Science.gov

Sample records for ocean technology sector

  1. Ukrain’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Technology Sector 2 new materials, and biotechnologies; high-tech development of agriculture and the food- processing industry ; building and...main industries are chemicals, coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, food processing (especially sugar), and machinery and transport...Ukraine’s researchers were in Dnepropetrovsk, where the main industries are mining, machinebuilding, metallurgy, and food processing ; and more than

  2. Ocean Energy Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The Department of Energy Ocean Energy Technology (OET) program is assessed. A summary of OET program activities during the period FY 1980 through FY 1983 documents the most significant findings of DOE-sponsored research and development in each of six program elements: Advanced Power Systems Development, Closed-Cycle Power Systems Development, Alternative Energy Systems Development, Environmental Research, Ocean Engineering, and Engineering Development. The summary is based on extensive review of technical documentation and discussions with DOE and field organization personnel. The result is a concise, comprehensive description of all significant OET activities during the period. Assessment of the current state of ocean technologies is documented through the use of matrices which relate elements of the current ocean technology WBS to a nine-level scale which defines technology status ranging from preliminary feasibility through off-the-shelf availability. These Technical Progress Matrices (TPMs) were developed for each of four ocean system configurations by integrating inputs from seven OET participating field organizations. An evaluation of the critical technical unknowns which would form the basis for future ocean energy public and private research and development activities is presented. This evaluation was accomplished using an accepted technique for group interaction and consensus formation in a meeting of knowledgeable program participants. The results of this meeting are presented in the form of forty minimum essential unknowns (MEUs). An analysis of the correlation of this list of unknowns with DOE policy and selection criteria for acceptable federally-sponsored R and D revealed significant research needs in the areas defined as the primary federal role.

  3. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  4. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  5. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    PubMed

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces.

  6. New Technologies to Assist Training in Hospitality Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which…

  7. Ocean acidification risk assessment for Alaska's fishery sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, J. T.; Cooley, S. R.; Lucey, N.; Colt, S.; Ekstrom, J.; Hurst, T.; Hauri, C.; Evans, W.; Cross, J. N.; Feely, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The highly productive fisheries of Alaska are located in seas projected to experience strong global change, including rapid transitions in temperature and ocean acidification-driven changes in pH and other chemical parameters. Many of the marine organisms that are most intensely affected by ocean acidification (OA) contribute substantially to the state's commercial fisheries and traditional subsistence way of life. Prior studies of OA's potential impacts on human communities have focused only on possible direct economic losses from specific scenarios of human dependence on commercial harvests and damages to marine species. However, other economic and social impacts, such as changes in food security or livelihoods, are also likely to result from climate change. This study evaluates patterns of dependence on marine resources within Alaska that could be negatively impacted by OA and current community characteristics to assess the potential risk to the fishery sector from OA. Here, we used a risk assessment framework based on one developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to analyze earth-system global ocean model hindcasts and projections of ocean chemistry, fisheries harvest data, and demographic information. The fisheries examined were: shellfish, salmon and other finfish. The final index incorporates all of these data to compare overall risk among Alaska's federally designated census areas. The analysis showed that regions in southeast and southwest Alaska that are highly reliant on fishery harvests and have relatively lower incomes and employment alternatives likely face the highest risk from OA. Although this study is an intermediate step toward our full understanding, the results presented here show that OA merits consideration in policy planning, as it may represent another challenge to Alaskan communities, some of which are already under acute socio-economic strains.

  8. ICT and Web Technology Based Innovations in Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangeeta Namdev, Dhamdhere

    2012-01-01

    ICT made real magic and drastic changes in all service sectors along with higher education and library practices and services. The academic environment is changing from formal education to distance and online learning mode because of ICT. Web technology and mobile technology has made great impact on education sector. The role of Open Access,…

  9. Ocean power technology design optimization

    DOE PAGES

    van Rij, Jennifer; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Edwards, Kathleen; ...

    2017-07-18

    For this study, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ocean Power Technologies (OPT) conducted a collaborative code validation and design optimization study for OPT's PowerBuoy wave energy converter (WEC). NREL utilized WEC-Sim, an open-source WEC simulator, to compare four design variations of OPT's PowerBuoy. As an input to the WEC-Sim models, viscous drag coefficients for the PowerBuoy floats were first evaluated using computational fluid dynamics. The resulting WEC-Sim PowerBuoy models were then validated with experimental power output and fatigue load data provided by OPT. The validated WEC-Sim models were then used to simulate the power performance and loads for operationalmore » conditions, extreme conditions, and directional waves, for each of the four PowerBuoy design variations, assuming the wave environment of Humboldt Bay, California. And finally, ratios of power-to-weight, power-to-fatigue-load, power-to-maximum-extreme-load, power-to-water-plane-area, and power-to-wetted-surface-area were used to make a final comparison of the potential PowerBuoy WEC designs. Lastly, the design comparison methodologies developed and presented in this study are applicable to other WEC devices and may be useful as a framework for future WEC design development projects.« less

  10. Technologies for Missions to Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, L. H.; Abid, M. M.; Backes, P. G.; Del Castillo, L.; Wilcox, B. H.; Jones, M. A.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Cutts, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    We summarize roadmaps for technology advances needed to enable Ocean Worlds exploration, including pin-point landing, sub-surface ice sampling, cryogenic ice sample return, planetary protection, and low temperature electronics and mechanisms.

  11. Information Technology Sector Baseline Risk Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    7 Figure 3: Benefits of Public-Private Sector Collaboration...provides both products and services that support the efficient operation of today’s global information-based society . These products and services are...the essential services that underpin American society . Natural and manmade incidents impacting the Nation’s CIKR could have debilitating effects on

  12. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  13. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  14. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  15. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

  16. Technology Co-evolution Analysis in the Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjoo; Yoon, Byungun

    This paper suggests the method that can describe the co-evolutionary patterns in the energy sectors. Technologies that have facilitated the growth of other technologies should get the priority in the R&D investment, if other conditions are almost the same. In the suggested method, LVC equations were applied to the patents relating to energy technologies. Then a network showing the interactions between technologies in their evolution process is visualised. Research findings will provide numerous implications for policy-making and strategic planning for energy technology development.

  17. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  18. Information Technology Training: Practices of Leading Private Sector Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined private-sector workforce training practices for information technology (IT) and non-IT professionals. Data were collected from the following sources: a literature review; discussions with academic and professional authorities; interviews with executives and managers at leading companies regarding their…

  19. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  20. Mixed Layer Salt Budget over Different Sectors of the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, V.; Prakash, K. R.; Sharma, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    Oceanic mixed layer (ML) has important implications to the air-sea interaction processes such as convection, monsoons, formation and intensification of tropical cyclones, etc. The mixed layer depth (MLD) depends on thermo-haline structure of the upper oceanic layers and found to vary in range of 20-200 m. Salinity variability is one of the crucial parameters that plays an important role in control of MLD variability, particularly in regions where the freshwater flux dominates in stratification process. For example, in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) the freshwater flux is large due to contributions from several rivers draining into the BoB, and the excess precipitation over evaporation. The low-saline water on the surface of ocean leads to formation of barrier layer (BL) and maintains higher sea surface temperature (SST), which supports convection and formation of cyclonic systems. Therefore, understanding MLD variability and factors affecting these variations are important to investigate. In this study we used observations of temperature and salinity profiles and numerical simulations from Modular Ocean Model (MOM) with data assimilation. Various terms in the mixed layer salt budget, namely salinity tendency, freshwater flux, horizontal advection, diffusion, and vertical processes are calculated over the northern Indian Ocean domain. The observed variability in salinity tendency over different sectors of the Indian Ocean such as Arabian Sea, BoB, equatorial Indian Ocean studied. Relative role of various processes in controlling salinity tendency has been investigated by examining contributions of different terms of the salt budget at a given time. Seasonal variations in salt budget terms over different sectors of the Indian ocean, and their role in MLD variability has been discussed.

  1. Ecosystem studies in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean undertaken by the training vessel Umitaka-maru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteki, Masato; Odate, Tsuneo; Hosie, Graham W.; Takahashi, Kunio T.; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Tanimura, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    This special issue provides an overview of the ten voyages undertaken by the Umitaka-maru from the austral summers of 2002/2003 to 2014/2015 to promote the next phase of study of the ecosystems in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean. The voyages by the Umitaka-maru have mainly targeted three areas in the Indian Ocean sector: off Dumont d'Urville Base (France, 140°E transect), off Casey Station (Australia, 110°E transect), and off Syowa Station (Japan, north of Lützow Holm Bay). The findings of Umitaka-maru's research on the krill-independent food web, animal assemblages, community structure and distribution patterns from the epipelagic to the deeper waters provide invaluable information for elucidating the material cycle and predicting future ecosystem changes. Further studies on assessing the influence of sea ice on food webs in the water column are required, which will provide crucial information for predicting ecosystem changes as a result of projected sea ice changes in the near future.

  2. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  3. Transferring new technologies within the federal sector: The New Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.; Hunt, D.M.

    1994-08-01

    The federal sector is the largest consumer of products in the United States and annually purchases almost 1.5 quads of energy measured at the building site at a cost of almost $10 billion (U.S. Department of Energy 1991). A review of design, construction, and procurement practices in the federal sector, as well as discussions with manufacturers and vendors, indicated that new technologies are not utilized in as timely a manner as possible. As a consequence of this technology transfer lag, the federal sector loses valuable energy and environmental benefits that can be derived through the application of new technologies. In addition, opportunities are lost to reduce federal energy expenditures and spur U.S. economic growth through the procurement of such technologies. In 1990, under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the design of a program to accelerate the introduction of new U.S. technologies into the federal sector. Designated first as the Test Bed Demonstration Program and more recently the New Technology Demonstration Program, it sought to shorten the acceptance period of new technologies within the federal sector. By installing and evaluating various new technologies at federal facilities, the Program attempts to increase the acceptance of those new technologies through the results of {open_quotes}real-world{close_quotes} federal installations. Since that time, the Program has conducted new technology demonstrations and evaluations, evolved to address the need for more timely information transfer, and explored collaborative opportunities with other DOE offices and laboratories. This paper explains the processes by which a new technology demonstration project is implemented and presents a general description of the Program results to date.

  4. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  5. Telehomecare technology across sectors: claims of jurisdiction and emerging controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dinesen, Birthe; Gustafsson, Jeppe; Nøhr, Christian; KjærAndersen, Stig; Sejersen, Holger; Toft, Egon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore and identify inter-organisational and inter-professional controversies that emerge when telehomecare technology is implemented across healthcare sectors. Theory A combined inter-organisational and inter-professional perspective constitutes the conceptual framework for this study. Methods The case study approach was applied as the overall methodology of the study. A triangulation of data collection techniques was used in order to provide multiple sources of evidence for exploring and identifying controversies (documents, participant observation, qualitative interviews, focus group interviews). Findings During the design and implementation phases of a telehomecare system, several types of controversies emerged as part of the inter-organisational and inter-professional agenda. These controversies involved competing claims of jurisdiction, controversies over knowledge technologies, or differences in network visions and network architecture. Discussion and conclusions The identification of such controversies and differences in the design and implementation process of the concept of home hospitalisation for heart patients by means of telehomecare technology can contribute to the uncovering of new knowledge. These issues should be taken into account when initiating a telehomecare project and implementing telehomecare technology. Technology in a network and across inter-professional relations poses a challenge to this new field. There is a particular need to precisely define the claims of jurisdiction, and the accompanying controversies that can arise related to knowledge technologies, network visions and network architecture. PMID:18043726

  6. Preliminary assessment of industrial needs for an advanced ocean technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Maher, K. M.; Balon, J. E.; Coyle, A. G.; Henkener, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A quick-look review of selected ocean industries is presented for the purpose of providing NASA OSTA with an assessment of technology needs and market potential. The size and growth potential, needs and problem areas, technology presently used and its suppliers, are given for industries involved in deep ocean mining, petrochemicals ocean energy conversion. Supporting services such as ocean bottom surveying; underwater transportation, data collection, and work systems; and inspection and diving services are included. Examples of key problem areas that are amenable to advanced technology solutions are included. Major companies are listed.

  7. Temporal changes in ventilation and the carbonate system in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; Jones, Elizabeth M.; Stöven, Tim; Hauck, Judith; Dávila, Melchor González; Santana-Casiano, Magdalena; Álvarez, Marta; Strass, Volker H.

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Ocean is the most important area of anthropogenic carbon (Cant) uptake in the world ocean, only rivalled in importance by the North Atlantic Ocean. Significant variability on decadal time-scales in the uptake of Cant in the Southern Ocean has been observed and modelled, likely with consequences for the interior ocean storage of Cant in the region, and implications for the global carbon budget. Here we use eight cruises between 1973 and 2012 to assess decadal variability in Cant storage rates in the southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. For this we employed the extended multiple linear regression (eMLR) method. We relate variability in DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) storage, which is assumed to equal anthropogenic carbon storage, to changes in ventilation as observed from repeat measurements of transient tracers. Within the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) layer, which is the dominant transport conduit for Cant into the interior ocean, moderate Cant storage rates were found without any clear temporal trend. In Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), a less dense water mass found north of the Subantarctic Front and above AAIW, high storage rates of Cant were observed up to about 2005 but lower rates in more recent times. The transient tracer data suggest a significant speed-up of ventilation in the summer warmed upper part of AAIW between 1998 and 2012, which is consistent with the high storage rate of Cant. A shift of more northern Cant storage to more southern storage in near surface waters was detected in the early 2000s. Beneath the AAIW the eMLR method as applied here did not detect significant storage of Cant. However, the presence of the transient tracer CFC-12 all through the water column suggests that some Cant should be present, but at concentrations not reliably quantifiable. The observed temporal variability in the interior ocean seems at a first glance to be out of phase with observed surface ocean Cant fluxes, but this can be

  8. Technology limits for reducing EU transport sector CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Dray, Lynnette M; Schäfer, Andreas; Ben-Akiva, Moshe E

    2012-05-01

    Using a new data set describing the techno-economic characteristics of current and projected future transport technologies and a synthesis of existing transport demand models, lifecycle CO(2) emissions from 27 EU countries (EU27) were estimated in the absence and presence of new policy interventions to 2050. Future CO(2) emissions are strongly dependent on geographical scope and economic growth assumptions, and to a lesser extent on uncertainties in technology characteristics, but in the absence of new policy intervention they continue to rise from present-day values in all three scenarios examined. Consequently, EU27 emissions goals, which may require a 60% decrease in transport sector greenhouse gas emissions from year-1990 values by 2050, will be difficult to meet. This is even the case under widespread adoption of the most promising technologies for all modes, due primarily to limitations in biofuel production capacity and a lack of technologies that would drastically reduce CO(2) emissions from heavy trucks and intercontinental aviation.

  9. Planktonic foraminiferal biogeography in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean: Contribution from CPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilland, Julie; Fabri-Ruiz, Salomé; Koubbi, Philippe; Monaco, Claire Lo; Cotte, Cédric; Hosie, Graham W.; Sanchez, Sophie; Howa, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Southern Ocean-Continuous Plankton Recorder (SO-CPR) Survey, the oceanic regions around Crozet and Kerguelen Islands were investigated in February-March 2013. Living planktonic Foraminifera (LPF) were collected in the upper mixed layer with a CPR along a 2160 nautical mile sea transect that crossed main hydrological fronts in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. In the SO-CPR database, mean total abundances of Foraminifera occurring during late austral summer are highly variable at an inter-annual scale, from 10 to 250 ind.m-3, representing 10-40% of the total zooplankton abundance, respectively. In the Southern Ocean, major inter-annual changes in zooplankton community structure were already reported. In this study, we describe the large scale distributional pattern of individual planktonic foraminiferal species living in near-surface waters of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, and we attempt to explain why major spatial variability in relative species abundances occurs during a late austral summer. In February-March 2013, LPF total abundances recorded between 42.86°S and 56.42°S ranged from 0 to a maximum of 258 ind.m-3. In the Open Ocean Zone, the LPF community was composed of four major species (Globigerinita uvula, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, Neogloboquadrina incompta, Globigerina bulloides). Generally, LPF total abundances are supposed to mirror primary production induced by hydrological fronts or induced by topography near Crozet and Kerguelen Islands. However, during late austral summer 2013, high foraminiferal abundances in the upper mixed layer did not always match the pattern of near-surface primary production (high Chl-a concentration areas delineated from satellite imagery). Low LPF standing stocks in late austral summer in the Southern Ocean contrasted with the presence of high densities of heavily silicified diatoms. This suggests that the late bloom

  10. 75 FR 76397 - Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for National Science and Technology Council's Sub-Committee...

  11. 76 FR 3877 - Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for National Science and Technology Council's Sub-Committee...

  12. Low densities of drifting litter in the African sector of the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; Musker, Seth; Rink, Ariella

    2014-12-15

    Only 52 litter items (>1cm diameter) were observed in 10,467 km of at-sea transects in the African sector of the Southern Ocean. Litter density north of the Subtropical Front (0.58 items km(-2)) was less than in the adjacent South Atlantic Ocean (1-6 items km(-2)), but has increased compared to the mid-1980s. Litter density south of the Subtropical Front was an order of magnitude less than in temperate waters (0.032 items km(-2)). There was no difference in litter density between sub-Antarctic and Antarctic waters either side of the Antarctic Polar Front. Most litter was made of plastic (96%). Fishery-related debris comprised a greater proportion of litter south of the Subtropical Front (33%) than in temperate waters (13%), where packaging dominated litter items (68%). The results confirm that the Southern Ocean is the least polluted ocean in terms of drifting debris and suggest that most debris comes from local sources.

  13. Disintegration in the biogas sector--technologies and effects.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Britt; Wedwitschka, Harald; Hofmann, Josephine; Denysenko, Velina; Lorenz, Helge; Liebetrau, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Pretreatment of organic material prior to anaerobic digestion is seen as an option to increase the overall efficiency of the process. An overview of physical, chemical, and biological disintegration (DT) of substrates in the biogas sector is given. The energy demands DT were surveyed. The technologies were evaluated by reference to the Technology Readiness Assessment Guide of the U.S. Department of Energy. The evaluation focuses on ligno-cellulosic substrates like straw. Data of a survey among biogas plant operators were analyzed regarding the prevalence of disintegration technology classes in Germany. Furthermore, biochemical methane potential tests were conducted in laboratory scale to determine the specific methane yields of un-/treated barley straw (thermal pressure hydrolysis (TPH)). A methane potential of 228 ml CH4/g VS was measured for untreated barley straw; and of 251 ml CH4/g VS for TPH-straw (190 °C, 30 min). The reaction rates in BMP were calculated between 0.0976 and 0.1443 d(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of zooplankton distribution patterns between four seasons in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kunio T.; Hosie, Graham W.; Kitchener, John A.; McLeod, David J.; Odate, Tsuneo; Fukuchi, Mitsuo

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the composition, distribution and abundance of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean during the austral summer (December/January) of 2004/05, 2005/06, 2007/08 and 2008/09 using a Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR). CPR tows were conducted along two transects during voyages south of Cape Town to north of Syowa station and from north of the Mawson station area to south of Fremantle. High zooplankton abundance was recorded on each transect in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and the northern area of the Antarctic Zone (AZ). Community structure in these zones was dominated by common taxa including the ubiquitous Oithona similis and calanoid copepodites, accounting for >50% of total abundance, and Calanus simillimus, Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus laticeps and Metridia lucens also occurred in high densities. Appendicularians of the genus Fritillaria were the most important component in the Cape Town to Syowa station area in 2008, with 36.9% of total abundance. The average chlorophyll a level at this time of year was the lowest (0.32 mg m -3) among all transects. Appendicularians are suited to oceanic oligotrophic waters; therefore, they are suited to low phytoplankton density. Foraminiferans were numerically dominant throughout the Mawson station area to Fremantle transect in 2005. Unlike Fritillaria spp., foraminiferans prefer high phytoplankton density. The elevated average chlorophyll a biomass in 2005 (0.64 mg m -3) provided favorable conditions for Foraminifera, which were dominant and widespread. CPR surveys provide information on the fine scale structure of the inter-annual distribution changes in micro- and meso- zooplankton assemblages, and the CPR is one of ideal method to monitor organisms that are indicators of environmental change.

  15. High storage rates of anthropogenic CO_{2} in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Akihiko; Kumamoto, Yu-ichiro; Sasaki, Ken-ichi

    2017-04-01

    Using high-quality data for CO2-system and related properties collected 17 years apart through international observation programs, we examined decadal-scale increases of anthropogenic CO2 along a zonal section at nominal 62˚ S ranging from 30˚ E to 160˚ E in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies, increases of anthropogenic CO2 were largest (> 9.0 μmol kg-1) in Antarctic Bottom Water, where little storage of anthropogenic CO2 has been reported. Significant increases of anthropogenic CO2 in bottom and/or deep waters were detected through the section, although they became reduced in magnitude and depth range west of 110˚ E. Vertical distributions of anthropogenic CO2 showed significant positive correlations with decadal-scale changes in CFC-12, a proxy of circulation and ventilation, meaning that the distributions were mainly controlled by physical processes. Comparison of increases of anthropogenic CO2 between calculation methods with and without total alkalinity presented differences of increases of anthropogenic CO2west of 50˚ E. This is probably because decreases in production of particulate inorganic carbons in the Southern Ocean. The highest storage rate of anthropogenic CO2 was estimated to be 1.1 ± 0.6 mol m-2 a-1 at longitudes 130˚ -160˚ E. The results highlight storage rates higher than ever reported in the Southern Ocean, where very low storage of anthropogenic CO2 has been evidenced.

  16. The wide swath ocean altimeter: algorithm and technology developments for improved ocean topography measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, Brian D.; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Kitiyakara, Amirit; Akins, Torry

    2001-01-01

    The Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter (WSOA) is a recently proposed interferometric instrument that would provide nearly complete global ocean topography measurements from a single platform. Several new algorithm and technology developments improve the expected WSOA performance, and facilitate the feasibility of including WSOA on a next generation altimeter mission. Those developments are discussed in this paper.

  17. Anomalous circulation in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean in July-December 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Oceana P.; Yaremchuk, Max; Panteleev, Gleb G.; Zhang, Jinlun; Kulakov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Variability of the mean summer-fall ocean state in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSAO) is studied using a dynamically constrained synthesis (4Dvar) of historical in situ observations collected during 1972 to 2008. Specifically, the oceanic response to the cyclonic (1989-1996) and anticyclonic (1972-1978, 1997-2006) phases of the Arctic Ocean Oscillation (AOO) is assessed for the purpose of quantitatively comparing the 2008 circulation pattern that followed the 2007 ice cover minimum. It is shown that the PSAO circulation during July-December of 2008 was characterized by a pronounced negative Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomaly along the Eurasian shelf break, which caused a significant decline of the transport in the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow region into the PSAO and increased the sea level difference between the Bering and Chukchi Seas. This anomaly could be one of the reasons for the observed amplification of the Bering Strait transport carrying fresh Pacific Waters into the PSAO. Largrangian analysis of the optimized solution suggests that the freshwater (FW) accumulation in the Beaufort Gyre has a negligible contribution from the East Siberian Sea and is likely caused by the enhanced FW export from the region north of the Canadian Archipelago/Greenland. The inverse modeling results are confirmed by validation against independent altimetry observations and in situ velocity data from NABOS moorings. It is also shown that presented results are in significantly better agreement with the data than the output of the PIOMAS model run utilized as a first guess solution for the 4dVar analysis.

  18. Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Information Technology and Telecommunications Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Information Technology and Telecommunications Sector Eileen Kowalski...Dawn Cappelli National Threat Assessment Center Andrew Moore United States Secret Service CERT® Program Washington, DC Software Engineering Institute...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Information Technology and Telecommunications Sector 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  19. Interaction of marine geodesy, satellite technology and ocean physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Fubara, D. M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The possible applications of satellite technology in marine geodesy and geodetic related ocean physics were investigated. Four major problems were identified in the areas of geodesy and ocean physics: (1) geodetic positioning and control establishment; (2) sea surface topography and geoid determination; (3) geodetic applications to ocean physics; and (4) ground truth establishment. It was found that satellite technology can play a major role in their solution. For solution of the first problem, the use of satellite geodetic techniques, such as Doppler and C-band radar ranging, is demonstrated to fix the three-dimensional coordinates of marine geodetic control if multi-satellite passes are used. The second problem is shown to require the use of satellite altimetry, along with accurate knowledge of ocean-dynamics parameters such as sea state, ocean tides, and mean sea level. The use of both conventional and advanced satellite techniques appeared to be necessary to solve the third and fourth problems.

  20. Influence of coupling on atmosphere, sea ice and ocean regional models in the Ross Sea sector, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Mathiot, Pierre; Gallée, Hubert; Barnier, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    Air-sea ice-ocean interactions in the Ross Sea sector form dense waters that feed the global thermohaline circulation. In this paper, we develop the new limited-area ocean-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model TANGO to simulate the Ross Sea sector. TANGO is built up by coupling the atmospheric limited-area model MAR to a regional configuration of the ocean-sea ice model NEMO. A method is then developed to identify the mechanisms by which local coupling affects the simulations. TANGO is shown to simulate realistic sea ice properties and atmospheric surface temperatures. These skills are mostly related to the skills of the stand alone atmospheric and oceanic models used to build TANGO. Nonetheless, air temperatures over ocean and winter sea ice thickness are found to be slightly improved in coupled simulations as compared to standard stand alone ones. Local atmosphere ocean feedbacks over the open ocean are found to significantly influence ocean temperature and salinity. In a stand alone ocean configuration, the dry and cold air produces an ocean cooling through sensible and latent heat loss. In a coupled configuration, the atmosphere is in turn moistened and warmed by the ocean; sensible and latent heat loss is therefore reduced as compared to the stand alone simulations. The atmosphere is found to be less sensitive to local feedbacks than the ocean. Effects of local feedbacks are increased in the coastal area because of the presence of sea ice. It is suggested that slow heat conduction within sea ice could amplify the feedbacks. These local feedbacks result in less sea ice production in polynyas in coupled mode, with a subsequent reduction in deep water formation.

  1. Assessment of marine weather forecasts over the Indian sector of Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gera, Anitha; Mahapatra, D. K.; Sharma, Kuldeep; Prakash, Satya; Mitra, A. K.; Iyengar, G. R.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Anilkumar, N.

    2017-09-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) is one of the important regions where significant processes and feedbacks of the Earth's climate take place. Expeditions to the SO provide useful data for improving global weather/climate simulations and understanding many processes. Some of the uncertainties in these weather/climate models arise during the first few days of simulation/forecast and do not grow much further. NCMRWF issued real-time five day weather forecasts of mean sea level pressure, surface winds, winds at 500 hPa & 850 hPa and rainfall, daily to NCAOR to provide guidance for their expedition to Indian sector of SO during the austral summer of 2014-2015. Evaluation of the skill of these forecasts indicates possible error growth in the atmospheric model at shorter time scales. The error growth is assessed using the model analysis/reanalysis, satellite data and observations made during the expedition. The observed variability of sub-seasonal rainfall associated with mid-latitude systems is seen to exhibit eastward propagations and are well reproduced in the model forecasts. All cyclonic disturbances including the sub-polar lows and tropical cyclones that occurred during this period were well captured in the model forecasts. Overall, this model performs reasonably well over the Indian sector of the SO in medium range time scale.

  2. Biomass and energy transfer to baleen whales in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, S.; Hedley, S.; Borberg, J.; Hewitt, R.; Thiele, D.; Watkins, J.; Naganobu, M.

    2004-06-01

    Baleen whales are an important group of predators on Antarctic krill in the Southern Ocean. During the CCAMLR 2000 Survey to estimate the biomass and distribution of Antarctic krill, International Whaling Commission observers carried out a visual line transect survey to estimate the number of baleen whales occurring in the survey area. This paper reviews techniques used to estimate krill consumption by baleen whales and in combination with estimates of whale abundance estimates of krill consumption are generated for the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. This survey estimates that the present populations of whales feeding in this region are likely to consume approximately 1.6 million tonnes, but possibly up to as much as 2.7 million tonnes of krill within the summer season. Although this only represents 4-6% of the estimated krill biomass in the region (and probably less than this percentage of the total annual krill production), the depleted numbers of baleen whales resulting from past or current whaling activities should be taken into account when setting quotas for the commercial exploitation of krill if there is to be a recovery to pre-exploitation biomass levels of baleen whales.

  3. Last Glacial - Holocene climate variability in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wenshen; Esper, Oliver; Gersonde, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a major role in the glacial/interglacial global carbon cycle. However, there is a substantial lack of information from its Antarctic Zone south of the Polar Front (PF) to understand key climate processes (e.g., sea ice variability, productivity changes, CO2 source region, shifts of the Southern Westerly Wind) active in this region during the glacial/interglacial transition, due to the limited high-resolution sediment records from this area. To close this gap, we investigated high resolution diatom records from a series of sediment cores from the Atlantic and Western Indian sectors of the Southern Ocean between the modern PF and the Winter Sea Ice (WSI) edge. Summer Sea Surface Temperature (SSST) and sea ice information spanning the past 30 thousand years were derived from diatom transfer functions and indicators, which augment comprehensive information on past surface ocean conditions and related ocean and atmospheric circulation, as well as opal deposition. These complementary lines of evidences also provide important environmental boundary conditions for climate simulations understanding the past climate development in the high latitudes Southern Ocean. Our reconstructions show that the Last Glacial (LG) SSSTs south of the modern PF are 1-3 °C colder than modern conditions, WSI expanded to the modern PF. Our data suggests effective carbon export in the Antarctic Zone during the LG. Deglacial two steps of warming support the bipolar seesaw mechanism. Antarctic Zone is an important source region for the CO2 deglacial increase. The warming was more suppressed towards south, due to continuous ice discharge from Antarctica. The SSSTs exceeded modern values during the early Holocene optimum, when WSI extent probably retreated south of its modern position. The southern boundary of maximum opal deposition zone may have shifted to south of 55°S in the Bouvet Island area at this time. The mid-late Holocene cooling with WSI re-expanding to the

  4. Mercury and methylmercury in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canário, João; Santos-Echeandia, Juan; Padeiro, Ana; Amaro, Eduardo; Strass, Volker; Klaas, Christine; Hoppema, Mario; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Koch, Boris P.; Laglera, Luis M.

    2017-04-01

    Oceans constitute one of the most important reservoirs for mercury. In order to provide a first insight into the concentrations of Hg species in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean a sampling campaign was carried out south of the Polar Front. Water samples taken at discrete depths from the surface down to 300 m at six stations were analysed for total Hg (HgT), methylmercury (MeHg) and other interpretative parameters such as salinity, temperature, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll and inorganic nutrients. Results showed a high spatial variability in the concentrations of HgT and MeHg. HgT (0.93±0.69 ng L-1) and MeHg (0.26±0.12 ng L-1) levels were similar or higher than those reported in previous works in high latitude studies. The highest values were found at a location (-53°, 10°E) south of the South Polar Front, an area of strong gradients caused by the mixing of different water masses. Vertical profiles showed a great variability even for those stations sampled at the same location or an area dominated by the same oceanographic features. A decrease of HgT and a consequent increase in MeHg with depth was observed in some sites, suggesting the occurrence of Hg-methylation process, while at other stations, a concurrent decrease or increase of both mercury species was observed. In spite of these differences, an overall positive correlation between HgT and MeHg was observed. Differences between vertical profiles of Hg species were attributed to favourable environmental conditions for Hg methylation. The highest proportion of MeHg (% of HgT) was observed in sites with low dissolved oxygen or highest estimated remineralization rates. The results obtained in this study show that the Hg distribution and speciation in the Atlantic sector of the SO is comparable (or in some sites higher) to the ones published for the other open ocean regions. However, the concentrations of MeHg in this area are more dependent on the

  5. Implementing the Montreal Protocol in China: Use of cleaner technology in two industrial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Ortolano, L.

    1999-09-01

    An analysis of the household refrigeration sector and the foams sector investigates how Chinese enterprises have adopted cleaner technologies involving substitutes for ozone depleting substances (ODSs), such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The performance of the household refrigeration sector in reducing ODS consumption has been superior to that of the foams sector, even though required technology changes are relatively simple for the foams sector. There are two expansions for this outcome. First, market demand matters. The influence of the global market, multinational corporations, intense (and occasionally misleading) advertising about non-CFC products, and severe competition for consumers caused China`s principal refrigerator manufacturers to adopt non-CFC production technologies. Similar incentives did not exist for enterprises in the foams sector. Second, industrial structure matters. The foams sector includes a large number of small enterprises with limited financial and technical capability and weak access to information and technology, and these factors obstructed technological change. In general, assistance from the Multilateral fund established under the Montreal Protocol has motivated enterprises to shift to ODS reduction technologies, but complex and lengthy procedures for accessing the Multilateral Fund, difficulties in finding appropriate suppliers of non-CFC technologies, and insufficient financial an technical capabilities of many enterprises have slowed down this shift. The results provide a foundation for making changes in international assistance programs and China`s strategies for CFC reduction.

  6. FDI technology spillover and threshold effect of the technology gap: regional differences in the Chinese industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Huifang; Cao, Zhiyong; Wang, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect in terms of the technology gap existing in the foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillover process in different regional Chinese industrial sectors. In this paper, a double-threshold regression model was established to examine the relation between the threshold effect of the technology gap and technology spillover. Based on the provincial panel data of Chinese industrial sectors from 2000 to 2011, the empirical results reveal that there are two threshold values, which are 1.254 and 2.163, in terms of the technology gap in the industrial sector in eastern China. There are also two threshold values in both the central and western industrial sector, which are 1.516, 2.694 and 1.635, 2.714, respectively. The technology spillover is a decreasing function of the technology gap in both the eastern and western industrial sectors, but a concave curve function of the technology gap is in the central industrial sectors. Furthermore, the FDI technology spillover has increased gradually in recent years. Based on the empirical results, suggestions were proposed to elucidate the introduction of the FDI and the improvement in the industrial added value in different regions of China.

  7. First records of winter sea ice concentration in the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, Alexander J.; Crosta, Xavier; Quilty, Patrick G.; Fink, David; Howard, William; Armand, Leanne K.

    2015-11-01

    We use a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) to provide the first winter sea ice concentration record from two cores located within the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. To compliment the application of GAM, a time series analysis on satellite records of sea ice concentration data was used to extend the standard 13.25 year time series used for paleoceanography. After comparing GAM sea ice estimates with previously published paleo sea ice data we then focus on a new paleo winter sea ice record for marine sediment core E27-23 (59°37.1'S, 155°14.3'E), allowing us to provide a more comprehensive view of winter sea ice dynamics for the southwest Pacific Ocean. The paleo winter sea ice concentration estimates provide the first suggestion that winter sea ice within the southwestern Pacific might have expanded during the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Throughout the Holocene, core E27-23 documents millennial scale variability in paleo winter sea ice coverage within the southwest Pacific. Holocene winter sea ice expansion may have resulted from the Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation, increased intensity of the westerly winds, as well as a northern migration of the Subtropical and/or Sub-Antarctic Fronts. Brief consideration is given to the development of a paleo summer sea ice proxy. We conclude that there is no evidence that summer sea ice ever existed at core sites SO136-111 and E27-23 over the last 220 and 52,000 years, respectively.

  8. Fe-binding dissolved organic ligands near the Kerguelen Archipelago in the Southern Ocean (Indian sector)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerringa, L. J. A.; Blain, S.; Laan, P.; Sarthou, G.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; Viollier, E.; Timmermans, K. R.

    2008-03-01

    During the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study (KEOPS; January-February 2005) cruise, the area southeast of the Kerguelen Archipelago in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated to identify the mechanisms of natural iron fertilization of the Kerguelen Plateau. In this study, the organic speciation of Fe is described. Samples were determined immediately on board using competing ligand-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CL-AdCSV). The dissolved organic ligands were always in excess of the dissolved Fe concentration, increasing the residence time in the water column and the potential availability for phytoplankton. The concentration of the dissolved organic ligands ranged from 0.44 to 1.61 nEq of M Fe (=complexation site for Fe), with an average concentration of 0.91 nEq of M Fe (S.D.=0.28, n=113) and a mean logarithm of conditional stability constant (log K') of 21.7 (S.D.=0.28, n=113). A second weaker dissolved organic ligand group was detected in 32% of the samples, with Fe-binding characteristics at the edge of the detection window of the applied method. The occurrence of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic ligands in the wind-mixed surface layer and near the sediment at the bottom of the water column indicated that both phytoplankton and the sediment act as sources. Both sources are in concert with the general conclusions from the KEOPS research on the sources of Fe, where Fe was regenerated, organic Fe-binding ligands were formed in the upper layers, and both Fe and ligands were supplied by the sediment.

  9. Carbon export efficiency and phytoplankton community composition in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moigne, Frédéric A. C.; Poulton, Alex J.; Henson, Stephanie A.; Daniels, Chris J.; Fragoso, Glaucia M.; Mitchell, Elaine; Richier, Sophie; Russell, Benjamin C.; Smith, Helen E. K.; Tarling, Geraint A.; Young, Jeremy R.; Zubkov, Mike

    2015-06-01

    Arctic primary production is sensitive to reductions in sea ice cover, and will likely increase into the future. Whether this increased primary production (PP) will translate into increased export of particulate organic carbon (POC) is currently unclear. Here we report on the POC export efficiency during summer 2012 in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean. We coupled 234-thorium based estimates of the export flux of POC to onboard incubation-based estimates of PP. Export efficiency (defined as the fraction of PP that is exported below 100 m depth: ThE-ratio) showed large variability (0.09 ± 0.19-1.3 ± 0.3). The highest ThE-ratio (1.3 ± 0.3) was recorded in a mono-specific bloom of Phaeocystis pouchetii located in the ice edge. Blooming diatom dominated areas also had high ThE-ratios (0.1 ± 0.1-0.5 ± 0.2), while mixed and/or prebloom communities showed lower ThE-ratios (0.10 ± 0.03-0.19 ± 0.05). Furthermore, using oxygen saturation, bacterial abundance, bacterial production, and zooplankton oxygen demand, we also investigated spatial variability in the degree to which this sinking material may be remineralized in the upper mesopelagic (<300 m). Our results suggest that blooming diatoms and P. pouchetii can export a significant fraction of their biomass below the surface layer (100 m) in the open Arctic Ocean. Also, we show evidence that the material sinking from a P. pouchetii bloom may be remineralized (>100 m) at a similar rate as the material sinking from diatom blooms in the upper mesopelagic, contrary to previous findings.

  10. Salp distribution and size composition in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Siegel, V.; Litvinov, F.; Loeb, V.; Watkins, J.

    2004-06-01

    Salp abundance and length frequency were measured during the large-scale CCAMLR 2000 Survey conducted in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean in the 1999/2000 season. Results from regional surveys around Elephant Island in 1994/95 and 1996/97 seasons also were examined. During the CCAMLR 2000 Survey, salp abundance was higher in the Antarctic Peninsula and South Sandwich Island areas than in the central Scotia Sea. The probable reason for this pattern is a negative relationship with phytoplankton abundance; the central Scotia Sea having greater phytoplankton concentrations than required for optimal salp filter-feeding performance. Cluster analysis of salp size composition resulted in three cluster groups for each of the three surveys. Clusters comprising large salps occurred in warmer waters in all three surveys. The size composition of the salp populations suggests that the timing of intense asexual reproductive budding was earlier in warmer waters. As surface water temperatures generally decrease from north to south, and increase from spring to summer, the general spatio-temporal pattern of asexual reproduction by budding is likely to proceed from north to south as the summer season progresses.

  11. New technological developments for ocean LIDAR biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekalyuk, Alexander M.; Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    2003-11-01

    A pump-and-probe (P&P) airborne LIDAR has been recently developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It provides remote measurement of phytoplankton photosynthetic variables along with pigment and organic matter fluorescence, down-welling and upwelling hyperspectral measurements and sea surface temperature. The utilization of an airborne platform provides for rapid remote characterization of phytoplankton photosynthetic activity, biomass and diversity over large aquatic areas. The P&P LIDAR technique is one of the first practical implementations of 'superactive' remote sensing. This presentation summarizes results of six airborne measurement campaigns conducted in 1999-2002 in the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, Middle Atlantic Bight, and Gulf of Mexico. The P&P technology has been complemented by a Laser Phytoplankton Analyzer (LPA), a shipboard laser fluorometer dedicated to technological advancement in pigment analysis that will be implemented in future LIDAR systems. It combines high-resolution spectral measurements of phytoplankton pigment fluorescence excited at several selected wavelengths with active assessment of the physiological status of the phytoplankton photosynthetic apparatus. Emission/excitation measurements provide a potential for assessing concentrations of photosynthetic accessory pigments (Chlorophyll a, b, c, photosynthetic carotenoids and phycobilins) and identifying major phytoplankton functional groups. The LPA was extensively tested in laboratory experiments with phytoplankton cultures and their mixtures. In November 2002, the LPA was utilized for pigment fluorescence analysis of natural phytoplankton over a range if environmental conditions on a research cruise in the Middle Atlantic Bight and Delaware Bay.

