models project a consistent decrease in the oxygen content of oceans for the coming decades because of ocean warming, reduced ventilation and increased stratification. But large uncertainties for these future projections of ocean deoxygenation remain for the subsurface tropical oceans where the major oxygen minimum zones are located. Here, we combine global warming projections, model-based estimates of natural short-term variability, as well as data and model estimates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ocean oxygenation to gain some insights into the major mechanisms of oxygenation changes across these different time scales. We show that the primary uncertainty on future ocean deoxygenation in the subsurface tropical oceans is in fact controlled by a robust compensation between decreasing oxygen saturation (O2sat) due to warming and decreasing apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) due to increased ventilation of the corresponding water masses. Modelled short-term natural variability in subsurface oxygen levels also reveals a compensation between O2sat and AOU, controlled by the latter. Finally, using a model simulation of the LGM, reproducing data-based reconstructions of past ocean (de)oxygenation, we show that the deoxygenation trend of the subsurface ocean during deglaciation was controlled by a combination of warming-induced decreasing O2sat and increasing AOU driven by a reduced ventilation of tropical subsurface waters. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  16. Subaqueous melting in Zachariae Isstrom, Northeast Greenland combining observations and an ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, C.; Rignot, E. J.; Menemenlis, D.; Nakayama, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Zachariae Isstrom, a major ice stream in northeast Greenland, has lost its entire ice shelf in the past decade. Here, we study the evolution of subaqueous melting of its floating section during the transition. Observations show that the rate of ice shelf melting has doubled during 1999-2010 and is twice higher than that maintaining the ice shelf in a steady state. The ice shelf melt rate depends on the thermal forcing from warm, saline, subsurface ocean water of Atlantic origin (AW), and on the mixing of AW with fresh buoyant subglacial discharge. Subglacial discharge has increased as result of enhanced ice sheet runoff driven by warmer air temperature; ocean thermal forcing has increased due to enhanced advection of AW. Here, we employ the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a high spatial resolution to simulate the melting process in 3-D. The model is constrained by ice thickness from mass conservation, oceanic bathymetry inverted from gravity data by NASA Operation IceBridge and NASA Ocean Melting Greenland missions, in-situ ocean temperature/salinity data, ocean tide height and current from the Arctic Ocean Tidal Inverse Model (AOTIM-5) and reconstructed seasonal subglacial discharge from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2). We compare the results in winter (small runoff but not negligible) with summer (maximum runoff) at two different stages with (prior to 2012) and without the ice shelf (after 2012) to subaqueous melt rates deduced from remote sensing observations. We show that ice melting by the ocean has increased by one order of magnitude as a result of the transition from ice shelf terminating to near-vertical calving front terminating. We also find that subglacial discharge has a significant impact on ice shelf melt rates in Greenland. We conclude on the impact of ocean warming and air temperature warming on the melting regime of the ice margin of Zachariae Isstrom, Greenland. This work was performed

  17. Global Models of Ridge-Push Force, Geoid, and Lithospheric Strength of Oceanic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahatsente, Rezene

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in the interior of oceanic plates is important because ridge-push force is one of the principal forces driving plate motion. Here, I assess the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates by comparing the magnitude of the ridge-push force to the integrated strength of oceanic plates. The strength is determined based on plate cooling and rheological models. The strength analysis includes low-temperature plasticity (LTP) in the upper mantle and assumes a range of possible tectonic conditions and rheology in the plates. The ridge-push force has been derived from the thermal state of oceanic lithosphere, seafloor depth and crustal age data. The results of modeling show that the transmission of ridge-push related stresses in oceanic plates mainly depends on rheology and predominant tectonic conditions. If a lithosphere has dry rheology, the estimated strength is higher than the ridge-push force at all ages for compressional tectonics and at old ages (>75 Ma) for extension. Therefore, under such conditions, oceanic plates may not respond to ridge-push force by intraplate deformation. Instead, the plates may transmit the ridge-push related stress in their interior. For a wet rheology, however, the strength of young lithosphere (<75 Ma) is much less than the ridge-push force for both compressional and extensional tectonics. In this case, the ridge-push related stress may dissipate in the interior of oceanic plates and diffuses by intraplate deformation. The state of stress within a plate depends on the balance of far-field and intraplate forces.

  18. Microwave Remote Sensing Modeling of Ocean Surface Salinity and Winds Using an Empirical Sea Surface Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.

