Sample records for ocean thermal gradient

  1. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump.

  2. Ocean thermal gradient as a generator of electricity. OTEC power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrique, Luna-Gomez Victor; Angel, Alatorre-Mendieta Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is a power plant that uses the thermal gradient of the sea water between the surface and a depth of about 700 meters. It works by supplying the heat to a steam machine, for evaporation, with sea water from the surface and cold, to condense the steam, with deep sea water. The energy generated by the power plant OTEC can be transferred to the electric power grid, another use is to desalinate seawater. During the twentieth century in some countries experimental power plants to produce electricity or obtaining drinking water they were installed. On the Mexico's coast itself this thermal gradient, as it is located in tropical seas it occurs, so it has possibilities of installing OTEC power plant type. In this paper one type OTEC power plant operation is represented in most of its components.

  3. An operational global-scale ocean thermal analysis system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Clancy, R. M.; Pollak, K.D.; Phoebus, P.A.

    1990-04-01

    The Optimum Thermal Interpolation System (OTIS) is an ocean thermal analysis system designed for operational use at FNOC. It is based on the optimum interpolation of the assimilation technique and functions in an analysis-prediction-analysis data assimilation cycle with the TOPS mixed-layer model. OTIS provides a rigorous framework for combining real-time data, climatology, and predictions from numerical ocean prediction models to produce a large-scale synoptic representation of ocean thermal structure. The techniques and assumptions used in OTIS are documented and results of operational tests of global scale OTIS at FNOC are presented. The tests involved comparisons of OTIS against an existingmore » operational ocean thermal structure model and were conducted during February, March, and April 1988. Qualitative comparison of the two products suggests that OTIS gives a more realistic representation of subsurface anomalies and horizontal gradients and that it also gives a more accurate analysis of the thermal structure, with improvements largest below the mixed layer. 37 refs.« less

  4. Shelf and open-ocean calcareous phytoplankton assemblages across the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Implications for global productivity gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, S.J.; Bralower, T.J.; Bown, Paul R.; Zachos, J.C.; Bybell, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Abrupt global warming and profound perturbation of the carbon cycle during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ca. 55 Ma) have been linked to a massive release of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Increased phytoplankton productivity has been invoked to cause subsequent CO2 drawdown, cooling, and environmental recovery. However, interpretations of geochemical and biotic data differ on when and where this increased productivity occurred. Here we present high-resolution nannofossil assemblage data from a shelf section (the U.S. Geological Survey [USGS] drill hole at Wilson Lake, New Jersey) and an open-ocean location (Ocean Drilling Program [ODP] Site 1209, paleoequatorial Pacific). These data combined with published biotic records indicate a transient steepening of shelf-offshelf trophic gradients across the PETM onset and peak, with a decrease in open-ocean productivity coeval with increased nutrient availability in shelf areas. Productivity levels recovered in the open ocean during the later stages of the event, which, coupled with intensified continental weathering rates, may have played an important role in carbon sequestration and CO2 drawdown. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  5. Utilizing Ocean Thermal Energy in a Submarine Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system would exploit the ocean thermal gradient for recharging the batteries in a battery-powered unmanned underwater vehicle [UUV (essentially, a small exploratory submarine robot)] of a type that has been deployed in large numbers in research pertaining to global warming. A UUV of this type travels between the ocean surface and depths, measuring temperature and salinity. The proposed system is related to, but not the same as, previously reported ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems that exploit the ocean thermal gradient but consist of stationary apparatuses that span large depth ranges. The system would include a turbine driven by working fluid subjected to a thermodynamic cycle. CO2 has been provisionally chosen as the working fluid because it has the requisite physical properties for use in the range of temperatures expected to be encountered in operation, is not flammable, and is much less toxic than are many other commercially available refrigerant fluids. The system would be housed in a pressurized central compartment in a UUV equipped with a double hull (see figure). The thermodynamic cycle would begin when the UUV was at maximum depth, where some of the CO2 would condense and be stored, at relatively low temperature and pressure, in the annular volume between the inner and outer hulls. The cycle would resume once the UUV had ascended to near the surface, where the ocean temperature is typically greater than or equals 20 C. At this temperature, the CO2 previously stored at depth in the annular volume between the inner and outer hulls would be pressurized to approx. equals 57 bar (5.7 MPa). The pressurized gaseous CO2 would flow through a check valve into a bladder inside the pressurized compartment, thereby storing energy of the relatively warm, pressurized CO2 for subsequent use after the next descent to maximum depth.

  6. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zinke, J.; Hoell, A.; Lough, J. M.; Feng, M.; Kuret, A. J.; Clarke, H.; Ricca, V.; Rankenburg, K.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795–2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia. PMID:26493738

  7. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zinke, J; Hoell, A; Lough, J M; Feng, M; Kuret, A J; Clarke, H; Ricca, V; Rankenburg, K; McCulloch, M T

    2015-10-23

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  8. Sensitivity of the tropical climate to an interhemispheric thermal gradient: the role of tropical ocean dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talento, Stefanie; Barreiro, Marcelo

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the role of the tropical ocean dynamics in the response of the climate to extratropical thermal forcing. We analyse and compare the outcomes of coupling an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with two ocean models of different complexity. In the first configuration the AGCM is coupled with a slab ocean model while in the second a reduced gravity ocean (RGO) model is additionally coupled in the tropical region. We find that the imposition of extratropical thermal forcing (warming in the Northern Hemisphere and cooling in the Southern Hemisphere with zero global mean) produces, in terms of annual means, a weaker response when the RGO is coupled, thus indicating that the tropical ocean dynamics oppose the incoming remote signal. On the other hand, while the slab ocean coupling does not produce significant changes to the equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal cycle, the RGO configuration generates strong warming in the central-eastern basin from April to August balanced by cooling during the rest of the year, strengthening the seasonal cycle in the eastern portion of the basin. We hypothesize that such changes are possible via the dynamical effect that zonal wind stress has on the thermocline depth. We also find that the imposed extratropical pattern affects El Niño-Southern Oscillation, weakening its amplitude and low-frequency behaviour.

  9. Design of a High Thermal Gradient Bridgman Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeCroy, J. E.; Popok, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a Bridgman-Stockbarger microgravity processing facility, designed and manifested to first fly aboard the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) Space Shuttle mission. The AADSF was principally designed to produce high axial thermal gradients, and is particularly suitable for metals solidification experiments, including non-dilute alloys. To accommodate a wider range of experimental conditions, the AADSF is equipped with a reconfigurable gradient zone. The overall design of the AADSF and the relationship between gradient zone design and furnace performance are described. Parametric thermal analysis was performed and used to select gradient zone design features that fulfill the high thermal gradient requirements of the USMP-2 experiment. The thermal model and analytical procedure, and parametric results leading to the first flight gradient zone configuration, are presented. Performance for the USMP-2 flight experiment is also predicted, and analysis results are compared to test data.

  10. Constraints on Southern Ocean CO2 Fluxes and Seasonality from Atmospheric Vertical Gradients Observed on Multiple Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKain, K.; Sweeney, C.; Stephens, B. B.; Long, M. C.; Jacobson, A. R.; Basu, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Weir, B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Stern, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system, but net CO2 flux into the Southern Ocean is difficult to measure and model because it results from large opposing and seasonally-varying fluxes due to thermal forcing, biological uptake, and deep-water mixing. We present an analysis to constrain the seasonal cycle of net CO2 exchange with the Southern Ocean, and the magnitude of summer uptake, using the vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 observed during three aircraft campaigns in the southern polar region. The O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study (ORCAS) was an airborne campaign that intensively sampled the atmosphere at 0-13 km altitude and 45-75 degrees south latitude in the austral summer (January-February) of 2016. The global airborne campaigns, the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) study and the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom), provide additional measurements over the Southern Ocean from other seasons and multiple years (2009-2011, 2016-2017). Derivation of fluxes from measured vertical gradients requires robust estimates of the residence time of air in the polar tropospheric domain, and of the contribution of long-range transport from northern latitudes outside the domain to the CO2 gradient. We use diverse independent approaches to estimate both terms, including simulations using multiple transport and flux models, and observed gradients of shorter-lived tracers with specific sources regions and well-known loss processes. This study demonstrates the utility of aircraft profile measurements for constraining large-scale air-sea fluxes for the Southern Ocean, in contrast to those derived from the extrapolation of sparse ocean and atmospheric measurements and uncertain flux parameterizations.

  11. Barrier island breach evolution: Alongshore transport and bay-ocean pressure gradient interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Ilgar; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Physical processes controlling repeated openings and closures of a barrier island breach between a bay and the open ocean are studied using aerial photographs and atmospheric and hydrodynamic observations. The breach site is located on Pea Island along the Outer Banks, separating Pamlico Sound from the Atlantic Ocean. Wind direction was a major control on the pressure gradients between the bay and the ocean to drive flows that initiate or maintain the breach opening. Alongshore sediment flux was found to be a major contributor to breach closure. During the analysis period from 2011 to 2016, three hurricanes had major impacts on the breach. First, Hurricane Irene opened the breach with wind-driven flow from bay to ocean in August 2011. Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 quadrupled the channel width from pressure gradient flows due to water levels that were first higher on the ocean side and then higher on the bay side. The breach closed sometime in Spring 2013, most likely due to an event associated with strong alongshore sediment flux but minimal ocean-bay pressure gradients. Then, in July 2014, Hurricane Arthur briefly opened the breach again from the bay side, in a similar fashion to Irene. In summary, opening and closure of breaches are shown to follow a dynamic and episodic balance between along-channel pressure gradient driven flows and alongshore sediment fluxes.

  12. Thermal rectification in thin films driven by gradient grain microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhe; Foley, Brian M.; Bougher, Thomas; Yates, Luke; Cola, Baratunde A.; Graham, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    As one of the basic components of phononics, thermal rectifiers transmit heat current asymmetrically similar to electronic rectifiers in microelectronics. Heat can be conducted through them easily in one direction while being blocked in the other direction. In this work, we report a thermal rectifier that is driven by the gradient grain structure and the inherent gradient in thermal properties as found in these materials. To demonstrate their thermal rectification properties, we build a spectral thermal conductivity model with complete phonon dispersion relationships using the thermophysical properties of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films which possess gradient grain microstructures. To explain the observed significant thermal rectification, the temperature and thermal conductivity distribution are studied. Additionally, the effects of temperature bias and film thickness are discussed, which shed light on tuning the thermal rectification based on the gradient microstructures. Our results show that the columnar grain microstructure makes CVD materials unique candidates for mesoscale thermal rectifiers without a sharp temperature change.

  13. Controlling Thermal Gradients During Silicon Web Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Piotrowski, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Strategically placed slot helps to control critical thermal gradients in crucible for silicon web growth. Slot thermally isolates feed region of crucible from growth region; region where pellets are added stays hot. Heat absorbed by pellets during melting causes thermal unbalance than upsets growth conditions.

  14. Damage Accumulation and Failure of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradient Cyclic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, rober A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. A fundamental understanding of the sintering and thermal cycling induced delamination of thermal barrier coating systems under engine-like heat flux conditions will potentially help to improve the coating temperature capability. In this study, a test approach is established to emphasize the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which can initially increase under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later decrease under the thermal gradient cyclic test due to coating cracking and delamination. Thermal conductivity prediction models have been established for a ZrO2-(7- 8wt%)Y2O3 model coating system in terms of heat flux, time, and testing temperatures. The coating delamination accumulation is then assessed based on the observed thermal conductivity response under the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The coating thermal gradient cycling associated delaminations and failure mechanisms under simulated engine heat-flux conditions will be discussed in conjunction with the coating sintering and fracture testing results.

  15. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Air-Sea Surface Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Elizabeth Wing-See

    -or-less fixed. The surplus energy, from absorbing increasing levels of infrared radiation, is found to adjust the curvature of the thermal skin layer such that there is a smaller gradient at the interface between the thermal skin layer and the mixed layer beneath. The vertical conduction of heat from the mixed layer to the surface is therefore hindered while the additional energy within the thermal skin layer is supporting the gradient changes of the skin layer's temperature profile. This results in heat beneath the thermal skin layer, which is a product of the absorption of solar radiation during the day, to be retained and cause an increase in upper ocean heat content. The accuracy of four published skin layer models were evaluated by comparison with the field results. The results show a need to include radiative effects, which are currently absent, in such models as they do not replicate the findings from the field data and do not elucidate the effects of the absorption of infrared radiation.

  16. TIGER: Development of Thermal Gradient Compensation Algorithms and Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Parker, Peter A.; Rhew, Ray D.

    2004-01-01

    In a wind tunnel facility, the direct measurement of forces and moments induced on the model are performed by a force measurement balance. The measurement balance is a precision-machined device that has strain gages at strategic locations to measure the strain (i.e., deformations) due to applied forces and moments. The strain gages convert the strain (and hence the applied force) to an electrical voltage that is measured by external instruments. To address the problem of thermal gradients on the force measurement balance NASA-LaRC has initiated a research program called TIGER - Thermally-Induced Gradients Effects Research. The ultimate goals of the TIGER program are to: (a) understand the physics of the thermally-induced strain and its subsequent impact on load measurements and (b) develop a robust thermal gradient compensation technique. This paper will discuss the impact of thermal gradients on force measurement balances, specific aspects of the TIGER program (the design of a special-purpose balance, data acquisition and data analysis challenges), and give an overall summary.

  17. Variability of the geothermal gradient across two differently aged magma-rich continental rifted margins of the Atlantic Ocean: the Southwest African and the Norwegian margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamrezaie, Ershad; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Sippel, Judith; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the shallow thermal field differences for two differently aged passive continental margins by analyzing regional variations in geothermal gradient and exploring the controlling factors for these variations. Hence, we analyzed two previously published 3-D conductive and lithospheric-scale thermal models of the Southwest African and the Norwegian passive margins. These 3-D models differentiate various sedimentary, crustal, and mantle units and integrate different geophysical data such as seismic observations and the gravity field. We extracted the temperature-depth distributions in 1 km intervals down to 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition. The geothermal gradient was then calculated for these intervals between the upper thermal boundary condition and the respective depth levels (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 km below the upper thermal boundary condition). According to our results, the geothermal gradient decreases with increasing depth and shows varying lateral trends and values for these two different margins. We compare the 3-D geological structural models and the geothermal gradient variations for both thermal models and show how radiogenic heat production, sediment insulating effect, and thermal lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth influence the shallow thermal field pattern. The results indicate an ongoing process of oceanic mantle cooling at the young Norwegian margin compared with the old SW African passive margin that seems to be thermally equilibrated in the present day.

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovsky, Boris

    1987-01-01

    Describes Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) as a method for exploiting the temperature difference between warm surface waters of the sea and its cold depths. Argues for full-scale demonstrations of the technique for producing energy for coastal regions. (TW)

  19. Directional solidification at ultra-high thermal gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Lee, D. S.; Neff, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A high gradient controlled solidification (HGC) furnace was designed and operated at gradients up to 1800 C/cm to continuously produce aluminum alloys. Rubber '0' rings for the water cooling chamber were eliminated, while still maintaining water cooling directly onto the solidified metal. An HGC unit for high temperature ferrous alloys was also designed. Successful runs were made with cast iron, at thermal gradients up to 500 C/cm.

  20. Testing thermal gradient driving force for grain boundary migration using molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsicmore » mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.« less

  1. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  2. Ocean thermal plantships for production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Panchal, C.B.; Pandolfini, P. P.; Kumm, W. H.

    2009-12-02

    Conventional petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the primary sources of energy that have underpinned modern civilization. Their continued availability in the projected quantities required and the impacts of emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment are issues at the forefront of world concerns. New primary sources of energy are being sought that would significantly reduce the emissions of GHGs. One such primary source that can help supply energy, water, and fertilizer without GHG emissions is available in the heretofore unexploited thermal gradients of the tropical oceans. The world's oceans are the largest natural collector and reservoir of solarmore » energy. The potential of ocean energy is limitless for producing base-load electric power or ammonia as the hydrogen carrier and fresh water from seawater. However, until now, ocean energy has been virtually untapped. The general perception is that ocean thermal energy is limited to tropical countries. Therefore, the full potential of at-sea production of (1) ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and (2) desalinated water has not been adequately evaluated. Using ocean thermal plantships for the at-sea co-production of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and desalinated water offer potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that support the development of the technology. The introduction of a new widespread solution to our projected energy supply requires lead times of a decade or more. Although continuation of the ocean thermal program from the 1970s would likely have put us in a mitigating position in the early 2000s, we still have a window of opportunity to dedicate some of our conventional energy sources to the development of this renewable energy by the time new sources would be critically needed. The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the technical and economic viability of ocean thermal plantships for the production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier. This objective is achieved by

  3. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Caroline S.; Crump, Byron C.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33), the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1) the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2) metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in functional gene abundance

  4. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Crump, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33), the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1) the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2) metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in functional gene abundance

  5. Suppression of Electron Thermal Conduction by Whistler Turbulence in a Sustained Thermal Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberg-Clark, G. T.; Drake, J. F.; Reynolds, C. S.; Swisdak, M.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of weakly magnetized collisionless plasmas in the presence of an imposed temperature gradient along an ambient magnetic field is explored with particle-in-cell simulations and modeling. Two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures drive an electron heat flux that destabilizes off-angle whistler-type modes. The whistlers grow to large amplitude, δ B /B0≃1 , and resonantly scatter the electrons, significantly reducing the heat flux. Surprisingly, the resulting steady-state heat flux is largely independent of the thermal gradient. The rate of thermal conduction is instead controlled by the finite propagation speed of the whistlers, which act as mobile scattering centers that convect the thermal energy of the hot reservoir. The results are relevant to thermal transport in high-β astrophysical plasmas such as hot accretion flows and the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters.

  6. Growth of large aluminum nitride single crystals with thermal-gradient control

    DOEpatents

    Bondokov, Robert T; Rao, Shailaja P; Gibb, Shawn Robert; Schowalter, Leo J

    2015-05-12

    In various embodiments, non-zero thermal gradients are formed within a growth chamber both substantially parallel and substantially perpendicular to the growth direction during formation of semiconductor crystals, where the ratio of the two thermal gradients (parallel to perpendicular) is less than 10, by, e.g., arrangement of thermal shields outside of the growth chamber.

  7. Growth of large aluminum nitride single crystals with thermal-gradient control

    DOEpatents

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Rao, Shailaja P.; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2017-02-28

    In various embodiments, non-zero thermal gradients are formed within a growth chamber both substantially parallel and substantially perpendicular to the growth direction during formation of semiconductor crystals, where the ratio of the two thermal gradients (parallel to perpendicular) is less than 10, by, e.g., arrangement of thermal shields outside of the growth chamber.

  8. Interhemispheric gradient of atmospheric radiocarbon reveals natural variability of Southern Ocean winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, K. B.; Fletcher, S. E. M.; Bianchi, D.; Beaulieu, C.; Galbraith, E. D.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Hogg, A. G.; Iudicone, D.; Lintner, B.; Naegler, T.; Reimer, P. J.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Slater, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Tree ring Δ14C data (Reimer et al., 2004; McCormac et al., 2004) indicate that atmospheric Δ14C varied on multi-decadal to centennial timescales, in both hemispheres, over the pre-industrial period AD 950-1830. Although the Northern and Southern Hemispheric Δ14C records display similar variability, it is difficult from these data alone to distinguish between variations driven by 14CO2 production in the upper atmosphere (Stuiver, 1980) and exchanges between carbon reservoirs (Siegenthaler, 1980). Here we consider rather the Interhemispheric Gradient in atmospheric Δ14C as revealing of the background pre-bomb air-sea Disequilbrium Flux between 14CO2 and CO2. As the global maximum of the Disequilibrium Flux is squarely centered in the open ocean regions of the Southern Ocean, relatively modest perturbations to the winds over this region drive significant perturbations to the Interhemispheric Gradient. The analysis presented here implies that changes to Southern Ocean windspeeds are likely a main driver of the observed variability in the Interhemispheric Gradient over 950-1830, and further, that this variability may be larger than the Southern Ocean wind trends that have been reported for recent decades (notably 1980-2004). This interpretation also implies a significant weakening of the winds over the Southern Ocean within a few decades of AD 1375, associated with the transition between the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. The driving forces that could have produced such a shift in the winds remain unkown.

  9. Escalation of polymerization in a thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Christof B.; Schink, Severin; Gerland, Ulrich; Braun, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    For the emergence of early life, the formation of biopolymers such as RNA is essential. However, the addition of nucleotide monomers to existing oligonucleotides requires millimolar concentrations. Even in such optimistic settings, no polymerization of RNA longer than about 20 bases could be demonstrated. How then could self-replicating ribozymes appear, for which recent experiments suggest a minimal length of 200 nt? Here, we demonstrate a mechanism to bridge this gap: the escalated polymerization of nucleotides by a spatially confined thermal gradient. The gradient accumulates monomers by thermophoresis and convection while retaining longer polymers exponentially better. Polymerization and accumulation become mutually self-enhancing and result in a hyperexponential escalation of polymer length. We describe this escalation theoretically under the conservative assumption of reversible polymerization. Taking into account the separately measured thermophoretic properties of RNA, we extrapolate the results for primordial RNA polymerization inside a temperature gradient in pores or fissures of rocks. With a dilute, nanomolar concentration of monomers the model predicts that a pore length of 5 cm and a temperature difference of 10 K suffice to polymerize 200-mers of RNA in micromolar concentrations. The probability to generate these long RNAs is raised by a factor of >10600 compared with polymerization in a physical equilibrium. We experimentally validate the theory with the reversible polymerization of DNA blocks in a laser-driven thermal trap. The results confirm that a thermal gradient can significantly enlarge the available sequence space for the emergence of catalytically active polymers. PMID:23630280

  10. Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panier, Stephane; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Bremond, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low frequency vibrations called hot judder. In this paper, an experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermograph measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. The infrared system was set to take temperature readings in snap shot mode precisely synchronized with the rotation of the disc. Very short integration time allows reducing drastically haziness of thermal images. Based on thermographs, a classification of hot-spots observed in disc brakes is proposed. A detailed investigation of the most damaging thermal gradients, called macroscopic hot spots (MHS) is given. From these experimental researches, a scenario of hot spots occurrence is suggested step by step. Thanks to infrared measurements at high frequency with high resolution, observations give new highlights on the conditions of hot spots appearance. Comparison of the experimental observations with the theoretical approaches is finally discussed.

  11. Correction of Thermal Gradient Errors in Stem Thermocouple Hygrometers

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Burlyn E.

    1979-01-01

    Stem thermocouple hygrometers were subjected to transient and stable thermal gradients while in contact with reference solutions of NaCl. Both dew point and psychrometric voltages were directly related to zero offset voltages, the latter reflecting the size of the thermal gradient. Although slopes were affected by absolute temperature, they were not affected by water potential. One hygrometer required a correction of 1.75 bars water potential per microvolt of zero offset, a value that was constant from 20 to 30 C. PMID:16660685

  12. The effects of thermal gradients on the Mars Observer Camera primary mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, Roger W.; Telkamp, Arthur R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the effect of thermal gradients on the optical performance of the primary mirror of Mars Observer Camera (MOC), which will be launched on the Mars Observer spacecraft in September 1992. It was found that mild temperature gradients can have a large effect on the mirror surface figure, even for relatively low coefficient-of-thermal-expansion materials. However, in the case of the MOC primary mirror, it was found that the radius of curvature (ROC) of the reflective surface of the mirror changed in a nearly linear fashion with the radial temperature gradient, with little additional aberration. A solid-state ROC controller using the thermal gradient effect was implemented and verified.

  13. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore » than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  14. Detection of thermal gradients through fiber-optic Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating (CFBG): Medical thermal ablation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Orazayev, Yerzhan; Sovetov, Sultan; Bazyl, Ali; Schena, Emiliano; Massaroni, Carlo; Gassino, Riccardo; Vallan, Alberto; Perrone, Guido; Saccomandi, Paola; Arturo Caponero, Michele; Palumbo, Giovanna; Campopiano, Stefania; Iadicicco, Agostino; Tosi, Daniele

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel method for spatially distributed temperature measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating (CFBG) fiber-optic sensors. The proposed method determines the thermal profile in the CFBG region from demodulation of the CFBG optical spectrum. The method is based on an iterative optimization that aims at minimizing the mismatch between the measured CFBG spectrum and a CFBG model based on coupled-mode theory (CMT), perturbed by a temperature gradient. In the demodulation part, we simulate different temperature distribution patterns with Monte-Carlo approach on simulated CFBG spectra. Afterwards, we obtain cost function that minimizes difference between measured and simulated spectra, and results in final temperature profile. Experiments and simulations have been carried out first with a linear gradient, demonstrating a correct operation (error 2.9 °C); then, a setup has been arranged to measure the temperature pattern on a 5-cm long section exposed to medical laser thermal ablation. Overall, the proposed method can operate as a real-time detection technique for thermal gradients over 1.5-5 cm regions, and turns as a key asset for the estimation of thermal gradients at the micro-scale in biomedical applications.

  15. Identifying Time Periods of Minimal Thermal Gradient for Temperature-Driven Structural Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John; Glisic, Branko

    2018-03-01

    Temperature changes play a large role in the day to day structural behavior of structures, but a smaller direct role in most contemporary Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) analyses. Temperature-Driven SHM will consider temperature as the principal driving force in SHM, relating a measurable input temperature to measurable output generalized strain (strain, curvature, etc.) and generalized displacement (deflection, rotation, etc.) to create three-dimensional signatures descriptive of the structural behavior. Identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient provides the foundation for the formulation of the temperature-deformation-displacement model. Thermal gradients in a structure can cause curvature in multiple directions, as well as non-linear strain and stress distributions within the cross-sections, which significantly complicates data analysis and interpretation, distorts the signatures, and may lead to unreliable conclusions regarding structural behavior and condition. These adverse effects can be minimized if the signatures are evaluated at times when thermal gradients in the structure are minimal. This paper proposes two classes of methods based on the following two metrics: (i) the range of raw temperatures on the structure, and (ii) the distribution of the local thermal gradients, for identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient on a structure with the ability to vary the tolerance of acceptable thermal gradients. The methods are tested and validated with data collected from the Streicker Bridge on campus at Princeton University.

  16. Identifying Time Periods of Minimal Thermal Gradient for Temperature-Driven Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, John; Glisic, Branko

    2018-01-01

    Temperature changes play a large role in the day to day structural behavior of structures, but a smaller direct role in most contemporary Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) analyses. Temperature-Driven SHM will consider temperature as the principal driving force in SHM, relating a measurable input temperature to measurable output generalized strain (strain, curvature, etc.) and generalized displacement (deflection, rotation, etc.) to create three-dimensional signatures descriptive of the structural behavior. Identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient provides the foundation for the formulation of the temperature–deformation–displacement model. Thermal gradients in a structure can cause curvature in multiple directions, as well as non-linear strain and stress distributions within the cross-sections, which significantly complicates data analysis and interpretation, distorts the signatures, and may lead to unreliable conclusions regarding structural behavior and condition. These adverse effects can be minimized if the signatures are evaluated at times when thermal gradients in the structure are minimal. This paper proposes two classes of methods based on the following two metrics: (i) the range of raw temperatures on the structure, and (ii) the distribution of the local thermal gradients, for identifying time periods of minimal thermal gradient on a structure with the ability to vary the tolerance of acceptable thermal gradients. The methods are tested and validated with data collected from the Streicker Bridge on campus at Princeton University. PMID:29494496

  17. Thermal lens elimination by gradient-reduced zone coupling of optical beams

    DOEpatents

    Page, Ralph H.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2000-01-01

    A thermal gradient-reduced-zone laser includes a laser medium and an optically transparent plate with an index of refraction that is less than the index of refraction of the laser medium. The pump face of the laser medium is bonded to a surface of the optically transparent member. Pump light is directed through the transparent plate to optically pump the solid state laser medium. Heat conduction is mainly through the surface of the laser medium where the heat is introduced by the pump light. Heat flows in a direction opposite to that of the pump light because the side of the laser medium that is opposite to that of the pump face is not in thermal contact with a conductor and thus there is no heat flux (and hence, no temperature gradient), thus producing a thermal gradient-reduced zone. A laser cavity is formed around the laser medium such that laser light oscillating within the laser cavity reflects by total-internal-reflection from the interface between the pump face and the optically transparent plate and enters and exits through a thermal gradient-reduced zone.

  18. Thermal Aging of Oceanic Asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulson, E.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the depth extent of mantle thermal aging beneath ocean basins, we project 3D Voigt-averaged S-velocity variations from an ensemble of global tomographic models onto a 1x1 degree age-based regionalization and average over bins delineated by equal increments in the square-root of crustal age. From comparisons among the bin-averaged S-wave profiles, we estimate age-dependent convergence depths (minimum depths where the age variations become statistically insignificant) as well as S travel times from these depths to a shallow reference surface. Using recently published techniques (Jordan & Paulson, JGR, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50263, 2013), we account for the aleatory variability in the bin-averaged S-wave profiles using the angular correlation functions of the individual tomographic models, we correct the convergence depths for vertical-smearing bias using their radial correlation functions, and we account for epistemic uncertainties through Bayesian averaging over the tomographic model ensemble. From this probabilistic analysis, we can assert with 90% confidence that the age-correlated variations in Voigt-averaged S velocities persist to depths greater than 170 km; i.e., more than 100 km below the mean depth of the G discontinuity (~70 km). Moreover, the S travel time above the convergence depth decays almost linearly with the square-root of crustal age out to 200 Ma, consistent with a half-space cooling model. Given the strong evidence that the G discontinuity approximates the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath ocean basins, we conclude that the upper (and probably weakest) part of the oceanic asthenosphere, like the oceanic lithosphere, participates in the cooling that forms the kinematic plates, or tectosphere. In other words, the thermal boundary layer of a mature oceanic plate appears to be more than twice the thickness of its mechanical boundary layer. We do not discount the possibility that small-scale convection creates heterogeneities

  19. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sanna F; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2013-08-01

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  20. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Bartsch, Marion; Raghavan, Seetha

    2013-08-01

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  1. Statistics of velocity gradients in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and ocean turbulence.

    PubMed

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Gille, Sarah T

    2002-02-01

    Probability density functions and conditional averages of velocity gradients derived from upper ocean observations are compared with results from forced simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Ocean data are derived from TOPEX satellite altimeter measurements. The simulations use rapid forcing on large scales, characteristic of surface winds. The probability distributions of transverse velocity derivatives from the ocean observations agree with the forced simulations, although they differ from unforced simulations reported elsewhere. The distribution and cross correlation of velocity derivatives provide clear evidence that large coherent eddies play only a minor role in generating the observed statistics.

  2. Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Gradient Cyclic Behavior of Refractory Silicate Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite and BSAS coatings have been developed to protect SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites from high temperature environmental attack. In this study, thermal conductivity and thermal barrier functions of these coating systems are evaluated using a laser high-heat-flux test rig. The effects of water vapor on coating thermal conductivity and durability are studied by using alternating furnace and laser thermal gradient cyclic tests. The influence of laser high thermal-gradient cycling on coating failure modes is also investigated.

  3. Minimum mass design of large-scale space trusses subjected to thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    Lightweight, deployable trusses are commonly used to support space-borne instruments including RF reflectors, radar panels, and telescope optics. While in orbit, these support structures are subjected to thermal gradients that vary with altitude, location in orbit, and self-shadowing. Since these instruments have tight dimensional-stability requirements, their truss members are often covered with multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets to minimize thermal distortions. This paper develops a radiation heat transfer model to predict the thermal gradient experienced by a triangular truss supporting a long, linear radar panel in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). The influence of self-shadowing effects of the radar panel are included in the analysis, and the influence of both MLI thickness and outer covers/coatings on the magnitude of the thermal gradient are formed into a simple, two-dimensional analysis. This thermal model is then used to size and estimate the structural mass of a triangular truss that meets a given set of structural requirements.

  4. Constraints on ocean circulation at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum from neodymium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, April N.; Haley, Brian A.; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Frank, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ˜ 55 million years ago (Ma) coincided with a massive release of carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system, as indicated by carbon isotopic data. Previous studies have argued for a role of changing ocean circulation, possibly as a trigger or response to climatic changes. We use neodymium (Nd) isotopic data to reconstruct short high-resolution records of deep-water circulation across the PETM. These records are derived by reductively leaching sediments from seven globally distributed sites to reconstruct past deep-ocean circulation across the PETM. The Nd data for the leachates are interpreted to be consistent with previous studies that have used fish teeth Nd isotopes and benthic foraminiferal δ13C to constrain regions of convection. There is some evidence from combining Nd isotope and δ13C records that the three major ocean basins may not have had substantial exchanges of deep waters. If the isotopic data are interpreted within this framework, then the observed pattern may be explained if the strength of overturning in each basin varied distinctly over the PETM, resulting in differences in deep-water aging gradients between basins. Results are consistent with published interpretations from proxy data and model simulations that suggest modulation of overturning circulation had an important role for initiation and recovery of the ocean-atmosphere system associated with the PETM.

  5. Oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere: The thermal and mechanical structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Froidevaux, C.; Yuen, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A coupled thermal and mechanical solid state model of the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere is presented. The model includes vertical conduction of heat with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity, horizontal and vertical advection of heat, viscous dissipation or shear heating, and linear or nonlinear deformation mechanisms with temperature and pressure dependent constitutive relations between shear stress and strain rate. A constant horizontal velocity u sub 0 and temperature t sub 0 at the surface and zero horizontal velocity and constant temperature t sub infinity at great depth are required. In addition to numerical values of the thermal and mechanical properties of the medium, only the values of u sub 0, t sub 0 and t sub infinity are specified. The model determines the depth and age dependent temperature horizontal and vertical velocity, and viscosity structures of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. In particular, ocean floor topography, oceanic heat flow, and lithosphere thickness are deduced as functions of the age of the ocean floor.

  6. Thermal gradients for the stabilization of a single domain wall in magnetic nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mejía-López, J; Velásquez, E A; Mazo-Zuluaga, J; Altbir, D

    2018-08-24

    By means of Monte Carlo simulations we studied field driven nucleation and propagation of transverse domain walls (DWs) in magnetic nanowires subjected to temperature gradients. Simulations identified the existence of critical thermal gradients that allow the existence of reversal processes driven by a single DW. Critical thermal gradients depend on external parameters such as temperature, magnetic field and wire length, and can be experimentally obtained through the measurement of the mean velocity of the magnetization reversal as a function of the temperature gradient. Our results show that temperature gradients provide a high degree of control over DW propagation, which is of great importance for technological applications.

  7. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully be George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250--400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smallermore » (10 MW) shore-based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed-cycle concept. Cost-effective heat-exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat-transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat-exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open-cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open-cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed-cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power -- both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open-cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources. 7 refs.« less

  8. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Anthony; Hillis, David L.

    The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully by George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250 to 400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed cycle concept. Cost effective heat exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R and D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power; both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources.

  9. Near-Inertial and Thermal Upper Ocean Response to Atmospheric Forcing in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    meridional transport of heat (Hoskins and Valdes, 1990). Formation of North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water is thought to take place during the...North Atlantic Ocean MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography/ Applied Ocean Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Woods Hole...Oceanographic Institution MITIWHOI 2010-16 Near-inertial and Thermal Upper Ocean Response to Atmospheric Forcing in the North Atlantic Ocean by

  10. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavi, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy Research and Development Administration research progress in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is outlined. The development program is being focused on cost effective heat exchangers; ammonia is generally used as the heat exchange fluid. Projected costs for energy production by OTEC vary between $1000 to $1700 per kW.

  11. Cyclic Failure Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems Under Thermal Gradient Test Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite+BSAS/Si multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC-EBC) systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrates were thermally cyclic tested under high thermal gradients using a laser high-heat-flux rig in conjunction with furnace exposure in water-vapor environments. Coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after exposure. Sintering kinetics of the coating systems were also independently characterized using a dilatometer. It was found that the coating failure involved both the time-temperature dependent sintering and the cycle frequency dependent cyclic fatigue processes. The water vapor environments not only facilitated the initial coating conductivity increases due to enhanced sintering and interface reaction, but also promoted later conductivity reductions due to the accelerated coating cracking and delamination. The failure mechanisms of the coating systems are also discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering and thermal stress behavior under the thermal gradient test conditions.

  12. Interhemispheric gradient of atmospheric radiocarbon reveals natural variability of Southern Ocean winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, K. B.; Mikaloff-Fletcher, S. E.; Bianchi, D.; Beaulieu, C.; Galbraith, E. D.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Hogg, A. G.; Iudicone, D.; Lintner, B. R.; Naegler, T.; Reimer, P. J.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Slater, R. D.

    2011-10-01

    Tree ring Δ14C data (Reimer et al., 2004; McCormac et al., 2004) indicate that atmospheric Δ14C varied on multi-decadal to centennial timescales, in both hemispheres, over the period between AD 950 and 1830. The Northern and Southern Hemispheric Δ14C records display similar variability, but from the data alone is it not clear whether these variations are driven by the production of 14C in the stratosphere (Stuiver and Quay, 1980) or by perturbations to exchanges between carbon reservoirs (Siegenthaler et al., 1980). As the sea-air flux of 14CO2 has a clear maximum in the open ocean regions of the Southern Ocean, relatively modest perturbations to the winds over this region drive significant perturbations to the interhemispheric gradient. In this study, model simulations are used to show that Southern Ocean winds are likely a main driver of the observed variability in the interhemispheric gradient over AD 950-1830, and further, that this variability may be larger than the Southern Ocean wind trends that have been reported for recent decades (notably 1980-2004). This interpretation also implies that there may have been a significant weakening of the winds over the Southern Ocean within a few decades of AD 1375, associated with the transition between the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. The driving forces that could have produced such a shift in the winds at the Medieval Climate Anomaly to Little Ice Age transition remain unknown. Our process-focused suite of perturbation experiments with models raises the possibility that the current generation of coupled climate and earth system models may underestimate the natural background multi-decadal- to centennial-timescale variations in the winds over the Southern Ocean.

  13. Convection induced by thermal gradients on thin reaction fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelas Paredes, David R. A.; Vasquez, Desiderio A.

    2017-09-01

    We present a thin front model for the propagation of chemical reaction fronts in liquids inside a Hele-Shaw cell or porous media. In this model we take into account density gradients due to thermal and compositional changes across a thin interface. The front separating reacted from unreacted fluids evolves following an eikonal relation between the normal speed and the curvature. We carry out a linear stability analysis of convectionless flat fronts confined in a two-dimensional rectangular domain. We find that all fronts are stable to perturbations of short wavelength, but they become unstable for some wavelengths depending on the values of compositional and thermal gradients. If the effects of these gradients oppose each other, we observe a range of wavelengths that make the flat front unstable. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear model show curved fronts of steady shape with convection propagating faster than flat fronts. Exothermic fronts increase the temperature of the fluid as they propagate through the domain. This increment in temperature decreases with increasing speed.

  14. Interaction strength between different grazers and macroalgae mediated by ocean acidification over warming gradients.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, E; Rodil, I F; Vaz-Pinto, F; Fernández, A; Arenas, F

    2017-04-01

    Since the past century, rising CO 2 levels have led to global changes (ocean warming and acidification) with subsequent effects on marine ecosystems and organisms. Macroalgae-herbivore interactions have a main role in the regulation of marine community structure (top-down control). Gradients of warming prompt complex non-linear effects on organism metabolism, cascading into altered trophic interactions and community dynamics. However, not much is known on how will acidification and grazer assemblage composition shape these effects. Within this context, we aimed to assess the combined effects of warming gradients and acidification on macroalgae-herbivore interactions, using three cosmopolitan species, abundant in the Iberian Peninsula and closely associated in nature: the amphipod Melita palmata, the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis, and the green macroalga Ulva rigida. Under two CO 2 treatments (ΔCO 2 ≃ 450 μatm) across a temperature gradient (13.5, 16.6, 19.9 and 22.1 °C), two mesocosm experiments were performed to assess grazer consumption rates and macroalgae-herbivore interaction, respectively. Warming (Experiment I and II) and acidification (Experiment II) prompted negative effects in grazer's survival and species-specific differences in consumption rates. M. palmata was shown to be the stronger grazer per biomass (but not per capita), and also the most affected by climate stressors. Macroalgae-herbivore interaction strength was markedly shaped by the temperature gradient, while simultaneous acidification lowered thermal optimal threshold. In the near future, warming and acidification are likely to strengthen top-down control, but further increases in disturbances may lead to bottom-up regulated communities. Finally, our results suggest that grazer assemblage composition may modulate future macroalgae-herbivore interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal gradients in Southwestern United States and the effect on bridge bearing loads : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-01

    Thermal gradients became a component of bridge design after soffit cracking in prestressed concrete bridges was attributed to nonlinear temperature distribution through the depth of the bridge. While the effect of thermal gradient on stress distribut...

  16. Distribution of thermal neutrons in a temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, V. G.; Pollachini, L.

    A method to determine the spatial distribution of the thermal spectrum of neutrons in heterogeneous systems is presented. The method is based on diffusion concepts and has a simple mathematical structure which increases computing efficiency. The application of this theory to the neutron thermal diffusion induced by a temperature gradient, as found in nuclear reactors, is described. After introducing approximations, a nonlinear equation system representing the neutron temperature is given. Values of the equation parameters and its dependence on geometrical factors and media characteristics are discussed.

  17. Structure of the marine atmospheric boundary layer over an oceanic thermal front: SEMAPHORE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, B. H.; BéNech, B.; Lambert, D.; Durand, P.; Druilhet, A.; Giordani, H.; Planton, S.

    1998-10-01

    The Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphere, Proprietes des Heterogeneites Oceaniques: Recherche Experimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, the third phase of which took place between October 4 and November 17, 1993, was conducted over the oceanic Azores Current located in the Azores basin and mainly marked at the surface by a thermal front due to the gradient of the sea surface temperature (SST) of about 1° to 2°C per 100 km. The evolution of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the SST front was studied with two aircraft and a ship in different meteorological conditions. For each case, the influence of the incoming air direction with respect to the orientation of the oceanic front was taken into account. During the campaign, advanced very high resolution radiometer pictures did not show any relation between the SST field and the cloud cover. The MABL was systematically thicker on the warm side than on the cold side. The mean MABL structure described from aircraft data collected in a vertical plane crossing the oceanic front was characterized by (1) an atmospheric horizontal gradient of 1° to 2°C per 100 km in the whole depth of the mixed layer and (2) an increase of the wind intensity from the cold to the warm side when the synoptic wind blew from the cold side. The surface sensible heat (latent heat) flux always increased from the cold to the warm sector owing to the increase of the wind and of the temperature (specific humidity) difference between the surface and the air. Turbulence increased from the cold to the warm side in conjunction with the MABL thickening, but the normalized profiles presented the same structure, regardless of the position over the SST front. In agreement with the Action de Recherche Programme te Petite Echelle and Grande Echelle model, the mean temperature and momentum budgets were highly influenced by the horizontal temperature gradient. In particular, the strong ageostrophic influence in the MABL above the SST front seems

  18. Parametric instability of a non-uniform beam with thermal gradient and elastic end support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, R. C.; Sujata, T.

    1988-04-01

    The influence of an elastic end support and a thermal gradient on the dynamic instability of a non-uniform cantilever beam subjected to a pulsating axial load has been studied. The results reveal that stiffening of the end support has a stabilizing effect, whereas increasing the thermal gradient has a destabilizing one.

  19. Coral Calcification Across a Natural Gradient in Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. L.; Brainard, R. E.; Young, C.; Shamberger, K. E.; McCorkle, D. C.; Feely, R. A.; Mcleod, E.; Cantin, N.; Rose, K.; Lohmann, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification comes from laboratory manipulation experiments in which corals are reared under a range of seawater pH and aragonite saturation states (μar) equivalent to those projected for the next hundred years. In general, experiments show a consistently negative impact of acidification on coral calcification, leading to predictions of mass coral reef extinctions by dissolution as natural rates of carbonate erosion exceed the rates at which corals and other reef calcifiers can replace it. The tropical oceans provide a natural laboratory within which to test hypotheses about the longer term impact and adaptive potential of corals to acidification of the reef environment. Here we report results of a study in which 3-D CT scan and imaging techniques were used to quantify annual rates of calcification by conspecifics at 12 reefs sites spanning a natural gradient in ocean acidification. In situ μar calculated from alkalinity and DIC measurements of reef seawater ranged from less than 2.7 on an eastern Pacific Reef to greater than 4.0 in the central Red Sea. No correlation between μar and calcification was observed across this range. Corals living on low μar reefs appear to be calcifying as fast, sometimes faster than conspecifics living on high μar reefs. We used total lipid and tissue thickness to index the energetic status of colonies collected at each of our study sites. Our results support the hypothesis that energetics plays a key role in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Indeed, the true impact of acidification on coral reefs will likely be felt as temperatures rise and the ocean becomes more stratified, depleting coral energetic reserves through bleaching and reduced nutrient delivery to oceanic reefs.

  20. Interhemispheric SST gradient trends in the Indian Ocean prior to and during the recent global warming hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, L.; McPhaden, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have been rising for decades in the Indian Ocean in response to greenhouse gas forcing. However, in this study we show that during the recent hiatus in global warming, a striking interhemispheric gradient in Indian Ocean SST trends developed around 2000, with relatively weak or little warming to the north of 10°S and accelerated warming to the south of 10oS. We present evidence from a wide variety of data sources that this interhemispheric gradient in SST trends is forced primarily by an increase of Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) transport from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean induced by stronger Pacific trade winds. This increased transport led to a depression of the thermocline that facilitated SST warming presumably through a reduction in the vertical turbulent transport of heat in the southern Indian Ocean. Surface wind changes in the Indian Ocean linked to the enhanced Walker circulation also may have contributed to thermocline depth variations and associated SST changes, with downwelling favorable wind stress curls between 10oS and 20oS and upwelling favorable wind stress curls between the equator and 10oS. In addition, the anomalous southwesterly wind stresses off the coast of Somalia favored intensified coastal upwelling and off-shore advection of upwelled water, which would have led to reduced warming of the northern Indian Ocean. Though highly uncertain, lateral heat advection associated with the ITF and surface heat fluxes may also have played a role in forming the interhemispheric SST gradient change.

  1. Evaluation of thermal gradients in longitudinal spin Seebeck effect measurements

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sola, A., E-mail: a.sola@inrim.it; Kuepferling, M.; Basso, V.

    2015-05-07

    In the framework of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE), we developed an experimental setup for the characterization of LSSE devices. This class of device consists in a layered structure formed by a substrate, a ferrimagnetic insulator (YIG) where the spin current is thermally generated, and a paramagnetic metal (Pt) for the detection of the spin current via the inverse spin-Hall effect. In this kind of experiments, the evaluation of a thermal gradient through the thin YIG layer is a crucial point. In this work, we perform an indirect determination of the thermal gradient through the measurement of the heatmore » flux. We developed an experimental setup using Peltier cells that allow us to measure the heat flux through a given sample. In order to test the technique, a standard LSSE device produced at Tohoku University was measured. We find a spin Seebeck S{sub SSE} coefficient of 2.8×10{sup −7} V K{sup −1}.« less

  2. Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: climate extremes and land-ocean temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Day, Richard H; Hall, Courtney T; Brumfield, Marisa D; Dugas, Jason L; Jones, William R

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean temperature gradients. Our work was conducted in a freeze-sensitive mangrove-marsh transition zone that spans a land-ocean temperature gradient in one of the world's most wetland-rich regions (Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; Louisiana, USA). We used historical air temperature data (1893-2014), alternative future climate scenarios, and coastal wetland coverage data (1978-2011) to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations and climate-wetland linkages. Our analyses indicate that changes in mangrove coverage have been controlled primarily by extreme freeze events (i.e., air temperatures below a threshold zone of -6.3 to -7.6°C). We expect that in the past 121 yr, mangrove range expansion and contraction has occurred across land-ocean temperature gradients. Mangrove resistance, resilience, and dominance were all highest in areas closer to the ocean where temperature extremes were buffered by large expanses of water and saturated soil. Under climate change, these areas will likely serve as local hotspots for mangrove dispersal, growth, range expansion, and displacement of salt marsh. Collectively, our results show that the frequency and intensity of freeze events across land-ocean temperature gradients greatly influences spatiotemporal patterns of range expansion and contraction of freeze-sensitive mangroves. We expect that, along subtropical coasts, similar processes govern the distribution and abundance of other freeze

  3. Mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: Climate extremes and land-ocean temperature gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Hall, Courtney T.; Brumfield, Marisa D; Dugas, Jason; Jones, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. Here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range expansion and contraction across land-ocean temperature gradients. Our work was conducted in a freeze-sensitive mangrove-marsh transition zone that spans a land-ocean temperature gradient in one of the world's most wetland-rich regions (Mississippi River Deltaic Plain; Louisiana, USA). We used historical air temperature data (1893-2014), alternative future climate scenarios, and coastal wetland coverage data (1978-2011) to investigate spatiotemporal fluctuations and climate-wetland linkages. Our analyses indicate that changes in mangrove coverage have been controlled primarily by extreme freeze events (i.e., air temperatures below a threshold zone of -6.3 to -7.6 °C). We expect that in the past 121 years, mangrove range expansion and contraction has occurred across land-ocean temperature gradients. Mangrove resistance, resilience, and dominance were all highest in areas closer to the ocean where temperature extremes were buffered by large expanses of water and saturated soil. Under climate change, these areas will likely serve as local hotspots for mangrove dispersal, growth, range expansion, and displacement of salt marsh. Collectively, our results show that the frequency and intensity of freeze events across land-ocean temperature gradients greatly influences spatiotemporal patterns of range expansion and contraction of freeze-sensitive mangroves. We expect that, along subtropical coasts, similar processes govern the distribution and abundance of other freeze

  4. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagnik, S. K.

    1982-09-01

    High level nuclear waste disposal in a geologic repository was proposed. Natural salt deposits which are considered contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all liquid and gas liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusion shape and size are discussed.

  5. Oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere - Thermal and mechanical structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Yuen, D. A.; Froidevaux, C.

    1976-01-01

    A coupled thermomechanical subsolidus model of the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere is developed which includes vertical heat conduction, a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, heat advection by a horizontal and vertical mass flow that depends on depth and age, contributions of viscous dissipation or shear heating, a linear or nonlinear deformation law relating shear stress and strain rate, as well as a temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity. The model requires a constant horizontal velocity and temperature at the surface, but zero horizontal velocity and constant temperature at great depths. The depth- and age-dependent temperature, horizontal and vertical velocities, and viscosity structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere are determined along with the age-dependent shear stress in those two zones. The ocean-floor topography, oceanic heat flow, and lithosphere thickness are deduced as functions of ocean-floor age; seismic velocity profiles which exhibit a marked low-velocity zone are constructed from the age-dependent geotherms and assumed values of the elastic parameters. It is found that simple boundary-layer cooling determines the thermal structure at young ages, while effects of viscous dissipation become more important at older ages.

  6. Thermal Models of the Ocean Floor: from Wegener to Cerro Prieto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sclater, J. G.; Negrete-Aranda, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wegener (1925) argued that hot rock could explain the shallower depths of ridges in the center of the Atlantic Ocean. Hess (1963) proposed that the intrusion of molten rock occurred at a world encircling mid-ocean ridge system. However, he accounted for the elevation of the ridges by the formation of serpentinite and thermal convection. Langseth et al. (1966) provided the major advance by using a 100 km thick plate to argue such a concept could not explain the depth, heat flow versus distance relations. They had the correct model but misinterpreted the data. Reformulating theoretically, McKenzie (1967) created the generally accepted thermal model for the ocean floor. Unfortunately, in attempting to match erroneously low heat flow data, he used a 50 km thick plate. Addition of the effect of water and the realization of the importance of advective flow, enabled various groups to create thermal plate models that accounted for the heat flow and depth age relations. From this came the understanding of hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust, the thermal boundary layer concept of the oceanic plate and the realization that all thermal models differed only in the way the different groups had chosen to analyze the data. During the past 40 years many have applied similar concepts to continental margins: (1) Measurement of subsidence of the Atlantic margin, continental stretching and a Time Temperature, Depth and Maturation analysis of continental basins have created the field of Basin Analysis; (2) Changes in heat flow at ocean continent boundaries have determined the position of the transition and (3) In attempting to examine the ocean continent transition process in the northernmost basin of the Gulf of California, Neumann et al (in press) observed conductive heat flow values greater than 0.75 Watts, at a depth of < 150 m, along a 10 km section of a profile across the southern extension of the Cerro Prieto fault. The magnitude of these values overwhelms local

  7. Distribution and movement of Caenorhabditis elegans on a thermal gradient.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yohko; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2003-08-01

    To analyze thermal responses of Caenorhabditis elegans in detail, distribution of a worm population and movement of individual worms were examined on a linear, reproducible and broad temperature gradient. Assay methods were improved compared with those reported previously to ensure good motility and dispersion of worms. Well-fed, wild-type worms distributed over a wide temperature range of up to 10 degrees C, and, within this range, worms migrated in both directions of the gradient at similar frequencies without any specific response to the growth temperature in most cases. By contrast, worms migrated down the gradient if put in a region warmer than the warm boundary of distribution. The distribution range changed depending on the growth temperature and starvation, but active avoidance of a starvation temperature was not detected. These findings contradict previous hypotheses of taxis or migration to the growth temperature in association with food and instead indicate avoidance of a warm temperature. Our results favor a model for thermal response of C. elegans that postulates a single drive based on warm sensation rather than downward and upward drives in the physiological temperature range. Mutants in ttx-3, tax-2, tax-4 or egl-4 genes showed abnormal thermal responses, suggesting that these genes are involved in warm avoidance. Laser ablation and gene expression studies suggest that AFD neurons are not important, and tax-4 expression in neurons other than AFD is required, for warm avoidance.