  12. Environmental policies to enhance technological change in the electricity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunol Del Rio, Eric

    International agreements on climate change mitigation set quantitative carbon emission reduction targets in a country for a given year with respect to a given base year. A central question is then on what time do the new clean and costly technologies need to start functioning to comply with the agreed targets, and under what incentive does the market implement them. The planner's economic problem is to design an incentive that makes the new clean technology less costly than the vintage polluting facility, at the precise time in order to comply with the agreements at minimum cost. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on efficient allocation of pollution, discussing its validity to explain induced technological change. It then presents a simple model of technological change showing that market power determes the optimal adoption time of a new technology. Chapter 2 analyzes the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change under different paths of technological progress. Furthermore, the paper examines the influence of market conditions. It shows that emission charges do reduce the firm's optimal adoption time when investment cost paths for the new technology are convex. On the contrary, emission charges may delay the optimal the switching time of a technology when the investment cost path is concave. Chapter 3 explores the results of Chapter 2 in an agent-based model. Simulations of firms adjusting their output a la Cournot show that the effectiveness of carbon costs in accelerating technological change is highly dependant on the number of firms in the market. Moreover, the shape of the technological progress curve is determinant: the effects of carbon charges are not linear on carbon price, and become more uncertain the more concave the investment cost path is. These results show that policies aiming at internalizing pollution costs enhance technological change at very different rates, depending on the actual market conditions in the industry and

  13. Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

  14. The Effect of the Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies on Training in the Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrillon, Isabel Dieguez; Cantorna, Ana I. Sinde

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the factors that determine personnel-training efforts in companies introducing advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study provides empirical evidence from a sector with high rates of technological modernisation. Design/methodology/approach: "Ad hoc" survey of 90…

  15. The Effect of the Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies on Training in the Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrillon, Isabel Dieguez; Cantorna, Ana I. Sinde

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the factors that determine personnel-training efforts in companies introducing advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study provides empirical evidence from a sector with high rates of technological modernisation. Design/methodology/approach: "Ad hoc" survey of 90…

  16. Information and Communications Technology in the Cultural Sector: The Need for Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Seamus; Economou, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute (HATII) at the University of Glasgow (Scotland) carried out a study of the opportunities and obstacles posed by the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in the heritage sector in order to establish a funding policy. This article discusses the need for national…

  17. New Sensor Technologies for Ocean Exploration and Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (OE) is an active supporter of new ocean technologies. Sensors, in particular, have been a focus of recent investments as have platforms that can support both dedicated voyages of discovery and Integrated Ocean Observing Systems (IOOS). Recent programs sponsored by OE have developed technical solutions that will be of use in sensor networks and in stand-alone ocean research programs. Particular projects include: 1) the Joint Environmental Science Initiative (JESI) a deployment of a highly flexible marine sensing system, in collaboration with NASA, that demonstrated a new paradigm for marine ecosystem monitoring. 2) the development and testing of an in situ marine mass spectrometer, via grant to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). This instrument has been designed to function at depths up to 5000 meters. 3) the evolution of glider AUVs for aerial deployment, through a grant to Webb Research Corporation. This program's goal is air certification for gliders, which will allow them to be operationally deployed from NAVOCEANO aircraft. 4) the development of new behaviors for the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) allowing it to anchor in place and await instructions, through a grant to WHOI. This will support the operational use of AUVs in observing system networks. 5) development of new sensors for AUVs through a National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP) award to Rutgers Universty. This project will develop a Fluorescence Induction Relaxation (FIRe) System to measure biomass and integrate the instrument into an AUV glider. 6) an SBIR award for the development of anti-fouling technologies for solar panels and in situ sensors. This effort at Nanohmics Inc. is developing natural product antifoulants (NPA) in optical quality hard polymers. The technology and results of each of these projects are one component of OE's overall approach to technology research and development. OE's technology program represents the leading edge of

  18. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  19. Transnational corporations and ocean technology transfer: New economic zones are being developed by public/private partnerships but deep sea miners balk on royalties

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, C. )

    1989-07-01

    Coastal state jurisdiction at 200 nautical miles is today a fact of international law. This has led to a unique situation in the ownership and control of ocean resources; thus 15 coastal states have received among them approximately 41 percent of the world's 200-mile economic zone area. At least half of these are less-developed coastal states (LDCS) which lack the key inputs, capital, technology, and managerial skill, essential to tap their ocean resources. A significant part of ocean technology in offshore oil, fisheries, aquaculture, and deep seabed mining exists in the private sector. Consequently, the transnational corporations (TNCs) are the major providers of ocean technology to the LDCS by a process of transfer through service contracts, turnkey operations, co-production agreements and, most importantly, joint ventures. All evidence points to a continued constructive partnership between the LDCS and the TNCs under the new regime of ocean resource management.

  20. Technology transfer in the space sector: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Hertzfeld, Henry R

    2002-12-01

    This article is an introduction to four articles in this issue, all related to the different policy objectives and approaches of technology transfer in space programs run by the United States, the European Space Agency, Canada, and Russia.

  1. Human factors assessments of innovative technologies: Robotics sector

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded major environmental technology developments over the past several years. One area that received significant attention is robotics, which has resulted in the development of a wide range of unique robotic systems tailored to the many tasks unique to the DOE complex. These systems are often used in highly hazardous environments, which reduces or eliminates worker exposures. The DOE, concurrent with the technology development initiative, also established and funded a 5-yr cooperative agreement intended to interface with the technology development community-with specific attention to the occupational safety and health aspects associated with individual technologies through human factors and hazard assessments. This program is now in its third year.

  2. Introduction of new process technology into the wastewater treatment sector.

    PubMed

    Parker, Denny S

    2011-06-01

    Innovative wastewater treatment technologies are developed to respond to changing regulatory requirements, increase efficiency, and enhance sustainability or to reduce capital or operating costs. Drawing from experience of five successful new process introductions from both the inventor/developer's and adopter's viewpoints coupled with the application of marketing analysis tools (an S curve), the phases of new technology market penetration can be identified along with the influence of market drivers, marketing, patents and early adopters. The analysis is used to identify measures that have increased the capture of benefits from new technology introduction. These have included funding by the government for research and demonstrations, transparency of information, and the provision of independent technology evaluations. To reduce the barriers and speed the introduction of new technology, and thereby harvest the full benefits from it, our industry must develop mechanisms for sharing risks and any consequences of failure more broadly than just amongst the early adopters. WEF and WERF will continue to have the central role in providing reliable information networks and independent technology evaluations.

  3. Modelled estimates of spatial variability of iron stress in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan-Keogh, Thomas J.; Thomalla, Sandy J.; Mtshali, Thato N.; Little, Hazel

    2017-09-01

    The Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is characterized by markedly different frontal zones with specific seasonal and sub-seasonal dynamics. Demonstrated here is the effect of iron on the potential maximum productivity rates of the phytoplankton community. A series of iron addition productivity versus irradiance (PE) experiments utilizing a unique experimental design that allowed for 24 h incubations were performed within the austral summer of 2015/16 to determine the photosynthetic parameters αB, PBmax and Ek. Mean values for each photosynthetic parameter under iron-replete conditions were 1.46 ± 0.55 (µg (µg Chl a)-1 h-1 (µM photons m-2 s-1)-1) for αB, 72.55 ± 27.97 (µg (µg Chl a)-1 h-1) for PBmax and 50.84 ± 11.89 (µM photons m-2 s-1) for Ek, whereas mean values under the control conditions were 1.25 ± 0.92 (µg (µg Chl a)-1 h-1 (µM photons m-2 s-1)-1) for αB, 62.44 ± 36.96 (µg (µg Chl a)-1 h-1) for PBmax and 55.81 ± 19.60 (µM photons m-2 s-1) for Ek. There were no clear spatial patterns in either the absolute values or the absolute differences between the treatments at the experimental locations. When these parameters are integrated into a standard depth-integrated primary production model across a latitudinal transect, the effect of iron addition shows higher levels of primary production south of 50° S, with very little difference observed in the subantarctic and polar frontal zone. These results emphasize the need for better parameterization of photosynthetic parameters in biogeochemical models around sensitivities in their response to iron supply. Future biogeochemical models will need to consider the combined and individual effects of iron and light to better resolve the natural background in primary production and predict its response under a changing climate.

  4. Technological Change and Skill Formation in the Bank Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Loek F. M.; de Grip, Andries

    1991-01-01

    Explores educational structure shifts in Netherlands banking caused by technological developments. A cross-section analysis of 100 local banks shows that diffusion of office automation has positively affected the skill level and share of vocationally skilled workers. Automated banks also use recruitment policies to adjust skill structure more…

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF A SCENARIO APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) is pursuing an Air Quality Assessment that will examine the potential consequences of global change on tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM) in the year 2050. Technological change is one of the most important drivers for th...

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF A SCENARIO APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) is pursuing an Air Quality Assessment that will examine the potential consequences of global change on tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM) in the year 2050. Technological change is one of the most important drivers for th...

  7. Technological Change and Skill Formation in the Bank Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Loek F. M.; de Grip, Andries

    1991-01-01

    Explores educational structure shifts in Netherlands banking caused by technological developments. A cross-section analysis of 100 local banks shows that diffusion of office automation has positively affected the skill level and share of vocationally skilled workers. Automated banks also use recruitment policies to adjust skill structure more…

  8. Last Glacial Maximum sea surface temperature and sea-ice extent in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Verena; Esper, Oliver; Gersonde, Rainer; Lamy, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    Sea surface temperatures and sea-ice extent are most critical variables to evaluate the Southern Ocean paleoceanographic evolution in relation to the development of the global carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2 and ocean-atmosphere circulation. Here we present diatom transfer function-based summer sea surface temperature (SSST) and winter sea-ice (WSI) estimates from the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean to bridge a gap in information that has to date hampered a well-established reconstruction of the last glacial Southern Ocean at circum-Antarctic scale. We studied the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at the EPILOG time slice (19,000-23,000 calendar years before present) in 17 cores and consolidated our LGM picture of the Pacific sector taking into account published data from its warmer regions. Our data display a distinct east-west differentiation with a rather stable WSI edge north of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge in the Ross Sea sector and a more variable WSI extent over the Amundsen Abyssal Plain. The zone of maximum cooling (>4 K) during the LGM is in the present Subantarctic Zone and bounded to its south by the 4 °C isotherm. The isotherm is in the SSST range prevailing at the modern Antarctic Polar Front, representing a circum-Antarctic feature, and marks the northern edge of the glacial Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The northward deflection of colder than modern surface waters along the South American continent led to a significant cooling of the glacial Humboldt Current surface waters (4-8 K), which affected the temperature regimes as far north as tropical latitudes. The glacial reduction of ACC temperatures may also have resulted in significant cooling in the Atlantic and Indian Southern Ocean, thus enhancing thermal differentiation of the Southern Ocean and Antarctic continental cooling. The comparison with numerical temperature and sea-ice simulations yields discrepancies, especially concerning the estimates of the sea-ice fields, but some simulations

  9. GIS technology transfer for use in private sector consulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibas, Dawn R.; Davis, Roger J.

    1996-03-01

    Summit Envirosolutions, Inc. (Summit) is an EOCAP '93 company working in partnership with NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program to integrate the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technology into our environmental consulting business. The EOCAP program has allowed us to obtain the hardware and software necessary for this technology that would have been difficult for a small company, such as Summit, to purchase outright. We are integrating GIS/RS into our consulting business in several areas including wellhead protection and environmental assessments. The major emphasis in the EOCAP project is to develop a system, termed RealFlowSM. The goals of RealFlowSM are to reduce client costs associated with environmental compliance (in particular preparation of EPA-mandated Wellhead Protection Plans), more accurately characterize aquifer parameters, provide a scientifically sound basis for delineating Wellhead Protection Areas, and readily assess changes in well field operations and potential impacts of environmental stresses. RealFlowSM utilizes real-time telemetric data, digital imagery, GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS), and field data to characterize a study area at a lower cost. In addition, we are applying this technology in other service areas and showing a reduction in the overall costs for large projects.

  10. Technology Transfer - A Look at the Federal Sector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    with need s at the other by means of a complex “br okerage process. ” At the technology end , ther e is a body of knowledge which resul t s fr om...sive right to their respective writing s and discoveries . ” [Ref. 40 , p. 3] The first patent law was enacted in 1790. Through the years the patent laws...Advisor: 3. W. Creig htor i Approved for public release; distribution unlimited / Unc la s si.fied SECURITY CLA ISIPICAYIOW OP THIS PAGE (U~uIn 0.1

  11. Unlocking the Potential of Public Sector Information with Semantic Web Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Harith; Dupplaw, David; Sheridan, John; O'Hara, Kieron; Darlington, John; Shadbolt, Nigel; Tullo, Carol

    Governments often hold very rich data and whilst much of this information is published and available for re-use by others, it is often trapped by poor data structures, locked up in legacy data formats or in fragmented databases. One of the great benefits that Semantic Web (SW) technology offers is facilitating the large scale integration and sharing of distributed data sources. At the heart of information policy in the UK, the Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the part of the UK government charged with enabling the greater re-use of public sector information. This paper describes the actions, findings, and lessons learnt from a pilot study, involving several parts of government and the public sector. The aim was to show to government how they can adopt SW technology for the dissemination, sharing and use of its data.

  12. Monitoring technologies for ocean disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triplett, M. B.; Solomon, K. A.; Bishop, C. B.; Tyce, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using carefully selected subseabed locations to permanently isolate high level radioactive wastes at ocean depths greater than 4000 meters is discussed. Disposal at several candidate subseabed areas is being studied because of the long term geologic stability of the sediments, remoteness from human activity, and lack of useful natural resources. While the deep sea environment is remote, it also poses some significant challenges for the technology required to survey and monitor these sites, to identify and pinpoint container leakage should it occur, and to provide the environmental information and data base essential to determining the probable impacts of any such occurrence. Objectives and technical approaches to aid in the selective development of advanced technologies for the future monitoring of nuclear low level and high level waste disposal in the deep seabed are presented. Detailed recommendations for measurement and sampling technology development needed for deep seabed nuclear waste monitoring are also presented.

  13. Identifying new technologies that save energy and reduce costs to the Federal sector: The New Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.D.M.; Conover, D.R.; Stockmeyer, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    In 1990 the New Technology Demonstration Program (formerly the Test Bed Demonstration Program) was initiated by the US Department of Energy`s Office (DOE`s) of Federal Energy Management Programs with the purpose of accelerating the introduction of new technologies into the Federal sector. The program has since expanded into a multi-laboratory collaborative effort that evaluates new technologies and shares the results with the Federal design and procurement communities. These evaluations are performed on a collaborative basis which typically includes technology manufacturers, Federal facilities, utilities, trade associations, research institutes, and other in partnership with DOE. The end result is a range of effective technology transfer tools that provide operations and performance data on new technologies to Federal designers, building managers, and procurement officials. These tools assist in accelerating a technology`s Federal application and realizing reductions in energy consumption and costs.

  14. Low-frequency changes in Southern Ocean ventilation quantified using an Atlantic sector model: A boundary-propagator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasse, T.; Holzer, M.

    2016-02-01

    The ventilation of the Southern Ocean, i.e., the exchange between the Southern Ocean surface and the interior, plays a key role in regulating Earth's climate. In recent decades, surface westerly winds have been observed to intensify and shift poleward, resulting in changes to the SO circulation and ventilation. This has important implications for the ocean's capacity to absorb carbon and heat from the atmosphere. While recent inverse modelling of repeat hydrographies has provided some insights into ventilation changes in terms of changes in CFCs, these studies have so far been limited to analyzing differences between two snapshots in time. Here we use an idealized Atlantic sector forward model to quantify inter-annual to decadal variability in fundamental ventilation metrics, such as the water-mass fraction last ventilated some time during the last τ years, as a function of τ. We do this by explicitly computing the boundary-propagator Green function, G, that partitions water locally according to where and when it was last ventilated. The boundary propagators were computed with respect to surface regions that ventilate bottom, intermediate, and mode waters. Suitable integrals of G quantify the timescales and pathways of ventilation, and how these change on interannual to decadal timescales. We also consider the impact of the ocean's changing ventilation on anthropogenic carbon. To investigate the changing interplay between eddies and mean circulation, the calculations were performed for both coarse (1°x1°) and eddy permitting (1/4°x1/4°) resolutions.

  15. Natural iron fertilization of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean by continental shelf sources of the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Jeroen; Schoemann, Véronique; Lannuzel, Delphine; Croot, Peter; de Baar, Hein; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2012-03-01

    In large parts of the Southern Ocean, primary production is limited due to shortage of iron (Fe). We measured vertical Fe profiles in the western Weddell Sea, Weddell-Scotia Confluence, and Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), showing that Fe is derived from benthic Fe diffusion and sediment resuspension in areas characterized by high turbulence due to rugged bottom topography. Our data together with literature data reveal an exponential decrease of dissolved Fe (DFe) concentrations with increasing distance from the continental shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and the western Weddell Sea. This decrease can be observed 3500 km eastward of the Antarctic Peninsula area, downstream the ACC. We estimated DFe summer fluxes into the upper mixed layer of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean and found that horizontal advection dominates DFe supply, representing 54 ± 15% of the total flux, with significant vertical advection second most important at 29 ± 13%. Horizontal and vertical diffusion are weak with 1 ± 2% and 1 ± 1%, respectively. The atmospheric contribution is insignificant close to the Antarctic continent but increases to 15 ± 10% in the remotest waters (>1500 km offshore) of the ACC. Translating Southern Ocean carbon fixation by primary producers into biogenic Fe fixation shows a twofold excess of new DFe input close to the Antarctic continent and a one-third shortage in the open ocean. Fe recycling, with an estimated “fe” ratio of 0.59, is the likely pathway to balance new DFe supply and Fe fixation.

  16. Natural iron fertilization of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean by continental shelf sources of the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Jeroen; Schoemann, VéRonique; Lannuzel, Delphine; Croot, Peter; Baar, Hein; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2012-03-01

    In large parts of the Southern Ocean, primary production is limited due to shortage of iron (Fe). We measured vertical Fe profiles in the western Weddell Sea, Weddell-Scotia Confluence, and Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), showing that Fe is derived from benthic Fe diffusion and sediment resuspension in areas characterized by high turbulence due to rugged bottom topography. Our data together with literature data reveal an exponential decrease of dissolved Fe (DFe) concentrations with increasing distance from the continental shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and the western Weddell Sea. This decrease can be observed 3500 km eastward of the Antarctic Peninsula area, downstream the ACC. We estimated DFe summer fluxes into the upper mixed layer of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean and found that horizontal advection dominates DFe supply, representing 54 ± 15% of the total flux, with significant vertical advection second most important at 29 ± 13%. Horizontal and vertical diffusion are weak with 1 ± 2% and 1 ± 1%, respectively. The atmospheric contribution is insignificant close to the Antarctic continent but increases to 15 ± 10% in the remotest waters (>1500 km offshore) of the ACC. Translating Southern Ocean carbon fixation by primary producers into biogenic Fe fixation shows a twofold excess of new DFe input close to the Antarctic continent and a one-third shortage in the open ocean. Fe recycling, with an estimated "fe" ratio of 0.59, is the likely pathway to balance new DFe supply and Fe fixation.

  17. Pronounced warming in the Indian and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean during the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris; Fogwill, Chris; Palmer, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Thomas, Zoë; McGlone, Matt; Richardson, Sarah; Wilmshurst, Janet; Fenwick, Pavla; Carter, Lionel; Jones, Richard; Harsch, Melanie; Wilson, Kerry-Jayne; Clark, Graeme; Marzinelli, Ezequiel; Rogers, Tracey; Rainsley, Eleanor; Ciasto, Laura; Waterman, Stephanie; Antarctic Expedition 2013-2014 Members, Australasian

    2015-04-01

    Occupying some 20% of the world's ocean surface, the Southern Ocean is home to a diverse and unique biota and plays a fundamental role in global oceanic circulation, climate variability, Antarctic ice sheet stability and carbon cycling. Significant warming has been observed over recent decades, most prominently in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). The mechanism(s) behind this warming, however, remain uncertain. Here, we integrate historic ocean and atmospheric observations and climate-sensitive tree growth on subantarctic islands from the northern limit of the ACC to extend historic and satellite measurements to produce a unique proxy record of temperature across 4˚ of latitude in the southwest Pacific. We demonstrate a hitherto unobserved abrupt warming during the 1970s that is unprecedented over the past 130 years, coincident with a significant decline in marine vertebrate populations and wider warming across the Indian Ocean. Comparison between our reconstruction and high-resolution ocean modelling provides a possible mechanism, suggesting warmer waters resulted from a poleward migration of the subtropical and ACC fronts. Projected increases in the strength of westerly winds are likely to continue the fronts' migration, driving warming in the Southern Ocean (>50˚S), with significant impacts on biota.

  18. The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

  19. The Impact of Trade Liberalization and Information Technology on India's Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation into how trade liberalization and the adoption of information technology have impacted labour and productivity in India's manufacturing sector respectively. The second chapter analyses the relationship between India's liberalization of tariffs on imported intermediate inputs (henceforth input tariff…

  20. The Impact of Trade Liberalization and Information Technology on India's Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation into how trade liberalization and the adoption of information technology have impacted labour and productivity in India's manufacturing sector respectively. The second chapter analyses the relationship between India's liberalization of tariffs on imported intermediate inputs (henceforth input tariff…

  1. Innovative Outdoor Fieldwork Pedagogies in the Higher Education Sector: Optimising the Use of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn J.; Munge, Brendon

    2017-01-01

    Outdoor fieldwork has been a long-standing pedagogy in the higher education sector, across a range of disciplines. Based on a review of the literature, this paper explores the use of outdoor fieldwork in the 21st century university with particular reference to the way technology contributes to student learning. Research has indicated that…

  2. The US Public Sector and Its Adoption of Service Oriented Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) provides public sector organizations the capability to provide real increases in organizational effectiveness by aiding in the efficient exchange of information. Adoption of advanced IT such as service oriented environments, Web 2.0, and bespoke systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) promises to markedly…

  3. Use of modern information technologies for making budgetary sectors of the economy more energy-efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Bobryakov, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    A strategy of administrative management and technological control of heat consumption and energy conservation processes in budgetary sectors of the economy is described together with a system of integrated indicators for estimating the efficiency of these processes and the main results obtained from putting the strategy in use in the system of the Russian Federal Agency for Education are presented.

  4. [Organization and technology in the grocery store sector].

    PubMed

    Gambetti, Edy

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, grocery stores develop an annual turnover of 92 billion of , (data referred to 2013) and have 28.232 stores spread over a commercial area of 17.224.000 m2. The business involved are 252, linked with 30 important distribution leader companies. The total workforce is about 280.000 people. The grocery stores structure is composed by suppliers and producers warehouses and different kinds of stores (hypermarkets, supermarkets, shops and discounts). In the stores, the technological progress concerns fundamentally back-office operations; the improvement of information and computer science is the main renewal source. Other tasks as receiving goods and stocking shelves are still executed without specific inovations. In terms of organization, we observed a strong increase of part-time workers, the development of atypical contract and thie inclination to contract the easiest jobs (for example, stocking shelves). Also the warehouses often use to sub-contract the picking tasks. The increase of on-line shopping, also concerning the groceries, represents the most relevant evolution in tire near future.

  5. Shifting of phytoplankton community in the frontal regions of Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean using in situ and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rajani Kanta; Jena, Babula; Anilkumar, Narayana Pillai; Sinha, Rupesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The phytoplankton pigment indices were used to characterize the spatial succession of the community composition in the frontal regions of the subtropical front (STF), sub-Antarctic front (SAF), and polar front (PF) in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2013. Diagnostic indices revealed that the flagellates were dominant in STF (51%) and progressively declined toward SAF (39%) and PF (11%). Similarly, the prokaryotes were highest in STF (43%) and decreased to SAF (32%) and PF (28%). In contrast, the diatoms were gradually increased from STF (6%) to SAF (29%) and PF (61%). The variability of flagellates and diatoms from the STF to PF is attributed to the variability of photosynthetically available radiation, sea surface temperature, and sea surface wind speed. The in-situ pigment indices were then compared to the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical model that shows the similar patterns of frontal community distribution except their magnitude. Similarly, the satellite retrieved phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) was checked for its consistency after comparing with the in-situ observations and the result shows underestimation of satellite measured values. The result suggests that the conjunctive analysis of in-situ, satellite, and model archive is suitable to study the impact of climate variability on the structure of marine ecosystems.

  6. Demonstrating and Deploying Private Sector Technologies at DOE Sites - Issues to be Overcome

    SciTech Connect

    Bedick, R. C.

    2002-02-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to pursue cost-effective, environmental cleanup of the weapons complex sites with a concomitant emphasis on deployment of innovative technologies as a means to this end. The EM Office of Science and Technology (OST) pursues a strategy that entails identification of technologies that have potential applications throughout the DOE complex: at multiple DOE sites and at multiple facilities on those sites. It further encourages a competitive procurement process for the various applications entailed in the remediation of a given facility. These strategies require a competitive private-sector supplier base to help meet EM needs. OST supports technology development and deployment through investments in partnerships with private industry to enhance the acceptance of their technology products within the DOE market. Since 1992, OST and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have supported the re search and development of technology products and services offered by the private sector. During this time, NETL has managed over 140 research and development projects involving industrial and university partners. These projects involve research in a broad range of EM related topics, including deactivation and decommissioning, characterization, monitoring, sensors, waste separation, groundwater remediation, robotics, and mixed waste treatment. Successful partnerships between DOE and Industry have resulted in viable options for EM's cleanup needs, and require continued marketing efforts to ensure that these technology solutions are used at multiple DOE sites and facilities.

  7. New e-service development in the homecare sector: beyond implementing a radical technology.

    PubMed

    Essén, Anna; Conrick, Moya

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the constituents of and challenges related to the innovation of technology-based services in the long-term homecare sector. This research used purposeful extreme case sampling, a mixed methods approach to research that included focus groups and interviews, to learn from the experiences of an innovative telehomecare project. The paper uses a framework that integrates service management; information systems innovation and medical informatics theory. The findings indicate that the claimed and the rather abstract benefits of the technology espoused by information technology vendors were difficult to transform into a service concept. The organization studied is still struggling with conflicts between technological possibilities on the one hand, and the prevailing service delivery systems and user preferences on the other. Decisions about the extent to which the service needs to be reengineered, what non-technology resources are required, what should be the role of the consumer in the new care process and identifying who is actually the primary beneficiary and user of the new service remain. A comprehensive development model and 'mindfulness' is necessary for radical service innovation in the long-term homecare sector. Creating new services that exploit the capability of radical technical innovations requires organizational development and the use of many non-technology innovations and resources. To understand what combinations of technological and non-technological resources can provide sustainable benefit, all key internal and external stakeholders must be involved from the beginning of the project.

  8. Deep-sea ostracods from the South Atlantic sector of the Southern ocean during the Last 370,000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Hunt, G.; Hodell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We report changes of deep-sea ostracod fauna during the last 370,000 yr from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 704A in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The results show that faunal changes are coincident with glacial/interglacial-scale deep-water circulation changes, even though our dataset is relatively small and the waters are barren of ostracods until mid-MIS (Marine Isotope Stage) 5. Krithe and Poseidonamicus were dominant during the Holocene interglacial period and the latter part of MIS 5, when this site was under the influence of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Conversely, Henryhowella and Legitimocythere were dominant during glacial periods, when this site was in the path of Circumpolar Deep Water (CPDW). Three new species (Aversovalva brandaoae, Poseidonamicus hisayoae, and Krithe mazziniae) are described herein. This is the first report of Quaternary glacial/interglacial scale deep-sea ostracod faunal changes in the Southern and South Atlantic Oceans, a key region for understanding Quaternary climate and deep-water circulation, although the paucity of Quaternary ostracods in this region necessitates further research. ?? 2009 The Paleontological Society.

  9. The monsoonal heat budget of the hydrosphere-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hastenrath, S.; Greischar, L. )

    1993-04-15

    The authors model the monsoon activity in the Indian Ocean basin. This system, involving the interaction of the hydrosphere and atmosphere, with interchanges of energy and heat fluxes from the sun, drives the monsoon behavior, and the role it plays in climate in that part of the world. The authors take advantage of extensive data sets available at present of temperature profiles in the Indian Ocean, of atmospheric temperature profiles, and of moisture transport, to do a more detailed modeling than was done in the past. While the data sets are not simultaneous they span a ten year period, and provide an average picture of hydrologic and atmospheric conditions on a seasonal basis.

  10. Expanding Alaska's Remote Ocean Observing Capabilities Using Robotic Gliders and Remote Sensing Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, C.; McCammon, M.; Winsor, P.; Murphy, D. J.; Mathis, J. T.; Baumgartner, M.; Stafford, K.; Statscewich, H.; Evans, W.; Potter, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) is directed by Congress to facilitate, implement and support ocean observing for the entire coast of Alaska, working with federal, state, local and private sector partners. However, developing an integrated ocean observing system at high latitudes presents unique challenges. In addition to the harsh environment, the region covered by AOOS is made up of nearly 44,000 miles of coastline, larger than the marine systems in the rest of the United States combined. No other observing system in the United States has such climate extremes, significant geographic distances, and limited observing infrastructure. Making use of robotic technologies in Alaskan waters has been successfully demonstrated with the pilot deployment of a real-time marine mammal detection system deployed on a Slocum buoyancy controlled glider. The glider also carries payload to measure high resolution temperature and salinity data. With these simultaneous data streams, scientists are investigating how marine mammal occurrences are related to water column conditions and mixing fronts, as well as comparing northern versus southern Chukchi community composition, inshore (Alaska Coastal Current) waters, and offshore (Bering Sea) waters. In its third year, the glider is now equipped with lithium batteries that allow it to operate unattended for an entire Arctic summer season, whereas past deployments were limited to about 10 days. Developing and applying such cutting edge, long-endurance autonomous technology is benefitting others monitoring in Arctic regions where shipboard access is not only expensive, but limited to fair weather conditions during the openwater (ice free) seasons of summer to early fall.

  11. Atmosphere-Ocean Forcing of Ice-Sheet Change in the Amundsen Sea Sector of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, A.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Smith, J.; Dutrieux, P.; Steig, E. J.; Jacobs, S.

    2015-12-01

    Thinning of the ice sheet that drains into the Amundsen Sea is currently the major contribution of Antarctica to sea level rise. Acceleration of the outflow glaciers and inland thinning of the ice are now well-documented, but our understanding of the underlying causes remains rudimentary. The observations that thinning is most rapid at the coast and propagates inland suggest that changes in ocean-forced melt of the ice shelves are responsible. However, a critical question that remains unanswered is whether current changes are a continuing response to an earlier trigger, or are driven by current ocean variability. It has been argued that atmospheric circulation changes associated with sea surface temperature variability over the central tropical Pacific Ocean could drive changes in ocean conditions along the Amundsen Sea coast. That conclusion was based on a coarse-resolution model, some results of which now appear questionable. However, observational evidence is supportive of such a link with the tropical Pacific, a pronounced cooling of the Amundsen Sea in 2012 being linked with cool La Nina conditions in the cental Pacific. We critically re-evalute the evidence for such a link with large-scale atmospheric forcing and explore the implications using an ice sheet/shelf model forced by a new parematerisation of melting in response to prescribed ocean temperatures. In particular, we test the hypothesis that initial retreat of Pine Island Glacier from a prominent seabed ridge coincided with a period of exceptional warmth in the central tropical Pacific that had a major impact on West Antarctic atmospheric circulation in the early 1940s. We investigate the magnitude and duration of the 1940's warm event required to start the retreat of the grounding line, and address the question of whether that trigger is the primary cause of current change, or whether more recent warmth has been critical in driving continuing retreat of the grounding line.

  12. Changes in oxygenation reveal an asymmetry in the Antarctic Intermediate Water production of the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Z.; Durand, A.; Noble, T. L.; Townsend, A.; Bostock, H. C.; Neil, H.; Jaccard, S.

    2016-12-01

    We studied 21 sediment cores located on the Campbell and Challenger Plateaux surrounding New Zealand to investigate changes in oxygenation at intermediate depths of southwest Pacific sector the Southern-Ocean since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The cores span Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW). The sedimentary concentrations of redox sensitive elements reveal that intermediate depths of the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean (800-1500m) were oxygen depleted during the LGM compared to the Holocene and present day. These data, together with variations in benthic foraminiferal δ13C are consistent with a shallower AAIW-UCDW boundary in the southwest Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the LGM (800m vs 1200m today). Moreover, δ 13C data indicate that AAIW still bathed the shallower core sites (< 800m depth) during the LGM and Holocene; however redox sensitive elements in these cores also reveal lower oxygen content in glacial AAIW compared to the Holocene. These findings are in opposition to what has been found in the South East Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, where redox sensitive element variations showed that AAIW was more oxygenated and extended deeper during the LGM. Therefore, during the LGM, AAIW extent and oxygen content were asymmetrical between the eastern and western regions of the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Consequently, the AAIW repartition in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean was dramatically different during the LGM compared to present, where AAIW depth range is quasi constant. Differences in the position of the Westerlies between the eastern and western side, as well as differences in sea-ice melt discharges could have potentially driven this glacial asymmetry.

  13. Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    to managing change imposed by Naval procedural require- and managing innovative people . ments and directives. Topics discussed My thought evolution was...Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector within the Forest Service with food for the concept " people in an...acquisition contracts with- Bechtel Corporation for his skill in out exceeding budget, for his efficient managing innovative people and managing

  14. Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Martín, S.

    2013-01-01

    The "Technology Outlook for STEM+ Education 2013-2018: An NMC Horizon Project Sector Analysis" reflects a collaborative research effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC), the Centro Superior para la Enseñanza Virtual (CSEV), the Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Control at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a…

  15. Analysis of technological innovation and environmental performance improvement in aviation sector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-09-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector-aircraft manufacturers and airlines-has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation's lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale.

  16. Benefits briefing notebook: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy is presented. The contents of this notebook are divided into three sections: (1) benefit cases, (2) transfer overview, and (3) indexes. Transfer examples relevant to each subject area are presented. Pertinent transfer data are given. The Transfer Overview section provides a general perspective for technology transfer from NASA to other organizations. In addition to a description of the basic transfer modes, the selection criteria for notebook examples and the kinds of benefit data they contain are also presented.

  17. Ocean Energy Program Overview, Fiscal years 1990--1991. Programs in utility technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The oceans are the world`s largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71% of the earth`s surface, the oceans collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques that harness ocean energy cost effectively and in ways that do not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point at which industry can accurately assess whether the applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives, or supplements to current power-generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the Ocean Energy Program has concentrated research that advances OTEC technology. The program also monitored developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts. It is not actively developing these technologies now. The mission of the Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques to harness the vast solar energy stored in the oceans` waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients.

  18. Setting research priorities across science, technology, and health sectors: the Tanzania experience.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Sylvia; Kingamkono, Rose; Tindamanyire, Neema; Mshinda, Hassan; Makandi, Harun; Tibazarwa, Flora; Kubata, Bruno; Montorzi, Gabriela

    2015-03-12

    Identifying research priorities is key to innovation and economic growth, since it informs decision makers on effectively targeting issues that have the greatest potential public benefit. As such, the process of setting research priorities is of pivotal importance for favouring the science, technology, and innovation (STI)-driven development of low- and middle-income countries. We report herein on a major cross-sectoral nationwide research priority setting effort recently carried out in Tanzania by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) in partnership with the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) and the NEPAD Agency. The first of its type in the country, the process brought together stakeholders from 42 sub-sectors in science, technology, and health. The cross-sectoral research priority setting process consisted of a 'training-of-trainers' workshop, a demonstration workshop, and seven priority setting workshops delivered to representatives from public and private research and development institutions, universities, non-governmental organizations, and other agencies affiliated to COSTECH. The workshops resulted in ranked listings of research priorities for each sub-sector, totalling approximately 800 priorities. This large number was significantly reduced by an expert panel in order to build a manageable instrument aligned to national development plans that could be used to guide research investments. The Tanzania experience is an instructive example of the challenges and issues to be faced in when attempting to identify research priority areas and setting an STI research agenda in low- and middle-income countries. As countries increase their investment in research, it is essential to increase investment in research management and governance as well, a key and much needed capacity for countries to make proper use of research investments.

  19. The dynamics of the total outputs of Japanese information and communication technology sectors: A further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous studies which discussed the impacts of the changes of final demands on the total outputs of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of the specific country. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study focuses on the case of Japan. This study employs a demand-pull Input-Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation tools in the IO analysis, as an analysis instrument. Two conditions are included in calculations and analysis parts, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. An initial period in this study is 2005. The results show that, in both conditions, the discussed sectors have similar patterns, namely these industries receive the positive impacts from scenarios 1, 3, and 4 while the opposite impacts are obtained from scenario 2. This negative impact also appeared in the previous studies. The results also expose that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impacts for analyzed sectors are given by scenario 4, the modification of the consumption expenditures of the private. Compared with the previous studies, these are new findings.

  20. Bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Pacific sector of the western Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

    PubMed

    Han, Dukki; Kang, Ilnam; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

  1. Seasonal study of carbon dioxide in the southern extreme of the pacific sector, Antarctic Ocean. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Taro; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.I.; Breger, D.

    1994-05-05

    This report describes the progress made during the six-month period between December 1, 1993, when this grant was awarded, and May 1, 1994. The major aim of this investigation is to measure the distribution of the total CO{sub 2} concentration and pCO{sub 2} in seawater in the Pacific sector of the extreme Southern Ocean as far south as 78{degrees}S. The areas investigated include the continental shelf areas in the Ross, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas ad the off-shore deep water areas as far north as 67{degrees}S. The measurements were made aboard the R/VIB Nathaniel B. Palmer between February 14, 1994 and April 5, 1994, and the preliminary results are briefly described in this report. This expedition constitutes the first of a pair expeditions. The first is designed investigate oceanic CO{sub 2} sink/source conditions during the austral summer The second expedition, which is designed for the following winter, has been scheduled for September, 1994.

  2. Planktonic foraminiferal depth habitat and δ18O calibrations: Plankton tow results from the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortyn, P. Graham; Charles, Christopher D.

    2003-06-01

    Plankton tows conducted in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean allow analysis of the influence of water column structure on planktonic foraminiferal abundance and δ18O composition. Foraminiferal abundance varies by several orders of magnitude across a large gradient in sea surface temperature and other hydrographic features, demonstrating high sensitivity of foraminiferal populations to regional differences in water properties. The depth of maximum abundance for key species such as Globigerina bulloides and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma is not constant from station to station. The pattern suggests that their abundance and shell chemistry are tied to density horizons or other conditions (such as food availability) that become more sharply defined with depth in the northern subantarctic. The consistent observation of Globorotalia inflata and Globoratalia truncatulinoides as relatively deep-dwelling species confirms their utility as indicators of upper thermocline properties. In δ18O all species are observed to be isotopically lighter than predicted from water properties, but the species-specific offset is fairly uniform at all stations. These observations define the utility of multispecies δ18O for reconstructing temperature and density stratification from past surface oceans.

  3. Bacterial Communities of Surface Mixed Layer in the Pacific Sector of the Western Arctic Ocean during Sea-Ice Melting

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting. PMID:24497990

  4. Sea Surface pCO2 in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean during Austral Summer of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetye, Suhas; Sudhakar, Maruthadu; Ramesh, Rengaswamy; Mohan, Rahul; Patil, Shramik; Laskar, Amzad

    This Southern Ocean plays a key role in removing carbon dioxide from the Earth’s atmosphere by physical, chemical, and biological processes. The present study attempts to understand: the spatio-temporal variations in pCO2 and its relationship with nutrients and biological production in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during the late austral summer of 2009. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) showed high spatio-temporal variability in the study area. The highest pCO2 that was recorded along the Polar Front (PF) the two transects is attributed to low productivity in the PF. From 57°30’E(TE) towards 48°E, the average sea surface pCO2, chlorophyll and Total organic carbon (TOC) increased by 24 μatm, 0.3mg/m3, and 3μM, respectively, suggesting that the physical processes are predominantly active along 48°E. Enhanced vertical mixing along 48°E supports the corresponding increase in the average NO3, PO4, and SiO4 concentrations by 2 μM, 0.4 μM, and 1.7 μM, respectively. pCO2 and chlorophyll a are negative correlated along 57°30’E(TE), however, positively correlated along 48°E’(TW), which suggests that the biological processes control the pCO2 along 57°30’E. The average air-sea fluxes recorded were about -28 and -33mmolm-2d-1, on TW and TE, respectively. A significant finding of this study is that although the Southern Ocean is a known sink of carbon dioxide, the vicinity of the Crozet Island, where oceanic fronts are known to merge, suggests to act as a source of atmospheric CO2. It is attributed that “The island mass effect” could also be a factor that generates elevated CO2 in the vicinity of the study area. In the last one decade the oceanic pCO2 increased at a rate 0.77 μatm/year in the region south of the Polar front; but is not associated with the Southern Annular Mode effect.

  5. Vertical fluxes of nitrate in the seasonal nitracline of the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randelhoff, Achim; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Reigstad, Marit

    2016-07-01

    This study compiles colocated oceanic observations of high-resolution vertical profiles of nitrate concentration and turbulent microstructure around the Svalbard shelf slope, covering both the permanently ice-free Fram Strait and the pack ice north of Svalbard. The authors present an overview over the seasonal evolution of the distribution of nitrate and its relation to upper ocean stratification. The average upward turbulent diffusive nitrate flux across the seasonal nitracline during the Arctic summer season is derived, with average values of 0.3 and 0.7 mmol m-2 d-1 for stations with and without ice cover, respectively. The increase under ice-free conditions is attributed to different patterns of stratification under sea ice versus open water. The nitrate flux obtained from microstructure measurements lacked a seasonal signal. However, bottle incubations indicate that August nitrate uptake was reduced by more than an order of magnitude relative to the May values. It remains inconclusive whether the new production was limited by an unidentified factor other than NO3- supply in late summer, or the uptake was underestimated by the incubation method.

  6. Pairwise surface drifter separation in the western Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Erik; Waterman, Stephanie; Barthel, Alice; Lumpkin, Rick; Keating, Shane R.; Fogwill, Chris; Turney, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in global climate, yet the mixing properties of the circulation in this part of the ocean remain poorly understood. Here dispersion in the vicinity of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front, one of the branches of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, is studied using 10 pairs of surface drifters deployed systematically across the frontal jet and its flanks. Drifter pairs were deployed with an initial separation of 13 m and report their position every hour. The separation of the pairs over 7 months, in terms of their Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), dispersion, and diffusivity, is characterized and related to expected behavior from Quasi-Geostrophic (QG) and Surface Quasi-Geostrophic (SQG) theories. The FSLE analysis reveals two submesoscale regimes, with SQG-like behavior at scales below 3.2 km and mixed QG/SQG behavior at scales between 3.2 and 73 km. The dispersion analysis, however, suggests QG-like behavior for the smallest scales. Both dispersion and diffusivity appear isotropic for scales up to 500 km. Finally, there is no clear indication of a cross-jet variation of drifter dispersion.

  7. Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces) to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation. PMID:23347433

  8. The role of ocean-atmosphere interaction in shaping climate change in the North Atlantic sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Ralf; Nour-Eddine, Omrani; Keenlyside Noel, S.; Richard, Greatbatch

    2015-04-01

    Here, we present an analysis of North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interaction in a warming climate, based on a long-term coupled general circulation model experiment forced by the RCP 8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario. In addition to globally strongly increased SSTs as a direct response to the radiative forcing, the model run shows a distinct change of the local sea surface temperature (SST hereafter) pattern in the Gulf Stream region. This includes changes of the SST gradients in the region of the Gulf Stream SST front, likely as a response of the wind-driven part of the oceanic surface circulation. As a consequence of a massive slow-down of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation the northern North Atlantic furthermore shows a much weaker warming than the other oceans. The feedback of these changes on the atmosphere was studied in a set of sensitivity experiments based on the SST climatology of the coupled runs. The set consists of four runs: a control experiment based on the historical run, a run using the full SST from coupled RCP 8.5 run and two runs, where where we deconstructed the SST signal into a homogenous mean warming part and a local SST pattern change. In the region of the precipitation maximum in the historical run the future scenario shows an increase of absolute SSTs, but a a significant decrease in local precipitation. We show evidence that the local response in that region is connected to the (with respect to the historical run) weakened SST gradients rather than to the absolute SST. Consistently, the model shows enhanced precipitation north of this region, where the SST gradients are enhanced. The warming causes a decreased low-level convergence and upward motion in the region with reduced SST gradient. However, the signal restricts to the low and mid-troposphere and does not reach the higher model levels. There is little evidence for a large-scale response to the SST pattern changes in the Gulf Stream region

  9. Dissolved Fe in the upper waters of the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measures, C. I.; Vink, S.

    The concentration of dissolved Fe was determined in upper ocean waters along 170°W between 53 and 72°S during four cruises between October 1997 and March 1998 as part of the US-JGOFS Southern Ocean Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone cruises. Fe concentrations were extremely variable in both space and time as a result of advection of meso-scale eddys through the region. Observed values ranged from a maximum of 0.34 nM at 64°S in November next to the retreating ice-edge to 0.075 nM in March at 71°S in the northern Ross Sea gyre. In general, the highest average mixed-layer Fe concentrations and the largest seasonal changes were observed in the two frontal zones at ˜60°S and ˜64°S. Formation of deep mixed layers during winter and the entrainment of sub-surface waters enriched in Fe is the primary source of this element to surface waters in this region of the Southern Ocean. Additionally, upwelling of circumpolar deep water in the circumpolar current along its northern boundary at the Polar Front and its southern boundary at the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front is an important mechanism supplying Fe to surface waters in these areas throughout the summer. Comparison of integrated Fe concentrations and Th-derived POC export and N drawdown all suggest that the maximum changes in these properties are comparable to those that would be predicted by Fe availability. Fe concentrations determined by shipboard Flow Injection Analysis (Measures et al., Mar. Chem. 50 (1995) 3) were significantly higher than those found in replicate samples determined by shored based flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry after preconcentration by chelation-solvent extraction (Johnson et al., Mar. Chem. 57 (1997) 137). The concentration differences, which appear to be restricted to the upper 200-300 m, do not appear to arise from different sampling or handling processes but instead are believed to result from the different sensitivity of the methods to organic fractions of Fe in

  10. Benefit Analyses of Technologies for Automatic Identification to Be Implemented in the Healthcare Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krey, Mike; Schlatter, Ueli

    The tasks and objectives of automatic identification (Auto-ID) are to provide information on goods and products. It has already been established for years in the areas of logistics and trading and can no longer be ignored by the German healthcare sector. Some German hospitals have already discovered the capabilities of Auto-ID. Improvements in quality, safety and reductions in risk, cost and time are aspects and areas where improvements are achievable. Privacy protection, legal restraints, and the personal rights of patients and staff members are just a few aspects which make the heath care sector a sensible field for the implementation of Auto-ID. Auto-ID in this context contains the different technologies, methods and products for the registration, provision and storage of relevant data. With the help of a quantifiable and science-based evaluation, an answer is sought as to which Auto-ID has the highest capability to be implemented in healthcare business.