    2004-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing techniques have been investigated for the remote sensing of ocean surface wind and salinity. We revised an ocean surface spectrum using the CMOD-5 geophysical model function (GMF) for the European Remote Sensing (ERS) C-band scatterometer and the Ku-band GMF for the NASA SeaWinds scatterometer. The predictions of microwave brightness temperatures from this model agree well with satellite, aircraft and tower-based microwave radiometer data. This suggests that the impact of surface roughness on microwave brightness temperatures and radar scattering coefficients of sea surfaces can be consistently characterized by a roughness spectrum, providing physical basis for using combined active and passive remote sensing techniques for ocean surface wind and salinity remote sensing.

  19. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  20. Estimating the numerical diapycnal mixing in an eddy-permitting ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megann, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Constant-depth (or "z-coordinate") ocean models such as MOM4 and NEMO have become the de facto workhorse in climate applications, having attained a mature stage in their development and are well understood. A generic shortcoming of this model type, however, is a tendency for the advection scheme to produce unphysical numerical diapycnal mixing, which in some cases may exceed the explicitly parameterised mixing based on observed physical processes, and this is likely to have effects on the long-timescale evolution of the simulated climate system. Despite this, few quantitative estimates have been made of the typical magnitude of the effective diapycnal diffusivity due to numerical mixing in these models. GO5.0 is a recent ocean model configuration developed jointly by the UK Met Office and the National Oceanography Centre. It forms the ocean component of the GC2 climate model, and is closely related to the ocean component of the UKESM1 Earth System Model, the UK's contribution to the CMIP6 model intercomparison. GO5.0 uses version 3.4 of the NEMO model, on the ORCA025 global tripolar grid. An approach to quantifying the numerical diapycnal mixing in this model, based on the isopycnal watermass analysis of Lee et al. (2002), is described, and the estimates thereby obtained of the effective diapycnal diffusivity in GO5.0 are compared with the values of the explicit diffusivity used by the model. It is shown that the effective mixing in this model configuration is up to an order of magnitude higher than the explicit mixing in much of the ocean interior, implying that mixing in the model below the mixed layer is largely dominated by numerical mixing. This is likely to have adverse consequences for the representation of heat uptake in climate models intended for decadal climate projections, and in particular is highly relevant to the interpretation of the CMIP6 class of climate models, many of which use constant-depth ocean models at ¼° resolution

  1. Configuration and Assessment of the GISS ModelE2 Contributions to the CMIP5 Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Kelley, Max; Nazarenko, Larissa; Ruedy, Reto; Russell, Gary L.; Aleinov, Igor; Bauer, Mike; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bhat, Maharaj K.; Bleck, Rainer; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present a description of the ModelE2 version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) General Circulation Model (GCM) and the configurations used in the simulations performed for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We use six variations related to the treatment of the atmospheric composition, the calculation of aerosol indirect effects, and ocean model component. Specifically, we test the difference between atmospheric models that have noninteractive composition, where radiatively important aerosols and ozone are prescribed from precomputed decadal averages, and interactive versions where atmospheric chemistry and aerosols are calculated given decadally varying emissions. The impact of the first aerosol indirect effect on clouds is either specified using a simple tuning, or parameterized using a cloud microphysics scheme. We also use two dynamic ocean components: the Russell and HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) which differ significantly in their basic formulations and grid. Results are presented for the climatological means over the satellite era (1980-2004) taken from transient simulations starting from the preindustrial (1850) driven by estimates of appropriate forcings over the 20th Century. Differences in base climate and variability related to the choice of ocean model are large, indicating an important structural uncertainty. The impact of interactive atmospheric composition on the climatology is relatively small except in regions such as the lower stratosphere, where ozone plays an important role, and the tropics, where aerosol changes affect the hydrological cycle and cloud cover. While key improvements over previous versions of the model are evident, these are not uniform across all metrics.

  2. Simple global carbon model: The atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere-ocean interaction

    SciT

    Kwon, O.Y.; Schnoor, J.L.