  8. Thermoelastic response of metal matrix composites with large-diameter fibers subjected to thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    A new micromechanical theory is presented for the response of heterogeneous metal matrix composites subjected to thermal gradients. In contrast to existing micromechanical theories that utilize classical homogenization schemes in the course of calculating microscopic and macroscopic field quantities, in the present approach the actual microstructural details are explicitly coupled with the macrostructure of the composite. Examples are offered that illustrate limitations of the classical homogenization approach in predicting the response of thin-walled metal matrix composites with large-diameter fibers when subjected to thermal gradients. These examples include composites with a finite number of fibers in the thickness direction that may be uniformly or nonuniformly spaced, thus admitting so-called functionally gradient composites. The results illustrate that the classical approach of decoupling micromechanical and macromechanical analyses in the presence of a finite number of large-diameter fibers, finite dimensions of the composite, and temperature gradient may produce excessively conservative estimates for macroscopic field quantities, while both underestimating and overestimating the local fluctuations of the microscopic quantities in different regions of the composite. Also demonstrated is the usefulness of the present approach in generating favorable stress distributions in the presence of thermal gradients by appropriately tailoring the internal microstructure details of the composite.

  9. Redox systematics of a magma ocean with variable pressure-temperature gradients and composition.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; Ghiorso, M S

    2012-07-24

    Oxygen fugacity in metal-bearing systems controls some fundamental aspects of the geochemistry of the early Earth, such as the FeO and siderophile trace element content of the mantle, volatile species that influence atmospheric composition, and conditions for organic compounds synthesis. Redox and metal-silicate equilibria in the early Earth are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (fO(2)), yet are poorly constrained in modeling and experimentation. High pressure and temperature experimentation and modeling in metal-silicate systems usually employs an approximation approach for estimating fO(2) that is based on the ratio of Fe and FeO [called "ΔIW (ratio)" hereafter]. We present a new approach that utilizes free energy and activity modeling of the equilibrium: Fe + SiO(2) + O(2) = Fe(2)SiO(4) to calculate absolute fO(2) and relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressure and temperature [ΔIW (P,T)]. This equilibrium is considered across a wide range of pressures and temperatures, including up to the liquidus temperature of peridotite (4,000 K at 50 GPa). Application of ΔIW (ratio) to metal-silicate experiments can be three or four orders of magnitude different from ΔIW (P,T) values calculated using free energy and activity modeling. We will also use this approach to consider the variation in oxygen fugacity in a magma ocean scenario for various thermal structures for the early Earth: hot liquidus gradient, 100 °C below the liquidus, hot and cool adiabatic gradients, and a cool subsolidus adiabat. The results are used to assess the effect of increasing P and T, changing silicate composition during accretion, and related to current models for accretion and core formation in the Earth. The fO(2) in a deep magma ocean scenario may become lower relative to the IW buffer at hotter and deeper conditions, which could include metal entrainment scenarios. Therefore, fO(2) may evolve from high to low fO(2) during Earth (and other differentiated bodies) accretion. Any

  10. Redox systematics of a magma ocean with variable pressure-temperature gradients and composition

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity in metal-bearing systems controls some fundamental aspects of the geochemistry of the early Earth, such as the FeO and siderophile trace element content of the mantle, volatile species that influence atmospheric composition, and conditions for organic compounds synthesis. Redox and metal-silicate equilibria in the early Earth are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (fO2), yet are poorly constrained in modeling and experimentation. High pressure and temperature experimentation and modeling in metal-silicate systems usually employs an approximation approach for estimating fO2 that is based on the ratio of Fe and FeO [called “ΔIW (ratio)” hereafter]. We present a new approach that utilizes free energy and activity modeling of the equilibrium: Fe + SiO2 + O2 = Fe2SiO4 to calculate absolute fO2 and relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressure and temperature [ΔIW (P,T)]. This equilibrium is considered across a wide range of pressures and temperatures, including up to the liquidus temperature of peridotite (4,000 K at 50 GPa). Application of ΔIW (ratio) to metal-silicate experiments can be three or four orders of magnitude different from ΔIW (P,T) values calculated using free energy and activity modeling. We will also use this approach to consider the variation in oxygen fugacity in a magma ocean scenario for various thermal structures for the early Earth: hot liquidus gradient, 100 °C below the liquidus, hot and cool adiabatic gradients, and a cool subsolidus adiabat. The results are used to assess the effect of increasing P and T, changing silicate composition during accretion, and related to current models for accretion and core formation in the Earth. The fO2 in a deep magma ocean scenario may become lower relative to the IW buffer at hotter and deeper conditions, which could include metal entrainment scenarios. Therefore, fO2 may evolve from high to low fO2 during Earth (and other differentiated bodies) accretion. Any modeling of

  11. The thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengzhou; Pan, Delu; Tu, Qianguang; Gong, Fang; Chen, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Asian dust storms, which can long-range transport to ocean, often occur on spring. The present of Asian dust aerosols over ocean makes some difficult for other studies, such as cloud detection, and also take some advantage for ocean, such as take nutrition into the ocean by dry or wet deposition. Therefore, it is important to study the dust aerosol and retrieve the properties of dust from satellite observations that is mainly from the thermal infrared radiance. In this paper, the thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean are analyzed from MODIS and MTSAT2 observations and Streamer model simulations. By analyzing some line samples and a series of dust aerosol region, it shows that the dust aerosol brightness temperature at 12μm (BT12) is always greater than BT11 and BT8.5, and BT8.5 is general greater than BT11. The brightness temperature different between 11μm and 12μm (BTD11-12) increases with the dust intensity. And the BTD11-12 will become positive when the atmospheric relative humidity is greater than 70%. The BTD11-12 increases gradually with the surface temperature while the effect on BTD11-12 of dust layer temperature is not evident. Those are caused by the transmission of the dust aerosol is different at the two thermal infrared channels. During daytime, dust infrared brightness temperature at mid-infrared bands should reduce the visual radiance, which takes about 25K or less. In general, BT3.7 is greater than BT11 for dust aerosol. Those results are helpful to monitor or retrieve dust aerosol physical properties over ocean from satellite.

  12. The NTF Inlet Guide Vanes Thermal Gradient Problem and Its Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkat, Venki S.; Paryz, Roman W.; Bissett, Owen W.; Kilgore, W.

    2013-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) utilizes Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) to provide precise, quick response Mach number control for the tunnel. During cryogenic operations, the massive IGV structure can experience large thermal gradients, measured as "Delta T or (Delta)T", between the IGV ring and its support structure called the transfer case. If these temperature gradients are too large, the IGV structure can be stressed beyond its safety limit and cease operation. In recent years, (Delta)T readings exceeding the prescribed safety limits were observed frequently during cryogenic operations, particularly during model access. The tactical operation methods of the tunnel to minimize (Delta)T did not always succeed. One obvious option to remedy this condition is to warm up the IGV structure by disabling the main drive operation, but this "natural" warm up method can takes days in some cases, resulting in productivity loss. This paper documents the thermal gradient problem associated with the IGV structure during cryogenic operation and how the facility has recently achieved an acceptable mitigation which has resulted in improved efficiency of operations.

  13. Dynamic properties of polydisperse colloidal particles in the presence of thermal gradient studied by a modified Brownian dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongxing; Jin, Hui; Jing, Dengwei; Wang, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Aggregation and migration of colloidal particles under the thermal gradient widely exists in nature and many industrial processes. In this study, dynamic properties of polydisperse colloidal particles in the presence of thermal gradient were studied by a modified Brownian dynamic model. Other than the traditional forces on colloidal particles, including Brownian force, hydrodynamic force, and electrostatic force from other particles, the electrostatic force from the asymmetric ionic diffusion layer under a thermal gradient has been considered and introduced into the Brownian dynamic model. The aggregation ratio of particles (R A), the balance time (t B) indicating the time threshold when {{R}A} becomes constant, the porosity ({{P}BA} ), fractal dimension (D f) and distributions of concentration (DISC) and aggregation (DISA) for the aggregated particles were discussed based on this model. The aggregated structures formed by polydisperse particles are less dense and the particles therein are loosely bonded. Also it showed a quite large compressibility as the increases of concentration and interparticle potential can significantly increase the fractal dimension. The thermal gradient can induce two competitive factors leading to a two-stage migration of particles. When t<{{t}B} , the unsynchronized aggregation is dominant and the particles slightly migrate along the thermal gradient. When t>{{t}B} , the thermophoresis becomes dominant thus the migrations of particles are against the thermal gradient. The effect of thermophoresis on the aggregate structures was found to be similar to the effect of increasing particle concentration. This study demonstrates how the thermal gradient affects the aggregation of monodisperse and polydisperse particles and can be a guide for the biomimetics and precise control of colloid system under the thermal gradient. Moreover, our model can be easily extended to other more complex colloidal systems considering shear, temperature

  14. Overview of the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) - A study of air-sea interaction in a region of strong oceanic gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986 the cooperative Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) was conducted in the subtropical convergence zone southwest of Bermuda. The overall objective of the experiment was to study air-sea interaction on 1- to 100-km horizontal scales in a region of the open ocean characterized by strong horizontal gradients in upper ocean and sea surface properties. Ocean fronts provided both large spatial gradients in sea surface temperature and strong jetlike flows in the upper ocean. The motivation for and detailed objectives of FASINEX are reviewed. Then the components of the field program are summarized. Finally, selected results are presented in order to provide an overview of the outcome of FASINEX.

  15. Thermal Gradient Cyclic Behavior of a Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating System on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier and environmental barrier coatings (TBCs and EBCs) will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components in harsh combustion environments. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for effective thermal and environmental protection of the engine components, appropriate test approaches for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, a laser high-heat-flux, thermal gradient approach for testing the coatings will be described. Thermal cyclic behavior of plasma-sprayed coating systems, consisting of ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier and NASA Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Program developed mullite+BSAS/Si type environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites, was investigated under thermal gradients using the laser heat-flux rig in conjunction with the furnace thermal cyclic tests in water-vapor environments. The coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after the tests. The coating failure mechanisms are discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering, creep, and thermal stress behavior under simulated engine temperature and heat flux conditions.

  16. Thermal evolution of the high-pressure ice layers beneath a buried ocean within Titan and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choblet, G.; Tobie, G.

    2015-12-01

    Deep interiors of massive icy satellites such as Titan and Ganymede probably harbor a buried ocean above high-pressure (HP) ice layers. The nature and location of the lower interface of the ocean is ultimately controlled by the amount of heat transferred through the surface ice Ih layer but it also involves equilibration of heat and melt transfer in the HP ices. While the Rayleigh number associated to such HP ice layers is most probably supercritical, classical subsolidus convection might not be a viable mechanism as the radial temperature gradient in the cold boundary layer is likely to exceed the slope of the melting curve. A significant part of the heat transfer could be achieved via the mass flux of warm liquid through this cold boundary layer up to the global phase boundary, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as heat-pipe mechanism. We present 3D spherical simulations of thermal convection in these HP ice layers that address for the first time this complex interplay. First, scaling relationships are proposed to describe this configuration for a large range of Rayleigh numbers and solidus curves. We then focus on a more realistic set-up where a prescribed basal heat flux is considered in a plausible range for the thermal history of Ganymede or Titan together with the expected viscosity law for HP ices.

  17. Gradient flux measurements of sea-air DMS transfer during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Murray J.; Walker, Carolyn F.; Bell, Thomas G.; Harvey, Mike J.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Law, Cliff S.

    2018-04-01

    Direct measurements of marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes are sparse, particularly in the Southern Ocean. The Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage in February-March 2012 examined the distribution and flux of DMS in a biologically active frontal system in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Three distinct phytoplankton blooms were studied with oceanic DMS concentrations as high as 25 nmol L-1. Measurements of DMS fluxes were made using two independent methods: the eddy covariance (EC) technique using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (API-CIMS) and the gradient flux (GF) technique from an autonomous catamaran platform. Catamaran flux measurements are relatively unaffected by airflow distortion and are made close to the water surface, where gas gradients are largest. Flux measurements were complemented by near-surface hydrographic measurements to elucidate physical factors influencing DMS emission. Individual DMS fluxes derived by EC showed significant scatter and, at times, consistent departures from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment gas transfer algorithm (COAREG). A direct comparison between the two flux methods was carried out to separate instrumental effects from environmental effects and showed good agreement with a regression slope of 0.96 (r2 = 0.89). A period of abnormal downward atmospheric heat flux enhanced near-surface ocean stratification and reduced turbulent exchange, during which GF and EC transfer velocities showed good agreement but modelled COAREG values were significantly higher. The transfer velocity derived from near-surface ocean turbulence measurements on a spar buoy compared well with the COAREG model in general but showed less variation. This first direct comparison between EC and GF fluxes of DMS provides confidence in compilation of flux estimates from both techniques, as well as in the stable periods when the observations are not well predicted by the COAREG model.

  18. Quantitative separation of the anisotropic magnetothermopower and planar Nernst effect by the rotation of an in-plane thermal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Oliver; Meier, Daniel; Bovender, Michel; Helmich, Lars; Dreessen, Jan-Oliver; Krieft, Jan; Shestakov, Anatoly S.; Back, Christian H.; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Hütten, Andreas; Reiss, Günter; Kuschel, Timo

    2017-01-01

    A thermal gradient as the driving force for spin currents plays a key role in spin caloritronics. In this field the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) is of major interest and was investigated in terms of in-plane thermal gradients inducing perpendicular spin currents (transverse SSE) and out-of-plane thermal gradients generating parallel spin currents (longitudinal SSE). Up to now all spincaloric experiments employ a spatially fixed thermal gradient. Thus, anisotropic measurements with respect to well defined crystallographic directions were not possible. Here we introduce a new experiment that allows not only the in-plane rotation of the external magnetic field, but also the rotation of an in-plane thermal gradient controlled by optical temperature detection. As a consequence, the anisotropic magnetothermopower and the planar Nernst effect in a permalloy thin film can be measured simultaneously. Thus, the angular dependence of the magnetothermopower with respect to the magnetization direction reveals a phase shift, that allows the quantitative separation of the thermopower, the anisotropic magnetothermopower and the planar Nernst effect.

  19. Thermal Design to Meet Stringent Temperature Gradient/Stability Requirements of SWIFT BAT Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is an instrument on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) SWIFT spacecraft. It is designed to detect gamma ray burst over a broad region of the sky and quickly align the telescopes on the spacecraft to the gamma ray source. The thermal requirements for the BAT detector arrays are very stringent. The maximum allowable temperature gradient of the 256 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors is PC. Also, the maximum allowable rate of temperature change of the ASICs of the 256 Detector Modules (DMs) is PC on any time scale. The total power dissipation of the DMs and Block Command & Data Handling (BCDH) is 180 W. This paper presents a thermal design that uses constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) to minimize the temperature gradient of the DMs, and loop heat pipes (LHPs) to transport the waste heat to the radiator. The LHPs vary the effective thermal conductance from the DMs to the radiator to minimize heater power to meet the heater power budget, and to improve the temperature stability. The DMs are cold biased, and active heater control is used to meet the temperature gradient and stability requirements.

  20. Environmental programs for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilde, P.

    1981-07-01

    The environmental research effort in support of the US Department of Energy's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program has the goal of providing documented information on the effect of proposed operations on the ocean and the effect of oceanic conditions on the plant. The associated environment program consists of archival studies in potential areas serial oceanographic cruises to sites or regions of interest, studies from various fixed platforms at sites, and compilation of such information for appropriate legal compliance and permit requirements and for use in progressive design of OTEC plants. Site/regions investigated are south of Mobile and west ofmore » Tampa, Gulf of Mexico; Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico; St. Croix, Virgin Islands; Kahe Point, Oahu and Keahole Point, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands; and off the Brazilian south Equatorial Coast. Four classes of environmental concerns identified are: redistribution of oceanic properties (ocean water mixing, impingement/entrainment etc.); chemical pollution (biocides, working fluid leaks, etc.); structural effects (artificial reef, aggregation, nesting/migration, etc.); socio-legal-economic (worker safety, enviromaritime law, etc.).« less

  1. An Update on the Non-Mass-Dependent Isotope Fractionation under Thermal Gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard; Liu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Mass flow and compositional gradient (elemental and isotope separation) occurs when flu-id(s) or gas(es) in an enclosure is subjected to a thermal gradient, and the phenomenon is named thermal diffusion. Gas phase thermal diffusion has been theoretically and experimentally studied for more than a century, although there has not been a satisfactory theory to date. Nevertheless, for isotopic system, the Chapman-Enskog theory predicts that the mass difference is the only term in the thermal diffusion separation factors that differs one isotope pair to another,with the assumptions that the molecules are spherical and systematic (monoatomic-like structure) and the particle collision is elastic. Our previous report indicates factors may be playing a role because the Non-Mass Dependent (NMD) effect is found for both symmetric and asymmetric, linear and spherical polyatomic molecules over a wide range of temperature (-196C to +237C). The observed NMD phenomenon in the simple thermal-diffusion experiments demands quantitative validation and theoretical explanation. Besides the pressure and temperature dependency illustrated in our previous reports, efforts are made in this study to address issues such as the role of convection or molecular structure and whether it is a transient, non-equilibrium effect only.

  2. Ordering pathway of block copolymers under dynamic thermal gradients studied by in situ GISAXS

    DOE PAGES

    Samant, Saumil; Strzalka, Joseph; Yager, Kevin G.; ...

    2016-10-31

    Dynamic thermal gradient-based processes for directed self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films such as cold zone annealing (CZA) have demonstrated much potential for rapidly fabricating highly ordered patterns of BCP domains with facile orientation control. As a demonstration, hexagonally packed predominantly vertical cylindrical morphology, technologically relevant for applications such as membranes and lithography, was achieved in 1 μm thick cylinder-forming PS-b-PMMA (cBCP) films by applying sharp thermal gradients (CZA-Sharp) at optimum sample sweep rates. A thorough understanding of the molecular level mechanisms and pathways of the BCP ordering that occur during this CZA-S process is presented, useful to fullymore » exploit the potential of CZA-S for large-scale BCP-based device fabrication. To that end, we developed a customized CZA-S assembly to probe the dynamic structure evolution and ordering of the PS-b-PMMA cBCP film in situ as it undergoes the CZA-S process using the grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) technique. Four distinct regimes of BCP ordering were observed within the gradient that include microphase separation from an “as cast” unordered state (Regime I), evolution of vertical cylinders under a thermally imposed strain gradient (Regime II), reorientation of a fraction of cylinders due to preferential substrate interactions (Regime III), and finally grain-coarsening on the cooling edge (Regime IV). The ordering pathway in the different regimes is further described within the framework of an energy landscape. A novel aspect of this study is the identification of a grain-coarsening regime on the cooling edge of the gradient, previously obscure in zone annealing studies of BCPs. Furthermore, such insights into the development of highly ordered BCP nanostructures under template-free thermal gradient fields can potentially have important ramifications in the field of BCP-directed self-assembly and self

  3. Upper-Ocean Thermal Structure and the Western North Pacific Category 5 Typhoons. Part 1. Ocean Features and the Category 5 Typhoons’ Intensification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Structure and the Western North Pacific Category 5 Typhoons. Part 1: Ocean Features and the Category 5 Typhoons’ Intensification 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...intensification of category 5 cyclones. Based on 13 yr of satellite altimetry data, in situ &climatological upper-ocean thermal structure data, best-track...Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 3288 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 136 Upper-Ocean Thermal Structure and the Western North

  4. Thermal diffusion of the lunar magma ocean and the formation of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The magma ocean hypothesis is consistent with several lines of evidence including planet formation, core-mantle differentiation and geochemical observations, and it is proved as an inevitable stage in the early evolution of planets. The magma ocean is assumed to be homogeneous in previous models during solidification or crystallization[1]. Based on the recent advance and our new data in experimental igneous petrology[2], we question this assumption and propose that an gabbrotic melt, from which the anorthositic lunar crust crystallized, can be produced by thermal diffusion, rather than by magma fractionation. This novel model can provide explanations for the absence of the advection in lunar magma ocean[3] and the old age of the anorthositic lunar crust[4-5]. 1. Solomatov, V., Magma Oceans and Primordial Mantle Differentiation, in Treatise on Geophysics, S. Gerald, Editor. 2007, Elsevier: Amsterdam. p. 91-119. 2. Huang, F., et al., Chemical and isotopic fractionation of wet andesite in a temperature gradient: Experiments and models suggesting a new mechanism of magma differentiation. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009. 73(3): p. 729-749. 3. Turcotte, D.L. and L.H. Kellogg, Implications of isotope data for the origin of the Moon, in Origin of the Moon, W.K. Hartmann, R.J. Phillips, and G.J. Taylor, Editors. 1986, Lunar and Planet. Inst.: Houston, TX. p. 311-329. 4. Alibert, C., M.D. Norman, and M.T. McCulloch, An ancient Sm-Nd age for a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67016. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 1994. 58(13): p. 2921-2926. 5. Touboul, M., et al., Tungsten isotopes in ferroan anorthosites: Implications for the age of the Moon and lifetime of its magma ocean. Icarus, 2009. 199(2): p. 245-249.

  5. Influence of Applied Thermal Gradients and a Static Magnetic Field on Bridgman-Grown GeSi Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Szofran, F. R.; Cobb, S. D.; Ritter, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of applied axial and radial thermal gradients and an axial static magnetic field on the macrosegregation profiles of Bridgman-grown GeSi alloy crystals has been assessed. The axial thermal gradients were adjusted by changing the control setpoints of a seven-zone vertical Bridgman furnace. The radial thermal gradients were affected by growing samples in ampoules with different thermal conductivities, namely graphite, hot-pressed boron nitride (BN), and pyrolytic boron nitride (PBN). Those samples grown in a graphite ampoule exhibited radial profiles consistent with a highly concave interface and axial profiles indicative of complete mixing in the melt. The samples grown in BN and PBN ampoules had less radial variation. Axial macrosegregation profiles of these samples fell between the predictions for a completely mixed melt and one where solute transport is dominated by diffusion. All of the samples were grown on Ge seeds. This resulted in a period of free growth until the Si concentration in the solid was in equilibrium with the Si concentration in the liquid. The length of crystal grown during this period was inversely proportional to the applied axial thermal gradient. Several samples were grown in an axial 5 Tesla magnetic field. Measured macroscopic segregation profiles on these samples indicate that the magnetic field did not, in general, reduce the melt flow velocities to below the growth velocities.

  6. Laser-induced cracks in ice due to temperature gradient and thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Yang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xue-Chun

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental and theoretical investigations on the mechanism of laser-induce cracks in ice. The laser-induced thermal gradient would generate significant thermal stress and lead to the cracking without thermal melting in the ice. The crack density induced by a pulsed laser in the ice critically depends on the laser scanning speed and the size of the laser spot on the surface, which determines the laser power density on the surface. A maximum of 16 cracks within an area of 17 cm × 10 cm can be generated when the laser scanning speed is at 10 mm/s and the focal point of the laser is right on the surface of the ice with a laser intensity of ∼4.6 × 107 W/cm2. By comparing the infrared images of the ice generated at various experimental conditions, it was found that a larger temperature gradient would result in more laser-induced cracks, while there is no visible melting of the ice by the laser beam. The data confirm that the laser-induced thermal stress is the main cause of the cracks created in the ice.

  7. Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zju, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) will play an increasingly important role in gas turbine engines because of their ability to further raise engine temperatures. However, the issue of coating durability is of major concern under high-heat-flux conditions. In particular, the accelerated coating delamination crack growth under the engine high heat-flux conditions is not well understood. In this paper, a laser heat flux technique is used to investigate the coating delamination crack propagation under realistic temperature-stress gradients and thermal cyclic conditions. The coating delamination mechanisms are investigated under various thermal loading conditions, and are correlated with coating dynamic fatigue, sintering and interfacial adhesion test results. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation driving forces for coating failure under high-heat-flux test conditions.

  8. Ocean thermal plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A floating energy converter is described which uses large volumes of sea water to produce electrical power. In this plant, a fluid working medium is pumped to an evaporator where is is heated by a flow of warm surface sea water. The fluid in liquid form boils to a pressurized gas vapor which is routed to drive a turbine that, in turn, drives a generator for producing electricity. The gas vapor then enters a condenser immersed in cold sea water pumped from lower depths, condenses to its original liquid form, and then pumped to the evaporator to repeat the cycle. Modular components can be readily interchanged on the ocean thermal unit and inlet pipes for the sea water are provided with means for maintaining the pipes in alignment with the oncoming current. The modular construction allows for the testing of various components to provide a more rapid optimization of a standardized plant.

  9. Investigating spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic tunnel junctions by using micro-cavity ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cansever, H.; Narkowicz, R.; Lenz, K.; Fowley, C.; Ramasubramanian, L.; Yildirim, O.; Niesen, A.; Huebner, T.; Reiss, G.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.

    2018-06-01

    Similar to electrical currents flowing through magnetic multilayers, thermal gradients applied across the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction may induce pure spin-currents and generate ‘thermal’ spin-transfer torques large enough to induce magnetization dynamics in the free layer. In this study, we describe a novel experimental approach to observe spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic multilayers by studying their ferromagnetic resonance response in microwave cavities. Utilizing this approach allows for measuring the magnetization dynamics on micron/nano-sized samples in open-circuit conditions, i.e. without the need of electrical contacts. We performed first experiments on magnetic tunnel junctions patterned into 6  ×  9 µm2 ellipses from Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB stacks. We conducted microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under focused laser illumination to induce thermal gradients in the layer stack and compared them to measurements in which the sample was globally heated from the backside of the substrate. Moreover, we carried out broadband FMR measurements under global heating conditions on the same extended films the microstructures were later on prepared from. The results clearly demonstrate the effect of thermal spin-torque on the FMR response and thus show that the microresonator approach is well suited to investigate thermal spin-transfer-driven processes for small temperatures gradients, far below the gradients required for magnetic switching.

  10. Demarcation of continental-oceanic transition zone using angular differences between gradients of geophysical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilinski, Pavel; Meju, Max A.; Fontes, Sergio L.

    2013-10-01

    The commonest technique for determination of the continental-oceanic crustal boundary or transition (COB) zone is based on locating and visually correlating bathymetric and potential field anomalies and constructing crustal models constrained by seismic data. In this paper, we present a simple method for spatial correlation of bathymetric and potential field geophysical anomalies. Angular differences between gradient directions are used to determine different types of correlation between gravity and bathymetric or magnetic data. It is found that the relationship between bathymetry and gravity anomalies can be correctly identified using this method. It is demonstrated, by comparison with previously published models for the southwest African margin, that this method enables the demarcation of the zone of transition from oceanic to continental crust assuming that this it is associated with geophysical anomalies, which can be correlated using gradient directions rather than magnitudes. We also applied this method, supported by 2-D gravity modelling, to the more complex Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire-Ghana sectors of the West African transform margin and obtained results that are in remarkable agreement with past predictions of the COB in that region. We suggest the use of this method for a first-pass interpretation as a prelude to rigorous modelling of the COB in frontier areas.

  11. The mechanism of thermal-gradient mass transfer in the sodium hydroxide-nickel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Charles E

    1958-01-01

    "Thermal-gradient mass transfer" was investigated in the molten sodium hydroxide-nickel system. Possible mechanisms (physical, electrochemical, and chemical) are discussed in terms of experimental and theoretical evidence. Experimental details are included in appendixes.

  12. How do Greenhouse Gases Warm the Ocean? Investigation of the Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Air-Sea Surface Heat Fluxes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, E.; Minnett, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    There is much evidence that the ocean is heating due to an increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere from human activities. GHGs absorbs infrared (IR) radiation and re-emits the radiation back to the ocean's surface which is subsequently absorbed resulting in a rise in the ocean heat content. However, the incoming longwave radiation, LWin, is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface, where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists and does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. We are therefore motivated to investigate the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that since heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, which is directly influenced by the absorption and emission of IR radiation, the heat flow through the TSL adjusts to maintain the surface heat loss, and thus modulates the upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is investigated through utilizing clouds to represent an increase in LWin and analyzing retrieved TSL vertical profiles from a shipboard IR spectrometer from two research cruises. The data is limited to night-time, no precipitation and low winds of < 2 m/s to remove effects of solar radiation, wind-driven shear and possibilities of TSL disruption. The results show independence between the turbulent fluxes and radiative fluxes which rules out the immediate release of heat from the absorption of the cloud infrared irradiance back into the atmosphere through processes such as evaporation. Instead, we observe the surplus energy, from absorbing increasing levels of LWin, adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that there is a lower gradient at the interface between the TSL and the mixed layer. The release of heat stored within the mixed layer is therefore hindered while the additional energy within the TSL is cycled back into the atmosphere. This results in heat beneath the TSL

  13. A Watched Ocean World Never Boils: Inspecting the Geochemical Impact on Ocean Worlds from Their Thermal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, E. M.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    I aim to acquire better understanding of coupled thermal evolution and geochemical fluxes of an ocean world through a box model. A box model divides the system into plainer elements with realistically-solvable, dynamic equations.

  14. Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

  15. Instability of a gravity gradient satellite due to thermal distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A nonlinear analytical model and a corresponding computer program were developed to study the influence of solar heating on the anomalous low frequency, orbital instability of the Naval Research Laboratory's gravity gradient satellite 164. The model's formulation was based on a quasi-static approach in which deflections of the satellite's booms were determined in terms of thermally induced bending without consideration of boom vibration. Calculations, which were made for variations in absorptivity, sun angle, thermal lag, and hinge stiffness, demonstrated that, within the confines of a relatively narrow stability criteria, the quasi-static model of NRL 164 not only becomes unstable, but, in a number of cases, responses were computed that closely resembled flight data.

  16. Effect of gold nanoparticles on thermal gradient generation and thermotaxis of E. coli cells in microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Nithya; Panda, Tapobrata; Das, Sarit K

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria responds to changing chemical and thermal environment by moving towards or away from a particular location. In this report, we looked into thermal gradient generation and response of E. coli DH5α cells to thermal gradient in the presence and in the absence of spherical gold nanoparticles (size: 15 to 22 nm) in a static microfluidic environment using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) made microfluidic device. A PDMS-agarose based microfluidic device for generating thermal gradient has been developed and the thermal gradient generation in the device has been validated with the numerical simulation. Our studies revealed that the presence of gold nanoparticles, AuNPs (0.649 μg/mL) has no effect on the thermal gradient generation. The E. coli DH5α cells have been treated with AuNPs of two different concentrations (0.649 μg/mL and 0.008 μg/mL). The thermotaxis behavior of cells in the presence of AuNPs has been studied and compared to the thermotaxis of E.coli DH5α cells in the absence of AuNPs. In case of thermotaxis, in the absence of the AuNPs, the E. coli DH5α cells showed better thermotaxis towards lower temperature range, whereas in the presence of AuNPs (0.649 μg/mL and 0.008 μg/mL) thermotaxis of the E. coli DH5α cells has been inhibited. The results show that the spherical AuNPs intervenes in the themotaxis of E. coli DH5α cells and inhibits the cell migration. The reason for the failure in thermotaxis response mechanism may be due to decreased F-type ATP synthase activity and collapse of membrane potential by AuNPs, which, in turn, leads to decreased ATP levels. This has been hypothesized since both thermotaxis and chemotaxis follows the same response mechanism for migration in which ATP plays critical role.

  17. Thermal structure of oceanic transform faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behn, M.D.; Boettcher, M.S.; Hirth, G.

    2007-01-01

    We use three-dimensional finite element simulations to investigate the temperature structure beneath oceanic transform faults. We show that using a rheology that incorporates brittle weakening of the lithosphere generates a region of enhanced mantle upwelling and elevated temperatures along the transform; the warmest temperatures and thinnest lithosphere are predicted to be near the center of the transform. Previous studies predicted that the mantle beneath oceanic transform faults is anomalously cold relative to adjacent intraplate regions, with the thickest lithosphere located at the center of the transform. These earlier studies used simplified rheologic laws to simulate the behavior of the lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere. We show that the warmer thermal structure predicted by our calculations is directly attributed to the inclusion of a more realistic brittle rheology. This temperature structure is consistent with a wide range of observations from ridge-transform environments, including the depth of seismicity, geochemical anomalies along adjacent ridge segments, and the tendency for long transforms to break into small intratransform spreading centers during changes in plate motion. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  18. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  19. Global thermal models of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarano, F.; Guerri, M.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the thermal structure of the outermost shell of our planet is key for understanding its evolution. We obtain temperatures from interpretation of global shear-velocity (VS) models. Long-wavelength thermal structure is well determined by seismic models and only slightly affected by compositional effects and uncertainties in mineral-physics properties. Absolute temperatures and gradients with depth, however, are not well constrained. Adding constraints from petrology, heat-flow observations and thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere help to better estimate absolute temperatures in the top part of the lithosphere. We produce global thermal models of the lithosphere at different spatial resolution, up to spherical-harmonics degree 24, and provide estimated standard deviations. We provide purely seismic thermal (TS) model and hybrid models where temperatures are corrected with steady-state conductive geotherms on continents and cooling model temperatures on oceanic regions. All relevant physical properties, with the exception of thermal conductivity, are based on a self-consistent thermodynamical modelling approach. Our global thermal models also include density and compressional-wave velocities (VP) as obtained either assuming no lateral variations in composition or a simple reference 3-D compositional structure, which takes into account a chemically depleted continental lithosphere. We found that seismically-derived temperatures in continental lithosphere fit well, overall, with continental geotherms, but a large variation in radiogenic heat is required to reconcile them with heat flow (long wavelength) observations. Oceanic shallow lithosphere below mid-oceanic ridges and young oceans is colder than expected, confirming the possible presence of a dehydration boundary around 80 km depth already suggested in previous studies. The global thermal models should serve as the basis to move at a smaller spatial scale, where additional thermo-chemical variations

  20. Geothermal surveys in the oceanic volcanic island of Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdoya, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Pasqua, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic island chains are generally characterised by young volcanic systems that are predominately composed of basaltic lavas and related magmatic products. Although hot springs are occasionally present, the pervasive, massive, recent outpourings of basaltic lavas are the primary manifestation of the existence of geothermal resources. These islands may have, in principle, significant potential for the exploitation of geothermal energy. In this paper, we present results of recent investigations aimed at the evaluation of geothermal resources of the island of Mauritius, that is the emerging portion of a huge submarine, aseismic, volcanic plateau extending in the SW part of the Indian Ocean. The plateau is related to a long-lived hotspot track, whose present-day expression is the active volcano of La Réunion Island, located about 200 km SW of Mauritius. The island does not show at present any volcanic activity, but magmatism is quite recent as it dates from 7.8 to 0.03 Myr. Geochemical data from water samples collected from boreholes do not indicate the presence of mature water, i.e. circulating in high-temperature geothermal reservoirs, and argue for short-term water-rock interaction in shallow hydrogeological circuits. However, this cannot rule out that a deep magmatic heat source, hydraulically insulated from shallow aquifers, may occur. To evaluate the geothermal gradient, a 270-m-deep hole was thus drilled in the island central portion, in which the most recent volcanic activity (0.03 Myr) took place. Temperature-depth profiles, recorded after complete thermal equilibration, revealed a thermal gradient of 40 mK/m. Attempts of extracting additional thermal information were also made by measuring the temperature in a 170-m-deep deep water hole, no longer used. The results were consistent with the gradient hole, i.e. pointing to a weak or null deep-seated thermal anomaly beneath Mauritius and low geothermal potential. The deep thermal process (mantle plume) invoked

  1. Anti-iridescent colloidal photonic nanostructure from thermal gradients and polymeric brush effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Hyoungsoo; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Stone, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Colloidal nanostructures induced by self-assembly are important in reflective displays, plasmonic or photonic sensors, and color pigments. During the evaporation of droplets of colloidal suspension, due to the non-uniform evaporation rate along the droplet interface, a radially outward flow is created and it carries colloidal particles to the pinned contact line of the droplet. We document that the packing at the contact line is a face-center-cubic (fcc) colloidal nanostructure in a ring shape. The fcc structure of the colloidal nanoparticles exhibits angle-dependent color. In particular, we introduce a novel method to suppress the familiar coffee-ring effect and modify colloidal nanostructures to exhibit angle-independent optical properties. A suspension of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-coated silica nanoparticles dispersed in ethanol-water mixture is prepared. The droplet containing the nanoparticles dries on a heated substrate, which creates a thermal gradient along the interface of the droplet. This thermal gradient induces thermal-Marangoni stresses that suppress the coffee-ring effects. PEO adsorbed on the surface of silica nanoparticles produces an additional interaction between colloidal nanoparticles, which makes the final structure disordered. The disordered photonic nanostructures in our experiments exhibit angle-independent structural color. This technique can be applied to printing or optical filtering systems.

  2. Effects of hypoxia and ocean acidification on the upper thermal niche boundaries of coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Ern, Rasmus; Johansen, Jacob L; Rummer, Jodie L; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are predicted to cause a poleward shift in the distribution of marine fishes occupying the extent of latitudes tolerable within their thermal range boundaries. A prevailing theory suggests that the upper thermal limits of fishes are constrained by hypoxia and ocean acidification. However, some eurythermal fish species do not conform to this theory, and maintain their upper thermal limits in hypoxia. Here we determine if the same is true for stenothermal species. In three coral reef fish species we tested the effect of hypoxia on upper thermal limits, measured as critical thermal maximum (CT max ). In one of these species we also quantified the effect of hypoxia on oxygen supply capacity, measured as aerobic scope (AS). In this species we also tested the effect of elevated CO 2 (simulated ocean acidification) on the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max We found that CT max was unaffected by progressive hypoxia down to approximately 35 mmHg, despite a substantial hypoxia-induced reduction in AS. Below approximately 35 mmHg, CT max declined sharply with water oxygen tension ( P w O 2 ). Furthermore, the hypoxia sensitivity of CT max was unaffected by elevated CO 2 Our findings show that moderate hypoxia and ocean acidification do not constrain the upper thermal limits of these tropical, stenothermal fishes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Evidence of Magnetic Breakdown on the Defects With Thermally Suppressed Critical Field in High Gradient SRF Cavities

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Eremeev, Grigory; Palczewski, Ari

    2013-09-01

    At SRF 2011 we presented the study of quenches in high gradient SRF cavities with dual mode excitation technique. The data differed from measurements done in 80's that indicated thermal breakdown nature of quenches in SRF cavities. In this contribution we present analysis of the data that indicates that our recent data for high gradient quenches is consistent with the magnetic breakdown on the defects with thermally suppressed critical field. From the parametric fits derived within the model we estimate the critical breakdown fields.

  4. Sea-to-air flux of dimethyl sulfide in the South and North Pacific Ocean as measured by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled with the gradient flux technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yuko; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kohei; Iwata, Toru; Kameyama, Sohiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Gamo, Toshitaka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Furuya, Ken

    2017-07-01

    Exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) between the surface ocean and the lower atmosphere was examined by using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled with the gradient flux (PTR-MS/GF) system. We deployed the PTR-MS/GF system and observed vertical gradients of atmospheric DMS just above the sea surface in the subtropical and transitional South Pacific Ocean and the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. In total, we obtained 370 in situ profiles, and of these we used 46 data sets to calculate the sea-to-air flux of DMS. The DMS flux determined was in the range from 1.9 to 31 μmol m-2 d-1 and increased with wind speed and biological activity, in reasonable accordance with previous observations in the open ocean. The gas transfer velocity of DMS derived from the PTR-MS/GF measurements was similar to either that of DMS determined by the eddy covariance technique or that of insoluble gases derived from the dual tracer experiments, depending on the observation sites located in different geographic regions. When atmospheric conditions were strongly stable during the daytime in the subtropical ocean, the PTR-MS/GF observations captured a daytime versus nighttime difference in DMS mixing ratios in the surface air overlying the ocean surface. The difference was mainly due to the sea-to-air DMS emissions and stable atmospheric conditions, thus affecting the gradient of DMS. This indicates that the DMS gradient is strongly controlled by diurnal variations in the vertical structure of the lower atmosphere above the ocean surface.

  5. Precision Measurement of Phonon-Polaritonic Near-Field Energy Transfer between Macroscale Planar Structures Under Large Thermal Gradients.

    PubMed

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Geng, Hongyao; Kim, Taehoon; Iacopino, Nicholas; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2018-04-27

    Despite its strong potentials in emerging energy applications, near-field thermal radiation between large planar structures has not been fully explored in experiments. Particularly, it is extremely challenging to control a subwavelength gap distance with good parallelism under large thermal gradients. This article reports the precision measurement of near-field radiative energy transfer between two macroscale single-crystalline quartz plates that support surface phonon polaritons. Our measurement scheme allows the precise control of a gap distance down to 200 nm in a highly reproducible manner for a surface area of 5×5  mm^{2}. We have measured near-field thermal radiation as a function of the gap distance for a broad range of thermal gradients up to ∼156  K, observing more than 40 times enhancement of thermal radiation compared to the blackbody limit. By comparing with theoretical prediction based on fluctuational electrodynamics, we demonstrate that such remarkable enhancement is owing to phonon-polaritonic energy transfer across a nanoscale vacuum gap.

  6. Precision Measurement of Phonon-Polaritonic Near-Field Energy Transfer between Macroscale Planar Structures Under Large Thermal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Geng, Hongyao; Kim, Taehoon; Iacopino, Nicholas; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2018-04-01

    Despite its strong potentials in emerging energy applications, near-field thermal radiation between large planar structures has not been fully explored in experiments. Particularly, it is extremely challenging to control a subwavelength gap distance with good parallelism under large thermal gradients. This article reports the precision measurement of near-field radiative energy transfer between two macroscale single-crystalline quartz plates that support surface phonon polaritons. Our measurement scheme allows the precise control of a gap distance down to 200 nm in a highly reproducible manner for a surface area of 5 × 5 mm2 . We have measured near-field thermal radiation as a function of the gap distance for a broad range of thermal gradients up to ˜156 K , observing more than 40 times enhancement of thermal radiation compared to the blackbody limit. By comparing with theoretical prediction based on fluctuational electrodynamics, we demonstrate that such remarkable enhancement is owing to phonon-polaritonic energy transfer across a nanoscale vacuum gap.

  7. The low thermal gradient CZ technique as a way of growing of dislocation-free germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovskih, V. A.; Kasimkin, P. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Gridchin, V. A.; Podkopaev, O. I.

    2014-09-01

    This paper considers the possibility of growth of dislocation-free germanium single crystals. This is achieved by reducing the temperature gradients at the level of 1 K/cm and lower. Single germanium crystals 45-48 mm in diameter with a dislocation density of 102 cm-2 were grown by a Low Thermal Gradient Czochralski technique (LTG CZ).

  8. Thermal Gradient Fining of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, W.

    1983-01-01

    Molten glass fined (cleared of bubbles) by heating with suitable temperature gradient, according to preliminary experiments. Temperature gradient produces force on gas bubbles trapped in molten glass pushing bubbles to higher temperature region where they are collected. Concept demonstrated in experiments on Earth and on rocket.

  9. Crustal Thickness Mapping of the Rifted Margin Ocean-Continent Transition using Satellite Gravity Inversion Incorporating a Lithosphere Thermal Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, N. W.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2005-05-01

    A new method of inverting satellite gravity at rifted continental margins to give crustal thickness, incorporating a lithosphere thermal correction, has been developed which does not use a priori information about the location of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) and provides an independent prediction of OCT location. Satellite derived gravity anomaly data (Sandwell and Smith 1997) and bathymetry data (Gebco 2003) are used to derive the mantle residual gravity anomaly which is inverted in 3D in the spectral domain to give Moho depth. Oceanic lithosphere and stretched continental margin lithosphere produce a large negative residual thermal gravity anomaly (up to -380 mgal), which must be corrected for in order to determine Moho depth. This thermal gravity correction may be determined for oceanic lithosphere using oceanic isochron data, and for the thinned continental margin lithosphere using margin rift age and beta stretching estimates iteratively derived from crustal basement thickness determined from the gravity inversion. The gravity inversion using the thermal gravity correction predicts oceanic crustal thicknesses consistent with seismic observations, while that without the thermal correction predicts much too great oceanic crustal thicknesses. Predicted Moho depth and crustal thinning across the Hatton and Faroes rifted margins, using the gravity inversion with embedded thermal correction, compare well with those produced by wide-angle seismology. A new gravity inversion method has been developed in which no isochrons are used to define the thermal gravity correction. The new method assumes all lithosphere to be initially continental and a uniform lithosphere stretching age is used corresponding to the time of continental breakup. The thinning factor produced by the gravity inversion is used to predict the thickness of oceanic crust. This new modified form of gravity inversion with embedded thermal correction provides an improved estimate of rifted

  10. Irreversible ocean thermal expansion under carbon dioxide removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Dana; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2018-03-01

    In the Paris Agreement in 2015 countries agreed on holding global mean surface air warming to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, but the emission reduction pledges under that agreement are not ambitious enough to meet this target. Therefore, the question arises of whether restoring global warming to this target after exceeding it by artificially removing CO2 from the atmosphere is possible. One important aspect is the reversibility of ocean heat uptake and associated sea level rise, which have very long (centennial to millennial) response timescales. In this study the response of sea level rise due to thermal expansion to a 1 % yearly increase of atmospheric CO2 up to a quadrupling of the pre-industrial concentration followed by a 1 % yearly decline back to the pre-industrial CO2 concentration is examined using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We find that global mean thermosteric sea level (GMTSL) continues to rise for several decades after atmospheric CO2 starts to decline and does not return to pre-industrial levels for over 1000 years after atmospheric CO2 is restored to the pre-industrial concentration. This finding is independent of the strength of vertical sub-grid-scale ocean mixing implemented in the model. Furthermore, GMTSL rises faster than it declines in response to a symmetric rise and decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration partly because the deep ocean continues to warm for centuries after atmospheric CO2 returns to the pre-industrial concentration. Both GMTSL rise and decline rates increase with increasing vertical ocean mixing. Exceptions from this behaviour arise if the overturning circulations in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean intensify beyond pre-industrial levels in model versions with lower vertical mixing, which leads to rapid cooling of the deep ocean.

  11. The impact of oceanic heat transport on the atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank

    2017-04-01

    A general circulation model of intermediate complexity with an idealized Earth-like aquaplanet setup is used to study the impact of changes in the oceanic heat transport on the global atmospheric circulation. Focus is on the atmospheric mean meridional circulation and global thermodynamic properties. The atmosphere counterbalances to a large extent the imposed changes in the oceanic heat transport, but, nonetheless, significant modifications to the atmospheric general circulation are found. Increasing the strength of the oceanic heat transport up to 2.5 PW leads to an increase in the global mean near-surface temperature and to a decrease in its equator-to-pole gradient. For stronger transports, the gradient is reduced further, but the global mean remains approximately constant. This is linked to a cooling and a reversal of the temperature gradient in the tropics. Additionally, a stronger oceanic heat transport leads to a decline in the intensity and a poleward shift of the maxima of both the Hadley and Ferrel cells. Changes in zonal mean diabatic heating and friction impact the properties of the Hadley cell, while the behavior of the Ferrel cell is mostly controlled by friction. The efficiency of the climate machine, the intensity of the Lorenz energy cycle and the material entropy production of the system decline with increased oceanic heat transport. This suggests that the climate system becomes less efficient and turns into a state of reduced entropy production as the enhanced oceanic transport performs a stronger large-scale mixing between geophysical fluids with different temperatures, thus reducing the available energy in the climate system and bringing it closer to a state of thermal equilibrium.

  12. A new look on anomalous thermal gradient values obtained in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, M. R.; Malico, I.

    2012-04-01

    A NEW LOOK ON THE ANOMALOUS THERMAL GRADIENT VALUES OBTAINED IN SOUTH PORTUGAL Duque, M. R. and Malico, I. M. Physics Department, University of Évora, Rua Romão Ramalho, 59,7000-671, Évora, Portugal It is well known that soil temperatures can be altered by water circulation. In this paper, we study numerically this effect by simulating some aquifers occurring in South Portugal. At this location, the thermal gradient values obtained in boreholes with depths less than 200 m, range between 22 and 30 °C km-1. However, there, it is easy to find places where temperatures are around 30 °C, at depths of 100 m. The obtained thermal gradient values show an increase one day after raining and a decrease during the dry season. Additionally, the curve of temperature as function of depth showed no hot water inlet in the hole. The region studied shows a smooth topography due to intensive erosion, but it was affected by alpine and hercinian orogenies. As a result, a high topography in depth, with folds and wrinkles is present. The space between adjacent folds is now filled by small sedimentary basins. Aquifers existing in this region can reach considerable depths and return to depths near the surface, but hot springs in the area are scarce. Water temperature rises in depth, and when the speed is high enough high temperatures near the surface, due to water circulation, can be found. The ability of the fluid to flow through the system depends on topography relief, rock permeability and basal heat flow. In this study, the steady-state fluid flow and heat transfer by conduction and advection are modeled. Fractures in the medium are simulated by an equivalent porous medium saturated with liquid. Thermal conductivity values for the water and the rocks can vary in space .Porosities used have high values in the region of the aquifer, low values in the lower region of the model and intermediate values in the upper regions. The results obtained show that temperature anomaly values

  13. Texturing of high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires by laser-driven directional solidification in an thermal gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varshney, Usha; Eichelberger, B. Davis, III

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the technique of laser-driven directional solidification in a controlled thermal gradient of yttria stabilized zirconia core coated Y-Ba-Cu-O materials to produce textured high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires with improved critical current densities in the extended range of magnetic fields at temperatures greater than 77 K. The approach involves laser heating to minimize phase segregation by heating very rapidly through the two-phase incongruent melt region to the single phase melt region and directionally solidifying in a controlled thermal gradient to achieve highly textured grains in the fiber axis direction. The technique offers a higher grain growth rate and a lower thermal budget compared with a conventional thermal gradient and is amenable as a continuous process for improving the J(sub c) of high T(sub c) superconducting polycrystalline fibers/wires. The technique has the advantage of suppressing weak-link behavior by orientation of crystals, formation of dense structures with enhanced connectivity, formation of fewer and cleaner grain boundaries, and minimization of phase segregation in the incongruent melt region.

  14. Ocean acidification has little effect on developmental thermal windows of echinoderms from Antarctica to the tropics.

    PubMed

    Karelitz, Sam E; Uthicke, Sven; Foo, Shawna A; Barker, Mike F; Byrne, Maria; Pecorino, Danilo; Lamare, Miles D

    2017-02-01

    As the ocean warms, thermal tolerance of developmental stages may be a key driver of changes in the geographical distributions and abundance of marine invertebrates. Additional stressors such as ocean acidification may influence developmental thermal windows and are therefore important considerations for predicting distributions of species under climate change scenarios. The effects of reduced seawater pH on the thermal windows of fertilization, embryology and larval morphology were examined using five echinoderm species: two polar (Sterechinus neumayeri and Odontaster validus), two temperate (Fellaster zelandiae and Patiriella regularis) and one tropical (Arachnoides placenta). Responses were examined across 12-13 temperatures ranging from -1.1 °C to 5.7 °C (S. neumayeri), -0.5 °C to 10.7 °C (O. validus), 5.8 °C to 27 °C (F. zelandiae), 6.0 °C to 27.1 °C (P. regularis) and 13.9 °C to 34.8 °C (A. placenta) under present-day and near-future (2100+) ocean acidification conditions (-0.3 pH units) and for three important early developmental stages 1) fertilization, 2) embryo (prehatching) and 3) larval development. Thermal windows for fertilization were broad and were not influenced by a pH decrease. Embryological development was less thermotolerant. For O. validus, P. regularis and A. placenta, low pH reduced normal development, albeit with no effect on thermal windows. Larval development in all five species was affected by both temperature and pH; however, thermal tolerance was not reduced by pH. Results of this study suggest that in terms of fertilization and development, temperature will remain as the most important factor influencing species' latitudinal distributions as the ocean continues to warm and decrease in pH, and that there is little evidence of a synergistic effect of temperature and ocean acidification on the thermal control of species ranges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Thermomechanical and Environmental Durability of Environmental Barrier Coated Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the developments of thermo-mechanical testing approaches and durability performance of environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and EBC coated SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Critical testing aspects of the CMCs will be described, including state of the art instrumentations such as temperature, thermal gradient, and full field strain measurements; materials thermal conductivity evolutions and thermal stress resistance; NDE methods; thermo-mechanical stress and environment interactions associated damage accumulations. Examples are also given for testing ceramic matrix composite sub-elements and small airfoils to help better understand the critical and complex CMC and EBC properties in engine relevant testing environments.