  11. Lipid geochemistry of remote aerosols from the southwestern Pacific Ocean sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Peltzer, Edward T.

    Aerosol samples collected on Ninety Mile Beach on the West coast of the North Island of New Zealand were analyzed for three classes of naturally occurring organic compounds ( n-alkanes, fatty alcohols and long-chain n-aldehydes) which are major constituents of epicuticular waxes of terrestrial plants. In the eight samples analyzed, we identified three distinct regional source signatures for these aerosols depending upon their origin: southwest Pacific Ocean, New Zealand or Australia. Source identifications were entirely consistent with the origin of the aerosols derived by isentropic air mass trajectories. Impactor studies provided additional information as to the source of the aerosols and the mode of introduction of the material into the atmosphere.

  12. Seismostratigraphy of the Siberian Sector of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent Laptev Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, Estella; Jokat, Wilfried; Franke, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    A new seismostratigraphic model has been established within the Arctic Ocean adjacent to the East Siberian Shelf on the basis of multichannel seismic reflection data acquired along a transect at 81°N. Ages for the sedimentary units were estimated via links to seismic lines and drill site data of the US Chukchi Shelf, the Lomonosov Ridge, and the adjacent Laptev Shelf. Two distinct seismic units were mapped throughout the area and are the constraints for dating the remaining strata. The lower marker unit, a pronounced high-amplitude reflector sequence (HARS), is the most striking stratigraphic feature over large parts of the Arctic Ocean. It indicates a strong and widespread change in deposition conditions. Probably, it developed during Oligocene times when a reorientation of Arctic Plates took place, accompanied by the gradual opening of the Fram Strait, and a widespread regression of sea level. The top of the HARS likely marks the end of Oligocene/early Miocene (23 Ma). An age estimate for the base of the sequence is less clear but likely corresponds to base of Eocene (˜56 Ma). The second marked unit detected on the seismic lines parallels the seafloor with a thickness of about 200 ms two-way travel time (160 m). Its base is marked by a change from a partly transparent sequence with weak amplitude reflections below to a set of continuous high-amplitude reflectors above. This interface likely marks the transition to large-scale glaciation of the northern hemisphere and therefore is ascribed to the top Miocene (5.3 Ma).

  13. Aerospace technology transfer to the public sector; Proceedings of the Conference, Crystal City, Va., November 9-11, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J. (Editor); Newman, M.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of aerospace technology transfer is discussed with reference to the agencies which facilitate the transfer to both the public and private sectors. Attention is given to NASA's Technology Utilization Program, and to specific applications of aerospace technology spinoff in the daily life of Americans.

  14. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  15. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  16. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  17. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  18. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  19. Aerospace technology transfer to the public sector; Proceedings of the Conference, Crystal City, Va., November 9-11, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J. (Editor); Newman, M.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of aerospace technology transfer is discussed with reference to the agencies which facilitate the transfer to both the public and private sectors. Attention is given to NASA's Technology Utilization Program, and to specific applications of aerospace technology spinoff in the daily life of Americans.

  20. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 'Benefit Briefing Notebook' was prepared for the NASA Technology Utilization Office to provide accurate, convenient, and integrated resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy. The contents are divided into three sections: (1) transfer overview, (2) benefit cases, and (3) indexes. The transfer overview section provides a general perspective for technology transfer from NASA to other organizations. In addition to a description of the basic transfer modes, the selection criteria for notebook examples and the kinds of benefit data they contain are also presented. The benefits section is subdivided into nineteen subject areas. Each subsection presents one or more key issues of current interest, with discrete transfer cases related to each key issue. Additional transfer examples relevant to each subject area are then presented. Pertinent transfer data are given at the end of each example.

  1. Assistive technologies along supply chains in health care and in the social services sector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Peter; Hauer, Katharina; Schloffer, Evelyn; Leyrer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in Austria and Slovenia are currently facing challenges due to scarce resources and demographic change which can be seen especially along the supply chains. The main objective of this paper is to present an option to improve the use of assistive technologies. An extensive literature research for the theoretic part as well as a qualitative survey for the empiric part focusing on short-term care were carried out. Results show that there is a lack of information and training on assistive technologies. As a consequence, their full potential cannot be exploited. Therefore a guideline for nursing consultations was developed. To conclude, both the literature research and the qualitative survey show that assistive technologies have high potentials to improve the supply chains in the health care and social services sector, but there is a lot of information and training on them needed.

  2. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. Results The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Conclusion Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets. PMID:17062161

  3. Development of air conditioning technologies to reduce CO2 emissions in the commercial sector.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yukiko

    2006-10-25

    Architectural methods that take into account global environmental conservation generally concentrate on mitigating the heat load of buildings. Here, we evaluate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that can be achieved by improving heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies. The Climate Change Research Hall (CCRH) of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) is used as a case study. CCRH was built in line with the "Green Government Buildings" program of the Government Buildings Department at the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport in Japan. We have assessed the technology used in this building, and found that there is a possibility to reduce energy consumption in the HVAC system by 30%. Saving energy reduces CO2 emissions in the commercial sector, although emission factors depend on the country or region. Consequently, energy savings potential may serve as a criterion in selecting HVAC technologies with respect to emission reduction targets.

  4. Sources and input mechanisms of hafnium and neodymium in surface waters of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, Torben; Frank, Martin; Rickli, Jörg; Hathorne, Ed C.; Haley, Brian A.; Jeandel, Catherine; Pradoux, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Radiogenic isotopes of hafnium (Hf) and neodymium (Nd) are powerful tracers for water mass transport and trace metal cycling in the present and past oceans. However, due to the scarcity of available data the processes governing their distribution are not well understood. Here we present the first combined dissolved Hf and Nd isotope and concentration data from surface waters of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples were collected along the Zero Meridian, in the Weddell Sea and in the Drake Passage during RV Polarstern expeditions ANTXXIV/3 and ANTXXIII/3 in the frame of the International Polar Year (IPY) and the GEOTRACES program. The general distribution of Hf and Nd concentrations in the region is similar. However, at the northernmost station located 200 km southwest of Cape Town a pronounced increase of the Nd concentration is observed, whereas the Hf concentration is minimal, suggesting much less Hf than Nd is released by the weathering of the South African Archean cratonic rocks. From the southern part of the Subtropical Front (STF) to the Polar Front (PF) Hf and Nd show the lowest concentrations (<0.12 pmol/kg and 10 pmol/kg, respectively), most probably due to the low terrigenous flux in this area and efficient scavenging of Hf and Nd by biogenic opal. In the vicinity of landmasses the dissolved Hf and Nd isotope compositions are clearly labeled by terrigenous inputs. Near South Africa Nd isotope values as low as ɛNd = -18.9 indicate unradiogenic inputs supplied via the Agulhas Current. Further south the isotopic data show significant increases to ɛHf = 6.1 and ɛNd = -4.0 documenting exchange of seawater Nd and Hf with the Antarctic Peninsula. In the open Southern Ocean the Nd isotope compositions are relatively homogeneous (ɛNd ˜ -8 to -8.5) towards the STF, within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, in the Weddell Gyre, and the Drake Passage. The Hf isotope compositions in the entire study area only show a small range between

  5. Analysis of Technological Innovation and Environmental Performance Improvement in Aviation Sector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-01-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector—aircraft manufacturers and airlines—has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation’s lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  6. Biological response to physical processes in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean: a case study in the coastal and oceanic waters.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, N; Chacko, Racheal; Sabu, P; Pillai, Honey U K; George, Jenson V; Achuthankutty, C T

    2014-12-01

    The spatial variation of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and factors influencing the high Chl a were studied during austral summer based on the physical and biogeochemical parameters collected near the coastal waters of Antarctica in 2010 and a zonal section along 60°S in 2011. In the coastal waters, high Chl a (>3 mg m(-3)) was observed near the upper layers (∼15 m) between 53°30'E and 54°30'E. A comparatively higher mesozooplankton biomass (53.33 ml 100 m(-3)) was also observed concordant with the elevated Chl a. Low saline water formed by melting of glacial ice and snow, as well as deep mixed-layer depth (60 m) due to strong wind (>11 ms(-1)) could be the dominant factors for this biological response. In the open ocean, moderately high surface Chl a was observed (>0.6 mg m(-3)) between 47°E and 50°E along with a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum of ∼1 mg m(-3) present at 30-40 m depth. Melt water advected from the Antarctic continent could be the prime reason for this high Chl a. The mesozooplankton biomass (22.76 ml 100 m(-3)) observed in the open ocean was comparatively lower than that in the coastal waters. Physical factors such as melting, advection of melt water from Antarctic continent, water masses and wind-induced vertical mixing may be the possible reasons that led to the increase in phytoplankton biomass (Chl a).

  7. Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean; a coccolithophore perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra-Pellitero, Mariem; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Ullermann, Johannes; Lamy, Frank

    2017-02-01

    This work aims to provide new insights into environmental conditions during late Pleistocene Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11) in the Southern Ocean. We generated a multi-proxy coccolithophore dataset based on sediment core PS75/059-2. This core was retrieved at the western flank of the southern East Pacific Rise crest at ∼3600 m water depth. Coccolithophore assemblage counts indicated that the coccolith fraction (CF; <20 μm) during MIS 11 was dominated by Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica and subsequently by small Gephyrocapsa. Coccolith accumulation rates, CF Sr/Ca data and temperature-corrected CF Sr/Ca records were consistent and showed a steep increase in coccolithophore productivity as well as apparent coccolith calcification during Termination V. Maximum values were reached during MIS 11. We explain this high coccolithophore production during MIS 11 by changes in sea surface temperature and nutrient regimes, due to a re-organisation of the surface circulation patterns and a southward migration of the frontal systems. Furthermore, the immense carbonate production of the coccolithophores may have contributed to increased atmospheric CO2 contents, causing a drawdown of the carbonate saturation and an increase in dissolution at the seafloor. However the atmospheric CO2 did not reach higher values probably due to the effective ballasting of organic matter by coccoliths.

  8. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  9. New view on tectonic structure of Siberian Sector of the Amerasian Basin (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, Yu. I.

    2014-05-01

    In 2012, JSC Sevmorgeo with assistance of several research institutions of Federal Agency of Mineral Resources (Rosnedra) and Ministry of Defense carried out a unique set of offshore seismic and geological studies in the Mendeleev Rise area and adjacent areas of the Amerasia Basin. Two specially re-equipped icebreakers ("Kapitan Dranitsin" and "Dixon") were used in this campaign. The main results of the expedition were 5315 km of multichannel seismic profiles both with long and short streamers (4500 m and 600 m, respectively), 480 km long refraction profile crossing Mendeleev Rise. Seismic acquisition with short streamers was accompanied by deployment of sonobuoys. Geological studies included deep-water drilling and sea-bottom sampling by dredge, gravity corer, grab and by specially equipped research submarine. The newly acquired geological and geophysical data allowed for the following conclusions: 1. The Mendeleev Rise, the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge and Chukchi Plateau are the direct continuations of the East Siberian Sea tectonic structures. It is confirmed by direct tracking of some morphostructures, faults, gravity and magnetic anomalies from the shelf to deep-water highs. 2. The East Arctic Shelf and the adjacent Arctic Ocean represent offshore extent of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma crustal domain constituted by a mosaic of separate blocks of the Pre-Cambrian basement (Okhotsk, Omulevka, Omolon, Wrangel-Gerald and Central Arctic) and Late Mesozoic orogens. This area differs significantly from the Ellesmerian crustal domain located to the east (including the Northwind Ridge, which coincides with inferred eastern boundary of the Mesozoides). The Central Arctic domain includes structures of the Mendeleev Ridge and the Chukchi Plateau. Western boundary of this block is inferred along the Spur of Geophysicists, which separates the Podvodnikov Basin into two unequal parts with different basement structure. From the south, southwest and west, the Central Arctic domain is

  10. Decadal-scale thermohaline variability in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, K.; Swart, S.; Meijers, A.; Ansorge, I.; Speich, S.

    2016-05-01

    An enhanced Altimetry Gravest Empirical Mode (AGEM), including both adiabatic and diabatic trends, is developed for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) south of Africa using updated hydrographic CTD sections, Argo data, and satellite altimetry. This AGEM has improved accuracy compared to traditional climatologies and other proxy methods. The AGEM for the Atlantic Southern Ocean offers an ideal technique to investigate the thermohaline variability over the past two decades in a key region for water mass exchanges and transformation. In order to assess and attribute changes in the hydrography of the region, we separate the changes into adiabatic and diabatic components. Integrated over the upper 2000 dbar of the ACC south of Africa, results show mean adiabatic changes of 0.16 ± 0.11°C decade-1 and 0.006 ± 0.014 decade-1, and diabatic differences of -0.044 ± 0.13°C decade-1 and -0.01 ± 0.017 decade-1 for temperature and salinity, respectively. The trends of the resultant AGEM, that include both adiabatic and diabatic variability (termed AD-AGEM), show a significant increase in the heat content of the upper 2000 dbar of the ACC with a mean warming of 0.12 ± 0.087°C decade-1. This study focuses on the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) mass where negative diabatic trends dominate positive adiabatic differences in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), with results indicating a cooling (-0.17°C decade-1) and freshening (-0.032 decade-1) of AAIW in this area, whereas south of the SAZ positive adiabatic and diabatic trends together create a cumulative warming (0.31°C decade-1) and salinification (0.014 decade-1) of AAIW.

  11. Late-Quaternary changes of biogenic fluxes in the pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, F.; Langone, L.; Capotondi, L.; Morigi, C.; Focaccia, P.; Frignani, M.; Ravaioli, M.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decade the research project BIOSESO of the Italian National Research Program for Antarctica (PNRA) has collected 13 gravity cores and 3 box-cores along a N-S transect at about 175^oE in the Southern Ocean. In this presentation we discuss the results from 6 sediment cores sampled between 62^oS and 71^oS. This area embraces the Polar Front and the Marginal Ice Zone. The data set includes the contents of organic carbon, biogenic silica, CaCO_3 and some metals (Ba, Al, Fe, Mn) involved in the biogeochemical cycles. Chronologies were based on 230Thex profiles and the boundaries of the isotope stages were set assuming that biological productivity was enhanced during periods of less ice cover. Then , 230Thex, organic carbon, biogenic silica and biogenic Ba distributions were compared to the glacial-interglacial stage boundaries and corresponding ages of the δ18O record of Martinson et al. (1987). At the sampling sites sediment accumulation rates range between 0.2 to 3.8 cm ka-1. The higher values characterize the interglacial stages and the southern stations. Processes of sediment redistribution at sea bottom were enlightened by a comparison of measured and expected fluxes of 230Thex . The Polar Front zone is characterized by winnowing, whereas sediments along the continental slope of the Ross Sea are mainly subject to focussing processes. The environmental factors that drive changes of biogenic particle fluxes during glacial-interglacial transitions have been investigated.

  12. Exploration and Remote Instrumentation by Students (ERIS): Video Documentation in Undergraduate Ocean Technology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, M.

    2016-12-01

    Success in the future ability to conduct global ocean research relies on our strategies to teach and train the next generation of ocean scientists. The mission of the Exploration and Remote Instrumentation by Students (ERIS) program at the University of Washington is to enhance undergraduate learning in the design and build process of advanced technologies. The ERIS program introduces the science of applied technology in oceanography through a series of courses that link the design, build, and maintenance of a student implemented underwater cabled observatory. We present a suggested template for a production method of how-to videos focused on capturing and communicating the design and build experience in ocean technology makerspaces. The application of this production method of videos produced by students, for students, creates structured learning opportunities and becomes an archive of online resources for future ocean technologists. Furthermore, video documentation enables students to link their participation in active learning experiences with skills in ocean science, technology and communication.

  13. A biomarker perspective on dust, productivity, and sea surface temperature in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, Andrea; Wengler, Marc; Hefter, Jens; Ronge, Thomas A.; Geibert, Walter; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Gersonde, Rainer; Lamy, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a new multiproxy data set of terrigenous input, marine productivity and sea surface temperature (SST) from 52 surface sediment samples collected along E-W transects in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Allochthonous terrigenous input was characterized by the distribution of plant wax n-alkanes and soil-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). 230Th-normalized burial of both compound groups were highest close to the potential sources in Australia and New Zealand and are strongly related to lithogenic contents (232Th), indicating common sources and transport. Detection of both long-chain n-alkanes and brGDGTs at the most remote sites in the open ocean strongly suggests a primarily eolian transport mechanism to at least 110°W, i.e. by prevailing westerly winds. Two independent organic SST proxies were used, the U37K‧ based on alkenones, and the TEX86 based on isoprenoid GDGTs. Both, U37K‧ and TEX86 indices show robust relationships with temperature over a temperature range between 0.5 and 20 °C, likely implying different seasonal and regional imprints on the temperature signal. Alkenone-based temperature estimates best reflect modern summer SST in the study area when using the polar calibration of Sikes et al. (1997). In contrast, TEX86-derived temperatures may reflect a subsurface signal rather than surface. 230Th-normalized burial of alkenones is highest close to the Subtropical Front and is positively related to the deposition of lithogenic material throughout the study area. In contrast, highest isoGDGT burial south of the Antarctic Polar Front may be largely controlled by diatom blooms, and thus high opal fluxes during austral summer.

  14. Carbon intake by zooplankton. Importance and role of zooplankton grazing in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayzaud, P.; Tirelli, V.; Errhif, A.; Labat, J. P.; Razouls, S.; Perissinotto, R.

    Ingestion by mesozooplankton and micronekton was monitored during two of the ANTARES cruises in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean in spring and summer. The composition of the mesozooplankton populations varied in space and with season. Copepods always dominated in number and biomass, but salps and pteropods were present in the northern part of the transect in summer. Five species of large copepod ( Calanus simillimus, Calanoides acutus, Rhincalanus gigas, Calanus propinquus and Metridia gerlachei) dominated the biomass with a North-South gradient. Smaller species ( Oithona spp., Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus laticeps) were also present. Biomass showed a definite trend with highest levels towards the polar front zone and permanent open-ocean area. Feeding activity was monitored either for the total population (summer) or specific individuals (spring). In summer, depending on the area considered, grazing rates by mesozooplankton appeared to have a significant impact on phytoplankton primary production. In the northern part of the transect (polar front zone or PFZ), salps and to a minor extent pteropods and copepods contributed mostly to the feeding pressure. Maximum intensity was observed in the Coastal Antarctic Zone (CCSZ) where Euphausia superba (adults and calyptopis larvae) could ingest more than 100% of the daily primary production. In spring, the impact of copepods dominated the zooplankton community. Small calanoids and young stages of large species of copepods rather than adult stages were the dominant contributors to grazing pressure. In summer, respiration rates of the dominant copepod species showed that energy expenditure exceeded by far chlorophyll ingestion. This is generally interpreted as the consequence of ingestion of alternate non-chlorophyll food source. The inverse correlation between the biomass of microzooplankton and the area of maximum difference between grazing and respiration confirmed that in summer the protozoans are strongly

  15. Nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in surface waters of the Indian sector of Southern Ocean during austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Patra, Sivaji; Vishnu Vardhan, K.; Sarkar, A.; Mishra, R. K.; Anilkumar, N.

    2017-04-01

    This study reports the nitrogen uptake rate (using 15N tracer) of phytoplankton in surface waters of different frontal zones in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer of 2013. The investigated area encompasses four major frontal systems, i.e., the subtropical front (STF), subantarctic front (SAF), polar front-1 (PF1) and polar front-2 (PF2). Southward decrease of surface water temperature was observed, whereas surface salinity did not show any significant trend. Nutrient (NO3 - and SiO4 4-) concentrations increased southward from STF to PF; while ammonium (NH4 +), nitrite (NO2 -) and phosphate (PO4 3-) remained comparatively stable. Analysis of nutrient ratios indicated potential N-limited conditions at the STF and SAF but no such scenario was observed for PF. In terms of phytoplankton biomass, PF1 was found to be the most productive followed by SAF, whereas PF2 was the least productive region. Nitrate uptake rate increased with increasing latitude, as no systematic spatial variation was discerned for NH4 + and urea (CO(NH2)2). Linear relationship between nitrate and total N-uptake reveals that the studied area is capable of exporting up to 60% of the total production to the deep ocean if the environmental settings are favorable. Like N-uptake rates the f-ratio also increased towards PF region indicating comparatively higher new production in the PF than in the subtropics. The moderately high average f-ratio (0.53) indicates potentially near equal contributions by new production and regenerated production to the total productivity in the study area. Elevation in N-uptake rates with declining temperature suggests that the SO with its vast quantity of cool water could play an important role in drawing down the atmospheric CO2 through the "solubility pump".

  16. Transfer and utilization of government technology assets to the private sector in the fields of health care and information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1995-10-01

    During the first Health Care Technology Policy conference last year, during health care reform, four major issues were brought up in regards to the efforts underway to develop a computer based patient record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the high performance computers and communications (HPCC), and the so-called 'patient card.' More specifically it was explained how a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public and reduce its costs. These four issues were: (1) Constructing a national information infrastructure (NII); (2) Building a computer based patient record system; (3) Bringing the collective resources of our national laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; (4) Utilizing government (e.g., DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs, and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues. This year a section of this conference entitled: 'Health Care Technology Assets of the Federal Government' addresses benefits of the technology transfer which should occur for maximizing already developed resources. This section entitled: 'Transfer and Utilization of Government Technology Assets to the Private Sector,' will look at both health care and non-health care related technologies since many areas such as information technologies (i.e. imaging, communications, archival/retrieval, systems integration, information display, multimedia, heterogeneous data bases, etc.) already exist and are part of our national labs and/or other federal agencies, i.e., ARPA. These technologies although they are not labeled under health care programs they could provide enormous value to address technical needs. An additional issue deals with both the technical

  17. Research on three-dimension ocean observation data integration and service technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Dong, Wen; Zheng, Zhigang

    2011-03-01

    Currently, ocean data portals are being developed around the world based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a source of ocean data and information. However, given the relatively high temporal frequency and the intrinsic spatial nature of ocean data and information, no current GIS software is adequate to deal effectively and efficiently with spatiotemporal data. Furthermore, while existing ocean data portals are generally designed to meet the basic needs of a broad range of users, they are sometimes very complicated for general audiences, especially for those without training in GIS. In this paper, a new technical architecture for an ocean data integration and service system is put forward that consists of four layers: the operation layer, the extract, transform, and load (ETL) layer, the data warehouse layer, and the presentation layer. The integration technology based on the XML, ontology, and spatiotemporal data organization scheme for the data warehouse layer is then discussed. In addition, the ocean observing data service technology realized in the presentation layer is also discussed in detail, including the development of the web portal and ocean data sharing platform. The application on the Taiwan Strait shows that the technology studied in this paper can facilitate sharing, access, and use of ocean observation data. The paper is based on an ongoing research project for the development of an ocean observing information system for the Taiwan Strait that will facilitate the prevention of ocean disasters.

  18. Major nutrients and dissolved oxygen as indicators of the frontal zones in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafner, E.; Mordasova, N.; Arzhanova, N.; Maslennikov, V.; Mikhailovsky, Y.; Naletova, I.; Sapozhnikov, V.; Selin, P.; Zubarevich, V.

    2003-07-01

    The chemical tracers of the main frontal zones of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are considered. Before the beginning of the spring bloom, frontal zones are distinguished by lateral gradients of dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, and silicate. During the spring bloom, the smoothing of nutrient concentrations on both sides of the fronts weakens lateral gradients of chemical properties. The position of surface gradients of nutrients within the Subtropical Frontal Zone (STFZ) does not coincide with the location of temperature and salinity gradients. As a result, fronts in this region have a stepped character. The best chemical indicator of the Northern STFZ front is the dissolved oxygen gradient, which coincides with the temperature and salinity gradients. The southern boundary of the STFZ is distinguished by the gradient of nitrate. The chemical criterion for identifying the Subantarctic Front is the gradient of oxygen, which ranges from 0.5 to 4.0 μmol kg-1 per km; the Polar Front is identified by the gradient of silicate (0.56 to 2.78 μM per km). At the surface, the Weddell-Scotia Confluence (WSC) is distinguished not by the temperature and salinity, but by chemical parameters: The best year-round criterion is the lateral gradient of silicate-to-phosphate atomic ratio, which ranges from 25 to 35. Other markers of the WSC are the gradients of silicate at the surface, oxygen at the upper boundary of the Circumpolar Deep Water, and the depths of its location.

  19. An impact assessment of sustainable technologies for the Chinese urban residential sector at provincial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Rui; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Yuko; Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Recently, energy use in the urban residential sector of China has drastically increased due to higher incomes and urbanization. The fossil fuels dominant energy supply has since worsened the air quality, especially in urban areas. In this study we estimate the future energy service demands in Chinese urban residential areas, and then use an AIM/Enduse model to evaluate the emission reduction potential of CO2, SO2, NOx and PM. Considering the climate diversity and its impact on household energy service demands, our analysis is down-scaled to the provincial-level. The results show that in most of the regions, penetration of efficient technologies will bring CO2 emission reductions of over 20% compared to the baseline by the year 2030. Deployment of energy efficient technologies also co-benefits GHG emission reduction. However, efficient technology selection appears to differ across provinces due to climatic variation and economic disparity. For instance, geothermal heating technology is effective for the cold Northern areas while biomass technology contributes to emission reduction the most in the warm Southern areas.

  20. Assessing the Determinants of Information Technology Adoption in Jamaica's Public Sector Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Thomas, II.

    2010-01-01

    Superior performance improvement and productivity gains are normally achieved when labor or ordinary capital is substituted by information technology (IT) in organizations. Consequently, on average, organizations have spent more than 50% of their total capital budget on IT, but have not gained commensurate return on their investments, partly due…

  1. Assessing the Determinants of Information Technology Adoption in Jamaica's Public Sector Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Thomas, II.

    2010-01-01

    Superior performance improvement and productivity gains are normally achieved when labor or ordinary capital is substituted by information technology (IT) in organizations. Consequently, on average, organizations have spent more than 50% of their total capital budget on IT, but have not gained commensurate return on their investments, partly due…

  2. Marine Technology for Teachers and Students: A Multi-modal Approach to Integrate Technology and Ocean Sciences Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingras, A.; Knowlton, C. W.; Scowcroft, G. A.; Babb, I.; Coleman, D.; Morin, H.

    2016-02-01

    The Marine Technology for Teachers and Students (MaTTS) Project implements a year-long continuum of activities beginning with educators reading and reporting on peer-reviewed publications, followed by face-to-face, hands-on weekend workshops and virtual professional development activities. Teams of teacher and student leaders then participate in an intensive, residential Summer Institute (SI) that emphasizes hands-on building of marine related technologies and exposure to career pathways through direct interactions with ocean scientists and engineers. During the school year, teachers integrate ocean science technology and data into their classrooms and participate, along with colleagues and students from their schools, in science cafes and webinars. Student leaders transfer knowledge gained by engaging their district's middle school students in ocean science activities and technologies by serving as hosts for live broadcasts that connect classrooms with ocean scientists and engineers though the Inner Space Center, a national ocean science telecommunications hub. Communication technologies bridge formal and informal learning environments, allowing MaTTS participants to interact with their fellow cohort members, scientists, and engineers both during and outside of school. Evaluation results indicate that for teachers both the weekend workshops and SI were most effective in preparing them to integrate ocean science and technology in STEM curricula and increase their ocean science content knowledge and leadership characteristics. For students the SI and the middle school interactions supported gains in knowledge, awareness, leadership skills and interest in ocean sciences and technologies, and related STEM careers. In particular, the connections made by working directly with scientists have positively impacted both student and teacher leaders. This presentation will provide an overview of the MaTTS model and early evaluation results.

  3. Transferring building energy technologies by linking government and private-sector programs

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) may wish to use existing networks and infrastructures wherever possible to transfer energy-efficiency technologies for buildings. The advantages of relying on already existing networks are numerous. These networks have in place mechanisms for reaching audiences interested in energy-efficiency technologies in buildings. Because staffs in trade and professional organizations and in state and local programs have responsibilities for brokering information for their members or client organizations, they are open to opportunities to improve their performance in information transfer. OBT, as an entity with primarily R D functions, is, by cooperating with other programs, spared the necessity of developing an extensive technology transfer program of its own, thus reinventing the wheel.'' Instead, OBT can minimize its investment in technology transfer by relying extensively on programs and networks already in place. OBT can work carefully with staff in other organizations to support and facilitate their efforts at information transfer and getting energy-efficiency tools and technologies into actual use. Consequently, representatives of some 22 programs and organizations were contacted, and face-to-face conversations held, to explore what the potential might be for transferring technology by linking with OBT. The briefs included in this document were derived from the discussions, the newly published Directory of Energy Efficiency Information Services for the Residential and Commercial Sectors, and other sources provided by respondents. Each brief has been sent to persons contacted for their review and comment one or more times, and each has been revised to reflect the review comments.

  4. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Technological challenges associated with the sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Nihous, G.C.

    1998-07-01

    The specific technological challenges associated with the delivery of CO{sub 2} into the deep ocean are qualitatively discussed. Since the projected effectiveness of CO{sub 2} oceanic sequestration so far requires ocean depths of kilometer(s) and large flow rates, the necessary pipelines bear some similarities with the cold seawater conduits of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). A unique perspective is thus provided by examining the history of OTEC seawater systems. Design criteria specific to CO{sub 2} delivery pipelines are also mentioned, as well as their impact on future design work.

  6. An assessment of research and development leadership in ocean energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-04-01

    Japan is clearly the leader in ocean energy technologies. The United Kingdom also has had many ocean energy research projects, but unlike Japan, most of the British projects have not progressed from the feasibility study stage to the demonstration stage. Federally funded ocean energy research in the US was stopped because it was perceived the technologies could not compete with conventional sources of fuel. Despite the probable small market for ocean energy technologies, the short sighted viewpoint of the US government regarding funding of these technologies may be harmful to US economic competitiveness. The technologies may have important uses in other applications, such as offshore construction and oil and gas drilling. Discontinuing the research and development of these technologies may cause the US to lose knowledge and miss market opportunities. If the US wishes to maintain its knowledge base and a market presence for ocean energy technologies, it may wish to consider entering into a cooperative agreement with Japan and/or the United Kingdom. Cooperative agreements are beneficial not only for technology transfer but also for cost-sharing.

  7. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  8. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0-4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to

  9. Information technology acceptance in the social services sector context: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gutierrez, Oscar

    2007-07-01

    Although computers and information technology (IT) have penetrated the field of social work, little research has systematically studied how users respond to this infusion. Information systems researchers have accumulated significant insights into IT acceptance in business organizations after decades of efforts. In this study, users in the social services were assessed for their acceptance of IT. A research model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior was developed, arguing that attitudes toward using IT, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are important antecedents of intentions to use IT, which affect actual usage. In addition, users consider the benefits that they bring to their organizations and clients through using IT when forming their attitudes toward using IT. Data collected from users of a Homeless Management Information System in a northeastern U.S. state verified the research model. The results suggest new interventions to promote IT acceptance by users in the social services sector.

  10. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0-4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to

  11. Laser microprocessing technologies for automotive, flexible electronics, and solar energy sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikumb, Suwas; Bathe, Ravi; Knopf, George K.

    2014-10-01

    Laser microprocessing technologies offer an important tool to fulfill the needs of many industrial sectors. In particular, there is growing interest in applications of these processes in the manufacturing areas such as automotive parts fabrication, printable electronics and solar energy panels. The technology is primarily driven by our understanding of the fundamental laser-material interaction, process control strategies and the advancement of significant fabrication experience over the past few years. The wide-ranging operating parameters available with respect to power, pulse width variation, beam quality, higher repetition rates as well as precise control of the energy deposition through programmable pulse shaping technologies, enables pre-defined material removal, selective scribing of individual layer within a stacked multi-layer thin film structure, texturing of material surfaces as well as precise introduction of heat into the material to monitor its characteristic properties are a few examples. In this research, results in the area of laser surface texturing of metals for added hydrodynamic lubricity to reduce friction, processing of ink-jet printed graphene oxide for flexible printed electronic circuit fabrication and scribing of multi-layer thin films for the development of photovoltaic CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) interconnects for solar panel devices will be discussed.

  12. Mobile Technology and the Unsettled Ocean of Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Tim; Black, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology is one of several currents that upset the relatively placid world of admitting, enrolling, advising, serving, and graduating students. The authors have been involved with technology since they began in the profession. Technology is not really new to them. But with mobile technology, "so much" is new--indeed, foreign--to many…

  13. Mobile Technology and the Unsettled Ocean of Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Tim; Black, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology is one of several currents that upset the relatively placid world of admitting, enrolling, advising, serving, and graduating students. The authors have been involved with technology since they began in the profession. Technology is not really new to them. But with mobile technology, "so much" is new--indeed, foreign--to many…

  14. Measuring ocean acidification: new technology for a new era of ocean chemistry.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Robert H

    2014-05-20

    Human additions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere are creating a cascade of chemical consequences that will eventually extend to the bottom of all the world's oceans. Among the best-documented seawater effects are a worldwide increase in open-ocean acidity and large-scale declines in calcium carbonate saturation states. The susceptibility of some young, fast-growing calcareous organisms to adverse impacts highlights the potential for biological and economic consequences. Many important aspects of seawater CO2 chemistry can be only indirectly observed at present, and important but difficult-to-observe changes can include shifts in the speciation and possibly bioavailability of some life-essential elements. Innovation and invention are urgently needed to develop the in situ instrumentation required to document this era of rapid ocean evolution.

  15. Empirical support for global integrated assessment modeling: Productivity trends and technological change in developing countries' agriculture and electric power sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2000-04-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling of climate policy is increasingly global in nature, with models incorporating regional disaggregation. The existing empirical basis for IA modeling, however, largely arises from research on industrialized economies. Given the growing importance of developing countries in determining long-term global energy and carbon emissions trends, filling this gap with improved statistical information on developing countries' energy and carbon-emissions characteristics is an important priority for enhancing IA modeling. Earlier research at LBNL on this topic has focused on assembling and analyzing statistical data on productivity trends and technological change in the energy-intensive manufacturing sectors of five developing countries, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, and South Korea. The proposed work will extend this analysis to the agriculture and electric power sectors in India, South Korea, and two other developing countries. They will also examine the impact of alternative model specifications on estimates of productivity growth and technological change for each of the three sectors, and estimate the contribution of various capital inputs--imported vs. indigenous, rigid vs. malleable-- in contributing to productivity growth and technological change. The project has already produced a data resource on the manufacturing sector which is being shared with IA modelers. This will be extended to the agriculture and electric power sectors, which would also be made accessible to IA modeling groups seeking to enhance the empirical descriptions of developing country characteristics. The project will entail basic statistical and econometric analysis of productivity and energy trends in these developing country sectors, with parameter estimates also made available to modeling groups. The parameter estimates will be developed using alternative model specifications that could be directly utilized by the existing IAMs for the manufacturing

  16. Health technology assessment and its role in the future development of the Indian healthcare sector

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Bastian; Pooley, Jayne; Feuring, Martin; Suvarna, Viraj; Harrington, Adrian E.

    2012-01-01

    Public expenditure on healthcare in India is low by international comparison, and access to essential treatment pushes many uninsured citizens below the poverty line. In many countries, policymakers utilize health technology assessment (HTA) methodologies to direct investments in healthcare, to obtain the maximum benefit for the population as a whole. With rising incomes and a commitment from the Government of India to increase the proportion of gross domestic product spent on health, this is an opportune moment to consider how HTA might help to allocate healthcare spending in India, in an equitable and efficient manner. Despite the predominance of out-of-pocket payments in the Indian healthcare sector, payers of all types are increasingly demanding value for money from expenditure on healthcare. In this review we demonstrate how HTA can be used to inform several aspects of healthcare provision. Areas in which HTA could be applied in the Indian context include, drug pricing, development of clinical practice guidelines, and prioritizing interventions that represent the greatest value within a limited budget. To illustrate the potential benefits of using the HTA approach, we present an example from a mature HTA market (Canada) that demonstrates how a new treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation — although more expensive than the current standard of care — improves clinical outcomes and represents a cost-effective use of public health resources. If aligned with the prevailing cultural and ethical considerations, and with the necessary investment in expert staff and resources, HTA promises to be a valuable tool for development of the Indian healthcare sector. PMID:22701823

  17. Protozooplankton community structure and grazing impact in the eastern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in austral summer 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froneman, Pierre Willliam

    2004-11-01

    The protozooplankton community structure and grazing impact within the winter ice-edge zone (WIE), spring ice-edge zone (SIE) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) in the eastern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean was investigated in austral summer (December 97—January 98). Total chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentrations in the vicinity of the SIZ and APF were always >0.5 μg l while at stations within the SIE total pigment concentrations were always <0.3 μg l -1. Protozooplankton communities throughout the investigation were dominated by nanoflagellates with densities varying between 2050 and 2750 ind. l -1 in the SIE, between 2525 and 3100 ind. l -1 in the WIE and between 2750 and 3350 ind. l -1 in the region of the APF. The >20 μm fraction was always dominated by ciliates comprising aloricates and tintinnids and dinoflagellates. The contribution of the larger components to the total was, however, always <40% of the total. Protozooplankton biomass estimated from biovolume:carbon ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 μg C l -1. Protozooplankton herbivory throughout the study was highest within the <20 μm chlorophyll fraction. Instantaneous grazing coefficients of protozooplankton within this chlorophyll fraction ranged between 0.04 and 0.28 d -1 corresponding to a grazing impact equivalent to up to 24% (range 4-24%) of the chlorophyll standing stock. These rates are equivalent to a community ingestion rate of between 0.55 and 1.89 μg C l -1 or between 13% and 35% of the daily production within the <20 μm Chl- a fraction. Protozooplankton were unable to control the growth of the larger microphytoplankton. The highest impact of the protozooplankton was recorded in the WIE where small phytoplankton cells comprised >60% of total pigment. These results suggest that the grazing impact of the protozooplankton was largely mediated by the contribution of the small phytoplankton cells to total pigment.

  18. Effect of Pacific warm and cold events on the sea ice behavior in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Pranab; Dash, Mihir Kumar; Pandey, Prem Chand

    2014-02-01

    The teleconnections between sea ice area (SIA) in the Indian Ocean Sector (IOS) of the Southern Ocean (20-90°E) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) for the period 1982-2009 are studied. The ENSO years are divided into La Niña, El Niño and El Niño Modoki years. The sea surface temperature anomalies averaged over the Niño 3.4 (SST3.4A) region (120-170°W, 5°N-5°S) are used as proxy for ENSO. A significantly stronger negative correlation between SST3.4A and SIA anomalies is found at a positive lag of 6-12 months in 50-80°E region than elsewhere in the IOS. Variations in sea level pressure anomalies over the Antarctic continent and the subpolar regions play an important role in shaping the surface wind. Variation in the surface wind along with the changes in sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice drift and surface air temperature (SAT) shape the sea ice cover over the region. Composites show that the winters following La Niña years are associated with more SIA compared to that of ENSO-neutral years. This is attributed to the increase in sea level pressure gradient between the Antarctic land mass and the subpolar region, which enhances the southerly wind and results in a reduction in SAT. Also, anomalous northward advection of sea ice increases the SIC over the outer margin of the sea ice cover. The in-phase relation among SAT, SST and sea ice advection results in an increase in SIA. Also, a weaker Regional Ferrel Cell (RFC) during this period results in the reduction of poleward heat transport and contributes to the increase in SIA. During the winters following El Niño years, interaction among anomalous easterlies, wind-induced sea ice motion, SAT anomalies and heat transport by the RFC increases (decreases) the SIA in the western (eastern) part of the high correlation region. During El Niño Modoki years, an increase in SST and presence of warmer surface air over the high correlation region reduce SIA during summer as well as the winter following it

  19. Asserting Academic Legitimacy: The Influence of the University of Technology Sectoral Agendas on Curriculum Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that curriculum decision-making in the South African University of Technology (UoT) environment is affected not only by industry and disciplinary demands, but also by socio-structural features and ideologies particular to this educational sector. It supports the view that recontextualisation processes are subject to multiple…

  20. Asserting Academic Legitimacy: The Influence of the University of Technology Sectoral Agendas on Curriculum Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that curriculum decision-making in the South African University of Technology (UoT) environment is affected not only by industry and disciplinary demands, but also by socio-structural features and ideologies particular to this educational sector. It supports the view that recontextualisation processes are subject to multiple…

  1. Autonomous Observational Platforms for Ocean Studies: Operation, Advantages of Sensor Technology and Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atamanchuk, D.; Lai, J.; Vining, M.; Kehoe, D.; Siddall, G.; Send, U.; Wallace, D.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean Science and Technology research group (CERC.OCEAN) at Dalhousie University focuses on new approaches in design and development of autonomous platforms to study biogeochemical and ecological changes in the world's oceans. The principal research regions included the Labrador Sea, the Northwest Atlantic between Halifax and Bermuda, and the coastal areas of Atlantic Canada. The need for improved constraints on the ocean's present and future carbon cycle is of high relevance for the Northwest Atlantic, which is recognized as a largest sink of carbon dioxide(CO2) through air-sea exchange and subsequent transport to deeper layers of the global ocean. With the use of novel sensor technology integrated into the designed platforms we are achieving a superior spatial and temporal resolution of observations. SeaCycler - a surface piercing mooring - was designed to endure year-long measurements in harsh conditions of the open ocean, like Labrador Sea, while making daily profiles of the upper 150m of the water column. Significant research efforts within CERC.OCEAN are dedicated for improving sensors' data outcome. This includes testing, calibration of the sensors, QC and postprocessing to assure reliable and trustworthy measurements. Examples and implication of the data from SeaCycler, and other platforms including buoys, and automonous Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) flow-through system will be presented.