    A simple global carbon model has been developed for scenario analysis, and research needs prioritization. CO{sub 2} fertilization and temperature effects are included in the terrestrial biosphere compartment, and the ocean compartment includes inorganic chemistry which, with ocean water circulation, enables the calculation of time-variable oceanic carbon uptake. Model-derived Q{sub 10} values (the increasing rate for every 10{degrees}C increase of temperature) are 1.37 for land biota photosynthesis, 1.89 for land biota respiration, and 1.95 for soil respiration, and feedback temperature is set at 0.01{degrees}C/ppm of CO{sub 2}. These could be the important parameters controlling the carbon cycle in potential globalmore » warming scenarios. Scenario analysis, together with sensitivity analysis of temperature feedback, suggests that if CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion continue at the present increasing rate of {approximately}1.5% per year, a CO{sub 2} doubling (to 560 ppm) will appear in year 2060. Global warming would be responsible for 40 Gt as carbon (Gt C) accumulation in the land biota, 88 Gt C depletion from the soil carbon, a 7 Gt C accumulation in the oceans, and a 19 ppm increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The ocean buffering capacity to take up the excess CO{sub 2} will decrease with the increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. 51 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  3. Sensitivity of Ocean Reflectance Inversion Models for Identifying and Discriminating Between Phytoplankton Functional Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Ooesler, Collin S.

    2012-01-01

    The daily, synoptic images provided by satellite ocean color instruments provide viable data streams for observing changes in the biogeochemistrY of marine ecosystems. Ocean reflectance inversion models (ORMs) provide a common mechanism for inverting the "color" of the water observed a satellite into marine inherent optical properties (lOPs) through a combination of empiricism and radiative transfer theory. lOPs, namely the spectral absorption and scattering characteristics of ocean water and its dissolved and particulate constituents, describe the contents of the upper ocean, information critical for furthering scientific understanding of biogeochemical oceanic processes. Many recent studies inferred marine particle sizes and discriminated between phytoplankton functional groups using remotely-sensed lOPs. While all demonstrated the viability of their approaches, few described the vertical distributions of the water column constituents under consideration and, thus, failed to report the biophysical conditions under which their model performed (e.g., the depth and thickness of the phytoplankton bloom(s)). We developed an ORM to remotely identifY Noctiluca miliaris and other phytoplankton functional types using satellite ocean color data records collected in the northern Arabian Sea. Here, we present results from analyses designed to evaluate the applicability and sensitivity of the ORM to varied biophysical conditions. Specifically, we: (1) synthesized a series of vertical profiles of spectral inherent optical properties that represent a wide variety of bio-optical conditions for the northern Arabian Sea under aN Miliaris bloom; (2) generated spectral remote-sensing reflectances from these profiles using Hydrolight; and, (3) applied the ORM to the synthesized reflectances to estimate the relative concentrations of diatoms and N Miliaris for each example. By comparing the estimates from the inversion model to those from synthesized vertical profiles, we were able to

  4. El Nino-southern oscillation simulated in an MRI atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model

    SciT

    Nagai, T.; Tokioka, T.; Endoh, M.

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) was time integrated for 30 years to study interannual variability in the tropics. The atmospheric component is a global GCM with 5 levels in the vertical and 4[degrees]latitude X 5[degrees] longitude grids in the horizontal including standard physical processes (e.g., interactive clouds). The oceanic component is a GCM for the Pacific with 19 levels in the vertical and 1[degrees]x 2.5[degrees] grids in the horizontal including seasonal varying solar radiation as forcing. The model succeeded in reproducing interannual variations that resemble the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with realistic seasonal variations in the atmospheric andmore » oceanic fields. The model ENSO cycle has a time scale of approximately 5 years and the model El Nino (warm) events are locked roughly in phase to the seasonal cycle. The cold events, however, are less evident in comparison with the El Nino events. The time scale of the model ENSO cycle is determined by propagation time of signals from the central-eastern Pacific to the western Pacific and back to the eastern Pacific. Seasonal timing is also important in the ENSO time scale: wind anomalies in the central-eastern Pacific occur in summer and the atmosphere ocean coupling in the western Pacific operates efficiently in the first half of the year.« less

  5. Patterns and Variability in Global Ocean Chlorophyll: Satellite Observations and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 4% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. These trend analyses follow earlier results showing decadal declines in global ocean chlorophyll and primary production. To understand the causes of these changes and trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The model utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. This enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll. A full discussion of the changes and trends, possible causes, modeling approaches, and data assimilation will be the focus of the seminar.