  16. Ecosystem variability along the estuarine salinity gradient: Examples from long-term study of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Jassby, Alan D.; Schraga, Tara; Kress, Erica S.; Martin, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    The salinity gradient of estuaries plays a unique and fundamental role in structuring spatial patterns of physical properties, biota, and biogeochemical processes. We use variability along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay to illustrate some lessons about the diversity of spatial structures in estuaries and their variability over time. Spatial patterns of dissolved constituents (e.g., silicate) can be linear or nonlinear, depending on the relative importance of river-ocean mixing and internal sinks (diatom uptake). Particles have different spatial patterns because they accumulate in estuarine turbidity maxima formed by the combination of sinking and estuarine circulation. Some constituents have weak or no mean spatial structure along the salinity gradient, reflecting spatially distributed sources along the estuary (nitrate) or atmospheric exchanges that buffer spatial variability of ecosystem metabolism (dissolved oxygen). The density difference between freshwater and seawater establishes stratification in estuaries stronger than the thermal stratification of lakes and oceans. Stratification is strongest around the center of the salinity gradient and when river discharge is high. Spatial distributions of motile organisms are shaped by species-specific adaptations to different salinity ranges (shrimp) and by behavioral responses to environmental variability (northern anchovy). Estuarine spatial patterns change over time scales of events (intrusions of upwelled ocean water), seasons (river inflow), years (annual weather anomalies), and between eras separated by ecosystem disturbances (a species introduction). Each of these lessons is a piece in the puzzle of how estuarine ecosystems are structured and how they differ from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  17. High-order accurate finite-volume formulations for the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engwirda, Darren; Kelley, Maxwell; Marshall, John

    2017-08-01

    Discretisation of the horizontal pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is a challenging task, with non-trivial interactions between the thermodynamics of the fluid and the geometry of the layers often leading to numerical difficulties. We present two new finite-volume schemes for the pressure gradient operator designed to address these issues. In each case, the horizontal acceleration is computed as an integration of the contact pressure force that acts along the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. A pair of new schemes are developed by exploring different control-volume geometries. Non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles are treated using a high-order accurate numerical integration framework, designed to preserve hydrostatic balance in a non-linear manner. Numerical experiments show that the new methods achieve high levels of consistency, maintaining hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer geometries, non-linear equations-of-state and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. These results suggest that the new pressure gradient formulations may be appropriate for general circulation models that employ hybrid vertical coordinates and/or terrain-following representations.

  18. Thermal and mechanical structure of the upper mantle: A comparison between continental and oceanic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, C.; Schubert, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature, velocity, and viscosity profiles for coupled thermal and mechanical models of the upper mantle beneath continental shields and old ocean basins show that under the continents, both tectonic plates and the asthenosphere, are thicker than they are beneath the oceans. The minimum value of viscosity in the continental asthenosphere is about an order of magnitude larger than in the shear zone beneath oceans. The shear stress or drag underneath continental plates is also approximately an order of magnitude larger than the drag on oceanic plates. Effects of shear heating may account for flattening of ocean floor topography and heat flux in old ocean basins.

  19. Gradient of the temperature function at the voxel (i, j, k) for heterogeneous bio-thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Sun, Aiwu; Gu, Ning; Lu, Rongbo

    2018-06-01

    Determination of the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples based on numerical methods is essential in biomedical engineering (e.g. microwave thermal ablation in clinic). In this paper, the gradient expression is examined and analyzed in detail, as how the gradient operators can be discretized is the only real difficulty to the solution of bio-heat equation for highly inhomogeneous model utilizing implicit scheme.

  20. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  1. Millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 levels linked to the Southern Ocean carbon isotope gradient and dust flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Martin; Diz, Paula; Hall, Ian R.; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations observed at the end of glacial periods has, at least in part, been attributed to the upwelling of carbon-rich deep water in the Southern Ocean. The magnitude of outgassing of dissolved CO2, however, is influenced by the biological fixation of upwelled inorganic carbon and its transfer back to the deep sea as organic carbon. The efficiency of this biological pump is controlled by the extent of nutrient utilization, which can be stimulated by the delivery of iron by atmospheric dust particles. Changes in nutrient utilization should be reflected in the δ13C gradient between intermediate and deep waters. Here we use the δ13C values of intermediate- and bottom-dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct the carbon isotope gradient between thermocline and abyssal water in the subantarctic zone of the South Atlantic Ocean over the past 360,000 years. We find millennial-scale oscillations of the carbon isotope gradient that correspond to changes in dust flux and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as reported from Antarctic ice cores. We interpret this correlation as a relationship between the efficiency of the biological pump and fertilization by dust-borne iron. As the correlation is exponential, we suggest that the sensitivity of the biological pump to dust-borne iron fertilization may be increased when the background dust flux is low.

  2. Subnanometer Motion of Cargoes Driven by Thermal Gradients Along Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Amelia; Rurali, Riccardo; Hernández, Eduardo R.; Moser, Joel; Pichler, Thomas; Forró, László; Bachtold, Adrian

    2008-05-01

    An important issue in nanoelectromechanical systems is developing small electrically driven motors. We report on an artificial nanofabricated motor in which one short carbon nanotube moves relative to another coaxial nanotube. A cargo is attached to an ablated outer wall of a multiwalled carbon nanotube that can rotate and/or translate along the inner nanotube. The motion is actuated by imposing a thermal gradient along the nanotube, which allows for subnanometer displacements, as opposed to an electromigration or random walk effect.

  3. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera.

  4. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera. PMID:26140195

  5. TEMPERATURE SELECTION BY HATCHLING AND YEARLING FLORIDA RED-BELLIED TURTLES (PSEUDEMYS NELSONI) IN THERMAL GRADIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested hatchling and yearling Florida red-bellied turtles (Pseudemys nelsoni) in laboratory thermal gradient chambers to determine if they would prefer particular temperatures. Most 1995 hatchlings selected the highest temperature zone of 27degrees C (Test 1) and 30 degrees ...

  6. The origin of oceanic crust and metabasic rocks protolith, the Luk Ulo Mélange Complex, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, H.; Munasri; Mukti, Maruf M.; Nurhidayati, A. U.; Aribowo, S.

    2018-02-01

    The Luk Ulo Mélange Complex (LUMC) is composed of tectonic slices of rocks that surrounded by scaly clay matrix. These rocks consist of serpentinite, gabbro, diabase, and basalt, eclogite, blueschist, amphibolite, schist, gneiss, phylite and slate, granite, chert, red limestone, claystone and sandstone. The LUMC was formed since Paleocene to Eocene, gradually uplifted of HP-UHP metabasic-metapelite (P: 20-27kbar; T: 410-628°C) to near surface mixed with hemipelagic sedimentary rocks. The metamorphic rocks were formed during 101-125 Ma (Early Cretaceous) within 70 to 100 km depth and ∼6°C/km thermal gradient. It took about 50-57 Myr for these rocks to reach the near surface during Paleocene-Eocene, with an uplift rate at ∼1.4-1.8 km/year to form the mélange complex. The low thermal gradient was due to subduction of old and cold oceanic crust. The subducted oceanic crust (MORB) as protolith of Cretaceous metabasic rocks must be older than Cretaceous. The data show that the basalt of oceanic crust is Cretaceous (130-81 Ma) comparable to the age of the cherts (Early to Late Cretaceous). Therefore, we consider that neither oceanic crust exposed in LUMC nor all of part of the old oceanic crust is the protolith of LUMC metabasic subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate. These oceanic rocks possibly originated or part of the edge of micro-continental that merged as a part of the LUMC during the collision with the Eurasian margin.

  7. Observed ocean thermal response to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Patrick C.; Shay, Lynn K.; Brewster, Jodi K.; Jaimes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season featured two hurricanes, Gustav and Ike, crossing the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) within a 2 week period. Over 400 airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs) were deployed in a GOM field campaign before, during, and after the passage of Gustav and Ike to measure the evolving upper ocean thermal structure. AXBT and drifter deployments specifically targeted the Loop Current (LC) complex, which was undergoing an eddy-shedding event during the field campaign. Hurricane Gustav forced a 50 m deepening of the ocean mixed layer (OML), dramatically altering the prestorm ocean conditions for Hurricane Ike. Wind-forced entrainment of colder thermocline water into the OML caused sea surface temperatures to cool by over 5°C in GOM common water, but only 1-2°C in the LC complex. Ekman pumping and a near-inertial wake were identified by fluctuations in the 20°C isotherm field observed by AXBTs and drifters following Hurricane Ike. Satellite estimates of the 20° and 26°C isotherm depths and ocean heat content were derived using a two-layer model driven by sea surface height anomalies. Generally, the satellite estimates correctly characterized prestorm conditions, but the two-layer model inherently could not resolve wind-forced mixing of the OML. This study highlights the importance of a coordinated satellite and in situ measurement strategy to accurately characterize the ocean state before, during, and after hurricane passage, particularly in the case of two consecutive storms traveling through the same domain.

  8. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined withmore » geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells

  9. Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Infiltration and Cyclic Degradations of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Smialek, Jim; Miller, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop higher temperature capable turbine thermal barrier and environmental barrier coating systems, Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance of the advanced coating systems needs to be evaluated and improved. This paper highlights some of NASA past high heat flux testing approaches for turbine thermal and environmental barrier coatings assessments in CMAS environments. One of our current emphases has been focused on the thermal barrier - environmental barrier coating composition and testing developments. The effort has included the CMAS infiltrations in high temperature and high heat flux turbine engine like conditions using advanced laser high heat flux rigs, and subsequently degradation studies in laser heat flux thermal gradient cyclic and isothermal furnace cyclic testing conditions. These heat flux CMAS infiltration and related coating durability testing are essential where appropriate CMAS melting, infiltration and coating-substrate temperature exposure temperature controls can be achieved, thus helping quantify the CMAS-coating interaction and degradation mechanisms. The CMAS work is also playing a critical role in advanced coating developments, by developing laboratory coating durability assessment methodologies in simulated turbine engine conditions and helping establish CMAS test standards in laboratory environments.

  10. High-Thermal- and Air-Stability Cathode Material with Concentration-Gradient Buffer for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Qi, Ran; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fu, Wei-Gui; Yin, Ya-Xia; Xu, Jian; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-12-13

    Delivery of high capacity with high thermal and air stability is a great challenge in the development of Ni-rich layered cathodes for commercialized Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we present a surface concentration-gradient spherical particle with varying elemental composition from the outer end LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (NCM) to the inner end LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (NCA). This cathode material with the merit of NCM concentration-gradient protective buffer and the inner NCA core shows high capacity retention of 99.8% after 200 cycles at 0.5 C. Furthermore, this cathode material exhibits much improved thermal and air stability compared with bare NCA. These results provide new insights into the structural design of high-performance cathodes with high energy density, long life span, and storage stability materials for LIBs in the future.

  11. IR-to-visible image upconverter under nonlinear crystal thermal gradient operation.

    PubMed

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Capmany, J

    2018-01-22

    In this work we study the enhancement of the field-of-view of an infrared image up-converter by means of a thermal gradient in a PPLN crystal. Our work focuses on compact upconverters, in which both a short PPLN crystal length and high numerical aperture lenses are employed. We found a qualitative increase in both wavelength and angular tolerances, compared to a constant temperature upconverter, which makes it necessary a correct IR wavelength allocation in order to effectively increase the up-converted area.

  12. Thermal gradient crystals as tuneable monochromator for high energy X-rays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ruett, U.; Schulte-Schrepping, H.; Heuer, J.

    2010-06-23

    At the high energy synchrotron radiation beamline BW5 at DORIS III at DESY a new monochromator providing broad energy bandwidth and high reflectivity is in use. On a small 10x10x5 mm{sup 3} silicon crystal scattering at the (311) reflection a thermal gradient is applied, which tunes the scattered energy bandwidth. The (311) reflection strongly suppresses the higher harmonics allowing the use of an image plate detector for crystallography. The monochromator can be used at photon energies above 60 keV.

  13. Sub-diurnal Variation of SST Gradients in Infrared Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, J. P.; Cornillon, P. C.; Clayson, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean fronts are known to influence many physical, biological, and chemical processes including ocean mixing, air-sea interaction, cloud and wind patterns, and marine productivity. Satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements are an invaluable tool in studying ocean fronts because of the large spatial and temporal coverage of satellite data, extending back as far as the early 1980s. One of the limitations to satellite-derived ocean fronts is that they provide no information about the underlying vertical structure; furthermore, the dynamics on sub-diurnal time scales for ocean fronts are poorly understood. In this poster we examine the daily signal of SST gradient magnitudes for the eastern Mediterranean sea as the first step in quantifying a subset of ocean fronts globally and how they vary on sub-diurnal time scales. We find that mean gradient magnitude in summer months increases and peaks around 2-4 PM Local Sun Time (LST). We find that the peak in summer months results from an increase in the magnitude of weaker gradients while the magnitude of the strongest gradients decrease; however, the weaker gradients contribute more strongly to the mean signal, resulting in the increase. The mid-afternoon peak in SST gradient magnitude disappears in winter with only a suggestion of a peak earlier in the day although the paucity of cloud free data in winter precludes making a statistically significant statement in this regard.

  14. Mesoscale Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling Enhances the Transfer of Wind Energy into the Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, D.; Munnich, M.; Frenger, I.; Gruber, N.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean eddies receive their energy mainly from the atmospheric energy input at large scales, while it is thought that direct atmosphere-ocean interactions at this scale contribute little to the eddies' energy balance. If anything, the prevailing view is that mesoscale atmosphere-ocean interactions lead to a reduction of the energy transfer from the atmosphere to the ocean. From satellite observations, modelling studies and theory, we present results in contrast to this. Specifically, we describe a novel mechanism that provides a new energy pathway from the atmosphere into the ocean that directly injects energy at the mesoscale, shortcutting the classical main pathway from the larger scales. Our hypothesis is based upon recent evidence that the `coupling strength' i.e., the magnitude of the atmospheric response to underlying sea surface temperature anomalies associated with eddies, is dependent upon the background wind speed. We argue that ocean eddies rarely live in an area of constant background wind, particularly not in the Southern Ocean, and that the horizontal gradients in the wind across ocean eddies lead to an increased/decreased work on one side of the eddy that is not compensated for on the other. Essentially, this asymmetry provides a `spin up' or a `spin down' forcing such that the net result is an increase in kinetic energy for both warm and cold core eddies that reside in a negative wind gradient and a decrease in kinetic energy when they are located in a positive wind gradient. This result has strong implications for the Southern Ocean, where large regions of positive and negative wind gradients exist on both sides of the wind maximum. We show from diagnosing the local eddy scale and domain wide energy balance in a high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional model in the South Atlantic, there are different energy transfers in the two regions and due to the different eddy abundances that this mechanism increases the net kinetic energy contained in

  15. Repeatability of gradient ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in instrument-controlled thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Grinias, James P; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-08-26

    The impact of viscous friction on eluent temperature and column efficiency in liquid chromatography is of renewed interest as the need for pressures exceeding 1000bar to use with columns packed with sub-2μm particles has grown. One way the development of axial and radial temperature gradients that arise due to viscous friction can be affected is by the thermal environment the column is placed in. In this study, a new column oven integrated into an ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatograph that enables both still-air and forced-air operating modes is investigated to find the magnitude of the effect of the axial thermal gradient that forms in 2.1×100mm columns packed with sub-2μm particles in these modes. Temperature increases of nearly 30K were observed when the generated power of the column exceeded 25W/m. The impact of the heating due to viscous friction on the repeatability of peak capacity, elution time, and peak area ratio to an internal standard for a gradient UHPLC-MS/MS method to analyze neurotransmitters was found to be limited. This result indicates that high speed UHPLC-MS/MS gradient methods under conditions of high viscous friction may be possible without the negative effects typically observed with isocratic separations under similar conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. North-South Gradients in Carbon Isotopic Compositions of Atlantic Ocean Black Shales: Evidence for Paleohydrologic Influences on Mid-Cretaceous Black Shale Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Organic del13C values of organic-carbon-rich Albian-Cenomanian-Turonian black shales from a north-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean have been compiled to explore for possible existence of latitudinal patterns. Black shales at equatorial sites have mean del13C values of -28 per mil, whereas black shales at mid-latitude sites have mean del13C values around -25 per mil. The mid-Cretaceous del13C values are routinely lower than those of modern marine sediments. The more negative Cretaceous del13C values generally reflect concentrations of atmospheric CO2 that were four to six times higher than today, but the geographic differences imply a regional overprint on this global feature. Latitudinal differences in oceanic temperature might be a factor, but a low thermal gradient from the poles to the equator during the mid-Cretaceous makes this factor not likely to be significant. Instead, a correspondence between the geographic differences in the organic del13C values of black shales with the modern latitudinal precipitation pattern suggests that differences in precipitation are a more likely factor. Establishment of a strongly salinity-stratified near-surface ocean and magnified delivery of land-derived phosphorus by continental runoff during this time of a magnified hydrologic cycle were evidently significant to deposition of marine black shales. A likely scenario is that the stratification resulted in blooms of nitrogen-fixing bacteria that become the dominant photoautotrophs and thereby stimulated primary production of organic matter. Regional differences in precipitation resulted in different amounts of runoff, consequent stratification, enhancement of primary production, and therefore the different carbon isotopic compositions of the black shales.

  17. Stirring Up the Biological Pump: Vertical Mixing and Carbon Export in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukel, Michael R.; Ducklow, Hugh W.

    2017-09-01

    The biological carbon pump (BCP) transports organic carbon from the surface to the ocean's interior via sinking particles, vertically migrating organisms, and passive transport of organic matter by advection and diffusion. While many studies have quantified sinking particles, the magnitude of passive transport remains poorly constrained. In the Southern Ocean weak thermal stratification, strong vertical gradients in particulate organic matter, and weak vertical nitrate gradients suggest that passive transport from the euphotic zone may be particularly important. We compile data from seasonal time series at a coastal site near Palmer Station, annual regional cruises in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), cruises throughout the broader Southern Ocean, and SOCCOM (Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling) autonomous profiling floats to estimate spatial and temporal patterns in vertical gradients of nitrate, particulate nitrogen (PN), and dissolved organic carbon. Under a steady state approximation, the ratio of ∂PN/∂z to ∂NO3-/∂z suggests that passive transport of PN may be responsible for removing 46% (37%-58%) of the nitrate introduced into the surface ocean of the WAP (with dissolved organic matter contributing an additional 3-6%) and for 23% (19%-28%) of the BCP in the broader Southern Ocean. A simple model parameterized with in situ nitrate, PN, and primary production data suggested that passive transport was responsible for 54% of the magnitude of the BCP in the WAP. Our results highlight the potential importance of passive transport (by advection and diffusion) of organic matter in the Southern Ocean but should only be considered indicative of high passive transport (rather than conclusive evidence) due to our steady state assumptions.

  18. Compensation of thermal constraints along a natural environmental gradient in a Malagasy iguanid lizard (Oplurus quadrimaculatus).

    PubMed

    Theisinger, Ole; Berg, W; Dausmann, K H

    2017-08-01

    Physiological or behavioural adjustments are a prerequisite for ectotherms to cope with different thermal environments. One of the world's steepest environmental gradients in temperature and precipitation can be found in southeastern Madagascar. This unique gradient allowed us to study the compensation of thermal constraints in the heliothermic lizard Oplurus quadrimaculatus on a very small geographic scale. The lizard occurs from hot spiny forest to intermediate gallery and transitional forest to cooler rain forest and we investigated whether these habitat differences are compensated behaviourally or physiologically. To study activity skin temperature (as proxy for body temperature) and the activity time of lizards, we attached temperature loggers to individuals in three different habitats. In addition, we calculated field resting costs from field resting metabolic rate to compare energy expenditure along the environmental gradient. We found no variation in activity skin temperature, despite significant differences in operative environmental temperature among habitats. However, daily activity time and field resting costs were reduced by 35% and 28% in the cool rain forest compared to the hot spiny forest. Our study shows that O. quadrimaculatus relies on behavioural mechanisms rather than physiological adjustments to compensate thermal differences between habitats. Furthermore, its foraging activity in open, sun exposed habitats facilitates such a highly effective thermoregulation that cold operative temperature, not energetically expensive heat, presents a greater challenge for these lizards despite living in a hot environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Quantification of improvements in an operational global-scale ocean thermal analysis system. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Clancy, R.M.; Harding, J.M.; Pollak, K.D.

    1992-02-01

    Global-scale analyses of ocean thermal structure produced operationally at the U.S. Navy`s Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center are verified, along with an ocean thermal climatology, against unassimilated bathythermograph (bathy), satellite multichannel sea surface temperature (MCSST), and ship sea surface temperature (SST) data. Verification statistics are calculated from the three types of data for February-April of 1988 and February-April of 1990 in nine verification areas covering most of the open ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. The analyzed thermal fields were produced by version 1.0 of the Optimum Thermal Interpolation System (OTIS 1.0) in 1988, but by an upgraded version of this model,more » referred to as OTIS 1.1, in 1990. OTIS 1.1 employs exactly the same analysis methodology as OTIS 1.0. The principal difference is that OTIS 1.1 has twice the spatial resolution of OTIS 1.0 and consequently uses smaller spatial decorrelation scales and noise-to-signal ratios. As a result, OTIS 1.1 is able to represent more horizontal detail in the ocean thermal fields than its predecessor. Verification statistics for the SST fields derived from bathy and MCSST data are consistent with each other, showing similar trends and error levels. These data indicate that the analyzed SST fields are more accurate in 1990 than in 1988, and generally more accurate than climatology for both years. Verification statistics for the SST fields derived from ship data are inconsistent with those derived from the bathy and MCSST data, and show much higher error levels indicative of observational noise.« less

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program. FY 1977 program summary

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts. Each of the DOE's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion projects funded during fiscal year 1977 (October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1977) is described and each project's status as of December 31, 1977 is reflected. These projects are grouped as follows: program support, definition planning, engineering development, engineering test and evaluation, and advanced research and technology. (MHR)

  1. Thermal stresses due to cooling of a viscoelastic oceanic lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, R.P.; Savage, W.Z.

    1989-01-01

    Instant-freezing methods inaccurately predict transient thermal stresses in rapidly cooling silicate glass plates because of the temperature dependent rheology of the material. The temperature dependent rheology of the lithosphere may affect the transient thermal stress distribution in a similar way, and for this reason we use a thermoviscoelastic model to estimate thermal stresses in young oceanic lithosphere. This theory is formulated here for linear creep processes that have an Arrhenius rate dependence on temperature. Our results show that the stress differences between instant freezing and linear thermoviscoelastic theory are most pronounced at early times (0-20 m.y. when the instant freezing stresses may be twice as large. The solutions for the two methods asymptotically approach the same solution with time. A comparison with intraplate seismicity shows that both methods underestimate the depth of compressional stresses inferred from the seismicity in a systematic way. -from Authors

  2. Susceptibility to a metal under global warming is shaped by thermal adaptation along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Dinh Van, Khuong; Janssens, Lizanne; Debecker, Sara; De Jonge, Maarten; Lambret, Philippe; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2013-09-01

    Global warming and contamination represent two major threats to biodiversity that have the potential to interact synergistically. There is the potential for gradual local thermal adaptation and dispersal to higher latitudes to mitigate the susceptibility of organisms to contaminants and global warming at high latitudes. Here, we applied a space-for-time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. We observed a striking latitude-specific effect of temperature on the zinc-induced mortality pattern; local thermal adaptation along the latitudinal gradient made Swedish, but not French, damselfly larvae more susceptible to zinc at 24 °C. Latitude- and temperature-specific differences in zinc susceptibility may be related to the amount of energy available to defend against and repair damage since Swedish larvae showed a much stronger zinc-induced reduction of food intake at 24 °C. The pattern of local thermal adaptation indicates that the predicted temperature increase of 4 °C by 2100 will strongly magnify the impact of a contaminant such as zinc at higher latitudes unless there is thermal evolution and/or migration of lower latitude genotypes. Our results underscore the critical importance of studying the susceptibility to contaminants under realistic warming scenarios taking into account local thermal adaptation across natural temperature gradients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.; Woltering, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Damste, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Stein, R.; Matthiessen, J.; Lourens, L.J.; Pedentchouk, N.; Backman, J.; Moran, K.; Clemens, S.; Cronin, T.; Eynaud, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Jordan, R.; Kaminski, M.; King, J.; Koc, N.; Martinez, N.C.; McInroy, D.; Moore, T.C.; O'Regan, M.; Onodera, J.; Palike, H.; Rea, B.; Rio, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Smith, D.C.; St John, K.E.K.; Suto, I.; Suzuki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, M. E.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ???55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ???18??C to over 23??C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10??C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark; Woltering, Martijn; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dickens, Gerald R; Huber, Matthew; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Stein, Ruediger; Matthiessen, Jens; Lourens, Lucas J; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn

    2006-06-01

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, approximately 55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from 18 degrees C to over 23 degrees C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10 degrees C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms--perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing--to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.

  5. Electron transfer across a thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Craven, Galen T.

    2016-01-01

    Charge transfer is a fundamental process that underlies a multitude of phenomena in chemistry and biology. Recent advances in observing and manipulating charge and heat transport at the nanoscale, and recently developed techniques for monitoring temperature at high temporal and spatial resolution, imply the need for considering electron transfer across thermal gradients. Here, a theory is developed for the rate of electron transfer and the associated heat transport between donor–acceptor pairs located at sites of different temperatures. To this end, through application of a generalized multidimensional transition state theory, the traditional Arrhenius picture of activation energy as a single point on a free energy surface is replaced with a bithermal property that is derived from statistical weighting over all configurations where the reactant and product states are equienergetic. The flow of energy associated with the electron transfer process is also examined, leading to relations between the rate of heat exchange among the donor and acceptor sites as functions of the temperature difference and the electronic driving bias. In particular, we find that an open electron transfer channel contributes to enhanced heat transport between sites even when they are in electronic equilibrium. The presented results provide a unified theory for charge transport and the associated heat conduction between sites at different temperatures. PMID:27450086

  6. Heat Exchanger Cleaning in Support of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) - Electronics Subsystems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    exchangers . The performance of heat exchangers will therefore decide the ultimate success or failure of OTEC . BACKGROUND Hardware development in support...8217AD-AG9 216 NAVAL COASTAL SYSTEMS CENTER PANAMA CITY FL F/S 13/10 HEAT EXCHANGER CLEANING IN SUPPORT OF OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONV"-ETC(U) DEC 80 D F...block minI ber) Heat Exchangers Chlorination Cleaning Electronics Thermal Energy Conversion 2%AISTRACT (Centhmes en; rewwe ide it neseer end iftefb Op

  7. Neutral surfaces and potential vorticity in the world's oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuzhu; McDougall, Trevor J.

    1990-08-01

    Several neutral surfaces are mapped in this paper and their properties are contrasted with those of potential density surfaces. It is shown that the Pacific is relatively forgiving to the use of potential density, while more care must be taken in the Atlantic and Indian oceans because of the larger compensating lateral gradients of potential temperature and salinity along neutral surfaces in these oceans. The dynamically important tracer, neutral-surface potential vorticity (NSPV), defined to be proportional to f/h (where f is the Coriolis frequency and h is the height between two neutral surfaces), is mapped on several neutral surfaces in each of the world's oceans. At a depth of 1000m in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the epineutral gradient of NSPV is different to the isopycnal variations of fN2 by as much as a factor of two (here N is the buoyancy frequency). Maps of isopycnal potential vorticity (IPV) resemble those of fN2, but the values of IPV are less by the simple factor μ, defined by μ = c[Rρ-1]/[Rρ-c], where Rρ is the stability ratio of the water column and c is the ratio of the values of α/β at the in situ pressure to that at the reference pressure (α and β being the thermal expansion and saline contraction coefficients, respectively). Layered models of the ocean circulation often take the vertical shear between layers (the thermal wind) to be given by the product of the interface slope and the contrast of potential density across the interface. The true thermal wind equation involves the interfaeial difference of in situ density, which is larger than the corresponding difference of potential density by the factor μ that is mapped in this paper, taking values up to 1.25 at a depth of 1000 m. This implies that the thermal wind is currently underestimated by up to 25% in layered ocean models. The differences between the slopes of neutral surfaces and potential density surfaces can be quantified Using the factory μ. The magnitudes of these

  8. Simulation of the ocean's spectral radiant thermal source and boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlikin, Vladimir; Krass, Maxim; Cheranev, Svyatoslav; Aloric, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    This article considers the analysis of radiant heat transfer for semitransparent natural and polluted seawaters and its physical interpretations. Technogenic or natural pollutions are considered as ensembles of selective scattering, absorbing and emitting particles with complex refractive indices in difference spectral ranges of external radiation. Simulation of spectral radiant thermal sources within short wavelength of solar penetrating radiation for upper oceanic depth was carried out for deep seawater on regions from ˜ 300 to ˜ 600 nm and for subsurface layers (not more ˜ 1 m) - on one ˜ 600 - 1200 nm. Model boundary conditions on exposed oceanic surface are defined by (1) emittance of atmosphere and seawater within long wavelength radiation ˜ 9000 nm, (2) convection, and (3) thermal losses due to evaporation. Spatial and temporal variability of inherent optical properties, temperature distributions of the upper overheated layer of seawater, the appearance of a subsurface temperature maximum and a cool surface skin layer in response to penetrating solar radiation are explained first of all by the effects of volumetric scattering (absorption) and surface cooling of polluted seawater. The suggested analysis can become an important and useful subject of research for oceanographers and climatologists.

  9. Present heat flow and paleo-geothermal regime in the Canadian Arctic margin: analysis of industrial thermal data and coalification gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Embry, Ashton F.

    1998-06-01

    Calculations of the present geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flow were made on 156 deep wells of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Corrected bottom hole temperature (BHT) data and drill stem test (DST) temperatures were used to determine the thermal gradients for sites for which the quality of data was sufficient. Thermal gradients evaluated for depths below the base of permafrost for the onshore wells and below sea bottom for the offshore wells were combined with the estimates of effective thermal conductivity to approximate heat flow for these sites. The present geothermal gradient is in the 15-50 mK/m range (mean = 31 ± 7 mK/m). Present heat flow is mainly in the 35-90 mW/m 2 range (mean = 53 ± 12 mW/m 2). Maps of the present geothermal gradient and present heat flow have been constructed for the basin. The analysis of vitrinite reflectance profiles and the calculation of logarithmic coalification gradients for 101 boreholes in the Sverdrup Basin showed large variations related in many cases to regional variations of present terrestrial heat flow. Paleo-geothermal gradients estimated from these data are mostly in the range of 15-50 mK/m (mean = 28 ± 9 mK/m) and paleo-heat flow is in the 40-90 mW/m 2 range (mean = 57 ± 18 mW/m 2) related to the time of maximum burial in the Early Tertiary. Mean values of the present heat flow and paleo-heat flow for the Sverdrup Basin are almost identical considering the uncertainties of the methods used (53 ± 12 versus 57 ± 18 mW/m 2, respectively). Present geothermal gradients and paleo-geothermal gradients are also close when means are compared (31 ± 7 versus 28 ± 9 mK/m respectively). A zone of high present heat flow and a paleo-heat flow zone coincide in places with the northeastern-southwestern incipient rift landward of the Arctic margin first described by Balkwill and Fox (1982). Correlation between present heat flow and paleo-heat flow for the time of maximum burial in the earliest Tertiary suggests that

  10. Modeling the response of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlighem, M.; Wood, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Bondzio, J. H.; Rignot, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier-front dynamics is an important control on Greenland's ice mass balance. Warm and salty Atlantic water, which is typically found at a depth below 200-300 m, has the potential to trigger ice-front retreats of marine-terminating glaciers, and the corresponding loss in resistive stress leads to glacier acceleration and thinning. It remains unclear, however, which glaciers are currently stable but may retreat in the future, and how far inland and how fast they will retreat. Here, we quantify the sensitivity and vulnerability of marine-terminating glaciers along the Northwest coast of Greenland (from 72.5° to 76°N) to ocean forcing using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM), and its new ice front migration capability. We rely on the ice melt parameterization from Rignot et al. 2016, and use ocean temperature and salinity from high-resolution ECCO2 simulations on the continental shelf to constrain the thermal forcing. The ice flow model includes a calving law based on a Von Mises criterion. We investigate the sensitivity of Northwest Greenland to enhanced ocean thermal forcing and subglacial discharge. We find that some glaciers, such as Dietrichson Gletscher or Alison Gletscher, are sensitive to small increases in ocean thermal forcing, while others, such as Illullip Sermia or Qeqertarsuup Sermia, are very difficult to destabilize, even with a quadrupling of the melt. Under the most intense melt experiment, we find that Hayes Gletscher retreats by more than 50 km inland into a deep trough and its velocity increases by a factor of 10 over only 15 years. The model confirms that ice-ocean interactions are the triggering mechanism of glacier retreat, but the bed controls its magnitude. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cryospheric Sciences Program (#NNX15AD55G), and the National Science Foundation's ARCSS program (#1504230).

  11. Product differentiation during continuous-flow thermal gradient PCR.

    PubMed

    Crews, Niel; Wittwer, Carl; Palais, Robert; Gale, Bruce

    2008-06-01

    A continuous-flow PCR microfluidic device was developed in which the target DNA product can be detected and identified during its amplification. This in situ characterization potentially eliminates the requirement for further post-PCR analysis. Multiple small targets have been amplified from human genomic DNA, having sizes of 108, 122, and 134 bp. With a DNA dye in the PCR mixture, the amplification and unique melting behavior of each sample is observed from a single fluorescent image. The melting behavior of the amplifying DNA, which depends on its molecular composition, occurs spatially in the thermal gradient PCR device, and can be observed with an optical resolution of 0.1 degrees C pixel(-1). Since many PCR cycles are within the field of view of the CCD camera, melting analysis can be performed at any cycle that contains a significant quantity of amplicon, thereby eliminating the cycle-selection challenges typically associated with continuous-flow PCR microfluidics.

  12. Stability of hydrous phases in subducting oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Bohlen, S.R.; Ernst, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments in the basalt-H2O system at 600-950??C and 0.8-3.0 GPa, demonstrate that breakdown of amphibole represents the final dehydration of subducting oceanic tholeiite at T ??? 650??C; the dehydration H2O occurs as a free fluid or in silicate melt co-existing with an anhydrous eclogite assemblage. In contrast, about 0.5 wt% of H2O is stored in lawsonite at 600??C, 3.0 GPa. Our results suggest that slab melting occurs at depths shallower than 60 km for subducting young oceanic crust; along a subduction zone with an average thermal gradient higher than 7??C/km, H2O stored in hydrated low-potassium, metabasaltic layers cannot be subducted to depths greater than 100 km, then released to generate arc magma.

  13. Ocean energy program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, this stored energy is realized as waves, currents, and thermal salinity gradients. The purpose of the Federal Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The OET Program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where the commercial sector can assess whether applications of the technology are viable energy conversion alternatives or supplements to systems. Past studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) as the largest potential contributor to United States energy supplies from the ocean resource. As a result, the OET Program concentrates on research to advance OTEC technology. Current program emphasis has shifted to open-cycle OTEC power system research because the closed-cycle OTEC system is at a more advanced stage of development and has already attracted industrial interest. During FY 1989, the OET Program focused primarily on the technical uncertainties associated with near-shore open-cycle OTEC systems ranging in size from 2 to 15 MW(sub e). Activities were performed under three major program elements: thermodynamic research and analysis, experimental verification and testing, and materials and structures research. These efforts addressed a variety of technical problems whose resolution is crucial to demonstrating the viability of open-cycle OTEC technology. This publications is one of a series of documents on the Renewable Energy programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. An overview of all the programs is available, entitled Programs in Renewable Energy.

  14. Dynamic thermal field-induced gradient soft-shear for highly oriented block copolymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpreet; Yager, Kevin G; Berry, Brian; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-11-27

    As demand for smaller, more powerful, and energy-efficient devices continues, conventional patterning technologies are pushing up against fundamental limits. Block copolymers (BCPs) are considered prime candidates for a potential solution via directed self-assembly of nanostructures. We introduce here a facile directed self-assembly method to rapidly fabricate unidirectionally aligned BCP nanopatterns at large scale, on rigid or flexible template-free substrates via a thermally induced dynamic gradient soft-shear field. A localized differential thermal expansion at the interface between a BCP film and a confining polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer due to a dynamic thermal field imposes the gradient soft-shear field. PDMS undergoes directional expansion (along the annealing direction) in the heating zone and contracts back in the cooling zone, thus setting up a single cycle of oscillatory shear (maximum lateral shear stress ∼12 × 10(4) Pa) in the system. We successfully apply this process to create unidirectional alignment of BCP thin films over a wide range of thicknesses (nm to μm) and processing speeds (μm/s to mm/s) using both a flat and patterned PDMS layer. Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering measurements show absolutely no sign of isotropic population and reveal ≥99% aligned orientational order with an angular spread Δθ(fwhm) ≤ 5° (full width at half-maximum). This method may pave the way to practical industrial use of hierarchically patterned BCP nanostructures.

  15. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Hannes; Doherty, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG) coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 1°×1° dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 1982–2012) to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: −0.91°C and −0.68°C lat−1, respectively) and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: −0.28, −0.29, −0.32°C lat−1, respectively). Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 3–10% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (6–47°S), however, has considerably cooled over the study period (−0.3 to −1.7°C, 31 years), and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (−10%) was due to warming at high latitudes (42–60°N, +0.8 to +1.6°C,31 years) and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 26–35°N, −0.5 to −2.2°C, 31 years). Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude) in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433). Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change

  16. Cyanobacterial distributions along a physico-chemical gradient in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sudek, Sebastian; Everroad, R Craig; Gehman, Alyssa-Lois M; Smith, Jason M; Poirier, Camille L; Chavez, Francisco P; Worden, Alexandra Z

    2015-10-01

    The cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus are important marine primary producers. We explored their distributions and covariance along a physico-chemical gradient from coastal to open ocean waters in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. An inter-annual pattern was delineated in the dynamic transition zone where upwelled and eastern boundary current waters mix, and two new Synechococcus clades, Eastern Pacific Clade (EPC) 1 and EPC2, were identified. By applying state-of-the-art phylogenetic analysis tools to bar-coded 16S amplicon datasets, we observed higher abundance of Prochlorococcus high-light I (HLI) and low-light I (LLI) in years when more oligotrophic water intruded farther inshore, while under stronger upwelling Synechococcus I and IV dominated. However, contributions of some cyanobacterial clades were proportionally relatively constant, e.g. Synechococcus EPC2. In addition to supporting observations that Prochlorococcus LLI thrive at higher irradiances than other LL taxa, the results suggest LLI tolerate lower temperatures than previously reported. The phylogenetic precision of our 16S rRNA gene analytical approach and depth of bar-coded sequencing also facilitated detection of clades at low abundance in unexpected places. These include Prochlorococcus at the coast and Cyanobium-related sequences offshore, although it remains unclear whether these came from resident or potentially advected cells. Our study enhances understanding of cyanobacterial distributions in an ecologically important eastern boundary system. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Thermal Gradient During Vacuum-Deposition Dramatically Enhances Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors: Toward High-Performance N-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Hyun; Han, Singu; Jeong, Heejeong; Jang, Hayeong; Baek, Seolhee; Hu, Junbeom; Lee, Myungkyun; Choi, Byungwoo; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2017-03-22

    A thermal gradient distribution was applied to a substrate during the growth of a vacuum-deposited n-type organic semiconductor (OSC) film prepared from N,N'-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-1,7-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboxyimide) (PDI-CN2), and the electrical performances of the films deployed in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were characterized. The temperature gradient at the surface was controlled by tilting the substrate, which varied the temperature one-dimensionally between the heated bottom substrate and the cooled upper substrate. The vacuum-deposited OSC molecules diffused and rearranged on the surface according to the substrate temperature gradient, producing directional crystalline and grain structures in the PDI-CN2 film. The morphological and crystalline structures of the PDI-CN2 thin films grown under a vertical temperature gradient were dramatically enhanced, comparing with the structures obtained from either uniformly heated films or films prepared under a horizontally applied temperature gradient. The field effect mobilities of the PDI-CN2-FETs prepared using the vertically applied temperature gradient were as high as 0.59 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , more than a factor of 2 higher than the mobility of 0.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 submitted to conventional thermal annealing and the mobility of 0.29 cm 2 V -1 s -1 from the horizontally applied temperature gradient.

  18. The Effect of Thermal Cycling on Crystal-Liquid Separation During Lunar Magma Ocean Differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation of magma oceans likely involves a mixture of fractional and equilibrium crystallization [1]. The existence of: 1) large volumes of anorthosite in the lunar highlands and 2) the incompatible- rich (KREEP) reservoir suggests that fractional crystallization may have dominated during differentiation of the Moon. For this to have occurred, crystal fractionation must have been remarkably efficient. Several authors [e.g. 2, 3] have hypothesized that equilibrium crystallization would have dominated early in differentiation of magma oceans because of crystal entrainment during turbulent convection. However, recent numerical modeling [4] suggests that crystal settling could have occurred throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean if crystals were large and crystal fraction was low. These results indicate that the crystal size distribution could have played an important role in differentiation of the lunar magma ocean. Here, I suggest that thermal cycling from tidal heating during lunar magma ocean crystallization caused crystals to coarsen, leading to efficient crystal-liquid separation.

  19. Axial thermal gradients in microchip gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anzi; Hynynen, Sampo; Hawkins, Aaron R; Tolley, Samuel E; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2014-12-29

    Fabrication technologies for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) allow miniaturization of conventional benchtop gas chromatography (GC) to portable, palm-sized microfabricated GC (μGC) devices, which are suitable for on-site chemical analysis and remote sensing. The separation performance of μGC systems, however, has not been on par with conventional GC. Column efficiency, peak symmetry and resolution are often compromised by column defects and non-ideal injections. The relatively low performance of μGC devices has impeded their further commercialization and broader application. In this work, the separation performance of μGC columns was improved by incorporating thermal gradient gas chromatography (TGGC). The analysis time was ∼20% shorter for TGGC separations compared to conventional temperature-programmed GC (TPGC) when a wide sample band was introduced into the column. Up to 50% reduction in peak tailing was observed for polar analytes, which improved their resolution. The signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of late-eluting peaks were increased by 3-4 fold. The unique focusing effect of TGGC overcomes many of the previous shortcomings inherent in μGC analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of natural temperature gradients on measurements of xylem sap flow with thermal dissipation probes. 1. Field observations and possible remedies.

    PubMed

    Do, F; Rocheteau, A

    2002-06-01

    The thermal dissipation method is simple and widely used for measuring sap flow in large stems. As with several other thermal methods, natural temperature gradients are assumed to be negligible in the sapwood being measured. We studied the magnitude and variability of natural temperature gradients in sapwood of Acacia trees growing in the Sahelian zone of Senegal, analyzed their effects on sap flow measurements, and investigated possible solutions. A new measurement approach employing cyclic heating (45 minutes of heating and 15 minutes of cooling; 45/15) was also tested. Three-day measurement sequences that included 1 day without heating, a second day with continuous heating and a third day with cyclic heating were recorded during a 6.5-month period using probes installed at three azimuths in a tree trunk. Natural temperature gradients between the two probes of the sensor unit, spaced 8 to 10 cm vertically, were rarely negligible (i.e., < 0.2 degrees C): they were positive during the night and negative during the day, with an amplitude ranging from 0.3 to 3.5 degrees C depending on trunk azimuth, day and season. These temperature gradients had a direct influence on the signal from the continuously heated sensors, inducing fluctuations in the nighttime reference signal. The resulting errors in sap flow estimates can be greater than 100%. Correction protocols have been proposed in previous studies, but they were unsuitable because of the high spatial and temporal variability of the natural temperature gradients. We found that a measurement signal derived from a noncontinuous heating system could be an attractive solution because it appears to be independent of natural temperature gradients. The magnitude and variability of temperature gradients that we observed were likely exacerbated by the combination of open stand, high solar radiation and low sap flow rate. However, for all applications of the thermal dissipation method, it is wise to check regularly for natural

  1. Soil Microbial Community Structure across a Thermal Gradient following a Geothermal Heating Event

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Tracy B.; Wraith, Jon M.; Castenholz, Richard W.; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study microbial species diversity was assessed across a landscape in Yellowstone National Park, where an abrupt increase in soil temperature had occurred due to recent geothermal activity. Soil temperatures were measured, and samples were taken across a temperature gradient (35 to 65°C at a 15-cm depth) that spanned geothermally disturbed and unimpacted soils; thermally perturbed soils were visually apparent by the occurrence of dead or dying lodgepole pine trees. Changes in soil microbial diversity across the temperature gradient were qualitatively assessed based on 16S rRNA sequence variation as detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using both ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA as PCR templates and primers specific for the Bacteria or Archaea domain. The impact of the major heating disturbance was apparent in that DGGE profiles from heated soils appeared less complex than those from the unaffected soils. Phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial 16S rDNA PCR clone library from a recently heated soil showed that a majority of the clones belonged to the Acidobacterium (51%) and Planctomyces (18%) divisions. Agar plate counts of soil suspensions cultured on dilute yeast extract and R2A agar media incubated at 25 or 50°C revealed that thermophile populations were two to three orders of magnitude greater in the recently heated soil. A soil microcosm laboratory experiment simulated the geothermal heating event. As determined by both RNA- and DNA-based PCR coupled with DGGE, changes in community structure (marked change in the DGGE profile) of soils incubated at 50°C occurred within 1 week and appeared to stabilize after 3 weeks. The results of our molecular and culture data suggest that thermophiles or thermotolerant species are randomly distributed in this area within Yellowstone National Park and that localized thermal activity selects for them. PMID:12450855

  2. Soil microbial community structure across a thermal gradient following a geothermal heating event.

    PubMed

    Norris, Tracy B; Wraith, Jon M; Castenholz, Richard W; McDermott, Timothy R

    2002-12-01

    In this study microbial species diversity was assessed across a landscape in Yellowstone National Park, where an abrupt increase in soil temperature had occurred due to recent geothermal activity. Soil temperatures were measured, and samples were taken across a temperature gradient (35 to 65 degrees C at a 15-cm depth) that spanned geothermally disturbed and unimpacted soils; thermally perturbed soils were visually apparent by the occurrence of dead or dying lodgepole pine trees. Changes in soil microbial diversity across the temperature gradient were qualitatively assessed based on 16S rRNA sequence variation as detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using both ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA as PCR templates and primers specific for the Bacteria or Archaea domain. The impact of the major heating disturbance was apparent in that DGGE profiles from heated soils appeared less complex than those from the unaffected soils. Phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial 16S rDNA PCR clone library from a recently heated soil showed that a majority of the clones belonged to the Acidobacterium (51%) and Planctomyces (18%) divisions. Agar plate counts of soil suspensions cultured on dilute yeast extract and R2A agar media incubated at 25 or 50 degrees C revealed that thermophile populations were two to three orders of magnitude greater in the recently heated soil. A soil microcosm laboratory experiment simulated the geothermal heating event. As determined by both RNA- and DNA-based PCR coupled with DGGE, changes in community structure (marked change in the DGGE profile) of soils incubated at 50 degrees C occurred within 1 week and appeared to stabilize after 3 weeks. The results of our molecular and culture data suggest that thermophiles or thermotolerant species are randomly distributed in this area within Yellowstone National Park and that localized thermal activity selects for them.

  3. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... gradients form where salt water from the ocean meets and mixes with fresh water from land. (b) Possible loss... those organisms that are adapted to freshwater environments. It may also affect municipal water supplies... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of the...

  4. Maximum thermal limits of coral reef damselfishes are size dependent and resilient to near-future ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Roche, Dominique G; Binning, Sandra A; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Sundin, Josefin

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical models predict that ocean acidification, caused by increased dissolved CO 2 , will reduce the maximum thermal limits of fishes, thereby increasing their vulnerability to rising ocean temperatures and transient heatwaves. Here, we tested this prediction in three species of damselfishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Maximum thermal limits were quantified using critical thermal maxima (CT max ) tests following acclimation to either present-day or end-of-century levels of CO 2 for coral reef environments (∼500 or ∼1000 µatm, respectively). While species differed significantly in their thermal limits, whereby Dischistodus perspicillatus exhibited greater CT max (37.88±0.03°C; N =47) than Dascyllus aruanus (37.68±0.02°C; N =85) and Acanthochromis polyacanthus (36.58±0.02°C; N =63), end-of-century CO 2 had no effect ( D. aruanus ) or a slightly positive effect (increase in CT max of 0.16°C in D. perspicillatus and 0.21°C in A. polyacanthus ) on CT max Contrary to expectations, early-stage juveniles were equally as resilient to CO 2 as larger conspecifics, and CT max was higher at smaller body sizes in two species. These findings suggest that ocean acidification will not impair the maximum thermal limits of reef fishes, and they highlight the critical role of experimental biology in testing predictions of theoretical models forecasting the consequences of environmental change. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Radiation, Thermal Gradient and Weight: a threefold dilemma for PLATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Bruno, Giordano; Piazza, Daniele; Borsa, Francesco; Ghigo, Mauro; Mogulsky, Valery; Bergomi, Maria; Biondi, Federico; Chinellato, Simonetta; Dima, Marco; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marafatto, Luca; Viotto, Valentina; Munari, Matteo; Pagano, Isabella; Sicilia, Daniela; Basso, Stefano; Spiga, Daniele; Bandy, Timothy; Brändli, Mathias; Benz, Willy; De Roche, Thierry; Rieder, Martin; Brandeker, Alexis; Klebor, Maximilian; Schweitzer, Mario; Wieser, Matthias; Erikson, Anders; Rauer, Heike

    2016-07-01

    The project PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) is one of the selected medium class (M class) missions in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mean scientific goal of PLATO is the discovery and study of extrasolar planetary systems by means of planetary transits detection. The opto mechanical subsystem of the payload is made of 32 normal telescope optical units (N-TOUs) and 2 fast telescope optical units (FTOUs). The optical configuration of each TOU is an all refractive design based on six properly optimized lenses. In the current baseline, in front of each TOU a Suprasil window is foreseen. The main purposes of the entrance window are to shield the following lenses from possible damaging high energy radiation and to mitigate the thermal gradient that the first optical element will experience during the launch from ground to space environment. In contrast, the presence of the window increases the overall mass by a non-negligible quantity. We describe here the radiation and thermal analysis and their impact on the quality and risks assessment, summarizing the trade-off process with pro and cons on having or dropping the entrance window in the optical train.

  6. Ocean currents modify the coupling between climate change and biogeographical shifts.

    PubMed

    García Molinos, J; Burrows, M T; Poloczanska, E S

    2017-05-02

    Biogeographical shifts are a ubiquitous global response to climate change. However, observed shifts across taxa and geographical locations are highly variable and only partially attributable to climatic conditions. Such variable outcomes result from the interaction between local climatic changes and other abiotic and biotic factors operating across species ranges. Among them, external directional forces such as ocean and air currents influence the dispersal of nearly all marine and many terrestrial organisms. Here, using a global meta-dataset of observed range shifts of marine species, we show that incorporating directional agreement between flow and climate significantly increases the proportion of explained variance. We propose a simple metric that measures the degrees of directional agreement of ocean (or air) currents with thermal gradients and considers the effects of directional forces in predictions of climate-driven range shifts. Ocean flows are found to both facilitate and hinder shifts depending on their directional agreement with spatial gradients of temperature. Further, effects are shaped by the locations of shifts in the range (trailing, leading or centroid) and taxonomic identity of species. These results support the global effects of climatic changes on distribution shifts and stress the importance of framing climate expectations in reference to other non-climatic interacting factors.

  7. Thermal Evolution of Earth's Mantle During the Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Roberts, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Earth is likely formed by accreting Moon to Mars size embryos. The impact heating by an embryo melts the embryo and the upper mantle of the Earth beneath the impact site. The iron core of the embryo sinks and merges with the core of the Earth, while the mantle of the embryo mixes with the upper mantle of the Earth, producing a buoyant molten/partially molten magma pond. Strong but localized mantle dynamics results in fast lithostatic adjustment that pours out a huge amount of molten and partially molten magma which spread on the Earth, and together with impact ejecta creates a globe encircling magma ocean. The lithostatic adjustment diminishes as the magma ocean becomes globe encircling within 104 to 105 yr. The major part of the thermal evolution of Earth's mantle after an impact takes place in the presence of a thick and hot magma ocean, which hampers heat loss from the mantle and suppresses global mantle dynamics. Because the impact velocity of an embryo increases as the Earth grows, a given magma ocean is hotter than the previous ones. We investigated this scenario using 25 Moon to Mars size embryos. Due to random geographic impact sites we considered vertical impacts since no information is available about the impact angles. This may over estimate the impact heating by a factor of 1.4 with respect to the most probable impact angle of 45o. The thermal structure of the Earth at the end of accretion is layered, aside from the localized magma ponds that are distributed randomly due to the random geographic impact sites. We also take into account the impact heating of the solid lower mantle, the heating of the lower mantle by the gravitational energy released through sinking of an embryo's core. We then follow the thermal evolution of the mantle of a growing Earth using a 3D convection model. The Earth grows due to merging of the impactor iron core with the Earth's core, and the accumulating magma ocean on the surface. The growth enhances the lithostatic pressure

  8. Productivity responses of a widespread marine piscivore, Gadus morhua, to oceanic thermal extremes and trends.

    PubMed

    Mantzouni, Irene; MacKenzie, Brian R

    2010-06-22

    Climate change will have major consequences for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the twenty-first century. These impacts will differ in magnitude and direction for populations within individual marine species whose geographical ranges span large gradients in latitude and temperature. Here we use meta-analytical methods to investigate how recruitment (i.e. the number of new fish produced by spawners in a given year which subsequently grow and survive to become vulnerable to fishing gear) has reacted to temperature fluctuations, and in particular to extremes of temperature, in cod populations throughout the north Atlantic. Temperature has geographically explicit effects on cod recruitment. Impacts differ depending on whether populations are located in the upper (negative effects) or in the lower (positive effects) thermal range. The probabilities of successful year-classes in populations living in warm areas is on average 34 per cent higher in cold compared with warm seasons, whereas opposite patterns exist for populations living in cold areas. These results have implications for cod dynamics, distributions and phenologies under the influence of ocean warming, particularly related to not only changes in the mean temperature, but also its variability (e.g. frequency of exceptionally cold or warm seasons).

  9. Contribution of Surface Thermal Forcing to Mixing in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Huang, Shi-Di; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2018-02-01

    A critical ingredient of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is vertical mixing, which causes dense waters in the deep sea to rise throughout the stratified interior to the upper ocean. Here, we report a laboratory study aimed at understanding the contributions from surface thermal forcing (STF) to this mixing process. Our study reveals that the ratio of the thermocline thickness to the fluid depth largely determines the mixing rate and the mixing efficiency in an overturning flow driven by STF. By applying this finding to a hypothetical MOC driven purely by STF, we obtain a mixing rate of O(10-6 m2/s) and a corresponding meridional heat flux of O(10-2 petawatt, PW), which are far smaller than the values found for real oceans. These results provide quantitative support for the notion that STF alone is not sufficient to drive the MOC, which essentially acts as a heat conveyor belt powered by other energy sources.