  2. The Ice Ocean Sentinel System (IOSS): Working towards Ice and Ocean Observation Technologies for Remote and Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmayer, R.; DeYoung, B.

    2016-02-01

    The need for a significant increase in observational capabilities of the underwater environment in harsh ice-covered environments is to a significant amount driven by expanding developments in the offshore regions of the Northwest Atlantic from Newfoundland to Western Greenland and the opening up of the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions. These regions are characterized by their remoteness, seasonally varying ice-cover and a susceptibility to extreme weather events. Existing oceanographic information about these regions is sparse and in the case of ice-covered regions often non-existent. Nonetheless crucial decisions for design and operations in these regions have to be based on realistic assumptions.As part of the Ice Ocean Sentinel System (IOSS) we are currently developping a new observation system along with approaches for the provision of atmospheric and ocean data and information products for these regions. We approach this objective by combining existing and field-proven technologies, such as underwater glider type Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), acoustic imaging systems and COTS ocean water property sensors in new ways, and adding communication and navigation pathways to interconnect these elements.This project work involves several stages, from development, through testing to operational deployments. The objective is to create an integrated system comprising four technologies, underwater gliders, unmanned surface craft, shore-side data collection and automated processing and visualization capabilities. Those elements, used together or in various combinations, will provide decision making information for maritime and offshore energy operations as well as data for improved ice, iceberg and ocean modelling and prediction capabilites.We will provide an overview of the 2014/2015 field trials around Newfoundland, testing glider and USV based iceberg mapping and tracking capabilities. Furthermore, we will report on the progress of the development of a novel semi

  3. [Relationship between organisational structure and worksite health management in the information technology and communications sector].

    PubMed

    Ansmann, L; Jung, J; Nitzsche, A; Pfaff, H

    2012-05-01

    Worksite health management (WHM) can positively influence employee health and performance. However, it has not yet been comprehensively implemented in companies. This study aims to identify the role of organisational structures in the implementation of WHM. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected on the companies' WHM and the organisational structure. Out of 522 randomly selected companies within the German information technology and communication (ITC) sector, one managing director for each company was being questioned through telephone interviews. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The results of the study reveal that the implementation of WHM is positively correlated with a large company size (OR 2.75; 95%-CI 1.10-6.88) and with the existence of an employee representation (OR 2.48; 95%-CI 1.54-3.98). Other structural characteristics, such as the employment of a company physician, the percentage of temporary workers as well as the staff's age and sex distribution do not seem to have a significant impact on the implementation of WHM. The results indicate that the implementation of WHM can only be explained to a certain degree by organisational structures. However, the findings highlight the fact that companies with few structural resources are in particular need of tailored support when implementing WHM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Assessment of renewable energy technology and a case of sustainable energy in mobile telecommunication sector.

    PubMed

    Okundamiya, Michael S; Emagbetere, Joy O; Ogujor, Emmanuel A

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities.

  5. Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology and a Case of Sustainable Energy in Mobile Telecommunication Sector

    PubMed Central

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities. PMID:24578673

  6. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic

  7. Towards better simulations of ice/ocean coupling in the Amundsen Sea Sector, West Antarctica, using a coupled ice-sheet ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Menemenlis, D.; Larour, E. Y.; Schodlok, M.; Seroussi, H.

    2015-12-01

    In the Amundsen Sea, warm Circumpolar Deep Water intrudes onto the continental shelf and flows into ice shelf cavities of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), resulting in high basal melt rates. Thinning of WAIS can have a large impact on ice sheet dynamics, sea-level rise, and local and global ocean circulation. Recent observations of rapid changes in Pine Island Glacier have motivated many model studies. However, it still remains difficult to simulate the evolution of glaciers in West Antarctica accurately. Part of the difficulty stems from poorly known boundary conditions, e.g., ocean bathymetry, bedrock, surface atmosphere, and lateral ocean. Another set of difficulties stems from assumptions and approximations used in the ocean and ice sheet models. Many ocean models investigate basal melting of ice shelves assuming constant ice shelf cavity shape, while many ice sheet models investigate the evolution of ice sheet using parametrized melt rate or melt rate obtained from ocean model separately. However, several recent studies show that glacier retreat is sensitive to basal melt and, in turn, basal melt is sensitive to ice shelf cavity shape. To simulate the evolution of ice shelves in West Antarctica in a more realistic set up, we use the ISSM ice sheet model coupled to the MITgcm ocean, sea ice, and ice shelf cavity model. We also incorporate oceanographic observations as well as refined geometries of glaciers and sea floor for more realistic boundary conditions. We simulate the evolution of glaciers in Amundsen Sea (i.e., Pine Island, Thwaites, and Getz Glaciers), and discuss its sensitivities to ocean parameters, ice sheet and ice shelf parameters, and bedrock topography.

  8. Digital technology for health sector governance in low and middle income countries: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Holeman, Isaac; Cookson, Tara Patricia; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Poor governance impedes the provision of equitable and cost-effective health care in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although systemic problems such as corruption and inefficiency have been characterized as intractable, "good governance" interventions that promote transparency, accountability and public participation have yielded encouraging results. Mobile phones and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are beginning to play a role in these interventions, but little is known about their use and effects in the context of LMIC health care. Multi-stage scoping review: Research questions and scope were refined through a landscape scan of relevant implementation activities and by analyzing related concepts in the literature. Relevant studies were identified through iterative Internet searches (Google, Google Scholar), a systematic search of academic databases (PubMed, Web of Science), social media crowdsourcing (targeted LinkedIn and Twitter appeals) and reading reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. Parallel expert interviews helped to verify concepts and emerging findings and identified additional studies for inclusion. Results were charted, analyzed thematically and summarized. We identified 34 articles from a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including 17 published research articles and 17 grey literature reports. Analysis of these articles revealed 15 distinct ways of using ICTs for good governance activities in LMIC health care. These use cases clustered into four conceptual categories: 1) gathering and verifying information on services to improve transparency and auditability 2) aggregating and visualizing data to aid communication and decision making 3) mobilizing citizens in reporting poor practices to improve accountability and quality and 4) automating and auditing processes to prevent fraud. Despite a considerable amount of implementation activity, we identified little formal evaluative research

  9. Digital technology for health sector governance in low and middle income countries: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Holeman, Isaac; Cookson, Tara Patricia; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor governance impedes the provision of equitable and cost–effective health care in many low– and middle–income countries (LMICs). Although systemic problems such as corruption and inefficiency have been characterized as intractable, “good governance” interventions that promote transparency, accountability and public participation have yielded encouraging results. Mobile phones and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are beginning to play a role in these interventions, but little is known about their use and effects in the context of LMIC health care. Methods Multi–stage scoping review: Research questions and scope were refined through a landscape scan of relevant implementation activities and by analyzing related concepts in the literature. Relevant studies were identified through iterative Internet searches (Google, Google Scholar), a systematic search of academic databases (PubMed, Web of Science), social media crowdsourcing (targeted LinkedIn and Twitter appeals) and reading reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. Parallel expert interviews helped to verify concepts and emerging findings and identified additional studies for inclusion. Results were charted, analyzed thematically and summarized. Results We identified 34 articles from a wide range of disciplines and sectors, including 17 published research articles and 17 grey literature reports. Analysis of these articles revealed 15 distinct ways of using ICTs for good governance activities in LMIC health care. These use cases clustered into four conceptual categories: 1) gathering and verifying information on services to improve transparency and auditability 2) aggregating and visualizing data to aid communication and decision making 3) mobilizing citizens in reporting poor practices to improve accountability and quality and 4) automating and auditing processes to prevent fraud. Despite a considerable amount of implementation activity, we identified

  10. Reconstruction of millennial changes in dust emission, transport and regional sea ice coverage using the deep EPICA ice cores from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean sector of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Hubertus; Fundel, Felix; Ruth, Urs; Twarloh, Birthe; Wegner, Anna; Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Castellano, Emiliano; Morganti, Andrea; Severi, Mirko; Wolff, Eric; Littot, Genevieve; Röthlisberger, Regine; Mulvaney, Rob; Hutterli, Manuel A.; Kaufmann, Patrik; Federer, Urs; Lambert, Fabrice; Bigler, Matthias; Hansson, Margareta; Jonsell, Ulf; de Angelis, Martine; Boutron, Claude; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Steffensen, Jorgen Peder; Barbante, Carlo; Gaspari, Vania; Gabrielli, Paolo; Wagenbach, Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Continuous sea salt and mineral dust aerosol records have been studied on the two EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) deep ice cores. The joint use of these records from opposite sides of the East Antarctic plateau allows for an estimate of changes in dust transport and emission intensity as well as for the identification of regional differences in the sea salt aerosol source. The mineral dust flux records at both sites show a strong coherency over the last 150 kyr related to dust emission changes in the glacial Patagonian dust source with three times higher dust fluxes in the Atlantic compared to the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean (SO). Using a simple conceptual transport model this indicates that transport can explain only 40% of the atmospheric dust concentration changes in Antarctica, while factor 5-10 changes occurred. Accordingly, the main cause for the strong glacial dust flux changes in Antarctica must lie in environmental changes in Patagonia. Dust emissions, hence environmental conditions in Patagonia, were very similar during the last two glacials and interglacials, respectively, despite 2-4 °C warmer temperatures recorded in Antarctica during the penultimate interglacial than today. 2-3 times higher sea salt fluxes found in both ice cores in the glacial compared to the Holocene are difficult to reconcile with a largely unchanged transport intensity and the distant open ocean source. The substantial glacial enhancements in sea salt aerosol fluxes can be readily explained assuming sea ice formation as the main sea salt aerosol source with a significantly larger expansion of (summer) sea ice in the Weddell Sea than in the Indian Ocean sector. During the penultimate interglacial, our sea salt records point to a 50% reduction of winter sea ice coverage compared to the Holocene both in the Indian and Atlantic Ocean sector of the SO. However, from 20 to 80 ka before present sea salt fluxes show only very subdued millennial changes

  11. 234Th-derived surface export fluxes of POC from the Northern Barents Sea and the Eurasian sector of the Central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Örjan; Andersson, Per S.

    2012-10-01

    Settling-based surface ocean export of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the western Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean was investigated from the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the northern Barents Sea to the North Pole area. Upper ocean profiles of POC were combined with corresponding dissolved and particulate 234Th activities measured with a low-volume at-sea direct beta counting protocol to constrain the 234Th-derived POC export in July and August of 2001 to 6-32 mmol m-2 d-1 for the Barents Sea MIZ dropping to 2-6 mmol m-2 d-1 for multi-year-ice (MYI) covered central Arctic stations in Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins. Secular equilibrium between 234Th and 238U activities in intermediate to deep waters in the Amundsen Basin (n=10) demonstrated that the at-sea measurement protocol was functioning satisfactorily. There was no distinction in POC export efficiency between the MIZ and the MYI-covered interior basins with an average ratio between 234Th-derived POC export and primary production (so-called ThE ratio) of 44%. A projected increase in primary production with retreat in areal extent of sea ice is thus likely to yield increased POC sequestration in the Arctic Ocean interior.

  12. The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) mooring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, D. R.; Wendt, R. L.; Johnson, B. A.

    1982-12-01

    Existing technology for mooring components which may be suitable for OTEC use is summarized. Due to the platform size, depth of water, and length of design life required for an operational OTEC plant, only large and high capacity mooring components were investigated. Engineering, test, and manufacturer's data on wire rope, synthetic rope (nylon, polyester and Kevlar), anchors, deck fittings and machinery, and design concepts for tension leg platform mooring systems are included. A significant portion of the effort was directed to the assessment of synthetic rope technology and its application to moorings.

  13. Tools for Tomorrow's Science and Technology Workforce: MATE's 2006 ROV Competition Sets Students' Sights on Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zande, Jill; Meeson, Blanche; Cook, Susan; Matsumoto, George

    2006-01-01

    Teams participating in the 2006 ROV competition organized by the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center and the Marine Technology Society's (MTS) ROV Committee experienced first-hand the scientific and technical challenges that many ocean scientists, technicians, and engineers face every day. The competition tasked more than 1,000 middle and high school, college, and university students from Newfoundland to Hong Kong with designing and building ROVs to support the next generation of ocean observing systems. Teaming up with the National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations, Ocean. US, and the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION) Program, the competition highlighted ocean observing systems and the careers, organizations, and technologies associated with ocean observatories. The student teams were challenged to develop vehicles that can deploy, install, and maintain networks of instruments as well as to explore the practical applications and the research questions made possible by observing systems.

  14. Tools for Tomorrow's Science and Technology Workforce: MATE's 2006 ROV Competition Sets Students' Sights on Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zande, Jill; Meeson, Blanche; Cook, Susan; Matsumoto, George

    2006-01-01

    Teams participating in the 2006 ROV competition organized by the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center and the Marine Technology Society's (MTS) ROV Committee experienced first-hand the scientific and technical challenges that many ocean scientists, technicians, and engineers face every day. The competition tasked more than 1,000 middle and high school, college, and university students from Newfoundland to Hong Kong with designing and building ROVs to support the next generation of ocean observing systems. Teaming up with the National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations, Ocean. US, and the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION) Program, the competition highlighted ocean observing systems and the careers, organizations, and technologies associated with ocean observatories. The student teams were challenged to develop vehicles that can deploy, install, and maintain networks of instruments as well as to explore the practical applications and the research questions made possible by observing systems.

  15. Physical and biogeochemical controls on the variability in surface pH and calcium carbonate saturation states in the Atlantic sectors of the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, Eithne; Clarke, Jennifer S.; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Esposito, Mario; Rérolle, Victoire M. C.; Schlosser, C.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Tyrrell, Toby; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification due to their low temperatures and reduced buffering capacity, and are expected to experience extensive low pH conditions and reduced carbonate mineral saturations states (Ω) in the near future. However, the impact of anthropogenic CO2 on pH and Ω will vary regionally between and across the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Here we investigate the carbonate chemistry in the Atlantic sector of two polar oceans, the Nordic Seas and Barents Sea in the Arctic Ocean, and the Scotia and Weddell Seas in the Southern Ocean, to determine the physical and biogeochemical processes that control surface pH and Ω. High-resolution observations showed large gradients in surface pH (0.10-0.30) and aragonite saturation state (Ωar) (0.2-1.0) over small spatial scales, and these were particularly strong in sea-ice covered areas (up to 0.45 in pH and 2.0 in Ωar). In the Arctic, sea-ice melt facilitated bloom initiation in light-limited and iron replete (dFe>0.2 nM) regions, such as the Fram Strait, resulting in high pH (8.45) and Ωar (3.0) along the sea-ice edge. In contrast, accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from organic carbon mineralisation under the ice resulted in low pH (8.05) and Ωar (1.1) in areas where thick ice persisted. In the Southern Ocean, sea-ice retreat resulted in bloom formation only where terrestrial inputs supplied sufficient iron (dFe>0.2 nM), such as in the vicinity of the South Sandwich Islands where enhanced pH (8.3) and Ωar (2.3) were primarily due to biological production. In contrast, in the adjacent Weddell Sea, weak biological uptake of CO2 due to low iron concentrations (dFe<0.2 nM) resulted in low pH (8.1) and Ωar (1.6). The large spatial variability in both polar oceans highlights the need for spatially resolved surface data of carbonate chemistry variables but also nutrients (including iron) in order to accurately elucidate the large gradients experienced by marine

  16. Culture, technology and policy in the informal sector: attention to endogenous development.

    PubMed

    Fyle, C M

    1987-01-01

    243 blacksmiths in Sierra Leone were interviewed in 1984-85 in an effort to focus on both the activities and attitudes of traditional blacksmiths in the country's economy. Due to the fact of an shortage of foreign exchange with which to import and maintain equipment, agriculture using high-technology equipment accounts for less than 15% of total production. Consequently, blacksmiths are vital to the nations' survival, despite prevailing attitudes toward them. The interviews were conducted in 9 of the 12 districts in Sierra Leone. The blacksmith operates not simply in terms of producing and servicing goods; cultural values frame his position in the community. In all of West Africa, and particularly among Mende-related peoples, there historically exists a mystique surrounding a blacksmith. In some societies, blacksmiths were believed to be witches. The arguments that most likely could account for this would probably lie in the fact that the blacksmith made farm tools and weapons of war, means of survival in the community. Thus, his position was vital. Traditionally the importance of the smith's profession lies in the fact that some of the implements he fabricates and the materials he uses are believed to provide elements of social control or to have healing powers. An appreciation of the cultural significance of the blacksmith demonstrates the degree of attachment of the population to this profession as well as the context within which one could relate to possible technological changes in the trade. An attempt was made in the interview to gather some information about levels of production. The figures represent averages, and production capacity varied owing to a number of factors, including the degree of organization of the unit, the capacity of the head of the forge to keep his team busy when work was intensive, and the degree of energy and determination of an operator to get the greatest amount of work done in 1 day. The most obvious factor influencing production

  17. Financial and environmental impacts of new technologies in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthu, Ray Charles, III

    Energy industries (generation, transmission and distribution of fuels and electricity) have a long history as the key elements of the US energy economy and have operated within a mostly consistent niche in our society for the past century. However, varieties of interrelated drivers are forcing changes to these industries' business practices, relationship to their customers, and function in society. In the electric utility industry, the customer is moving towards acting as a fuller partner in the energy economy: buying, selling, and dispatching its demand according to its own incentives. Natural gas exploration and production has long operated out in rural areas farther from public concerns or regulations, but now, due to hydraulic fracturing, new exploration is occurring in more urbanized, developed regions of the country and is creating significant public concern. For these industries, the challenges to their economic development and to improvements to the energy sector are not necessarily technological; but are social, business, and policy problems. This dissertation seeks to understand and design towards these issues by building economic and life cycle assessment models that quantify value, potential monetization, and the potential difference between the monetization and value for two new technologies: customer-owned distributed generation systems and integrated development plans with pipeline water transport in hydraulically fractured oil and gas fields. An inclusive business model of a generic customer in Fort Collins, Co and its surrounding utilities demonstrates that traditional utility rates provide customers with incentives that encourage over-monetization of a customer's distributed generation resource at the expense of the utilities. Another model which compares customer behavior incented by traditional rates in three New England cities with the behavior incented through a real-time pricing market corroborates this conclusion. Daily customer load peak

  18. Promoting Lifelong Ocean Education: Shaping Tomorrow's Earth Stewards and the Science and Technology Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche

    2006-01-01

    The coming ocean observing systems provide an unprecedented opportunity to change both the public perception of our oceans, and to inspire, captivate and motivate our children, our young adults and even our fellow adults to pursue careers allied with the oceans and to become stewards of our Planet's last unexplored environment. Education plans for the operational component, the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), and for the research component, Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION), are designed to take advantage of this opportunity. In both cases, community recommendations were developed within the context of the following assumptions: 1. Utilize research on how people learn, especially the four-pronged model of simultaneous learner-centered, knowledge-center, assessment-centered and community-centered learning 2. Strive for maximum impact on national needs in science and technology learning 3. Build on the best of what is already in place 4. Pay special attention to quality, sustainability, and scalability of efforts 5. Use partnerships across federal, state and local government, academia, and industry. Community recommendations for 100s and ORION education have much in common and offer the opportunity to create a coherent education effort allied with ocean observing systems. Both efforts focus on developing the science and technology workforce of the future, and the science and technology literacy of the public within the context of the Earth system and the role of the oceans and Great Lakes in that system. Both also recognize that an organized education infrastructure that supports sustainability and scalability of education efforts is required if ocean observing education efforts are to achieve a small but measurable improvement in either of these areas. Efforts have begun to develop the education infrastructure by beginning to form a community of educators from existing ocean and aquatic education networks and by exploring needs and

  19. Promoting Lifelong Ocean Education: Shaping Tomorrow's Earth Stewards and the Science and Technology Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeson, Blanche

    2006-01-01

    The coming ocean observing systems provide an unprecedented opportunity to change both the public perception of our oceans, and to inspire, captivate and motivate our children, our young adults and even our fellow adults to pursue careers allied with the oceans and to become stewards of our Planet's last unexplored environment. Education plans for the operational component, the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), and for the research component, Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION), are designed to take advantage of this opportunity. In both cases, community recommendations were developed within the context of the following assumptions: 1. Utilize research on how people learn, especially the four-pronged model of simultaneous learner-centered, knowledge-center, assessment-centered and community-centered learning 2. Strive for maximum impact on national needs in science and technology learning 3. Build on the best of what is already in place 4. Pay special attention to quality, sustainability, and scalability of efforts 5. Use partnerships across federal, state and local government, academia, and industry. Community recommendations for 100s and ORION education have much in common and offer the opportunity to create a coherent education effort allied with ocean observing systems. Both efforts focus on developing the science and technology workforce of the future, and the science and technology literacy of the public within the context of the Earth system and the role of the oceans and Great Lakes in that system. Both also recognize that an organized education infrastructure that supports sustainability and scalability of education efforts is required if ocean observing education efforts are to achieve a small but measurable improvement in either of these areas. Efforts have begun to develop the education infrastructure by beginning to form a community of educators from existing ocean and aquatic education networks and by exploring needs and

  20. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy. [(information dissemination and technology transfer from NASA programs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Space Benefits is a publication that has been prepared for the NASA Technology Utilization Office by the Denver Research Institute's Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies, to provide the Agency with accurate, convenient, and integrated resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy. The technological innovations derived from NASA space programs and their current applications in the following areas are considered: (1) manufacturing consumer products, (2) manufacturing capital goods, (3) new consumer products and retailing, (4) electric utilities, (5) environmental quality, (6) food production and processing, (7) government, (8) petroleum and gas, (9) construction, (10) law enforcement, and (11) highway transportation.

  1. Coccolithophore variability across Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean and its potential impact on the carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra-Pellitero, Mariem; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Lamy, Frank; Köhler, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Proxy-based reconstructions of past changes in the marine biological carbon pumps are limited, especially in the Southern Ocean. This work provides new insights into the productivity variations in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. We present new data derived from three sediment cores that show glacial/interglacial coccolithophore variability across Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11). The cores were retrieved during R/V Polarstern cruise PS75 from the Subantarctic Zone and Polar Front Zone at the western flank of the East Pacific Rise and in the vicinity of the Antarctic-Pacific Ridge. Coccolithophore assemblages were overwhelmingly dominated by the species Gephyrocapsa caribbeanica and small Gephyrocapsa. Total numbers of coccoliths, coccolith accumulation rates, coccolith fraction (CF; <20 μm fraction) Sr/Ca data, and temperature-corrected CF Sr/Ca records consistently showed an increase in coccolithophore productivity during Termination V (MIS 12-11 boundary), highest productivity throughout MIS 11 ( 424-374 kyr), and a decrease during late MIS 11 in all the cores. We end with a discussion of back-calculated coccolith calcification rate in the surface ocean and its potential contribution to changes in the concentration of atmospheric CO2.

  2. Application of the principle of breaking ocean waves to mixing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doman, Michael

    1991-05-01

    Turbulent mixing in the multiphase system of breaking ocean waves and whitecaps is known to play an important role in the mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere. Thus engineering applications to this naturally occurring dynamic exchange process appear to be of interest in various areas of applied mixing technology. Starting from the fact that ocean waves break after having reached their point of instability, a three-dimensional collapsible swivel mechanism (CSM) was developed for simulating by mechanical means the highly dynamic movement of breaking ocean waves. The CSM, employing reversion kinematics of a six-link spatial kinematic chain, has been realized in the construction of a new mixing technology (called swing mixer) that can either move the fluid by the use of mixing tools in a vessel (stirrer principle) or by moving the entire vessel (shaker principle). A first description of swing mixers has recently been given.1 A special characteristic of swing mixers is their three-dimensional reversing motion, the forward and backward paths being nonsuperimposable mirror images of one another. During the mixing process in swing mixers, the efficient mixing principle of repeated stretching and folding2 also takes place in the third dimension. Details of the mixing technology of swing mixers will be discussed together with some suggestions as to how spatial and temporal changes in the concentration may be determined with the help of CCD cameras in a given multiphase system agitated by swing mixers.

  3. Teleconnections of the Southern Oscillation in the tropical Atlantic sector in the OSU coupled upper ocean-atomosphere GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, S.; Meinster, A. ); Sperber, K.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The Oregon State University coupled upper ocean-atmosphere GCM has been shown to qualitatively simulate the Southern Oscillation. A composite analysis of the warm and cold events simulated in this 23-year integration has been performed. During the low phase of the Southern Oscillation, when warm anomalies occur in the eastern Pacific, the model simulates for the Atlantic region during March-May (1) a deficit of precipitation over the tropical South American continent, (2) Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico sea level pressure and sea surface temperature are in phase with the eastern Pacific anomalies, while those east of the Nordeste region are out of phase, and (3) northeast trade winds are anomalously weak and southwest trade winds are anomalously strong (as inferred from surface current anomalies). The anomalies in the oceanic processes are induced by perturbations in the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic and are coupled to changes in the Walker circulation. During the high phase of the simulated Southern Oscillation, conditions in the atmosphere and ocean are essentially the reverse of the low phase. The model produces a response in the South American region during the opposing phases of the Southern Oscillation that is in general agreement with observations. The interannual variation of Nordeste rainfall is shown to be dominated by a few band-limited frequencies. These frequencies are found in the SST series of those regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans where strong correlations with Nordeste precipitation exist.

  4. One-dimensional evolution of the upper water column in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fer, Ilker; Peterson, Algot K.; Randelhoff, Achim; Meyer, Amelie

    2017-03-01

    A one-dimensional model is employed to reproduce the observed time evolution of hydrographic properties in the upper water column during winter, between 26 January and 11 March 2015, in a region north of Svalbard in the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean. From an observed initial state, vertical diffusion equations for temperature and salinity give the hydrographic conditions at a later stage. Observations of microstructure are used to synthesize profiles of vertical diffusivity, K, representative of varying wind forcing conditions. The ice-ocean heat and salt fluxes at the ice-ocean interface are implemented as external source terms, estimated from the salt and enthalpy budgets, using friction velocity from the Rossby similarity drag relation, and the ice core temperature profiles. We are able to reproduce the temporal evolution of hydrography satisfactorily for two pairs of measured profiles, suggesting that the vertical processes dominated the observed changes. Sensitivity tests reveal a significant dependence on K. Variation in other variables, such as the temperature gradient of the sea ice, the fraction of heat going to ice melt, and the turbulent exchange coefficient for heat, are relatively less important. The increase in salinity as a result of freezing and brine release is approximately 10%, significantly less than that due to entrainment (90%) from beneath the mixed layer. Entrainment was elevated during episodic storm events, leading to melting. The results highlight the contribution of storms to mixing in the upper Arctic Ocean and its impact on ice melt and mixed-layer salt and nutrient budgets.

  5. In which sectors could new illumination technology strategically reduce CO2 emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Andersen, Jan; Kjær, Tyge

    2009-07-01

    Illumination is responsible for the consumption of 19% of the total electricity consumption worldwide. Efforts to reduce the consumption of this energy fraction are, therefore, increasingly taking the attention of many governments. Denmark, as one of the leader countries in environmental actions, is engaged in several actions to reduce its CO2 emissions. The problem severity demands a capacity to react quickly and efficiently to better reach the international goals. Traditionally, the efforts have concentrated on the residential sector. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on where the effort shall be strategically directed. We look at the international tendencies with specific focus on Europe and chose Denmark as a representative example to illustrate the way in which the policies focus on the residential sector instead of the commercial and services sectors. This paper conclude that the available statistics so far show that in Europe the commercial and service sector is responsible for the highest electricity consumption due to illumination. The same pattern repeats in Denmark. Therefore, this paper argues that in order to achieve even more optimal solutions, a more detailed differentiation of data shall be pursued by the electricity companies. It is suggested that detecting the right sector will give possibilities to better target actions with higher impact potential.

  6. Afghanistans Information and Communications Technology Sector: U.S. Agencies Obligated Over $2.6 Billion to the Sector, but the Full Scope of U.S. Efforts is Unknown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    W56SGK-13-P-4014 Biometric information tech skills training 1 $103,988 August 2013– December 2013 W56SGK-13-P-7058 National Information Management System...Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction v SIGAR 16-46 Audit Report Afghanistan’s Information and Communications Technology...Sector 15-XX-AR/ Afghan ICT Sector SIGAR J U L Y 2016 For more information , contact SIGAR Public Affairs at (703) 545-5974 or

  7. Staff Turnover in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Sector in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavuso Mda, Adele

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents two frameworks of what drives the ICT workers' decisions to terminate their employment with their employers, using in-depth interviewing of 38 ICT participants in different industry sectors in South Africa. The findings show external labor markets (ELMs) and internal labor markets (ILM) turnover factor across information…

  8. Assessing the Impact of Trade Policy and Technology Changes in the U.S. Forestry Sectors

    Treesearch

    Lan Wu; Janaki Alavalapati; Douglas Carter; David N. Wear; Gouranga Das

    2002-01-01

    Increased trade liberalization and globalization of financial markets are influencing both the demand for and supply of forest products in the U.S. Meanwhile, more innovations are introduced into the U.S. forestry sectors to meet the growing demands for forest products. Since the U.S. is the largest producer and consumer of forest products in the world, these changes...

  9. Staff Turnover in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Sector in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavuso Mda, Adele

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents two frameworks of what drives the ICT workers' decisions to terminate their employment with their employers, using in-depth interviewing of 38 ICT participants in different industry sectors in South Africa. The findings show external labor markets (ELMs) and internal labor markets (ILM) turnover factor across information…

  10. The role of education and training in absorptive capacity of international technology transfer in the aerospace sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heiden, Patrick; Pohl, Christine; Bin Mansor, Shuhaimi; van Genderen, John

    2015-07-01

    The role of education and training in the aerospace sector for establishing sufficient levels of absorptive capacity in newly industrialized countries is substantial and forms a fundamental part of a nation's ability to establish and cultivate absorptive capacity on a national or organization-specific level. Successful international technology transfer as well as absorption of aerospace technology and knowledge into recipient organizations, depends prodigiously on the types of policy adopted in education and training of all groups and individuals specifically outlined in this paper. The conducted literature review revealed surprisingly few papers that translate these vital issues from theoretical scrutiny into representations that have practical policy value. Through exploration of the seven key aspects of education and training, this paper provides a practical template for policy-makers and practitioners in Asian newly industrialized countries, which may be utilized as a prototype to coordinate relevant policy aspects of education and training in international technology transfer projects across a wide variety of actors and stakeholders in the aerospace realm. A pragmatic approach through tailored practical training for the identified groups and individuals identified in this paper may lead to an enhanced ability to establish and strengthen absorptive capacity in newly industrialized countries through the development of appropriate policy guidelines. The actual coordination between education and training efforts deserves increased research and subsequent translation into policies with practical content in the aerospace sector.

  11. Collapses of the Arctic sector of the Laurentide ice sheet in the western Arctic Ocean during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Irino, T.; Nam, S. I.; Yamanaka, T.

    2016-12-01

    The last glacial was characterized by millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, such as the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles. The Heinrich events (HE) are a potential trigger of the abrupt warming, however the DO cycles were not always associated with the HE. The rate of cooling were variable, and its factor controlling the rates remains an question. To answer these questions, the reconstruction of icebergs discharges in the western Arctic Ocean is necessary. In this study, we established the stratigraphy of the Chukchi Borderland sediments during last 76,000 years and assigned the provenances and transport processes of sediments. We tried to discuss the iceberg discharges from the Laurentide ice sheet and their influences on glacial millennial climate changes. For this purpose, we used five sediment cores retrieved from the western Arctic Ocean. Dolomite-rich layers were recognized. Sedimentological properties suggest that they were derived from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago by iceberg rafting. Their deposition occurred when the sea level was 40-80 m lower than today. We suppose that the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet reached to the Arctic Ocean, and the calving of icebergs was not prevented by thick ice shelf during the periods. The deposition of dolomite-rich layer at 45 ka corresponded to H5 events. At this timing, the interstadial continued longer than other interstadials. We speculate that the large collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet delayed ice-sheet build-up and a resultant cooling. Kaolinite-rich layer was found during the last deglaciation, which enables us to speculate that the deposition was related to the collapse of ice dam and an event of freshwater discharge.

  12. The role of the Indian Ocean sector for prediction of the coupled Indo-Pacific system: Impact of atmospheric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackert, E. C.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Carton, J.; Murtugudde, R.; Arkin, P.; Evans, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indian Ocean (IO) dynamics impact ENSO predictability by influencing wind and precipitation anomalies in the Pacific. To test if the upstream influence of the IO improves ENSO validation statistics, a combination of forced ocean, atmosphere, and coupled models are utilized. In one experiment, the full tropical Indo-Pacific region atmosphere is forced by observed interannual SST anomalies. In the other, the IO is forced by climatological SST. Differences between these two forced atmospheric model experiments spotlight a much richer wind response pattern in the Pacific than previous studies that used idealized forcing and simple linear atmospheric models. Weak westerlies are found near the equator similar to earlier literature. However, at initialization strong easterlies between 30°S-10°S and 0°N-25°N and equatorial convergence of the meridional winds across the entire Pacific are unique findings from this paper. The large-scale equatorial divergence west of the dateline and northeasterly-to-northwesterly cross-equatorial flow converging on the equator east of the dateline in the Pacific are generated from interannual IO SST coupling. In addition, off-equatorial downwelling curl impacts large-scale oceanic waves (i.e., Rossby waves reflect as western boundary Kelvin waves). After 3 months, these downwelling equatorial Kelvin waves propagate across the Pacific and strengthen the NINO3 SST. Eventually Bjerknes feedbacks take hold in the eastern Pacific which allows this warm anomaly to grow. Coupled forecasts for NINO3 SST anomalies for 1993-2014 demonstrate that including interannual IO forcing significantly improves predictions for 3-9 month lead times.

  13. Provenance and temporal variability of ice rafted debris in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean during the last 22,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj, M. C.; Thamban, Meloth; Sahana, A.; Mohan, Rahul; Mahender, Kotha

    2013-04-01

    Ice rafted debris (IRD) records were studied in two sediment cores (SK200/22a and SK200/27) from the sub-Antarctic and Polar frontal regime of the Indian sector of Southern Ocean for their distribution and provenance during the last 22,000 years. The IRD fraction consists of quartz and lithic grains, with the lithic grains dominated by volcaniclastic materials. IRD content was high at marine isotope stage 2 but decreased dramatically to near absence at the Termination 1 and the Holocene. The concentration of IRD at glacial section of the core SK200/27 was nearly twice that of SK200/22a. Moreover, IRD were more abundant at the last glacial maxima (LGM) in SK200/27 with its peak abundance proceeding by nearly two millennia than at SK200/22a. It appears that an intensification of Antarctic glaciation combined with a northward migration of the Polar Front during LGM promoted high IRD flux at SK200/27 and subsequent deglacial warming have influenced the IRD supply at SK200/22a. Quartz and lithic grains may have derived from two different sources, the former transported from the Antarctic mainland, while the latter from the islands of volcanic origin from Southern Ocean. Sea-ice, influenced by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is suggested to be a dominant mechanism for the distribution of lithic IRD in the region.

  14. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Major first year accomplishments are summarized and plans are provided for the next 12-month period for a program established by NASA with the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan to investigate methods of making LANDSAT technology readily available to a broader set of private sector firms through local community colleges. The program applies a network where the major participants are NASA, university or research institutes, community colleges, and obtain hands-on training in LANDSAT data analysis techniques, using a desk-top, interactive remote analysis station which communicates with a central computing facility via telephone line, and provides for generation of land cover maps and data products via remote command.

  15. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The results achieved during the first eight months of a program to transfer LANDSAT technology to practicing professionals in the private and public sectors (grass roots) through community colleges and other locally available institutions are reported. The approach offers hands-on interactive analysis training and demonstrations through the use of color desktop computer terminals communicating with a host computer by telephone lines. The features of the terminals and associated training materials are reviewed together with plans for their use in training and demonstration projects.

  16. Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in Southeast Asia region and its relationship with atmosphere ocean variations in Indo-Pacific sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin T.

    2005-09-01

    The Southeast Asia rainfall (SEAR) anomalies depend strongly on phases of El Niño (La Niña). Using an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis, it is shown that the dominant EEOF mode of SEAR anomalies evolves northeastward throughout a period from the summer when El Niño develops to spring the following year when the event weakens. This evolution is consistent with northeastward migration of the ENSO-related anomalous out going radiation field. During boreal summer (winter), the strong ENSO-related anomaly tends to reside in regions south (north) of the equator. The evolution of dominant mode of SEAR anomalies is in tandem with the evolution of ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The strengthening and weakening of “boomerang-shaped” SST in western Pacific, the changing sign of anomalous SST in Java Sea and the warming in Indian Ocean and South China Sea are all part of ENSO-related changes and all are linked to SEAR anomaly. The anomalous low-level circulation associated with ENSO-related SEAR anomaly indicates the strengthening and weakening of two off-equatorial anticyclones, one over the Southern Indian Ocean and the other over the western North Pacific. Together with patterns of El Niño minus La Niña composites of various fields, it is proposed that the northeastward evolution of SEAR anomaly is basically part of the large-scale eastward evolution of ENSO-related signal in the Indo-Pacific sector. The atmosphere ocean interaction plays an important role in this evolution.

  17. Dissolved Iron in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean During Spring: Implications for the Seasonal Cycle of Iron in Antarctic Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedwick, P. N.; Bowie, A. R.; Ussher, S. J.; Mackey, D. J.; Trull, T. W.; Worsfold, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    Colorimetric flow injection analysis was used to measure dissolved iron (<0.4 μm, dFe) in upper-ocean (<400 m depth) water samples collected from the CLIVAR SR3 section (~142°E) between Tasmania and Antarctica in November-December 2001. These are the first such data for this region during austral spring, and include results from two stations occupied in melting pack ice, as well as one station near the 61°S SOIREE site, occupied twice. Combining these new results with data from a March 1998 cruise and the February 1999 SOIREE campaign allows us to infer seasonal (spring-fall) changes in dFe concentrations in surface waters of our study region, assuming interannual variability is small. The data suggest a seasonal drawdown of ~0.1-0.2 nM dFe in the Subantarctic Zone waters (~47°S); a seasonal accumulation of ~0.1 nM dFe in near-surface (~25 m) waters and a drawdown of ~0.05 nM dFe in deeper (~50-300 m) waters of the Subantarctic Front (~51°S); and little or no seasonal dFe drawdown (~0.05 nM or less) in surface waters south of the Subantarctic Front, where dFe concentrations were uniformly low (~0.1 nM). Thus, if winter mixing provides a significant vertical resupply of dFe to Antarctic surface waters, our results suggest that most of this winter reserve of dissolved iron is removed from the upper water column very early in the growing season. In addition, our new data provide no evidence of significant iron inputs to surface waters from melting sea ice, which may explain the lack of ice-edge algal blooms in this sector of the Southern Ocean, as inferred from ocean-color satellite images.

  18. High particulate organic carbon export during the decline of a vast diatom bloom in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Martí, Montserrat; Puigcorbé, Viena; Iversen, Morten H.; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Klaas, Christine; Cheah, Wee; Bracher, Astrid; Masqué, Pere

    2017-04-01

    Carbon fixation by phytoplankton plays a key role in the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in the Southern Ocean. Yet, it still remains unclear how efficiently the particulate organic carbon (POC) is exported and transferred from ocean surface waters to depth during phytoplankton blooms. In addition, little is known about the processes that control the flux attenuation within the upper twilight zone. Here, we present results of downward POC and particulate organic nitrogen fluxes during the decline of a vast diatom bloom in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in summer 2012. We used thorium-234 (234Th) as a particle tracer in combination with drifting sediment traps (ST). Their simultaneous use evidenced a sustained high export rate of 234Th at 100 m depth in the weeks prior to and during the sampling period. The entire study area, of approximately 8000 km2, showed similar vertical export fluxes in spite of the heterogeneity in phytoplankton standing stocks and productivity, indicating a decoupling between production and export. The POC fluxes at 100 m were high, averaging 26±15 mmol C m-2 d-1, although the strength of the biological pump was generally low. Only <20% of the daily primary production reached 100 m, presumably due to an active recycling of carbon and nutrients. Pigment analyses indicated that direct sinking of diatoms likely caused the high POC transfer efficiencies ( 60%) observed between 100 and 300 m, although faecal pellets and transport of POC linked to zooplankton vertical migration might have also contributed to downward fluxes.

  19. Enabling Technology for the Exploration of the Arctic Ocean - Multi Channel Seismic Reflection data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, B.; Anderson, R.; Chayes, D. N.; Goemmer, S.; Oursler, M.

    2009-12-01

    Great advances in mapping the Arctic Ocean have recently been made through the relatively routine acquisition of multibeam data from icebreakers operating on various cruise. The USCGC Healy, the German icebreaker Polarstern, the Canadian icebreaker Amundsen and the Swedish icebreaker Oden all routinely collect multibeam data, even while in heavy ice pack. This increase in data has substantially improved our knowledge of the form of the Arctic Ocean seafloor. Unfortunately, it is not possible to routinely collect Multi Channel Seismic Reflection (MCS) data while underway in the ice pack. Our inability to simply collect these data restricts how we understand many of the features that segment the basin by depriving us of the historical information that can be obtained by imaging the stratigraphy. Without these data, scientific ocean drilling, the ultimate ground truth for Marine Geology, cannot be done. The technology and expertise to collect MCS must be adapted for the particular circumstances of the Arctic Ocean. While MCS data have been collected in the Arctic Ocean, the procedures have relied on icebreakers towing equipment. Since icebreakers follow the path of least resistance through the pack, data are acquired in locations that are not scientifically optimal and rarely in the relatively straight lines necessary for optimal processing. Towing in the ice pack is also difficult, inefficient and puts this equipment at substantial risk of crushing or loss. While icebreakers are one means to collect these data, it is time to conduct a systematic evaluation of the costs and benefits of different platforms for MCS data acquisition. This evaluation should enable collection of high-quality data set at selected locations to solve scientific problems. Substantial uncertainties exist about the relative capabilities, costs and limitations for acquisition of MCS data from various platforms in the Arctic Ocean. For example; - Is it possible to collect multi-channel seismic

  20. Fe and H 2O 2 distributions in the upper water column in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, G´raldine; Jeandel, Catherine; Brisset, Laurence; Amouroux, David; Besson, Thierry; Donard, Olivier F. X.

    1997-03-01

    Total dissolvable iron (TDFe), particulate iron (PFe) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2 measurements were performed along a N-S transect in the upper 250 m in the Southern Ocean (62°00E/66°42S-49°00S, ANTARES II cruise, February 1994). TDFe was organically extracted (APDC/DDDC-chloroform) and analysed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), PFe was analysed by GFAAS following a strong mixed-acid leach, and H 2O 2 was analysed on board by fluorometry. The respective detection limits are equal to 0.13 nmol/kg, 0.02 nmol/kg, and 3.0 nmol/kg. TDFe concentrations vary from 0.4 to 6.2 nmol/kg and profiles are not completely depleted in the surface. PFe concentrations vary from 0.02 to 0.2 nmol/kg. Iron/carbon (Fe/C) uptake ratios for phytoplankton were calculated either from seawater or particle measurements. They are variable along the transect but are consistent when they could be compared. All the observed ratios are within the range of values proposed for the Fe/C uptake ratios by phytoplankton. Using our uptake ratio calculated in the Permanent Open Ocean Zone (4 · 10 -6 mol/mol), we estimate that the primary production which can be supported by the iron input flux into the surface waters is two times higher than the measured primary production in the same area. In the surface waters, H 2O 2 concentrations vary from 5.0 to 19.7 nmol/kg. Such low concentrations are due to strong vertical mixing, low dissolved organic matter concentrations and the latitude of the site.