  6. Exploring coupled 4D-Var data assimilation using an idealised atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Polly; Fowler, Alison; Lawless, Amos; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of data assimilation techniques to operational numerical weather prediction and ocean forecasting systems has led to an increased interest in their use for the initialisation of coupled atmosphere-ocean models in prediction on seasonal to decadal timescales. Coupled data assimilation presents a significant challenge but offers a long list of potential benefits including improved use of near-surface observations, reduction of initialisation shocks in coupled forecasts, and generation of a consistent system state for the initialisation of coupled forecasts across all timescales. In this work we explore some of the fundamental questions in the design of coupled data assimilation systems within the context of an idealised one-dimensional coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The system is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) atmosphere model and a K-Profile Parameterisation (KKP) mixed layer ocean model developed by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) climate group at the University of Reading. It employs a strong constraint incremental 4D-Var scheme and is designed to enable the effective exploration of various approaches to performing coupled model data assimilation whilst avoiding many of the issues associated with more complex models. Working with this simple framework enables a greater range and quantity of experiments to be performed. Here, we will describe the development of our simplified single-column coupled atmosphere-ocean 4D-Var assimilation system and present preliminary results from a series of identical twin experiments devised to investigate and compare the behaviour and sensitivities of different coupled data assimilation methodologies. This includes comparing fully and weakly coupled assimilations with uncoupled assimilation, investigating whether coupled assimilation can eliminate or lessen initialisation shock in coupled model forecasts, and

  7. The new version of the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model (INMSOM) for simulation of Global Ocean circulation and its variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present the improved version of the ocean general circulation sigma-model developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). The previous version referred to as INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used as the oceanic component of the IPCC climate system model INMCM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Climate Model (Volodin et al 2010,2013). Besides, INMOM as the only sigma-model was used for simulations according to CORE-II scenario (Danabasoglu et al. 2014,2016; Downes et al. 2015; Farneti et al. 2015). In general, INMOM results are comparable to ones of other OGCMs and were used for investigation of climatic variations in the North Atlantic (Gusev and Diansky 2014). However, detailed analysis of some CORE-II INMOM results revealed some disadvantages of the INMOM leading to considerable errors in reproducing some ocean characteristics. So, the mass transport in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) was overestimated. As well, there were noticeable errors in reproducing thermohaline structure of the ocean. After analysing the previous results, the new version of the OGCM was developed. It was decided to entitle is INMSOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Sigma Ocean Model). The new title allows one to distingwish the new model, first, from its older version, and second, from another z-model developed in the INM RAS and referred to as INMIO (Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Institute of Oceanology ocean model) (Ushakov et al. 2016). There were numerous modifications in the model, some of them are as follows. 1) Formulation of the ocean circulation problem in terms of full free surface with taking into account water amount variation. 2) Using tensor form of lateral viscosity operator invariant to rotation. 3) Using isopycnal diffusion including Gent-McWilliams mixing. 4) Using atmospheric forcing computation according to NCAR methodology (Large and Yeager 2009). 5

  8. Ocean-Wave Dynamics Analysis during Hurricane Ida and Norida Using a Fully Coupled Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabarrieta, M.; Warner, J. C.; Armstrong, B. N.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme storms, such as hurricanes and extratropical storms play a dominant role in shaping the beaches of the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Future tropical depressions will be more intense than in the present climate (Assessment Report of IPCC, 2007) and therefore coastal areas are likely to become more susceptible to their effects. The major damage caused by these extreme events is associated with the duration of the storm, storm intensity, waves, and the total water levels reached during the storm. Numerical models provide a useful approach to study the spatial and temporal distribution of these parameters. However, the correct estimation of the total water levels and wind wave heights through numerical modeling requires accurate representation of the air-sea interface dynamics. These processes are highly complex due to the variable interactions between winds, ocean waves and currents near the sea surface. In the present research we use the COAWST (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport) modeling system (Warner et al., 2010) to address the key role of the atmosphere-ocean-wave interactions during Hurricane Ida and its posterior evolution to NorIda, November 2009. This northeastern storm was one of the most costly in the past two decades and likely in the top five of the past century. One interesting aspect of the considered period is that it includes two very different atmospheric extreme conditions, a hurricane and a northeastern storm, developed in regions with very different oceanographic characteristics. By performing a suite of numerical runs we are able to isolate the effect of the interaction terms between the atmosphere (WRF model), the ocean (ROMS model) and the wave propagation and generation model (SWAN). Special attention is given to the role of the ocean surface roughness and high resolution SST fields on the atmospheric boundary layers dynamics and consequently these effects on the wind wave generation, surface currents and