  10. Clathrate hydrate stability models for Titan: implications for a global subsurface ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu Sarkar, D.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2013-12-01

    ethane-methane clathrates may be a major component of Titan's icy shell. Modeled geothermal gradients and stability fields of possible clathrate formers with three different scenarios for an internal ocean from the recent literature. Geothermal gradients obtained from thermal conductivity and density representing water ice and pure CH4-C2H6 hydrate. Clathrate stability field determined using HYDOFF and recent publications of NH3 clathrate stability.

  11. Counter-Gradient Variation in Respiratory Performance of Coral Reef Fishes at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Naomi M.; Munday, Philip L.; Nilsson, Göran E.

    2010-01-01

    The response of species to global warming depends on how different populations are affected by increasing temperature throughout the species' geographic range. Local adaptation to thermal gradients could cause populations in different parts of the range to respond differently. In aquatic systems, keeping pace with increased oxygen demand is the key parameter affecting species' response to higher temperatures. Therefore, respiratory performance is expected to vary between populations at different latitudes because they experience different thermal environments. We tested for geographical variation in respiratory performance of tropical marine fishes by comparing thermal effects on resting and maximum rates of oxygen uptake for six species of coral reef fish at two locations on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. The two locations, Heron Island and Lizard Island, are separated by approximately 1200 km along a latitudinal gradient. We found strong counter-gradient variation in aerobic scope between locations in four species from two families (Pomacentridae and Apogonidae). High-latitude populations (Heron Island, southern GBR) performed significantly better than low-latitude populations (Lizard Island, northern GBR) at temperatures up to 5°C above average summer surface-water temperature. The other two species showed no difference in aerobic scope between locations. Latitudinal variation in aerobic scope was primarily driven by up to 80% higher maximum rates of oxygen uptake in the higher latitude populations. Our findings suggest that compensatory mechanisms in high-latitude populations enhance their performance at extreme temperatures, and consequently, that high-latitude populations of reef fishes will be less impacted by ocean warming than will low-latitude populations. PMID:20949020

  12. Effects of ocean acidification increase embryonic sensitivity to thermal extremes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Flemming T; Leo, Elettra; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Storch, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Thermal tolerance windows serve as a powerful tool for estimating the vulnerability of marine species and their life stages to increasing temperature means and extremes. However, it remains uncertain to which extent additional drivers, such as ocean acidification, modify organismal responses to temperature. This study investigated the effects of CO 2 -driven ocean acidification on embryonic thermal sensitivity and performance in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, from the Kattegat. Fertilized eggs were exposed to factorial combinations of two PCO 2 conditions (400 μatm vs. 1100 μatm) and five temperature treatments (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 °C), which allow identifying both lower and upper thermal tolerance thresholds. We quantified hatching success, oxygen consumption (MO 2 ) and mitochondrial functioning of embryos as well as larval morphometrics at hatch and the abundance of acid-base-relevant ionocytes on the yolk sac epithelium of newly hatched larvae. Hatching success was high under ambient spawning conditions (3-6 °C), but decreased towards both cold and warm temperature extremes. Elevated PCO 2 caused a significant decrease in hatching success, particularly at cold (3 and 0 °C) and warm (12 °C) temperatures. Warming imposed limitations to MO 2 and mitochondrial capacities. Elevated PCO 2 stimulated MO 2 at cold and intermediate temperatures, but exacerbated warming-induced constraints on MO 2 , indicating a synergistic interaction with temperature. Mitochondrial functioning was not affected by PCO 2 . Increased MO 2 in response to elevated PCO 2 was paralleled by reduced larval size at hatch. Finally, ionocyte abundance decreased with increasing temperature, but did not differ between PCO 2 treatments. Our results demonstrate increased thermal sensitivity of cod embryos under future PCO 2 conditions and suggest that acclimation to elevated PCO 2 requires reallocation of limited resources at the expense of embryonic growth. We conclude that ocean acidification

  13. Improvement of determinating seafloor benchmark position with large-scale horizontal heterogeneity in the ocean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Matsuhiro, K.; Ikuta, R.

    2015-12-01

    The most critical issue in reducing the accuracy of seafloor positioning system, GPS/Acoustic technique, is large-scale thermal gradient of sound-speed structure [Muto et al., 2008] due to the ocean current. For example, Kuroshio Current, near our observation station, forms this structure. To improve the accuracy of seafloor benchmark position (SBP), we need to directly measure the structure frequently, or estimate it from travel time residual. The former, we repeatedly measure the sound-speed at Kuroshio axis using Underway CTD and try to apply analysis method of seafloor positioning [Yasuda et al., 2015 AGU meeting]. The latter, however, we cannot estimate the structure using travel time residual until now. Accordingly, in this study, we focus on azimuthal dependence of Estimated Mean Sound-Speed (EMSS). EMSS is defined as distance between vessel position and estimated SBP divided by travel time. If thermal gradient exists and SBP is true, EMSS should have azimuthal dependence with the assumption of horizontal layered sound-speed structure in our previous analysis method. We use the data at KMC located on the central part of Nankai Trough, Japan on Jan. 28, 2015, because on that day KMC was on the north edge of Kuroshio, where we expect that thermal gradient exists. In our analysis method, the hyper parameter (μ value) weights travel time residual and rate of change of sound speed structure. However, EMSS derived from μ value determined by Ikuta et al. [2008] does not have azimuthal dependence, that is, we cannot estimate thermal gradient. Thus, we expect SBP has a large bias. Therefore, in this study, we use another μ value and examine whether EMSS has azimuthal dependence or not. With the μ value of this study, which is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the previous value, EMSS has azimuthal dependence that is consistent with observation day's thermal gradient. This result shows that we can estimate the thermal gradient adequately. This SBP displaces 25

  14. Adaptation to a latitudinal thermal gradient within a widespread copepod species: the contributions of genetic divergence and phenotypic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how populations adapt to heterogeneous thermal regimes is essential for comprehending how latitudinal gradients in species diversification are formed, and how taxa will respond to ongoing climate change. Adaptation can occur by innate genetic factors, by phenotypic plasticity, or by a combination of both mechanisms. Yet, the relative contribution of such mechanisms to large-scale latitudinal gradients of thermal tolerance across conspecific populations remains unclear. We examine thermal performance in 11 populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, ranging from Baja California Sur (Mexico) to British Columbia (Canada). Common garden experiments show that survivorship to acute heat-stress differs between populations (by up to 3.8°C in LD50 values), reflecting a strong genetic thermal adaptation. Using a split-brood experiment with two rearing temperatures, we also show that developmental phenotypic plasticity is beneficial to thermal tolerance (by up to 1.3°C), and that this effect differs across populations. Although genetic divergence in heat tolerance strongly correlates with latitude and temperature, differences in the plastic response do not. In the context of climate warming, our results confirm the general prediction that low-latitude populations are most susceptible to local extinction because genetic adaptation has placed physiological limits closer to current environmental maxima, but our results also contradict the prediction that phenotypic plasticity is constrained at lower latitudes. PMID:28446698

  15. Convection Enhances Mixing in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Taimoor; Gayen, Bishakhdatta; Hogg, Andrew McC.

    2018-05-01

    Mixing efficiency is a measure of the energy lost to mixing compared to that lost to viscous dissipation. In a turbulent stratified fluid the mixing efficiency is often assumed constant at η = 0.2, whereas with convection it takes values closer to 1. The value of mixing efficiency when both stratified shear flow and buoyancy-driven convection are active remains uncertain. We use a series of numerical simulations to determine the mixing efficiency in an idealized Southern Ocean model. The model is energetically closed and fully resolves convection and turbulence such that mixing efficiency can be diagnosed. Mixing efficiency decreases with increasing wind stress but is enhanced by turbulent convection and by large thermal gradients in regions with a strongly stratified thermocline. Using scaling theory and the model results, we predict an overall mixing efficiency for the Southern Ocean that is significantly greater than 0.2 while emphasizing that mixing efficiency is not constant.

  16. Applications of thermal-gradients method for the optimization of α-amylase crystallization conditions based on dynamic and static light scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delboni, L. F.; Iulek, J.; Burger, R.; da Silva, A. C. R.; Moreno, A.

    2002-02-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization, and characterization by X-ray diffraction of α-amylase are described here. Dynamic and static light scattering methods with a temperature controller was used to optimize the crystallization conditions of α-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus an important enzyme in many fields of industrial activity. After applying thermal gradients for growing crystals, X-ray cryo-crystallographic methods were employed for the data collection. Crystals grown by these thermal-gradients diffracted up to a maximum resolution of 3.8 Å, which allowed the determination of the unit cell constants as follows: a=61.7 Å, b=86.7 Å, c=92.2 Å and space group C222 (or C222 1).

  17. Gap heating with pressure gradients. [for Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.; Maraia, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The heating rate distribution and temperature response on the gap walls of insulating tiles is analyzed to determine significant phenomena and parameters in flows where there is an external surface pressure gradient. Convective heating due to gap flow, modeled as fully developed pipe flow, is coupled with a two-dimensional thermal model of the tiles that includes conduction and radiative heat transfer. To account for geometry and important environmental parameters, scale factors are obtained by curve-fitting measured temperatures to analytical solutions. These scale factors are then used to predict the time-dependent gap heat flux and temperature response of tile gaps on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry.

  18. A nonlocal strain gradient model for dynamic deformation of orthotropic viscoelastic graphene sheets under time harmonic thermal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwan, Ahmed F.; Sobhy, Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    This work presents a nonlocal strain gradient theory for the dynamic deformation response of a single-layered graphene sheet (SLGS) on a viscoelastic foundation and subjected to a time harmonic thermal load for various boundary conditions. Material of graphene sheets is presumed to be orthotropic and viscoelastic. The viscoelastic foundation is modeled as Kelvin-Voigt's pattern. Based on the two-unknown plate theory, the motion equations are obtained from the dynamic version of the virtual work principle. The nonlocal strain gradient theory is established from Eringen nonlocal and strain gradient theories, therefore, it contains two material scale parameters, which are nonlocal parameter and gradient coefficient. These scale parameters have two different effects on the graphene sheets. The obtained deflection is compared with that predicted in the literature. Additional numerical examples are introduced to illustrate the influences of the two length scale coefficients and other parameters on the dynamic deformation of the viscoelastic graphene sheets.

  19. Deep Ocean Circulation and Nutrient Contents from Atlantic-Pacific Gradients of Neodymium and Carbon Isotopes During the Last 1 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, A. M.; Elderfield, H.; Howe, J. N. W.

    2014-12-01

    The last few million years saw changing boundary conditions to the Earth system which set the stage for bi-polar glaciation and Milankovich-forced glacial-interglacial cycles which dominate Quaternary climate variability. Recent studies have highlighted the relative importance of temperature, ice volume and ocean circulation changes during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition at ~900 ka (Elderfield et al., 2012, Pena and Goldstein, 2014). Reconstructing the history of global deep water mass propagation and its carbon content is important for fully understanding the ocean's role in amplifying Milankovich changes to cause glacial-interglacial transitions. A new foraminiferal-coating Nd isotope record from ODP Site 1123 on the deep Chatham Rise is interpreted as showing glacial-interglacial changes in the bottom water propagation of Atlantic-sourced waters into the Pacific via the Southern Ocean during the last 1 million years. This is compared to globally-distributed bottom water Nd isotope records; including a new deep western equatorial Atlantic Ocean record from ODP Site 929, as well as published records from ODP 1088 and Site 1090 in the South Atlantic (Pena and Goldstein, 2014), and ODP 758 in the deep Indian Ocean (Gourlan et al., 2010). Atlantic-to-Pacific gradients in deep ocean neodymium isotopes are constructed for key time intervals to elucidate changes in deep water sourcing and circulation pathways through the global ocean. Benthic carbon isotopes are used to estimate deep water nutrient contents of deep water masses and constrain locations and modes of deep water formation. References: Elderfield et al. Science 337, 704 (2012) Pena and Goldstein, Science 345, 318 (2014) Gourlan et al., Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 2484-2498 (2010)

  20. Countermeasures to Microbiofouling in Simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Heat Exchangers with Surface and Deep Ocean Waters in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Leslie Ralph; Berger, Joyce A.

    1986-01-01

    Countermeasures to biofouling in simulated ocean thermal energy conversion heat exchangers have been studied in single-pass flow systems, using cold deep and warm surface ocean waters off the island of Hawaii. Manual brushing of the loops after free fouling periods removed most of the biofouling material. However, over a 2-year period a tenacious film formed. Daily free passage of sponge rubber balls through the tubing only removed the loose surface biofouling layer and was inadequate as a countermeasure in both titanium and aluminum alloy tubes. Chlorination at 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10 mg liter-1 for 1 h day-1 lowered biofouling rates. Only at 0.10 mg liter-1 was chlorine adequate over a 1-year period to keep film formation and heat transfer resistance from rising above the maximum tolerated values. Lower chlorination regimens led to the buildup of uneven or patchy films which produced increased flow turbulence. The result was lower heat transfer resistance values which did not correlate with the amount of biofouling. Surfaces which were let foul and then treated with intermittent or continuous chlorination at 0.10 mg of chlorine or less per liter were only partially or unevenly cleaned, although heat transfer measurements did not indicate that fact. It took continuous chlorination at 0.25 mg liter-1 to bring the heat transfer resistance to zero and eliminate the fouling layer. Biofouling in deep cold seawater was much slower than in the warm surface waters. Tubing in one stainless-steel loop had a barely detectable fouling layer after 1 year in flow. With aluminum alloys sufficient corrosion and biofouling material accumulated to require that some fouling coutermeasure be used in long-term operation of an ocean thermal energy conversion plant. Images PMID:16347076

  1. The thermal environment of Cascadia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Hautala, Susan L.; Bjorklund, Tor A.

    2012-07-01

    Located adjacent to the NE Pacific convergent boundary, Cascadia Basin has a global impact well beyond its small geographic size. Composed of young oceanic crust formed at the Juan de Fuca Ridge, igneous rocks underlying the basin are partially insulated from cooling of their initial heat of formation by a thick layer of pelagic and turbidite sediments derived from the adjacent North American margin. The igneous seafloor is eventually consumed at the Cascadia subduction zone, where interactions between the approaching oceanic crust and the North American continental margin are partially controlled by the thermal environment. Within Cascadia Basin, basement topographic relief varies dramatically, and sediments have a wide range of thickness and physical properties. This variation produces regional differences in heat flow and basement temperatures for seafloor even of similar age. Previous studies proposed a north-south thermal gradient within Cascadia Basin, with high geothermal flux and crustal temperatures measured in the heavily sedimented northern portion near Vancouver Island and lower than average heat flux and basement temperatures predicted for the central and southern portions of the basin. If confirmed, this prediction has implications for processes associated with the Cascadia subduction zone, including the location of the "locked zone" of the megathrust fault. Although existing archival geophysical data in the central and southern basin are sparse, nonuniformly distributed, and derived from a wide range of historical sources, a substantial N-S geothermal gradient appears to be confirmed by our present compilation of combined water column and heat flow measurements.

  2. Thermal Convection in High-Pressure Ice Layers Beneath a Buried Ocean within Titan and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Dumont, M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep interiors of large icy satellites such as Titan and Ganymede probably harbor a buried ocean sandwiched between low pressure ice and high-pressure ice layers. The nature and location of the lower interface of the ocean involves equilibration of heat and melt transfer in the HP ices and is ultimately controlled by the amount heat transferred through the surface ice Ih layer. Here, we perform 3D simulations of thermal convection, using the OEDIPUS numerical tool (Choblet et al. GJI 2007), to determine the efficiency of heat and mass transfer through these HP ice mantles. In a first series of simulations with no melting, we show that a significant fraction of the HP layer reaches the melting point. Using a simple description of water production and transport, our simulations demonstrate that the melt generation in the outermost part of the HP ice layer and its extraction to the overlying ocean increase the efficiency of heat transfer and reduce strongly the internal temperature. structure and the efficiency of the heat transfer. Scaling relationships are proposed to describe the cooling effect of melt production/extraction and used to investigate the consequences of internal melting on the thermal history of Titan and Ganymede's interior.

  3. Atmospheric radiocarbon as a Southern Ocean wind proxy over the last 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, K. B.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S.; Galbraith, E.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Slater, R. D.; Naegler, T.

    2009-04-01

    Measurements of radiocarbon in tree rings over the last 1000 years indicate that there was a pre-industrial latitudinal gradient of atmospheric radiocarbon of 3.9-4.5 per mail and that this gradient had temporal variability of order 6 per mil. Here we test the idea that the mean gradient as well as variability in he gradient is dominated by the strength of the winds over the Southern Ocean. This is done using an ocean model and an atmospheric transport model. The ocean model is used to derive fluxes of 12CO2 and 14CO2 at the sea surface, and these fluxes are used as a lower boundary condition for the transport model. For the mean state, strong winds in the Southern Ocean drive significant upwelling of radiocarbon-depleted Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), leading to a net flux of 14CO2 relative to 12CO2 into the ocean. This serves to maintain a hemispheric gradient in pre-anthropogenic atmospheric delta-c14. For perturbations, increased/decreased Southern Ocean winds drive increased/decreased uptake of 14CO2 relative to 12CO2, thus increasing/decreasing the hemispheric gradient in atmospheric delta-c14. The tree ring data is interpreted to reveal a decrease in the strength of the Southern Ocean winds at the transition between the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period.

  4. Land-ocean gradient in haline stratification and its effects on plankton dynamics and trophic carbon fluxes in Chilean Patagonian fjords (47-50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, H. E.; Castro, L. R.; Daneri, G.; Iriarte, J. L.; Silva, N.; Tapia, F.; Teca, E.; Vargas, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Patagonian fjord systems, and in particular the fjords and channels associated with the Baker/Pascua Rivers, are currently under conspicuous natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These systems display very high variability, where limnetic and oceanic features overlap generating strong vertical and horizontal physicochemical gradients. The CIMAR 14-Fiordos cruise was conducted in the Chilean fjords located between 47° and 50°S during the spring (October-November) of 2008. The main objectives were to study vertical and horizontal gradients in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column, and to assess plankton dynamics and trophic carbon fluxes in the fjords and channels of central-south Patagonia. The water column was strongly stratified, with a pycnocline at ca. 20 m depth separating a surface layer of silicic acid-rich freshwater discharged by rivers, from the underlying nitrate- and orthophosphate-rich Subantarctic waters. The outflows from the Baker and Pascua Rivers, which range annually between 500 and 1500 m3 s-1, generate the strong land-ocean gradient in salinity (1-32 psu) and inorganic nutrient concentrations (2-8 and 2-24 μM in nitrate and silicic-acid, respectively) we observed along the Baker Fjord. The POC:chl-a ratio fluctuated from 1087 near the fjord’s head to 175 at its oceanic end in the Penas Gulf. This change was mainly due to an increase in diatom dominance and a concurrent decrease in allochthonous POC towards the ocean. Depth-integrated net primary production (NPP) and bacterial secondary production (BSP) fluctuated between 49 and 1215 and 36 and 150 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively, with higher rates in oceanic waters. At a time series station located close to the Baker River mouth, the average NPP was lower (average 360 mg C m-2 d-1) than at more oceanic stations (average 1063 mg C m-2 d-1), and numerically dominated (45%) by the picoplankton (<2 μm) and nanoplankton (2-20 μm) size fractions. The high average

  5. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Elizabeth W.; Minnett, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean warming trends are observed and coincide with the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting from human activities. At the ocean surface, most of the incoming infrared (IR) radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists. Thus, the incident IR radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. This paper investigates the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that given the heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, the TSL adjusts in response to variations in incident IR radiation to maintain the surface heat loss. This modulates the flow of heat from below and hence controls upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is tested using the increase in incoming longwave radiation from clouds and analyzing vertical temperature profiles in the TSL retrieved from sea-surface emission spectra. The additional energy from the absorption of increasing IR radiation adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that the upward conduction of heat from the bulk of the ocean into the TSL is reduced. The additional energy absorbed within the TSL supports more of the surface heat loss. Thus, more heat beneath the TSL is retained leading to the observed increase in upper ocean heat content.

  6. Evaluating the coefficient of thermal expansion using time periods of minimal thermal gradient for a temperature driven structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J.; Abdel-Jaber, H.; Yarnold, M.; Glisic, B.

    2017-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring aims to characterize the performance of a structure from a combination of recorded sensor data and analytic techniques. Many methods are concerned with quantifying the elastic response of the structure, treating temperature changes as noise in the analysis. While these elastic profiles do demonstrate a portion of structural behavior, thermal loads on a structure can induce comparable strains to elastic loads. Understanding this relationship between the temperature of the structure and the resultant strain and displacement can provide in depth knowledge of the structural condition. A necessary parameter for this form of analysis is the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE). The CTE of a material relates the amount of expansion or contraction a material undergoes per degree change in temperature, and can be determined from temperature-strain relationship given that the thermal strain can be isolated. Many times with concrete, the actual amount of expansion with temperature in situ varies from the given values for the CTE due to thermally generated elastic strain, which complicates evaluation of the CTE. To accurately characterize the relationship between temperature and strain on a structure, the actual thermal behavior of the structure needs to be analyzed. This rate can vary for different parts of a structure, depending on boundary conditions. In a case of unrestrained structures, the strain in the structure should be linearly related to the temperature change. Thermal gradients in a structure can affect this relationship, as they induce curvature and deplanations in the cross section. This paper proposes a method that addresses these challenges in evaluating the CTE.

  7. Mass Dependency of Isotope Fractionation of Gases Under Thermal Gradient and Its Possible Implications for Planetary Atmosphere Escaping Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul; Bao, Huiming; Socki, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Physical processes that unmix elements/isotopes of gas molecules involve phase changes, diffusion (chemical or thermal), effusion and gravitational settling. Some of those play significant roles for the evolution of chemical and isotopic compositions of gases in planetary bodies which lead to better understanding of surface paleoclimatic conditions, e.g. gas bubbles in Antarctic ice, and planetary evolution, e.g. the solar-wind erosion induced gas escaping from exosphere on terrestrial planets.. A mass dependent relationship is always expected for the kinetic isotope fractionations during these simple physical processes, according to the kinetic theory of gases by Chapman, Enskog and others [3-5]. For O-bearing (O16, -O17, -O18) molecules the alpha O-17/ alpha O-18 is expected at 0.5 to 0.515, and for S-bearing (S32,-S33. -S34, -S36) molecules, the alpha S-33/ alpha S-34 is expected at 0.5 to 0.508, where alpha is the isotope fractionation factor associated with unmixing processes. Thus, one isotope pair is generally proxied to yield all the information for the physical history of the gases. However, we recently] reported the violation of mass law for isotope fractionation among isotope pairs of multiple isotope system during gas diffusion or convection under thermal gradient (Thermal Gradient Induced Non-Mass Dependent effect, TGI-NMD). The mechanism(s) that is responsible to such striking observation remains unanswered. In our past studies, we investigated polyatomic molecules, O2 and SF6, and we suggested that nuclear spin effect could be responsible to the observed NMD effect in a way of changing diffusion coefficients of certain molecules, owing to the fact of negligible delta S-36 anomaly for SF6.. On the other hand, our results also showed that for both diffusion and convection under thermal gradient, this NMD effect is increased by lower gas pressure, bigger temperature gradient and lower average temperature, which indicate that the nuclear spin effect may

  8. In-situ biofouling of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) evaporator tubes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.

    1981-05-01

    The Puerto Rico Center for Energy and Environmental Research equipped a LCU facility in 1100 m of water near Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico to measure in situ biofouling of simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion evaporator tubes. The system consisted of two 5052 aluminum alloy and two titanium tubes, through which a continuous flow of ocean water was maintained. The tubes were cleaned three times and the fouling resistance was measured, showing only slight differences between the tubes with respect to heat transfer loss resulting from biofouling. In all units, the average fouling rate after cleaning was greater than before cleaning,more » and only after the first cleaning did the aluminum units show greater fouling rates than did the titanium. The titanium units showed a progressive increase in the fouling rates with each cleaning. The subsequent average fouling rates for all units after eight months were between 4 and 4.6 x 0.000010 sq m-k/W-day.« less

  9. A novel high-temperature furnace for combined in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and infrared thermal imaging to investigate the effects of thermal gradients upon the structure of ceramic materials

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James B.; Brown, Leon D.; Jervis, Rhodri; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Millichamp, Jason; Mason, Thomas J.; Neville, Tobias P.; Eastwood, David S.; Reinhard, Christina; Lee, Peter D.; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    A new technique combining in situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and infrared thermal imaging is reported. The technique enables the application, generation and measurement of significant thermal gradients, and furthermore allows the direct spatial correlation of thermal and crystallographic measurements. The design and implementation of a novel furnace enabling the simultaneous thermal and X-ray measurements is described. The technique is expected to have wide applicability in material science and engineering; here it has been applied to the study of solid oxide fuel cells at high temperature. PMID:25178003

  10. Natural convection in binary gases driven by combined horizontal thermal and vertical solutal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. A.; Viskanta, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of natural convection is presented to examine the influence of a horizontal temperature gradient and a concentration gradient occurring from the bottom to the cold wall in a cavity. As the solutal buoyancy force changes from augmenting to opposing the thermal buoyancy force, the fluid motion switches from unicellular to multicellular flow (fluid motion is up the cold wall and down the hot wall for the bottom counterrotating flow cell). Qualitatively, the agreement between predicted streamlines and smoke flow patterns is generally good. In contrast, agreement between measured and predicted temperature and concentration distributions ranges from fair to poor. Part of the discrepancy can be attributed to experimental error. However, there remains considerable discrepancy between data and predictions due to the idealizations of the mathematical model, which examines only first-order physical effects. An unsteady flow, variable thermophysical properties, conjugate effects, species interdiffusion, and radiation were not accounted for in the model.

  11. Effect of temperature gradient on liquid-liquid phase separation in a polyolefin blend.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Dou, Nannan; Fan, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-09-28

    We have investigated experimentally the structure formation processes during phase separation via spinodal decomposition above and below the spinodal line in a binary polymer blend system exposed to in-plane stationary thermal gradients using phase contrast optical microscopy and temperature gradient hot stage. Below the spinodal line there is a coupling of concentration fluctuations and thermal gradient imposed by the temperature gradient hot stage. Also under the thermal gradient annealing phase-separated domains grow faster compared with the system under homogeneous temperature annealing on a zero-gradient or a conventional hot stage. We suggest that the in-plane thermal gradient accelerates phase separation through the enhancement in concentration fluctuations in the early and intermediate stages of spinodal decomposition. In a thermal gradient field, the strength of concentration fluctuation close to the critical point (above the spinodal line) is strong enough to induce phase separation even in one-phase regime of the phase diagram. In the presence of a temperature gradient the equilibrium phase diagrams are no longer valid, and the systems with an upper critical solution temperature can be quenched into phase separation by applying the stationary temperature gradient. The in-plane temperature gradient drives enhanced concentration fluctuations in a binary polymer blend system above and below the spinodal line.

  12. Evidence of counter-gradient growth in western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across thermal gradients

    Treesearch

    Melissa L. Snover; Michael J. Adams; Donald T. Ashton; Jamie B. Bettaso; Hartwell H. Welsh

    2015-01-01

    Summary1. Counter-gradient growth, where growth per unit temperature increases as temperature decreases, can reduce the variation in ectothermic growth rates across environmental gradients. Understanding how ectothermic species respond to changing temperatures is essential to their conservation and management due to human-altered habitats and changing...

  13. Nd isotopic structure of the Pacific Ocean 70-30 Ma and numerical evidence for vigorous ocean circulation and ocean heat transport in a greenhouse world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Deborah J.; Korty, Robert; Huber, Matthew; Schubert, Jessica A.; Haines, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The oceanic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a crucial component of the climate system, impacting heat and nutrient transport, and global carbon cycling. Past greenhouse climate intervals present a paradox because their weak equator-to-pole temperature gradients imply a weaker MOC, yet increased poleward oceanic heat transport appears to be required to maintain these weak gradients. To investigate the mode of MOC that operated during the early Cenozoic, we compare new Nd isotope data with Nd tracer-enabled numerical ocean circulation and coupled climate model simulations. Assimilation of new Nd isotope data from South Pacific Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program Sites 323, 463, 596, 865, and 869 with previously published data confirm the hypothesized MOC characterized by vigorous sinking in the South and North Pacific 70 to 30 Ma. Compilation of all Pacific Nd isotope data indicates vigorous, distinct, and separate overturning circulations in each basin until 40 Ma. Simulations consistently reproduce South Pacific and North Pacific deep convection over a broad range of conditions, but cases using strong deep ocean vertical mixing produced the best data-model match. Strong mixing, potentially resulting from enhanced abyssal tidal dissipation, greater interaction of wind-driven internal wave activity with submarine plateaus, or higher than modern values of the geothermal heat flux enable models to achieve enhanced MOC circulation rates with resulting Nd isotope distributions consistent with the proxy data. The consequent poleward heat transport may resolve the paradox of warmer worlds with reduced temperature gradients.

  14. Variation in Thermal Sensitivity and Thermal Tolerances in an Invasive Species across a Climatic Gradient: Lessons from the Land Snail Cornu aspersum

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Belén Arias, María; Lardies, Marco A.; Nespolo, Roberto F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of organisms to perform at different temperatures could be described by a continuous nonlinear reaction norm (i.e., thermal performance curve, TPC), in which the phenotypic trait value varies as a function of temperature. Almost any shift in the parameters of this performance curve could highlight the direct effect of temperature on organism fitness, providing a powerful framework for testing thermal adaptation hypotheses. Inter-and intraspecific differences in this performance curve are also reflected in thermal tolerances limits (e.g., critical and lethal limits), influencing the biogeographic patterns of species’ distribution. Within this context, here we investigated the intraspecific variation in thermal sensitivities and thermal tolerances in three populations of the invasive snail Cornu aspersum across a geographical gradient, characterized by different climatic conditions. Thus, we examined population differentiation in the TPCs, thermal-coma recovery times, expression of heat-shock proteins and standard metabolic rate (i.e., energetic costs of physiological differentiation). We tested two competing hypotheses regarding thermal adaptation (the “hotter is better” and the generalist-specialist trade-offs). Our results show that the differences in thermal sensitivity among populations of C. aspersum follow a latitudinal pattern, which is likely the result of a combination of thermodynamic constraints (“hotter is better”) and thermal adaptations to their local environments (generalist-specialist trade-offs). This finding is also consistent with some thermal tolerance indices such as the Heat-Shock Protein Response and the recovery time from chill-coma. However, mixed responses in the evaluated traits suggest that thermal adaptation in this species is not complete, as we were not able to detect any differences in neither energetic costs of physiological differentiation among populations, nor in the heat-coma recovery. PMID:23940617

  15. Variation in thermal sensitivity and thermal tolerances in an invasive species across a climatic gradient: lessons from the land snail Cornu aspersum.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Belén Arias, María; Lardies, Marco A; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2013-01-01

    The ability of organisms to perform at different temperatures could be described by a continuous nonlinear reaction norm (i.e., thermal performance curve, TPC), in which the phenotypic trait value varies as a function of temperature. Almost any shift in the parameters of this performance curve could highlight the direct effect of temperature on organism fitness, providing a powerful framework for testing thermal adaptation hypotheses. Inter-and intraspecific differences in this performance curve are also reflected in thermal tolerances limits (e.g., critical and lethal limits), influencing the biogeographic patterns of species' distribution. Within this context, here we investigated the intraspecific variation in thermal sensitivities and thermal tolerances in three populations of the invasive snail Cornu aspersum across a geographical gradient, characterized by different climatic conditions. Thus, we examined population differentiation in the TPCs, thermal-coma recovery times, expression of heat-shock proteins and standard metabolic rate (i.e., energetic costs of physiological differentiation). We tested two competing hypotheses regarding thermal adaptation (the "hotter is better" and the generalist-specialist trade-offs). Our results show that the differences in thermal sensitivity among populations of C. aspersum follow a latitudinal pattern, which is likely the result of a combination of thermodynamic constraints ("hotter is better") and thermal adaptations to their local environments (generalist-specialist trade-offs). This finding is also consistent with some thermal tolerance indices such as the Heat-Shock Protein Response and the recovery time from chill-coma. However, mixed responses in the evaluated traits suggest that thermal adaptation in this species is not complete, as we were not able to detect any differences in neither energetic costs of physiological differentiation among populations, nor in the heat-coma recovery.

  16. Study of bubble behavior in weightlessness (effects of thermal gradient and acoustic stationary wave) (M-16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azuma, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to understand how bubbles behave in a thermal gradient and acoustic stationary wave under microgravity. In microgravity, bubble or bubbles in a liquid will not rise upward as they do on Earth but will rest where they are formed because there exists no gravity-induced buoyancy. We are interested in how bubbles move and in the mechanisms which support the movement. We will try two ways to make bubbles migrate. The first experiment concerns behavior of bubbles in a thermal gradient. It is well known than an effect of surface tension which is masked by gravity on the ground becomes dominant in microgravity. The surface tension on the side of the bubble at a lower temperature is stronger than at a higher temperature. The bubble migrates toward the higher temperature side due to the surface tension difference. The migration speed depends on the so-called Marangoni number, which is a function of the temperature difference, the bubble diameter, liquid viscosity, and thermal diffusivity. At present, some experimental data about migration speeds in liquids with very small Marangoni numbers were obtained in space experiments, but cases of large Marangoni number are rarely obtained. In our experiment a couple of bubbles are to be injected into a cell filled with silicon oil, and the temperature gradient is to be made gradually in the cell by a heater and a cooler. We will be able to determine migration speeds in a very wide range of Marangoni numbers, as well as study interactions between the bubbles. We will observe bubble movements affected by hydrodynamical and thermal interactions, the two kinds of interactions which occur simultaneously. These observation data will be useful for analyzing the interactions as well as understanding the behavior of particles or drops in materials processing. The second experiment concerns bubble movement in an acoustic stationary wave. It is known that a bubble in a stationary wave moves toward the node or the

  17. Like night and day: Reversals of thermal gradients across ghost crab burrows and their implications for thermal ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Gregory S.; Gregory, Emily A.; Johnstone, Charmaine; Berlino, Manuel; Green, David W.; Peterson, Nicola R.; Schoeman, David S.; Watson, Jolanta A.

    2018-04-01

    Ghost crabs, Ocypode cordimanus, inhabit relatively hostile environments subject to thermal fluctuations, including both diurnal and seasonal cycles. For many ectotherms, including ghost crabs, a major challenge is to remain cool during hot daytime temperatures. This can be achieved by adopting a fossorial lifestyle, taking advantage of thermal refuge afforded by burrows of sufficient depth. Another consideration, often overlooked, is the potential advantage associated with ready access to a thermal energy source (a "charging station") when surface temperatures are cooler. Being able to rapidly elevate body temperature during cool periods would enhance the crab's ability to maintain rate processes and carry out essential activities. We have measured ghost crab burrow temperature profiles at two times of the day with contrasting sun exposure (06:00 and 14:00), demonstrating how effective burrow depth (up to a maximum of 40 cm) provides thermal regulation below the surface of the sand (e.g., at dawn (06:00) and early afternoon (14:00) at a depth of 5 cm, temperatures (±SD) of 16.32 ± 0.96 °C and 25.04 ± 1.47 °C were recorded, respectively. Corresponding temperatures at a depth of 30 cm were 19.17 ± 0.59 °C and 19.78 ± 1.60 °C, respectively). This demonstrates that while temperature conditions at the surface vary dramatically from night to day, ghost crab burrows can maintain relatively constant temperatures at the burrow base throughout the diurnal cycle, at least during winter. As a consequence, the burrow heat signatures undergo a corresponding thermal gradient reversal between night and day, as revealed by infra-red photography. Complementing these field observations, we also determined heating and cooling times/constants for O. cordimanus in the laboratory (τ = 17.54 and 16.59 JK-1, respectively), and analysed chemical composition of their carapace (external (with β Chitin evident) and internal (predominance of α Chitin)), which is the primary thermal

  18. Size Dependence of Residual Thermal Stresses in Micro Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors by Using Finite Element Unit Cell Model Including Strain Gradient Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W. G.; Xiong, C. A.; Wu, X. G.

    2013-11-01

    The residual thermal stresses induced by the high-temperature sintering process in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) are investigated by using a finite-element unit cell model, in which the strain gradient effect is considered. The numerical results show that the residual thermal stresses depend on the lateral margin length, the thickness ratio of the dielectrics layer to the electrode layer, and the MLCC size. At a given thickness ratio, as the MLCC size is scaled down, the peak shear stress reduces significantly and the normal stresses along the length and thickness directions change slightly with the decrease in the ceramic layer thickness t d as t d > 1 μm, but as t d < 1 μm, the normal stress components increase sharply with the increase in t d. Thus, the residual thermal stresses induced by the sintering process exhibit strong size effects and, therefore, the strain gradient effect should be taken into account in the design and evaluation of MLCC devices

  19. Geographical variation in thermal tolerance within Southern Ocean marine ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Morley, Simon A; Hirse, Timo; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Peck, Lloyd S

    2009-06-01

    Latitudinal comparisons of the Southern Ocean limpet, Nacella concinna, and clam, Laternula elliptica, acclimated to 0.0 degrees C, were used to assess differences in thermal response to two regimes, 0.0, 5.1 to 10.0 degrees C and 2.5, 7.5 to 12.5 degrees C, raised at 5.0 degrees C per week. At each temperature, tissue energy status was measured through a combination of O(2) consumption, intracellular pH, cCO(2), citrate synthase (CS) activity, organic acids (succinate, acetate, propionate), adenylates (ATP, ADP, AMP, ITP, PLA (phospho-L-arginine)) and heart rate. L. elliptica from Signy (60 degrees S) and Rothera (67 degrees S), which experience a similar thermal regime (-2 to +1 degrees C) had the same lethal (7.5-10.0 degrees C), critical (5.1-7.5 degrees C) and pejus (<5.1 degrees C;=getting worse) limits with only small differences in biochemical response. N. concinna, which experiences a wider thermal regime (-2 to +15.8 degrees C), had higher lethal limits (10.0-12.5 degrees C). However, at their Northern geographic limit N. concinna, which live in a warmer environment (South Georgia, 54 degrees S), had a lower critical limit (5.1-10.0 degrees C; O(2), PLA and organic acids) than Rothera and Signy N. concinna (10.0-12.5 degrees C). This lower limit indicates that South Georgia N. concinna have different biochemical responses to temperatures close to their thermal limit, which may make them more vulnerable to future warming trends.

  20. On thermal conditions and properties of thallium bromide single crystals grown by the Electro Dynamic Gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhiping; Yu, Yongtao; Gong, Shuping; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang

    2013-05-01

    The Electro Dynamic Gradient (EDG) method has been proved to be a feasible way to grow TlBr crystals in our previous work. In this research, the influence of thermal conditions such as cooling rate during growth process on the crystal performance was investigated. Crystals of approximately 12 mm diameter were obtained by the EDG method at different cooling rates during the growth process, and the quality of the crystals was routinely evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) transmission, I-V measurement and energy response spectrum. The results proved that thermal conditions during growth had a profound influence on the characteristics of the crystals.

  1. Thermally tailored gradient topography surface on elastomeric thin films.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sudeshna; Bhandaru, Nandini; Das, Ritopa; Harikrishnan, G; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2014-05-14

    We report a simple method for creating a nanopatterned surface with continuous variation in feature height on an elastomeric thin film. The technique is based on imprinting the surface of a film of thermo-curable elastomer (Sylgard 184), which has continuous variation in cross-linking density introduced by means of differential heating. This results in variation of viscoelasticity across the length of the surface and the film exhibits differential partial relaxation after imprinting with a flexible stamp and subjecting it to an externally applied stress for a transient duration. An intrinsic perfect negative replica of the stamp pattern is initially created over the entire film surface as long as the external force remains active. After the external force is withdrawn, there is partial relaxation of the applied stresses, which is manifested as reduction in amplitude of the imprinted features. Due to the spatial viscoelasticity gradient, the extent of stress relaxation induced feature height reduction varies across the length of the film (L), resulting in a surface with a gradient topography with progressively varying feature heights (hF). The steepness of the gradient can be controlled by varying the temperature gradient as well as the duration of precuring of the film prior to imprinting. The method has also been utilized for fabricating wettability gradient surfaces using a high aspect ratio biomimetic stamp. The use of a flexible stamp allows the technique to be extended for creating a gradient topography on nonplanar surfaces as well. We also show that the gradient surfaces with regular structures can be used in combinatorial studies related to pattern directed dewetting.

  2. Temperature-gradient-induced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheol; Glaser, Matt; Maclennan, Joe; Clark, Noel; Trittel, Torsten; Stannarius, Ralf

    Freely-suspended smectic films of sub-micrometer thickness and lateral extensions of several millimeters were used to study thermally driven migration and convection in the film plane. Film experiments were performed during the 6 minute microgravity phase of a TEXUS suborbital rocket flight (Texus 52, launched April 27, 2015). We have found an attraction of the smectic material towards the cold edge of the film in a temperature gradient, similar to the Soret effect. This process is reversed when this edge is heated up again. Thermal convection driven by two thermocontacts in the film is practically absent, even at temperature gradients up to 10 K/mm, with thermally driven convection only setting in when the hot post reaches the transition temperature to the nematic phase. The Observation and Analysis of Smectic Islands in Space (OASIS) flight hardware was launched on SpaceX-6 in April 2015 and experiments on smectic bubbles were carried out on the International Space Station using four different smectic A and C liquid crystal materials in separate sample chambers. We observed that smectic islands on the surface of the bubbles migrated towards the colder part of the bubble in a temperature gradient. This work was supported by NASA Grant No. NNX-13AQ81G, by the Soft Materials Research Center under NSF MRSEC Grants No. DMR-0820579 and No. DMR-1420736, and by DLR Grants 50WM1127 and 50WM1430.

  3. Comparison of the temperature accuracy between smart phone based and high-end thermal cameras using a temperature gradient phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H.; van der Veen, Albert; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, low cost smart phone based thermal cameras are being considered to be used in a clinical setting for monitoring physiological temperature responses such as: body temperature change, local inflammations, perfusion changes or (burn) wound healing. These thermal cameras contain uncooled micro-bolometers with an internal calibration check and have a temperature resolution of 0.1 degree. For clinical applications a fast quality measurement before use is required (absolute temperature check) and quality control (stability, repeatability, absolute temperature, absolute temperature differences) should be performed regularly. Therefore, a calibrated temperature phantom has been developed based on thermistor heating on both ends of a black coated metal strip to create a controllable temperature gradient from room temperature 26 °C up to 100 °C. The absolute temperatures on the strip are determined with software controlled 5 PT-1000 sensors using lookup tables. In this study 3 FLIR-ONE cameras and one high end camera were checked with this temperature phantom. The results show a relative good agreement between both low-cost and high-end camera's and the phantom temperature gradient, with temperature differences of 1 degree up to 6 degrees between the camera's and the phantom. The measurements were repeated as to absolute temperature and temperature stability over the sensor area. Both low-cost and high-end thermal cameras measured relative temperature changes with high accuracy and absolute temperatures with constant deviations. Low-cost smart phone based thermal cameras can be a good alternative to high-end thermal cameras for routine clinical measurements, appropriate to the research question, providing regular calibration checks for quality control.

  4. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals. [Synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of bothmore » all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables.« less

  5. Thermal Conductive Heat Transfer and Partial Melting of Volatiles in Icy Moons, Asteroids, and Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal gradients within conductive layers of icy satellite and asteroids depend partly on heat flow, which is related to the secular decay of radioactive isotopes, to heat released by chemical phase changes, by conversion of gravitational potential energy to heat during differentiation, tidal energy dissipation, and to release of heat stored from prior periods. Thermal gradients are also dependent on the thermal conductivity of materials, which in turn depends on their composition, crystallinity, porosity, crystal fabric anisotropy, and details of their mixture with other materials. Small impurities can produce lattice defects and changes in polymerization, and thereby have a huge influence on thermal conductivity, as can cage-inclusion (clathrate) compounds. Heat flow and thermal gradients can be affected by fluid phase advection of mass and heat (in oceans or sublimating upper crusts), by refraction related to heterogeneities of thermal conductivity due to lateral variations and composition or porosity. Thermal profiles depend also on the surface temperature controlled by albedo and climate, surface relief, and latitude, orbital obliquity and surface insolation, solid state greenhouses, and endogenic heating of the surface. The thermal state of icy moon interiors and thermal gradients can be limited at depth by fluid phase advection of heat (e.g., percolating meteoric methane or gas emission), by the latent heat of phase transitions (melting, solid-state transitions, and sublimation), by solid-state convective or diapiric heat transfer, and by foundering. Rapid burial of thick volatile deposits can also affect thermal gradients. For geologically inactive or simple icy objects, most of these controls on heat flow and thermal gradients are irrelevant, but for many other icy objects they can be important, in some cases causing large lateral and depth variations in thermal gradients, large variations in heat flow, and dynamically evolving thermal states. Many of

  6. Minimum maximum temperature gradient coil design.

    PubMed

    While, Peter T; Poole, Michael S; Forbes, Larry K; Crozier, Stuart

    2013-08-01

    Ohmic heating is a serious problem in gradient coil operation. A method is presented for redesigning cylindrical gradient coils to operate at minimum peak temperature, while maintaining field homogeneity and coil performance. To generate these minimaxT coil windings, an existing analytic method for simulating the spatial temperature distribution of single layer gradient coils is combined with a minimax optimization routine based on sequential quadratic programming. Simulations are provided for symmetric and asymmetric gradient coils that show considerable improvements in reducing maximum temperature over existing methods. The winding patterns of the minimaxT coils were found to be heavily dependent on the assumed thermal material properties and generally display an interesting "fish-eye" spreading of windings in the dense regions of the coil. Small prototype coils were constructed and tested for experimental validation and these demonstrate that with a reasonable estimate of material properties, thermal performance can be improved considerably with negligible change to the field error or standard figures of merit. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Creep and Environmental Durability of EBC/CMCs Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    Interest in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for use in high temperature structural applications has prompted the need for characterization of material strength and creep performance under complex aerospace turbine engine environments. Stress-rupture tests have been performed on SiC/SiC composites systems, with varying fiber types and coating schemes to demonstrate material behavior under isothermal conditions. Further testing was conducted under exposure to thermal stress gradients to determine the effect on creep resistance and material durability. In order to understand the associated damage mechanisms, emphasis is placed on experimental techniques as well as implementation of non-destructive evaluation; including electrical resistivity monitoring. The influence of environmental and loading conditions on life-limiting material properties is shown.

  8. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards

    2000-04-01

    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships betweenmore » structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.« less

  9. Geographical gradients in selection can reveal genetic constraints for evolutionary responses to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Marshall, Dustin; Dupont, Sam; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Bodrossy, Levente; Hobday, Alistair J

    2017-02-01

    Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO 2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits. In contrast, diversifying or weak directional selection in populations with seasonal upwellings or outside major upwelling regions may have resulted in higher genetic variances and the lack of genetic correlations among traits. Testing this hypothesis in geographical regions with similar environmental conditions to those predicted under climate change will build insights into how selection may act in the future and how populations may respond to stressors such as OA. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Geographical gradients in selection can reveal genetic constraints for evolutionary responses to ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Marshall, Dustin; Dupont, Sam; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D.; Bodrossy, Levente; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2017-01-01

    Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits. In contrast, diversifying or weak directional selection in populations with seasonal upwellings or outside major upwelling regions may have resulted in higher genetic variances and the lack of genetic correlations among traits. Testing this hypothesis in geographical regions with similar environmental conditions to those predicted under climate change will build insights into how selection may act in the future and how populations may respond to stressors such as OA. PMID:28148831

  11. Regional thermal and electric energy output of salt-gradient solar ponds in the U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. J.; Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    Salt-gradient solar pond thermal and electrical energy output was calculated for each of twelve regions within the United States as part of an effort to assess solar pond applicability and extent of requisite physical resources on a regional basis. The energy output level is one of the key factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar ponds. Calculated thermal energy output ranges from 6.9 Wt/sq m in Fairbanks, Alaska, to 73.1 Wt/sq m in Daggett, California, at an energy extraction temperature of 45 C. The output ranges from 0.0 Wt/sq m in Fairbanks to 63.2 Wt/sq m in Daggett at 60 C. Electrical energy output ranges from 0.0 We/sq m in Fairbanks to 3.11 We/sq m in Daggett. Although these estimates constitute a reasonable basis for regional comparison, site-specific analysis must be performed for an actual application design.

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I. Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1978-12-04

    This report covers the conceptual and preliminary design of closed-cycle, ammonia, ocean thermal energy conversion power plants by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Preliminary designs for evaporator and condenser test articles (0.13 MWe size) and a 10 MWe modular experiment power system are described. Conceptual designs for 50 MWe power systems, and 100 MWe power plants are also descirbed. Design and cost algorithms were developed, and an optimized power system design at the 50 MWe size was completed. This design was modeled very closely in the test articles and in the 10 MWe Modular Application. Major component and auxiliary system design, materials,more » biofouling, control response, availability, safety and cost aspects are developed with the greatest emphasis on the 10 MWe Modular Application Power System. It is concluded that all power plant subsystems are state-of-practice and require design verification only, rather than continued research. A complete test program, which verifies the mechanical reliability as well as thermal performance, is recommended and described.« less

  13. Bioenergetic response by steelhead to variation in diet, thermal habitat, and climate in the north Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atcheson, Margaret E.; Myers, Katherine W.; Beauchamp, David A.; Mantua, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic responses of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss to climate-driven changes in marine conditions are expected to affect the species’ ocean distribution, feeding, growth, and survival. With a unique 18-year data series (1991–2008) for steelhead sampled in the open ocean, we simulated interannual variation in prey consumption and growth efficiency of steelhead using a bioenergetics model to evaluate the temperature-dependent growth response of steelhead to past climate events and to estimate growth potential of steelhead under future climate scenarios. Our results showed that annual ocean growth of steelhead is highly variable depending on prey quality, consumption rates, total consumption, and thermal experience. At optimal growing temperatures, steelhead can compensate for a low-energy diet by increasing consumption rates and consuming more prey, if available. Our findings suggest that steelhead have a narrow temperature window in which to achieve optimal growth, which is strongly influenced by climate-driven changes in ocean temperature.

  14. Emerging role of Indian ocean on Indian northeast monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ramesh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the emerging role of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) on the inter-annual variability (IAV) of Indian north-east monsoon rainfall (NEMR). The IAV of NEMR is associated with the warm SST anomaly over east Bay-of-Bengal (BoB) (88.5oE-98.5oE; 8.5oN-15.5oN) and cool SST anomaly over east equatorial Indian Ocean (80.5oE-103.5oE; 6.5oS-3.5oN). The gradient of SST between these boxes (i.e. northern box minus southern box) shows strong and robust association with the Indian NEMR variability in the recent decades. For establishing the teleconnections, SST, mean sea level pressure, North Indian Ocean tropical storm track, and circulation data have been used. The study reveals that during the positive SST gradient years, the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifts northwards over the East Indian Ocean. The tropical depressions, storms and cyclones formed in the North Indian Ocean moves more zonally and strike the southern peninsular India and hence excess NEMR. While, during the negative SST gradient years, the ITCZ shifts southwards over the Indian Ocean. The tropical depressions, storms and cyclones formed in the North Indian Ocean moves more northwestward direction and after crossing 15oN latitude re-curve to north-east direction towards head BoB and misses southern peninsular India and hence, deficient NEMR.

  15. Constraints on cooling of the lower ocean crust from epidote veins in the Wadi Gideah section, Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, Alexander; Bieseler, Bastian; Bach, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Determining the depth, extent, and timing of high-temperature hydrothermal alteration in the ocean crust is key to understanding how the lower oceanic crust is cooled. We report data from 18 epidote veins from the Wadi Gideah section in the Wadi Tayin block, which is a reference section for alteration of the lower crust formed at a fast oceanic spreading center. 87Sr/86Sr ratios feature a narrow range from 0.70429 to 0.70512, while O isotope compositions vary between - 0.7 and +4.9‰ in δ18OSMOW. These compositions indicate uniform water-rock ratios between 1 and 2 and formation temperatures in the range of 300 to 450˚ C. There is no systematic trend in Sr and O isotope compositions down section. Fluid inclusion entrapment temperatures for a subset of four samples linearly increase from 338˚ C to 465˚ C in lowermost 3 km of crust of the Wadi Gideah section. Salinities are uniform throughout and scatter closely around seawater values. We developed a numerical cooling model to assign possible crustal ages to the thermal gradients observed. For pure conductive cooling, these ages range between 4 and 20 Ma. Our thermal model runs with a high Nusselt number (Nu) of 20 down to the base of the crust indicate that the epidote veins may record this near-axial deep circulation in crust of only 0.1 Ma (5-7 km off axis). When off-axis circulation is shut off in the more distal flanks, however, massive conductive reheating of the lower crust by as much as 200˚ C is predicted to take place. But there is no evidence for prograde metamorphic reactions in the samples we studied (or other hydrothermally altered oceanic gabbros). An intermediate model, in which Nu is 20 down to 2 km for the first 0.1 Ma and Nu is then 4 down to 6.5 km depth off axis to 1 Ma, is consistent with the permeability distribution within the ocean crust and predicts a thermal gradient for the lower crust that matches the observed one for ages between 1 and 3 Ma. The most plausible explanation for the

  16. Effect of Thermal Gradient on Vibration of Non-uniform Visco-elastic Rectangular Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Anupam; Kaur, Narinder

    2016-04-01

    Here, a theoretical model is presented to analyze the effect of bilinear temperature variations on vibration of non-homogeneous visco-elastic rectangular plate with non-uniform thickness. Non-uniformity in thickness of the plate is assumed linear in one direction. Since plate's material is considered as non-homogeneous, authors characterized non-homogeneity in poisson ratio and density of the plate's material exponentially in x-direction. Plate is supposed to be clamped at the ends. Deflection for first two modes of vibration is calculated by using Rayleigh-Ritz technique and tabulated for various values of plate's parameters i.e. taper constant, aspect ratio, non-homogeneity constants and thermal gradient. Comparison of present findings with existing literature is also provided in tabular and graphical manner.