  1. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A benefits briefing notebook is presented for the NASA Technology Utilization Office in which 515 applications of NASA aerospace technology to other sections of the economy are described. An overview of technology transfer is given. Benefit cases are cited in 19 categories along with pertinent information, such as communication link, DRI transfer example file, and individual case number. General, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are provided.

  2. Space Benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Some 585 examples of the beneficial use of NASA aerospace technology by public and private organizations are described to demonstrate the effects of mission-oriented programs on technological progress in the United States. General observations regarding technology transfer activity are presented. Benefit cases are listed in 20 categories along with pertinent information such as communication link with NASA; the DRI transfer example file number; and individual case numbers associated with the technology and examples used; and the date of the latest contract with user organizations. Subject, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are included.

  3. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Over 580 examples of the beneficial use of NASA aerospace technology by public and private organizations are described to demonstrate the effects of mission-oriented programs on technological progress in the United States. General observations regarding technology transfer activity are presented. Benefit cases are listed in 20 categories along with pertinent information such as communication link with NASA; the DRI transfer example file number and individual case numbers associated with the technology and examples used; and the date of the latest contract with user organizations. Subject, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are included.

  4. Intraterrestrial life in igneous ocean crust: advances, technologies, and the future (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, K. J.; Wheat, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    The “next frontier” of scientific investigation in the deep sub-seafloor microbial biosphere lies in a realm that has been a completely unexplored until just the past decade: the igneous oceanic crust. Problems that have hampered exploration of the “hard rock” marine deep biosphere have revolved around sample access (hard rock drilling is technologically complex), contamination (a major hurdle), momentum (why take on this challenge when the relatively “easier” marine muds also have been a frontier) and suspicion that microbes in more readily accessed using (simpler) non-drilling technologies - like vents - are truly are endemic of subsurface clades/activities. Since the late 1990’s, however, technologies and resultant studies on microbes in the igneous ocean crust deep biosphere have risen sharply, and offer a new and distinct view on this biome. Moreover, microbiologists are now taking leading roles in technological developments that are critically required to address this biosphere - interfacing and collaborating closely with engineers, genomic biologists, geologists, seismologists, and geochemists to accomplish logistically complex and long-term studies that bring observatory research to this deep realm. The future of this field for the least decade is rich - opportunities abound for microbiologists to play new roles in how we study microbiology in the deep subsurface in an oceanographic and Earth system science perspective.

  5. Progressive and Regressive Aspects of Information Technology in Society: A Third Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kandace R.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the impact of information technology on progressive and regressive values in society from the perspective of one international foundation and four of its technology-related programs. Through a critical interpretive approach employing an instrumental multiple-case method, a framework to help explain the influence of…

  6. Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, J. W., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews a joint attempt of the United States Forest Service and the Naval Service to enhance the utilization of research results and the new technologies through improved effectiveness of technology transfer efforts. It consists of an introduction by J. W. Creighton and seven papers: (1) "Management for Change" by P. A.…

  7. Transfer of aerospace technology to selected public sector areas of concern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NASA Technology Applications Team at Stanford Research Institute, California are discussed. The specific activities in the fields of criminalistics and transportation are reported. The overall objectives of the program are stated on the basis of successful technology transfer and providing appropriate visibility for program activities.

  8. Vocational-Technical Education Interface with Ohio's High Technology Business and Industrial Sector. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Robert W.

    This study explored the relationship of vocational-technical educational institutions in Ohio with business and industry using high-technology applications. The study attempted to determine what high-technology applications will be adopted by Ohio's business and industry in the next 5 years, what experience the schools have had in working with…

  9. Neoproterozoic fragmentation of the Scottish Sector of Laurentia - an ancient analogue for the Iberian and UK/Irish ocean-continent transition zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, G.; Krabbendam, M.

    2009-04-01

    , increasingly immature clastic sediments and volcanic rocks. Within 30-40 Ma of the end of Marinoan glaciation, an Iapetan oceanic rift was generating MORB rocks in a localised 600 my old (proto-) rift in the SW part of the Grampian Terrane. Rapid foundering thus pre-dated the first appearance of MORB basalts. Turbidite deposition then persisted after this first emergence of oceanic rocks until the early-Ordovician when convergence began to record arc-accretion and collision. During rift-drift transition, continental fragments apparently separated from the passive margin; the architecture of the Scotland-Greenland sector of Laurentia possibly resembled the present-day configuration of troughs and highs on the UK/Irish sector of the Atlantic continental shelf. Marginal plateaux analogous to the Rockall platform would have been separated from the intact continental margin by sub-basins analogous to the Rockall Trough. Such features would have channelled sediment outboard of, and along, the new passive margin in submarine fan systems. The extensional geometries of the various components of this architecture exerted control on the collisional geometry and acted as nuclei for deformation structures during Grampian orogenesis. Compound collisions in the mid-Ordovician stacked much of the original continental fragments into the complex pattern observed today. The challenge is thus to see through that later deformation and read the record of continental separation. There is much in the depositional architecture of the Dalradian Supergroup that suggests that a magma-poor passive margin is a viable model for this sector of the Laurentian margin.

  10. Surface zooplankton distribution patterns during austral summer in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, south of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kunio T.; Hosie, Graham W.; McLeod, David J.; Kitchener, John A.

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the composition, distribution and abundance of micro- and mesozooplankton in the Southern Ocean, south of Australia during the austral summer (December-February) of the 2007/08 season using a Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR). Four CPR tows were conducted during two separate oceanographic voyages under the CEAMARC (Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census) project. High zooplankton abundance was recorded on each transect in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and the Inter Polar Frontal Zone (IPFZ). The community structure in these zones was dominated by common taxa including the ubiquitous small calanoid copepods, Oithona similis and Calanus simillimus, accounting for >70% of the total abundance, and copepod nauplii, foraminiferans and appendicularians of the genus Fritillaria spp. also occurred along most of the survey transects. Total zooplankton abundance was comparatively consistent along the four transects, and ranged between 119.8 and 144.7 ind m -3. The results of cluster and IndVal analyses revealed that the dominant species/taxa show similar associations, abundance and distribution patterns on all four transects. There was no evidence of a change of surface zooplankton abundance at the time of towing in this study. Detecting the various distribution patterns of micro- and mesozooplankton species/taxa, and the accumulation of high quality data collected by a consistent methodology will contribute to determining the consequences of climate change impacts on the ecosystem.

  11. Emissions from potential Patagonian dust sources and associated biological response in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagna, A.; Evangelista, H.; Tilstra, L. G.; Kerr, R.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of Patagonian dust over primary producers in the Southern Ocean has long been disputed. Here we present new remote sensing evidence in favour of dust mediated biological response and postulate a hypothesis to explain the spatial relation observed. A new remote sensing definition of dust source areas based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) correlation is presented and interannual variation in AAI is evaluated within the source regions as a proxy for dust activity. Correlation of this data with annual chlorophyll concentration, phytoplankton biomass, and diatom dominance reveals a spatially coherent latitudinal band of positive correlation concentrated between the Polar Front and the Subtropical Front. This pattern is restricted to western areas in the biomass correlation and extends toward Africa for the chlorophyll and diatom correlation. This region is equivalent to the area of the Subantarctic Mode Water formation, characterized by a ratio Si : N ≪ 1 in late summer, an unfavourable condition for diatom development, especially under iron limitation. Therefore, due to Si-Fe co-limitation, the positive correlation could be the consequence of an enhanced sensibility of this area to external iron addition for diatom growth. For the Argentinean shelf-break, is not clear whether direct dust input and/or wind stress driving water masses upwelling could be responsible for the positive correlation.

  12. Charting the Development of Technology-Enhanced Learning Developments across the UK Higher Education Sector: A Longitudinal Perspective (2001-2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard; Voce, Julie; Jenkins, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews key findings from six surveys of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) across the UK higher education (HE) sector, conducted by Universities and Colleges Information Systems Association in association with Jisc. Updating the findings presented by Jenkins, Browne, Walker, and Hewitt [2010. The development of technology enhanced…

  13. Charting the Development of Technology-Enhanced Learning Developments across the UK Higher Education Sector: A Longitudinal Perspective (2001-2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard; Voce, Julie; Jenkins, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews key findings from six surveys of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) across the UK higher education (HE) sector, conducted by Universities and Colleges Information Systems Association in association with Jisc. Updating the findings presented by Jenkins, Browne, Walker, and Hewitt [2010. The development of technology enhanced…

  14. Scientific and technological capabilities in health-related areas: opportunities, challenges, and interactions with the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Marco Antonio; Britto, Jorge

    2016-11-03

    Characterization of the scientific and technological infrastructure in health and its interactions with the industrial sector provides key elements for understanding the dynamics of innovation in health. This study conducts an exploratory analysis of the potentialities and limitations associated with scientific and technological capabilities in the health area in Brazil and the different links between the scientific and industrial sectors in health. The analysis points to important growth in internationally indexed research output, especially in certain areas such as pharmaceutics, public health, genetics, morphology, physiology, and microbiology. There has also been important growth in research groups that interact with the industrial sector in selected areas of health. The study highlights the importance of building more solid and permanent bridges between companies, research institutions, and the health system, linking the knowledge developed in research institutions to the dynamics of the industrial sector in health. Resumo: A caracterização da infraestrutura científica e tecnológica na área da saúde e das suas formas de articulação com a base produtiva representam elementos centrais na compreensão da dinâmica de inovação em saúde. Este estudo faz uma análise exploratória sobre as potencialidades e limitações associadas às capacitações científicas e tecnológicas na área da saúde no Brasil e as formas de articulação entre a base científica e a base produtiva em saúde. A análise aponta para o crescimento expressivo da produção bibliográfica com circulação internacional no campo da saúde, particularmente em determinadas áreas como farmácia, saúde coletiva, genética, morfologia, fisiologia e microbiologia. Além disso, observa-se um crescimento expressivo dos grupos de pesquisa com relacionamentos com o setor produtivo em áreas selecionadas da saúde. Destaca-se a importância da construção de pontes mais sólidas e

  15. Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses.

    PubMed

    Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the southern hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross Sea area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross Sea; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An analysis of the implementation and impact of speech-recognition technology in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Parente, Ronaldo; Kock, Ned; Sonsini, John

    2004-06-18

    This paper develops a conceptual framework and offers research propositions for understanding the adoption of speech-recognition technology, drawing from Rogers's work on the diffusion of innovation, from interview findings, and from case study analysis. The study's focus was the analysis of the implementation of speech recognition and its impact on performance in the healthcare industry. Our interview findings indicated that, while there is still much room for improvement in the way speech-recognition technology is adopted and implemented, this particular technology has had a significant impact on the ability of healthcare providers to operate more cost effectively and provide a better level of patient care.

  17. A review of the Australian-New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean over the last 30 ka (Aus-INTIMATE project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, H. C.; Barrows, T. T.; Carter, L.; Chase, Z.; Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Ellwood, M.; Hayward, B.; Howard, W.; Neil, H. L.; Noble, T. L.; Mackintosh, A.; Moss, P. T.; Moy, A. D.; White, D.; Williams, M. J. M.; Armand, L. K.

    2013-08-01

    The Australia/New Zealand region of the Southern Ocean is influenced by several of the major global water masses of the oceans and is the prime entry point for cold deep waters into the Pacific basin. During the last glacial there was increased sea-ice extent around Antarctica (as far north as 55°S), as well as increased iceberg presence inferred from ice-rafted debris. Evidence from microfossil assemblages suggests that sea surface temperatures (SST) were up to 7 °C cooler, consistent with recent estimates of cooling for New Zealand derived from glacier modelling and other terrestrial proxies. The Subtropical Front (STF), Subantarctic Front (SAF) and Polar Front (PF) had migrated north, except where the position of the fronts were controlled bathymetrically. Despite the potential for iron fertilisation by increased dust input into the ocean during the glacial, there is limited evidence for higher total biological productivity in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The altered oceanic circulation during the glacial also decreased nutrients in the surface waters and affected the outgassing of CO2. This contributed to an increased storage of CO2 in the deep waters and lowering of the carbonate lysocline. During the deglaciation, sea-ice retreat and SST increased rapidly at ˜18 ka, roughly synchronous with the reinvigoration of deep water circulation in the Southern Ocean and the release of CO2 stored in the deep waters. The gradient in carbon isotopes (δ13Cbenthic) between Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) was greatest at the start of the deglaciation, suggesting that the AAIW ventilation preceded LCDW ventilation, or there was a significant change in air-sea fractionation of δ13C. There was a slight enrichment in δ18Oplanktic, decrease in SSTs and a reduction in intermediate and deep water circulation between ˜14 and 12.5 ka BP during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), coincident with glacier advances in the New

  18. Final Petroleum Refinery Sector Risk and Technology Review and New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains 3 September 2015 fact sheets with information regarding the final residual risk and technology review for the petroleum refinery source categories. The fact sheets provide an overview, a summary of changes, effects for the community.

  19. Attorneys for the Ocean - Graduate Training in the Transatlantic Helmholtz Research School for Ocean System Science and Technology (HOSST/TOSST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bogaard, Christel; Dullo, Christian; Devey, Colin; Kienast, Markus; Wallace, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide growth in population and standards of living is leading to ever increasing human pressure on the oceans: as a source of resources, a transportation/trade pathway, and a sink for pollutants. However, use of the world's ocean is not presently guided by any over-arching management plan at either national or international level. Marine science and technology provide the necessary foundation, both in terms of system understanding and observational and modeling tools, to address these issues and to ensure that management of ocean activities can be placed on the best-possible scientific footing. The transatlantic Helmholtz Research School Ocean Science and Technology pools the complementary expertise of the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR), the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Dalhousie University and the Institute for Ocean Research Enterprise (IORE), to train the next generation of researchers in the key scientific areas critical for responsible resource utilization and management of the ocean with special emphasis on our "local ocean" - the North Atlantic. The Research School is organized around three themes which encompass key sensitivities of the North Atlantic to external forcing and resource exploitation: 4D Ocean Dynamics, Ecosystem Hotspots, and Seafloor Structures. Interactions within and between these themes regulate how the ocean system responds to both anthropogenic and natural change. The HOSST/TOSST fellows gain an in-depth understanding of how these ocean systems interact, which in turn provides a solid understanding for the formulation of scientifically-sound management practices. Given the broad scope of the school, student education is two-pronged: it provides excellent institutional support where needed, including scientific input, personal support and financial incentives, while simultaneously generating an open "intellectual space" in which ingenious, often unpredictable, ideas can take root, overcoming

  20. Examination of the factors and issues for an environmental technology utilization partnership between the private sector and the Department of Energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brouse, P.

    1997-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) held a meeting on November 12, 1992 to evaluate the DOE relations with industry and university partners concerning environmental technology utilization. The goal of this meeting was to receive feedback from DOE industry and university partners for the identification of opportunities to improve the DOE cooperative work processes with the private sector. The meeting was designed to collect information and to turn that information into action to improve private sector partnerships with DOE.

  1. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; McNeil, Michael; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-05-03

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS for a variety of products, at the international and/or regional level. Using the BUENAS framework, we estimated potential national energy savings and CO2 emissions mitigation in the US residential sector that would result from the most aggressive policy foreseeable: standards effective in 2014 set at the current maximum technology (Max Tech) available on the market. This represents the most likely characterization of what can be maximally achieved through MEPS in the US. The authors rely on the latest Technical Support Documents and Analytical Tools published by the U.S. Department of Energy as a source to determine appliance stock turnover and projected efficiency scenarios of what would occur in the absence of policy. In our analysis, national impacts are determined for the following end uses: lighting, television, refrigerator-freezers, central air conditioning, room air conditioning, residential furnaces, and water heating. The analyzed end uses cover approximately 65percent of site energy consumption in the residential sector (50percent of the electricity consumption and 80percent of the natural gas and LPG consumption). This paper uses this BUENAS methodology to calculate that energy savings from Max Tech for the U.S. residential sector products covered in this paper will reach an 18percent reduction in electricity demand compared to the base case and 11percent in Natural Gas and LPG consumption by 2030 The methodology results in reductions in CO2 emissions of a similar

  2. Potential and limitations of marine and ice core sea ice proxies: an example from the Indian Ocean sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röthlisberger, Regine; Crosta, Xavier; Abram, Nerilie J.; Armand, Leanne; Wolff, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Diatom assemblages in marine cores and sea salt deposition fluxes in ice cores have been used as sea ice proxies in the southern hemisphere. Here, a marine and an ice core proxy record for the Indian Ocean covering the last two glacial cycles are compared in order to illustrate their potential and limitations. The marine core was extracted in a location completely ice free under present-day conditions, and therefore was unable to record changes to the recent sea ice extent. Similarly, no sea ice was recorded at that location during the previous interglacial period. During the last glacial period, however, the site was seasonally covered by sea ice, and the diatom assemblages allowed an estimation of average seasonal sea ice presence. The ice core data originated from the East Antarctic plateau. The marine sodium present in the ice core was used as a proxy of the sea-ice coverage and, on average, a larger sea ice surface led to an increased sea-salt aerosol flux, seen e.g. at the last glacial inception. However, the response of the sea salt flux to increasing sea ice extent diminished during peak glacial conditions when only minimal variability was recorded in the ice core record. A first-order approximation is used to take this non-linear response of the ice core sea ice proxy into account. Based on the ice core proxy record, sea ice extent was reduced considerably during the warm episodes of the previous two interglacial periods compared to modern sea ice extent, in particular during the peak warmth of the Last Interglacial. The ice core proxy also showed a very strong precessional variability (pronounced spectral peak at 23 ka period) over the past 240 ka. The advantage of combining the two proxy records lies in the complementary nature of their response. While the ice core proxy showed limited sensitivity during full glacial conditions, the marine proxy recorded the seasonal sea-ice coverage. Once the sea ice retreated south of the location of the marine core

  3. Barriers to access to infertility care and assisted reproductive technology within the public health sector in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Makuch, M.Y.; Bahamondes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Brazil, access to infertility care, including assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), is restricted. This is the third report of a study on access to infertility care and ARTs within the public sector, focusing on the barriers to these services. Methods: The study was anchored on quantitative and qualitative methods. For the quantitative study interviews were conducted with health authorities in each of the 26 states, the Federal District, the state capitals and 16 cities with ≥ 500,000 inhabitants and directors of infertility referral centres within the public sector. Qualitative case studies were conducted in five ART centres. Results: Overall, 63.5% of the authorities reported that complex infertility treatments were unavailable. Barriers identified consisted of “lack of political decision to implement them”, and “lack of financial resources”. In addition, 75% reported to have “no plans to implement them over the next 12 months”. At the facilities offering ART, the barriers to these procedures were the high costs, long waiting times, complex scheduling processes and lack of initiative to implement low cost ARTs. Conclusions: Infertile couples’ access to ART procedures is restricted due to the insufficient services and lack of political commitment to support existing and new services.. PMID:24753912

  4. Migration of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Late Neogene: reconstruction from sediment wave on the Conrad Rise, Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwane, H.; Ikehara, M.; Suganuma, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Nogi, Y.; Miura, H.; Sato, T.

    2012-12-01

    ACC is the largest and strongest ocean current in the world. It is important for the interoceanic exchange of water, exchange of gases to the atmosphere, and thermal isolation of the Antarctic continent. Fluctuation of the ACC has been reconstructed from several methods such as microfossils, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibilities, and statistical analysis of Ice-Rafted Debris. On the other hand, sediment waves are investigated and interpreted to reconstruct the fluctuation of the bottom- and contour currents. In this study, we tried reconstructing the ACC using sediment waves based on multidisciplinary survey on the Conrad Rise in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The Conrad Rise is a topographic high that is elevated ca. 3000 m from the ocean floor. We conducted multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection, and sediment coring on the southwestern slope of the rise. Seismic units on the Conrad Rise are divided into three units, A, B, and C in descending order. Unit A shows transparent to low amplitude with sediment wave structure. Sediment waves don't show systematic changes of its dimension and thickness. Sedimentary core showed that the surface sediment is composed of diatom ooze. Unit B shows higher amplitude than that of unit A, and shows planar, parallel configuration. Unit C has high-amplitude reflectors at its top and shows chaotic facies below. Based on morphological characteristics of the sediment waves, oceanographic setting of the Conrad Rise, and components of the surface sediment, it is most likely that the sedimentary structure and component of the Unit A is significantly constrained by the ACC. On the other hand, the Unit B shows planar configuration suggesting deposition without current effect. Additionally, higher amplitude suggests different component form that of the Unit A. These a series of evidence represent difference of sedimentary environment between units A and B, especially on the point of the influence of the ACC. Accordingly, onset

  5. Climate change, insurance, and the buildings sector: Technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2002-11-01

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to better understand this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognized are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to significantly expanding these efforts. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups.

  6. Response of the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere over the West Pacific Ocean Sector to an X1.2 solar flare on 15 May 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Tian; Sun, Lingfeng; Wang, Yungang; She, Chengli; Xiong, Bo; Hu, Lianhuan

    2017-09-01

    On the basis of multiple observations of ionosondes, meteor radars, magnetometers and GNSS receivers, we present the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere over the West Pacific Ocean Sector to an X1.2 solar flare that peaked at 1:48 UT on 15 May 2013. The geomagnetic H component observations indicate the equatorial electrojet strength over the East Asia region is obviously enhancement during the flare. After the end time of solar flare, the ionosonde observations at Guam, an ionosonde station near the geomagnetic equatorial region, show the decrease of the peak height of ionospheric F2 layer which is related to the decrease of the eastward electric field. Simultaneous strong southern wind is observed by meteor radar over Sanya, a geomagnetic low latitude station, which probably product the westward dynamo electric field and further result in the decrease of vertical drift velocity over the geomagnetic equatorial region. In addition, GNSS total electron content (TEC) observations from six stations in the researching region show the TEC enhancement only appears nearby the geomagnetic equator region.

  7. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  8. Strategic latency and warning. Private sector perspectives on current intelligence challenges in science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Zachary; Gac, Frank; Nacht, Michael

    2016-01-08

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and National Intelligence University convened a group of business experts to examine parallels between S&T competition in the marketplace and science and technology intelligence (S&TI). The experts identified the centrality of people — individuals and connected groups — to the successful development and application of latent S&T capabilities. People may indeed be more important to recognizing S&T potential than deep knowledge of any particular technology. This report explores the significance of this key insight for S&TI.

  9. Survey on utility technology of a tidal and ocean current energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Manabu; Kadoyu, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1987-06-01

    A study is made to show the current technological levels in Japan and other nations regarding the conversion of tidal current or ocean current energy to electric power and to determine the latent energy quantities and energy-related characteristics of tidal and ocean currents. In Japan, relatively large-scale experiments made so far mostly used one of the following three types of devices: Savonius-wheel type, Darrieus-wheel type, and cross-flow-wheel type. Field experiments of tidal energy conversion have been performed at the Naruto and Kurushima Straits. The energy in the Kuroshio current is estimated at about 170 billion kWh per year. Ocean current energy does not undergo large seasonal variations. The total energy in major straits and channels in the Inland Sea and other sea areas to the west is estimated at about 124 billion kWh per year. Tidal current energy shows large seasonal variations, but it is possible to predict the changes. A survey is made to determine energy-related characteristics of a tidal current at Chichino-seto, Kagoshima Prefecture. At Chichino-seto, the flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2.2m/s, with a latent tidal current energy of about 70 kW, of which about 20 kW can actually be utilized.

  10. Assessing Roles of People, Technology and Structure in Emergency Management Systems: A Public Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkyun; Sharman, Raj; Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Rao, H. Raghav; Upadhyaya, Shambhu J.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency management systems are a critical factor in successful mitigation of natural and man-made disasters, facilitating responder decision making in complex situations. Based on socio-technical systems, have which four components (people, technology, structure and task), this study develops a research framework of factors affecting effective…

  11. Keeping Up with Technology: A Pilot Study of TAFE and The Manufacturing Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Australia's innovation capacity is, in part, reliant on its teaching workforce--to teach and promote new technologies to industry. This pilot study examines how vocational education and training (VET) teachers, in particular TAFE (technical and further education) teachers, maintain the currency of their skills and knowledge base. It also explores…

  12. The Course of Innovation: Using Technology to Transform Higher Education. Education Sector Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The National Center for Academic Transformation (NCAT), a small nonprofit considered to be the intellectual center of the technology-based course transformation movement, has labored mightily and with much success to help more colleges bring their undergraduate courses into the modern age. But it has labored precisely because colleges have yet to…

  13. Assessing Roles of People, Technology and Structure in Emergency Management Systems: A Public Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minkyun; Sharman, Raj; Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Rao, H. Raghav; Upadhyaya, Shambhu J.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency management systems are a critical factor in successful mitigation of natural and man-made disasters, facilitating responder decision making in complex situations. Based on socio-technical systems, have which four components (people, technology, structure and task), this study develops a research framework of factors affecting effective…

  14. The Challenges and Issues Regarding E-Health and Health Information Technology Trends in the Healthcare Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouyan; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    Like other industries, the utilization of the internet and Information Technology (IT) has increased in the health sector. Different applications attributed to the internet and IT in healthcare practice. It includes a range of services that intersect the edge of medicine, computer and information science. The presence of the internet helps healthcare practice with the use of electronic processes and communication. Also, health IT (HIT) deals with the devices, clinical guidelines and methods required to improve the management of information in healthcare. Although the internet and HIT has been considered as an influential means to enhance health care delivery, it is completely naive to imagine all new tools and mechanisms supported by the internet and HIT systems are simply adopted and used by all organizational members. As healthcare professionals play an important role in the healthcare sector, there is no doubt that mechanism of newly introduced HIT and new application of the internet in medical practice should be coupled with healthcare professionals' acceptance. Therefore, with great resistance by healthcare professionals new mechanism and tools supported by IT and the internet cannot be used properly and subsequently may not improve the quality of medical care services. However, factors affecting the healthcare professionals' adoption behavior concerning new e-health and HIT mechanism are still not conclusively identified. This research (as a theoretical study) tries to propose the source of resistance in order to handle the challenges over new e-technology in the health industry. This study uses the involved concepts and develops a conceptual framework to improve overall acceptance of e-health and HIT by healthcare professionals.

  15. Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

    2003-12-01

    In order to replenish the national supply of science and mathematics educators, the National Science Foundation has supported the formation of the Center for Applications of Information Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Science (ITS) at Texas A&M University. The center staff and affiliated faculty work to change in fundamental ways the culture and relationships among scientists, educational researchers, and teachers. ITS is a partnership among the colleges of education, science, geosciences, agriculture and life science at Texas A&M University. Participants (teachers and graduate students) investigate how science is done and how science is taught and learned; how that learning is assessed, and how scholarly networks among all engaged in this work can be encouraged. While the center can offer graduate degrees most students apply as non-degree seekers. ITS participants are schooled on classroom technology applications, experience working on project teams, and access very current research work being conducted by scientists. ITS offers a certificate program consisting of two summer sessions over two years that results in 12 hours of graduate credit that can be applied to a degree. Interdisciplinary project teams spend three intense weeks connecting current research to classroom practices. During the past summer with the beginning of the two-year sequence, a course was implemented that introduced secondary teachers to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) contributions to major earth science themes, using core and logging data, engineering (technology) tools and processes. Information Technology classroom applications were enhanced through hands-on laboratory exercises, web resources and online databases. The course was structured around the following objectives. 1. Distinguish the purpose and goals of the Ocean Drilling Program from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and describe the comparable science themes (ocean circulation, marine sedimentation, climate history

  16. Technology choice and development in Brazil: An assessment of Brazil's alternative fuel program and the agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and service sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Lucy A.

    Technology choice profoundly affects a country's development process because capital-intensive and labor-intensive technologies have different socioeconomic linkages within the economy. This research examines the impacts of technology choice through the use of a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework. SAM-based modeling determines the direct and indirect effects of technology choice on development, particularly poverty alleviation in Brazil. Brazil's alternative fuel program was analyzed as a special example of technology choice. Two ethanol production technologies and the gasoline sector were compared; to make the study more robust, labor and capital intensive technologies were evaluated in the production of agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and services. Growth in these economic sectors was examined to assess the effects on employment, factor and household income, energy intensity, and carbon dioxide costs. Poverty alleviation was a focus, so income to unskilled agriculture labor, unskilled non-agriculture labor, and income to rural and urban households in poverty was also analyzed. The major research finding is that overall, labor-intensive technologies generate more employment, factor and household income, environmental and energy benefits to Brazil's economy than capital-intensive technologies. In addition, labor-intensive technologies make a particular contribution to poverty alleviation. The results suggest that policies to encourage the adoption of these technologies, especially in the agriculture and renewable energy sectors, are important because of their intersectoral linkages within the economy. Many studies have shown that Brazil's fuel ethanol program has helped to realize multiple macroeconomic objectives. However, this is the first empirical study to quantify its household income effects. The ethanol industry generated the most household income of the energy sectors. The research confirms a key finding of the appropriate technology literature

  17. Reducing electric sector CO{sub 2} emissions under competition: Facilitating technology development and turnover on both sides of the meter

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reviews the technological and institutional factors involved in achieving long-term reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the electric sector. A case study of the New England electric sector is used to illustrate factors associated with energy infrastructure turnover and technology development and use. Opportunities for joint implementation of CO{sub 2} reductions are identified, as well as strategies which leverage CO{sub 2} emissions reductions to achieve reductions in other emissions, and to facilitate cost and environmental risk mitigation. Impacts of environmental performance constraints on the electric industry are also identified and analyzed. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Investigation and study scenarios to introduce CO2 fixation technologies in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    The ultimate target of the study is to develop models which can evaluate scenarios for the future development of CO2 fixation technology from the aspect of its effect on Japan's energy supply/ demand structure and the CO2 reduction effect. An outline model is built and operated to study the function. Using the linear programming, the model is developed which can numerically grasp the effects of the following items on the energy supply/demand structure: energy supply, introduction of new energy, energy conservation measures, restrictions on CO2 emissions, introduction of CO2 emission penalty, introduction of CO2 fixation technologies, energy supply costs, etc. Estimation is trially made for 6 cases, that is, 3 cases each in 2000 and 2010; standard case (A), CO2 emission penalty case (B) and CO2 emission restrictions case (C), using one-year calculation in 2000 and 2010. CO2 fixation technology in volume to be introduced in 2000 is 40,000C tons (B) and 120,000C tons (C) in the electric utility industry, and 32,000C tons (B) and 92,000C tons (C) in the industry except electric utility. In case C, in particular, the gross CO2 emission from the primary energy to be selected for supply is with in 280 million tons. This is the same as in 2010.

  19. Iron and silicic acid concentrations regulate Si uptake north and south of the Polar Frontal Zone in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Valerie M.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Nelson, David M.

    We investigated the relative roles of Fe and silicic acid availabilities in regulating Si uptake rates across the Polar Frontal Zone in the Pacific Sector of the Southern Ocean (59-68°S, 170°W) during the US JGOFS Antarctic Environment Southern Ocean Process Study (AESOPS). Meridional gradients in silicic acid concentration ([Si(OH) 4]) of about 0.25-0.56 μM km -1 were observed in this area during austral spring and summer, 1997-1998, with [Si(OH) 4] ranging from <1 to 15 μM on the north side of the gradient to 40-60 μM on the south side. In two pairs of shipboard bottle-enrichment experiments conducted north and south of the Si gradient in spring and summer, we measured the effects of Fe, Zn and Si additions on 32Si(OH)4 and 15NO3- uptake rates, biogenic silica concentrations and Si(OH) 4 : NO 3- uptake ratios. Fe addition had little or no effect on Si uptake rates in enrichments conducted in the low-Si waters north of the Si gradient. However, Fe addition increased Si uptake rates 3-5 times over controls in enrichments conducted in the high-Si waters south of the gradient, in both spring and summer. Fe addition decreased Si(OH) 4 : NO 3- uptake ratios by 2-5 times, largely due to stimulation of NO 3- uptake rates. Zn addition had no effect on Si(OH) 4 and NO 3- uptake rates. Short-term (24 h) Si additions had varying effects on Si uptake rates, depending on season and location. In spring, additions of 40 μM Si to water from bottle enrichments, conducted north of the Si gradient (in situ [Si(OH) 4] ˜15 μM) did not increase Si uptake rates initially, but did increase uptake rates after 8 days. In the summer enrichment north of the Si gradient (in situ [Si(OH) 4] ˜5 μM), 50 μM Si additions doubled in situ Si uptake rates in the initial water collected for the enrichment, and increased Si uptake rates as much as 16-fold during the experiment. South of the Si gradient, where in situ [Si(OH) 4] was >40 μM in both spring and summer, Si addition had no effect

  20. Feeding, respiration and egg production rates of copepods during austral spring in the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean: role of the zooplankton community in carbon transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayzaud, P.; Razouls, S.; Errhif, A.; Tirelli, V.; Labat, J. P.

    2002-06-01

    During the austral spring period of 1996, the composition, age structure and physiological activity of zooplankton were studied in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Zooplankton biomass ranged from less than 1 g m -2 in the Northern Polar Front Zone (PFZ) to 16 g m -2 near the ice edge in the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ). Zooplankton communities were dominated by copepods associated with euphausiid larvae. At all stations, species composition of copepods was dominated in number by small species ( Oithona spp, Ctenocalanus citer). Northern stations were characterized by Calanus simillimus and Metridia lucens. Southern stations showed high abundance of Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus and Rhincalanus gigas. Stage distribution was analyzed for the four main contributors to the copepod biomass ( Calanus simillimus, Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus and Rhincalanus gigas). Gut pigment content and gut transit time showed a strong day-night periodicity. Gut transit times were usually high with values ranging from 1 h ( Calanus propinquus) to 1 h 30 min ( Rhincalanus gigas). Maximum ingestion rates were recorded for Calanus propinquus and Pleuromamma robusta. Respiration rates were measured for 13 species of copepods and varied from 0.5-0.6 μl O 2 ind -1 day -1 for smaller species to 20-62 μl O 2 ind -1 day -1 for the larger ones. The impact of the copepod population was estimated from the CO 2 produced per m -2 and per day, which showed a release of 4.2-4.5 mmol. It corresponded to a minimum ingestion of 41.4% in the Permanent Open Ocean Zone (POOZ) and 22.6% in the SIZ of the daily primary production. The budget between carbon ingestion and respiratory requirements appears to be nearly balanced, but with the exception of Calanus propinquus, cannot accommodate the addition of the cost of egg production, which only partially relies on food intake. During austral spring, the population studied appeared to rely mostly on phytoplankton as food, though additional

  1. Ocean energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71{percent} of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW{sub e}. Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

  2. Distribution in the abundance and biomass of shelled pteropods in surface waters of the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean in mid-summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiha, Fumihiro; Hashida, Gen; Makabe, Ryosuke; Hattori, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    We investigated shelled pteropod abundance and biomass with a 100-μm closing net, and their estimated downward fluxes using a sediment trap installed in a drifter buoy in the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean during the austral summer. Over 90% pteropod abundance was distributed in the upper 50 m; 70-100% were immature veligers. Limacina retroversa was dominant in the >0.2 mm individuals north of 60°S, L. helicina dominated south of 62°S, while populations around 60-62°S were mixed. Unidentifiable small Limacina spp. (ssL) were highly abundant in the upper 50 m at 60°S, 63°S, and 64°S on 110°E and 63°S on 115°E, although their estimated particulate organic carbon (POC) biomasses were less than that of Limacina adults. Adult females bearing egg clusters were found in the 0-50 m layer; the veligers likely grew within a short period. The mean downward flux of ssL and veligers at 70 m around 60°S, 110°E was 5.1 ± 1.6 × 103 ind. m-2 d-1 (0.6 ± 0.2 mg C m-2 d-1), which was 3.8% of the integrated ssL and veligers in the upper 70 m, suggesting that at least 4% of the veligers were produced daily in the surface layers. The mid-summer spawned ssL and veligers likely contributed to the subsequent increase in large pteropods in the area.

  3. The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries: the Case of China, India, and Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge China, India, and Mexico are the top emitters of CO2 among developing nations. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas in Mexico, fuel oil and natur...

  4. The Impact of New Technologies on Occupational Profiles in the Banking Sector. Case Studies in Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and France. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitali, Laurence; Freiche, Jeanine; Matthews, Alison; Warmerdam, John

    The impact of new technologies on occupational profiles in the banking sector was examined through case studies in four European countries: Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and France. In each country, three types of banking institutions were studied: merchant (Eurobank); "counter" (universal) bank; and telebank (bank…

  5. Skills Required by the Information Technology Sector in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area. Business Needs Assessment Study No. 2. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    The Office of Institutional Research (OIR) at Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC) analyzed data collected from ads for jobs in the information technology (IT) sector in the Washington, D.C. area. The study acquired its data from employment ads in the Washington Post's Sunday employment sections. The primary purpose of the study was to learn…

  6. Landsat Technology Transfer to the Private and Public Sectors through Community Colleges and Other Locally Available Institutions, Phase II Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Robert H.

    In 1979, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) initiated a program to investigate methods of making Landsat (satellite imagery) technology available to private sector firms through a network comprising NASA, a university or research institute, local community colleges,…

  7. The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries: the Case of China, India, and Mexico

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge China, India, and Mexico are the top emitters of CO2 among developing nations. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas in Mexico, fuel oil and natur...

  8. Landsat Technology Transfer to the Private and Public Sectors through Community Colleges and Other Locally Available Institutions, Phase II Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Robert H.

    In 1979, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) initiated a program to investigate methods of making Landsat (satellite imagery) technology available to private sector firms through a network comprising NASA, a university or research institute, local community colleges,…

  9. Piezometer-probe technology for geotechnical investigations in coastal and deep-ocean environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.H.; Burns, J.T.; Lipkin, J.; Percival, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Three multisensor piezometer probes were developed and field tested for use in coastal (shallow water) fine-grained Marine soils. Offshore sites were investigated in the Mississippi Delta. Pore water pressure measurements were determined at several depths below the sea floor using both absolute and differential pressure sensors placed in a four inch diameter probe. Pressure sensors were hard-wired to nearby platforms where signals were conditioned and analog recording devices monitored pore water pressure changes in the marine soils. Pore water pressures were monitored for several months. Two single sensor piezometer probes, eight millimeters in diameter, were developed for deep-ocean investigations. These probes use differential pressure sensors and were tested in a hyperbaric chamber pressurized to 55 MPa (8000 psi). Testing was performed for a period of five weeks under high hydrostatic pressure with the probes inserted in reconstituted illitic marine soil. Small differential pore water pressures responded to both mechanically and thermally generated forcing functions. During shallow water investigations and simulated deep-ocean pressure tests, the sensors exhibited excellent sensitivity and stability. These developments in piezometer probe technology provide a means of assessing important geotechnical parameters of fine-grained seabed deposits.

  10. Piezometer probe technology for geotechnical investigations in coastal and deep-ocean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. H.; Burns, J. T.; Lipkin, J.; Percival, C. M.

    Three multisensor piezometer probes were developed and field tested for use in coastal (shallow water) fine-grained marine soils. Offshore sites were investigated in the Mississippi Delta. Pore water pressure measurements were determined at several depths below the sea floor using both absolute and differential pressure sensors placed in a four inch diameter probe. Pressure sensors were hard-wired to nearby platforms where signals were conditioned and analog recording devices monitored pore water pressure changes in the marine soils. Pore water pressures were monitored for several months. Two single sensor piezometer probes, light millimeters in diameter, were developed for deep-ocean investigations. These probes use differential pressure sensors and were tested in a hyperbaric chamber pressurized to 55 MPa (8000 psi). Testing was performed for a period of five weeks under high hydrostatic pressure with the probes inserted in reconstituted illitic marine soil. Small differential pore water pressures responded to both mechanically and thermally generated forcing functions. During shallow water investigations and deep-ocean simulated pressure tests, the sensors exhibited excellent sensitivity and stability. These developments in piezometer probe technology provide a means of assessing important geotechnical parameters of fine-grained seabed deposits.

  11. The Ocean in Depth - Ideas for Using Marine Technology in Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, A.

    2009-04-01

    By deploying camera and video systems on remotely operated diving vehicles (ROVs), new and fascinating insights concerning the functioning of deep ocean ecosystems like cold-water coral reef communities can be gained. Moreover, mapping hot vents at mid-ocean ridge locations, and exploring asphalt and mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea with the aid of video camera systems have illustrated the scientific value of state-of-the-art diving tools. In principle, the deployment of sophisticated marine technology on seagoing expeditions and their results - video tapes and photographs of fascinating submarine environments, publication of new scientific findings - offer unique opportunities for communicating marine sciences. Experience shows that an interest in marine technology can easily be stirred in laypersons if the deployment of underwater vehicles such as ROVs during seagoing expeditions can be presented using catchwords like "discovery", "new frontier", groundbreaking mission", etc. On the other hand, however, a number of restrictions and challenges have to be kept in mind. Communicating marine science in general, and the achievements of marine technology in particular, can only be successful with the application of a well-defined target-audience concept. While national and international TV stations and production companies are very much interested in using high quality underwater video footage, the involvement of journalists and camera teams in seagoing expeditions entails a number a challenges: berths onboard research vessels are limited; safety aspects have to be considered; copyright and utilisation questions of digitalized video and photo material has to be handled with special care. To cite one example: on-board video material produced by professional TV teams cannot be used by the research institute that operated the expedition. This presentation aims at (1)informing members of the scientific community about new opportunities related

  12. Analyzing Differences Between Public and Private Sector Information Resource Management: Chief Information Officer Challenges and Critical Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    TENNECO AUTOMOTIVE INC 965 HARLEYSVILLE MUTUAL INSURANCE 466 HARLEY DAVIDSON INC 966 TEKTRONIX 467 WESTERN GAS RESOURCES INC 967 OGLETHORPE POWER...the public sector employees reported a greater desire to serve the community . The desire for public sector managers to serve the community is also...support the notion that public sector managers are more concerned with serving their community and less concerned about financial compensation than are

  13. Medical imaging technology shock and volatility of macro economics: Analysis using a three-sector dynamical stochastic general equilibrium REC model.

    PubMed

    Han, Shurong; Huang, Yeqing

    2017-07-07

    The study analysed the medical imaging technology business cycle from 1981 to 2009 and found that the volatility of consumption in Chinese medical imaging business was higher than that of the developed countries. The volatility of gross domestic product (GDP) and the correlation between consumption and GDP is also higher than that of the developed countries. Prior to the early 1990s the volatility of consumption is even higher than GDP. This fact makes it difficult to explain the volatile market using the standard one sector real economic cycle (REC) model. Contrary to the other domestic studies, this study considers a three-sector dynamical stochastic general equilibrium REC model. In this model there are two consumption sectors, whereby one is labour intensive and another is capital intensive. The more capital intensive investment sector only introduces technology shocks in the medical imaging market. Our response functions and Monte-Carlo simulation results show that the model can explain 90% of the volatility of consummation relative to GDP, and explain the correlation between consumption and GDP. The results demonstrated the significant correlation between the technological reform in medical imaging and volatility in the labour market on Chinese macro economy development.