  9. Microplate and shear zone models for oceanic spreading center reorganizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, Joseph F.; Stein, Seth; Werner, John; Gordon, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The kinematics of rift propagation and the resulting goemetries of various tectonic elements for two plates is reviewed with no overlap zone. The formation and evolution of overlap regions using schematic models is discussed. The models are scaled in space and time to approximate the Easter plate, but are simplified to emphasize key elements. The tectonic evolution of overlap regions which act as rigid microplates and shear zones is discussed, and the use of relative motion and structural data to discriminate between the two types of models is investigated. The effect of propagation rate and rise time on the size, shape, and deformation of the overlap region is demonstrated.

  10. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition to the Oceans: Observation- and Model-Based Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Alex; Altieri, Katye; Okin, Greg; Dentener, Frank; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Kanakidou, Maria; Sarin, Manmohan; Duce, Robert; Galloway, Jim; Keene, Bill; Singh, Arvind; Zamora, Lauren; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

    2014-05-01

    The reactive nitrogen (Nr) burden of the atmosphere has been increased by a factor of 3-4 by anthropogenic activity since the industrial revolution. This has led to large increases in the deposition of nitrate and ammonium to the surface waters of the open ocean, particularly downwind of major human population centres, such as those in North America, Europe and Southeast Asia. In oligotrophic waters, this deposition has the potential to significantly impact marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. Global-scale understanding of N deposition to the oceans is reliant on our ability to produce effective models of reactive nitrogen emission, atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition (including deposition to the land surface). The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) recently completed a multi-model analysis of global N deposition, including comparisons to wet deposition observations from three regional networks in North America, Europe and Southeast Asia (Lamarque et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7977-8018, 2013). No similar datasets exist which would allow observation - model comparisons of wet deposition for the open oceans, because long-term wet deposition records are available for only a handful of remote island sites and rain collection over the open ocean itself is very difficult. In this work we attempt instead to use ~2600 observations of aerosol nitrate and ammonium concentrations, acquired chiefly from sampling aboard ships in the period 1995 - 2012, to assess the ACCMIP N deposition fields over the remote ocean. This database is non-uniformly distributed in time and space. We selected four ocean regions (the eastern North Atlantic, the South Atlantic, the northern Indian Ocean and northwest Pacific) where we considered the density and distribution of observational data is sufficient to provide effective comparison to the model ensemble. Two of these regions are adjacent to the land networks used in the ACCMIP

  11. A real-time photo-realistic rendering algorithm of ocean color based on bio-optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chunyong; Xu, Shu; Wang, Hongsong; Tian, Fenglin; Chen, Ge

    2016-12-01

    A real-time photo-realistic rendering algorithm of ocean color is introduced in the paper, which considers the impact of ocean bio-optical model. The ocean bio-optical model mainly involves the phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM), inorganic suspended particle, etc., which have different contributions to absorption and scattering of light. We decompose the emergent light of the ocean surface into the reflected light from the sun and the sky, and the subsurface scattering light. We establish an ocean surface transmission model based on ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the Fresnel law, and this model's outputs would be the incident light parameters of subsurface scattering. Using ocean subsurface scattering algorithm combined with bio-optical model, we compute the scattering light emergent radiation in different directions. Then, we blend the reflection of sunlight and sky light to implement the real-time ocean color rendering in graphics processing unit (GPU). Finally, we use two kinds of radiance reflectance calculated by Hydrolight radiative transfer model and our algorithm to validate the physical reality of our method, and the results show that our algorithm can achieve real-time highly realistic ocean color scenes.

  12. Climate variability and predictability associated with the Indo-Pacific Oceanic Channel Dynamics in the CCSM4 Coupled System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei

    2017-01-01

    An experiment using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a participant of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5), is analyzed to assess the skills of this model in simulating and predicting the climate variabilities associated with the oceanic channel dynamics across the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The results of these analyses suggest that the model is able to reproduce the observed lag correlation between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and those in the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean at a time lag of 1 year. This success may be largely attributed to the successful simulation of the interannual variations of the Indonesian Throughflow, which carries the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) into the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to produce subsurface temperature anomalies, which in turn propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific to generate ENSO. This connection is termed the "oceanic channel dynamics" and is shown to be consistent with the observational analyses. However, the model