  17. Linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating response to thermal gradient: from bench tests to the real-time assessment during in vivo laser ablations of biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Saccomandi, Paola; Varalda, Ambra; Gassino, Riccardo; Tosi, Daniele; Massaroni, Carlo; Caponero, Michele A; Pop, Raoul; Korganbayev, Sanzhar; Perrone, Guido; Diana, Michele; Vallan, Alberto; Costamagna, Guido; Marescaux, Jacques; Schena, Emiliano

    2017-09-01

    The response of a fiber optic sensor [linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating (LCFBG)] to a linear thermal gradient applied on its sensing length (i.e., 1.5 cm) has been investigated. After these bench tests, we assessed their feasibility for temperature monitoring during thermal tumor treatment. In particular, we performed experiments during ex vivo laser ablation (LA) in pig liver and in vivo thermal ablation in animal models (pigs). We investigated the following: (i) the relationship between the full width at half maximum of the LCFBG spectrum and the temperature difference among the extremities of the LCFBG and (ii) the relationship between the mean spectrum wavelength and the mean temperature acting on the LCFBG sensing area. These relationships showed a linear trend during both bench tests and LA in animal models. Thermal sensitivity was significant although different values were found with regards to bench tests and animal experiments. The linear trend and significant sensitivity allow hypothesizing a future use of this kind of sensor to monitor both temperature gradient and mean temperature within a tissue undergoing thermal treatment. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  18. Response of wetland herbaceous communities to gradients of light and substrate following disturbance by thermal pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, Christopher P.; Scott, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of thermal disturbance and site characteristics on distribution of herbs was studied in portions of a 3020 ha wetland in the southeastern USA. Presence-absence of 52 species in 130 0.25 m2 plots was determined from four sites with different disturbance histories and from an undisturbed site. Data from the four disturbed sites were ordinated by detrended correspondence analysis. Differences in species composition among sites (coarse scale) were associated with water depth, light, and substrate type. Within a site (at a fine scale), correlation of environmental variables with ordination scores at a chronically disturbed site was weakly correlated with light (r=0.50). At two sites with episodic disturbance, species composition correlated significantly and positively with substrate and water depth. At a recovering site, vegetation patterns were moderately correlated with water depth (r=−0.52). Species richness was correlated with substrate type along the disturbance gradient. Our results are consistent the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and the subsidy-stress gradient concept.

  19. Atmospheric transport of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans

    PubMed Central

    Chance, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews atmospheric inputs of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans in the context of the GEOTRACES programme and provides new data from two Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises. We consider the deposition of nitrogen to the oceans, which is now dominated by anthropogenic emissions, the deposition of mineral dust and related trace elements, and the deposition of other trace elements which have a mixture of anthropogenic and dust sources. We then consider the solubility (as a surrogate for bioavailability) of the various elements. We consider briefly the sources, atmospheric transport and transformations of these elements and how this results in strong spatial deposition gradients. Solubility of the trace elements also varies systematically between elements, reflecting their sources and cycling, and for some trace elements there are also systematic gradients in solubility related to dust loading. Together, these effects create strong spatial gradients in the inputs of bioavailable trace elements to the oceans, and we are only just beginning to understand how these affect ocean biogeochemistry. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’. PMID:29035252

  20. Can a fractionally crystallized magma ocean explain the thermo-chemical evolution of Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Tosi, N.; Breuer, D.

    2014-10-01

    The impact heat accumulated during the late stage of planetary accretion can melt a significant part or even the entire mantle of a terrestrial body, giving rise to a global magma ocean. The subsequent cooling of the interior causes the magma ocean to freeze from the core-mantle boundary (CMB) to the surface due to the steeper slope of the mantle adiabat compared to the slope of the solidus. Assuming fractional crystallization of the magma ocean, dense cumulates are produced close to the surface, largely due to iron enrichment in the evolving magma ocean liquid. A gravitationally unstable mantle thus forms, which is prone to overturn. We investigate the cumulate overturn and its influence on the thermal evolution of Mars using mantle convection simulations in 2D cylindrical geometry. We present a suite of simulations using different initial conditions and a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. We assume that all radiogenic heat sources have been enriched during the freezing-phase of the magma ocean in the uppermost 50 km and that the initial steam-atmosphere created by the degassing of the freezing magma ocean was rapidly lost, implying that the surface temperature is set to present-day values. In this case, a stagnant lid quickly forms on top of the convective interior preventing the uppermost dense cumulates to sink, even when allowing for a plastic yielding mechanism. Below this dense stagnant lid, the mantle chemical gradient settles to a stable configuration. The convection pattern is dominated by small-scale structures, which are difficult to reconcile with the large-scale volcanic features observed over Mars' surface and partial melting ceases in less than 900 Ma. Assuming that the stagnant lid can break because of additional mechanisms and allowing the uppermost dense layer to overturn, a stable density gradient is obtained, with the densest material and the entire amount of heat sources lying above the CMB. This stratification leads to a strong

  1. Thermal dependence of sprint performance in the lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2200-meter elevational gradient: Cold-habitat lizards do not perform better at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Camacho, Francisco Javier; Rubiño-Hispán, María Virtudes; Reguera, Senda; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2015-08-01

    Sprint speed has a capital relevance in most animals' fitness, mainly for fleeing from predators. Sprint performance is maximal within a certain range of body temperatures in ectotherms, whose thermal upkeep relies on exogenous thermal sources. Ectotherms can respond to diverse thermal environments either by shifting their thermal preferences or maintaining them through different adaptive mechanisms. Here, we tested whether maximum sprint speed of a lizard that shows conservative thermal ecology along a 2200-meter elevational gradient differs with body temperature in lizards from different elevations. Lizards ran faster at optimum than at suboptimum body temperature. Notably, high-elevation lizards were not faster than mid- and low-elevation lizards at suboptimum body temperature, despite their low-quality thermal environment. This result suggests that both preferred body temperature and thermal dependence of speed performance are co-adapted along the elevational gradient. High-elevation lizards display a number of thermoregulatory strategies that allow them to achieve high optimum body temperatures in a low thermal-quality habitat and thus maximize speed performance. As for reproductive condition, we did not find any effect of it on sprint speed, or any significant interaction with elevation or body temperature. However, strikingly, gravid females were significantly slower than males and non-gravid females at suboptimum temperature, but performed similarly well at optimal temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mesoscale atmosphere ocean coupling enhances the transfer of wind energy into the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, D.; Münnich, M.; Frenger, I.; Gruber, N.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well established that the large-scale wind drives much of the world's ocean circulation, the contribution of the wind energy input at mesoscales (10–200 km) remains poorly known. Here we use regional simulations with a coupled high-resolution atmosphere–ocean model of the South Atlantic, to show that mesoscale ocean features and, in particular, eddies can be energized by their thermodynamic interactions with the atmosphere. Owing to their sea-surface temperature anomalies affecting the wind field above them, the oceanic eddies in the presence of a large-scale wind gradient provide a mesoscale conduit for the transfer of energy into the ocean. Our simulations show that this pathway is responsible for up to 10% of the kinetic energy of the oceanic mesoscale eddy field in the South Atlantic. The conditions for this pathway to inject energy directly into the mesoscale prevail over much of the Southern Ocean north of the Polar Front. PMID:27292447

  3. Intensified Indian Ocean climate variability during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumalai, K.; DiNezro, P.; Tierney, J. E.; Puy, M.; Mohtadi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate models project increased year-to-year climate variability in the equatorial Indian Ocean in response to greenhouse gas warming. This response has been attributed to changes in the mean climate of the Indian Ocean associated with the zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient. According to these studies, air-sea coupling is enhanced due to a stronger SST gradient driving anomalous easterlies that shoal the thermocline in the eastern Indian Ocean. We propose that this relationship between the variability and the zonal SST gradient is consistent across different mean climate states. We test this hypothesis using simulations of past and future climate performed with the Community Earth System Model Version 1 (CESM1). We constrain the realism of the model for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) where CESM1 simulates a mean climate consistent with a stronger SST gradient, agreeing with proxy reconstructions. CESM1 also simulates a pronounced increase in seasonal and interannual variability. We develop new estimates of climate variability on these timescales during the LGM using δ18O analysis of individual foraminifera (IFA). IFA data generated from four different cores located in the eastern Indian Ocean indicate a marked increase in δ18O-variance during the LGM as compared to the late Holocene. Such a significant increase in the IFA-δ18O variance strongly supports the modeling simulations. This agreement further supports the dynamics linking year-to-year variability and an altered SST gradient, increasing our confidence in model projections.

  4. Sediment-peridotite interactions in a thermal gradient: mineralogic and geochemical effects and the "sedimentary signature" of arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodland, Alan; Girnis, Andrei; Bulatov, Vadim; Brey, Gerhard; Höfer, Heidi; Gerdes, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Strong thermal and chemical gradients are characteristic of the slab-mantle interface in subduction zones where relatively cold sediments become juxtaposed with hotter peridotite of the mantle wedge. The formation of arc magmas is directly related to mass transfer processes under these conditions. We have undertaken a series of experiments to simulate interactions and mass transfer at the slab-mantle interface. In addition to having juxtaposed sediment and peridotite layers, the experiments were performed under different thermal gradients. The sediment had a composition similar to GLOSS (1) and also served as the source of H2O, CO2 and a large selection of trace elements. The peridotite was a depleted garnet harzburgite formed from a mixture of natural hand-picked olivine, opx and garnet. Graphite was added to this mixture to establish a redox gradient between the two layers. Experiments were performed at 7.5-10 GPa to simulate the processes during deep subduction. The thermal gradient was achieved by displacing the sample capsule (Re-lined Pt) from the center of the pressure cell. The gradient was monitored with separate thermocouples at each end of the capsule and by subsequent opx-garnet thermometry across the sample. Maximum temperatures varied from 1400˚ -900˚ C and gradients ranged from 200˚ -800˚ C. Thus, in some experiments melting occurred in the sediment layer and in others this layer remained subsolidus, only devolatilizing. Major and trace elements were transported both in the direction of melt percolation to the hot zone, as well as down temperature. This leads to the development of zones with discrete phase assemblages. Olivine in the peridotite layer becomes converted to orthopyroxene, which is due to Si addition, but also migration of Mg and Fe towards the sediment. In the coldest part of a sample, the sediment is converted into an eclogitic cpx + garnet assemblage. A thin zone depleted in almost all trace elements is formed in peridotite

  5. Variable but persistent coexistence of Prochlorococcus ecotypes along temperature gradients in the ocean's surface mixed layer.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Jeremy W; Lin, Yajuan; Gainer, P Jackson; Post, Anton F; Johnson, Zackary I; Zinser, Erik R

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of the phytoplankton communities in surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean are numerically dominated by one of two ecotypes of Prochlorococcus, eMIT9312 or eMED4. In this study, we surveyed large latitudinal transects in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean to determine if these ecotypes discretely partition the surface mixed layer niche, or if populations exist as a continuum along key environmental gradients, particularly temperature. Transitions of dominance occurred at approximately 19-21°C, with the eMED4 ecotype dominating the colder, and eMIT9312 ecotype dominating the warmer regions. Within these zones of regional dominance, however, the minority ecotype was not competed to extinction. Rather, a robust log-linear relationship between ecotype ratio and temperature characterized this stabilized coexistence: for every 2.5°C increase in temperature, the eMIT9312:eMED4 ratio increased by an order of magnitude. This relationship was observed in both quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in pyrosequencing assays. Water column stratification also contributed to the ecotype ratio along the basin-scale transects, but to a lesser extent. Finally, instances where the ratio of the eMED4 and eMIT9312 abundances did not correlate well with temperature were identified. Such occurrences are likely due to changes in water temperatures outpacing changes in community structure. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Preliminary map of temperature gradients in the conterminous United States

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Guffanti, M.; Nathenson, M.

    1980-09-01

    Temperature gradients have been determined from temperature/depth measurements made in drill holes deeper than 600 m and used in the construction of a temperature-gradient map of the conterminous United States. The map displays temperature gradients (in /sup 0/C/km) that can be expected to exist regionally in a conductive thermal regime to a depth of 2 km. The major difference between this map and the AAPG-USGS temperature-gradient map is in the midcontinental region where the AAPG-USGS map does not demarcate a division between colder eastern and warmer western thermal regimes. A comparison with the heat-flow map of Sass et al. (1980)more » indicates that temperature gradients commonly reflect regional heat flow, and the gross east-west division of the United States on the basis of heat flow is also expressed by temperature gradient.« less

  7. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  8. Viscous relaxation of impact crater relief on Venus - Constraints on crustal thickness and thermal gradient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1988-01-01

    Models for the viscous relaxation of impact crater topography are used to constrain the crustal thickness (H) and the mean lithospheric thermal gradient beneath the craters on Venus. A general formulation for gravity-driven flow in a linearly viscous fluid has been obtained which incorporates the densities and temperature-dependent effective viscosities of distinct crust and mantle layers. An upper limit to the crustal volume of Venus of 10 to the 10th cu km is obtained which implies either that the average rate of crustal generation has been much smaller on Venus than on earth or that some form of crustal recycling has occurred on Venus.

  9. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Study Gradient Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is often used to solve different problems of applied geophysics including the hydrological ones. This work was motivated by detection of weak reflections in the body of water observed during the surveys on the freshwater lakes using GPR. The same reflections were first analyzed by John Bradford in 2007. These reflections can arise from the thermal gradient layer or thermocline due to different dielectric permittivity of cold and warm water. We employed physical and mathematical modeling to identify the properties of such thermoclines. We have constructed a special GPR stand to study the gradient media in our laboratory. The stand consists of a water-filled plastic tank and plastic tubes, which gather the cold water under the warm water. Our stand allows for changing parameters of the gradient layer, such as limits of dielectric permittivity and the thickness of the gradient layer. GPR antenna was placed slightly under the water surface to remove the parasitic reflections. To visualize the thermal distribution, an infrared camera and thermal sensors were used. Analysis of the GPR traces after physical modeling, performed in the MATLAB environment, allows us to locate the weak reflection from the gradient layer. We observed that (i) the change of the gradient boundary values alters the amplitude of the signal, (ii) the arrival time of the impulse reflected from the gradient layer corresponds to the arrival time of the impulse reflected from the top boundary of this layer, and (iii) the shape of the signal reflected from the gradient layer coincides with the shape of the signal reflected from the non-gradient boundary between two bodies. The quantitative properties of thermocline can be determined using amplitude analysis of GPR signals. Finally, the developed methods were successfully applied to real field data.

  10. Satellite gravity gradient grids for geophysics

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Fuchs, Martin; Sebera, Josef; Lieb, Verena; Szwillus, Wolfgang; Haagmans, Roger; Novak, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite aimed at determining the Earth’s mean gravity field. GOCE delivered gravity gradients containing directional information, which are complicated to use because of their error characteristics and because they are given in a rotating instrument frame indirectly related to the Earth. We compute gravity gradients in grids at 225 km and 255 km altitude above the reference ellipsoid corresponding to the GOCE nominal and lower orbit phases respectively, and find that the grids may contain additional high-frequency content compared with GOCE-based global models. We discuss the gradient sensitivity for crustal depth slices using a 3D lithospheric model of the North-East Atlantic region, which shows that the depth sensitivity differs from gradient to gradient. In addition, the relative signal power for the individual gradient component changes comparing the 225 km and 255 km grids, implying that using all components at different heights reduces parameter uncertainties in geophysical modelling. Furthermore, since gravity gradients contain complementary information to gravity, we foresee the use of the grids in a wide range of applications from lithospheric modelling to studies on dynamic topography, and glacial isostatic adjustment, to bedrock geometry determination under ice sheets. PMID:26864314

  11. Experimental segregation of iron-nickel metal, iron-sulfide, and olivine in a thermal gradient: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, Stephen R.; Jones, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation about the possible mechanisms for core formation in small asteroids raises more questions than answers. Petrologic evidence from iron meteorites, pallasites, and astronomical observations of M asteroids suggests that many small bodies were capable of core formation. Recent work by Taylor reviews the geochemical evidence and examines the possible physical/mechanical constraints on segregation processes. Taylor's evaluation suggests that extensive silicate partial melting (preferably 50 vol. percent or greater) is required before metal can segregate from the surrounding silicate and form a metal core. The arguments for large degrees of silicate partial melting are two-fold: (1) elemental trends in iron meteorites require that the metal was at is liquidus; and (2) experimental observations of metal/sulfide inclusions in partially molten silicate meteorites show that the metal/sulfide tends to form spherules in the liquid silicate due to surface tension effects. Taylor points out that for these metal spherules to sink through a silicate mush, high degrees of silicate partial melting are required to lower the silicate yield strength. Although some qualitative experimental data exists, little is actually known about the behavior of metals and liquid sulfides dispersed in silicate systems. In addition, we have been impressed with the ability of cumulative olivine to expel trapped liquid when placed in a thermal gradient. Consequently, we undertook to accomplish the following: (1) experimentally evaluate the potential for metal/sulfide/silicate segregation in a thermal gradient; and (2) obtain quantitative data of the wetting parameters of metal-sulfide melts among silicate grains.

  12. Fire activity and hydrological dynamics in the past 5700 years reconstructed from Sphagnum peatlands along the oceanic-continental climatic gradient in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Gałka, Mariusz; Pietrala, Patryk; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, Grażyna; Obremska, Milena; Tobolski, Kazimierz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    Fire is a critical component of many ecosystems and, as predicted by various climate models, fire activity may increase significantly in the following years due to climate change. Therefore, knowledge about the past fire activity of various ecosystems is highly important for future nature conservation purposes. We present results of high-resolution investigation of fire activity and hydrological changes in northern Poland. We analyzed microscopic charcoal from three Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located on the south of Baltic, on the oceanic-continental (west-east) climatic gradient, and reconstructed the history of fire in the last 5700 years. We hypothesize that air circulation patterns are highly important for local fire activity, and that fire activity is more intensive in peatlands influenced by continental air masses. We have found out that forest fires have been occurring regularly since the past millennia and were linked to climatic conditions. We show that fire activity (related to climate and fuel availability) was significantly higher in sites dominated by continental climate (northeastern Poland) than in the site located under oceanic conditions (northwestern Poland)-microscopic charcoal influx was 13.3 times higher in the eastern study site of the gradient, compared to the western study site. Recorded fire activity patterns were different between the sites in a long timescale. Moreover, most of the recorded charcoal peaks occurred during high water tables. Rising human pressure has caused droughts and water table instability, and substantial increase in fire activity in the last 400 years.

  13. Ocean biogeochemistry modeled with emergent trait-based genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, V. J.; Stukel, M. R.; Brooks, M. T.; Burd, A.; Crump, B. C.; Moran, M. A.; Paul, J. H.; Satinsky, B. M.; Yager, P. L.; Zielinski, B. L.; Hood, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Marine ecosystem models have advanced to incorporate metabolic pathways discovered with genomic sequencing, but direct comparisons between models and “omics” data are lacking. We developed a model that directly simulates metagenomes and metatranscriptomes for comparison with observations. Model microbes were randomly assigned genes for specialized functions, and communities of 68 species were simulated in the Atlantic Ocean. Unfit organisms were replaced, and the model self-organized to develop community genomes and transcriptomes. Emergent communities from simulations that were initialized with different cohorts of randomly generated microbes all produced realistic vertical and horizontal ocean nutrient, genome, and transcriptome gradients. Thus, the library of gene functions available to the community, rather than the distribution of functions among specific organisms, drove community assembly and biogeochemical gradients in the model ocean.

  14. Experimentally Testing Hydrothermal Vent Origin of Life on Enceladus and Other Icy/Ocean Worlds.

    PubMed

    Barge, Laura M; White, Lauren M

    2017-09-01

    We review various laboratory strategies and methods that can be utilized to simulate prebiotic processes and origin of life in hydrothermal vent systems on icy/ocean worlds. Crucial steps that could be simulated in the laboratory include simulations of water-rock chemistry (e.g., serpentinization) to produce hydrothermal fluids, the types of mineral catalysts and energy gradients produced in vent interfaces where hydrothermal fluids interface with the surrounding seawater, and simulations of biologically relevant chemistry in flow-through gradient systems (i.e., far-from-equilibrium experiments). We describe some examples of experimental designs in detail, which are adaptable and could be used to test particular hypotheses about ocean world energetics or mineral/organic chemistry. Enceladus among the ocean worlds provides an ideal test case, since the pressure at the ocean floor is more easily simulated in the lab. Results for Enceladus could be extrapolated with further experiments and modeling to understand other ocean worlds. Key Words: Enceladus-Ocean worlds-Icy worlds-Hydrothermal vent-Iron sulfide-Gradient. Astrobiology 17, 820-833.

  15. Test results of heat exchanger cleaning in support of ocean thermal energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, D. F.

    1980-12-01

    This report documents tests conducted at the Naval Coastal Systems Center (NCSC) in support of the Department of Energy's Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Program. These tests covered the period September 1978 to May 1980 and evaluated flow-driven brushes, recirculating sponge rubber balls, chlorination, and mechanical system/chlorination combinations for in-situ cleaning of two potential heat exchanger materials: titanium and aluminum alloy 5052. Tests were successful when fouling resistance was 0.0003 sq. ft. hr-F/Btu. Results indicated systems and cleaning techniques using brushes, soft sponge balls, and various concentrations of chlorine had some potential for maintaining heat transfer efficiency.

  16. Quantification of the effect of temperature gradients in soils on subsurface radon signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haquin, Gustavo; Ilzycer, Danielle; Kamai, Tamir; Zafrir, Hovav; Weisbrod, Noam

    2017-04-01

    Temperature gradients that develop in soils due to atmospheric temperature cycles are factors of primary importance in determining the rates and directions of subsurface gas flow. Models including mechanisms of thermal convection and thermal diffusion partially explain the impact of temperature gradients on subsurface radon transport. However, the overall impact of temperature gradients on subsurface radon transport is still not well understood. A laboratory setup was designed and built to experimentally investigate the influence of temperature gradients on radon transport under well controlled conditions. A 60 cm diameter and 120 cm tall column was thermally insulated except from the atmosphere-soil interface, such that it was constructed to simulate field conditions where temperature gradients in soils are developed following atmospheric temperature cycles. The column was filled with fine grinded phosphate rock which provided the porous media with radon source. Radon in soil-air was continuously monitored using NaI gamma detectors positioned at different heights along the column. Soil temperature, differential pressure, and relative humidity were monitored along the column. Experiments based on steep and gradual stepwise changes in ambient temperature were conducted. Absolute changes on radon levels in the order of 10-30% were measured at temperature gradients of up to ±20oC/m. Results showed a non-linear correlation between the temperature gradient and the subsurface radon concentration. An asymmetric relationship between the radon concentration and the temperature gradients for ΔT>0 and ΔT<0 was also observed. Laboratory simulations of the time- and depth-dependent temperature wave functions with frequencies ranged from a daily cycle to few days were performed. In response to the harmonic temperature behaviour radon oscillations at similar frequencies were detected correspondingly. In this work a quantitative relationship between radon and temperature

  17. Colloidal attraction induced by a temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Di Leonardo, R; Ianni, F; Ruocco, G

    2009-04-21

    Colloidal crystals are of extreme importance for applied research and for fundamental studies in statistical mechanics. Long-range attractive interactions, such as capillary forces, can drive the spontaneous assembly of such mesoscopic ordered structures. However, long-range attractive forces are very rare in the colloidal realm. Here we report a novel strong, long-ranged attraction induced by a thermal gradient in the presence of a wall. By switching the thermal gradient on and off, we can rapidly and reversibly form stable hexagonal 2D crystals. We show that the observed attraction is hydrodynamic in nature and arises from thermally induced slip flow on particle surfaces. We used optical tweezers to measure the force law directly and compare it to an analytical prediction based on Stokes flow driven by Marangoni-like forces.

  18. Foliar Temperature Gradients as Drivers of Budburst in Douglas-fir: New Applications of Thermal Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R.; Lintz, H. E.; Thomas, C. K.; Salino-Hugg, M. J.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.

    2014-12-01

    Budburst, the initiation of annual growth in plants, is sensitive to climate and is used to monitor physiological responses to climate change. Accurately forecasting budburst response to these changes demands an understanding of the drivers of budburst. Current research and predictive models focus on population or landscape-level drivers, yet fundamental questions regarding drivers of budburst diversity within an individual tree remain unanswered. We hypothesize that foliar temperature, an important physiological property, may be a dominant driver of differences in the timing of budburst within a single tree. Studying these differences facilitates development of high throughput phenotyping technology used to improve predictive budburst models. We present spatial and temporal variation in foliar temperature as a function of physical drivers culminating in a single-tree budburst model based on foliar temperature. We use a novel remote sensing approach, combined with on-site meteorological measurements, to demonstrate important intra-canopy differences between air and foliar temperature. We mounted a thermal infrared camera within an old-growth canopy at the H.J. Andrews LTER forest and imaged an 8m by 10.6m section of a Douglas-fir crown. Sampling one image per minute, approximately 30,000 thermal infrared images were collected over a one-month period to approximate foliar temperature before, during and after budburst. Using time-lapse photography in the visible spectrum, we documented budburst at fifteen-minute intervals with eight cameras stratified across the thermal infrared camera's field of view. Within the imaged tree's crown, we installed a pyranometer, 2D sonic anemometer and fan-aspirated thermohygrometer and collected 3,000 measurements of net shortwave radiation, wind speed, air temperature and relative humidity. We documented a difference of several days in the timing of budburst across both vertical and horizontal gradients. We also observed clear

  19. Shadowgraph Study of Gradient Driven Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannell, David; Nikolaenko, Gennady; Giglio, Marzio; Vailati, Alberto; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Meyer, William

    2002-01-01

    A fluid or fluid mixture, subjected to a vertical temperature and/or concentration gradient in a gravitational field, exhibits greatly enhanced light scattering at small angles. This effect is caused by coupling between the vertical velocity fluctuations due to thermal energy and the vertically varying refractive index. Physically, small upward or downward moving regions will be displaced into fluid having a refractive index different from that of the moving region, thus giving rise to the enhanced scattering. The scattered intensity is predicted to vary with scattering wave vector q, as q(sup -4), for sufficiently large q, but the divergence is quenched by gravity at small q. In the absence of gravity, the long wavelength fluctuations responsible for the enhanced scattering are predicted to grow until limited by the sample dimensions. It is thus of interest to measure the mean-squared amplitude of such fluctuations in the microgravity environment for comparison with existing theory and ground based measurements. The relevant wave vectors are extremely small, making traditional low-angle light scattering difficult or impossible because of stray elastically scattered light generated by optical surfaces. An alternative technique is offered by the shadowgraph method, which is normally used to visualize fluid flows, but which can also serve as a quantitative tool to measure fluctuations. A somewhat novel shadowgraph apparatus and the necessary data analysis methods will be described. The apparatus uses a spatially coherent, but temporally incoherent, light source consisting of a super-luminescent diode coupled to a single-mode optical fiber in order to achieve extremely high spatial resolution, while avoiding effects caused by interference of light reflected from the various optical surfaces that are present when using laser sources. Results obtained for a critical mixture of aniline and cyclohexane subjected to a vertical temperature gradient will be presented. The

  20. Indian Ocean analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Gary

    1992-01-01

    The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality

  1. The Impact of the Latest Danian Event on Planktic Foraminiferal Faunas at ODP Site 1210 (Shatsky Rise, Pacific Ocean).

    PubMed

    Jehle, Sofie; Bornemann, André; Deprez, Arne; Speijer, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    The marine ecosystem has been severely disturbed by several transient paleoenvironmental events (<200 kyr duration) during the early Paleogene, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma) was the most prominent. Over the last decade a number of similar events of Paleocene and Eocene age have been discovered. However, relatively little attention has been paid to pre-PETM events, such as the "Latest Danian Event" ("LDE", ~62.18 Ma), specifically from an open ocean perspective. Here we present new foraminiferal isotope (δ13C, δ18O) and faunal data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1210 at Shatsky Rise (Pacific Ocean) in order to reconstruct the prevailing paleoceanographic conditions. The studied five-meter-thick succession covers ~900 kyr and includes the 200-kyr-lasting LDE. All groups surface dwelling, subsurface dwelling and benthic foraminifera show a negative δ13C excursion of >0.6‰, similar in magnitude to the one previously reported from neighboring Site 1209 for benthic foraminifera. δ18O-inferred warming by 1.6 to 2.8°C (0.4-0.7‰ δ18O measured on benthic and planktic foraminiferal tests) of the entire water column accompanies the negative δ13C excursion. A well stratified upper ocean directly before and during the LDE is proposed based on the stable isotope gradients between surface and subsurface dwellers. The gradient is less well developed, but still enhanced after the event. Isotope data are supplemented by comprehensive planktic foraminiferal faunal analyses revealing a dominance of Morozovella species together with Parasubbotina species. Subsurface-dwelling Parasubbotina shows high abundances during the LDE tracing changes in the strength of the isotope gradients and, thus, may indicate optimal living conditions within a well stratified surface ocean for this taxon. In addition, distinct faunal changes are reported like the disappearance of Praemurica species right at the base of the LDE and the continuous replacement

  2. The Impact of the Latest Danian Event on Planktic Foraminiferal Faunas at ODP Site 1210 (Shatsky Rise, Pacific Ocean)

    PubMed Central

    Jehle, Sofie; Bornemann, André; Deprez, Arne; Speijer, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    The marine ecosystem has been severely disturbed by several transient paleoenvironmental events (<200 kyr duration) during the early Paleogene, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma) was the most prominent. Over the last decade a number of similar events of Paleocene and Eocene age have been discovered. However, relatively little attention has been paid to pre-PETM events, such as the “Latest Danian Event” ("LDE", ~62.18 Ma), specifically from an open ocean perspective. Here we present new foraminiferal isotope (δ13C, δ18O) and faunal data from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1210 at Shatsky Rise (Pacific Ocean) in order to reconstruct the prevailing paleoceanographic conditions. The studied five-meter-thick succession covers ~900 kyr and includes the 200-kyr-lasting LDE. All groups surface dwelling, subsurface dwelling and benthic foraminifera show a negative δ13C excursion of >0.6‰, similar in magnitude to the one previously reported from neighboring Site 1209 for benthic foraminifera. δ18O-inferred warming by 1.6 to 2.8°C (0.4–0.7‰ δ18O measured on benthic and planktic foraminiferal tests) of the entire water column accompanies the negative δ13C excursion. A well stratified upper ocean directly before and during the LDE is proposed based on the stable isotope gradients between surface and subsurface dwellers. The gradient is less well developed, but still enhanced after the event. Isotope data are supplemented by comprehensive planktic foraminiferal faunal analyses revealing a dominance of Morozovella species together with Parasubbotina species. Subsurface-dwelling Parasubbotina shows high abundances during the LDE tracing changes in the strength of the isotope gradients and, thus, may indicate optimal living conditions within a well stratified surface ocean for this taxon. In addition, distinct faunal changes are reported like the disappearance of Praemurica species right at the base of the LDE and the continuous

  3. Gradient magnetometer system balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Tsvetkov, Yury

    2005-08-01

    Earth's magnetic field study still remains one of the leading edges of experimental geophysics. Thus study is executed on the Earth surface, including ocean bottom, and on satellite heights using component, mostly flux-gate magnetometers. But balloon experiments with component magnetometers are very seldom, first of all because of great complexity of data interpretation. This niche still waits for new experimental ideology, which will allow to get the measurements results with high accuracy, especially in gradient mode. The great importance of precise balloon-borne component magnetic field gradient study is obvious. Its technical realization is based both on the available at the marked high-precision non-magnetic tiltmeters and on recent achievements of flux-gate magnetometry. The scientific goals of balloon-borne magnetic gradiometric experiment are discussed and its practical realization is proposed.

  4. Analysis of Thermal Structure of Arctic Lakes at Local and Regional Scales Using in Situ and Multidate Landsat-8 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Hongxing; Hinkel, Kenneth; Yu, Bailang; Beck, Richard; Wu, Jianping

    2017-11-01

    The Arctic coastal plain is covered with numerous thermokarst lakes. These lakes are closely linked to climate and environmental change through their heat and water budgets. We examined the intralake thermal structure at the local scale and investigated the water temperature pattern of lakes at the regional scale by utilizing extensive in situ measurements and multidate Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Our analysis indicates that the lake skin temperatures derived from satellite thermal sensors during most of the ice-free summer period effectively represent the lake bulk temperature because the lakes are typically well-mixed and without significant vertical stratification. With the relatively high-resolution Landsat-8 thermal data, we were able to quantitatively examine intralake lateral temperature differences and gradients in relation to geographical location, topography, meteorological factors, and lake morphometry for the first time. Our results suggest that wind speed and direction not only control the vertical stratification but also influences lateral differences and gradients of lake surface temperature. Wind can considerably reduce the intralake temperature gradient. Interestingly, we found that geographical location (latitude, longitude, distance to the ocean) and lake morphometry (surface size, depth, volume) not only control lake temperature regionally but also affect the lateral temperature gradient and homogeneity level within each individual lake. For the Arctic coastal plain, at regional scales, inland and southern lakes tend to have larger horizontal temperature differences and gradients compared to coastal and northern lakes. At local scales, large and shallow lakes tend to have large lateral temperature differences relative to small and deep lakes.

  5. Effects of Drake Passage on the Ocean's Thermal and Mechanical Energy Budget in a Coupled AOGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Heydt, A. S.; Viebahn, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    the Southern Ocean sub-polar gyres inevitably leads to widespread warming around Antarctica. Moreover, we provide a framework to characterise the ocean temperature response to a closed Drake Passage in terms of both the mechanical and thermal energy budget of the ocean.

  6. An experimental study of pyroxene crystallization during rapid cooling in a thermal gradient: application to komatiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquain, S.; Arndt, N. T.; Faure, F.; Libourel, G.

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the crystallization of pyroxene in spinifex-textured komatiites, we undertook a series of experiments in which compositions in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 CMAS system were cooled rapidly in a thermal gradient. Cooling rates were generally between 5 and 10 °C h-1, but some runs were made at 100-200 °C h-1; thermal gradients were between 10 and 20 °C cm-1. These conditions reproduced those at various depths in the crust of komatiite lava flow. The starting composition was chosen to have pigeonite on the liquidus, and most of the experimental charges crystallized zoned pigeonite-diopside crystals like those in komatiite lavas. An intriguing aspect of the experimental results was their lack of reproducibility. Some experiments crystallized forsterite, whereas others that were run under similar conditions crystallized two pyroxenes and no forsterite; some experiments were totally glassy, but others crystallized entirely to pyroxene. The degree of supercooling at the onset of pyroxene crystallization was variable, from less than 25 °C to more than 110 °C. We attribute these results to the difficulty of nucleation of pyroxene under the conditions of the experiments. In some cases forsterite crystallized metastably and modified the liquid composition to inhibit pyroxene crystallization; in others no nucleation took place until a large degree of supercooling was achieved, and then pyroxene crystallized rapidly. Pigeonite crystallized under a wide range of conditions, at cooling rates from 3 to 100 °C h-1. The notion that this mineral only forms at low cooling rates is not correct.

  7. Opposite latitudinal gradients in projected ocean acidification and bleaching impacts on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey Allen; Manzello, Derek; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and the services they provide are seriously threatened by ocean acidification and climate change impacts like coral bleaching. Here, we present updated global projections for these key threats to coral reefs based on ensembles of IPCC AR5 climate models using the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) experiments. For all tropical reef locations, we project absolute and percentage changes in aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) for the period between 2006 and the onset of annual severe bleaching (thermal stress >8 degree heating weeks); a point at which it is difficult to believe reefs can persist as we know them. Severe annual bleaching is projected to start 10-15 years later at high-latitude reefs than for reefs in low latitudes under RCP8.5. In these 10-15 years, Ωarag keeps declining and thus any benefits for high-latitude reefs of later onset of annual bleaching may be negated by the effects of acidification. There are no long-term refugia from the effects of both acidification and bleaching. Of all reef locations, 90% are projected to experience severe bleaching annually by 2055. Furthermore, 5% declines in calcification are projected for all reef locations by 2034 under RCP8.5, assuming a 15% decline in calcification per unit of Ωarag. Drastic emissions cuts, such as those represented by RCP6.0, result in an average year for the onset of annual severe bleaching that is ~20 years later (2062 vs. 2044). However, global emissions are tracking above the current worst-case scenario devised by the scientific community, as has happened in previous generations of emission scenarios. The projections here for conditions on coral reefs are dire, but provide the most up-to-date assessment of what the changing climate and ocean acidification mean for the persistence of coral reefs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evidence of counter-gradient growth in western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across thermal gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snover, Melissa; Adams, Michael J.; Ashton, Donald T.; Bettaso, Jamie B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of size and age at reproductive maturity to population dynamics, this information on counter-gradient growth will improve our ability to understand and predict the consequences of dam operations for downstream turtle populations.

  9. Thermal niche evolution of functional traits in a tropical marine phototroph.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kirralee G; Radford, Dale T; Evenhuis, Christian; Kuzhiumparam, Unnikrishnan; Ralph, Peter J; Doblin, Martina A

    2018-06-14

    Land-based plants and ocean-dwelling microbial phototrophs known as phytoplankton, are together responsible for almost all global primary production. Habitat warming associated with anthropogenic climate change has detrimentally impacted marine primary production, with the effects observed on regional and global scales. In contrast to slower-growing higher plants, there is considerable potential for phytoplankton to evolve rapidly with changing environmental conditions. The energetic constraints associated with adaptation in phytoplankton are not yet understood, but are central to forecasting how global biogeochemical cycles respond to contemporary ocean change. Here, we demonstrate a number of potential trade-offs associated with high-temperature adaptation in a tropical microbial eukaryote, Amphidinium massartii (dinoflagellate). Most notably, the population became high-temperature specialized (higher fitness within a narrower thermal envelope and higher thermal optimum), and had a greater nutrient requirement for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Evidently, the energetic constraints associated with living at elevated temperature alter competiveness along other environmental gradients. While high-temperature adaptation led to an irreversible change in biochemical composition (i.e., an increase in fatty acid saturation), the mechanisms underpinning thermal evolution in phytoplankton remain unclear, and will be crucial to understanding whether the trade-offs observed here are species-specific or are representative of the evolutionary constraints in all phytoplankton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Modulus Evolution of Thermal Barrier Coatings under High Heat Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Laser high heat flux test approaches have been established to obtain critical properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under near-realistic temperature and thermal gradients that may he encountered in advanced engine systems. Thermal conductivity change kinetics of a thin ceramic coating were continuously monitored in real time at various test temperatures. A significant thermal conductivity increase was observed during the laser simulated engine heat flux tests. For a 0.25 mm thick ZrO2-8%Y2O3 coating system, the overall thermal conductivity increased from the initial value of 1.0 W/m-K to 1. 15 W/m-K, 1. 19 W/m-K and 1.5 W/m-K after 30 hour testing at surface temperatures of 990C, 1100C, and 1320C. respectively. Hardness and modulus gradients across a 1.5 mm thick TBC system were also determined as a function of laser testing time using the laser sintering/creep and micro-indentation techniques. The coating Knoop hardness values increased from the initial hardness value of 4 GPa to 5 GPa near the ceramic/bond coat interface, and to 7.5 GPa at the ceramic coating surface after 120 hour testing. The ceramic surface modulus increased from an initial value of about 70 GPa to a final value of 125 GPa. The increase in thermal conductivity and the evolution of significant hardness and modulus gradients in the TBC systems are attributed to sintering-induced micro-porosity gradients under the laser-imposed high thermal gradient conditions. The test techniques provide a viable means for obtaining coating data for use in design, development, stress modeling, and life prediction for various thermal barrier coating applications.

  11. Sea surface salinity fronts in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Etcheverry, L.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.

    2016-12-01

    Marine fronts are narrow boundaries that separate water masses of different properties. These fronts are caused by various forcing and believed to be an important component of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, particularly in the tropical oceans. In this study, we use sea surface salinity (SSS) observations from Aquarius satellite to investigate the spatial structure and temporal variability of SSS fronts in the tropical Atlantic. A number of frontal features have been identified. The mean magnitude of the SSS gradient is maximum near the mouth of the Congo River (0.3-0.4 psu/100km). Relative maxima are also observed in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the Gulf of Guinea, and the mouth of the Amazon River. The pattern of the magnitude of the SSS anomaly gradient revealed that the interaction between river plumes and saltier interior water is complex and highly variable during the three-year observation period. The variability of the magnitude of the density anomaly gradient computed from Aquarius SSS and Reynolds SST is also discussed. Images of the ocean color are utilized to trace the movement of the Congo and Amazon River plumes and compare them with the magnitude of the SSS gradient. Additionally, we analyze de circulation associated with the Amazon plume with altimetry data, and the vertical structure and its changes in time through Argo profiles.

  12. Crystallization of a compositionally stratified basal magma ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, Matthieu; Hernlund, John; Labrosse, Stéphane; Guttenberg, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Earth's ∼3.45 billion year old magnetic field is regenerated by dynamo action in its convecting liquid metal outer core. However, convection induces an isentropic thermal gradient which, coupled with a high core thermal conductivity, results in rapid conducted heat loss. In the absence of implausibly high radioactivity or alternate sources of motion to drive the geodynamo, the Earth's early core had to be significantly hotter than the melting point of the lower mantle. While the existence of a dense convecting basal magma ocean (BMO) has been proposed to account for high early core temperatures, the requisite physical and chemical properties for a BMO remain controversial. Here we relax the assumption of a well-mixed convecting BMO and instead consider a BMO that is initially gravitationally stratified owing to processes such as mixing between metals and silicates at high temperatures in the core-mantle boundary region during Earth's accretion. Using coupled models of crystallization and heat transfer through a stratified BMO, we show that very high temperatures could have been trapped inside the early core, sequestering enough heat energy to run an ancient geodynamo on cooling power alone.

  13. Sea thermal power; A survey study for the Arab coastal waters

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abdell-AAL, H.K.; Khan, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the promising types of renewable energy resource that has potential applications in the Arab world is proposed and described in this article. Known as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), its feasibility is investigated for the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf/Gulf of Oman. Data on thermal gradients are surveyed, collected, and reported. Promising parameters have been identified for some specific locations along these coastal waters. The proposed system can serve the dual purpose of providing electric power and desalinated water, which is needed by the Arab world. Construction strategies for the OTEC systems are introduced. Building plant-ship formore » utilizing the generated power in the production of hydrogen is recommended. Thus energy could be transported as LH{sub 2} (liquid hydrogen), MeOH (methanol), or NH{sub 3} (ammonia) for end-use consumption or export.« less

  14. Coupled ocean-atmosphere surface variability and its climate impacts in the tropical Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, B.; Janicot, Serge; Roucou, P.

    This study examines time evolution and statistical relationships involving the two leading ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability in the tropical Atlantic and some climate anomalies over the tropical 120°W-60°W region using selected historical files (75-y near global SSTs and precipitation over land), more recent observed data (30-y SST and pseudo wind stress in the tropical Atlantic) and reanalyses from the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis System on the period 1968-1997: surface air temperature, sea level pressure, moist static energy content at 850 hPa, precipitable water and precipitation. The first coupled mode detected through singular value decomposition of the SST and pseudo wind-stress data over the tropical Atlantic (30°N-20°S) expresses a modulation in the thermal transequatorial gradient of SST anomalies conducted by one month leading wind-stress anomalies mainly in the tropical north Atlantic during northern winter and fall. It features a slight dipole structure in the meridional plane. Its time variability is dominated by a quasi-decadal signal well observed in the last 20-30 ys and, when projected over longer-term SST data, in the 1920s and 1930s but with shorter periods. The second coupled mode is more confined to the south-equatorial tropical Atlantic in the northern summer and explains considerably less wind-stress/SST cross-covariance. Its time series features an interannual variability dominated by shorter frequencies with increased variance in the 1960s and 1970s before 1977. Correlations between these modes and the ENSO-like Nino3 index lead to decreasing amplitude of thermal anomalies in the tropical Atlantic during warm episodes in the Pacific. This could explain the nonstationarity of meridional anomaly gradients on seasonal and interannual time scales. Overall the relationships between the oceanic component of the coupled modes and the climate anomaly patterns denote thermodynamical

  15. Influence of Natural Thermal Gradients on Whole Animal Rates of Protein Synthesis in Marine Gammarid Amphipods

    PubMed Central

    Rastrick, Samuel P. S.; Whiteley, Nia M.

    2013-01-01

    Although temperature is known to have an important effect on protein synthesis rates and growth in aquatic ectotherms held in the laboratory, little is known about the effects of thermal gradients on natural populations in the field. To address this issue we determined whole-animal fractional rates of protein synthesis (ks) in four dominant species of gammarid amphipods with different distributions along the coasts of Western Europe from arctic to temperate latitudes. Up to three populations of each species were collected in the summer and ks measured within 48 h. Summer ks values were relatively high in the temperate species, Gammarus locusta, from Portugal (48°N) and Wales (53°N) and were maintained across latitudes by the conservation of translational efficiency. In sharp contrast, summer ks remained remarkably low in the boreal/temperate species G. duebeni from Wales, Scotland (58°N) and Tromsø (70°N), probably as a temporary energy saving strategy to ensure survival in rapidly fluctuating environments of the high intertidal. Values for ks increased in acclimated G. duebeni from Scotland and Tromsø showing a lack of compensation with latitude. In the subarctic/boreal species, G. oceanicus, summer ks remained unchanged in Scotland and Tromsø but fell significantly in Svalbard (79°N) at 5°C, despite a slight increase in RNA content. At 79°N, mean ks was 4.5 times higher in the circumpolar species G. setosus than in G. oceanicus due to a doubling in RNA content. The relationship between whole-animal protein synthesis rates and natural thermal gradients is complex, varies between species and appears to be associated with local temperatures and their variability, as well as changes in other environmental factors. PMID:23544122

  16. Large format lithium ion pouch cell full thermal characterisation for improved electric vehicle thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Thomas; Barai, Anup; Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Guo, Yue; McGordon, Andrew; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    It is crucial to maintain temperature homogeneity in lithium ion batteries in order to prevent adverse voltage distributions and differential ageing within the cell. As such, the thermal behaviour of a large-format 20 Ah lithium iron phosphate pouch cell is investigated over a wide range of ambient temperatures and C rates during both charging and discharging. Whilst previous studies have only considered one surface, this article presents experimental results, which characterise both surfaces of the cell exposed to similar thermal media and boundary conditions, allowing for thermal gradients in-plane and perpendicular to the stack to be quantified. Temperature gradients, caused by self-heating, are found to increase with increasing C rate and decreasing temperature to such an extent that 13.4 ± 0.7% capacity can be extracted using a 10C discharge compared to a 0.5C discharge, both at -10 °C ambient temperature. The former condition causes an 18.8 ± 1.1 °C in plane gradient and a 19.7 ± 0.8 °C thermal gradient perpendicular to the stack, which results in large current density distributions and local state of charge differences within the cell. The implications of these thermal and electrical inhomogeneities on ageing and battery pack design for the automotive industry are discussed.

  17. Decadal trends in deep ocean salinity and regional effects on steric sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkey, S. G.; Llovel, W.

    2017-12-01

    We present deep (below 2000 m) and abyssal (below 4000 m) global ocean salinity trends from the 1990s through the 2010s and assess the role of deep salinity in local and global sea level budgets. Deep salinity trends are assessed using all deep basins with available full-depth, high-quality hydrographic section data that have been occupied two or more times since the 1980s through either the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program or the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). All salinity data is calibrated to standard seawater and any intercruise offsets applied. While the global mean deep halosteric contribution to sea level rise is close to zero (-0.017 +/- 0.023 mm/yr below 4000 m), there is a large regional variability with the southern deep basins becoming fresher and northern deep basins becoming more saline. This meridional gradient in the deep salinity trend reflects different mechanisms driving the deep salinity variability. The deep Southern Ocean is freshening owing to a recent increased flux of freshwater to the deep ocean. Outside of the Southern Ocean, the deep salinity and temperature changes are tied to isopycnal heave associated with a falling of deep isopycnals in recent decades. Therefore, regions of the ocean with a deep salinity minimum are experiencing both a halosteric contraction with a thermosteric expansion. While the thermosteric expansion is larger in most cases, in some regions the halosteric compensates for as much as 50% of the deep thermal expansion, making a significant contribution to local sea level rise budgets.

  18. Ocean biogeochemistry modeled with emergent trait-based genomics.

    PubMed

    Coles, V J; Stukel, M R; Brooks, M T; Burd, A; Crump, B C; Moran, M A; Paul, J H; Satinsky, B M; Yager, P L; Zielinski, B L; Hood, R R

    2017-12-01

    Marine ecosystem models have advanced to incorporate metabolic pathways discovered with genomic sequencing, but direct comparisons between models and "omics" data are lacking. We developed a model that directly simulates metagenomes and metatranscriptomes for comparison with observations. Model microbes were randomly assigned genes for specialized functions, and communities of 68 species were simulated in the Atlantic Ocean. Unfit organisms were replaced, and the model self-organized to develop community genomes and transcriptomes. Emergent communities from simulations that were initialized with different cohorts of randomly generated microbes all produced realistic vertical and horizontal ocean nutrient, genome, and transcriptome gradients. Thus, the library of gene functions available to the community, rather than the distribution of functions among specific organisms, drove community assembly and biogeochemical gradients in the model ocean. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Peanut seed vigor elavuation using a thermal gradient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted from 2007 to 2009 to evaluate the seed germination response of multiple peanut cultivars using a continuous temperature gradient ranging from 14 to 35 C (1.0 C increments). Growing degree day (GDD) accumulation for each temperature increment was measured. Two indices, maxi...

  20. Thermal characterization of organic matter along a (hypothetical) coalification gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Ornella; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical transformations of organic carbon (C) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are important starting points for genesis of peats, brown coals and other coal precursors. The humification process plays a key role in biogeochemical transformations of organic C and, as a result, in the first stages of coal precursors formation. Thermal analysis was used by Schnitzer and other scientists since 1950-1960s, in order to investigate the stability of several organic materials of industrial value including peat and coal. What soil scientists found was the general occurrence of two exothermic peaks (exotherm 1 and 2) due to decomposition and combustion reactions of organic compounds having different thermal stability and, consequently, different degree of humification. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was carried out on different samples reproducing a "hypothetical" coalification gradient as follows: peat (IHSS Pahokee peat standard), fulvic acid (FA), a peat humic acid (HA), leonardite (IHSS Gascoyne standard) and charcoal. An aliquot of about 20 mg of each sample was heated in a ceramic crucible from 50 to 850˚ C at 30˚ C min-1, at a gas flow rate of 30 mL min-1 using a PerkinElmer TGA4000 thermobalance. Samples were analysed both under nitrogen and under synthetic air. All analyses were carried out in triplicate and the average coefficient of variation was <1.5%. Weight losses (in %) were determined within 200-400˚ C (WL1) and 400-600˚ C (WL2) temperature ranges, and the ratio between WL2/WL1 calculated for all samples. This ratio has been often used as a highly sensitive parameter to describe chemical changes induced by the bio-transformation of organic materials. Finally, the temperature at which half of the exothermic mass loss has occurred (TG-T50) was also calculated. Preliminary results obtained from TG analysis under air showed that WL2/WL1 ratio was lower for the FA sample and higher for leonardite and charcoal, following the order FA

  1. Turbulent Heat Transfer from a Thermally Forced Boundary in a Stratified Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. J.; Wells, A.; Flierl, G.

    2017-12-01

    When a marine-terminating glacier melts into a stratified ocean, a buoyancy-driven flow develops along the ice surface. The resulting turbulent heat and salt fluxes provide a key feedback on the ice melting rate. To build insight into such flows, we consider direct numerical simulations of an analogue problem with convection driven by a thermally forced sidewall in a stably stratified Boussinesq fluid. Our model considers vertical and inclined periodic channels in 2D with a constant background buoyancy gradient. When the lateral or upper boundary is given a sufficient thermal perturbation relative to the ambient, a confined and homogeneous turbulent plume emerges along the heated wall. We present a scaling analysis for the resulting heat transport across the plume, and compare it to simulations over a range of Rayleigh numbers, Prandtl numbers, and wall-inclination angles.

  2. Connecting thermal physiology and latitudinal niche partitioning in marine Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Pittera, Justine; Humily, Florian; Thorel, Maxine; Grulois, Daphné; Garczarek, Laurence; Six, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria constitute a monophyletic group that displays a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging from the equator to the polar fronts. Whether these organisms are all physiologically adapted to stand a large temperature gradient or stenotherms with narrow growth temperature ranges has so far remained unexplored. We submitted a panel of six strains, isolated along a gradient of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean, to long- and short-term variations of temperature. Upon a downward shift of temperature, the strains showed strikingly distinct resistance, seemingly related to their latitude of isolation, with tropical strains collapsing while northern strains were capable of growing. This behaviour was associated to differential photosynthetic performances. In the tropical strains, the rapid photosystem II inactivation and the decrease of the antioxydant β-carotene relative to chl a suggested a strong induction of oxidative stress. These different responses were related to the thermal preferenda of the strains. The northern strains could grow at 10 °C while the other strains preferred higher temperatures. In addition, we pointed out a correspondence between strain isolation temperature and phylogeny. In particular, clades I and IV laboratory strains were all collected in the coldest waters of the distribution area of marine Synechococus. We, however, show that clade I Synechococcus exhibit different levels of adaptation, which apparently reflect their location on the latitudinal temperature gradient. This study reveals the existence of lineages of marine Synechococcus physiologically specialised in different thermal niches, therefore suggesting the existence of temperature ecotypes within the marine Synechococcus radiation. PMID:24401861

  3. An experimental study of pyroxene crystallization during rapid cooling in a thermal gradient; applications to komatiites and chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquain, S.; Arndt, N. T.; Faure, F.; Libourel, G.