  14. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  15. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  16. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  17. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  18. Improvements to TAO Ocean Observations as a Result of Refresh Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grissom, K.; Petraitis, D. C.; Pounder, D.

    2016-02-01

    The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array has been a major observational component of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and climate prediction research since its completion in 1994 by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). In 2005 operational responsibility and control of the TAO array was transitioned from PMEL to the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC). As part of the transition, a project for TAO Technology Refresh was developed to address equipment obsolescence and the need for higher data throughput in real-time. Completed in 2014, the "TAO Refresh" array has met the requirements of the NOAA transition plan and added new capabilities and value. These new capabilities include a reduced latency of data and increased real-time resolution from one observation per sensor each day to 144+ observations per sensor each day. Also, improvements in NDBC data management practices resulted in the development of a new TAO Automated Statistical Quality-control (TASQ) system that provides a real-time automated quality-control method based upon 20 years of historical data. In addition, an active method for gathering actionable evidence and combating vandalism was achieved through the installation of cameras on TAO buoys. With these enhanced capabilities, the TAO Refresh array is better positioned to support timely analyses of the diurnal cycle and high frequency weather phenomena that affect climate. An added benefit of the Refresh technology is the reduced sampling error due to the temporal averaging. For example, during a recent week long vandalism event at a Refresh buoy we have found an average error of 0.24°C (±0.17) in the subsurface temperature daily average, with the maximum error of 0.67°C. Historically, due to the limitations of real-time communications, these errors were masked within the daily average. However, with today's satellite system we can retrieve the full-resolution time series in real-time and improve the quality of our data.

  19. Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

    1989-04-01

    An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

  20. Ice-Ocean Environmental Buoys (IOEB); Technology and Deployment in 1991- 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    ocean research station by providing telemetry of data from air, ice, and ocean sensors . Using a surlyn foam rather than a conventional steel surface...be broadcast via ARGOS in two channels. The introduction of telemetry into the design of the IOEB requires that units which interrogate sensor data be...Sea IOEB contains meteorological, ice, and ocean sensors , and uses dual TT485 microcontrollers and Synergetics PTTs to broadcast the ARGOS datastream

  1. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  2. Gas hydrates of the ocean floor - cause of ecological and technological disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyuk, Inna; Dmitrievsky, Anatoly; Chaikina, Olga; Akivis, Tatyana

    2010-05-01

    In recent time, an intensive development of the shelf zone in relation with hydrocarbons production and underwater pipelining is in progress. Engineering works in non-consolidated sediment is placed on the agenda. Developers and engineers face completely new challenges due to necessity of reliable functioning of underwater constructions. Wide spread of gas hydrates in bed sediments of seas and oceans gives possible increase of hydrocarbons reserves but in the same time poses crucial industrial and ecological problem. The most complicated engineering problems are operation of underwater fields, oil platforms construction and pipelining under gas hydrate deposits instability condition. Gasmen faced this problem while construction of "Russia-Turkey" pipeline. Gas hydrates production in nowadays rather problematic and relates to technologies of the future because of instability and specific character of their bedding. Nevertheless, due to scantiness of total world hydrocarbon reserves, gas hydrates attract more and more attention. There exists an opinion that total amount of gas hydrates is enormous and one-two orders higher than assured oil and gas resources all over the world. Thermodynamic conditions over a quarter of the land and nine tenth of the World ocean are favorable for accumulation and reservation of natural gas hydrates. There are sufficiently high pressure and low temperature on the sea bottom at depths exceeding 1000 m which is necessary for gas hydrate formation. Average water temperature on the bottom at a depth of 1 km does not exceed 5°С, and at a depth of 2 km and more - 2°С; and in the polar zones the temperature is permanently near 0°С. In tropic regions gas hydrates can appear and accumulate from the depth of 300 m while in polar area - from the depth of only 100 m. When gas hydrate grows warm it "melts" and decomposes into free gas and water. A drilling of gas hydrate deposits is dangerous because gas hydrate can be melted by heat released

  3. Eddy-Pump: Pelagic carbon pump processes along the eddying Antarctic Polar Front in the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker H.; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Pakhomov, Evgeny A.; Klaas, Christine

    2017-04-01

    The Southern Ocean influences earth's climate in many ways. It hosts the largest upwelling region of the world oceans where 80% of deep waters resurface (Morrison et al., 2015). A prominent feature is the broad ring of cold water, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which encircles the Antarctic continent and connects all other oceans. The ACC plays a major role in the global heat and freshwater transports and ocean-wide cycles of chemical and biogenic elements, and harbours a series of unique and distinct ecosystems. Due to the upwelling of deep-water masses in the Antarctic Divergence, there is high supply of natural CO2 as well as macronutrients, leading to the worldwide highest surface nutrient concentrations. Despite the ample macronutrients supply, phytoplankton concentration is generally low, limited either by low micronutrient (iron) availability, insufficient light due to deep wind-mixed layers or grazing by zooplankton, or by the combination of all, varying temporally and regionally.

  4. Interagency Ocean Observing Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rome, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Decades of focused investment in ocean observing and prediction have produced many examples of substantive societal and economic benefit resulting from improved knowledge of ocean and coastal waters and their behavior. Many complex and difficult questions about the ocean remain, including many that have implications for the lives and livelihoods of millions of Americans. The United States has embarked on a series of efforts to develop an ocean observing system capable of addressing broad societal needs. This system is known as the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS). The activities and members of the U.S. IOOS community are broad and complex. There are 18 Federal agencies involved in the U.S. IOOS program, as well as 11 U.S. IOOS Regional Associations that encompass efforts focused in U.S. coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and U.S. territories and their waters in the Pacific and the Caribbean. In addition, there are many Federal and academic scientists representing the U.S. Government in various United Nations-sponsored groups that plan and oversee global ocean observation programs. This diverse community is managed largely through cooperation rather than clear directive or budgetary authority, which has contributed to both the strong growth, and the integration weaknesses, of the U.S. IOOS program. The Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) is a dynamic group of federal leaders required by Congress to implement procedural, technical, and scientific requirements to ensure full execution of U.S. IOOS. A major focus for the next decade of the IOOC is to help guide comprehensive processes that more fully integrate the requirements, technologies, data/product development and dissemination, testing and modeling efforts across the regional, national, and global sectors of the U.S. IOOS program. This poster/presentation will increase awareness of IOOC efforts to coordinate physical, chemical, and biological observations -- a complementary objective

  5. Information Technology: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Implementing the SSP and Tracking Progress 4 Introduction and Purpose 5 Document Organization 7 1. Sector Profile and Goals 9 1.1 Definition 9 1.2 Scope...Disseminating Information 43 4.4 Actions 43 4.4.1 Near Term (~1 year) 43 4.4.2 Long Term (1-3 years) 45 5 . CI/KR Protection Research and Development...Specific Plan Appendix 3: Common Risk Management Frameworks 77 Appendix 4: IT Sector-Related Protective Programs 79 Appendix 5 : Action Items 89 List of

  6. Examining the effects of technology-infused issue investigations on high school students' environmental and ocean literacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plankis, Brian J.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of technology-infused issue investigations on high school students' environmental and ocean literacies. This study explored the effects of a new educational enrichment program termed Connecting the Ocean, Reefs, Aquariums, Literacy, and Stewardship (CORALS) on high school science students. The study utilized a mixed methods approach combining a quantitative quasi-experimental pre-post test design with qualitative case studies. The CORALS program is a new educational program that combines materials based on the Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions (IEEIA) curriculum program with the digital storytelling process. Over an 18-week period four high school science teachers and their approximately 169 students investigated environmental issues impacting coral reefs through the IEEIA framework. An additional approximately 224 students, taught by the same teachers, were the control group exposed to standard curriculum. Students' environmental literacy was measured through the Secondary School Environmental Literacy Instrument (SSELI) and students' ocean literacy was measured through the Students' Ocean Literacy Viewpoints and Engagement (SOLVE) instrument. Two classrooms were selected as case studies and examined through classroom observations and student and teacher interviews. The results indicated the CORALS program increased the knowledge of ecological principles, knowledge of environmental problems/issues, and environmental attitudes components of environmental literacy for the experimental group students. For ocean literacy, the experimental group students' scores increased for knowledge of ocean literacy principles, ability to identify oceanic environmental problems, and attitudes concerning the ocean. The SSELI measure of Responsible Environmental Behaviors (REB) was found to be significant for the interaction of teacher and class type (experimental or control). The students for Teachers A

  7. Effectiveness of emission control technologies for auxiliary engines on ocean-going vessels.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi; Nigam, Abhilash; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2011-01-01

    Large auxiliary engines operated on ocean-going vessels in transit and at berth impact the air quality of populated areas near ports. This paper presents new information on the comparison of emission ranges from three similar engines and the effectiveness of three control technologies: switching to cleaner burning fuels, operating in the low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) mode, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In-use measurements of gaseous (NOx, carbon monoxide [CO], carbon dioxide [CO2]) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5; total and speciated) emissions were made on three auxiliary engines on post-PanaMax class container vessels following the International Organization for Standardization-8178-1 protocol. The in-use NOx emissions for the MAN B&W 7L32/40 engine family vary from 15 to 21.1 g/kW-hr for heavy fuel oil and 8.9 to 19.6 g/kW-hr for marine distillate oil. Use of cleaner burning fuels resulted in NOx reductions ranging from 7 to 41% across different engines and a PM2.5 reduction of up to 83%. The NOx reductions are a consequence of fuel nitrogen content and engine operation; the PM2.5 reduction is attributed to the large reductions in the hydrated sulfate and organic carbon (OC) fractions. As expected, operating in the low-NOx mode reduced NOx emissions by approximately 32% and nearly doubled elemental carbon (EC) emissions. However, PM2.5 emission factors were nearly unchanged because the EC emission factor is only approximately 5% of the total PM2.5 mass. SCR reduced the NOx emission factor to less than 2.4 g/kW-hr, but it increased the PM2.5 emissions by a factor of 1.5-3.8. This increase was a direct consequence of the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate emissions on the SCR catalyst. The EC and OC fractions of PM2.5 reduced across the SCR unit.

  8. Job Change and Workplace Learning in the Public Sector: The Significance of New Technology for Unskilled Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Anne; Rainbird, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Interviews (n=350) and a survey (n=323) of managers, trainers, and union representatives in British health care agencies showed that technology caused some job enlargement and enrichment; positive or negative effects depended on context. Other jobs were deskilled due to work organization, not technology. Technology's impact on job change was…

  9. Job Change and Workplace Learning in the Public Sector: The Significance of New Technology for Unskilled Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Anne; Rainbird, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Interviews (n=350) and a survey (n=323) of managers, trainers, and union representatives in British health care agencies showed that technology caused some job enlargement and enrichment; positive or negative effects depended on context. Other jobs were deskilled due to work organization, not technology. Technology's impact on job change was…

  10. Seasat data applications in ocean industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the world population expansion and resulting shortages of food, minerals, and fuel have focused additional attention on the world's oceans. In this context, aspects of weather prediction and the monitoring/prediction of long-range climatic anomalies become more important. In spite of technological advances, the commercial ocean industry and the naval forces suffer now from inadequate data and forecast products related to the oceans. The Seasat Program and the planned Navy-Remote Oceanographic Satellite System (N-ROSS) represent major contributions to improved observational coverage and the processing needed to achieve better forecasts. The Seasat Program was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of the remote sensing of oceanographic phenomena from a satellite platform. Possible oceanographic satellite applications are presented in a table, and the impact of Seasat data on industry sectors is discussed. Attention is given to offshore oil development, deep-ocean mining, fishing, and marine transportation.

  11. Seasat data applications in ocean industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the world population expansion and resulting shortages of food, minerals, and fuel have focused additional attention on the world's oceans. In this context, aspects of weather prediction and the monitoring/prediction of long-range climatic anomalies become more important. In spite of technological advances, the commercial ocean industry and the naval forces suffer now from inadequate data and forecast products related to the oceans. The Seasat Program and the planned Navy-Remote Oceanographic Satellite System (N-ROSS) represent major contributions to improved observational coverage and the processing needed to achieve better forecasts. The Seasat Program was initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of the remote sensing of oceanographic phenomena from a satellite platform. Possible oceanographic satellite applications are presented in a table, and the impact of Seasat data on industry sectors is discussed. Attention is given to offshore oil development, deep-ocean mining, fishing, and marine transportation.

  12. Water column distribution and carbon isotopic signal of cholesterol, brassicasterol and particulate organic carbon in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.-J.; Dehairs, F.; Bouillon, S.; Woule-Ebongué, V.; Planchon, F.; Delille, B.; Bouloubassi, I.

    2013-04-01

    The combination of concentrations and δ13C signatures of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) and sterols provides a powerful approach to study ecological and environmental changes in both the modern and ancient ocean. We applied this tool to study the biogeochemical changes in the modern ocean water column during the BONUS-GoodHope survey (February-March 2008) from Cape Basin to the northern part of the Weddell Gyre. Cholesterol and brassicasterol were chosen as ideal biomarkers of the heterotrophic and autotrophic carbon pools, respectively, because of their ubiquitous and relatively refractory nature. We document depth distributions of concentrations (relative to bulk POC) and δ13C signatures of cholesterol and brassicasterol combined with CO2 aq. surface concentration variation. While the relationship between CO2 aq. and δ13C of bulk POC and biomarkers have been reported by others for the surface water, our data show that this persists in mesopelagic and deep waters, suggesting that δ13C signatures of certain biomarkers in the water column could be applied as proxies for surface water CO2 aq. We observed a general increase in sterol δ13C signatures with depth, which is likely related to a combination of particle size effects, selective feeding on larger cells by zooplankton, and growth rate related effects. Our data suggest a key role of zooplankton fecal aggregates in carbon export for this part of the Southern Ocean (SO). Additionally, in the southern part of the transect south of the Polar Front (PF), the release of sea-ice algae during the ice demise in the Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) is hypothesized to influence the isotopic signature of sterols in the open ocean. Overall, the combined use of δ13C values and concentrations measurements of both bulk organic C and specific sterols throughout the water column offers the promising potential to explore the recent history of plankton and the fate of organic matter in the SO.

  13. Ineffective Healthcare Technology Management in Benin’s Public Health Sector: The Perceptions of Key Actors and Their Ability to Address the Main Problems

    PubMed Central

    Houngbo, P. Thierry; De Cock Buning, Tjard; Bunders, Joske; Coleman, Harry L. S.; Medenou, Daton; Dakpanon, Laurent; Zweekhorst, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low-income countries face many contextual challenges to manage healthcare technologies effectively, as the majority are imported and resources are constrained to a greater extent. Previous healthcare technology management (HTM) policies in Benin have failed to produce better quality of care for the population and costeffectiveness for the government. This study aims to identify and assess the main problems facing HTM in Benin’s public health sector, as well as the ability of key actors within the sector to address these problems. Methods: We conducted 2 surveys in 117 selected health facilities. The first survey was based on 377 questionnaires and 259 interviews, and the second involved observation and group interviews at health facilities. The Temple-Bird Healthcare Technology Package System (TBHTPS), tailored to the context of Benin’s health system, was used as a conceptual framework. Results: The findings of the first survey show that 85% of key actors in Benin’s HTM sector characterized the system as failing in components of the TBHTPS framework. Biomedical, clinical, healthcare technology engineers and technicians perceived problems most severely, followed by users of equipment, managers and hospital directors, international organization officers, local and foreign suppliers, and finally policy-makers, planners and administrators at the Ministry of Health (MoH). The 5 most important challenges to be addressed are policy, strategic management and planning, and technology needs assessment and selection – categorized as major enabling inputs (MEI) in HTM by the TBHTPS framework – and installation and commissioning, training and skill development and procurement, which are import and use activities (IUA). The ability of each key actor to address these problems (the degree of political or administrative power they possess) was inversely proportional to their perception of the severity of the problems. Observational data gathered during site

  14. Advanced Methods for Incorporating Solar Energy Technologies into Electric Sector Capacity-Expansion Models: Literature Review and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.; Eurek, K.; Margolis, R.

    2014-07-01

    Because solar power is a rapidly growing component of the electricity system, robust representations of solar technologies should be included in capacity-expansion models. This is a challenge because modeling the electricity system--and, in particular, modeling solar integration within that system--is a complex endeavor. This report highlights the major challenges of incorporating solar technologies into capacity-expansion models and shows examples of how specific models address those challenges. These challenges include modeling non-dispatchable technologies, determining which solar technologies to model, choosing a spatial resolution, incorporating a solar resource assessment, and accounting for solar generation variability and uncertainty.

  15. Technology transfer in the oceanographic sciences. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the oceanographic sciences. Topics include technology transfer in aquaculture, energy production, sea bed mining, pollution control, shoreline protection, and coastal engineering. Use of satellite technology in resource location, communication, and navigation is described. The citations also describe technology transfer to assist developing countries. (Contains a minimum of 106 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. A Study of Oceans and Atmospheric Interactions Associated with Tropical Cyclone Activity using Earth Observing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Warith; Reddy, Remata

    From October 22nd to 30th, 2012 Hurricane Sandy was a huge storm of many abnormalities causing an estimated 50 billion dollars in damage. Tropical storm development states systems’ energy as product of warm sea surface temperatures (SST’s) and tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP). Advances in Earth Observing (EO) technology, remote sensing and proxy remote sensing have allowed for accurate measurements of SST and TCHP information. In this study, we investigated rapid intensification of Sandy through EO applications for precipitable water vapor (PWAT), SST’s and TCHP during the period of October 27th. These data were obtained from NASA and NOAA satellites and NOAA National Buoy data center (NDBC). The Sensible Heat (Qs) fluxes were computed to determine available energy resulting from ocean-atmosphere interface. Buoy 41010, 120 NM east of Cape Canaveral at 0850 UTC measured 22.3 °C atmospheric temperatures and 27 °C SST, an interface of 4.7 °C. Sensible heat equation computed fluxes of 43.7 W/m2 at 982.0 mb central pressure. Sandy formed as late-season storm and near-surface air temperatures averaged > 21 °C according to NOAA/ESRL NCEP/NCAR reanalysis at 1000 mb and GOES 13 (EAST) geostationary water vapor imagery shows approaching cold front during October 27th. Sandy encountered massive dry air intrusion to S, SE and E quadrants of storm while travelling up U.S east coast but experienced no weakening. Cool, dry air intrusion was considered for PWAT investigation from closest sounding station during Oct. 27th 0900 - 2100 UTC at Charleston, SC station 72208. Measured PWAT totaled 42.97 mm, indicating large energy potential supply to the storm. The Gulf Stream was observed using NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) MODIS SST analysis. The results show 5 °C warmer above average than surrounding cooler water, with > 25 °C water extent approximately 400 NM east of Chesapeake Bay and eddies > 26 °C. Results from sensible heat

  17. Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Scientists at the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, T.

    2004-12-01

    The School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology (SOEST) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa is home to twelve diverse research institutes, programs and academic departments that focus on a wide range of earth and planetary sciences. SOEST's main outreach goals at the K-12 level are to increase the awareness of Hawaii's schoolchildren regarding earth, ocean, and space science, and to inspire them to consider a career in science. Education and public outreach efforts in SOEST include a variety of programs that engage students and the public in formal as well as informal educational settings, such as our biennial Open House, expedition web sites, Hawaii Ocean Science Bowl, museum exhibits, and programs with local schools. Some of the projects that allow for scientist involvement in E/PO include visiting local classrooms, volunteering in our outreach programs, submitting lessons and media files to our educational database of outreach materials relating to earth and space science research in Hawaii, developing E/PO materials to supplement research grants, and working with local museum staff as science experts.

  18. The Influence of Organizational Subculture on Information Technology Project Success in the Healthcare Sector: A Qualitative, Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallet, Richard Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare providers face high demands for technology based healthcare services due to global population increases and adapting information technology (IT) to achieve quality patient care. IT has become center stage in the operations and management of healthcare organizations. IT requirements emerge from the visions, values, and beliefs of…

  19. Internet Usage, User Satisfaction, Task-Technology Fit, and Performance Impact among Public Sector Employees in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Osama; Abdullah, Zaini; Ramayah, T.; Mutahar, Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The internet technology becomes an essential tool for individuals, organizations, and nations for growth and prosperity. The purpose of this paper is to integrate the DeLone and McLean IS success model with task-technology fit (TTF) to explain the performance impact of Yemeni Government employees. Design/methodology/approach:…

  20. The Influence of Organizational Subculture on Information Technology Project Success in the Healthcare Sector: A Qualitative, Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallet, Richard Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare providers face high demands for technology based healthcare services due to global population increases and adapting information technology (IT) to achieve quality patient care. IT has become center stage in the operations and management of healthcare organizations. IT requirements emerge from the visions, values, and beliefs of…

  1. Using Semantic Web technologies to bridge the Language Gap between Academia and Industry in the Construction Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüello, M.; El-Hasia, A.; Lees, M.

    Semantic Web technologies are emerging technologies which can considerably improve the information sharing process by overcoming the problems of current Web portals. Portals based on Semantic Web technologies represent the next generation of Web portals, however, before industry is willing to adopt Semantic Web technologies it is essential to demonstrate that Semantic Web portals are significantly better than Web portals. This paper focuses on a case study which compares the performance of a traditional Web portal using a keyword-based search engine and a Semantic Web portal using an ontology-based search engine. The empirical results of the comparison performed between these two search engines over an input data set of 100 data provides strong evidence of the tangible benefits of using Semantic Web technologies.

  2. The Private Sector/University Technology Alliance: Making It Work. Proceedings of a Conference of the National Council of University Research Administrators (Dallas, Texas, September 4-7, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freise, Earl J., Ed.

    The transfer of technology from U.S. research universities in cooperation with the private sector is addressed in proceedings of a National Council of University Research Administrators conference. The first discussion session, "New Technology from University Research and Development (R&D)," examines the university research…

  3. Constraining the terrigenous sediment input in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean during the Quaternary: insights from grain size data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wengler, Marc; Lamy, Frank; Gersonde, Rainer; Kuhn, Gerhard; Winckler, Gisela; Tiedemann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Studying atmosphere-ocean interactions is crucial to understand process and feedback mechanisms in the Southern Ocean (SO) since these interactions are considered to play a key role in past atmospheric CO2 variability. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the world's largest current system and its strength and expansion as well as other parameters (e.g upwelling of deep-water masses and the back-flow of intermediate waters to the tropics) are primarily controlled by the prevailing westerly wind belt and its atmospheric forcing in the high and mid latitudes. Here, we present grain size data from three sediment cores located across the subantarctic Pacific Southern Ocean in order to reconstruct changes in the strength of the ACC and variations of atmospheric circulation patterns (westerly wind belt). The data illustrate a distinct glacial-interglacial pattern with finer grain sizes in the glacial periods and coarser grain sizes in the interglacial periods. The sortable silt fraction (10-63 µm) is a valuable tool to infer bottom current speeds since this fraction shows non-cohesive behaviour. The results of the sortable silt fraction indicate weaker bottom current speeds in the glacial periods compared to the interglacial periods. We interpret this observation as a combination of weakened westerly winds over the subantarctic ACC and extended sea-ice cover during glacial periods. Both, weaker westerly winds and extended sea-ice cover are expected to lower the effect of the westerly winds on the ACC and subsequently the strength of the bottom currents. We consider the clay and fine silt fraction (1-10 µm) as representative for atmospheric dust and observe the deposition of finer dust particles in glacial periods accompanied by higher lithogenic mass accumulation rates (corrected for sediment focussing) and dust percent rates exceeding the interglacial values. This might be a result of changed source area characteristics in Australia including expanded arid areas

  4. Assessment of large-tonnage, gas-fired cooling technologies for the commercial sector. Topical report, January 1987-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.F.; Mathias, S.; Rancatore, R.; Prud'hommeaux, E.

    1989-06-01

    A comprehensive technical/economic assessment of five gas-fired cooling technologies for a wide range of applications is performed using market-entry and sustained-market utility-rate scenarios. Cost targets for maintenance and capital costs are developed for those applications that exceeded 3-year payback periods. Preferred technologies, geographical regions, and applications have been identified. Detailed hour-by-hour simulations for about 400 combinations of building type, climate zone, utility rate pair, and gas-fired and competing electric cooling technologies were performed.

  5. Ocean energy contract list, fiscal year 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness ocean energy (waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients) in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point at which the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. The Federal OET Program is conducted by DOE and is assigned to the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy. Past studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to U.S. energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. The FY 1990 contract overview comprises a list of all subcontracts begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990). Under each managing laboratory, projects are listed alphabetically by project area and then by subcontractor name.

  6. Evolution of the Lorenz energy cycle in the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in the South American sector of the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Ligia; Vieira, Luis Eduardo; Satyamurty, Prakki

    We investigate the evolution of the Lorenz energy cycle in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the South American sector of the Atlantic. We compute the evolution of the zonal and eddy components of kinetic and potential energies using reanalysis data. We identify the ITCZ using the outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data. We realize a wavelet decomposition of the time series to study the ITCZ variability and to detect long-term trends. We also investigate trends in the evolution of the sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-level pressure (SLP) in the ITCZ region. Furthermore, connections with the variability of the South Pacific circulation are examined employing the southern oscillation index (SOI) as a proxy. We found a strong annual cycle in all the energy components with high peaks in austral summer. Approximately 91

  7. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-08-15

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

  8. "Front Desk? Send Me a Computer!" The Hotel and Tourism Sector: New Technology Spawns a Revolution in Travel Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The computer and new technologies are revolutionizing the hotel, catering, and tourism businesses. There is consensus that formal training for these changes falls short of new requirements and that schools are having difficulty keeping up. (JOW)

  9. "Front Desk? Send Me a Computer!" The Hotel and Tourism Sector: New Technology Spawns a Revolution in Travel Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The computer and new technologies are revolutionizing the hotel, catering, and tourism businesses. There is consensus that formal training for these changes falls short of new requirements and that schools are having difficulty keeping up. (JOW)

  10. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  11. Labile Fe(II) concentrations in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from the subtropical domain to the Weddell Sea Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, G.; Bucciarelli, E.; Chever, F.; Hansard, S. P.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Planchon, F.; Speich, S.

    2011-09-01

    Labile Fe(II) distributions were investigated in the Sub-Tropical South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean during the BONUS-GoodHope cruise from 34 to 57° S (February-March 2008). Concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.009 nM) to values as high as 0.125 nM. In the surface mixed layer, labile Fe(II) concentrations were always higher than the detection limit, with values higher than 0.060 nM south of 47° S, representing between 39 % and 63 % of dissolved Fe (DFe). Apparent biological production of Fe(II) was evidenced. At intermediate depth, local maxima were observed, with the highest values in the Sub-Tropical domain at around 200 m, and represented more than 70 % of DFe. Remineralization processes were likely responsible for those sub-surface maxima. Below 1500 m, concentrations were close to or below the detection limit, except at two stations (at the vicinity of the Agulhas ridge and in the north of the Weddell Sea Gyre) where values remained as high as ~0.030-0.050 nM. Hydrothermal or sediment inputs may provide Fe(II) to these deep waters. Fe(II) half life times (t1/2) at 4°C were measured in the upper and deep waters and ranged from 2.9 to 11.3 min, and from 10.0 to 72.3 min, respectively. Measured values compared quite well in the upper waters with theoretical values from two published models, but not in the deep waters. This may be due to the lack of knowledge for some parameters in the models and/or to organic complexation of Fe(II) that impact its oxidation rates. This study helped to considerably increase the Fe(II) data set in the Ocean and to better understand the Fe redox cycle.

  12. Labile Fe(II) concentrations in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from the subtropical domain to the Weddell Sea Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarthou, G.; Bucciarelli, E.; Chever, F.; Hansard, S. P.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Planchon, F.; Speich, S.

    2011-04-01

    Labile Fe(II) distributions were investigated in the Sub-Tropical South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean during the BONUS-GoodHope cruise from 34 to 57° S (February-March 2008). Concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.009 nM) to values as high as 0.125 nM. In the surface mixed layer, labile Fe(II) concentrations were always higher than the detection limit, with values higher than 0.060 nM south of 47° S, representing between 39% and 63% of dissolved Fe (DFe). Biological production was evidenced. At intermediate depth, local maxima were observed, with the highest values in the Sub-Tropical domain at around 200 m, and represented more than 70% of DFe. Remineralization processes were likely responsible for those sub-surface maxima. Below 1500 m, concentrations were close to or below the detection limit, except at two stations (at the vicinity of the Agulhas ridge and in the north of the Weddell Sea Gyre) where values remained as high as ~0.030-0.050 nM. Hydrothermal or sediment inputs may provide Fe(II) to these deep waters. Fe(II) half life times (t1/2) at 4 °C were measured in the upper and deep waters and ranged from 2.9 to 11.3 min, and from 10.0 to 72.3 min, respectively. Measured values compared quite well in the upper waters with theoretical values from two published models, but not in the deep waters. This may be due to the lack of knowledge for some parameters in the models and/or to organic complexation of Fe(II) that impact its oxidation rates. This study helped to considerably increase the Fe(II) data set in the Ocean and to better understand the Fe redox cycle.

  13. Labile Fe(II) concentrations in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from the subtropical domain to the Weddell Sea Gyre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarthou, G.; Bucciarelli, E.; Chever, F.; Hansard, S.P.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Planchon, F.; Speich, S.

    2011-01-01

    Labile Fe(II) distributions were investigated in the Sub-Tropical South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean during the BONUS-GoodHope cruise from 34 to 57?? S (February-March 2008). Concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.009 nM) to values as high as 0.125 nM. In the surface mixed layer, labile Fe(II) concentrations were always higher than the detection limit, with values higher than 0.060 nM south of 47?? S, representing between 39 % and 63 % of dissolved Fe (DFe). Apparent biological production of Fe(II) was evidenced. At intermediate depth, local maxima were observed, with the highest values in the Sub-Tropical domain at around 200 m, and represented more than 70 % of DFe. Remineralization processes were likely responsible for those sub-surface maxima. Below 1500 m, concentrations were close to or below the detection limit, except at two stations (at the vicinity of the Agulhas ridge and in the north of the Weddell Sea Gyre) where values remained as high as ???0.030-0.050 nM. Hydrothermal or sediment inputs may provide Fe(II) to these deep waters. Fe(II) half life times (t1/2) at 4??C were measured in the upper and deep waters and ranged from 2.9 to 11.3 min, and from 10.0 to 72.3 min, respectively. Measured values compared quite well in the upper waters with theoretical values from two published models, but not in the deep waters. This may be due to the lack of knowledge for some parameters in the models and/or to organic complexation of Fe(II) that impact its oxidation rates. This study helped to considerably increase the Fe(II) data set in the Ocean and to better understand the Fe redox cycle. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  14. Labile Fe(II) concentrations in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from the subtropical domain to the Weddell Sea Gyre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarthou, G.; Bucciarelli, E.; Chever, F.; Hansard, S.P.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Planchon, F.; Speich, S.

    2011-01-01

    Labile Fe(II) distributions were investigated in the Sub-Tropical South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean during the BONUS-GoodHope cruise from 34 to 57?? S (February-March 2008). Concentrations ranged from below the detection limit (0.009 nM) to values as high as 0.125 nM. In the surface mixed layer, labile Fe(II) concentrations were always higher than the detection limit, with values higher than 0.060 nM south of 47?? S, representing between 39% and 63% of dissolved Fe (DFe). Biological production was evidenced. At intermediate depth, local maxima were observed, with the highest values in the Sub-Tropical domain at around 200 m, and represented more than 70% of DFe. Remineralization processes were likely responsible for those sub-surface maxima. Below 1500 m, concentrations were close to or below the detection limit, except at two stations (at the vicinity of the Agulhas ridge and in the north of the Weddell Sea Gyre) where values remained as high as ???0.030-0.050 nM. Hydrothermal or sediment inputs may provide Fe(II) to these deep waters. Fe(II) half life times (t1/2) at 4 ??C were measured in the upper and deep waters and ranged from 2.9 to 11.3 min, and from 10.0 to 72.3 min, respectively. Measured values compared quite well in the upper waters with theoretical values from two published models, but not in the deep waters. This may be due to the lack of knowledge for some parameters in the models and/or to organic complexation of Fe(II) that impact its oxidation rates. This study helped to considerably increase the Fe(II) data set in the Ocean and to better understand the Fe redox cycle. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  15. Technology transfer in human vaccinology: a retrospective review on public sector contributions in a privatizing science field.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan

    2012-09-28

    As health intervention, vaccination has had a tremendous impact on reducing mortality and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. Traditionally vaccines were developed and made in the western, industrialised world and from there on gradually and with considerable delay became available for developing countries. Today that is beginning to change. Most vaccine doses are now produced in emerging economies, although industrialised countries still have a lead in vaccine development and in manufacturing innovative vaccines. Technology transfer has been an important mechanism for this increase in production capacity in emerging economies. This review looks back on various technology transfer initiatives and outlines the role of WHO and other public and private partners. It goes into a more detailed description of the role of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. For many decades RIVM has been providing access to vaccine technology by capacity building and technology transfer initiatives not only through multilateral frameworks, but also on a bilateral basis including a major project in China in the 90 s of the previous century. Looking forward it is expected that, in a globalizing world, the ambition of BRICS countries to play a role in global health will lead to an increase of south-south technology transfers. Further, it is argued that push approaches including technology transfer from the public domain, connecting innovative enabling platforms with competent developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVM), will be critical to ensure a sustainable supply of affordable and quality vaccines to national immunization programmes in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Partnering for Learnware: Critical Success Factors in the Use of Learnware by Human Resources Sector Councils and Industry Associations in Canada = Partenariats pour les technologies d'apprentissage: Facteurs critiques de succes dans l'utilisation des technologies d'apprentissage par les conseils sectoriels des ressources humaines et les associations industrielles au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Anna; Green, Lyndsay

    The use of learnware by human resources sector councils and industry associations in Canada was examined to identify critical success factors in the use of technology-based training. Eight case studies--four involving sector councils and four involving industry associations that either have national mandates or distribute their products across…

  17. The influence of transformational leadership on employee well-being: results from a survey of companies in the information and communication technology sector in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Christine; Pfaff, Holger; Lehner, Birgit; Driller, Elke; Nitzsche, Anika; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Wasem, Jürgen; Jung, Julia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a transformational leadership style on employee well-being. Data for the study were taken from an on-line survey of all employees from six German companies in the information and communication technology sector. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. Analysis of data from a total of 318 employees (response rate 58.4%) revealed a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee well-being (P = 0.00; OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.22). A higher degree of perceived transformational leadership is associated with greater well-being. The results of this study suggest that a transformational leadership style, which both conveys a sense of trust and meaningfulness and individually challenges and develops employees, also has a positive effect on employee well-being.

  18. The relationship between perceived social capital and the health promotion willingness of companies: a systematic telephone survey with chief executive officers in the information and communication technology sector.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julia; Nitzsche, Anika; Ernstmann, Nicole; Driller, Elke; Wasem, Jürgen; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Pfaff, Holger

    2011-03-01

    This study examines the association between perceived social capital and health promotion willingness (HPW) of companies from a chief executive officer's perspective. Data for the cross-sectional study were collected through telephone interviews with one chief executive officer from randomly selected companies within the German information and communication technology sector. A hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results of the logistic regression analysis of data from a total of n = 522 interviews suggest that higher values of perceived social capital are associated with pronounced HPW in companies (odds ratio = 3.78; 95% confidence intervals, 2.24 to 6.37). Our findings suggest that characteristics of high social capital, such as an established environment of trust as well as a feeling of common values and convictions could help promote HPW.

  19. Carbonate chemistry dynamics and carbon dioxide fluxes across the atmosphere ice water interfaces in the Arctic Ocean: Pacific sector of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, Igor P.; Pipko, Irina I.; Repina, Irina; Shakhova, Natalia E.

    2007-06-01

    Climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere have led to remarkable environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean, which is surrounded by permafrost. These changes include significant shrinking of sea-ice cover in summer, increased time between sea-ice break-up and freeze-up, and Arctic surface water freshening and warming associated with melting sea-ice, thawing permafrost, and increased runoff. These changes are commonly attributed to the greenhouse effect resulting from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration and other non-CO 2 radiatively active gases (methane, nitrous oxide). The greenhouse effect should be most pronounced in the Arctic where the largest air CO 2 concentrations and winter-summer variations in the world for a clean background environment were detected. However, the air-land-shelf interaction in the Arctic has a substantial impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere; as the permafrost thaws, a significant amount of old terrestrial carbon becomes available for biogeochemical cycling and oxidation to CO 2. The Arctic Ocean's role in determining regional CO 2 balance has been ignored, because of its small size (only ˜ 4% of the world ocean area) and because its continuous sea-ice cover is considered to impede gaseous exchange with the atmosphere so efficiently that no global climate models include CO 2 exchange over sea-ice. In this paper we show that: (1) the Arctic shelf seas (the Laptev and East-Siberian seas) may become a strong source of atmospheric CO 2 because of oxidation of bio-available eroded terrestrial carbon and river transport; (2) the Chukchi Sea shelf exhibits the strong uptake of atmospheric CO 2; (3) the sea-ice melt ponds and open brine channels form an important spring/summer air CO 2 sink that also must be included in any Arctic regional CO 2 budget. Both the direction and amount of CO 2 transfer between air and sea during open water season may be different from transfer during freezing and thawing, or

  20. Threshold Behavior of a Marine-Based Sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Response to Early Pliocene Ocean Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Melissa; Passchier, Sandra; Khim, Boo-Keun; Williams, Trevor

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) on the Wilkes Land continental margin, Antarctica, utilizing a high-resolution record of ice-rafted debris (IRD) mass accumulation rates (MAR) from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1359. The relationship between orbital variations in the IRD record and climate drivers was evaluated to capture changes in the dynamics of a marine-based ice sheet in response to early Pliocene warming. Three IRD MAR excursions were observed in the early Pliocene and confirmed via Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) microtextural analysis of sand grains. Time series analysis of the IRD MAR reveals obliquity paced expansions of the ice sheet to the outer shelf prior to ~4.6 Ma. A decline in the obliquity and a transition into a dominant precession response of IRD MAR occurs at ~4.6 Ma along with a decline in the amplitude of IRD MAR maxima to low background levels between ~4.0 and ~3.5 Ma. We speculate that as SST began to peak above 3°C in the early Pliocene warm period, the ice shelves thinned leading to a greater susceptibility to precession forced high-latitude climate variability and the onset of persistent retreat of the marine-based portion of the EAIS.

  1. Threshold behavior of a marine-based sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in response to early Pliocene ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Melissa A.; Passchier, Sandra; Khim, Boo-Keun; Song, Buhan; Williams, Trevor

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) on the Wilkes Land continental margin, Antarctica, utilizing a high-resolution record of ice-rafted debris (IRD) mass accumulation rates (MAR) from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1359. The relationship between orbital variations in the IRD record and climate drivers was evaluated to capture changes in the dynamics of a marine-based ice sheet in response to early Pliocene warming. Three IRD MAR excursions were observed and confirmed via scanning electron microscope microtextural analysis of sand grains. Time series analysis of the IRD MAR reveals obliquity-paced expansions of the ice sheet to the outer shelf prior to ~4.6 Ma. A decline in the obliquity and a transition into a dominant precession response of IRD MAR occur at ~4.6 Ma along with a decline in the amplitude of IRD MAR maxima to low background levels between ~4.0 and ~3.5 Ma. We speculate that as sea surface temperatures began to peak above 3°C during the early Pliocene climatic optimum, the ice shelves thinned, leading to a greater susceptibility to precession-forced summer insolation and the onset of persistent retreat of a marine-based portion of the EAIS.

  2. Zooplankton dynamics in the eastern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during the austral summer 1997/1998—Part 1: Community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.

    2004-11-01

    Zooplankton abundance, biomass and community structure in the top 300 m layer were studied along the 6°E meridian between 49 and 65°S during a Scandinavian/South African Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (December 1997-January 1998) onboard the S.A. Agulhas. Along the transect, total abundance and biomass of zooplankton ranged from 8 to 384 ind m -3 and 1.4 to 64.1 mg DW m -3, respectively. The general pattern in zooplankton distribution observed was an increase in density between Spring Ice Edge and the Antarctic Polar Front (APF) regions. Copepods numerically dominated zooplankton along the entire transect accounting for 68-97% of the total abundance and 24-90% of the total zooplankton standing stock. Other important contributors to total biomass, particularly within the Winter Ice Edge (WIE) and APF regions, were cnidarians and ctenophores (up to 50%), pteropods (up to 35%), tunicates (up to 30%), chaetognaths (up to 25%) and euphausiids (up to 23%). Numerical analyses identified three major zooplankton groupings, coinciding with the three regions of investigation. A dramatic change in the zooplankton composition occurred at the APF region as several copepod and euphausiid species were found on either side of the front only. A second change in the species composition was observed at the WIE, emphasizing the ecological importance of the frontal zone associated with the winter ice edge.

  3. Zooplankton dynamics in the eastern Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during the austral summer 1997/1998—Part 2: Grazing impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.

    2004-11-01

    Zooplankton grazing impact using the gut fluorescence technique was investigated in the top 200 m water layer along the 6°E meridian between 49°50' and 60°25'S at six Biostations during a Scandinavian/South African Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (December 1997-January 1998) on board the SA Agulhas. Copepods were found to be the most conspicuous grazers along the entire transect, generally accounting for ≈40% of total zooplankton grazing. Pelagic pteropods, Limacina helicina and Clio sulcata, were the second most important grazers within the Seasonal Ice Edge (SIE) region, while the tunicate Salpa thompsoni and euphausiids, mainly Euphausia superba and E. frigida, were the second and third most important consumers of the phytoplankton production within the Winter Ice Edge (WIE) and Antarctic Polar Front (APF) regions. The overall ingestion rates of the zooplankton community ranged from 24 to 277 mg C m -2 day -1. The lowest and highest ingestion rates were recorded within the SIE and APF regions. The zooplankton grazing impact was low within the SIE region accounting for <10% of daily primary production. The highest phytoplankton consumption rate (56% of daily primary production) was observed in the WIE region, while the APF region was characterized by modest (23-33%) grazing impact of zooplankton.

  4. Method validation for high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination of the emerging contaminants in the open ocean: Rare earth elements as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka, Irena; Vassileva, Emilia

    2017-02-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of fourteen rare earth elements (REEs) in the seawater samples has been developed and validated. The elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) at ultra-trace level were measured by high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-SFMS) after off-line analytes pre-concentration and matrix separation. The sample pre-treatment was carried out by commercially available automated system seaFAST-pico™, which is a low-pressure ion chromatography technique, based on solid phase extraction principles. Efficient elimination of seawater matrix and up to 50-fold pre-concentration of REEs enabled their accurate and precise quantification at ng L- 1 level. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines were followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range, linearity, recovery (from 92% to 102%), repeatability (1%-4%), intermediate precision (2%-6%), limits of detection (0.001-0.08 ng L- 1) were systematically assessed. The total uncertainty associated to each result was estimated and the main sources of uncertainty sorted out. All major contributions to the combined uncertainty of the obtained results were identified and propagated together, following the ISO/GUM guidelines. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at range from 10.4% to 11.6% (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results was also presented. Due to the low limits of detection, this method enables the determination of ultra-low levels of REEs in the open seawater as well as small variations in their concentrations. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on combination of seaFAST-pico™ for sample preparation and HR ICP-SFMS, was demonstrated by direct analysis of seawater form different regions of the world.

  5. An Update on Analyzing Differences Between Public and Private Sector Information Resource Management: Strategic Information Challenges and Critical Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    revolution of information technology (IT) has been compared to the industrial revolution in terms of its potential scope and impact on society (Alberts...become increasingly pervasive in society . It has spread to a point that nearly everyone uses some form of IT every day. Also during this time...Social Security or welfare benefits , or failing to identify known or suspected terrorists at airports). Thus, it appears that public systems need more

  6. Meeting report: Ocean ‘omics science, technology and cyberinfrastructure: current challenges and future requirements (August 20-23, 2013)

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jack A; Dick, Gregory J.; Jenkins, Bethany; Heidelberg, John; Allen, Eric; Mackey, Katherine R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation’s EarthCube End User Workshop was held at USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island, California in August 2013. The workshop was designed to explore and characterize the needs and tools available to the community that is focusing on microbial and physical oceanography research with a particular emphasis on ‘omic research. The assembled researchers outlined the existing concerns regarding the vast data resources that are being generated, and how we will deal with these resources as their volume and diversity increases. Particular attention was focused on the tools for handling and analyzing the existing data, on the need for the construction and curation of diverse federated databases, as well as development of shared, interoperable, “big-data capable” analytical tools. The key outputs from this workshop include (i) critical scientific challenges and cyber infrastructure constraints, (ii) the current and future ocean ‘omics science grand challenges and questions, and (iii) data management, analytical and associated and cyber-infrastructure capabilities required to meet critical current and future scientific challenges. The main thrust of the meeting and the outcome of this report is a definition of the ‘omics tools, technologies and infrastructures that facilitate continued advance in ocean science biology, marine biogeochemistry, and biological oceanography. PMID:25197495

  7. Meeting report: Ocean 'omics science, technology and cyberinfrastructure: current challenges and future requirements (August 20-23, 2013).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jack A; Dick, Gregory J; Jenkins, Bethany; Heidelberg, John; Allen, Eric; Mackey, Katherine R M; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-06-15

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube End User Workshop was held at USC Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island, California in August 2013. The workshop was designed to explore and characterize the needs and tools available to the community that is focusing on microbial and physical oceanography research with a particular emphasis on 'omic research. The assembled researchers outlined the existing concerns regarding the vast data resources that are being generated, and how we will deal with these resources as their volume and diversity increases. Particular attention was focused on the tools for handling and analyzing the existing data, on the need for the construction and curation of diverse federated databases, as well as development of shared, interoperable, "big-data capable" analytical tools. The key outputs from this workshop include (i) critical scientific challenges and cyber infrastructure constraints, (ii) the current and future ocean 'omics science grand challenges and questions, and (iii) data management, analytical and associated and cyber-infrastructure capabilities required to meet critical current and future scientific challenges. The main thrust of the meeting and the outcome of this report is a definition of the 'omics tools, technologies and infrastructures that facilitate continued advance in ocean science biology, marine biogeochemistry, and biological oceanography.

  8. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Technical volume. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor); Chafaris, G.; Chestek, J.; Contrad, J.; Frippel, G.; Gulatsi, R.; Heath, A.; Hodara, H.; Kritikos, H.; Tamiyasu, K.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of space systems and technology for detecting and monitoring ocean oil spills and waste pollution was assessed as well as the impact of this application on communication and data handling systems. Agencies charged with responsibilities in this area were identified and their measurement requirements were ascertained in order to determine the spatial resolution needed to characterize operational and accidental discharges. Microwave and optical sensors and sensing techniques were evaluated as candidate system elements. Capabilities are described for the following: synthetic aperture radar, microwave scatterometer, passive microwave radiometer, microwave altimeter, electro-optical sensors currently used in airborne detection, existing space-based optical sensors, the thematic mapper, and the pointable optical linear array.

  9. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  10. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  11. Embedding Probeware Technology in the Context of Ocean Acidification in Elementary Science Methods Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign, Todd I.; Rye, James A.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2017-08-01

    Research indicates that preservice teacher (PT) education programs can positively impact perceptions of scientific probeware use in K-8 environments. Despite the potential of probeware to improve science instruction and student engagement, its use in elementary education has been limited. Sixty-seven PT enrolled across three sections of an elementary science methods course participated in a mixed-methods study through which they utilized probeware in a thematic experience on ocean acidification. One-way repeated measures ANOVA of pre and post survey data measuring subscales of utility, ability, and intent to use probeware demonstrated a statistically significant increase with medium to large effect sizes for all subscales across all sections (p<0.01, η_p^2=0.384; p<0.001, η_p^2=0.517; p<0.001, η_p^2=0.214) . Analysis of reflective journals revealed over 60% felt the multiple capabilities (notably graphing) of probeware make it a useful classroom tool, and almost one-half believed that its use makes science more enjoyable and engaging. Mapping of the unitized data from the journals on the Next Generation Science Standards suggested that probeware use especially engages learners in planning and carrying out investigations and in analyzing and interpreting data. Journals also revealed that despite PT having prior experience with probeware in science courses, its use in their future elementary classroom is conditional on having a positive experience with probeware in a science methods course. Further, embedding a probeware experience in a unit on ocean acidification provides PT with strategies for addressing climate change and engaging in argument from evidence.

  12. Changes in summer sea ice, albedo, and portioning of surface solar radiation in the Pacific sector of Arctic Ocean during 1982-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ruibo; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Leppäranta, Matti; Wang, Jia; Kaleschke, Lars; Zhang, Zhanhai

    2016-08-01

    SSM/I sea ice concentration and CLARA black-sky composite albedo were used to estimate sea ice albedo in the region 70°N-82°N, 130°W-180°W. The long-term trends and seasonal evolutions of ice concentration, composite albedo, and ice albedo were then obtained. In July-August 1982-2009, the linear trend of the composite albedo and the ice albedo was -0.069 and -0.046 units per decade, respectively. During 1 June to 19 August, melting of sea ice resulted in an increase of solar heat input to the ice-ocean system by 282 MJ·m-2 from 1982 to 2009. However, because of the counter-balancing effects of the loss of sea ice area and the enhanced ice surface melting, the trend of solar heat input to the ice was insignificant. The summer evolution of ice albedo matched the ice surface melting and ponding well at basin scale. The ice albedo showed a large difference between the multiyear and first-year ice because the latter melted completely by the end of a melt season. At the SHEBA geolocations, a distinct change in the ice albedo has occurred since 2007, because most of the multiyear ice has been replaced by first-year ice. A positive polarity in the Arctic Dipole Anomaly could be partly responsible for the rapid loss of summer ice within the study region in the recent years by bringing warmer air masses from the south and advecting more ice toward the north. Both these effects would enhance ice-albedo feedback.

  13. Food formulation and not processing level: conceptual divergences between public health and food science and technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Botelho, R; Araújo, W; Pineli, L

    2016-07-20

    Observed changes in eating and drinking behaviors in economically developing countries is associated to the increase of obesity and related chronic diseases. Researchers from Public Health (PH) field have attributed this problem to food processing and have created new food classification systems to support their thesis. These classifications conceptually differ from processing level concepts in Food Science and states to people that food processing is directly related to nutritional impact of food. Our work aims to compare the concept of food processing from the standpoints of Food Science and Technology (FST) and of PH as well as to discuss differences related to formulation or level of processing of products and their impact on nutritional quality. There is a misconception among food processing/unit operation /food technology and formulation or recipes. For the PH approach, classification is based on food products selection and the use of ingredients that results in higher consumption of sugar, sodium, fat and additives, whereas in FST, processing level is based on the intensity and amount of unit operations to enhance shelf life, food safety, food quality and availability of edible parts of raw materials. Nutritional quality of a product or preparation is associated to formulation/recipe and not to the level of processing, with few exceptions. The impact of these recommendations on the actual comprehension of food processing and quality by the population must be considered.

  14. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP): First Step to Understand the Deepest Ocean in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, G.; Peng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The hadal zone (depths greater than 6000 m), comprising mostly deep trenches on Earth, represents the largest poorly understood and the most mysterious habitat on Earth. Hadal Science and Technology Program (HADSTEP), the first Chinese deep-sea program focusing primarily on the hadal zones, was financially supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences in April, 2014. The objective of this program is to explore and understand of the deepest environments and their ecosystems on Earth, in combination with the development of hadal technology. The main research interests of this program are to determine (i) the community structure, ecological function, and evolution of the hadal communities, (ii) the environmental features and biogeochemical processes of hadal zones, (iii) the impact of deep-sea current and tectonic activity on hadal fauna, and (iv) the geological evolution of hadal zones. Meanwhile, a great effort will be made for technological developments to access the extreme depths. Several hadal equipments (e.g. free-fall imaging lander, glider, deep mooring, animal trap, sediment trap, chemical sensor, and seismometer) will be developed to improve the capability of hadal exploration. Renewed interest in the deep trenches combined with technological advances will create new opportunities to explore and understand the deepest environment on earth.

  15. Technology and Education: A Review of Federal, State, and Private Sector Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 8, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet met to review investments in technology and education that are being made in the United States on the federal, state, and local and private sector levels. Presiding was Representative Fred Upton (chairman). Members present included Representatives Upton, Gillmor, Shimkus, Wilson, David,…

  16. [Users and the technological transition in the supplemental health sector: case study of a health insurance plan company].

    PubMed

    Meneses, Consuelo Sampaio; Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Andreazza, Rosemarie; Araújo, Eliane Cardoso de; Cuginotti, Aloísio Punhagui; Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro dos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from qualitative research conducted with a group of users involved in Case Management, a program which was developed by a company of a medical group to provide healthcare for patients in situations of high vulnerability. The study sought to create a perspective in which the experience of the user, instead of representing merely additional or superimposed information upon the quality of services, is considered an inherent part of the arrangement under scrutiny, with the ability to highlight its internal qualities and contradictions. The results show how patients attribute high value to the healthcare they receive, with special emphasis on the bond that is created with the health team in charge, even when contact is only by telephone. Simultaneously, they are able to perceive the double-sided aspect presented by the regulation/assistance model found in the technological arrangement at issue, notably in relation to the prominent role played by the economic bias towards cost reduction--which lies in the forefront of its operationalization--and the final impact it has upon the final quality of healthcare.

  17. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  18. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30

    measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. In particular, the report will describe new treatment of technological change in energy-climate modeling for this industry sector, i.e., assessing the changes in costs and energy-savings potentials via comparing 1994 and 2002 conservation supply curves. In this study, we compared the same set of mitigation measures for both 1994 and 2002 -- no additional mitigation measure for year 2002 was included due to unavailability of such data. Therefore, the estimated potentials in total energy savings and carbon reduction would most likely be more conservative for year 2002 in this study. Based upon the cost curves, the rate of change in the savings potential at a given cost can be evaluated and be used to estimate future rates of change that can be the input for energy-climate models. Through characterizing energy-efficiency technology costs and improvement potentials, we have developed and presented energy cost curves for energy efficiency measures applicable to the U.S. iron and steel industry for the years 1994 and 2002. The cost curves can change significantly under various scenarios: the baseline year, discount rate, energy intensity, production, industry structure (e.g., integrated versus secondary steel making and number of plants), efficiency (or mitigation) measures, share of iron and steel production to which the individual measures can be applied, and inclusion of other non-energy benefits. Inclusion of other non-energy benefits from implementing mitigation measures can reduce the costs of conserved energy significantly. In addition, costs of conserved energy (CCE) for individual mitigation measures increase with the increases in discount rates, resulting in a general increase in total cost of mitigation measures for implementation and operation with a higher discount rate. In 1994, integrated steel mills in the U.S. produced 55.

  19. Earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ data collection and transmission buoys for inland, neritic and oceanic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, W. S.; Yen, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    As a result of a consortium of several industries and organizations, an economical, versatile, and stable data collection and transmission buoy has been designed, developed, and deployed to gather and transmit water quality data to a ground receiving station at three-minute intervals and to the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as it passes over the deployed buoy every 12 hours. The buoy system, designed for both fresh and salt water application, gathers data inclusive of temperature measurement, conductivity, relative acidity, dissolved oxygen, current speed, and direction. The mechanical design philosophy used to determine and satisfy boundary conditions involving stability, ease of deployment, servicing and maintenance, minimal manufacturing costs, and fresh and salt water installation capability is discussed. The development of peripheral handling equipment and anchoring systems is described.

  20. Earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ data collection and transmission buoys for inland, neritic and oceanic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, W. S.; Yen, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    As a result of a consortium of several industries and organizations, an economical, versatile, and stable data collection and transmission buoy has been designed, developed, and deployed to gather and transmit water quality data to a ground receiving station at three-minute intervals and to the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as it passes over the deployed buoy every 12 hours. The buoy system, designed for both fresh and salt water application, gathers data inclusive of temperature measurement, conductivity, relative acidity, dissolved oxygen, current speed, and direction. The mechanical design philosophy used to determine and satisfy boundary conditions involving stability, ease of deployment, servicing and maintenance, minimal manufacturing costs, and fresh and salt water installation capability is discussed. The development of peripheral handling equipment and anchoring systems is described.

  1. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Houngbo, P. Th.; Zweekhorst, M.; De Cock Buning, Tj.; Medenou, D.; Bunders, J. F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Good governance (GG) is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM) in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i) preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii) stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii) shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv) development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system’s responses to change; (v) policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi) policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported. PMID:28056098

  2. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin.

    PubMed

    Houngbo, P Th; Coleman, H L S; Zweekhorst, M; De Cock Buning, Tj; Medenou, D; Bunders, J F G

    2017-01-01

    Good governance (GG) is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM) in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i) preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii) stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii) shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv) development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system's responses to change; (v) policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi) policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported.

  3. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. High Performance Computing Technologies for Modeling the Dynamics and Dispersion of Ice Chunks in the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-23

    effects on ice floes in a simplified 10 sq-km ocean domain. Our solver combines the merits of both the finite element and finite volume methods and...chunks in ocean . Apart from studying the influence of waves on rigid, non-moving ice floes, We have also successfully implemented the automatic...the Arctic Ocean The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official

  5. China’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    as premier, succeeding Zhu Rongji. Because the Ministry of 18 Arthur S. Banks, Thomas C. Muller, and William R. Overstreet, eds., Political Handbook ...of the World 2007 (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 2007): 227–37. 19 Banks et al., Political Handbook of the World 2007, 227–37. 20 Banks...et al., Political Handbook of the World 2007, 227–37. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division

  6. Brazil’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Livre ” (Rio de Janeiro: 2003). <http://www.finep.gov.br//fundos_setoriais/ct_info/resultados/resultado_chamada_publicaMCT_Finep_ct_info_01_ 2003.pdf...Minas e Energia , “Biodiesel: The New Fuel from Brazil” (Brasília: n.d.). <http://www.biodiesel.gov.br/docs/cartilha_ingles.pdf> (accessed on October 5...Tecnologia, “ Energia e Recursos Minerais: Introdução” (Brasília: 2006). <http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/5066.html> (accessed on October

  7. Israel’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    their friends are on-line; • Germany’s Siemens has bought several start-ups as well as Ornet; • UK’s Picker has acquired part of Elscint’s medical... Tecnomatix CAD/CAM software for the automobile industry Teldor Computers Software development Telrad Telephone switching systems Source: Based on

  8. Oceans '88

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following papers: Solid waste disposal crisis; Plastics in Ocean; Continental shelf environmental research; Seafood technology advancements; Gulf of Mexico chemosynthetic petroleum seep communities; Water reuse on onshore mariculture and processing facilities; Oil and gas industry conflicts on the outer continental shelf; Cumulative environmental effects of the oil and gas leasing program; Oil and gas exploration; and Oil and gas resource management; Aids to navigation systems and equipment; and Surveillance experiments.

  9. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  10. Geo-processing Technology Trends in the Context of Ocean Mapping and Hydrographic Surveys that Support Future Marine Spatial Planning & Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, G.

    2016-02-01

    The current increased awareness in the oceans and marine areas has presented a challenge to the various institutions that work to gather data and manage information for the wider community of stakeholders. A number of trends and developments are becoming available to assist and further the national and international ocean mapping and monitoring initiatives. Some are technical in nature whilst others are related to the promotion and availability of information. This paper highlights a number of these key trends, their impact on ocean mapping and how we as scientists may be able to better engage and promote the need for good data and the potential added value and benefits to be derived. Whilst a significant amount of resources can be expended on acquiring and collecting high resolution bathymetric and hydrographic data there are new technologies to mitigate some of the bigger costs and with collaboration and cooperation greater benefits may be realized by the wider socio-economic communities who rely upon well governed and sustainable seas and oceans.

  11. Use of information and communication technologies to support effective work practice innovation in the health sector: a multi-site study.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Gibson, Kathryn; Paoloni, Richard; Callen, Joanne; Georgiou, Andrew; Creswick, Nerida; Robertson, Louise

    2009-11-08

    Widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT) is a key strategy to meet the challenges facing health systems internationally of increasing demands, rising costs, limited resources and workforce shortages. Despite the rapid increase in ICT investment, uptake and acceptance has been slow and the benefits fewer than expected. Absent from the research literature has been a multi-site investigation of how ICT can support and drive innovative work practice. This Australian-based project will assess the factors that allow health service organisations to harness ICT, and the extent to which such systems drive the creation of new sustainable models of service delivery which increase capacity and provide rapid, safe, effective, affordable and sustainable health care. A multi-method approach will measure current ICT impact on workforce practices and develop and test new models of ICT use which support innovations in work practice. The research will focus on three large-scale commercial ICT systems being adopted in Australia and other countries: computerised ordering systems, ambulatory electronic medical record systems, and emergency medicine information systems. We will measure and analyse each system's role in supporting five key attributes of work practice innovation: changes in professionals' roles and responsibilities; integration of best practice into routine care; safe care practices; team-based care delivery; and active involvement of consumers in care. A socio-technical approach to the use of ICT will be adopted to examine and interpret the workforce and organisational complexities of the health sector. The project will also focus on ICT as a potentially disruptive innovation that challenges the way in which health care is delivered and consequently leads some health professionals to view it as a threat to traditional roles and responsibilities and a risk to existing models of care delivery. Such views have stifled debate as well as wider

  12. Use of information and communication technologies to support effective work practice innovation in the health sector: a multi-site study

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Gibson, Kathryn; Paoloni, Richard; Callen, Joanne; Georgiou, Andrew; Creswick, Nerida; Robertson, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Background Widespread adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT) is a key strategy to meet the challenges facing health systems internationally of increasing demands, rising costs, limited resources and workforce shortages. Despite the rapid increase in ICT investment, uptake and acceptance has been slow and the benefits fewer than expected. Absent from the research literature has been a multi-site investigation of how ICT can support and drive innovative work practice. This Australian-based project will assess the factors that allow health service organisations to harness ICT, and the extent to which such systems drive the creation of new sustainable models of service delivery which increase capacity and provide rapid, safe, effective, affordable and sustainable health care. Design A multi-method approach will measure current ICT impact on workforce practices and develop and test new models of ICT use which support innovations in work practice. The research will focus on three large-scale commercial ICT systems being adopted in Australia and other countries: computerised ordering systems, ambulatory electronic medical record systems, and emergency medicine information systems. We will measure and analyse each system's role in supporting five key attributes of work practice innovation: changes in professionals' roles and responsibilities; integration of best practice into routine care; safe care practices; team-based care delivery; and active involvement of consumers in care. Discussion A socio-technical approach to the use of ICT will be adopted to examine and interpret the workforce and organisational complexities of the health sector. The project will also focus on ICT as a potentially disruptive innovation that challenges the way in which health care is delivered and consequently leads some health professionals to view it as a threat to traditional roles and responsibilities and a risk to existing models of care delivery. Such views have

  13. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  14. Ocean energy program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, they collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy cost effectively and in a way that does not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where industry can accurately assess whether the technology is a viable energy conversion alternative, or supplement, to current power generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the OET Program is concentrating on research that advances the OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts; but it is not actively developing these technologies now.

  15. Ocean crustal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Talwani, M; Langseth, M

    1981-07-03

    The study of oceanic crust continues to be important because of the presence of economic resources in oceanic areas and because many fundamental problems of geologic evolution are best solved from studies of the ocean. Although modeling and syntheses of existing data remain important, key breakthroughs in the future will come from the application of new technology such as multichannel towed seismic arrays, deep-towed side scan sonars, improved thermal probes, deep drilling, and satellite altimeters.

  16. Activity mixed outside main N. Sea sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on activity levels which are mixed in sectors outside the North Sea's major producing regions. Danish sector production prospects are improving in step with horizontal drilling technology. Dutch activity centers on laying on the Nogat pipeline system and developing gas fields that will feed it. And Ireland is considering ways of boosting exploratory interest.

  17. Entrepreneurship Education: Towards an Industry Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ita; Hynes, Briga

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the requirements for an industry sector approach to entrepreneurship education--the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. A modified Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education is presented focusing specifically on ICT. The primary components of the Process Framework are…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education: Towards an Industry Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ita; Hynes, Briga

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the requirements for an industry sector approach to entrepreneurship education--the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. A modified Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education is presented focusing specifically on ICT. The primary components of the Process Framework are…

  19. Ocean energy program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the Federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW(sub e). Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

  20. The Story of the Oceans and Salt. What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module provides information on: (1) the origin of the oceans; (2) sources of minerals and salt found in the sea; and (3) the role and uses of salt in various cultures (stating, for example, that the expression "salt of the earth" describes a person who is considered one of the best). (JN)

  1. The Story of the Oceans and Salt. What We Take from Our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Science Education Center.

    This module provides information on: (1) the origin of the oceans; (2) sources of minerals and salt found in the sea; and (3) the role and uses of salt in various cultures (stating, for example, that the expression "salt of the earth" describes a person who is considered one of the best). (JN)

  2. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sastri, Bhima; Brueske, Sabine; de los Reyes, Pamela; Jamison, Keith; Justiniano, Mauricio; Margolis, Nancy; Monfort, Joe; Raghunathan, Anand; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  3. Development of a Kelp-type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Taiping; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Gill, Gary A.

    2014-02-07

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of global energy demand, the interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent advances in seawater uranium extraction technology, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles. The model-data comparison showed an overall good agreement and validated the approach of applying the model to assess the potential hydrodynamic impact of uranium extraction devices or other underwater structures in coastal oceans.

  4. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  5. Acoustic and visual remote sensing of barrels of radioactive waste: Application of civilian and military technology to environmental management of the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, H.A.; Chin, J.L.; Maher, N.M.; Chavez, P.S. Jr.; Ueber, E.; Van Peeters, W.; Curl, H.

    1995-04-01

    As part of an ongoing strategic research project to find barrels of radioactive waste off San Francisco, the U.S. Navy (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) pooled their expertise, resources, and technology to form a partnership to verify new computer enhancement techniques developed for detecting targets the size of 55 gallon barrels on sidescan sonar images. Between 1946 and 1970, approximately 47,800 large barrels and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped in the ocean west of San Francisco; the containers litter an area of the sea floor of at least 1400 km {sup 2} knows as the Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump. The exact location of the containers and the potential hazard the containers pose to the environment is unknown. The USGS developed computer techniques and contracted with private industry to enhance sidescan data, collected in cooperation with the GFNMS, to detect objects as small as 55 gallon steel barrels while conducting regional scale sidescan sonar surveys. Using a subset of the regional sonar survey, images were plotted over a 125 km {sub 2} area. The acoustic interpretations were verified visually using the USN DSV Sea Cliff and the unmanned Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Barrels and other physical features were found where image enhancement had indicated they would be found. The interagency cooperation among the USN, USGS, and GFNMS has led to develop a cost effective and time efficient method to locate the barrels of radioactive waste. This method has universal application for locating containers of hazardous waste over a regional scale in other ocean areas such as Boston Harbor and the Kara Sea in the Arctic. This successful application of military and civilian expertise and technology has provided scientific information to help formulate policy decisions that affect the environmental management and quality of the ocean.

  6. A quantitative evaluation of closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology in central station applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritton, E. C.; Pei, R. Y.; Aroesty, J.; Balaban, M. M.; Gazley, C.; Hess, R. W.; Krase, W. H.

    1980-05-01

    An evaluation of a closed cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system for delivery of electric power to the United States is presented. Performance and costs of complete commercial OTEC systems are analyzed at the system level using inputs from component analyses and thermal resource data in the Gulf of Mexico. Such sites could feed the Gulf Coast from the west coast of Florida to the New Orleans area. By exploiting the temperature difference between warm surface waters and cold water from the depths to operate a thermodynamic cycle to generate electricity, OTEC acts as a heat engine that taps the surface waters of tropical and subtropical oceans as a heat source and the cold water originating in the polar regions as a heat sink. Results of the engineering analysis indicate that the system and platform appear to be within the state-of-the-art.

  7. Hydrographic processing considerations in the “Big Data” age: An overview of technology trends in ocean and coastal surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, M.; Hoggarth, A.; Nicholson, J.

    2016-04-01

    The quantity of information generated by survey sensors for ocean and coastal zone mapping has reached the “Big Data” age. This is influenced by the number of survey sensors available to conduct a survey, high data resolution, commercial availability, as well as an increased use of autonomous platforms. The number of users of sophisticated survey information is also growing with the increase in data volume. This is leading to a greater demand and broader use of the processed results, which includes marine archeology, disaster response, and many other applications. Data processing and exchange techniques are evolving to ensure this increased accuracy in acquired data meets the user demand, and leads to an improved understanding of the ocean environment. This includes the use of automated processing, models that maintain the best possible representation of varying resolution data to reduce duplication, as well as data plug-ins and interoperability standards. Through the adoption of interoperable standards, data can be exchanged between stakeholders and used many times in any GIS to support an even wider range of activities. The growing importance of Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure (MSDI) is also contributing to the increased access of marine information to support sustainable use of ocean and coastal environments. This paper offers an industry perspective on trends in hydrographic surveying and processing, and the increased use of marine spatial data.

  8. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  9. Water Innovation and Technology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water technologies are a specific sector that EPA works to address through the water technology cluster, aging infrastructure research, green infrastructure, and major industry meetings such as WEFTEC.

  10. Transformative ocean science through the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada ocean observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Taylor, S.

    2009-04-01

    The health of the world's oceans and their impact on global environmental and climate change make the development of cabled observing systems vital and timely as a data source and archive of unparalleled importance for new discoveries. The VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories are on the forefront of a new generation of ocean science and technology. Funding of over $100M, principally from the Governments of Canada and BC, for these two observatories supports integrated ocean systems science at a regional scale enabled by new developments in powered sub-sea cable technology and in cyber-infrastructure that streams continuous real-time data to Internet-based web platforms. VENUS is a coastal observatory supporting two instrumented arrays in the Saanich Inlet, near Victoria, and in the Strait of Georgia, off Vancouver. NEPTUNE Canada is an 800 km system on the Juan de Fuca Plate off the west coast of British Columbia, which will have five instrumented nodes in operation over the next 18 months. This paper describes the development and management of these two observatories, the principal research themes, and the applications of the research to public policy, economic development, and public education and outreach. Both observatories depend on partnerships with universities, government agencies, private sector companies, and NGOs. International collaboration is central to the development of the research programs, including partnerships with initiatives in the EU, US, Japan, Taiwan and China.

  11. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  12. NREL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Support of Ocean Renewable Power Company's TidGen™ Power System Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative Project

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al

    2015-05-07

    This document summarizes the tasks identified for National Laboratory technical support of Ocean Renewable Power Corporation (ORPC) DOE grant awarded under the FY10 Industry Solicitation DE-FOA-0000293: Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative. The system ORPC will deploy in Cobscook Bay, ME is known as the TidGen™ Power System. The Turbine Generator Unit (TGU) each have a rated capacity of 150 to 175 kW, and they are mounted on bottom support frames and connected to an onshore substation using an underwater power and control cable. This system is designed for tidal energy applications in water depths from 60 to 150 feet. In funding provided separately by DOE, National Laboratory partners NREL and SNL will provide in-kind resources and technical expertise to help ensure that industry projects meet DOE WWPP (Wind and Water Power Program) objectives by reducing risk to these high value projects.

  13. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    integrating in-situ and remotely sensed Earth observations to produce information products supporting a wide range of sectors. AtlantOS will support activities to share best practice, integrate data streams and promote the standardization of in-situ observations. AtlantOS will promote network integration, optimization and new technologies.

  14. Ocean engineering for ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The panel on OTEC Ocean Engineering of the National Research Council was formed to assess the state of ocean engineering knowledge, technology, and practice necessary to design, construct, and operate OTEC plants. The panel concentrated its study on platforms, moorings, and foundations; the cold water pipe; and submarine cables for electric power transmission. The panel did not address the design and engineering of power plants; institutional and management issues or the commercial feasibility of OTEC; or its environmental impacts. The panel focused instead on determining the state of development of several of the ocean engineering technologies needed to design and construct a 40-MWe OTEC plant; it also examined the technical feasibility and advantages of larger and smaller plants.

  15. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  16. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2012-07-01

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct a brief review of different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by the problem statement, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating no-regrets options.

  17. Assessment of the use of space technology in the monitoring of oil spills and ocean pollution: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of current technology in terms of stage of maturity, of sensing, support systems, and information extraction was assessed relative to oil spills, waste pollution, and inputs to pollution trajectory models. Needs for advanced techniques are defined and the characteristics of a future satellite system are determined based on the requirements of U.S. agencies involved in pollution monitoring.

  18. Industry and Technology: Keys to Oceanic Development, Volume 2, Panel Reports of the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, Washington, DC.

    This document is the second of a three-volume series of panel reports compiled by the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources. Contained in this volume are part V, Report of the Panel on Industry and Private Investment, and part VI, Report of the Panel on Marine Engineering and Technology. Major recommendations presented in part V…

  19. Ocean acidification postcards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

  20. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  1. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  2. Specific Guide to the Evaluation of Programs of Studies Leading to a Diploma of College Studies (DEC) in the Business Administration Technology and Cooperation Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arena, Francesco; And Others

    Based on a general guide for conducting program evaluations developed by Quebec's Commission d'evaluation de l'enseignement collegial, this two-part report provides guidelines for evaluating programs of studies leading to an Attestation of College Studies (AEC) certificate in the areas of Business Administration Technology (BAT) and Cooperation.…

  3. India's Information Technology Sector: What Contribution to Broader Economic Development? OECD Development Centre Working Paper, No. 207 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 207)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2003-01-01

    What contribution can information technology (IT) make to India's overall economic development? This paper provides an analytical framework centred around the concepts of comparative advantage, complementarities, and innovation. There is strong evidence that India has a strong and sustainable comparative advantage in software development and…

  4. India's Information Technology Sector: What Contribution to Broader Economic Development? OECD Development Centre Working Paper, No. 207 (Formerly Technical Paper No. 207)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2003-01-01

    What contribution can information technology (IT) make to India's overall economic development? This paper provides an analytical framework centred around the concepts of comparative advantage, complementarities, and innovation. There is strong evidence that India has a strong and sustainable comparative advantage in software development and…

  5. Seasonal trends in the pigment and amino acid compositions of sinking particles in biogenic CaCO 3 and SiO 2 dominated regions of the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean along 170°W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, Anitra E.; Liu, Zhanfei; Lee, Cindy

    2006-05-01

    We investigated amino acids and pigments in particles settling through the water column of the Southern Ocean and showed that spatial and temporal differences in phytoplankton source and consumer population influence sinking particle composition. Sediment traps were deployed along 170°W from November 1996 to March 1998 as part of the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS) Antarctic Environment Southern Ocean Process Study (AESOPS) program. Peak fluxes of amino acids and pigments occurred during austral spring and summer (November-April) and were highest in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Compositional changes in pigments and total hydrolyzed amino acids demonstrate how the source of sinking particles varies with latitude and suggest that sinking material was most degraded in relatively diatom-depleted regions and toward the end of the high-flux period (February-March). At the Subantarctic Front, high proportions of pheophytin and β-alanine illustrate the important role of microbes in degradation. Further south at the Antarctic Polar Front, glycine, pyropheophorbide, and pheophorbide enrichments reflected a greater contribution of diatoms and greater processing by zooplankton grazers. Even further south in the ACC, enrichments of the diatom pigment fucoxanthin, diatom cell wall indicators glycine and serine, and diatom frustule-bound amino acids suggested the settling of empty frustules and aggregates. Despite being protected by the mineral, diatom-bound amino acids were not preferentially preserved between shallow and deep traps, possibly because of silica dissolution and a relatively small amount of organic carbon remineralization. Our results show that organic matter at diatom-rich stations is removed by mechanisms that do not result in the appearance of organic matter degradation indicators. Recent observations that calcium carbonate has a higher carrying capacity for sinking organic matter than silica may be related to diatom

  6. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  7. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  8. Making the market right for environmentally sound energy-efficient technologies: US buildings sector successes that might work in developing countries and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-12-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, when energy prices were high, all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries improved their E/GNP by about 2.5% annually. Increased energy efficiency accounted for 2/3rds of this improvement; the remaining portion was due to structural changes in the economy. In the US, analytic and policy tools that have successfully promoted energy efficiency include integrated resource planning, energy use labels, energy use standards, ``Golden Carrot`` incentive programs, and revenue-neutral ``feebates.`` In addition, a number of low cost, environmentally sound, energy-efficient technologies, such as electronic ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows, have recently been developed. We discuss how many of these policies and technologies are probably exportable to developing countries and Eastern Europe, giving examples of successful starts in India, the ASEAN countries, and Brazil.

  9. Applying Task-Technology Fit Model to the Healthcare Sector: a Case Study of Hospitals' Computed Tomography Patient-Referral Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Shun; Yu, Chun-Jen; Chen, Gary Yu-Hsin

    2015-08-01

    With the growth in the number of elderly and people with chronic diseases, the number of hospital services will need to increase in the near future. With myriad of information technologies utilized daily and crucial information-sharing tasks performed at hospitals, understanding the relationship between task performance and information system has become a critical topic. This research explored the resource pooling of hospital management and considered a computed tomography (CT) patient-referral mechanism between two hospitals using the information system theory framework of Task-Technology Fit (TTF) model. The TTF model could be used to assess the 'match' between the task and technology characteristics. The patient-referral process involved an integrated information framework consisting of a hospital information system (HIS), radiology information system (RIS), and picture archiving and communication system (PACS). A formal interview was conducted with the director of the case image center on the applicable characteristics of TTF model. Next, the Icam DEFinition (IDEF0) method was utilized to depict the As-Is and To-Be models for CT patient-referral medical operational processes. Further, the study used the 'leagility' concept to remove non-value-added activities and increase the agility of hospitals. The results indicated that hospital information systems could support the CT patient-referral mechanism, increase hospital performance, reduce patient wait time, and enhance the quality of care for patients.

  10. Entrepreneurial model based technology creative industries sector software through the use of free open source software for Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, B.; Hasbullah; Purnama, W.; Hery, A.

    2016-04-01

    Creative industry development areas of software by using Free Open Source Software (FOSS) is expected to be one of the solutions to foster new entrepreneurs of the students who can open job opportunities and contribute to economic development in Indonesia. This study aims to create entrepreneurial coaching model based on the creative industries by utilizing FOSS software field as well as provide understanding and fostering entrepreneurial creative industries based field software for students of Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. This activity phase begins with identifying entrepreneurs or business software technology that will be developed, training and mentoring, apprenticeship process at industrial partners, creation of business plans and monitoring and evaluation. This activity involves 30 UPI student which has the motivation to self-employment and have competence in the field of information technology. The results and outcomes expected from these activities is the birth of a number of new entrepreneurs from the students engaged in the software industry both software in the world of commerce (e-commerce) and education/learning (e-learning/LMS) and games.

  11. Ocean Prospects: A High School Teacher's Guide to Ocean-Related Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, C. M.

    Provided in this guide are resources for these 11 topics: the physical/geological ocean; the chemical/biological ocean; the ocean's coasts; fishing and aquaculture; tourism, recreation, and development; mining and drilling; research and exploration; maritime and military; ocean technology; pollution; and resource management. These resources…

  12. Ocean Prospects: A High School Teacher's Guide to Ocean-Related Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, C. M.

    Provided in this guide are resources for these 11 topics: the physical/geological ocean; the chemical/biological ocean; the ocean's coasts; fishing and aquaculture; tourism, recreation, and development; mining and drilling; research and exploration; maritime and military; ocean technology; pollution; and resource management. These resources…

  13. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  14. General view of Sector One Substation with Sector One transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector One Substation with Sector One transmitter array to right - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector One Substation, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME

  15. An overview on integrated data system for archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Lee, SeungHa

    2016-04-01

    We established and have operated an integrated data system for managing, archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data around Korea produced from various research projects and programs in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). First of all, to keep the consistency of data system with continuous data updates, we set up standard operating procedures (SOPs) for data archiving, data processing and converting, data quality controls, and data uploading, DB maintenance, etc. Database of this system comprises two databases, ARCHIVE DB and GIS DB for the purpose of this data system. ARCHIVE DB stores archived data as an original forms and formats from data providers for data archive and GIS DB manages all other compilation, processed and reproduction data and information for data services and GIS application services. Relational data management system, Oracle 11g, adopted for DBMS and open source GIS techniques applied for GIS services such as OpenLayers for user interface, GeoServer for application server, PostGIS and PostgreSQL for GIS database. For the sake of convenient use of geophysical data in a SEG Y format, a viewer program was developed and embedded in this system. Users can search data through GIS user interface and save the results as a report.

  16. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  17. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  18. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  19. 50 CFR 648.70 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Surfclam and ocean quahog... ocean quahog fisheries, which shall be equal to the ABCs recommended by the SSC. (1) Sectors. The...

  20. 50 CFR 648.70 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog Annual Catch... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Surfclam and ocean quahog... ocean quahog fisheries, which shall be equal to the ABCs recommended by the SSC. (1) Sectors. The...

  1. Oceanic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, merchant ships and the naval fleets of various countries have been the major source of data over and in the open ocean. Oceanographic research experiments and process studies in the field have also contributed to the climatological data bases for the global ocean, but, for the most part, these have been limited in duration and extent. However, over the last 10 years under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program and the International Geosphere Biosphere Program the role of the oceans in global and climate change has taken on increased significance. This has created a need for a considerably improved understanding of the seasonal, interannual, decadal and longer time-scale variability of the physical and biogeochemical attributes of the global ocean. As a result, over the past 10 years several major international field programs have been implemented and have had a tremendous impact on the number of in situ observations obtained for the global ocean. The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) were designed with observational, modelling, and process study components aimed at analyzing different aspects of the ocean's role in the coupled climate system. In parallel with the field programs, continuous space-based observations of sea surface temperature, sea surface topography, and sea surface winds spanning nearly a decade or longer have become a reality. During this same time period, numerical ocean models and computational power have advanced to the point where the oceanographic observations, both in situ and remotely sensed, can be assimilated into numerical ocean models in order to provide a four-dimensional (x-y-z-t) depiction of the evolving state of the global ocean.

  2. Contrasting views of the annual carbon cycle observed with SOCCOM profiling floats in the Pacific and the Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean: A glimpse of future views provided by global observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Riser, S.; Talley, L. D.; Gray, A. R.; Williams, N. L.; Jannasch, H. W.; Coletti, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate, Observations and Modeling program (SOCCOM) is building an array of profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These profiling floats, with 6 year lifetimes, are designed to extend the decadal-scale observations of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography program into the seasonal and interannual domain. Profiling floats that are equipped with oxygen, nitrate, pH, and biooptical sensors are deployed from GO-SHIP sections, or from ships of opportunity that make GO-SHIP quality observations, to ensure the consistency of the float observations with the long-term climatology. Observations are made from near 2000 m to the surface at 10 day intervals. SOCCOM has deployed arrays of these floats along the P16S line at 150°W in the Pacific and along the A12 line at 0° in the Atlantic. Data from the floats are quality controlled and made available in real time at http://soccom.princeton.edu. The floats are equipped with ice avoidance software to enable operations under ice and floats have been deployed as far south at 68°. At the time of the meeting, nearly two years of data will be available from the Pacific and one year of data in the Atlantic. Dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are derived from the observed pH and estimates of total alkalinity that are estimated from global climatologies. Initial assessments of air-sea gas exchange and net community production derived from the annual changes in dissolved inorganic carbon, oxygen, and nitrate concentrations along these sections, which were developed using 1D mixed layer models, will be presented. The contrasting views from these floats provide a suggestion of the future capabilities of basin scale observing systems based on profiling floats with biogeochemical sensors.

  3. Antarctic macrozooplankton of the southwest Atlantic sector and Bellingshausen Sea: Baseline historical distributions ( Discovery Investigations, 1928-1935) related to temperature and food, with projections for subsequent ocean warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, A. P.; Atkinson, A.; Hill, S. L.; Ward, P.; Cunningham, N. J.; Johnston, N. M.; Murphy, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the Discovery Investigations of the 1920s and 1930s, seawater temperatures have increased in the Atlantic sector by ˜1 °C; greater than the global mean rise. The aims of this paper were first to rescue the Discovery macrozooplankton data, second to provide quantitative "baseline" distribution maps, relating these to indices of temperature and food. Our third aim was to use the relationships we derived between abundance and temperature to project the potential affect of a 1 °C warming on the Discovery era distribution patterns. Based on the 1 m ringnet data retrieved from 615 stations (Nov-March), four taxa comprised >90% of the Antarctic macrozooplankton abundance: Rhincalanus gigas, Thysanoessa spp., Euphausia superba, and Chaetognaths. Most of the taxa, especially the more abundant ones, were warm water species penetrating into Antarctica and thus total macrozooplankton abundance decreased about 100-fold from 50°S to 70°S. While temperature correlated best with distribution at this large scale, food availability (proxied by a present-day satellite-based Chlorophyll a climatology) had a secondary effect, with the major euphausiids Euphausia superba and Thysanoessa spp. concentrated in high chl a areas. A modelled uniform 1 °C temperature rise produced a poleward shift for all taxa, but the Antarctic continent blocked this re-adjustment for the high latitude species, constricting their predicted range. More widespread polar/sub-polar species were predicted to increase their penetration into Antarctica by 4-12° in latitude, whereas the poleward shift in potential range of sub-Antarctic taxa were limited by the steep temperature gradient across the Antarctic Polar Front (APF). However, within the Scotia Sea the relatively warm temperatures of the northern Antarctic Zone, abundant food due to iron fertilisation and intense eddy activity provide a "gateway" for northern species to penetrate south of the APF. Our model predictions, based on measured

  4. Carbon Storage in Biologic and Oceanic Reservoirs: Issues and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Most discussion of carbon capture and storage have focused on geologic reservoirs because these are the reservoirs most likely to provide for long-term storage with a minimum of adverse environmental consequences. Nevertheless, there is interest in storage in other reservoirs such as the biosphere or the oceans. Storage in biological reservoirs such as forests or agricultural soils may in many cases be relatively inexpensive. Because this biological storage involves carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, it can potentially offset emissions from the transportation sector. Biological storage can be politically popular because it can be deployed with simple technologies, can be deployed in developing countries, and in many cases involves other environmental co-benefits. However, total capacity is limited. Furthermore, biological storage is temporary unless the store is actively maintained forever. Such temporary storage can be valuable, although it is clearly not as valuable as the quasi-permanent storage offered by good geologic storage reservoirs Ocean storage options fall into two main classes. The first involves conventional separation and compression of carbon dioxide from large point sources which would then be piped into the deep ocean and released either into the water or as a lake on the sea floor. In either case, the carbon dioxide would eventually interact with the atmosphere and contribute to ocean acidification. However, there is potential for the development of long-term engineered containment of carbon dioxide on or in the sea floor. The second main ocean storage option involves increasing ocean alkalinity, probably by dissolving carbonate minerals. This approach may offer safe, quasi- permanent, and cost-effective storage in settings where coastal carbon dioxide point sources are co-located with carbonate mineral deposits. Not every location or carbon dioxide source is suitable for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. At this early stage, it is

  5. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  6. 75 FR 70725 - Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... . One recommendation in the report was to provide more information to the utility sector on spectrum... grid technologies. At this spectrum policy seminar, senior officials from the Federal...