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the crystallization of pyroxene in spinifex-textured komatiites and in chondrites we undertook a series of experiments in which compositions in the CMAS system were cooling rapidly in a thermal gradient. Cooling rates were generally between 5 to 10 °C h-1 but some runs were made at 100-200 °C h-1; thermal gradients were between 10 and 20 °C cm-1. These conditions reproduced those at various levels in the crust of komatiitic lava flow. The starting composition was chosen to have pigeonite on the liquidus and a majority of the experiments crystallized zoned pigeonite-diopside crystals like those in komatiite lavas. A~conspicuous aspect of the experimental results was their lack of reproduceability. Some experiments crystallized forsterite whereas others that were run under similar conditions crystallized two pyroxenes and no forsterite; some experiments were totally glassy but others totally crystallized to pyroxene. The degree of supercooling at the onset of pyroxene crystallization was variable, from less than 25 °C to more than 110 °C. We attribute these results to the difficulty of nucleation of pyroxene. In some cases forsterite crystallized metastably and modified the liquid composition to inhibit pyroxene crystallization; in others no nucleation took place until a large degree of supercooling was achieved, then pyroxene crystallized rapidly. Pigeonite crystallized under a wide range of conditions, at cooling rates from 3 to 100 °C h-1. The notion that this mineral only forms at low cooling rates is not correct.

  4. A database for the monitoring of thermal anomalies over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C.; Mattar, Cristian; Sobrino, José A.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information technologies and accessibility to climate and satellite data in recent years have favored the development of web-based tools with user-friendly interfaces in order to facilitate the dissemination of geo/biophysical products. These products are useful for the analysis of the impact of global warming over different biomes. In particular, the study of the Amazon forest responses to drought have recently received attention by the scientific community due to the occurrence of two extreme droughts and sustained warming over the last decade. Thermal Amazoni@ is a web-based platform for the visualization and download of surface thermal anomalies products over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans using Google Earth as a baseline graphical interface (http://ipl.uv.es/thamazon/web). This platform is currently operational at the servers of the University of Valencia (Spain), and it includes both satellite (MODIS) and climatic (ERA-Interim) datasets. Thermal Amazoni@ is composed of the viewer system and the web and ftp sites with ancillary information and access to product download. PMID:26029379

  5. A database for the monitoring of thermal anomalies over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Mattar, Cristian; Sobrino, José A; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information technologies and accessibility to climate and satellite data in recent years have favored the development of web-based tools with user-friendly interfaces in order to facilitate the dissemination of geo/biophysical products. These products are useful for the analysis of the impact of global warming over different biomes. In particular, the study of the Amazon forest responses to drought have recently received attention by the scientific community due to the occurrence of two extreme droughts and sustained warming over the last decade. Thermal Amazoni@ is a web-based platform for the visualization and download of surface thermal anomalies products over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans using Google Earth as a baseline graphical interface (http://ipl.uv.es/thamazon/web). This platform is currently operational at the servers of the University of Valencia (Spain), and it includes both satellite (MODIS) and climatic (ERA-Interim) datasets. Thermal Amazoni@ is composed of the viewer system and the web and ftp sites with ancillary information and access to product download.

  6. Effect of mesoscale oceanic eddies on mid-latitude storm-tracks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foussard, Alexis; Lapeyre, Guillaume; Plougonven, Riwal

    2017-04-01

    Sharp sea surface temperature (SST) gradients associated with oceanic western boundary currents (WBC) exert an influence on the position and intensity of mid-latitude storm-tracks. This occurs through strong surface baroclinicity maintained by cross frontal SST gradient and deep vertical atmospheric motion due to convection on the warm flank of the WBC. However the additional role of mesoscale oceanic structures (30-300km) has not yet been explored although they have a non-negligible influence on surface heat fluxes. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, we investigate the potential role of these oceanic eddies in the case of an idealized atmospheric mid-latitude storm track forced by a mesoscale oceanic eddy field superposed with a large-scale SST gradient. Surface latent and sensible fluxes are shown to react with a non-linear response to the SST variations, providing additional heat and moisture supply at large scales. The atmospheric response is not restricted to the boundary layer but reaches the free troposphere, especially through increased water vapor vertical transport and latent heat release. This additional heating in presence of eddies is balanced by a shift of the storm-track and its poleward heat flux toward high latitudes, with amplitude depending on atmospheric configuration and eddies amplitude. We also explore how this displacement of perturbations changes the position and structure of the mid-latitude jet through eddy momentum fluxes.

  7. An ocean dynamical thermostat—dominant in observations, absent in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2016-12-01

    The pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific Ocean is coupled to the Walker circulation, necessitating an understanding of how this pattern will change in response to anthropogenic radiative forcing. State-of-the-art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) overwhelmingly project a decrease in the tropical Pacific zonal SST gradient over the coming century. This decrease in the zonal SST gradient is a response of the ocean to a weakening Walker circulation in the CMIP5 models, a consequence of the mass and energy balances of the hydrologic cycle identified by Held and Soden (2006). CMIP5 models, however, are not able to reproduce the observed increase in the zonal SST gradient between 1900-2013 C.E., which we argue to be robust using advanced statistical techniques and new observational datasets. While the observed increase in the zonal SST gradient is suggestive of the ocean dynamical thermostat mechanism of Clement et al. (1996), a strengthening Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) also contributes to eastern equatorial Pacific cooling. Importantly, the strengthening EUC is a response of the ocean to a seasonal weakening of the Walker circulation and thus can reconcile disparate observations of changes to the atmosphere and ocean in the equatorial Pacific. CMIP5 models do not capture the magnitude of this response of the EUC to anthropogenic radiative forcing potentially because of biases in the sensitivity of the EUC to changes in zonal wind stress, like the weakening Walker circulation. Consequently, they project a continuation of the opposite to what has been observed in the real world, with potentially serious consequences for projected climate impacts that are influenced by the tropical Pacific.

  8. A Statistical Approach for Determining Subsurface Thermal Structure from Sea Surface Temperature in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    DE ERMIuIATIC1N OF SUBSUEFACZE THERMAL STRUCTURE * The study of the oceans by satellites has become a sajc: *arena for sc-intific scrutiny and...between *satellite- de ~ived sea surface temperatu-res and vsrt.-cal *temperature profiles, then the areas of acoust-ical oceanicg- raphy and naval...based on dynamical principles and will ulti-mately provide the basis for pred-icting ocear,-c processes. Emp rical mq4thods have been de -termined i n the

  9. Spatial wavefield gradient-based seismic wavefield separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Renterghem, C.; Schmelzbach, C.; Sollberger, D.; Robertsson, J. OA

    2018-03-01

    Measurements of the horizontal and vertical components of particle motion combined with estimates of the spatial gradients of the seismic wavefield enable seismic data to be acquired and processed using single dedicated multicomponent stations (e.g. rotational sensors) and/or small receiver groups instead of large receiver arrays. Here, we present seismic wavefield decomposition techniques that use spatial wavefield gradient data to separate land and ocean bottom data into their upgoing/downgoing and P/S constituents. Our method is based on the elastodynamic representation theorem with the derived filters requiring local measurements of the wavefield and its spatial gradients only. We demonstrate with synthetic data and a land seismic field data example that combining translational measurements with spatial wavefield gradient estimates allows separating seismic data recorded either at the Earth's free-surface or at the sea bottom into upgoing/downgoing and P/S wavefield constituents for typical incidence angle ranges of body waves. A key finding is that the filter application only requires knowledge of the elastic properties exactly at the recording locations and is valid for a wide elastic property range.

  10. Damage Characterization of EBC-SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high temperature capabilities, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components are being developed for use in hot-section aerospace engine applications. Harsh engine environments have led to the development of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for silicon-based CMCs to further increase thermal and environmental capabilities. This study aims at understanding the damage mechanisms associated with these materials under simulated operating conditions. A high heat-flux laser testing rig capable of imposing large through-thickness thermal gradients by means of controlled laser beam heating and back-side air cooling is used. Tests are performed on uncoated composites, as well as CMC substrates that have been coated with state-of-the-art ceramic EBC systems. Results show that the use of the EBCs may help increase temperature capability and creep resistance by reducing the effects of stressed oxidation and environmental degradation. Also, the ability of electrical resistance (ER) and acoustic emission (AE) measurements to monitor material condition and damage state during high temperature testing is shown; suggesting their usefulness as a valuable health monitoring technique. Micromechanics models are used to describe the localized stress state of the composite system, which is utilized along with ER modeling concepts to develop an electromechanical model capable of characterizing material behavior.

  11. High Thermal Gradient in Thermo-electrochemical Cells by Insertion of a Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Syed Waqar; Said, Suhana Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Hashim, Nur Awanis; Hasnan, Megat Muhammad Ikhsan Megat; Pringle, Jennifer M.; Macfarlane, Douglas R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermo-Electrochemical cells (Thermocells/TECs) transform thermal energy into electricity by means of electrochemical potential disequilibrium between electrodes induced by a temperature gradient (ΔT). Heat conduction across the terminals of the cell is one of the primary reasons for device inefficiency. Herein, we embed Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) membrane in thermocells to mitigate the heat transfer effects - we refer to these membrane-thermocells as MTECs. At a ΔT of 12 K, an improvement in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the TEC from 1.3 mV to 2.8 mV is obtained by employment of the membrane. The PVDF membrane is employed at three different locations between the electrodes i.e. x = 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm where ‘x’ defines the distance between the cathode and PVDF membrane. We found that the membrane position at x = 5 mm achieves the closest internal ΔT (i.e. 8.8 K) to the externally applied ΔT of 10 K and corresponding power density is 254 nWcm-2 78% higher than the conventional TEC. Finally, a thermal resistivity model based on infrared thermography explains mass and heat transfer within the thermocells.

  12. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., <10 km), the acoustic wave field densely samples properties of the water column over the width of the receiver array. A method, referred to as ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  13. Role of Ocean Initial Conditions to Diminish Dry Bias in the Seasonal Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: A Case Study Using Climate Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koul, Vimal; Parekh, Anant; Srinivas, G.; Kakatkar, Rashmi; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2018-03-01

    Coupled models tend to underestimate Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall over most of the Indian subcontinent. Present study demonstrates that a part of dry bias is arising from the discrepancies in Oceanic Initial Conditions (OICs). Two hindcast experiments are carried out using Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) for summer monsoons of 2012-2014 in which two different OICs are utilized. With respect to first experiment (CTRL), second experiment (AcSAL) differs by two aspects: usage of high-resolution atmospheric forcing and assimilation of only ARGO observed temperature and salinity profiles for OICs. Assessment of OICs indicates that the quality of OICs is enhanced due to assimilation of actual salinity profiles. Analysis reveals that AcSAL experiment showed 10% reduction in the dry bias over the Indian land region during the ISM compared to CTRL. This improvement is consistently apparent in each month and is highest for June. The better representation of upper ocean thermal structure of tropical oceans at initial stage supports realistic upper ocean stability and mixing. Which in fact reduced the dominant cold bias over the ocean, feedback to air-sea interactions and land sea thermal contrast resulting better representation of monsoon circulation and moisture transport. This reduced bias of tropospheric moisture and temperature over the Indian land mass and also produced better tropospheric temperature gradient over land as well as ocean. These feedback processes reduced the dry bias in the ISM rainfall. Study concludes that initializing the coupled models with realistic OICs can reduce the underestimation of ISM rainfall prediction.

  14. Unlocking Electric Power in the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwood, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Cruising or stationary ocean thermal plants could convert the vast heat energy of the ocean into electricity for islands and underdeveloped countries. This approach to energy conservation is described with suggestions for design and outputs of plants. A model project operating in Hawaii is noted. (DH)

  15. A global ocean climatology of preindustrial and modern ocean δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eide, Marie; Olsen, Are; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.; Johannessen, Truls

    2017-03-01

    We present a global ocean climatology of dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C (‰) corrected for the 13C-Suess effect, preindustrial δ13C. This was constructed by first using Olsen and Ninnemann's (2010) back-calculation method on data from 25 World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises to reconstruct the preindustrial δ13C on sections spanning all major oceans. Next, we developed five multilinear regression equations, one for each major ocean basin, which were applied on the World Ocean Atlas data to construct the climatology. This reveals the natural δ13C distribution in the global ocean. Compared to the modern distribution, the preindustrial δ13C spans a larger range of values. The maxima, of up to 1.8‰, occurs in the subtropical gyres of all basins, in the upper and intermediate waters of the North Atlantic, as well as in mode waters with a Southern Ocean origin. Particularly strong gradients occur at intermediate depths, revealing a strong potential for using δ13C as a tracer for changes in water mass geometry at these levels. Further, we identify a much tighter relationship between δ13C and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) than between δ13C and phosphate. This arises because, in contrast to phosphate, AOU and δ13C are both partly reset when waters are ventilated in the Southern Ocean and underscore that δ13C is a highly robust proxy for past changes in ocean oxygen content and ocean ventilation. Our global preindustrial δ13C climatology is openly accessible and can be used, for example, for improved model evaluation and interpretation of sediment δ13C records.

  16. Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Beman, J Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R; Popp, Brian N; Hutchins, David A

    2011-01-04

    Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO(2) emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05-0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r(2) = 0.87, P < 0.05). Across all experiments, rates declined by 8-38% in low pH treatments, and the greatest absolute decrease occurred where rates were highest off the California coast. Collectively our results suggest that ocean acidification could reduce nitrification rates by 3-44% within the next few decades, affecting oceanic nitrous oxide production, reducing supplies of oxidized nitrogen in the upper layers of the ocean, and fundamentally altering nitrogen cycling in the sea.

  17. Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Beman, J. Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L.; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hutchins, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO2 emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05–0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.05). Across all experiments, rates declined by 8–38% in low pH treatments, and the greatest absolute decrease occurred where rates were highest off the California coast. Collectively our results suggest that ocean acidification could reduce nitrification rates by 3–44% within the next few decades, affecting oceanic nitrous oxide production, reducing supplies of oxidized nitrogen in the upper layers of the ocean, and fundamentally altering nitrogen cycling in the sea. PMID:21173255

  18. Horizontal Trends in Larval Fish Diversity and Abundance Along an Ocean-Estuarine Gradient on the Northern KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. A.; Cyrus, D. P.; Beckley, L. E.

    2001-08-01

    The structure of the larval fish assemblages along an ocean-estuarine gradient in the St Lucia region on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast of South Africa was examined using a combination of univariate, distributional and multivariate techniques. The data was comprised of a full annual set of ichthyoplankton samples taken from three types of environment: nearshore coastal waters, surf zone and within the St Lucia Estuary itself. The mean monthly densities of each species in each environment were used in the species matrix, and the mean monthly values of salinity, temperature and turbidity were used in the physical variables matrix. The mean species diversity and eveness index was significantly higher in the nearshore waters than the surf zone and estuary. The patterns of relative species abundances in each environment (K-dominance curves) showed that the estuarine environment was dominated by a few species in large numbers, the surf zone was intermediate, and the nearshore coast was the most diverse. Classification and multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination analyses of larval fish densities grouped together into three main clusters based on the three different environments. The species similarity matrix (inverse analysis) clustered into four groups at the 10% similarity level. The MDS analysis of the same matrix showed that the groups separated out more or less according to the type of environment they occur in, and hence the level of estuarine dependence of the various species. Species belonging to each assemblage showed similarities with regards to their reproduction modes and/or preference to a particular physical condition. Some species were restricted to one environment, whilst others were common to two or all three environments. The occurrence of partially estuarine-dependent species in all three environments suggests that ocean-estuarine coupling is an important process for the recruitment success of these species. The ' best fitting ' physical variable

  19. CNT based thermal Brownian motor to pump water in nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Brownian molecular motors are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations for directional motion by employing mechanisms such as the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet. In this study, using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics, we propose a novel thermal Brownian motor for pumping water through Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). To achieve this we impose a thermal gradient along the axis of a CNT filled with water and impose, in addition, a spatial asymmetry by fixing specific zones on the CNT in order to modify the vibrational modes of the CNT. We find that the temperature gradient and imposed spatial asymmetry drive the water flow in a preferential direction. We systematically modified the magnitude of the applied thermal gradient and the axial position of the fixed points. The analysis involves measurement of the vibrational modes in the CNTs using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. We observed water flow in CNTs of 0.94, 1.4 and 2.0 nm in diameter, reaching a maximum velocity of 5 m/s for a thermal gradient of 3.3 K/nm. The proposed thermal motor is capable of delivering a continuous flow throughout a CNT, providing a useful tool for driving liquids in nanofluidic devices by exploiting thermal gradients. We aknowledge partial support from Fondecyt project 11130559.

  20. How strange was the Strangelove Ocean? New insights from Boron Isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henehan, M. J.; Ridgwell, A.; Thomas, E.; Zhang, S.; Planavsky, N.; Alegret, L.; Schmidt, D. N.; Rae, J. W. B.; Foster, G. L.; Huber, B. T.; Hull, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    The idea of the `Strangelove Ocean'1 has captured the imagination of palaeoceanographers (and the public) since it was posited to explain the collapse or reverse in surface-deep ocean δ13C gradients after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) boundary1. It describes a post-extinction ocean where primary productivity was drastically reduced, eliminating the surface-to-deep carbon isotope gradient produced by the biological pump. Survival of benthic foraminifera across the K-Pg (suggesting a persistent supply of organic matter to the deep) is difficult to reconcile with this ideae.g. 2. Geochemical proxies also suggest that severe export productivity reductions were at most regional3. This mismatch between patterns in δ13C and other indicators has thus been interpreted as a signal of changing vital effects in post-extinction pelagic calcifiers, toward lighter δ13C e.g. 2. However, it may be that vital effects in earliest Palaeocene foraminiferal survivors can account for only part of the convergence in δ13C between surface and deep ocean.4 In addition, analysis of carbonate preservation after the K-Pg boundary indicates large-scale carbonate system/ocean pH shifts at this time5, which could have produced secular changes in carbon isotope signals. Here we present new paired benthic and planktic boron isotope measurements that allow us to examine surface to deep ocean pH gradients (which in today's ocean are driven largely by biological activity) across the K-Pg boundary interval and into the early Palaeocene. We then couple these to model simulations to untangle the carbon cycle drivers, both physical and biological, that could have caused these changes in ocean pH gradients. We discuss implications for our understanding of this important interval in Earth history, with reference to the mechanisms of Earth system recovery following mass extinction. References:1. Hsü, K. J. & McKenzie, J. A., 1985. AGU Geophysical Monograph Series 32. doi:10.1029/GM032p0487 2. Alegret

  1. Thermal tolerance in the Andean toad Rhinella spinulosa (Anura: Bufonidae) at three sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Chile.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Nicza Alveal; Díaz-Páez, Helen; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is one of the anuran species with the greatest presence in Chile. This species mainly inhabits mountain habitats and is distributed latitudinally along the western slope of the Andes Range. These habitats undergo great temperature fluctuations, exerting pressure on the amphibian. To identify the physiological strategies and thermal behavior of this species, we analyzed the temperature variables CTmin, CTmax, TTR, τheat, and τcool in individuals of three sites from a latitudinal gradient (22°S to 37°S). The amphibians were acclimated to 10°C and 20°C and fed ad libitum. The results indicate that the species has a high thermal tolerance range, with a mean of 38.14±1.34°C, a critical thermal maxima of 34.6-41.4°C, and a critical thermal minima of 2.6-0.8°C, classifying the species as eurythermic. Furthermore, there were significant differences in CTmáx and TTR only in the northern site. The differences in thermal time constants between sites are due to the effects of size and body mass. For example, those from the central site had larger size and greater thermal inertia; therefore, they warmed and cooled in a slower manner. The wide thermal limits determined in R. spinulosa confirm that it is a thermo-generalist species, a characteristic that allows the species to survive in adverse microclimatic conditions. The level of plasticity in critical temperatures seems ecologically relevant and supports the acclimatization of thermal limits as an important factor for ectothermic animals to adapt to climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateral Temperature-Gradient Method for High-Throughput Characterization of Material Processing by Millisecond Laser Annealing.

    PubMed

    Bell, Robert T; Jacobs, Alan G; Sorg, Victoria C; Jung, Byungki; Hill, Megan O; Treml, Benjamin E; Thompson, Michael O

    2016-09-12

    A high-throughput method for characterizing the temperature dependence of material properties following microsecond to millisecond thermal annealing, exploiting the temperature gradients created by a lateral gradient laser spike anneal (lgLSA), is presented. Laser scans generate spatial thermal gradients of up to 5 °C/μm with peak temperatures ranging from ambient to in excess of 1400 °C, limited only by laser power and materials thermal limits. Discrete spatial property measurements across the temperature gradient are then equivalent to independent measurements after varying temperature anneals. Accurate temperature calibrations, essential to quantitative analysis, are critical and methods for both peak temperature and spatial/temporal temperature profile characterization are presented. These include absolute temperature calibrations based on melting and thermal decomposition, and time-resolved profiles measured using platinum thermistors. A variety of spatially resolved measurement probes, ranging from point-like continuous profiling to large area sampling, are discussed. Examples from annealing of III-V semiconductors, CdSe quantum dots, low-κ dielectrics, and block copolymers are included to demonstrate the flexibility, high throughput, and precision of this technique.

  3. Along-axis hydrothermal flow at the axis of slow spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges: Insights from numerical models of the Lucky Strike vent field (MAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Fabrice J.; Cannat, Mathilde; Escartin, Javier; Crawford, Wayne C.

    2014-07-01

    processes and efficiency of hydrothermal heat extraction along the axis of mid-ocean ridges are controlled by lithospheric thermal and permeability structures. Hydrothermal circulation models based on the structure of fast and intermediate spreading ridges predict that hydrothermal cell organization and vent site distribution are primarily controlled by the thermodynamics of high-temperature mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids. Using recent constraints on shallow structure at the slow spreading Lucky Strike segment along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, we present a physical model of hydrothermal cooling that incorporates the specificities of a magma-rich slow spreading environment. Using three-dimensional numerical models, we show that, in contrast to the aforementioned models, the subsurface flow at Lucky Strike is primarily controlled by across-axis permeability variations. Models with across-axis permeability gradients produce along-axis oriented hydrothermal cells and an alternating pattern of heat extraction highs and lows that match the distribution of microseismic clusters recorded at the Lucky Strike axial volcano. The flow is also influenced by temperature gradients at the base of the permeable hydrothermal domain. Although our models are based on the structure and seismicity of the Lucky Strike segment, across-axis permeability gradients are also likely to occur at faster spreading ridges and these results may also have important implications for the cooling of young crust at fast and intermediate spreading centers.

  4. The US Navy Coupled Ocean-Wave Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Stokes drift to be the dominant wave effect and that it increased surface drift speeds by 35% and veered the current in the direction of the wind...ocean model has been modified to incorporate the effect of the Stokes drift current, wave radiation stresses due to horizontal gradients of the momentum...for fourth-order differences for horizontal baroclinic pressure gradients and for interpolation of Coriolis terms. There is an option to use the

  5. Drift in ocean currents impacts intergenerational microbial exposure to temperature

    PubMed Central

    Doblin, Martina A.; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are the foundation of marine ecosystems [Falkowski PG, Fenchel T, Delong EF (2008) Science 320(5879):1034–1039]. Until now, the analytical framework for understanding the implications of ocean warming on microbes has not considered thermal exposure during transport in dynamic seascapes, implying that our current view of change for these critical organisms may be inaccurate. Here we show that upper-ocean microbes experience along-trajectory temperature variability up to 10 °C greater than seasonal fluctuations estimated in a static frame, and that this variability depends strongly on location. These findings demonstrate that drift in ocean currents can increase the thermal exposure of microbes and suggests that microbial populations with broad thermal tolerance will survive transport to distant regions of the ocean and invade new habitats. Our findings also suggest that advection has the capacity to influence microbial community assemblies, such that regions with strong currents and large thermal fluctuations select for communities with greatest plasticity and evolvability, and communities with narrow thermal performance are found where ocean currents are weak or along-trajectory temperature variation is low. Given that fluctuating environments select for individual plasticity in microbial lineages, and that physiological plasticity of ancestors can predict the magnitude of evolutionary responses of subsequent generations to environmental change [Schaum CE, Collins S (2014) Proc Biol Soc 281(1793):20141486], our findings suggest that microbial populations in the sub-Antarctic (∼40°S), North Pacific, and North Atlantic will have the most capacity to adapt to contemporary ocean warming. PMID:27140608

  6. Drift in ocean currents impacts intergenerational microbial exposure to temperature.

    PubMed

    Doblin, Martina A; van Sebille, Erik

    2016-05-17

    Microbes are the foundation of marine ecosystems [Falkowski PG, Fenchel T, Delong EF (2008) Science 320(5879):1034-1039]. Until now, the analytical framework for understanding the implications of ocean warming on microbes has not considered thermal exposure during transport in dynamic seascapes, implying that our current view of change for these critical organisms may be inaccurate. Here we show that upper-ocean microbes experience along-trajectory temperature variability up to 10 °C greater than seasonal fluctuations estimated in a static frame, and that this variability depends strongly on location. These findings demonstrate that drift in ocean currents can increase the thermal exposure of microbes and suggests that microbial populations with broad thermal tolerance will survive transport to distant regions of the ocean and invade new habitats. Our findings also suggest that advection has the capacity to influence microbial community assemblies, such that regions with strong currents and large thermal fluctuations select for communities with greatest plasticity and evolvability, and communities with narrow thermal performance are found where ocean currents are weak or along-trajectory temperature variation is low. Given that fluctuating environments select for individual plasticity in microbial lineages, and that physiological plasticity of ancestors can predict the magnitude of evolutionary responses of subsequent generations to environmental change [Schaum CE, Collins S (2014) Proc Biol Soc 281(1793):20141486], our findings suggest that microbial populations in the sub-Antarctic (∼40°S), North Pacific, and North Atlantic will have the most capacity to adapt to contemporary ocean warming.

  7. Satellite and Ocean Model Analysis of Thermal Conditions Affecting Coral Reefs in the Western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Delgado, Z.; Ummenhofer, C.; Swales, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    Corals are thought to be one of the smallest yet most productive ecosystems in the world. They have great economic and ecological value, but are increasingly affected by anthropogenic, biological and physical threats, such as a rise in sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification due to an increase in CO2 in the atmosphere, among other factors. Here, specific events are investigated that likely exerted significant stress on corals, focusing particularly on unusual climatic conditions in the Western Indian Ocean during the 2001 to 2007 period as reflected by anomalies in degree heating weeks, hotspots and SST. Anomalous conditions in subsurface temperatures and mixed layer depth across the Indian Ocean region are also examined. We do this by using monthly, year-to-date, and annual composites of twice-weekly 50-km satellite coral bleaching monitoring products from the NOAA Coral Reef Watch and complementing it with output from a high-resolution global ocean model hindcast (1948-2007) forced with observed atmospheric forcing. Two years stand out in our analysis for the satellite data and model output: 2003 and 2005 exhibit strong warming in the Western Indian Ocean and cooling in the East. To establish the physical mechanisms giving rise to the unusual conditions and hotspot origins in 2003 and 2005 we also evaluate regional circulation changes in the Western Indian Ocean.

  8. Causes of strong ocean heating during glacial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    During the last deglaciation period, the strongest climate changes occurred across the North Atlantic regions. Analyses of borehole temperatures from the Greenland ice sheet have yielded air temperature change estimates of 25°C over the deglaciation period (Dahl-Jensen et al. 1998). Such huge temperature changes cannot currently be explained in the frames of modern knowledge about climate. We propose that glacial-interglacial cycles are connected with gradual warming of ocean interior waters over the course of glaciations and quick transport of accumulated heat from ocean to the atmosphere during the deglaciation periods. Modern day ocean circulation is dominated by thermal convection with cold waters subsiding in the Northern Atlantic and filling up the ocean interior with cold and heavy water. However during the glaciation thermal circulation stopped and ocean circulation was driven by 'haline pumps' -Red and Mediterranean seas connected with ocean with only narrow but deep straights acts as evaporative basins, separating ocean water into fresh water which returns to the ocean surface (precipitation) and warm but salty, and therefore heavy, water which flows down to the ocean floor. This haline pump is stratifying the ocean, allowing warmer water locate under the colder water and thus stopping thermal convection in the ocean. Additional ocean interior warming is driven by geothermal heat flux and decomposition of organic rain. To test the hypothesis we present simple ocean box model that describes thermohaline circulation in the World Ocean. The first box is the Red and Mediterranean sea, the second is united high-latitude seas, the third is the ocean surface, and the fourth the ocean interior. The volume of these water masses and straight cross-sections are taken to be close to real values. We have accepted that the exchange of water between boxes is proportional to the difference in water density in these boxes, Sun energy inputs to the ocean and sea surface

  9. Experimental evidence of temperature gradients in cavitating microflows seeded with thermosensitive nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayela, Frédéric; Medrano-Muñoz, Manuel; Amans, David; Dujardin, Christophe; Brichart, Thomas; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Ledoux, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    Thermosensitive fluorescent nanoparticles seeded in deionized water combined with confocal microscopy enables thermal mapping over three dimensions of the liquid phase flowing through a microchannel interrupted by a microdiaphragm. This experiment reveals the presence of a strong thermal gradient up to ˜105 K/m only when hydrodynamic cavitation is present. Here hydrodynamic cavitation is the consequence of high shear rates downstream in the diaphragm. This temperature gradient is located in vortical structures associated with eddies in the shear layers. We attribute such overheating to the dissipation involved by the cavitating flow regime. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the microsizes of the device enhance the intensity of the thermal gap.

  10. From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in hydrothermal vent systems where the reducing, heated hydrothermal fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline hydrothermal vents have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the hydrothermal pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic hydrothermal precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in hydrothermal systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the vent fluid / seawater interface. Hydrothermal chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline vent have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar

  11. Suppression of electron temperature gradient turbulence via negative magnetic shear in NSTX.

    PubMed

    Yuh, H Y; Kaye, S M; Levinton, F M; Mazzucato, E; Mikkelsen, D R; Smith, D R; Bell, R E; Hosea, J C; LeBlanc, B P; Peterson, J L; Park, H K; Lee, W

    2011-02-04

    Negative magnetic shear is found to suppress electron turbulence and improve electron thermal transport for plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Sufficiently negative magnetic shear results in a transition out of a stiff profile regime. Density fluctuation measurements from high-k microwave scattering are verified to be the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode by matching measured rest frequency and linear growth rate to gyrokinetic calculations. Fluctuation suppression under negligible E×B shear conditions confirm that negative magnetic shear alone is sufficient for ETG suppression. Measured electron temperature gradients can significantly exceed ETG critical gradients with ETG mode activity reduced to intermittent bursts, while electron thermal diffusivity improves to below 0.1 electron gyro-Bohms.

  12. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative modification has been made to a previously patented design for the Phase Change Material (PCM) Thermal Generator, which works in water where ocean temperature alternatively melts wax in canisters, or allows the wax to re-solidify, causing high-pressure oil to flow through a hydraulic generator, thus creating electricity to charge a battery that powers the vehicle. In this modification, a similar thermal PCM device has been created that is heated and cooled by the air and solar radiation instead of using ocean temperature differences to change the PCM from solid to liquid. This innovation allows the device to use thermal energy to generate electricity on land, instead of just in the ocean.

  13. Pulsed-field-gradient measurements of time-dependent gas diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Cory, D. G.; Peled, S.; Tseng, C. H.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Pulsed-field-gradient NMR techniques are demonstrated for measurements of time-dependent gas diffusion. The standard PGSE technique and variants, applied to a free gas mixture of thermally polarized xenon and O2, are found to provide a reproducible measure of the xenon diffusion coefficient (5.71 x 10(-6) m2 s-1 for 1 atm of pure xenon), in excellent agreement with previous, non-NMR measurements. The utility of pulsed-field-gradient NMR techniques is demonstrated by the first measurement of time-dependent (i.e., restricted) gas diffusion inside a porous medium (a random pack of glass beads), with results that agree well with theory. Two modified NMR pulse sequences derived from the PGSE technique (named the Pulsed Gradient Echo, or PGE, and the Pulsed Gradient Multiple Spin Echo, or PGMSE) are also applied to measurements of time dependent diffusion of laser polarized xenon gas, with results in good agreement with previous measurements on thermally polarized gas. The PGMSE technique is found to be superior to the PGE method, and to standard PGSE techniques and variants, for efficiently measuring laser polarized noble gas diffusion over a wide range of diffusion times. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Dynamical excitation of the tropical Pacific Ocean and ENSO variability by Little Ice Age cooling.

    PubMed

    Rustic, Gerald T; Koutavas, Athanasios; Marchitto, Thomas M; Linsley, Braddock K

    2015-12-18

    Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to a lack of evidence from the eastern equatorial Pacific. We reconstructed sea surface temperature, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity, and the tropical Pacific zonal gradient for the past millennium from Galápagos ocean sediments. We document a mid-millennium shift (MMS) in ocean-atmosphere circulation around 1500-1650 CE, from a state with dampened ENSO and strong zonal gradient to one with amplified ENSO and weak gradient. The MMS coincided with the deepest LIA cooling and was probably caused by a southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone. The peak of the MCA (900-1150 CE) was a warm period in the eastern Pacific, contradicting the paradigm of a persistent La Niña pattern. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Temperature Versus Salinity Gradients Below the Ocean Mixed Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    where salinity controls the depth of the mixed layer are understood to have “barrier” layers [Lukas and Lindstrom , 1991], where the depth of vertically...the horizontal. For example, Rudnick and Martin [2002] have shown that the ocean mixed layer at sub-mesoscales is horizontally well density compensated...Res., 102, 23,063–23,078, doi:10.1029/97JC01443. Barron, C. N., A. B. Kara, P. J. Martin , R. C. Rhodes, and L. F. Smedstad (2006), Formulation

  16. Use of vertical temperature gradients for prediction of tidal flat sediment characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Holland, K. Todd; Reed, Allen H.; Abelev, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Sediment characteristics largely govern tidal flat morphologic evolution; however, conventional methods of investigating spatial variability in lithology on tidal flats are difficult to employ in these highly dynamic regions. In response, a series of laboratory experiments was designed to investigate the use of temperature diffusion toward sediment characterization. A vertical thermistor array was used to quantify temperature gradients in simulated tidal flat sediments of varying compositions. Thermal conductivity estimates derived from these arrays were similar to measurements from a standard heated needle probe, which substantiates the thermistor methodology. While the thermal diffusivities of dry homogeneous sediments were similar, diffusivities for saturated homogeneous sediments ranged approximately one order of magnitude. The thermal diffusivity of saturated sand was five times the thermal diffusivity of saturated kaolin and more than eight times the thermal diffusivity of saturated bentonite. This suggests that vertical temperature gradients can be used for distinguishing homogeneous saturated sands from homogeneous saturated clays and perhaps even between homogeneous saturated clay types. However, experiments with more realistic tidal flat mixtures were less discriminating. Relationships between thermal diffusivity and percent fines for saturated mixtures varied depending upon clay composition, indicating that clay hydration and/or water content controls thermal gradients. Furthermore, existing models for the bulk conductivity of sediment mixtures were improved only through the use of calibrated estimates of homogeneous end-member conductivity and water content values. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed observations of water content and thermal diffusivity could only be used to qualitatively estimate tidal flat sediment characteristics.

  17. The Effect of Large Scale Salinity Gradient on Langmuir Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Jarosz, E.; Yu, Z.; Jensen, T.; Sullivan, P. P.; Liang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Langmuir circulation (LC) is believed to be one of the leading order causes of turbulent mixing in the upper ocean. It is important for momentum and heat exchange across the mixed layer (ML) and directly impact the dynamics and thermodynamics in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere including the vertical distributions of chemical, biological, optical, and acoustic properties. Based on Craik and Leibovich (1976) theory, large eddy simulation (LES) models have been developed to simulate LC in the upper ocean, yielding new insights that could not be obtained from field observations and turbulent closure models. Due its high computational cost, LES models are usually limited to small domain sizes and cannot resolve large-scale flows. Furthermore, most LES models used in the LC simulations use periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal direction, which assumes the physical properties (i.e. temperature and salinity) and expected flow patterns in the area of interest are of a periodically repeating nature so that the limited small LES domain is representative for the larger area. Using periodic boundary condition can significantly reduce computational effort in problems, and it is a good assumption for isotropic shear turbulence. However, LC is anisotropic (McWilliams et al 1997) and was observed to be modulated by crosswind tidal currents (Kukulka et al 2011). Using symmetrical domains, idealized LES studies also indicate LC could interact with oceanic fronts (Hamlington et al 2014) and standing internal waves (Chini and Leibovich, 2005). The present study expands our previous LES modeling investigations of Langmuir turbulence to the real ocean conditions with large scale environmental motion that features fresh water inflow into the study region. Large scale gradient forcing is introduced to the NCAR LES model through scale separation analysis. The model is applied to a field observation in the Gulf of Mexico in July, 2016 when the measurement site was impacted by

  18. Diversity in thermal affinity among key piscivores buffers impacts of ocean warming on predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    Selden, Rebecca L; Batt, Ryan D; Saba, Vincent S; Pinsky, Malin L

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetries in responses to climate change have the potential to alter important predator-prey interactions, in part by altering the location and size of spatial refugia for prey. We evaluated the effect of ocean warming on interactions between four important piscivores and four of their prey in the U.S. Northeast Shelf by examining species overlap under historical conditions (1968-2014) and with a doubling in CO 2 . Because both predator and prey shift their distributions in response to changing ocean conditions, the net impact of warming or cooling on predator-prey interactions was not determined a priori from the range extent of either predator or prey alone. For Atlantic cod, an historically dominant piscivore in the region, we found that both historical and future warming led to a decline in the proportion of prey species' range it occupied and caused a potential reduction in its ability to exert top-down control on these prey. In contrast, the potential for overlap of spiny dogfish with prey species was enhanced by warming, expanding their importance as predators in this system. In sum, the decline in the ecological role for cod that began with overfishing in this ecosystem will likely be exacerbated by warming, but this loss may be counteracted by the rise in dominance of other piscivores with contrasting thermal preferences. Functional diversity in thermal affinity within the piscivore guild may therefore buffer against the impact of warming on marine ecosystems, suggesting a novel mechanism by which diversity confers resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Changes in benthic ecosystems and ocean circulation in the Southeast Atlantic across Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennions, S. M.; Thomas, E.; Schmidt, D. N.; Lunt, D.; Ridgwell, A.

    2015-08-01

    Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) occurred 1.8 Myr after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and, like the PETM, was characterized by a negative carbon isotope excursion and warming. We combined benthic foraminiferal and sedimentological records for Southeast Atlantic Sites 1263 (1500 m paleodepth) and 1262 (3600 m paleodepth) to show that benthic foraminiferal diversity and accumulation rates declined more precipitously and severely at the shallower site during peak ETM2. As the sites are in close proximity, differences in surface productivity cannot have caused this differential effect. Instead, we infer that changes in ocean circulation across ETM2 may have produced more pronounced warming at intermediate depths (Site 1263). The effects of warming include increased metabolic rates, a decrease in effective food supply and increased deoxygenation, thus potentially explaining the more severe benthic impacts at Site 1263. In response, bioturbation may have decreased more at Site 1263 than at Site 1262, differentially affecting bulk carbonate records. We use a sediment-enabled Earth system model to test whether a reduction in bioturbation and/or the likely reduced carbonate saturation of more poorly ventilated waters can explain the more extreme excursion in bulk δ13C and sharper transition in wt % CaCO3 at Site 1263. We find that both enhanced acidification and reduced bioturbation during the ETM2 peak are needed to account for the observed features. Our combined ecological and modeling analysis illustrates the potential role of ocean circulation changes in amplifying local environmental changes and driving temporary, but drastic, loss of benthic biodiversity and abundance.

  20. Thermal stress analysis of symmetric shells subjected to asymmetric thermal loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negaard, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of the NASTRAN level 16.0 axisymmetric solid elements when subjected to both symmetric and asymmetric thermal loading was investigated. A ceramic radome was modeled using both the CTRAPRG and the CTRAPAX elements. The thermal loading applied contained severe gradients through the thickness of the shell. Both elements were found to be more sensitive to the effect of the thermal gradient than to the aspect ratio of the elements. Analysis using the CTRAPAX element predicted much higher thermal stresses than the analysis using the CTRAPRG element, prompting studies of models for which theoretical solutions could be calculated. It was found that the CTRAPRG element solutions were satisfactory, but that the CTRAPAX element was very geometry dependent. This element produced erroneous results if the geometry was allowed to vary from a rectangular cross-section. The most satisfactory solution found for this type of problem was to model a small segment of a symmetric structure with isoparametric solid elements and apply the cyclic symmetry option in NASTRAN.

  1. A paleo-perspective on ocean heat content: Lessons from the Holocene and Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Yair; Kalansky, Julie; Morley, Audrey; Linsley, Braddock

    2017-01-01

    The ocean constitutes the largest heat reservoir in the Earth's energy budget and thus exerts a major influence on its climate. Instrumental observations show an increase in ocean heat content (OHC) associated with the increase in greenhouse emissions. Here we review proxy records of intermediate water temperatures from sediment cores and corals in the equatorial Pacific and northeastern Atlantic Oceans, spanning 10,000 years beyond the instrumental record. These records suggests that intermediate waters were 1.5-2 °C warmer during the Holocene Thermal Maximum than in the last century. Intermediate water masses cooled by 0.9 °C from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age. These changes are significantly larger than the temperature anomalies documented in the instrumental record. The implied large perturbations in OHC and Earth's energy budget are at odds with very small radiative forcing anomalies throughout the Holocene and Common Era. We suggest that even very small radiative perturbations can change the latitudinal temperature gradient and strongly affect prevailing atmospheric wind systems and hence air-sea heat exchange. These dynamic processes provide an efficient mechanism to amplify small changes in insolation into relatively large changes in OHC. Over long time periods the ocean's interior acts like a capacitor and builds up large (positive and negative) heat anomalies that can mitigate or amplify small radiative perturbations as seen in the Holocene trend and Common Era anomalies, respectively. Evidently the ocean's interior is more sensitive to small external forcings than the global surface ocean because of the high sensitivity of heat exchange in the high-latitudes to climate variations.

  2. Enhanced terrestrial weathering/runoff and surface ocean carbonate production during the recovery stages of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, D. Clay; Zachos, James C.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Schellenberg, Stephen A.

    2005-12-01

    The carbonate saturation profile of the oceans shoaled markedly during a transient global warming event known as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) (circa 55 Ma). The rapid release of large quantities of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system is believed to have triggered this intense episode of dissolution along with a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). The brevity (120-220 kyr) of the PETM reflects the rapid enhancement of negative feedback mechanisms within Earth's exogenic carbon cycle that served the dual function of buffering ocean pH and reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels. Detailed study of the PETM stratigraphy from Ocean Drilling Program Site 690 (Weddell Sea) reveals that the CIE recovery period, which postdates the CIE onset by ˜80 kyr, is represented by an expanded (˜2.5 m thick) interval containing a unique planktic foraminiferal assemblage strongly diluted by coccolithophore carbonate. Collectively, the micropaleontological and sedimentological changes preserved within the CIE recovery interval reflect a transient state when ocean-atmosphere chemistry fostered prolific coccolithophore blooms that suppressed the local lysocline to relatively deeper depths. A prominent peak in the abundance of the clay mineral kaolinite is associated with the CIE recovery interval, indicating that continental weathering/runoff intensified at this time as well (Robert and Kennett, 1994). Such parallel stratigraphic changes are generally consonant with the hypothesis that enhanced continental weathering/runoff and carbonate precipitation helped sequester carbon during the PETM recovery period (e.g., Dickens et al., 1997; Zachos et al., 2005).

  3. Thermal Evolution of Juvenile Subduction Zones ' New Constraints from Lu-Hf Geochronology on HP oceanic rocks (Halilbaǧi, Central Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourteau, Amaury; Scherer, Erik; Schmidt, Alexander; Bast, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    The thermal structure of subduction zones plays a key role on mechanical and chemical processes taking place along the slab-mantle interface. Until now, changes through time of this thermal structure have been explored mostly by the means of numerical simulations. However, both "warm" (i.e., epidote-bearing), and "cold" (i.e., lawsonite-bearing) HP oceanic rocks have been reported in some fossil subduction complexes exposed at the Earth's surface (e.g., Franciscan Complex, California; Rio San Juan Complex, Hispañola; Halilbağı Unit, Central Anatolia). These a-priori "incompatible" rocks witness different thermal stages of ancient subduction zones and their study might provide complementary constraints to numerical models. To decipher the meaning of these contrasting metamorphic rocks in the Halilbağı Unit, we are carrying out Lu-Hf geochronology on garnet (grt) and lws from a variety of HP oceanic rocks, as well as the metamorphic sole of the overlying ophiolite. We selected five samples that are representative of the variety of metamorphic evolutions (i.e. peak conditions and P-T paths) encountered in this area. Preliminary analyses yielded 110 Ma (grt-hbl isochron) for a sub-ophiolitic grt amphibolite; 92 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogite with prograde and retrograde ep; 90 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogitic metabasite with prograde ep and retrograde ep+lws; 87 Ma (grt-gln) for a lws eclogite with prograde ep; and 86 Ma (grt-gln) for a blueschist with prograde and retrograde lws. These ages are mainly two-point isochrons. Further-refined data will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2015, in Vienna. The consistent younging trend from "warm" to "cold" metamorphic rocks revealed by these first-order results points to metamorphic-sole formation during the initiation of intra-oceanic subduction at ~110 Ma, and subsequent cooling of the slab-mantle interface between 92 and 86 Ma. Therefore, the contrasting metamorphic evolutions encountered in the Halilbağı Unit

  4. Losing a winner: thermal stress and local pressures outweigh the positive effects of ocean acidification for tropical seagrasses.

    PubMed

    Collier, Catherine J; Langlois, Lucas; Ow, Yan; Johansson, Charlotte; Giammusso, Manuela; Adams, Matthew P; O'Brien, Katherine R; Uthicke, Sven

    2018-06-01

    Seagrasses are globally important coastal habitat-forming species, yet it is unknown how seagrasses respond to the combined pressures of ocean acidification and warming of sea surface temperature. We exposed three tropical species of seagrass (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri) to increasing temperature (21, 25, 30, and 35°C) and pCO 2 (401, 1014, and 1949 μatm) for 7 wk in mesocosms using a controlled factorial design. Shoot density and leaf extension rates were recorded, and plant productivity and respiration were measured at increasing light levels (photosynthesis-irradiance curves) using oxygen optodes. Shoot density, growth, photosynthetic rates, and plant-scale net productivity occurred at 25°C or 30°C under saturating light levels. High pCO 2 enhanced maximum net productivity for Z. muelleri, but not in other species. Z. muelleri was the most thermally tolerant as it maintained positive net production to 35°C, yet for the other species there was a sharp decline in productivity, growth, and shoot density at 35°C, which was exacerbated by pCO 2 . These results suggest that thermal stress will not be offset by ocean acidification during future extreme heat events and challenges the current hypothesis that tropical seagrass will be a 'winner' under future climate change conditions. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. The Warming Hiatus, Natural Variability and Thermal Ocean Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, A.; Moron, V.; Robertson, A. W.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Ghil, M.

    2015-12-01

    Long before the recent concern with the warming hiatus, Ghil and Vautard (1991, Nature) stated at the end of their abstract that "The oscillatory components [in global temperature time series] have combined (peak-to-peak) amplitudes of 0.2°C, and therefore limit our ability to predict whether the inferred secular warming of 0.005°C/yr will continue." Present capabilities of the advanced spectral methods introduced into the global warming problem by that paper permit us now to consider oscillatory aspects of natural variability in much greater detail. In a multivariate analysis of the upper-ocean thermal structure, we examine properties of the recent long-term changes and of the naturally occurring global-climate fluctuations on interannual-to-interdecadal time scales. M. Ghil and associates (Ghil and Vautard 1991; Plaut et al. 1995, Science; Ghil et al. 2002, Rev. Geophys.), among others, have argued that this natural variability has some regularity embedded into it. Although the existence of such regularity on the interannual time scale is fairly well established by now, evidence for similar regularity on decadal and interdecadal time scales is more difficult to establish, due to the shortness of instrumental temperature data. To identify spatio-temporal patterns, we rely on the method of multichannel singular spectrum analysis [M-SSA; see Ghil et al. (2002) for a review] and on its recent improvements that help separate distinct patterns (Groth and Ghil 2011, Phys. Rev. E; Groth and Ghil 2015, J. Climate). Results on the temperature field from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis (Carton and Giese 2008, Mon. Wea. Rev.; Giese and Ray 2011, J. Geophys. Res.) will be shown and contrasted with results on the HadCRUT surface temperature dataset (Morice et al. 2012, J. Geophys. Res.). We will focus, in particular, on the robustness of the geographical distribution of long-term changes in both data sets and discuss the significance of superimposed

  6. The effects of SST Gradients on Tropical Convective Systems and Implications for Tropical Cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, R.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hart, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been known that generally the warmer the sea surface temperature (SST), the more possible tropical cyclone (TC) genesis is, assuming the atmosphere is supportive. The conventional wisdom has been that - apart from what the TC cools through upwelling -- one value of SST represents the state of the ocean surface in the region of the storm's inner circulation. With the advent of the satellite era and fine resolution SST datasets now becoming available, we know that in reality there are gradients of SST across which developing TCs move. The influence of those gradients on tropical convection and TC genesis is largely unknown at this time. Previous studies have shown that SST gradients can significantly impact the overlying ocean surface winds leading to areas of enhanced convergence/divergence and Vorticity (Chelton et al. 2004; O'Neill et al. 2005, 2010). The magnitude of this effect approximately increases as the surface wind increases. Work by Minobe et al. (2008) concluded that a sharp SST Gradient, over the Gulf Stream for instance, could produce enough surface wind convergence to maintain a band of precipitation along the ocean front. An analysis of satellite derived SST data over the Atlantic shows that it is not uncommon for SST gradients of 2 C/200km or more to exist in the immediate environment of a Tropical System. The authors seek to understand whether the conclusions made in previous works can be applied in the case of a developing Tropical System and whether SST Gradients exist in the Tropical Atlantic to a degree that would influence the cyclogenesis process. To address this, the effects of SST gradients on tropical cyclogenesis processes are investigated using model simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). WRF is run at cloud permitting scales (2km) for real cases of co-location between a tropical system and an SST gradient exceeding 2 C/200km in the environment of the system. In subsequent runs to this control run

  7. Thermal Management Techniques for Oil-Free Turbomachinery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radil, Kevin; DellaCorte, Chris; Zeszotek, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Tests were performed to evaluate three different methods of utilizing air to provide thermal management control for compliant journal foil air bearings. The effectiveness of the methods was based on bearing bulk temperature and axial thermal gradient reductions during air delivery. The first method utilized direct impingement of air on the inner surface of a hollow test journal during operation. The second, less indirect method achieved heat removal by blowing air inside the test journal to simulate air flowing axially through a hollow, rotating shaft. The third method emulated the most common approach to removing heat by forcing air axially through the bearing s support structure. Internal bearing temperatures were measured with three, type K thermocouples embedded in the bearing that measured general internal temperatures and axial thermal gradients. Testing was performed in a 1 atm, 260 C ambient environment with the bearing operating at 60 krpm and supporting a load of 222 N. Air volumetric flows of 0.06, 0.11, and 0.17 cubic meters per minute at approximately 150 to 200 C were used. The tests indicate that all three methods provide thermal management but at different levels of effectiveness. Axial cooling of the bearing support structure had a greater effect on bulk temperature for each air flow and demonstrated that the thermal gradients could be influenced by the directionality of the air flow. Direct air impingement on the journal's inside surface provided uniform reductions in both bulk temperature and thermal gradients. Similar to the direct method, indirect journal cooling had a uniform cooling effect on both bulk temperatures and thermal gradients but was the least effective of the three methods.

  8. A Computational Approach to Modeling Magma Ocean Evolution in 2-D and 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.; Louro Lourenço, D. J.; Fomin, I.