  7. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  8. Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin

    2003-01-01

    This article begins by drawing on literature to examine the various definitions of "technology" and "technique." Following a discussion of the origin of technology in education, the remaining sections of the article focus on the relationships and interaction between: (1) machines and technique; (2) science and technique; (3)…

  9. Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

    The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

  10. The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanova, Luydmila; Khachaturov, Vladimir; Zlotov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea is the largest closed reservoir in the world, which washes the western part of Kazakhstan. The area of water territory is 371,000 sq km; the sea level is lower than the level of the ocean on 28.5 m (1971). Maximum depth is 1,025m (in the southern part); the Kazakhstan part is not deep, and the depth of the North Caspian sea is about 15-20 m. The Caspian Sea is divided according to physical and geographical conditions to 3 parts - North Caspian, Middle Caspian and South Caspian Sea. Fauna is represented by 1809 species, 415 of which belong to the vertebrates, 101 species of fish, it also has the majority of the world's sturgeon, freshwater fish - roach, carp, pike, saltwater fish - carp, mullet, sprats, Kutum, bream, salmon, perch, pike, mammal - caspian seal. The plant world is represented by 728 species, of which algae are dominated - blue-green, diatoms, red, brown, Stoneworts and others, from flowering - eelgrass and seagrass. Development of sea oil-and-gas deposits of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian sea entails increase of anthropogenous pressure on the environment. According to preliminary estimates, the volume of recoverable hydrocarbon resources in the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea is about 8.0 billion tons per year. The impact of terrestrial and marine infrastructure, oil and gas facilities on natural systems is reflected in discharges and emissions into the environment of gaseous, solid and liquid pollutants, consumption of natural resources for industrial, farm and household needs, and violation of coastal landscapes. Dangerous influence on the environment is burning natural oil gas on torches. In this regard, there is a need for a system of state monitoring. In a basis of environmental monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea has been put an ecosystem approach, creation of an automated system on the basis of GIS technologies and modeling of forecasts of

  11. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD MARKETING...

  12. 50 CFR 270.6 - Sector participants eligible to vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector participants eligible to vote. 270.6 Section 270.6 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC...

  13. 50 CFR 270.6 - Sector participants eligible to vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sector participants eligible to vote. 270.6 Section 270.6 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD...

  14. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD MARKETING COUNCILS...

  15. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD MARKETING COUNCILS...

  16. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD MARKETING COUNCILS...

  17. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD MARKETING COUNCILS...

  18. 50 CFR 270.6 - Sector participants eligible to vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sector participants eligible to vote. 270.6 Section 270.6 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD...

  19. The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Landschützer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Haumann, F Alexander; Rödenbeck, Christian; Bakker, Dorothee C E; van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Metzl, Nicolas; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2015-09-11

    Several studies have suggested that the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean-the ocean's strongest region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 -has weakened in recent decades. We demonstrated, on the basis of multidecadal analyses of surface ocean CO2 observations, that this weakening trend stopped around 2002, and by 2012, the Southern Ocean had regained its expected strength based on the growth of atmospheric CO2. All three Southern Ocean sectors have contributed to this reinvigoration of the carbon sink, yet differences in the processes between sectors exist, related to a tendency toward a zonally more asymmetric atmospheric circulation. The large decadal variations in the Southern Ocean carbon sink suggest a rather dynamic ocean carbon cycle that varies more in time than previously recognized. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. U.K. offshore project employs new technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritis, G.

    1995-12-18

    The Liverpool Bay project, to produce oil and gas from four offshore fields in the British sector of the Irish Sea, includes a number recently developed technologies. GE Power Systems and GE Marine and Industrial Engines says that this project is the first to use its GE LM6000 aeroderivative gas turbine for power generation. On the Lennox platform, Cooper Cameron Corp.`s first platform spool tree was installed. Marine fouling protection of the platforms is provided by LEV Group`s proprietary ocean-powered marine growth preventers. All three technologies are described.

  1. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  2. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  3. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Nuclear Energy Set to Increase,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 9, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 38 David...Foresees Massive Expansion,” Republic of South Africa, Pebble Bed Modular Reactor ( PBMR ), March 5, 2007, http://www.pbmr.co.za/. 41 Sven Lunsche

  4. Ocean thermal energy conversion: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential; either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. An overview of the OTEC technology is provided.

  5. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

  6. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and performance of future residential and commercial sector photovoltaic (PV) and small wind installations rather than developing technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for the assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook buildings sector distributed generation projections.

  7. Oceans: our last resource

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, W.

    1981-01-01

    It is widely believed that oceans are vast storehouses of untapped food, energy, minerals, and even living space, but the author warns of a critical turning point in our stewardship of marine resources. The book opens with a history of thoughtless abuse and past mistakes which have eroded and polluted shorelines. Blind hopes for recovery of mineral wealth involve technology that may be prohibitively expensive or logistically impossible, and may have obscured real opportunities, notably the careful management and cultivation of valuable marine resources such as kelp, fish, and shellfish species. The author explores a broad spectrum of alternatives for safeguarding the oceans themselves by following wiser practices on land: methods of using biomass energy to lessen our dependence on offshore mineral development, and possibilities for recycling sewage rather than perceiving the ocean as the ultimate garbage dump. Two appendices present selected information on world fisheries and aquaculture and on the hazards of offshore oil. 319 references.

  8. Recycling Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    In a comprehensive nationwide effort, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks to increase public and private sector benefits by broadening and accelerating the secondary application of aerospace technology. Discussed are NASA's Applications Centers, publications, technology applications, and Computer Software Management and…

  9. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ocean Acidification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  11. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  12. Ocean dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The regulation of the dumping of materials into the ocean is reviewed. Criteria to be applied in reviewing and evaluating permit applications for the transportation and dumping of materials into the ocean are established. A definition of monitoring of dumping sites, the assessment of fees to cover permit processing costs, and a moratorium is placed on the issuance of permits for the disposal of radioactive waste are included.

  13. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  14. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  15. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  16. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  17. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  18. Proceedings of oceans 87. The ocean - an international workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book includes proceedings containing 347 papers. Some of the topics are: ICE -Cold ocean and ice research; ICE-1-Icebergs; ICE-2-Sea ice and structures; IE-3-Cold ocean instrumentation; ICE-4-Ocean and ice; INS-Oceanographic instrumentation; INS-1-Acoustic Doppler Current profilers; ENG-1-New solutions to old problems; ENG-2-energy from the ocean; ENG-3-Cables and connectors; POL-Policy, education and technology transfer; POL-1-International issues; POL-2-Ocean space utilization; POL-3-Economics, planning and management; SCI-6-fish stock assessment; ACI-7-Coastal currents and sediment; SCI-9-Satellite navigation; SCI-10-Deep sea minerals and methods of recovery; ODS-Fifth working symposium on oceanographic data system; ODS-1-Data base management; UND-Underwater work systems; UND-1-Diving for science.

  19. Seasat-A and the commercial ocean community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Wolff, P.

    1977-01-01

    The Seasat-A program has been initiated as a 'proof-of-concept' mission to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensing oceanology and related meteorological phenomena from a satellite platform in space utilizing sensors developed on previous space and aircraft test programs. The sensors include three active microwave sensors; a radar altimeter, a windfield scatterometer, and a synthetic aperture radar. A passive scanning multifrequency microwave radiometer, visual and infrared radiometer are also included. All weather, day-night measurements of sea surface temperature, surface wind speed/direction and sea state and directional wave spectra will be made. Two key programs are planned for data utilization with users during the mission. Foremost is a program with the commercial ocean community to test the utility of Seasat-A data and to begin the transfer of ocean remote sensing technology to the civil sector. A second program is a solicitation of investigations, led by NOAA, to involve the ocean science community in a series of scientific investigations.

  20. Improving health sector travel.

    PubMed

    Hurdle, David; Davis, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    Preventing ill health and obesity and building more physical activity into our daily lives have never been so high on the agenda, and the way we travel can help. Many workplaces and schools are drawing up travel plans, with the aims usually to minimise car use and encourage healthier and more environmentally friendly travel. The Transport White Paper of 1998 advocated travel plans and singled out hospitals for action. Travel plans continue to be a focus within the latest Transport White Paper, launched in July 2004. This article covers various prompts to the health sector to implement travel plans. It addresses issues and concerns facing NHS Trusts, the practical things Trusts can do, and the increasing amount of good practice available. Finally, it demonstrates that travel plans can work, and are working, in the health sector.

  1. Plasma technology directory

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-03-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling.

  2. Sector Study Guideline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    LIMITS . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Market Groups . ................ 8 5.2 Market Group A and the Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment...9 5.3 Market Groups B and Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4 Market Group C and the Level of Effort Assessment 11 5.5... Market Groups Al, B1, C1 versus A2, B2, C2 (LOE) 11 6.0 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SECTOR

  3. Advanced metering techniques in the federal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.; Halverson, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The lack of utility metering in the federal sector has hampered introduction of direct billing of individual activities at most military installations. Direct billing will produce accountability for the amount of energy used and is a positive step toward self-directed energy conservation. For many installations, automatic meter reading (AMR) is a cost-effective way to increase the number of meters while reducing labor requirements and providing energy conservation analysis capabilities. The communications technology used by some of the AMR systems provides other demand-side management (DSM) capabilities. This paper summarizes the characteristics and relative merits of several AMR/DSM technologies that may be appropriate for the federal sector. A case study of an AMR system being installed at Fort Irwin, California, describes a cost-effective two-way radio communication system used for meter reading and load control.

  4. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.

    2016-02-01

    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See http://www.coexploration.net/gose/index.html

  5. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  6. Final Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER64432 "New Grid and Discretization Technologies for Ocean and Ice Simulations"

    SciTech Connect

    Gunzburger, Max

    2013-03-12

    The work reported is in pursuit of these goals: high-quality unstructured, non-uniform Voronoi and Delaunay grids; improved finite element and finite volume discretization schemes; and improved finite element and finite volume discretization schemes. These are sought for application to spherical and three-dimensional applications suitable for ocean, atmosphere, ice-sheet, and other climate modeling applications.

  7. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

  8. Ocean Acidification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  9. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

  10. Ocean Acidification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  11. Ocean nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future

  12. Technology transfer and international development: Materials and manufacturing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Policy oriented studies on technological development in several relatively advanced developing countries were conducted. Priority sectors defined in terms of technological sophistication, capital intensity, value added, and export potential were studied in Brazil, Venezuela, Israel, and Korea. The development of technological policy alternatives for the sponsoring country is assessed. Much emphasis is placed on understanding the dynamics of the sectors through structured interviews with a large sample of firms in the leading manufacturing and materials processing sectors.

  13. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods.

  14. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  15. A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.

  16. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  17. Ocean bowling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Coach Scott Carpenter, a biology teacher at Lexington High School in Massachusetts, says that “some [students] want to show that they can win on a football field, and some want to show that they know science better than anyone else.”His team of four sophomores and one senior proved their mettle when they won the 1998 National Ocean Science Bowl on April 27.

  18. Ocean Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    sensing and lidar , through measurements and models. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote sensing , ocean optics, lidar , underwater imaging, underwater turbulence...scanning system taking advantage of compressive sensing imaging techniques (B. O^ang et al.). Modeling is key in system design and performance...effect has been simulated using a fvlonte Carlo method (Z. Xu and D. K. P. Yue). Active sensing by the means of lidar eliminates many of the issues

  19. Oceanic Hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batiza, Rodey

    2004-10-01

    The Wilson-Morgan hypothesis that fixed mantle plumes rising from deep in Earth's mantle give rise to linear island and seamount chains like Hawaii has been a leading idea in planetary geodynamics for many decades. However, the notion that these ascending columns of buoyant mantle material are fixed relative to each other or to a fixed reference frame has been questioned because the mean regional flow of the mantle (the so-called mantle wind) would be expected to entrain them and waft them about. Lately, even more fundamental questions have been raised regarding the existence of deep mantle conduits. In fact, the subject of plumes has become quite controversial, with important implications for ideas of mantle convection, Earth's differentiation, and planetary magma budgets and cooling. The appearance of Oceanic Hotspots: Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonics is thus timely. The 14 chapters contained in this nicely produced volume reflect in part the successful Franco-German collaboration spanning more than 17 years (1986 to present) and 15 expeditions to largely uncharted and unexplored regions of the South Pacific Ocean. The editors intended to produce a comprehensive multidisciplinary overview of oceanic plumes in this region, and in this they have succeeded, with both review and research chapters. Most papers document new discoveries and contain new data and/or new and original thinking, whereas others provide a broad overview and synthesis of existing data.

  20. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  1. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  2. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  3. Uncertainty bounds using sector theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on sector-stability theory can furnish a description of the uncertainty associated with the frequency response of a model, given sector-bounds on the individual parameters of the model. The application of the sector-based approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant multivariable systems is presently explored, and the approach is applied to two generic forms of parameter uncertainty in order to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results obtained show that sector-uncertainty bounds can be used to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model.

  4. The phenology of Arctic Ocean surface warming.

    PubMed

    Steele, Michael; Dickinson, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we explore the seasonal relationships (i.e., the phenology) between sea ice retreat, sea surface temperature (SST), and atmospheric heat fluxes in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean, using satellite and reanalysis data. We find that where ice retreats early in most years, maximum summertime SSTs are usually warmer, relative to areas with later retreat. For any particular year, we find that anomalously early ice retreat generally leads to anomalously warm SSTs. However, this relationship is weak in the Chukchi Sea, where ocean advection plays a large role. It is also weak where retreat in a particular year happens earlier than usual, but still relatively late in the season, primarily because atmospheric heat fluxes are weak at that time. This result helps to explain the very different ocean warming responses found in two recent years with extreme ice retreat, 2007 and 2012. We also find that the timing of ice retreat impacts the date of maximum SST, owing to a change in the ocean surface buoyancy and momentum forcing that occurs in early August that we term the Late Summer Transition (LST). After the LST, enhanced mixing of the upper ocean leads to cooling of the ocean surface even while atmospheric heat fluxes are still weakly downward. Our results indicate that in the near-term, earlier ice retreat is likely to cause enhanced ocean surface warming in much of the Arctic Ocean, although not where ice retreat still occurs late in the season.

  5. The phenology of Arctic Ocean surface warming

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this work, we explore the seasonal relationships (i.e., the phenology) between sea ice retreat, sea surface temperature (SST), and atmospheric heat fluxes in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean, using satellite and reanalysis data. We find that where ice retreats early in most years, maximum summertime SSTs are usually warmer, relative to areas with later retreat. For any particular year, we find that anomalously early ice retreat generally leads to anomalously warm SSTs. However, this relationship is weak in the Chukchi Sea, where ocean advection plays a large role. It is also weak where retreat in a particular year happens earlier than usual, but still relatively late in the season, primarily because atmospheric heat fluxes are weak at that time. This result helps to explain the very different ocean warming responses found in two recent years with extreme ice retreat, 2007 and 2012. We also find that the timing of ice retreat impacts the date of maximum SST, owing to a change in the ocean surface buoyancy and momentum forcing that occurs in early August that we term the Late Summer Transition (LST). After the LST, enhanced mixing of the upper ocean leads to cooling of the ocean surface even while atmospheric heat fluxes are still weakly downward. Our results indicate that in the near‐term, earlier ice retreat is likely to cause enhanced ocean surface warming in much of the Arctic Ocean, although not where ice retreat still occurs late in the season. PMID:27867789

  6. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  7. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  8. Geoengineering Using Oceanic Microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, P.; Crook, J. A.; Jackson, L. S.; Jenkins, A. K. L.

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly studied solar radiation management schemes reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed by reflecting more sunlight in the stratosphere (eg. stratospheric injection of SO2) or by making marine clouds more reflective (eg. injection of sea salt into the marine boundary layer). Both these schemes require technologies that do not currently exist and involve polluting the atmosphere. An alternative scheme which brightens the surface of the ocean without the use of chemicals has so far been largely overlooked. The technology already exists to efficiently create 1μ radius bubbles in water. Such bubbles could enhance the albedo of open sea by 0.2 and have a lifetime of the order of days (Seitz, 2010). The top of atmosphere radiative forcing produced by the wakes of existing large ocean going vessels has been estimated to be 0.14 mWm-2 (Gatebe et al, 2011). However, existing ships are not optimised to produce such small bubbles; their wake lifetimes are in the order of minutes and their albedo gains are of the order of 0.02. If fitted with existing bubble generation technology, the current fleet of cargo and merchant ships could provide a surface radiative forcing of around -1 Wm-2.We present results from a climate model simulation implemented with this enhanced albedo in current shipping lanes. Currently ships are more abundant in the Northern Hemisphere but a larger and more uniform forcing could be produced by sending out extra ships with bubble generators in the more sparsely populated Southern Hemisphere oceans. Our climate model simulation with a uniform open sea albedo enhancement of 0.03 had an effective radiative forcing of -2.6 Wm-2 and reduced global mean temperature by 1.6 K, enough to offset global mean warming under RCP4.5 for at least 40 years.

  9. The Role of the Sellafield Ltd Centres of Expertise in Engaging with the Science, Environment and Technology Supply Chain and University Sector to Support Site Operations and Decommissioning in the UK Nuclear Industry - 13018

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Ed; Connor, Donna; Keighley, Debbie

    2013-07-01

    The development and maintenance of the broad range of the highly technical skills required for safe and successful management of nuclear sites is of vital importance during routine operations, decommissioning and waste treatment activities.. In order to maintain a core team of technical experts, across all of the disciplines required for these tasks, the approach which has been taken by the Sellafield Ltd has been the formation of twenty five Centres of Expertise (CoE), each covering key aspects of the technical skills required for nuclear site operations. Links with the Specialist University Departments: The CoE leads are also responsible for establishing formal links with university departments with specialist skills and facilities relevant to their CoE areas. The objective of these links is to allow these very specialist capabilities within the university sector to be more effectively utilized by the nuclear industry, which benefits both sectors. In addition to the utilization of specialist skills, the university links are providing an important introduction to the nuclear industry for students and researchers. This is designed to develop the pipeline of potential staff, who will be required in the future by both the academic and industrial sectors. (authors)

  10. The Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsten, Jill

    For many practitioners of the marine sciences, including myself, one of the most alluring aspects of investigating the oceans is the need to marry the scientific disciplines. The complex linkages among geological, chemical, physical, and biological processes that govern the behavior and evolution of nearly 60% of the Earth's surface are fascinating and often surprising. Making progress in decoding this planetary fugue requires investigative strategies that fly squarely in the face of the increasing specialization that characterizes most modern scientific research. The successful oceanographer must endeavor to see the forest as well as the trees, or perhaps more fittingly, the kelp.

  11. Ocean energy resources: the impact of OTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The status of OTEC technological development is summarized with emphasis on the potential impacts of OTEC power production on the ocean environment, including implications for impacts to climate. (MHR)

  12. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New…

  13. Private sector participation in the petroleum industry of Trinidad & Tabago

    SciTech Connect

    Boopsingh, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    The limitations of size, domestic capital markets and the relative youth of the country, has seen shifts in the importance attributed to the private sector in energy over the past three (3) decades. The need for foreign capital and expertise has never been considered unimportant, but the corresponding need for deepening and widening the involvement of nationals in all aspects of energy sector developments has tended to make Trinidad and Tobago seek, where practicable, the joint venture as a preferred mode of operation. The need for efficient competition, not always easy to achieve in a mini-state, has led to a plural and diverse mix of arrangements, with state sector energy entities not always co-ordinated in the most efficient manner and with the local private sector in energy operating as small and mostly silent participants. The size of the country, particularly against that of international energy, thus dictates that wide domestic ownership in the energy sector in still some way off. However, the immediate benefits of new foreign capital and technology, new management expertise, more competition and greater efficiency of operations, have provided enough impetus to ensure that the role of the private sector in the energy sector in Trinidad and Tobago will continue to be enhanced to the benefit of the country, as it seeks to prepare itself for the 21st century.

  14. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  15. Ocean Energy Program overview, fiscal years 1990-1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, the oceans collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques that harness ocean energy cost effectively and in ways that do not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point at which industry can accurately assess whether the applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives, or supplements to current power-generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the Ocean Energy Program has concentrated research that advances OTEC technology. The program also monitored developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts. It is not actively developing these technologies now. The mission of the Ocean Energy Program is to develop techniques to harness the vast solar energy stored in the oceans' waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients.

  16. Detecting anthropogenic climate forcing in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijffels, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Owing to its immense heat capacity, the global ocean is the fly-wheel of the climate system, absorbing, redistributing and storing heat on long timescales and over great distances. Of the extra heat trapped in the Earth System due to rising greenhouse gases, over 90% is being stored in the global oceans. Tracking this warming has been challenging due to past changes in the coverage and technology used in past ocean observations. Here, I'll review progress in estimating past warming rates and patterns. The warming of Earth's surface is also driving changes in the global hydrological cycle, which also intimately involves the oceans. Global ocean salinity changes reveal another footprint of a warming Earth. Some simple model runs that give insight into observed subsurface changes will also be described, along with an update on current warming rates and patterns as tracked by the global Argo programme. The prospects for the next advances in broadscale ocean monitoring will also be discussed.

  17. Simulating the evolution of Thwaites Glacier with a coupled ice-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seroussi, Helene; Nakayama, Yoshihiro; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Larour, Eric; Morlighem, Mathieu; Rignot, Eric; Khazendar, Ala

    2017-04-01

    Ice shelves and floating glacier termini play an important role in the stability of ice sheets and interact strongly with the ocean. They account for much of the buttressing against the flow of inland glaciers that drain the Antarctic ice sheet. Changes in their geometry due to ice-front retreat, thinning or even collapse profoundly affect the flow of their tributary glaciers, which in turn affects the volume of grounded ice carried by these tributary glaciers into the ocean, and the extent of resulting sea level rise. Recent simulations of glaciers in Antarctica show that the largest climatic impact on ice dynamics is the rate of ice shelf melting, which rapidly affects glaciers' speed over several hundreds of kilometers upstream of the grounding line. However, accurate knowledge of these melting rates, as well as their spatial and temporal evolution remain largely unknown. Coupled ice-ocean models are the best available approach to address this question. In this study, we focus on Thwaites glacier in the Amundsen Sea sector, a glacier that has been accelerating, widening and experiencing a complex grounding line retreat pattern over the past three decades. We simulate the coupled ice-ocean system using a new two-way coupled system between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We investigate the feedbacks between changes in the ice and ocean, and the dynamic response of the glacier to changes in the ocean circulation. Our results reproduce the grounding line retreat and ice flow acceleration observed over the last couple decades, and show the rapid adjustment of ocean-induced melting rates to the evolution of the sub-ice shelf cavity, demonstrating the importance of simulating the coupled ice-ocean system to produce accurate melting rates under the ice shelf and at the grounding line. The simulations suggest that Thwaites Glacier is likely to undergo substantial changes in the coming

  18. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic sector design suggests a strategic approach to ease air traffic congestion, which is predicted to become a serious problem in the national airspace system by 2025. Considerable research has been conducted to address the sectorization problem. In previous work, an approach that combines the Voronoi diagrams, Genetic Algorithms (GA), and the iterative deepening algorithm was proposed. However, as originally formulated, the number of sectors used was predefined and only two-dimensional partitions were allowed, which constrained the method's ability to achieve good designs. The current work extends the earlier Voronoi-based method by treating the number of sectors as an additional decision variable, allowing 3D partitions, and developing more comprehensive costs.

  19. Thermal relics in hidden sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo E-mail: huitzut@uci.edu

    2008-10-15

    Dark matter may be hidden, with no standard model gauge interactions. At the same time, in WIMPless models (WIMP: weakly interacting massive particles) with hidden matter masses proportional to hidden gauge couplings squared, the hidden dark matter's thermal relic density may naturally be in the right range, preserving the key quantitative virtue of WIMPs. We consider this possibility in detail. We first determine model-independent constraints on hidden sectors from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. Contrary to conventional wisdom, large hidden sectors are easily accommodated. A flavour-free version of the standard model is allowed if the hidden sector is just 30% colder than the observable sector after reheating. Alternatively, if the hidden sector contains a one-generation version of the standard model with characteristic mass scale below 1 MeV, even identical reheating temperatures are allowed. We then analyse hidden sector freeze-out in detail for a concrete model, solving the Boltzmann equation numerically and explaining the results from both observable and hidden sector points of view. We find that WIMPless dark matter does indeed obtain the correct relic density for masses in the range keV{approx}

  20. Recent Trend of Energy Conservation Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki

    In order to cope with the global warming, importance of energy conservation technologies becomes large and large. This paper shows outline of the recent technology trends and future R&D strategies of national projects in Japan. The basic concept and some important R&D topics of the technology strategies, which will be determined by this September are summarized. They are Super combustion system technologies, Energy utilization technologies beyond time and distance restrictions, Future life environment technologies on energy conservation, Advanced traffic technologies, and New generation device technologies for energy conservation. Some relative R&D themes in industrial sector, civil sector, and transportation sector are also shown.

  1. Learn about Ocean Dumping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ocean dumping is regulated by the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA). Learn about ocean dumping regulation including what materials can and cannot be dumped, the Ocean Dumping Management Program, and MPRSA history and accomplishments.

  2. 3 CFR 8991 - Proclamation 8991 of May 31, 2013. National Oceans Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and climate change. Alongside partners at every level of government and throughout the private sector... Proclamation From providing food and energy to helping sustain our climate and our security, the oceans play a...

  3. National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences: new opportunities for ocean research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, J. A.; Tenney, A. B.

    2003-04-01

    The mission of the NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) is to support basic, curiosity-driven research, using a competitive process based on peer-review to guide selection of grants for financial support. OCE is the leading U.S. government source of ocean science funding for academic institutions. OCE supports research in biological, chemical and physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics; ocean technology development; dedicated educational activities; large shipboard equipment and shared-use instruments; the U.S. academic research fleet, submersibles, and scientific ocean drilling (ODP/IODP). In our poster, we describe OCE plans for new infrastructure projects to support research, and some of the new research and education programs being developed. Two large ocean science infrastructure projects -- a drilling vessel conversion and the ocean observatories initiative -- have already been approved for possible inclusion in a future NSF budget request. The drilling vessel will contribute to a new international scientific ocean drilling program to replace the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), which ends in 2003. We continue to refine our plan for the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), another large infrastructure program that will provide a continuous ocean presence to advance research and education. We are also working closely with the Office of Naval Research and other agency partners to implement a federal plan to renew the academic fleet. We continue to initiate new research and education programs. Two recent examples are Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) and Centers for Oceans and Human Health; the latter supported jointly with the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences. COSEE is building a nationally coordinated effort in ocean science education designed to integrate ocean science research into delivery of high-quality education programs in the ocean sciences. The Centers for Oceans and Human Health program

  4. Warming Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the National Center for Atmospheric Research say the number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes (called typhoons or cyclones in other parts of the world) worldwide has nearly doubled over the past 35 years. The North Atlantic appears to be the area worst affected. Category 4 and 5 hurricanes have…

  5. Warming Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the National Center for Atmospheric Research say the number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes (called typhoons or cyclones in other parts of the world) worldwide has nearly doubled over the past 35 years. The North Atlantic appears to be the area worst affected. Category 4 and 5 hurricanes have…

  6. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  7. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Freeman, J. E.; Heins, C. R.; Hildred, W. M.; Johnson, F. D.; Staskin, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Technology transfer in the lubrication field is discussed in terms of the movement of NASA-generated lubrication technology into the private sector as affected by evolving industrial requirements. An overview of the field is presented, and NASA technical contributions to lubrication technology are described. Specific examples in which these technologies have been used in the private sector are summarized.

  8. Conservation and renewable energy technologies for buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Office of building Technologies (OBT) pursues advanced energy efficiency and renewable technologies and accelerates the rate of adoption of these technologies in the residential and commercial sectors through research, development, and demonstration.

  9. Dry Cleaning Sector (NAICS 8123)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The dry cleaning sector includes establishments engaged in providing laundry services and industrial launderers. Find environmental regulatory information for perchloroethylene (PERC) cleaners as well as hazardous waste regulations for dry cleaners.

  10. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  11. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  12. Chemical Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 325)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    find EPA regulatory information for the chemical manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs, the SNAP program for ozone depleting substances,effluent guidelines, and new and existing chemicals testing requirements under TSCA.

  13. Designing Tools for Ocean Exploration. Galapagos Rifts Expedition--Grades 9-12. Overview: Ocean Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity teaches about the complexity of ocean exploration, the technological applications and capabilities required for ocean exploration, the importance of teamwork in scientific research projects, and developing abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. The activity provides learning objectives, a list of needed materials, key…

  14. Regulatory framework of pricing and estimate standards in the petroleum sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, V.; Baitova, U.; Safronova, E.; Pozdeeva, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the improvement of the regulatory framework of pricing and estimate standards in the petroleum sector. Regulatory framework reform in the construction sector is necessary at the state, territorial and branch levels. Taking into account the provision and opportunity for potential relations between sellers and buyers, peculiarities of industrial sectors and investment projects, sources of financing, technology pre-investment studies, pre-project, project, tender and production documentation.

  15. Ocean optics

    SciTech Connect

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  16. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence Network: Building Bridges Between Ocean Scientists and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowcroft, G.; Hotaling, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    linking the ocean sciences research community with educators and the public outreach sector, fostering innovative collaborations among these communities to disseminate knowledge, create broader public awareness of the role of scientific discovery in society, and enhance ocean science education opportunities.

  17. Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Julia G.; Rudd, Murray A.; Crowder, Larry B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking. These results quantitatively demonstrate how different stakeholder groups approach ocean issues and highlight the need to incorporate other types of knowledge in the codesign of solutions-oriented research, which may facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration. PMID:28533565

  18. Ocean Research Priorities: Similarities and Differences among Scientists, Policymakers, and Fishermen in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mason, Julia G; Rudd, Murray A; Crowder, Larry B

    2017-05-01

    Understanding and solving complex ocean conservation problems requires cooperation not just among scientific disciplines but also across sectors. A recently published survey that probed research priorities of marine scientists, when provided to ocean stakeholders, revealed some agreement on priorities but also illuminated key differences. Ocean acidification, cumulative impacts, bycatch effects, and restoration effectiveness were in the top 10 priorities for scientists and stakeholder groups. Significant priority differences were that scientists favored research questions about ocean acidification and marine protected areas; policymakers prioritized questions about habitat restoration, bycatch, and precaution; and fisheries sector resource users called for the inclusion of local ecological knowledge in policymaking. These results quantitatively demonstrate how different stakeholder groups approach ocean issues and highlight the need to incorporate other types of knowledge in the codesign of solutions-oriented research, which may facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration.

  19. Oceans for schools web magazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Y. C.; Byfield, V.

    2003-04-01

    Oceans for Schools (http://www.soc.soton.ac.uk/JRD/SCHOOL/) is an interactive web magazine about oceanography in all its forms, aimed at the 12-16 age group. It combines a magazine format with a web site, covering topics such as: expeditions and research cruises, descriptions of the oceans and major seas, the science needed for understanding the oceans, technology (underwater vehicles, satellites, instruments) and competitions and quizzes. Three issues per year are planned, with frequent updates and monthly competitions within each issue to encourage return visits. An 'Email an oceanographer' feature will provide interaction between the audience and practising scientists, on occasion these scientists will be on board a research cruise or scientific expedition.

  20. Healthcare technology and technology assessment.

    PubMed

    Herndon, James H; Hwang, Raymond; Bozic, K J; Bozic, K H

    2007-08-01

    New technology is one of the primary drivers for increased healthcare costs in the United States. Both physician and industry play important roles in the development, adoption, utilization and choice of new technologies. The Federal Drug Administration regulates new drugs and new medical devices, but healthcare technology assessment remains limited. Healthcare technology assessment originated in federal agencies; today it is decentralized with increasing private sector efforts. Innovation is left to free market forces, including direct to consumer marketing and consumer choice. But to be fair to the consumer, he/she must have free knowledge of all the risks and benefits of a new technology in order to make an informed choice. Physicians, institutions and industry need to work together by providing proven, safe, clinically effective and cost effective new technologies, which require valid pre-market clinical trials and post-market continued surveillance with national and international registries allowing full transparency of new products to the consumer--the patient.

  1. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  2. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  3. Energy technologies: Systemic aspects, technological trajectories, and institutional frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    Technology policies to promote a transition `away from the carbon atom` must take into account the systemic nature of technological change in the energy sector. Technological interrelatedness, infrastructure requirements, and lumpiness of energy sector investments result in the need to consider technological change as systemic, i.e., beyond the introduction and diffusion of individual technologies. Consequences of technological advances are ambivalent. On the one hand, technological improvements in existing technologies can slow down the development of new alternatives and radical technological shifts. On the other hand, technological change generates variety within the system of energy supply and end-use technologies, leading to technological pluralism. Thus, technology dynamics are characterized by a complex interplay between irrversibility and diversity. It is on this basis that public technology policy oriented toward sustainable energy development has to be formulated. 35 refs.

  4. Using transient tracers to estimate decadal changes in Southern Ocean ventilation in an eddying ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patara, Lavinia; Schmidt, Christina; Tanhua, Toste; Böning, Claus

    2017-04-01

    Decadal changes in ocean ventilation of Southern Ocean water masses is estimated by performing a set of ocean simulations with the ocean model NEMO-LIM2 at 1/4° horizontal resolution ( 15 km grid spacing at 50°S). The model simulates the uptake and spreading of CFC-12 and SF6, which are atmospheric trace gases that both increased in past decades due to human activities, with CFC-12 leveling off in the mid-90s and SF6 steadily increasing. Two simulations are performed: a hindcast simulation from 1948 to 2010 and a climatological experiment performed under repeated-annual-cycle forcing. The latter is used to correct the hindcast experiment from model spurious trends unrelated to the atmospheric forcing. Simulated CFC-12 and SF6 are here used 1) to assess the simulated water mass ventilation in comparison with observations and 2) to estimate decadal changes in ocean ventilation. Owing to the similar atmospheric increase rates of CFC-12 and SF6, but with a time lag of 14-15 years, a change between historical CFC-12 and modern SF6 tracer ages implies a decadal change in ventilation. Using this approach it was possible to estimate whether changes in upper ocean ventilation occurred in the period between the 1980s and 2000s in different sectors of the Southern Ocean. Preliminary results show that ventilation of Antarctic Intermediate Water and - partially - of Subantarctic Mode Water increased between the 1980s and the 2000s in several sectors of the Southern Ocean. Despite this general pattern, conspicuous regional variability is also found and will here be discussed.

  5. Sectoral thermal emitter for testing of modern IR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Piątkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents multi-sector stable IR grey body radiation source, that can be used for testing of MRT. Its main element is monolithic metal plate with a test pattern, made of material with high thermal conductivity. On the surface of the test plate the sectors of different emissivity are created during manufacturing process. As a result when viewed by a thermal camera those sectors exhibit thermal contrast depending mainly on the radiative properties of each sector. The value of thermal contrast between particular sectors can be adjusted by changing the temperature of a test plate with respect to ambient. The emissivity values of particular sectors have been calculated and the procedure of adjusting the thermal contrast has been described, as well as the technology used to create the test plate. The model of described emitter has been tested and the results of temperature values obtained from thermal camera were compared with theoretical, calculated figures. The proposed emitter is dedicated for testing and calibrating of modern observations IR systems.

  6. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  7. System Expertise Training Courses in Private Sector: Can They Be Given Online?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci Demirci, Birim

    2014-01-01

    It is widely known that there are many schools in the private sector offering courses in Computer Technology, Computer Engineering, Information Systems and similar disciplines in addition to Universities presenting such courses. The private sector programs are extremely popular with students already studying at university as well as being of great…

  8. Ocean FEST and TECH: Inspiring Hawaii's Students to Pursue Ocean, Earth and Environmental Science Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean TECH (Technology Expands Career Horizons) is a new initiative funded by NSF/GeoEd to stimulate interest in ocean, earth and environmental science careers - and the college majors that lead to such careers - among Hawaii's underrepresented students in grades 6-14. The Ocean TECH project features hands-on ocean science and technology and interactions with career professionals. Ocean TECH builds upon Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together), a previous NSF/OEDG project aimed at teaching fun hands-on science in culturally and locally relevant ways to Hawaii's elementary school students and their families. Ocean FEST was rigorously evaluated (including cognitive pre-testing developed in partnership with external evaluators) and shown to be successful both in teaching science content and changing attitudes toward ocean, earth and environmental science careers. Over the course of the four-year grant, Ocean FEST reached 20,99 students and adults, including 636 classroom teachers and other volunteers who assisted with program delivery, most of whom were from underrepresented groups. For more info on Ocean FEST: http://oceanfest.soest.hawaii.edu/ Ocean TECH events have various formats, but common themes include: (1) Using technology as a hook to engage students in ocean, earth and environmental science. (2) Bringing middle school through community college students to college campuses, where they engage in hands-on science activities and learn about college majors. (3) Drawing direct links between the students' hands-on science activities and the research currently occurring at the UH Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), such as C-MORE and HOT research. (4) Respecting and valuing students' local knowledge and experiences. (5) Explicitly showing, through concrete examples, how becoming an ocean, earth or environmental scientist addresses would beneit Hawaii (6) Having graduate students from diverse backgrounds serve as instructors and

  9. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  10. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Frajka-Williams, E

    2014-09-28

    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Electricity savings potentials in the residential sector of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Morsy, M.G.; Al-Baharna, N.S.

    1996-08-01

    Electricity is the major fuel (over 99%) used in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in Bahrain. In 1992, the total annual electricity consumption in Bahrain was 3.45 terawatt-hours (TWh), of which 1.95 TWh (56%) was used in the residential sector, 0.89 TWh (26%) in the commercial sector, and 0.59 TWh (17%) in the industrial sector. Agricultural energy consumption was 0.02 TWh (less than 1%) of the total energy use. In Bahrain, most residences are air conditioned with window units. The air-conditioning electricity use is at least 50% of total annual residential use. The contribution of residential AC to the peak power consumption is even more significant, approaching 80% of residential peak power demand. Air-conditioning electricity use in the commercial sector is also significant, about 45% of the annual use and over 60% of peak power demand. This paper presents a cost/benefit analysis of energy-efficient technologies in the residential sector. Technologies studied include: energy-efficient air conditioners, insulating houses, improved infiltration, increasing thermostat settings, efficient refrigerators and freezers, efficient water heaters, efficient clothes washers, and compact fluorescent lights. We conservatively estimate a 32% savings in residential electricity use at an average cost of about 4 fils per kWh. (The subsidized cost of residential electricity is about 12 fils per kWh. 1000 fils = 1 Bahrain Dinar = US$ 2.67). We also discuss major policy options needed for implementation of energy-efficiency technologies.

  12. International Affairs Sector (NAICS 928120)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA laws and regulatory information for international agreements, including import and export, Montreal Protocol for Ozone depleting substances, ocean vessels, MARPOL, and port and border compliance assistance centers.

  13. Ocean floor boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, H D

    1979-04-13

    The base of the continental slope, combined with the concepts of a boudary zone, a technical advisory boundary commission, and special treatment for restricted seas, offers a readily attainable, natural, practicable, and equitable boundary between national and international jurisdiction over the ocean floor. There is no point in bringing into the boundary formula the unnecessary added complication of thickness of sediments, as recently proposed. Review of the U.S. offshore brings out the critical importance with respect to energy resources of proper choice of boundary principles and proper determination of the base-of-continent line about our shores. The advice of the pertinent science and technology community should urgently be sought and contributed to decisions on offshore boundaries.

  14. Innovation management in renewable energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, V.

    2017-08-01

    As a result of the globalization of knowledge, shortening of the innovation cycle and the aggravation of the price situation, the diffusion of innovation has accelerated. The protection of innovation has become even more important for companies in technologyintensive industries. Legal and actual patent right strategies complement one another, in order to amortize the investment in product development. Climate change is one of today’s truly global challenges, affecting all aspects of socio-economic development in every region of the world. Technology development and its rapid diffusion are considered crucial for tackling the climate change challenge. At the global level, the last decades have seen a continuous expansion of inventive activity in renewable energy technologies. The growth in Renewable Energy (RE) inventions has been much faster than in other technologies, and RE today represents nearly 6% of global invention activity, up from 1.5% in 1990. This paper discusses about global innovation activity in the last five years in the renewable energy sector and describes the Innovation and Technology Management process for supporting managerial decision making.

  15. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  16. Network topology of economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman A.; Gan, Siew Lee

    2016-09-01

    A lot of studies dealing with stock network analysis, where each individual stock is represented by a univariate time series of its closing price, have been published. In these studies, the similarity of two different stocks is quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient on the logarithmic price returns. In this paper, we generalize the notion of similarity between univariate time series into multivariate time series which might be of different dimensions. This allows us to deal with economic sector network analysis, where the similarity between economic sectors is defined using Escoufier’s vector correlation RV. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study dealing with this notion of economic sector similarity. Two examples of data from the New York stock exchange will be presented and discussed, and some important results will be highlighted.

  17. Impact Assessment and Forecasts of Information and Telecommunications Technologies Applied to Education and Training: Volume II--Main Report and Issues Analyses. Analysis for the Orientation of the Work of Sector Actors in the Framework of DELTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report, the second volume in a three volume set, summarizes the results of a study performed by the DELTA (Developing European Learning through Technological Advance) unit in parallel with the projects underway in the research and development Exploratory Action. The report identifies the key issues, associated requirements and options, and…

  18. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  19. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  20. Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-05

    favorably of its recommendations.12 Articles and editorials in regional media generally focused on selected issues of local relevance,13 and interest...of Texas posted at [http://www.governor.state.tx.us/divisions/ bpp /files/ ocean_policy.pdf], visited on July 7, 2004. 16 For example, see [http...Broaden ocean education and awareness through a commitment to teach and learn about our oceans, at all levels of society. Comments on the Pew Commission’s