    2017-12-01

    Models of magma ocean evolution have typically been performed in 1-D (e.g. Abe, PEPI 1997; Solomatov and Stevenson, JGR 1993; Elkins-Tanton EPSL 2008). However, 1-D models may miss important aspects of the process, in particular the possible development of solid-state convection before the magma ocean has completely crystallised, and possible large-scale overturn driven by thermal and/or compositional gradients. On the other hand, fully resolving magma ocean evolution in 2-D or 3-D would be extremely challenging due to the small time-scales and length-scales associated with turbulent convection in the magma and the extreme viscosity contrast between regions of high melt fraction and regions of low melt fraction, which are separated by a rheological threshold associated with the solid forming an interconnected matrix. Here, an intermediate approach to treat these has been implemented within the framework of the mantle convection code StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). The basic approach is to resolve processes that occur in the mostly solid state (i.e. below the rheological threshold) while parameterising processes that occur in the mostly liquid state, based largely on the works of Y. Abe. Thus, turbulent convection in magma-rich regions is treated using an effective thermal conductivity based on mixing-length theory, and segregation of solid and liquid is treated using Darcy's law for low melt fractions or crystal settling (offset by vigorous convection) for high melt fractions. At the outer surface a combined radiative-conductive heat balance is implemented, including the temperature drop over a very thin ( cm) thermal boundary layer and reduction of radiative heat loss by an atmosphere. Key to the whole process is petrology: the coexisting compositions of magma and solid under various conditions including possible fractionation, and for this different approaches have been parameterised ranging from a simple basalt-harzburgite parameterisation to a bi-eutectic lower

  9. A computational approach to modelling magma ocean evolution in 2-D and 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, Paul; Lourenco, Diogo; Fomin, Ilya

    2017-04-01

    Models of magma ocean evolution have typically been performed in 1-D (e.g. Abe, PEPI 1997; Solomatov and Stevenson, JGR 1993; Elkins-Tanton EPSL 2008). However, 1-D models may miss important aspects of the process, in particular the possible development of solid-state convection before the magma ocean has completely crystallised, and possible large-scale overturn driven by thermal and/or compositional gradients. On the other hand, fully resolving magma ocean evolution in 2-D or 3-D would be extremely challenging due to the small time-scales and length-scales associated with turbulent convection in the magma and the extreme viscosity contrast between regions of high melt fraction and regions of low melt fraction, which are separated by a rheological threshold associated with the solid forming an interconnected matrix. Here, an intermediate approach to treat these has been implemented within the framework of the mantle convection code StagYY (Tackley, PEPI 2008). The basic approach is to resolve processes that occur in the mostly solid state (i.e. below the rheological threshold) while parameterising processes that occur in the mostly liquid state, based largely on the works of Y. Abe. Thus, turbulent convection in magma-rich regions is treated using an effective thermal conductivity based on mixing-length theory, and segregation of solid and liquid is treated using Darcy's law for low melt fractions or crystal settling (offset by vigorous convection) for high melt fractions. At the outer surface a combined radiative-conductive heat balance is implemented, including the temperature drop over a very thin ( cm) thermal boundary layer and reduction of radiative heat loss by an atmosphere. Key to the whole process is petrology: the coexisting compositions of magma and solid under various conditions including possible fractionation, and for this different approaches have been parameterised ranging from a simple basalt-harzburgite parameterisation to a bi-eutectic lower

  10. Variations in the structural and functional diversity of zooplankton over vertical and horizontal environmental gradients en route to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait.

    PubMed

    Gluchowska, Marta; Trudnowska, Emilia; Goszczko, Ilona; Kubiszyn, Anna Maria; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Walczowski, Waldemar; Kwasniewski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    A multi-scale approach was used to evaluate which spatial gradient of environmental variability is the most important in structuring zooplankton diversity in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). The WSC is the main conveyor of warm and biologically rich Atlantic water to the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait. The data set included 85 stratified vertical zooplankton samples (obtained from depths up to 1000 metres) covering two latitudinal sections (76°30'N and 79°N) located across the multi-path WSC system. The results indicate that the most important environmental variables shaping the zooplankton structural and functional diversity and standing stock variability are those associated with depth, whereas variables acting in the horizontal dimension are of lesser importance. Multivariate analysis of the zooplankton assemblages, together with different univariate descriptors of zooplankton diversity, clearly illustrated the segregation of zooplankton taxa in the vertical plane. The epipelagic zone (upper 200 m) hosted plentiful, Oithona similis-dominated assemblages with a high proportion of filter-feeding zooplankton. Although total zooplankton abundance declined in the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m), zooplankton assemblages in that zone were more diverse and more evenly distributed, with high contributions from both herbivorous and carnivorous taxa. The vertical distribution of integrated biomass (mg DW m-2) indicated that the total zooplankton biomass in the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones was comparable. Environmental gradients acting in the horizontal plane, such as the ones associated with different ice cover and timing of the spring bloom, were reflected in the latitudinal variability in protist community structure and probably caused differences in succession in the zooplankton community. High abundances of Calanus finmarchicus in the WSC core branch suggest the existence of mechanisms advantageous for higher productivity or/and responsible for physical

  11. Reassessing Pliocene temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    With CO2 levels similar to present, the Pliocene Warm Period (PWP) is one of our best analogs for climate change in the near future. Temperature proxy data from the PWP describe dramatically reduced zonal and meridional temperature gradients that have proved difficult to reproduce with climate model simulations. Recently, debate has emerged regarding the interpretation of the proxies used to infer Pliocene temperature gradients; these interpretations affect the magnitude of inferred change and the degree of inconsistency with existing climate model simulations of the PWP. Here, I revisit the issue using Bayesian proxy forward modeling and prediction that propagates known uncertainties in the Mg/Ca, UK'37, and TEX86 proxy systems. These new spatiotemporal predictions are quantitatively compared to PWP simulations to assess probabilistic agreement. Results show generally good agreement between existing Pliocene simulations from the PlioMIP ensemble and SST proxy data, suggesting that exotic changes in the ocean-atmosphere are not needed to explain the Pliocene climate state. Rather, the spatial changes in SST during the Pliocene are largely consistent with elevated CO2 forcing.

  12. Latitudinal and Longitudinal Basin-scale Surface Salinity Contrasts and Freshwater Transport by Ocean Thermohaline Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidov, D.; Haupt, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    The role of sea surface salinity (SSS) contrasts in maintaining vigorous global ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) is revisited. Relative importance of different generalizations of sea surface conditions in climate studies is explored. In numerical experiments using an ocean general circulation model, we have aggregated the observed sea surface temperature (SST) and SSS in several different ways: we used observed unchanged SST with SSS taken as constant (34.25 psu) everywhere; SST unchanged, and SSS zonally averaged globally, i.e., in the whole World Ocean; SST averaged globally, and SSS unchanged; SST zonally averaged globally and SSS zonally averaged basin-wide in individual basins, i.e., in the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern Oceans separately; and, finally, both SST and SSS zonally averaged in individual basins. Global zonal averaging removes all longitudinal differences in sea surface climatology among ocean basins. However, latitudinal profiles of zonally averaged parameters preserve the main character of large-scale equator-to-pole sea surface variability. Basin-wide zonal averaging does an even better job of preserving latitudinal distributions within each basin. The results of the experiments could hardly be anticipated a priory. Surprisingly, SST could be used as a 2-D field, or as a zonally-averaged field without much difference in the THC dynamics. Moreover, SST could be averaged either globally, or basin-wide, and it also did not change the overall character of THC. At the same time, THC responded vigorously to how the SSS has been changed. It appeared that the THC structure with the globally averaged SST and basin-wide averaged SSS was very close to the one obtained in the control run (control run operates with 2-D observed SST and SSS). Our main conclusion is that ocean-wide inter-basin sea surface salinity contrasts serve as the major controlling element in global thermohaline circulation. Thermal inter-basin contrasts, as well as

  13. Planktonic marine diatom record of the past 18 m.y.: Appearances and extinctions in the Pacific and Southern Oceans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently published diatom biochronologies provide accurate (to 0.1 m.y.) determination of the ages of appearances and disappearances of planktonic diatoms during the past 18 m.y. in the equatorial Pacific, North Pacific, and Southern Ocean. Comparisons of these records reveal the age of evolutionary appearance and extinction of species and their region of origin. Extinct planktonic diatom species have a mean longevity of 3.4 ?? 2.8 m.y. (SD, n = 53) in the equatorial Pacific, 2.5 ?? 2.1 m.y. (n = 52) in the North Pacific, and 2.9 ?? 2.3 m.y. (n = 38) in the Southern Ocean. The relatively large standard deviations are likely due to the inclusion of taxa that probably could be subdivided into two or more species. In the equatorial Pacific, evolutionary turnover of diatom species was relatively high between 18.0 and 6.0 Ma compared with the period after 6.0 Ma, presumably reflecting changing oceanic circulation and evolving water masses. In the North Pacific, evolutionary turnover peaked between 10.0 and 4.5 Ma, with increasing high-latitude cooling and enhanced provincialism. In the Southern Ocean, evolutionary turnover of endemic diatoms was greatest between 5.0 and 1.6 Ma, which provides evidence for the strong provincial character of Pliocene diatom assemblages. Taken as a whole, oceanic diatom assemblages became increasingly provincial in character during the late Miocene and Pliocene, as pole-to-equator thermal gradients increased and oceanic frontal systems were strengthened.

  14. Characterization of thermotropism in primary roots of maize: dependence on temperature and temperature gradient, and interaction with gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poff, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    Thermotropism in primary roots of Zea mays L. was studied with respect to gradient strength (degrees C cm-1), temperature of exposure within a gradient, pre-treatment temperature, and gravitropic stimulation. The magnitude of the response decreased with gradient strength. Maximum thermotropism was independent of gradient strength and pre-treatment temperature. The range of temperature for positive and negative thermotropism did not change with pre-treatment temperature. However, the exact range of temperatures for positive and negative thermotropism varied with gradient strengths. In general, temperatures of exposure lower than 25 degrees C resulted in positive tropic responses while temperatures of exposure of 39 degrees C or more resulted in negative tropic responses. Thermotropism was shown to modify and reverse the normal gravitropic curvature of a horizontal root when thermal gradients were applied opposite the 1 g vector. It is concluded that root thermotropism is a consequence of thermal sensing and that the curvature of the primary root results from the interaction of the thermal and gravitational sensing systems.

  15. Nonlinear verification of a linear critical gradient model for energetic particle transport by Alfven eigenmodes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bass, Eric M.; Waltz, R. E.

    Here, a “stiff transport” critical gradient model of energetic particle (EP) transport by EPdriven Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) is verified against local nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of a well-studied beam-heated DIII-D discharge 146102. A greatly simplifying linear “recipe” for the limiting EP-density gradient (critical gradient) is considered here. In this recipe, the critical gradient occurs when the AE linear growth rate, driven mainly by the EP gradient, exceeds the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or trapped electron mode (TEM) growth rate, driven by the thermal plasma gradient, at the same toroidal mode number (n) as the AE peak growth, well below the ITG/TEMmore » peak n. This linear recipe for the critical gradient is validated against the critical gradient determined from far more expensive local nonlinear simulations in the gyrokinetic code GYRO, as identified by the point of transport runaway when all driving gradients are held fixed. The reduced linear model is extended to include the stabilization from equilibrium E×B velocity shear. The nonlinear verification unambiguously endorses one of two alternative recipes proposed in Ref. 1: the EP-driven AE growth rate should be determined with rather than without added thermal plasma drive.« less

  16. Nonlinear verification of a linear critical gradient model for energetic particle transport by Alfven eigenmodes

    DOE PAGES

    Bass, Eric M.; Waltz, R. E.

    2017-12-08

    Here, a “stiff transport” critical gradient model of energetic particle (EP) transport by EPdriven Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) is verified against local nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of a well-studied beam-heated DIII-D discharge 146102. A greatly simplifying linear “recipe” for the limiting EP-density gradient (critical gradient) is considered here. In this recipe, the critical gradient occurs when the AE linear growth rate, driven mainly by the EP gradient, exceeds the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or trapped electron mode (TEM) growth rate, driven by the thermal plasma gradient, at the same toroidal mode number (n) as the AE peak growth, well below the ITG/TEMmore » peak n. This linear recipe for the critical gradient is validated against the critical gradient determined from far more expensive local nonlinear simulations in the gyrokinetic code GYRO, as identified by the point of transport runaway when all driving gradients are held fixed. The reduced linear model is extended to include the stabilization from equilibrium E×B velocity shear. The nonlinear verification unambiguously endorses one of two alternative recipes proposed in Ref. 1: the EP-driven AE growth rate should be determined with rather than without added thermal plasma drive.« less

  17. Designing gradient coils with reduced hot spot temperatures.

    PubMed

    While, Peter T; Forbes, Larry K; Crozier, Stuart

    2010-03-01

    Gradient coil temperature is an important concern in the design and construction of MRI scanners. Closely spaced gradient coil windings cause temperature hot spots within the system as a result of Ohmic heating associated with large current being driven through resistive material, and can strongly affect the performance of the coils. In this paper, a model is presented for predicting the spatial temperature distribution of a gradient coil, including the location and extent of temperature hot spots. Subsequently, a method is described for designing gradient coils with improved temperature distributions and reduced hot spot temperatures. Maximum temperature represents a non-linear constraint and a relaxed fixed point iteration routine is proposed to adjust coil windings iteratively to minimise this coil feature. Several examples are considered that assume different thermal material properties and cooling mechanisms for the gradient system. Coil winding solutions are obtained for all cases considered that display a considerable drop in hot spot temperature (>20%) when compared to standard minimum power gradient coils with equivalent gradient homogeneity, efficiency and inductance. The method is semi-analytical in nature and can be adapted easily to consider other non-linear constraints in the design of gradient coils or similar systems. Crown Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  19. Microfludic Device for Creating Ionic Strength Gradients over DNA Microarrays for Efficient DNA Melting Studies and Assay Development

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jesper; Poulsen, Lena; Birgens, Henrik; Dufva, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The development of DNA microarray assays is hampered by two important aspects: processing of the microarrays is done under a single stringency condition, and characteristics such as melting temperature are difficult to predict for immobilized probes. A technical solution to these limitations is to use a thermal gradient and information from melting curves, for instance to score genotypes. However, application of temperature gradients normally requires complicated equipment, and the size of the arrays that can be investigated is restricted due to heat dissipation. Here we present a simple microfluidic device that creates a gradient comprising zones of defined ionic strength over a glass slide, in which each zone corresponds to a subarray. Using this device, we demonstrated that ionic strength gradients function in a similar fashion as corresponding thermal gradients in assay development. More specifically, we noted that (i) the two stringency modulators generated melting curves that could be compared, (ii) both led to increased assay robustness, and (iii) both were associated with difficulties in genotyping the same mutation. These findings demonstrate that ionic strength stringency buffers can be used instead of thermal gradients. Given the flexibility of design of ionic gradients, these can be created over all types of arrays, and encompass an attractive alternative to temperature gradients, avoiding curtailment of the size or spacing of subarrays on slides associated with temperature gradients. PMID:19277213

  20. Microfludic device for creating ionic strength gradients over DNA microarrays for efficient DNA melting studies and assay development.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jesper; Poulsen, Lena; Birgens, Henrik; Dufva, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The development of DNA microarray assays is hampered by two important aspects: processing of the microarrays is done under a single stringency condition, and characteristics such as melting temperature are difficult to predict for immobilized probes. A technical solution to these limitations is to use a thermal gradient and information from melting curves, for instance to score genotypes. However, application of temperature gradients normally requires complicated equipment, and the size of the arrays that can be investigated is restricted due to heat dissipation. Here we present a simple microfluidic device that creates a gradient comprising zones of defined ionic strength over a glass slide, in which each zone corresponds to a subarray. Using this device, we demonstrated that ionic strength gradients function in a similar fashion as corresponding thermal gradients in assay development. More specifically, we noted that (i) the two stringency modulators generated melting curves that could be compared, (ii) both led to increased assay robustness, and (iii) both were associated with difficulties in genotyping the same mutation. These findings demonstrate that ionic strength stringency buffers can be used instead of thermal gradients. Given the flexibility of design of ionic gradients, these can be created over all types of arrays, and encompass an attractive alternative to temperature gradients, avoiding curtailment of the size or spacing of subarrays on slides associated with temperature gradients.

  1. On the calculation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the presence of temperature and salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Donlon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    The presence of vertical temperature and salinity gradients in the upper ocean and the occurrence of variations in temperature and salinity on time scales from hours to many years complicate the calculation of the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) across the sea surface. Temperature and salinity affect the interfacial concentration of aqueous CO2 primarily through their effect on solubility with lesser effects related to saturated vapor pressure and the relationship between fugacity and partial pressure. The effects of temperature and salinity profiles in the water column and changes in the aqueous concentration act primarily through the partitioning of the carbonate system. Climatological calculations of flux require attention to variability in the upper ocean and to the limited validity of assuming "constant chemistry" in transforming measurements to climatological values. Contrary to some recent analysis, it is shown that the effect on CO2 fluxes of a cool skin on the sea surface is large and ubiquitous. An opposing effect on calculated fluxes is related to the occurrence of warm layers near the surface; this effect can be locally large but will usually coincide with periods of low exchange. A salty skin and salinity anomalies in the upper ocean also affect CO2 flux calculations, though these haline effects are generally weaker than the thermal effects.

  2. A Block Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient-type Iterative Solver for Linear Systems in Thermal Reservoir Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betté, Srinivas; Diaz, Julio C.; Jines, William R.; Steihaug, Trond

    1986-11-01

    A preconditioned residual-norm-reducing iterative solver is described. Based on a truncated form of the generalized-conjugate-gradient method for nonsymmetric systems of linear equations, the iterative scheme is very effective for linear systems generated in reservoir simulation of thermal oil recovery processes. As a consequence of employing an adaptive implicit finite-difference scheme to solve the model equations, the number of variables per cell-block varies dynamically over the grid. The data structure allows for 5- and 9-point operators in the areal model, 5-point in the cross-sectional model, and 7- and 11-point operators in the three-dimensional model. Block-diagonal-scaling of the linear system, done prior to iteration, is found to have a significant effect on the rate of convergence. Block-incomplete-LU-decomposition (BILU) and block-symmetric-Gauss-Seidel (BSGS) methods, which result in no fill-in, are used as preconditioning procedures. A full factorization is done on the well terms, and the cells are ordered in a manner which minimizes the fill-in in the well-column due to this factorization. The convergence criterion for the linear (inner) iteration is linked to that of the nonlinear (Newton) iteration, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the computation. The algorithm, with both BILU and BSGS preconditioners, is evaluated in the context of a variety of thermal simulation problems. The solver is robust and can be used with little or no user intervention.

  3. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  4. Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Investigated Under High-Heat-Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) have been developed to protect silicon-carbide- (SiC) based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high-temperature environmental attack. With continuously increasing demands for significantly higher engine operating temperature, future EBC systems must be designed for both thermal and environmental protection of the engine components in combustion gases. In particular, the thermal barrier functions of EBC's become a necessity for reducing the engine-component thermal loads and chemical reaction rates, thus maintaining the required mechanical properties and durability of these components. Advances in the development of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's, respectively) will directly impact the successful use of ceramic components in advanced engines. To develop high-performance coating systems, researchers must establish advanced test approaches. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux technique was employed to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of TBC's and EBC's on SiC-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates (SiC/SiC) under high thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. Because the laser heat flux test approach can monitor the coating's real-time thermal conductivity variations at high temperature, the coating thermal insulation performance, sintering, and delamination can all be obtained during thermal cycling tests. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3) thermal barrier and barium strontium aluminosilicate-based environmental barrier coatings (BSAS/BSAS+mullite/Si) on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated in this study. These coatings were laser tested in air under thermal gradients (the surface and interface temperatures were approximately 1482 and 1300 C, respectively). Some coating specimens were also subject to alternating furnace cycling (in a 90-percent water vapor environment at 1300 C) and laser thermal gradient cycling tests

  5. Concordance between genetic and species diversity in coral reef fishes across the Pacific Ocean biodiversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Vanessa; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Planes, Serge

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between genetic diversity and species diversity provides insights into biogeography and historic patterns of evolution and is critical for developing contemporary strategies for biodiversity conservation. Although concordant large-scale clines in genetic and species diversity have been described for terrestrial organisms, whether these parameters co-vary in marine species remains largely unknown. We examined patterns of genetic diversity for 11 coral reef fish species sampled at three locations across the Pacific Ocean species diversity gradient (Australia: ∼1600 species; New Caledonia: ∼1400 species; French Polynesia: ∼800 species). Combined genetic diversity for all 11 species paralleled the decline in species diversity from West to East, with French Polynesia exhibiting lowest total haplotype and nucleotide diversities. Haplotype diversity consistently declined toward French Polynesia in all and nucleotide diversity in the majority of species. The French Polynesian population of most species also exhibited significant genetic differentiation from populations in the West Pacific. A number of factors may have contributed to the general positive correlation between genetic and species diversity, including location and time of species origin, vicariance events, reduced gene flow with increasing isolation, and decreasing habitat area from West to East. However, isolation and habitat area, resulting in reduced population size, are likely to be the most influential. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Linear stability analysis of the three-dimensional thermally-driven ocean circulation: application to interdecadal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Thierry; Vallis, Geoffrey K.

    2001-08-01

    What can we learn from performing a linear stability analysis of the large-scale ocean circulation? Can we predict from the basic state the occurrence of interdecadal oscillations, such as might be found in a forward integration of the full equations of motion? If so, do the structure and period of the linearly unstable modes resemble those found in a forward integration? We pursue here a preliminary study of these questions for a case in idealized geometry, in which the full nonlinear behavior can also be explored through forward integrations. Specifically, we perform a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of the thermally-driven circulation of the planetary geostrophic equations. We examine the resulting eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, comparing them with the structure of the interdecadal oscillations found in the fully nonlinear model in various parameter regimes. We obtain a steady state by running the time-dependent, nonlinear model to equilibrium using restoring boundary conditions on surface temperature. If the surface heat fluxes are then diagnosed, and these values applied as constant flux boundary conditions, the nonlinear model switches into a state of perpetual, finite amplitude, interdecadal oscillations. We construct a linearized version of the model by empirically evaluating the tangent linear matrix at the steady state, under both restoring and constant-flux boundary conditions. An eigen-analysis shows there are no unstable eigenmodes of the linearized model with restoring conditions. In contrast, under constant flux conditions, we find a single unstable eigenmode that shows a striking resemblance to the fully-developed oscillations in terms of three-dimensional structure, period and growth rate. The mode may be damped through either surface restoring boundary conditions or sufficiently large horizontal tracer diffusion. The success of this simple numerical method in idealized geometry suggests applications in the study of the stability of

  7. Surface Tension Gradients Induced by Temperature: The Thermal Marangoni Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliotti, Marcos; Baptisto, Mauricio S.; Politi, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    Surface tensions gradients were generated in a thin liquid film because of the local increase in temperature, for demonstration purposes. This is performed using a simple experiment and allows different alternatives for heat generation to be used.

  8. The lateral variation of P n velocity gradient under Eurasia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yang, Xiaoning

    We report that mantle lid P wave velocity gradient, or P n velocity gradient, reflects the depth and lateral variations of thermal and rheological state of the uppermost mantle. Mapping the P n velocity gradient and its lateral variation helps us gain insight into the temperature, composition, and dynamics of the uppermost mantle. In addition, because P n velocity gradient has profound influence on P n propagation behavior, an accurate mapping of P n velocity gradient also improves the modeling and prediction of P n travel times and amplitudes. In this study, I used measured P n travel times tomore » derive path-specific P n velocity gradients. I then inverted these velocity gradients for two-dimensional (2-D) P n velocity-gradient models for Eurasia based on the assumption that a path-specific Pn velocity gradient is the mean of laterally varying P n velocity gradients along the P n path. Result from a Monte Carlo simulation indicates that the assumption is appropriate. The 2-D velocity-gradient models show that most of Eurasia has positive velocity gradients. High velocity gradients exist mainly in tectonically active regions. Most tectonically stable regions show low and more uniform velocity gradients. In conclusion, strong velocity-gradient variations occur largely along convergent plate boundaries, particularly under overriding plates.« less

  9. The lateral variation of P n velocity gradient under Eurasia

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Xiaoning

    2017-05-03

    We report that mantle lid P wave velocity gradient, or P n velocity gradient, reflects the depth and lateral variations of thermal and rheological state of the uppermost mantle. Mapping the P n velocity gradient and its lateral variation helps us gain insight into the temperature, composition, and dynamics of the uppermost mantle. In addition, because P n velocity gradient has profound influence on P n propagation behavior, an accurate mapping of P n velocity gradient also improves the modeling and prediction of P n travel times and amplitudes. In this study, I used measured P n travel times tomore » derive path-specific P n velocity gradients. I then inverted these velocity gradients for two-dimensional (2-D) P n velocity-gradient models for Eurasia based on the assumption that a path-specific Pn velocity gradient is the mean of laterally varying P n velocity gradients along the P n path. Result from a Monte Carlo simulation indicates that the assumption is appropriate. The 2-D velocity-gradient models show that most of Eurasia has positive velocity gradients. High velocity gradients exist mainly in tectonically active regions. Most tectonically stable regions show low and more uniform velocity gradients. In conclusion, strong velocity-gradient variations occur largely along convergent plate boundaries, particularly under overriding plates.« less

  10. Changes in Ocean Circulation with an Ice-Free Arctic: Reconstructing Early Holocene Arctic Ocean Circulation Using Geochemical Signals from Individual Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livsey, C.; Spero, H. J.; Kozdon, R.

    2016-12-01

    The impacts of sea ice decrease and consequent hydrologic changes in the Arctic Ocean will be experienced globally as ocean and atmospheric temperatures continue to rise, though it is not evident to what extent. Understanding the structure of the Arctic water column during the early/mid Holocene sea ice minimum ( 6-10 kya), a post-glacial analogue of a seasonally ice-free Arctic, will help us to predict what the changes we can expect as the Earth warms over the next century. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral; Nps) is a species of planktonic foraminifera that dominates assemblages in the polar oceans. This species grows its chambers (ontogenetic calcite) in the surface waters and subsequently descends through the water column to below the mixed layer where it quickly adds a thick crust of calcite (Kohfeld et al., 1996). Therefore, geochemical signals from both the surface waters and sub-mixed layer depths are captured within single Nps shells. We were able to target <5 μm - sized domains for δ18O using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), therefore capturing signals from both the ontogenetic and crust calcite in single Nps shells. This data was combined with laser ablation- inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) Mg/Ca profiles of trace metals through the two layers of calcite of the same shells, to determine the thermal structure of the water column. Combining δ18O, temperature, and salinity gradients from locations across the Arctic basin allow us to reconstruct the hydrography of the early Holocene Arctic sea ice minimum. These results will be compared with modern Arctic water column characteristics in order to develop a conceptual model of Arctic Ocean oceanographic change due to global warming. Kohfeld, K.E., Fairbanks, R.G., Smith, S.L., Walsh, I.D., 1996. Neogloboquadrina pachyderma(sinistral coiling) as paleoceanographic tracers in polar oceans: Evidence from northeast water polynya plankton tows, sediment traps, and surface sediments

  11. A hot-electron thermophotonic solar cell demonstrated by thermal up-conversion of sub-bandgap photons

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Daniel J.; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Wang, Yunpeng; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity can be broadly separated into two main categories: photovoltaics and thermal photovoltaics, where the former utilizes gradients in electrical potential and the latter thermal gradients. Conventional thermal photovoltaics has a high theoretical efficiency limit (84%) but in practice cannot be easily miniaturized and is limited by the engineering challenges of sustaining large (>1,000 K) temperature gradients. Here we show a hot-carrier-based thermophotonic solar cell, which combines the compact nature of photovoltaic devices with the potential to reach the high-efficiency regime of thermal photovoltaics. In the device, a thermal gradient of 500 K is established by hot electrons, under Stokes illumination, rather than by raising the temperature of the material itself. Under anti-Stokes (sub-bandgap) illumination we observe a thermal gradient of ∼20 K, which is maintained by steady-state Auger heating of carriers and corresponds to a internal thermal up-conversion efficiency of 30% between the collector and solar cell. PMID:26541415

  12. Thermal Design, Analysis, and Testing of the Quench Module Insert Bread Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeding, Shawn; Khodabandeh, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Quench Module Insert (QMI) science requirements. QMI interfaces. QMI design layout. QMI thermal analysis and design methodology. QMI bread board testing and instrumentation approach. QMI thermal probe design parameters. Design features for gradient measurement. Design features for heated zone measurements. Thermal gradient analysis results. Heated zone analysis results. Bread board thermal probe layout. QMI bread board correlation and performance. Summary and conclusions.

  13. Thermal adaptation of net ecosystem exchange

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermal adaptation of gross primary production and ecosystem respiration has been well documented over broad thermal gradients. However, no study has examined their interaction as a function of temperature, i.e. the thermal responses of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE). In this study, we const...

  14. Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Officer, Rick; Lyashevska, Olga; Thompson, Richard C; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-02-15

    Microplastics in the world's oceans are a global concern due to the potential threat they pose to marine organisms. This study investigated microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in the Atlantic Ocean on a transect from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Town, South Africa. Microplastics were sampled from sub-surface waters using the underway system of the RV Polarstern. Potential microplastics were isolated from samples and FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify polymer types. Of the particles analysed, 63% were rayon and 37% were synthetic polymers. The majority of microplastics were identified as polyesters (49%) and blends of polyamide or acrylic/polyester (43%). Overall, fibres (94%) were predominant. Average microplastic abundance in the Atlantic Ocean was 1.15±1.45particlesm -3 . Of the 76 samples, 14 were from the Benguela upwelling and there was no statistically significant difference in microplastic abundance between upwelled and non-upwelled sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitigating Climate Change with Ocean Pipes: Influencing Land Temperature and Hydrology and Termination Overshoot Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Caldeira, K.; Ricke, K.

    2014-12-01

    With increasing risk of dangerous climate change geoengineering solutions to Earth's climate problems have attracted much attention. One proposed geoengineering approach considers the use of ocean pipes as a means to increase ocean carbon uptake and the storage of thermal energy in the deep ocean. We use a latest generation Earth System Model (ESM) to perform simulations of idealised extreme implementations of ocean pipes. In our simulations, downward transport of thermal energy by ocean pipes strongly cools the near surface atmosphere - by up to 11°C on a global mean. The ocean pipes cause net thermal energy to be transported from the terrestrial environment to the deep ocean while increasing the global net transport of water to land. By cooling the ocean surface more than the land, ocean pipes tend to promote a monsoonal-type circulation, resulting in increased water vapour transport to land. Throughout their implementation, ocean pipes prevent energy from escaping to space, increasing the amount of energy stored in Earth's climate system despite reductions in surface temperature. As a consequence, our results indicate that an abrupt termination of ocean pipes could cause dramatic increases in surface temperatures beyond that which would have been obtained had ocean pipes not been implemented.

  16. Heat flow in the western abyssal plain of the Gulf of Mexico: Implications for thermal evolution of the old oceanic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Sclater, J. G.; Phillips, J. D.; Behrens, E. W.; Lewis, T.; Lawver, L. A.; Nakamura, Y.; Garcia-Abdeslem, J.; Maxwell, A. E.

    1996-02-01

    The seafloor depth of an oceanic basin reflects the average temperature of the lithosphere. Thus the western abyssal plain of the Gulf of Mexico, which has tectonically subsided much (>1 km) deeper than other basins of comparable ages (late Jurassic), should be underlain by an anomalously cold lithosphere. In order to examine this hypothesis, we made suites of high-accuracy heat flow measurements at 10 sites along a line connecting Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites 90 and 91 in the Sigsbee abyssal plain. The new heat flow sites were initially surveyed by 3.5-kHz echo sounding, 4-channel seismic reflection, seismic refraction with eight ocean bottom seismometers, and nine piston cores. We occupied a total of 48 heat flow stations along the seismic survey line (3 to 6 at each site), including 28 where we measured in situ thermal conductivities over the practical depth interval (4 m) of the new multioutrigger bow heat flow probe. We determined the heat flow associated with the lithosphere by correcting the values measured at the seafloor (41 to 45 mW/m2) for (1) the thermal effect of the sedimentation and (2) the additional heat from the radioactive elements within the sediments. The sedimentation history, required for the first, was reconstructed at each heat flow site based on ages and thicknesses of the major seismic stratigraphical sequences, age data from the DSDP cores, 3.5-kHz subbottom reflectors, and correlation of turbidite units found in the piston cores. Radiogenic heat production was measured for 55 sediment samples from four DSDP holes in the gulf, whose age ranged from present to Early Cretaceous (0.83 μW/m3 on the average). This provided the correction for the second. The effects of these two secondary factors approximately cancel one another. The lithospheric heat flow under the abyssal plain thus estimated ranges from 40 to 47 mW/m2. These heat flow values are among the lowest in the Mesozoic ocean basins where highly reliable data (45 to 55 m

  17. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distancesmore » necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.« less

  18. Ocean Chlorophyll Studies from a U-2 Aircraft Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. H.; Mcclain, C. R.; Blaine, L. R.; Hart, W. D.; Atkinson, L. P.; Yoder, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Chlorophyll gradient maps of large ocean areas were generated from U-2 ocean color scanner data obtained over test sites in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The delineation of oceanic features using the upward radiant intensity relies on an analysis method which presupposes that radiation backscattered from the atmosphere and ocean surface can be properly modeled using a measurement made at 778 nm. An estimation of the chlorophyll concentration was performed by properly ratioing radiances measured at 472 nm and 548 nm after removing the atmospheric effects. The correlation between the remotely sensed data and in-situ surface chlorophyll measurements was validated in two sets of data. The results show that the correlation between the in-situ measured chlorophyll and the derived quantity is a negative exponential function and the correlation coefficient was calculated to be -0.965.

  19. Ocean acidification narrows the acute thermal and salinity tolerance of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata.

    PubMed

    Parker, Laura M; Scanes, Elliot; O'Connor, Wayne A; Coleman, Ross A; Byrne, Maria; Pörtner, Hans-O; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-09-15

    Coastal and estuarine environments are characterised by acute changes in temperature and salinity. Organisms living within these environments are adapted to withstand such changes, yet near-future ocean acidification (OA) may challenge their physiological capacity to respond. We tested the impact of CO 2 -induced OA on the acute thermal and salinity tolerance, energy metabolism and acid-base regulation capacity of the oyster Saccostrea glomerata. Adult S. glomerata were acclimated to three CO 2 levels (ambient 380μatm, moderate 856μatm, high 1500μatm) for 5weeks (24°C, salinity 34.6) before being exposed to a series of acute temperature (15-33°C) and salinity (34.2-20) treatments. Oysters acclimated to elevated CO 2 showed a significant metabolic depression and extracellular acidosis with acute exposure to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, especially at the highest CO 2 of 1500μatm. Our results suggest that the acute thermal and salinity tolerance of S. glomerata and thus its distribution will reduce as OA continues to worsen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Antarctic Polar Front Variability on Southern Ocean Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, N. M.; Lovenduski, N. S.; Gent, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Antarctic Polar Front (PF) is an important biogeochemical divide in the Southern Ocean, often coinciding with sharp gradients in silicate and nitrate concentration at the surface. Variability in the PF has the potential to influence Southern Ocean biogeochemistry and biological productivity both locally and at the basin scale. Characterizing PF variability is important for contextualizing recent biogeochemical observations from ORCAS, SOCCOM, and the Drake Passage time-series, as well as for understanding how anthropogenic change is influencing Southern Ocean biogeochemistry. Here, we employ a suite of remote sensing observations and output from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to better understand the relationship between the PF and local biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean. Using microwave SST measurements spanning 2002-2014 that avoid cloud contamination, we show that the PF has shifted northward (southward) in the Pacific (Indian) sector and intensified at nearly all longitudes along its circumpolar path. We identify the PF in CESM at both coarse (1°x1°) and fine (0.1°x0.1°) horizontal resolutions using temperature and silicate gradient maxima, and quantify its spatial and temporal variability. We further investigate co-variance between the position and intensity of the PF and local phytoplankton community structure.

  1. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldner, A.; Herold, N.; Huber, M.

    2014-07-01

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  2. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    PubMed

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M

    2014-07-31

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  3. Seawater Circulation and Thermal Sink at OCEAN Ridges - FIELD Evidence in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A. A.; Boudier, F. I.; Cathles, L. M.; Buck, W. R.; Celerier, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Exceptionally, the lowermost gabbros in the Oman ophiolite are black and totally fresh, except for minute traces of impregnation by seawater fluids at very high temperature (~1000°C). These black gabbros sharply contrast with normal, whitish gabbros altered down to Low-T~500-350°C. These hydrous alterations are ascribed to an unconventional model of seawater circulation and cooling of the permanent magma chambers of fast spreading ocean ridges. In this model, gabbros issued from the magma chamber cross a ~100 m thick thermal boundary layer (TBL) before reaching a narrow, Low-T high permeability channel where the heated return seawater is flowing towards black smokers and the local gabbros are altered. Uprising mantle diapirs in Oman diverge at ~5 km on each side of the palaeo-ridge axis and feed an overlying magma chamber that closes at this distance from axis. Preservation of black gabbros along the Moho implies that the loop of seawater alteration locally does not reach Moho beyond this ~5km distance (otherwise black gabbros would be altered in whitish gabbros). This defines an internal "thermal sink" within ~5 km to the ridge axis. There, the sink is efficiently cooled by the active hydrothermal convection that is ridge transverse. This has been documented near the Galapagos ridge by marine geophysical data, within the same distance. Beyond this critical distance, the cooling system becomes dominantly conductive and ridge-parallel. The TBL and attached return flow channels must be rising into the overcooled, accreted crust. Beyond the thermal sink, the 500°C isotherm rebounds into the crust. It is only after ~ 1My of crustal drift that this isotherm penetrates into the uppermost mantle in a sustained fashion, developing serpentinites at the expense of peridotites.

  4. Coral Symbiodinium Community Composition Across the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System is Influenced by Host Species and Thermal Variability.

    PubMed

    Baumann, J H; Davies, S W; Aichelman, H E; Castillo, K D

    2018-05-01

    Reef-building corals maintain a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and this symbiosis is vital for the survival of the coral holobiont. Symbiodinium community composition within the coral host has been shown to influence a coral's ability to resist and recover from stress. A multitude of stressors including ocean warming, ocean acidification, and eutrophication have been linked to global scale decline in coral health and cover in recent decades. Three distinct thermal regimes (high TP , mod TP , and low TP ) following an inshore-offshore gradient of declining average temperatures and thermal variation were identified on the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). Quantitative metabarcoding of the ITS-2 locus was employed to investigate differences and similarities in Symbiodinium genetic diversity of the Caribbean corals Siderastrea siderea, S. radians, and Pseudodiploria strigosa between the three thermal regimes. A total of ten Symbiodinium lineages were identified across the three coral host species. S. siderea was associated with distinct Symbiodinium communities; however, Symbiodinium communities of its congener, S. radians and P. strigosa, were more similar to one another. Thermal regime played a role in defining Symbiodinium communities in S. siderea but not S. radians or P. strigosa. Against expectations, Symbiodinium trenchii, a symbiont known to confer thermal tolerance, was dominant only in S. siderea at one sampled offshore site and was rare inshore, suggesting that coral thermal tolerance in more thermally variable inshore habitats is achieved through alternative mechanisms. Overall, thermal parameters alone were likely not the only primary drivers of Symbiodinium community composition, suggesting that environmental variables unrelated to temperature (i.e., light availability or nutrients) may play key roles in structuring coral-algal communities in Belize and that the relative importance of these

  5. Warm ocean processes and carbon cycling in the Eocene.

    PubMed

    John, Eleanor H; Pearson, Paul N; Coxall, Helen K; Birch, Heather; Wade, Bridget S; Foster, Gavin L

    2013-10-28

    Sea surface and subsurface temperatures over large parts of the ocean during the Eocene epoch (55.5-33.7 Ma) exceeded modern values by several degrees, which must have affected a number of oceanic processes. Here, we focus on the effect of elevated water column temperatures on the efficiency of the biological pump, particularly in relation to carbon and nutrient cycling. We use stable isotope values from exceptionally well-preserved planktonic foraminiferal calcite from Tanzania and Mexico to reconstruct vertical carbon isotope gradients in the upper water column, exploiting the fact that individual species lived and calcified at different depths. The oxygen isotope ratios of different species' tests are used to estimate the temperature of calcification, which we converted to absolute depths using Eocene temperature profiles generated by general circulation models. This approach, along with potential pitfalls, is illustrated using data from modern core-top assemblages from the same area. Our results indicate that, during the Early and Middle Eocene, carbon isotope gradients were steeper (and larger) through the upper thermocline than in the modern ocean. This is consistent with a shallower average depth of organic matter remineralization and supports previously proposed hypotheses that invoke high metabolic rates in a warm Eocene ocean, leading to more efficient recycling of organic matter and reduced burial rates of organic carbon.

  6. Scaling Relations for the Thermal Structure of Segmented Oceanic Transform Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Boettcher, M. S.; Behn, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridge-transform faults (RTFs) are a natural laboratory for studying strike-slip earthquake behavior due to their relatively simple geometry, well-constrained slip rates, and quasi-periodic seismic cycles. However, deficiencies in our understanding of the limited size of the largest RTF earthquakes are due, in part, to not considering the effect of short intra-transform spreading centers (ITSCs) on fault thermal structure. We use COMSOL Multiphysics to run a series of 3D finite element simulations of segmented RTFs with visco-plastic rheology. The models test a range of RTF segment lengths (L = 10-150 km), ITSC offset lengths (O = 1-30 km), and spreading rates (V = 2-14 cm/yr). The lithosphere and upper mantle are approximated as steady-state, incompressible flow. Coulomb failure incorporates brittle processes in the lithosphere, and a temperature-dependent flow law for dislocation creep of olivine activates ductile deformation in the mantle. ITSC offsets as small as 2 km affect the thermal structure underlying many segmented RTFs, reducing the area above the 600˚C isotherm, A600, and thus the size of the largest expected earthquakes, Mc. We develop a scaling relation for the critical ITSC offset length, OC, which significantly reduces the thermal affect of adjacent fault segments of length L1 and L2. OC is defined as the ITSC offset that results in an area loss ratio of R = (Aunbroken - Acombined)/Aunbroken - Adecoupled) = 63%, where Aunbroken = C600(L1+L2)1.5V-0.6 is A600 for an RTF of length L1 + L2; Adecoupled = C600(L11.5+L21.5)V-0.6 is the combined A600 of RTFs of lengths L1 and L2, respectively; and Acombined = Aunbroken exp(-O/ OC) + Adecoupled (1-exp(-O/ OC)). C600 is a constant. We use OC and kinematic fault parameters (L1, L2, O, and V) to develop a scaling relation for the approximate seismogenic area, Aseg, for each segment of a RTF system composed of two fault segments. Finally, we estimate the size of Mc on a fault segment based on Aseg. We

  7. Ectotherm thermal stress and specialization across altitude and latitude.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lauren B; Miller, Ethan F; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2013-10-01

    Gradients of air temperature, radiation, and other climatic factors change systematically but differently with altitude and latitude. We explore how these factors combine to produce altitudinal and latitudinal patterns of body temperature, thermal stress, and seasonal overlap that differ markedly from patterns based solely on air temperature. We use biophysical models to estimate body temperature as a function of an organism's phenotype and environmental conditions (air and surface temperatures and radiation). Using grasshoppers as a case study, we compare mean body temperatures and the incidence of thermal extremes along altitudinal gradients both under past and current climates. Organisms at high elevation can experience frequent thermal stress despite generally cooler air temperatures due to high levels of solar radiation. Incidences of thermal stress have increased more rapidly than have increases in mean conditions due to recent climate change. Increases in air temperature have coincided with shifts in cloudiness and solar radiation, which can exacerbate shifts in body temperature. We compare altitudinal thermal gradients and their seasonality between tropical and temperate mountains to ask whether mountain passes pose a greater physiological barrier in the tropics (Janzen's hypothesis). We find that considering body temperature rather than air temperature generally increases the amount of overlap in thermal conditions along gradients in elevation and thus decreases the physiological barrier posed by tropical mountains. Our analysis highlights the limitations of predicting thermal stress based solely on air temperatures, and the importance of considering how phenotypes influence body temperatures.

  8. Thermodynamic Equations of State for Aqueous Solutions Applied to Deep Icy Satellite and Exoplanet Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, S.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Journaux, B.; Sotin, C.; Choukroun, M.; Barnes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Supporting life in icy world or exoplanet oceans may require global seafloor chemical reactions between water and rock. Such interactions have been regarded as limited in larger icy worlds such as Ganymede and Titan, where ocean depths approach 800 km and GPa pressures (>10katm). If the oceans are composed of pure water, such conditions are consistent with the presence of dense ice phases V and VI that cover the rocky seafloor. Exoplanets with oceans can obtain pressures sufficient to generate ices VII and VIII. We have previously demonstrated temperature gradients in such oceans on the order of 20 K or more, resulting from fluid compressibility in a deep adiabatic ocean based on our experimental work. Accounting for increases in density for highly saline oceans leads to the possibility of oceans perched under and between high pressure ices. Ammonia has the opposite effect, instead decreasing ocean density, as reported by others and confirmed by our laboratory measurements in the ammonia water system. Here we report on the completed equation of state for aqueous ammonia derived from our prior measurements and optimized global b-spline fitting methods We use recent diamond anvil cell measurements for water and ammonia to extend the equation of state to 400°C and beyond 2 GPa, temperatures and pressures applicable to icy worlds and exoplanets. Densities show much less temperature dependence but comparabe high-pressure derivatives to previously published ammonia-water properties derived for application to Titan (Croft et al. 1988). Thermal expansion is in better agreement with the more self-consistent equation of state of Tillner-Roth and Friend (1998). We also describe development of a planetary NaCl equation of state using recent measurements of phase boundaries and sound speeds. We examine implications of realistic ocean-ice thermodynamics for Titan and exoplanet interiors using the methodology recently applied to Ganymede for oceans dominated by MgSO4. High

  9. Slab Geometry and Segmentation on Seismogenic Subduction Zone; Insight from gravity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswati, A. T.; Mazzotti, S.; Cattin, R.; Cadio, C.

    2017-12-01

    Slab geometry is a key parameter to improve seismic hazard assessment in subduction zones. In many cases, information about structures beneath subduction are obtained from geophysical dedicated studies, including geodetic and seismic measurements. However, due to the lack of global information, both geometry and segmentation in seismogenic zone of many subductions remain badly-constrained. Here we propose an alternative approach based on satellite gravity observations. The GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) mission enables to probe Earth deep mass structures from gravity gradients, which are more sensitive to spatial structure geometry and directional properties than classical gravitational data. Gravity gradients forward modeling of modeled slab is performed by using horizontal and vertical gravity gradient components to better determine slab geophysical model rather than vertical gradient only. Using polyhedron method, topography correction on gravity gradient signal is undertaken to enhance the anomaly signal of lithospheric structures. Afterward, we compare residual gravity gradients with the calculated signals associated with slab geometry. In this preliminary study, straightforward models are used to better understand the characteristic of gravity gradient signals due to deep mass sources. We pay a special attention to the delineation of slab borders and dip angle variations.

  10. Uncertainty analysis routine for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) biofouling measurement device and data reduction procedure. [HTCOEF code

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bird, S.P.

    1978-03-01

    Biofouling and corrosion of heat exchanger surfaces in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems may be controlling factors in the potential success of the OTEC concept. Very little is known about the nature and behavior of marine fouling films at sites potentially suitable for OTEC power plants. To facilitate the acquisition of needed data, a biofouling measurement device developed by Professor J. G. Fetkovich and his associates at Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) has been mass produced for use by several organizations in experiments at a variety of ocean sites. The CMU device is designed to detect small changes in thermal resistancemore » associated with the formation of marine microfouling films. An account of the work performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop a computerized uncertainty analysis for estimating experimental uncertainties of results obtained with the CMU biofouling measurement device and data reduction scheme is presented. The analysis program was written as a subroutine to the CMU data reduction code and provides an alternative to the CMU procedure for estimating experimental errors. The PNL code was used to analyze sample data sets taken at Keahole Point, Hawaii; St. Croix, the Virgin Islands; and at a site in the Gulf of Mexico. The uncertainties of the experimental results were found to vary considerably with the conditions under which the data were taken. For example, uncertainties of fouling factors (where fouling factor is defined as the thermal resistance of the biofouling layer) estimated from data taken on a submerged buoy at Keahole Point, Hawaii were found to be consistently within 0.00006 hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F/Btu, while corresponding values for data taken on a tugboat in the Gulf of Mexico ranged up to 0.0010 hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F/Btu. Reasons for these differences are discussed.« less

  11. Ocean feedback to pulses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Moum, James N.; Pujiana, Kandaga; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Smyth, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical understanding of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been elusive, and predictive capabilities therefore limited. New measurements of the ocean's response to the intense surface winds and cooling by two successive MJO pulses, separated by several weeks, show persistent ocean currents and subsurface mixing after pulse passage, thereby reducing ocean heat energy available for later pulses by an amount significantly greater than via atmospheric surface cooling alone. This suggests that thermal mixing in the upper ocean from a particular pulse might affect the amplitude of the following pulse. Here we test this hypothesis by comparing 18 pulse pairs, each separated by <55 days, measured over a 33-year period. We find a significant tendency for weak (strong) pulses, associated with low (high) cooling rates, to be followed by stronger (weaker) pulses. We therefore propose that the ocean introduces a memory effect into the MJO, whereby each event is governed in part by the previous event. PMID:27759016

  12. The relationship between oceanic transform fault segmentation, seismicity, and thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica

    Mid-ocean ridge transform faults (RTFs) are typically viewed as geometrically simple, with fault lengths readily constrained by the ridge-transform intersections. This relative simplicity, combined with well-constrained slip rates, make them an ideal environment for studying strike-slip earthquake behavior. As the resolution of available bathymetric data over oceanic transform faults continues to improve, however, it is being revealed that the geometry and structure of these faults can be complex, including such features as intra-transform pull-apart basins, intra-transform spreading centers, and cross-transform ridges. To better determine the resolution of structural complexity on RTFs, as well as the prevalence of RTF segmentation, fault structure is delineated on a global scale. Segmentation breaks the fault system up into a series of subparallel fault strands separated by an extensional basin, intra-transform spreading center, or fault step. RTF segmentation occurs across the full range of spreading rates, from faults on the ultraslow portion of the Southwest Indian Ridge to faults on the ultrafast portion of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). It is most prevalent along the EPR, which hosts the fastest spreading rates in the world and has undergone multiple changes in relative plate motion over the last couple of million years. Earthquakes on RTFs are known to be small, to scale with the area above the 600°C isotherm, and to exhibit some of the most predictable behaviors in seismology. In order to determine whether segmentation affects the global RTF scaling relations, the scalings are recomputed using an updated seismic catalog and fault database in which RTF systems are broken up according to their degree of segmentation (as delineated from available bathymetric datasets). No statistically significant differences between the new computed scaling relations and the current scaling relations were found, though a few faults were identified as outliers. Finite element

  13. Abrupt turnover in calcareous-nannoplankton assemblages across the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum: implications for surface-water oligotrophy over the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shijun; Wise, Sherwood W.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core Section 183-1135A-25R-4 from the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean represents only the second complete, expanded sequence through the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55 Ma) recovered from Antarctic waters. Calcareous nannoplankton at this site underwent an abrupt, fundamental turnover across the PETM as defined by a carbon isotope excursion. Although Chiasmolithus, Discoaster, and Fasciculithus exponentially increase in abundance at the onset, the former abruptly drops but then rapidly recovers, whereas the latter two taxa show opposite trends due to surface-water oligotrophy. These observations confirm previous results from ODP Site 690 on Maud Rise. The elevated pCO2 that accompanied the PETM caused a shoaling of the lysocline and carbonate compensation depth, leading to intensive dissolution of susceptible holococcoliths and poor preservation of the assemblages. Similarities and contrasts between the results of this study and previous work from open-ocean sites and shelf margins further demonstrate that the response to the PETM was consistent in open-ocean environments, but could be localized on continental shelves where nutrient regimes depend on the local geologic setting and oceanographic conditions.

  14. Seismic and thermal evidences for subduction of exhumed mantle oceanic crust beneath the seismically quiet Antigua-St Martin Margin segment in the Northern Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaillou, Boris; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Laurencin, Muriel; Biari, Youssef; Graindorge, David; Lebrun, Jean-Frederic; Laigle, Mireille; Lallemand, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Wide-angle, multichannel reflection seismic data and heat-flow measurements from the Lesser Antilles subduction zone depict a large patch of atypical oceanic basement in the trench and beneath the outer fore-arc offshore of the Antigua-Saint Martin active margin segment. This segment triggers a very low number of earthquakes compared to the seismicity beneath the Virgin Island Platform to the north or in the Central Antilles (Martinique-Guadeloupe) to the south. Seven along-dip and two along-strike multichannel seismic lines acquired in this region show high amplitude steep reflectors that extend downward to 15-km depth in the downgoing slab. These lines also substantiate the absence of any reflections at Moho depth. Based on the wide-angle velocity model, the oceanic basement consists of a 5-km-thick unique layer with p-wave velocities ranging from 5.2 to 7.4 km/s, which is atypical for an oceanic crust. Heat-flow measurements along a transect perpendicular to the margin indicate a "flat" heat-flow trend from the trench to the fore-arc at 40 ± 15 mW.m-2 (Biari et al., same session). This heat flow profile contrasts with the expected trench-to-forearc decreasing heat-flow and the 50% higher heat-flow values measured in the trench offshore off the central Antilles. Calculated heat-flow for an incoming oceanic plate with a depressed geothermal gradient in the trench and heat source at depth in the subduction zone corresponding with temperatures of 200-250°C fit the measurements. We propose that a large patch of exhumed and serpentinized mantle rocks solidified at the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic Ridge is currently subducting beneath the studied margin segment. The fact that the crust here consists of one single layer and comprises velocities higher than found in igneous rocks (> 7.2 km/s) are consistent with this hypothesis. The plate bending possibly triggers long and deep delamination planes that extend into the mantle beneath the serpentinization front, which has

  15. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) thermal characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, R. N.; Wu, Y. C.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal support group, which is part of the lightweight composite reflector panel program, developed thermal test and analysis evaluation tools necessary to support the integrated interdisciplinary analysis (IIDA) capability. A detailed thermal mathematical model and a simplified spacecraft thermal math model were written. These models determine the orbital temperature level and variation, and the thermally induced gradients through and across a panel, for inclusion in the IIDA.

  16. The implications of tides on the Mimas ocean hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Henning, Wade; Hurford, Terry A.; Patthoff, D. Alex; Tajeddine, Radwan

    2017-02-01

    We investigate whether a present-day global ocean within Mimas is compatible with the lack of tectonic activity on its surface by computing tidal stresses for ocean-bearing interior structure models derived from observed librations. We find that, for the suite of compatible rheological models, peak surface tidal stresses caused by Mimas' high eccentricity would range from a factor of 2 smaller to an order of magnitude larger than those on tidally active Europa. Thermal stresses from a freezing ocean, or a past higher eccentricity, would enhance present-day tidal stresses, exceeding the magnitudes associated with Europa's ubiquitous tidally driven fractures and, in some cases, the failure strength of ice in laboratory studies. Therefore, in order for Mimas to have an ocean, its ice shell cannot fail at the stress values implied for Europa. Furthermore, if Mimas' ocean is freezing out, the ice shell must also be able to withstand thermal stresses that could be an order of magnitude higher than the failure strength of laboratory ice samples. In light of these challenges, we consider an ocean-free Mimas to be the most straightforward model, best supported by our tidal stress analysis.

  17. The Implications of Tides on the Mimas Ocean Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Henning, Wade; Hurford, Terry A.; Patthoff, D. Alex; Tajeddine, Radwan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate whether a present-day global ocean within Mimas is compatible with the lack of tectonic activity on its surface by computing tidal stresses for ocean-bearing interior structure models derived from observed librations. We find that, for the suite of compatible rheological models, peak surface tidal stresses caused by Mimas' high eccentricity would range from a factor of 2 smaller to an order of magnitude larger than those on tidally active Europa. Thermal stresses from a freezing ocean, or a past higher eccentricity, would enhance present-day tidal stresses, exceeding the magnitudes associated with Europa's ubiquitous tidally driven fractures and, in some cases, the failure strength of ice in laboratory studies. Therefore, in order for Mimas to have an ocean, its ice shell cannot fail at the stress values implied for Europa. Furthermore, if Mimas' ocean is freezing out, the ice shell must also be able to withstand thermal stresses that could be an order of magnitude higher than the failure strength of laboratory ice samples. In light of these challenges, we consider an ocean-free Mimas to be the most straightforward model, best supported by our tidal stress analysis.

  18. Magmatic tectonic effects of high thermal regime at the site of active ridge subduction: the Chile Triple Junction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagabrielle, Yves; Guivel, Christèle; Maury, René C.; Bourgois, Jacques; Fourcade, Serge; Martin, Hervé

    2000-11-01

    High thermal gradients are expected to be found at sites of subduction of very young oceanic lithosphere and more particularly at ridge-trench-trench (RTT) triple junctions, where active oceanic spreading ridges enter a subduction zone. Active tectonics, associated with the emplacement of two main types of volcanic products, (1) MORB-type magmas, and (2) calc-alkaline acidic magmas in the forearc, also characterize these plate junction domains. In this context, MORB-type magmas are generally thought to derive from the buried active spreading center subducted at shallow depths, whereas the origin of calc-alkaline acidic magmas is more problematic. One of the best constrained examples of ridge-trench interaction is the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) located southwest of the South American plate at 46°12'S, where the active Chile spreading center enters the subduction zone. In this area, there is a clear correlation between the emplacement of magmatic products and the migration of the triple junction along the active margin. The CTJ lava population is bimodal, with mafic to intermediate lavas (48-56% SiO 2) and acidic lavas ranging from dacites to rhyolites (66-73% SiO 2). Previous models have shown that partial melting of oceanic crust plus 10-20% of sediments, leaving an amphibole- and plagioclase-rich residue, is the only process that may account for the genesis of acidic magmas. Due to special plate geometry in the CTJ area, a given section of the margin may be successively affected by the passage of several ridge segments. We emphasize that repeated passages will lead to the development of very high thermal gradients allowing melting of rocks of oceanic origin at temperatures of 800-900°C and low pressures, corresponding to depths of 10-20 km depth only. In addition, the structure of the CTJ forearc domain is dominated by horizontal displacements and tilting of crustal blocks along a network of strike-slip faults. The occurrence of such a deformed domain implies

  19. Numerical Study on Density Gradient Carbon-Carbon Composite for Vertical Launching System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin-Young; Kim, Chun-Gon; Lim, Juhwan

    2018-04-01

    This study presents new carbon-carbon (C/C) composite that has a density gradient within single material, and estimates its heat conduction performance by a numerical method. To address the high heat conduction of a high-density C/C, which can cause adhesion separation in the steel structures of vertical launching systems, density gradient carbon-carbon (DGCC) composite is proposed due to its exhibiting low thermal conductivity as well as excellent ablative resistance. DGCC is manufactured by hybridizing two different carbonization processes into a single carbon preform. One part exhibits a low density using phenolic resin carbonization to reduce heat conduction, and the other exhibits a high density using thermal gradient-chemical vapor infiltration for excellent ablative resistance. Numerical analysis for DGCC is performed with a heat conduction problem, and internal temperature distributions are estimated by the forward finite difference method. Material properties of the transition density layer, which is inevitably formed during DGCC manufacturing, are assumed to a combination of two density layers for numerical analysis. By comparing numerical results with experimental data, we validate that DGCC exhibits a low thermal conductivity, and it can serve as highly effective ablative material for vertical launching systems.

  20. Recent assimilation developments of FOAM the Met Office ocean forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Daniel; Martin, Matthew; Waters, Jennifer; Mirouze, Isabelle; While, James; King, Robert

    2015-04-01

    FOAM is the Met Office's operational ocean forecasting system. This system comprises a range of models from a 1/4 degree resolution global to 1/12 degree resolution regional models and shelf seas models at 7 km resolution. The system is made up of the ocean model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean), the Los Alomos sea ice model CICE and the NEMOVAR assimilation run in 3D-VAR FGAT mode. Work is ongoing to transition to both a higher resolution global ocean model at 1/12 degrees and to run FOAM in coupled models. The FOAM system generally performs well. One area of concern however is the performance in the tropics where spurious oscillations and excessive vertical velocity gradients are found after assimilation. NEMOVAR includes a balance operator which in the extra-tropics uses geostrophic balance to produce velocity increments which balance the density increments applied. In the tropics, however, the main balance is between the pressure gradients produced by the density gradient and the applied wind stress. A scheme is presented which aims to maintain this balance when increments are applied. Another issue in FOAM is that there are sometimes persistent temperature and salinity errors which are not effectively corrected by the assimilation. The standard NEMOVAR has a single correlation length scale based on the local Rossby radius. This means that observations in the extra tropics have influence on the model only on short length-scales. In order to maximise the information extracted from the observations and to correct large scale model biases a multiple correlation length-scale scheme has been developed. This includes a larger length scale which spreads observation information further. Various refinements of the scheme are also explored including reducing the longer length scale component at the edge of the sea ice and in areas with high potential vorticity gradients. A related scheme which varies the correlation length scale in the shelf seas is also

  1. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed actionmore » will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)« less

  2. Thermal Gradient Mid- and Far-Infrared Spectroscopy as Tools for Characterization of Protein Carbohydrate Lyophilizates.

    PubMed

    Mensink, M A; Šibík, J; Frijlink, H W; van der Voort Maarschalk, K; Hinrichs, W L J; Zeitler, J A

    2017-10-02

    Protein drugs play an important role in modern day medicine. Typically, these proteins are formulated as liquids requiring cold chain processing. To circumvent the cold chain and achieve better storage stability, these proteins can be dried in the presence of carbohydrates. We demonstrate that thermal gradient mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and THz-TDS, respectively) can provide useful information about solid-state protein carbohydrate formulations regarding mobility and intermolecular interactions. A model protein (BSA) was lyophilized in the presence of three carbohydrates with different size and protein stabilizing capacity. A gradual increase in mobility was observed with increasing temperature in formulations containing protein and/or larger carbohydrates (oligo- or polysaccharides), lacking a clear onset of fast mobility as was observed for smaller molecules. Furthermore, both techniques are able to identify the glass transition temperatures (T g ) of the samples. FTIR provides additional information as it can independently monitor changes in protein and carbohydrate bands at the T g . Lastly, THz-TDS confirms previous findings that protein-carbohydrate interactions decrease with increasing molecular weight of the carbohydrate, which results in decreased protein stabilization.

  3. Temperate and tropical brown macroalgae thrive, despite decalcification, along natural CO2 gradients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Vivienne R; Russell, Bayden D; Fabricius, Katharina E; Brownlee, Colin; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2012-09-01

    Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification on coastal ecosystems requires an understanding of the effects on macroalgae and their grazers, as these underpin the ecology of rocky shores. Whilst calcified coralline algae (Rhodophyta) appear to be especially vulnerable to ocean acidification, there is a lack of information concerning calcified brown algae (Phaeophyta), which are not obligate calcifiers but are still important producers of calcium carbonate and organic matter in shallow coastal waters. Here, we compare ecological shifts in subtidal rocky shore systems along CO2 gradients created by volcanic seeps in the Mediterranean and Papua New Guinea, focussing on abundant macroalgae and grazing sea urchins. In both the temperate and tropical systems the abundances of grazing sea urchins declined dramatically along CO2 gradients. Temperate and tropical species of the calcifying macroalgal genus Padina (Dictyoaceae, Phaeophyta) showed reductions in CaCO3 content with CO2 enrichment. In contrast to other studies of calcified macroalgae, however, we observed an increase in the abundance of Padina spp. in acidified conditions. Reduced sea urchin grazing pressure and significant increases in photosynthetic rates may explain the unexpected success of decalcified Padina spp. at elevated levels of CO2 . This is the first study to provide a comparison of ecological changes along CO2 gradients between temperate and tropical rocky shores. The similarities we found in the responses of Padina spp. and sea urchin abundance at several vent systems increases confidence in predictions of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification over a large geographical range. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Thermal state and complex geology of a heterogeneous salty crust of Jupiter's satellite, Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Kargel, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    produce steeper thermal gradients than in pure ice. If there are salt-rich layers inside the crust, forming salt beds over the seafloor or a briny eutectic crust, for instance, the high thermal gradients may promote endogenic geological activity. On the seafloor, bedded salt accumulations may exhibit high thermochemical gradients. Metamorphic and magmatic processes and possible niches for thermophilic life at shallow suboceanic depths result from the calculated thermal profiles, even if the ocean is very cold. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecology and Physics of Bacterial Chemotaxis in the Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Justin R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Intuitively, it may seem that from the perspective of an individual bacterium the ocean is a vast, dilute, and largely homogeneous environment. Microbial oceanographers have typically considered the ocean from this point of view. In reality, marine bacteria inhabit a chemical seascape that is highly heterogeneous down to the microscale, owing to ubiquitous nutrient patches, plumes, and gradients. Exudation and excretion of dissolved matter by larger organisms, lysis events, particles, animal surfaces, and fluxes from the sediment-water interface all contribute to create strong and pervasive heterogeneity, where chemotaxis may provide a significant fitness advantage to bacteria. The dynamic nature of the ocean imposes strong selective pressures on bacterial foraging strategies, and many marine bacteria indeed display adaptations that characterize their chemotactic motility as “high performance” compared to that of enteric model organisms. Fast swimming speeds, strongly directional responses, and effective turning and steering strategies ensure that marine bacteria can successfully use chemotaxis to very rapidly respond to chemical gradients in the ocean. These fast responses are advantageous in a broad range of ecological processes, including attaching to particles, exploiting particle plumes, retaining position close to phytoplankton cells, colonizing host animals, and hovering at a preferred height above the sediment-water interface. At larger scales, these responses can impact ocean biogeochemistry by increasing the rates of chemical transformation, influencing the flux of sinking material, and potentially altering the balance of biomass incorporation versus respiration. This review highlights the physical and ecological processes underpinning bacterial motility and chemotaxis in the ocean, describes the current state of knowledge of chemotaxis in marine bacteria, and summarizes our understanding of how these microscale dynamics scale up to affect

  6. Ecology and physics of bacterial chemotaxis in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Roman; Seymour, Justin R

    2012-12-01

    Intuitively, it may seem that from the perspective of an individual bacterium the ocean is a vast, dilute, and largely homogeneous environment. Microbial oceanographers have typically considered the ocean from this point of view. In reality, marine bacteria inhabit a chemical seascape that is highly heterogeneous down to the microscale, owing to ubiquitous nutrient patches, plumes, and gradients. Exudation and excretion of dissolved matter by larger organisms, lysis events, particles, animal surfaces, and fluxes from the sediment-water interface all contribute to create strong and pervasive heterogeneity, where chemotaxis may provide a significant fitness advantage to bacteria. The dynamic nature of the ocean imposes strong selective pressures on bacterial foraging strategies, and many marine bacteria indeed display adaptations that characterize their chemotactic motility as "high performance" compared to that of enteric model organisms. Fast swimming speeds, strongly directional responses, and effective turning and steering strategies ensure that marine bacteria can successfully use chemotaxis to very rapidly respond to chemical gradients in the ocean. These fast responses are advantageous in a broad range of ecological processes, including attaching to particles, exploiting particle plumes, retaining position close to phytoplankton cells, colonizing host animals, and hovering at a preferred height above the sediment-water interface. At larger scales, these responses can impact ocean biogeochemistry by increasing the rates of chemical transformation, influencing the flux of sinking material, and potentially altering the balance of biomass incorporation versus respiration. This review highlights the physical and ecological processes underpinning bacterial motility and chemotaxis in the ocean, describes the current state of knowledge of chemotaxis in marine bacteria, and summarizes our understanding of how these microscale dynamics scale up to affect ecosystem

  7. Method for determining thermal conductivity and thermal capacity per unit volume of earth in situ

    DOEpatents

    Poppendiek, Heinz F.

    1982-01-01

    A method for determining the thermal conductivity of the earth in situ is based upon a cylindrical probe (10) having a thermopile (16) for measuring the temperature gradient between sets of thermocouple junctions (18 and 20) of the probe after it has been positioned in a borehole and has reached thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, and having means (14) for heating one set of thermocouple junctions (20) of the probe at a constant rate while the temperature gradient of the probe is recorded as a rise in temperature over several hours (more than about 3 hours). A fluid annulus thermally couples the probe to the surrounding earth. The recorded temperature curves are related to the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and to the thermal capacity per unit volume, (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin., by comparison with calculated curves using estimates of k.sub..infin. and (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin. in an equation which relates these parameters to a rise in the earth's temperature for a known and constant heating rate.

  8. Estimation of tropical forest canopy temperatures, thermal response numbers, and evapotranspiration using an aircraft-based thermal sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton; Hartshorn, Gary S.; Peralta, Rodolfo

    1990-01-01

    Thermal infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were collected at a resolution of 5 to 10 m from a tropical rain forest over an elevation gradient from 35 to 2700 m in the Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. Flight lines were repeated with a 15 to 30 minute time difference for measurement of forest canopy thermal response over time. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Techniques for using calibrated aircraft-based thermal scanner data to examine tropical forest canopy thermal properties are described. Forest canopy temperature changes over time assessed between repeated, duplicated flight lines were combined with estimates of surface radiative energy measurements from towers above the forest canopy to determine temperature spatial variability, calculate Thermal Response Numbers (TRN), and estimate evapotranspiration along the elevation gradient from selected one hectare forest inventory plots.

  9. Influence of two-dimensional hygrothermal gradients on interlaminar stresses near free edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Interlaminar stresses are determined for mechanical loading, uniform hygrothermal loading, and gradient moisture loading through implementation of a finite element computer code. Nonuniform two-dimensional hygroscopic gradients are obtained from a finite difference solution of the diffusion equation. It is shown that hygroscopic induced stresses can be larger than those resulting from mechanical and thermal loading, and that the distribution of the interlaminar normal stress may be changed significantly in the presence of a two-dimensional moisture gradient in the boundary layer of a composite laminate.

  10. Spatial and vertical gradients in the stable carbon isotope composition of Lower Circumpolar Deep Water over the last 900 thousand years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T.; Hillenbrand, C. D.; Piotrowski, A. M.; Smith, J.; Hodell, D. A.; Frederichs, T.; Allen, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) recorded in benthic foraminiferal calcite reflect that of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of ambient seawater, and thus are used to reconstruct past changes in water mass mixing. Records of benthic foraminiferal δ13C from the Atlantic Ocean have revealed the development of a sharp vertical δ13C gradient between 2300-2500m water depth during successive glacial periods throughout the Late Quaternary, with extremely negative δ13C values recorded below this depth. It had been hypothesised that this gradient resulted from an increased stratification of water masses within the glacial Atlantic Ocean, and that these extreme δ13C values originated in the Southern Ocean. However the mechanisms behind the formation of this gradient and extreme δ13C depletion have remained unclear. This is in part due to the poor preservation of calcareous microfossils in the corrosive waters below 2500-3000m found in the Southern Ocean, which hampers our understanding of this key region. Here we present a unique new δ13C deep water record measured on benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp.) from a sediment core recovered from 2100m water depth in the Amundsen Sea, south-eastern Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The site is bathed in Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW) today, and combined palaeomagnetic and oxygen isotope stratigraphy show that the sediments continuously span at least the last 890 ka. A comparison of this new δ13C data with other LCDW records from ODP Sites 1089/1090 in the South Atlantic and ODP Site 1123 in the Southwest Pacific demonstrate a clear spatial gradient in circum-Antarctic LCDW during glacial periods. The pool of extremely depleted glacial deep marine δ13C is restricted to the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean, with increasingly positive δ13C values found in the Southwest Pacific and the south-eastern Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. This implies that the δ13C depletion in the deep glacial

  11. Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: Formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haidvogel, D.B.; Arango, H.; Budgell, W.P.; Cornuelle, B.D.; Curchitser, E.; Di, Lorenzo E.; Fennel, K.; Geyer, W.R.; Hermann, A.J.; Lanerolle, L.; Levin, J.; McWilliams, J.C.; Miller, A.J.; Moore, A.M.; Powell, T.M.; Shchepetkin, A.F.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.; Warner, J.C.; Wilkin, J.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic improvements in algorithmic design of regional ocean circulation models have led to significant enhancement in simulation ability across a wide range of space/time scales and marine system types. As an example, we briefly review the Regional Ocean Modeling System, a member of a general class of three-dimensional, free-surface, terrain-following numerical models. Noteworthy characteristics of the ROMS computational kernel include: consistent temporal averaging of the barotropic mode to guarantee both exact conservation and constancy preservation properties for tracers; redefined barotropic pressure-gradient terms to account for local variations in the density field; vertical interpolation performed using conservative parabolic splines; and higher-order, quasi-monotone advection algorithms. Examples of quantitative skill assessment are shown for a tidally driven estuary, an ice-covered high-latitude sea, a wind- and buoyancy-forced continental shelf, and a mid-latitude ocean basin. The combination of moderate-order spatial approximations, enhanced conservation properties, and quasi-monotone advection produces both more robust and accurate, and less diffusive, solutions than those produced in earlier terrain-following ocean models. Together with advanced methods of data assimilation and novel observing system technologies, these capabilities constitute the necessary ingredients for multi-purpose regional ocean prediction systems. 

  12. Intense deformation field at oceanic front inferred from directional sea surface roughness observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascle, Nicolas; Molemaker, Jeroen; Marié, Louis; Nouguier, Frédéric; Chapron, Bertrand; Lund, Björn; Mouche, Alexis

    2017-06-01

    Fine-scale current gradients at the ocean surface can be observed by sea surface roughness. More specifically, directional surface roughness anomalies are related to the different horizontal current gradient components. This paper reports results from a dedicated experiment during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) drifter deployment. A very sharp front, 50 m wide, is detected simultaneously in drifter trajectories, sea surface temperature, and sea surface roughness. A new observational method is applied, using Sun glitter reflections during multiple airplane passes to reconstruct the multiangle roughness anomaly. This multiangle anomaly is consistent with wave-current interactions over a front, including both cross-front convergence and along-front shear with cyclonic vorticity. Qualitatively, results agree with drifters and X-band radar observations. Quantitatively, the sharpness of roughness anomaly suggests intense current gradients, 0.3 m s-1 over the 50 m wide front. This work opens new perspectives for monitoring intense oceanic fronts using drones or satellite constellations.

  13. Physiological response of the cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus to thermal stress and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine; Hennige, Sebastian J; Murray, Fiona; Rottier, Cécile; Wicks, Laura C; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-01-01

    Rising temperatures and ocean acidification driven by anthropogenic carbon emissions threaten both tropical and temperate corals. However, the synergistic effect of these stressors on coral physiology is still poorly understood, in particular for cold-water corals. This study assessed changes in key physiological parameters (calcification, respiration and ammonium excretion) of the widespread cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus maintained for ∼8 months at two temperatures (ambient 12 °C and elevated 15 °C) and two pCO2 conditions (ambient 390 ppm and elevated 750 ppm). At ambient temperatures no change in instantaneous calcification, respiration or ammonium excretion rates was observed at either pCO2 levels. Conversely, elevated temperature (15 °C) significantly reduced calcification rates, and combined elevated temperature and pCO2 significantly reduced respiration rates. Changes in the ratio of respired oxygen to excreted nitrogen (O:N), which provides information on the main sources of energy being metabolized, indicated a shift from mixed use of protein and carbohydrate/lipid as metabolic substrates under control conditions, to less efficient protein-dominated catabolism under both stressors. Overall, this study shows that the physiology of D. dianthus is more sensitive to thermal than pCO2 stress, and that the predicted combination of rising temperatures and ocean acidification in the coming decades may severely impact this cold-water coral species.

  14. The InSight Mars Lander and Its Effect on the Subsurface Thermal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, Matthew A.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Grott, Matthias; Piqueux, Sylvain; Mueller, Nils; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Spohn, Tilman

    2017-10-01

    The 2018 InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Mission has the mission goal of providing insitu data for the first measurement of the geothermal heat flow of Mars. The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) will take thermal conductivity and thermal gradient measurements to approximately 5 m depth. By necessity, this measurement will be made within a few meters of the lander. This means that thermal perturbations from the lander will modify local surface and subsurface temperature measurements. For HP3's sensitive thermal gradient measurements, this spacecraft influence will be important to model and parameterize. Here we present a basic 3D model of thermal effects of the lander on its surroundings. Though lander perturbations significantly alter subsurface temperatures, a successful thermal gradient measurement will be possible in all thermal conditions by proper (>3 m depth) placement of the heat flow probe.

  15. Operational seasonal and interannual predictions of ocean conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leetmaa, Ants

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Leetmaa described current work at the U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC) on coupled systems leading to a seasonal prediction system. He described the way in which ocean thermal data is quality controlled and used in a four dimensional data assimilation system. This consists of a statistical interpolation scheme, a primitive equation ocean general circulation model, and the atmospheric fluxes that are required to force this. This whole process generated dynamically consist thermohaline and velocity fields for the ocean. Currently routine weekly analyses are performed for the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. These analyses are used for ocean climate diagnostics and as initial conditions for coupled forecast models. Specific examples of output products were shown both in the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Ocean Acidification Refugia of the Florida Reef Tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzello, D.; Enochs, I.; Melo, N.; Gledhill, D. K.; Johns, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to reduce the calcification rates of marine organisms, yet we have little understanding of how OA will manifest within dynamic, real-world systems. Natural CO2, alkalinity, and salinity gradients can significantly alter local carbonate chemistry, and thereby create a range of susceptibility for different ecosystems to OA. As such, there is a need to characterize this natural variability of seawater carbonate chemistry, especially within coastal ecosystems. Since 2009, carbonate chemistry data have been collected on the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). During periods of heightened productivity, there is a net uptake of total CO2 (TCO2) which increases aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) values on inshore patch reefs of the upper FRT. These waters can exhibit greater Ωarag than what has been modeled for the tropical surface ocean during preindustrial times, with mean (± std. error) Ωarag-values in spring = 4.69 (± 0.101). Conversely, Ωarag-values on offshore reefs generally represent oceanic carbonate chemistries consistent with present day tropical surface ocean conditions. This gradient is opposite from what has been reported for other reef environments. We hypothesize this pattern is caused by the photosynthetic uptake of TCO2 mainly by seagrasses and, to a lesser extent, macroalgae in the inshore waters of the FRT. These inshore reef habitats are therefore potential acidification refugia that are defined not only in a spatial sense, but also in time; coinciding with seasonal productivity dynamics. Coral reefs located within or immediately downstream of seagrass beds may find refuge from OA.

  17. Ocean Acidification Refugia of the Florida Reef Tract

    PubMed Central

    Manzello, Derek P.; Enochs, Ian C.; Melo, Nelson; Gledhill, Dwight K.; Johns, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to reduce the calcification rates of marine organisms, yet we have little understanding of how OA will manifest within dynamic, real-world systems. Natural CO2, alkalinity, and salinity gradients can significantly alter local carbonate chemistry, and thereby create a range of susceptibility for different ecosystems to OA. As such, there is a need to characterize this natural variability of seawater carbonate chemistry, especially within coastal ecosystems. Since 2009, carbonate chemistry data have been collected on the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). During periods of heightened productivity, there is a net uptake of total CO2 (TCO2) which increases aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) values on inshore patch reefs of the upper FRT. These waters can exhibit greater Ωarag than what has been modeled for the tropical surface ocean during preindustrial times, with mean (± std. error) Ωarag-values in spring = 4.69 (±0.101). Conversely, Ωarag-values on offshore reefs generally represent oceanic carbonate chemistries consistent with present day tropical surface ocean conditions. This gradient is opposite from what has been reported for other reef environments. We hypothesize this pattern is caused by the photosynthetic uptake of TCO2 mainly by seagrasses and, to a lesser extent, macroalgae in the inshore waters of the FRT. These inshore reef habitats are therefore potential acidification refugia that are defined not only in a spatial sense, but also in time; coinciding with seasonal productivity dynamics. Coral reefs located within or immediately downstream of seagrass beds may find refuge from OA. PMID:22848575

  18. Ocean acidification refugia of the Florida Reef Tract.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Enochs, Ian C; Melo, Nelson; Gledhill, Dwight K; Johns, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to reduce the calcification rates of marine organisms, yet we have little understanding of how OA will manifest within dynamic, real-world systems. Natural CO(2), alkalinity, and salinity gradients can significantly alter local carbonate chemistry, and thereby create a range of susceptibility for different ecosystems to OA. As such, there is a need to characterize this natural variability of seawater carbonate chemistry, especially within coastal ecosystems. Since 2009, carbonate chemistry data have been collected on the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). During periods of heightened productivity, there is a net uptake of total CO(2) (TCO(2)) which increases aragonite saturation state (Ω(arag)) values on inshore patch reefs of the upper FRT. These waters can exhibit greater Ω(arag) than what has been modeled for the tropical surface ocean during preindustrial times, with mean (± std. error) Ω(arag)-values in spring = 4.69 (±0.101). Conversely, Ω(arag)-values on offshore reefs generally represent oceanic carbonate chemistries consistent with present day tropical surface ocean conditions. This gradient is opposite from what has been reported for other reef environments. We hypothesize this pattern is caused by the photosynthetic uptake of TCO(2) mainly by seagrasses and, to a lesser extent, macroalgae in the inshore waters of the FRT. These inshore reef habitats are therefore potential acidification refugia that are defined not only in a spatial sense, but also in time; coinciding with seasonal productivity dynamics. Coral reefs located within or immediately downstream of seagrass beds may find refuge from OA.

  19. Thermal regimes of Malaysian sedimentary basins

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abdul Halim, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    Properly corrected and calibrated thermal data are important in estimating source-rock maturation, diagenetics, evolution of reservoirs, pressure regimes, and hydrodynamics. Geothermal gradient, thermal conductivity, and heat flow have been determined for the sedimentary succession penetrated by exploratory wells in Malaysia. Geothermal gradient and heat-flow maps show that the highest average values are in the Malay Basin. The values in the Sarawak basin are intermediate between those of the Malay basin and the Sabah Basin, which contains the lowest average values. Temperature data were analyzed from more than 400 wells. An important parameter that was studied in detail is the circulationmore » time. The correct circulation time is essential in determining the correct geothermal gradient of a well. It was found that the most suitable circulation time for the Sabah Basin is 20 hr, 30 hr for the Sarawak Basin and 40 hr for the Malay Basin. Values of thermal conductivity, determined from measurement and calibrated calculations, were grouped according to depositional units and cycles in each basin.« less

  20. Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael

    2007-12-01

    We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1).

  1. Fast and slow responses of Southern Ocean sea surface temperature to SAM in coupled climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yavor; Marshall, John; Hausmann, Ute; Armour, Kyle C.; Ferreira, David; Holland, Marika M.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate how sea surface temperatures (SSTs) around Antarctica respond to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on multiple timescales. To that end we examine the relationship between SAM and SST within unperturbed preindustrial control simulations of coupled general circulation models (GCMs) included in the Climate Modeling Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We develop a technique to extract the response of the Southern Ocean SST (55°S-70°S) to a hypothetical step increase in the SAM index. We demonstrate that in many GCMs, the expected SST step response function is nonmonotonic in time. Following a shift to a positive SAM anomaly, an initial cooling regime can transition into surface warming around Antarctica. However, there are large differences across the CMIP5 ensemble. In some models the step response function never changes sign and cooling persists, while in other GCMs the SST anomaly crosses over from negative to positive values only 3 years after a step increase in the SAM. This intermodel diversity can be related to differences in the models' climatological thermal ocean stratification in the region of seasonal sea ice around Antarctica. Exploiting this relationship, we use observational data for the time-mean meridional and vertical temperature gradients to constrain the real Southern Ocean response to SAM on fast and slow timescales.

  2. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-01

    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers (14C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  3. Thermal Transgressions and Phanerozoic Extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsley, T. R.; Kidder, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    A number of significant Phanerozoic extinctions are associated with marine transgressions that were probably driven by rapid ocean warming. The conditions associated with what we call thermal transgressions are extremely stressful to life on Earth. The Earth system setting associated with end-Permian extinction exemplifies an end-member case of our model. The conditions favoring extreme warmth and sea-level increases driven by thermal expansion are also conducive to changes in ocean circulation that foster widespread anoxia and sulfidic subsurface ocean waters. Equable climates are characterized by reduced wind shear and weak surface ocean circulation. Late Permian and Early Triassic thermohaline circulation differs considerably from today's world, with minimal polar sinking and intensified mid-latitude sinking that delivers sulfate from shallow evaporative areas to deeper water where it is reduced to sulfide. Reduced nutrient input to oceans from land at many of the extinction intervals results from diminished silicate weathering and weakened delivery of iron via eolian dust. The falloff in iron-bearing dust leads to minimal nitrate production, weakening food webs and rendering faunas and floras more susceptible to extinction when stressed. Factors such as heat, anoxia, ocean acidification, hypercapnia, and hydrogen sulfide poisoning would significantly affect these biotas. Intervals of tectonic quiescence set up preconditions favoring extinctions. Reductions in chemical silicate weathering lead to carbon dioxide buildup, oxygen drawdown, nutrient depletion, wind and ocean current abatement, long-term global warming, and ocean acidification. The effects of extinction triggers such as large igneous provinces, bolide impacts, and episodes of sudden methane release are more potent against the backdrop of our proposed preconditions. Extinctions that have characteristics we call for in the thermal transgressions include the Early Cambrian Sinsk event, as well as

  4. The influence of meridional ice transport on Europa's ocean stratification and heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peiyun; Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Goodman, Jason C.; Vance, Steven D.

    2017-06-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa likely hosts a saltwater ocean beneath its icy surface. Geothermal heating and rotating convection in the ocean may drive a global overturning circulation that redistributes heat vertically and meridionally, preferentially warming the ice shell at the equator. Here we assess the previously unconstrained influence of ocean-ice coupling on Europa's ocean stratification and heat transport. We demonstrate that a relatively fresh layer can form at the ice-ocean interface due to a meridional ice transport forced by the differential ice shell heating between the equator and the poles. We provide analytical and numerical solutions for the layer's characteristics, highlighting their sensitivity to critical ocean parameters. For a weakly turbulent and highly saline ocean, a strong buoyancy gradient at the base of the freshwater layer can suppress vertical tracer exchange with the deeper ocean. As a result, the freshwater layer permits relatively warm deep ocean temperatures.

  5. The influence of meridional ice transport on Europa's ocean stratification and heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; Manucharyan, G.; Thompson, A. F.; Goodman, J. C.; Vance, S.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa likely hosts a saltwater ocean beneath its icy surface. Geothermal heating and rotating convection in the ocean may drive a global overturning circulation that redistributes heat vertically and meridionally, preferentially warming the ice shell at the equator. Here we assess thepreviously unconstrained influence of ocean-ice coupling on Europa's ocean stratification and heat transport. We demonstrate that a relatively fresh layer can form at the ice-ocean interface due to a meridional ice transport forced by the differential ice shell heating between the equator and the poles. We provide analytical and numerical solutions for the layer's characteristics, highlighting their sensitivity to critical ocean parameters. For a weakly turbulent and highly saline ocean, a strong buoyancy gradient at the base of the freshwater layer can suppress vertical tracer exchange with the deeper ocean. As a result, the freshwater layer permits relatively warm deep ocean temperatures.

  6. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  7. Thermal Conductivity Change Kinetics of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by the Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A steady-state laser heat flux technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to obtain critical thermal conductivity data of ceramic thermal barrier coatings under the temperature and thermal gradients that are realistically expected to be encountered in advanced engine systems. In this study, thermal conductivity change kinetics of a plasma-sprayed, 254-mm-thick ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic coating were obtained at high temperatures. During the testing, the temperature gradients across the coating system were carefully measured by the surface and back pyrometers and an embedded miniature thermocouple in the substrate. The actual heat flux passing through the coating system was determined from the metal substrate temperature drop (measured by the embedded miniature thermocouple and the back pyrometer) combined with one-dimensional heat transfer models.

  8. Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, Joe Francis; Sathian, Sarith P.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

  9. A view of Antarctic ice-sheet evolution from sea-level and deep-sea Isotope Changes During the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Wright, J.D.; Katz, M.E.; Browning, J.V.; Cramer, B.S.; Wade, B.S.; Mizintseva, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    18O increase. This large ice sheet became a driver of climate change, not just a response to it, causing increased latitudinal thermal gradients and a spinning up of the oceans that, in turn, caused a dramatic reorganization of ocean circulation and chemistry.

  10. Effect of temperature gradient on the optical quality of mercurous chloride crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Davies, D. K.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Mazelsky, R.

    1989-01-01

    Single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown at temperature gradients of 8, 11 and 17 K/cm by the physical vapor transport method. The optical quality of these crystals was evaluated by measuring bulk scattering and inhomogeneity of refractive index by birefringence interferometry. It was observed that a high temperature gradient at the solid-vapor interface induced thermal stresses and crystals showed higher scattering and irregular fringes.

  11. Simulation of ion-temperature-gradient turbulence in tokamaks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cohen, B I; Dimits, A M; Kim, C

    Results are presented from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and transport. The gyrokinetic simulations are found to yield values of the thermal diffusivity significantly lower than gyrofluid or IFS-PPPL-model predictions. A new phenomenon of nonlinear effective critical gradients larger than the linear instability threshold gradients is observed, and is associated with undamped flux-surface-averaged shear flows. The nonlinear gyrokineic codes have passed extensive validity tests which include comparison against independent linear calculations, a series of nonlinear convergence tests, and a comparison between two independent nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Our most realistic simulations to date have actual reconstructedmore » equilibria from experiments and a model for dilution by impurity and beam ions. These simulations highlight the need for still more physics to be included in the simulations« less

  12. Reef-coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean.

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Chris; van Woesik, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to identify climate-change thermal-stress refugia for reef corals in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A species distribution modeling approach was used to identify refugia for 12 coral species that differed considerably in their local response to thermal stress. We hypothesized that the local response of coral species to thermal stress might be similarly reflected as a regional response to climate change. We assessed the contemporary geographic range of each species and determined their temperature and irradiance preferences using a k-fold algorithm to randomly select training and evaluation sites. That information was applied to downscaled outputs of global climate models to predict where each species is likely to exist by the year 2100. Our model was run with and without a 1°C capacity to adapt to the rising ocean temperature. The results show a positive exponential relationship between the current area of habitat that coral species occupy and the predicted area of habitat that they will occupy by 2100. There was considerable decoupling between scales of response, however, and with further ocean warming some 'winners' at local scales will likely become 'losers' at regional scales. We predicted that nine of the 12 species examined will lose 24-50% of their current habitat. Most reductions are predicted to occur between the latitudes 5-15°, in both hemispheres. Yet when we modeled a 1°C capacity to adapt, two ubiquitous species, Acropora hyacinthus and Acropora digitifera, were predicted to retain much of their current habitat. By contrast, the thermally tolerant Porites lobata is expected to increase its current distribution by 14%, particularly southward along the east and west coasts of Australia. Five areas were identified as Indian Ocean refugia, and seven areas were identified as Pacific Ocean refugia for reef corals under climate change. All 12 of these reef-coral refugia deserve high-conservation status. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.

    1983-07-13

    A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.

  14. Development of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Using a High-Heat-Flux Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The development of low conductivity, robust thermal and environmental barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity and cyclic resistance at very high surface temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux test approach is established for evaluating advanced low conductivity, high temperature capability thermal and environmental barrier coatings under the NASA Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program. The test approach emphasizes the real-time monitoring and assessment of the coating thermal conductivity, which initially rises under the steady-state high temperature thermal gradient test due to coating sintering, and later drops under the cyclic thermal gradient test due to coating cracking/delamination. The coating system is then evaluated based on damage accumulation and failure after the combined steady-state and cyclic thermal gradient tests. The lattice and radiation thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic coatings can also be evaluated using laser heat-flux techniques. The external radiation resistance of the coating is assessed based on the measured specimen temperature response under a laser- heated intense radiation-flux source. The coating internal radiation contribution is investigated based on the measured apparent coating conductivity increases with the coating surface test temperature under large thermal gradient test conditions. Since an increased radiation contribution is observed at these very high surface test temperatures, by varying the laser heat-flux and coating average test temperature, the complex relation between the lattice and radiation conductivity as a function of surface and interface test temperature may be derived.

  15. The effects of Venus' thermal structure on buoyant magma ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Zuber, M. T.

    1992-01-01

    The recent Magellan images have revealed a broad spatial distribution of surface volcanism on Venus. Previous work in modeling the ascent of magma on both Venus and Earth has indicated that the planetary thermal structure significantly influences the magmatic cooling rates and thus the amount of magma that can be transported to the surface before solidification. In order to understand which aspects of the thermal structure have the greatest influence on the cooling of ascending magma, we have constructed magma cooling curves for both plutonic and crack buoyant ascent mechanisms, and evaluated the curves for variations in the planetary mantle temperature, thermal gradient curvature with depth, surface temperature gradient, and surface temperature. The planetary thermal structure is modeled as T/T(sub 0) = 1-tau(1-Z/Z(sub 0)(exp n), where T is the temperature, T(sub 0) is the source depth temperature, tau = 1-(T(sub s)/T(sub 0)) where T(sub s) is the planetary surface temperature, Z is the depth, Z(sub 0) is the source depth, and n is a constant that controls thermal gradient curvature with depth. The equation is used both for mathematical convenience and flexibility, as well as its fit to the thermal gradients predicted by the cooling half-space models. We assume a constant velocity buoyant ascent, body-averaged magma temperatures and properties, an initially crystal-free magma, and the same liquidus and solidus for both Venus and Earth.

  16. Understanding Rossby wave trains forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Hendon, Harry H.

    2018-04-01

    Convective variations over the tropical Indian Ocean associated with ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole force a Rossby wave train that appears to emanate poleward and eastward to the south of Australia and which causes climate variations across southern Australia and more generally throughout the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. However, during austral winter, the subtropical jet that extends from the eastern Indian Ocean into the western Pacific at Australian latitudes should effectively prohibit continuous propagation of a stationary Rossby wave from the tropics into the extratropics because the meridional gradient of mean absolute vorticity goes to zero on its poleward flank. The observed wave train indeed exhibits strong convergence of wave activity flux upon encountering this region of vanishing vorticity gradient and with some indication of reflection back into the tropics, indicating the continuous propagation of the stationary Rossby wave train from low to high latitudes is inhibited across the south of Australia. However, another Rossby wave train appears to emanate upstream of Australia on the poleward side of the subtropical jet and propagates eastward along the waveguide of the eddy-driven (sub-polar) jet into the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. This combination of evanescent wave train from the tropics and eastward propagating wave train emanating from higher latitudes upstream of Australia gives the appearance of a continuous Rossby wave train propagating from the tropical Indian Ocean into higher southern latitudes. The extratropical Rossby wave source on the poleward side of the subtropical jet stems from induced changes in transient eddy activity in the main storm track of the Southern Hemisphere. During austral spring, when the subtropical jet weakens, the Rossby wave train emanating from Indian Ocean convection is explained more traditionally by direct dispersion from divergence forcing at low latitudes.

  17. Thermal history of Bakken shale in Williston basin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.; Lefever, R.D.; Crashell, J.J.

    1989-12-01

    Stratigraphic and thermal conductivity data were combined to analyze the thermostratigraphy of the Williston basin. The present thermostratigraphy is characterized by geothermal gradients of the order of 60 mK/m in the Cenozoic and Mesozoic units, and 30 mK/m in the Paleozoic units. The differences in geothermal gradients are due to differences in thermal conductivities between the shale-dominated Mesozoic and Cenozoic units and the carbonate-dominated Paleozoic units. Subsidence and compaction rates were calculated for the basin and were used to determine models for time vs. depth and time vs. thermal conductivity relationships for the basin. The time/depth and time/conductivity relationships includemore » factors accounting for thermal conductivity changes due to compaction, cementation, and temperature. The thermal history of the Bakken shale, a primary oil source rock in the Williston basin, was determined using four different models, and values for Lopatin's time-temperature index (TTI) were calculated for each model. The first model uses a geothermal gradient calculated from bottom-hole temperature data, the second uses present-day thermostratigraphy, the third uses the thermostratigraphic relationship determined in this analysis, and the fourth modifies the third by including assumed variations in continental heat flow. The thermal histories and the calculated TTI values differ markedly among the models with TTI values differing by a factor of about two between some models.« less

  18. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, M. T.; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Dávila, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-01

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction 10B(n,α)7Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (˜1.6 104 neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  19. Thermophoresis of dissolved molecules and polymers: Consideration of the temperature-induced macroscopic pressure gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Semen; Schimpf, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The movement of molecules and homopolymer chains dissolved in a nonelectrolyte solvent in response to a temperature gradient is considered a consequence of temperature-induced pressure gradients in the solvent layer surrounding the solute molecules. Local pressure gradients are produced by nonuniform London van der Waals interactions, established by gradients in the concentration (density) of solvent molecules. The density gradient is produced by variations in solvent thermal expansion within the nonuniform temperature field. The resulting expression for the velocity of the solute contains the Hamaker constants for solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, the radius of the solute molecule, and the viscosity and cubic coefficient of thermal expansion of the solvent. In this paper we consider an additional force that arises from directional asymmetry in the interaction between solvent molecules. In a closed cell, the resulting macroscopic pressure gradient gives rise to a volume force that affects the motion of dissolved solutes. An expression for this macroscopic pressure gradient is derived and the resulting force is incorporated into the expression for the solute velocity. The expression is used to calculate thermodiffusion coefficients for polystyrene in several organic solvents. When these values are compared to those measured in the laboratory, the consistency is better than that found in previous reports, which did not consider the macroscopic pressure gradient that arises in a closed thermodiffusion cell. The model also allows for the movement of solute in either direction, depending on the relative values of the solvent and solute Hamaker constants.

  20. Cryogenic Temperature-Gradient Foam/Substrate Tensile Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailhe, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    The figure shows a fixture for measuring the tensile strength of the bond between an aluminum substrate and a thermally insulating polymeric foam. The specimen is meant to be representative of insulating foam on an aluminum tank that holds a cryogenic liquid. Prior to the development of this fixture, tensile tests of this type were performed on foam/substrate specimens immersed in cryogenic fluids. Because the specimens were cooled to cryogenic temperatures throughout their thicknesses, they tended to become brittle and to fracture at loads below true bond tensile strengths. The present fixture is equipped to provide a thermal gradient from cryogenic temperature at the foam/substrate interface to room temperature on the opposite foam surface. The fixture includes an upper aluminum block at room temperature and a lower aluminum block cooled to -423 F (approx. -253 C) by use of liquid helium. In preparation for a test, the metal outer surface (the lower surface) of a foam/substrate specimen is bonded to the lower block and the foam outer surface (the upper surface) of the specimen is bonded to the upper block. In comparison with the through-the-thickness cooling of immersion testing, the cryogenic-to-room-temperature thermal gradient that exists during testing on this fixture is a more realistic approximation of the operational thermal condition of sprayed insulating foam on a tank of cryogenic liquid. Hence, tensile tests performed on this fixture provide more accurate indications of operational bond tensile strengths. In addition, the introduction of the present fixture reduces the cost of testing by reducing the amount of cryogenic liquid consumed and the time needed to cool a specimen.

  1. The Stability of Outcropping Ocean Eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paldor, N.; Cohen, Y.; Dvorkin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In the end of the last century numerous ship-borne observations and linear instability studies have addressed the long life span of meso-scale ocean eddies. These eddies are observed to persist in the ocean for periods of 2-3 years with little deformation. As eddy instabilities occur because Rossby waves in the surrounding (assumed motionless) ocean interact with various waves in the eddy itself, the stability was attributed to some eddy structure that hinders such wave-wave interactions. However, instabilities with growthrates of the order of the inertial period were found in various multilayer models including hypothesized structures and several observed eddy structures. A solution to the difference between instability theory and observed stability was ultimately suggested by relaxing the assumption of a motionless ocean that surrounds the eddy and prescribing the mean flow in the ocean such that it counterbalances the depth changes imposed by the eddy while maintaining a constant PV-ocean. This hypothesis was successfully applied to Gaussian eddies for mathematical simplicity. Yet, the Gaussian eddy has no surface front - thus avoiding instabilities that involve frontal waves - and it disagrees with observation that clearly show that most eddies have surface fronts. Here the constant PV ocean hypothesis is applied to two frontal eddies: constant PV-eddies and solidly rotating eddy. A complete account of the mean flow of the coupled eddy-ocean system is analyzed using a canonical formulation of the gradient balance. The phase speeds of waves in the eddy-ocean system are computed by a shooting method. Both eddies are found to be unstable in motionless ocean, yet in a constant PV-ocean no instabilities are found using the exact same numerical search. While many eddy structures can be hypothesized there are only a handful of physical mechanisms for instability and in these eddies the assumed constant PV-ocean negates many of these physical mechanisms for instability

  2. IMPROVED TEMPERATURE GRADIENT FOR MONITORING BEHAVIORAL THERMOREGULATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past studies have found that the laboratory rat placed In a temperature gradient prefers temperatures that are markedly below its lower critical ambient temperature (LCT), whereas other rodents (e.g., mouse, hamster, and guinea pig) generally select thermal environments associate...

  3. Effects of solid-propellant temperature gradients on the internal ballistics of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.; Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shackelford, B. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The internal ballistic effects of combined radial and circumferential grain temperature gradients are evaluated theoretically for the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors (SRMs). A simplified approach is devised for representing with closed-form mathematical expressions the temperature distribution resulting from the anticipated thermal history prior to launch. The internal ballistic effects of the gradients are established by use of a mathematical model which permits the propellant burning rate to vary circumferentially. Comparative results are presented for uniform and axisymmetric temperature distributions and the anticipated gradients based on an earlier two-dimensional analysis of the center SRM segment. The thrust imbalance potential of the booster stage is also assessed based on the difference in the thermal loading of the individual SRMs of the motor pair which may be encountered in both summer and winter environments at the launch site. Results indicate that grain temperature gradients could cause the thrust imbalance to be approximately 10% higher in the Space Shuttle than the imbalance caused by SRM manufacturing and propellant physical property variability alone.

  4. A Simple Temperature Gradient Apparatus To Determine Thermal Preference in "Daphnia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Christiane; McCauley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Explores the dominant factor controlling the distribution of Daphnia. Describes components of a temperature gradient apparatus that can be assembled from materials readily obtainable in the laboratory and hardware stores. Investigates whether the mean depth of Daphnia is determined by temperature. (KHR)

  5. The Geoid: Effect of compensated topography and uncompensated oceanic trenches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, C.G.; McNutt, Marcia K.

    1982-01-01

    The geoid is becoming increasingly important in interpretation of global tectonics. Most of the topography of the earth is isostatically compensated, so removal of its effect from the geoid is appropriate before tectonic modeling. The oceanic trenches, however, are dynamically depressed features and cannot be isostatically compensated in the classical way. Continental topography compensated at 35 km gives intracontinental geoidal undulations of up to 15 m over mountain ranges in a spherical harmonic expansion to order and degree 22. Oceanic topography compensated at 40 km, reasonable for the thermally supported long wavelengths, matches the +10 m difference between old continents and old oceans in a detailed NASA/GSFC geoid. Removing the assumed compensation for the oceanic trenches leaves negative anomalies of up to 9 m amplitude caused by their uncompensated mass deficit. This mass deficit acts as a partial "regional compensation" for the excess mass of the subducting slabs, and partly explains why geoidal (and gravity) anomalies over the cold slabs are less than thermal models predict.

  6. Probing of molecular replication and accumulation in shallow heat gradients through numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Keil, Lorenz; Hartmann, Michael; Lanzmich, Simon; Braun, Dieter

    2016-07-27

    How can living matter arise from dead matter? All known living systems are built around information stored in RNA and DNA. To protect this information against molecular degradation and diffusion, the second law of thermodynamics imposes the need for a non-equilibrium driving force. Following a series of successful experiments using thermal gradients, we have shown that heat gradients across sub-millimetre pores can drive accumulation, replication, and selection of ever longer molecules, implementing all the necessary parts for Darwinian evolution. For these lab experiments to proceed with ample speed, however, the temperature gradients have to be quite steep, reaching up to 30 K per 100 μm. Here we use computer simulations based on experimental data to show that 2000-fold shallower temperature gradients - down to 100 K over one metre - can still drive the accumulation of protobiomolecules. This finding opens the door for various environments to potentially host the origins of life: volcanic, water-vapour, or hydrothermal settings. Following the trajectories of single molecules in simulation, we also find that they are subjected to frequent temperature oscillations inside these pores, facilitating e.g. template-directed replication mechanisms. The tilting of the pore configuration is the central strategy to achieve replication in a shallow temperature gradient. Our results suggest that shallow thermal gradients across porous rocks could have facilitated the formation of evolutionary machines, significantly increasing the number of potential sites for the origin of life on young rocky planets.

  7. Validation of Modified Wine-Rack Thermal Design for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries in Landsat-7 Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test and in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    A heritage wine-rack thermal/mechanical design for the nickel-hydrogen batteries was the baseline at the Landsat-7 Preliminary Design Review. An integrated thermal and power analysis of the batteries performed by the author in 1994 revealed that the maximum cell-to-cell gradient was 6.6 C. The author proposed modifying the heritage wine-rack design by enhancing heat conduction from cells to cells, and from cells to battery frame. At the 1995 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), the author presented a paper on methods of modifying the wine-rack design. It showed that the modified wine-rack option, which uses a metallic filler, could reduce the maximum cell-to-cell temperature gradient to 1.30 C, and could also reduce the maximum cell temperature by as much as 80 C. That design concept was adopted by the Landsat7 Project Office, and a design change was made at the Critical Design Review. Results of the spacecraft thermal vacuum and thermal balance tests, and temperature data in flight show that the temperatures of the battery cells are very uniform. The maximum cell-to-cell gradient is 1.50 C. They validate the modified wine-rack thermal design.

  8. A model of ocean basin crustal magnetization appropriate for satellite elevation anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Herman H.

    1987-01-01

    A model of ocean basin crustal magnetization measured at satellite altitudes is developed which will serve both as background to which anomalous magnetizations can be contrasted and as a beginning point for studies of tectonic modification of normal ocean crust. The model is based on published data concerned with the petrology and magnetization of the ocean crust and consists of viscous magnetization and induced magnetization estimated for individual crustal layers. Thermal remanent magnetization and chemical remanent magnetization are excluded from the model because seafloor spreading anomalies are too short in wavelength to be resolved at satellite altitudes. The exception to this generalization is found at the oceanic magnetic quiet zones where thermal remanent magnetization and chemical remanent magnetization must be considered along with viscous magnetization and induced magnetization.

  9. Temperature Regimes Impact Coral Assemblages along Environmental Gradients on Lagoonal Reefs in Belize

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Joseph E.; Courtney, Travis A.; Aichelman, Hannah E.; Davies, Sarah W.; Lima, Fernando P.; Castillo, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by global and local anthropogenic stressors such as rising seawater temperature, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and overfishing. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of local and global stressors on coral reefs, we still do not fully understand how these stressors influence coral community structure, particularly across environmental gradients on a reef system. Here, we investigate coral community composition across three different temperature and productivity regimes along a nearshore-offshore gradient on lagoonal reefs of the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). A novel metric was developed using ultra-high-resolution satellite-derived estimates of sea surface temperatures (SST) to classify reefs as exposed to low (lowTP), moderate (modTP), or high (highTP) temperature parameters over 10 years (2003 to 2012). Coral species richness, abundance, diversity, density, and percent cover were lower at highTP sites relative to lowTP and modTP sites, but these coral community traits did not differ significantly between lowTP and modTP sites. Analysis of coral life history strategies revealed that highTP sites were dominated by hardy stress-tolerant and fast-growing weedy coral species, while lowTP and modTP sites consisted of competitive, generalist, weedy, and stress-tolerant coral species. Satellite-derived estimates of Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) were obtained for 13-years (2003–2015) as a proxy for primary production. Chl-a concentrations were highest at highTP sites, medial at modTP sites, and lowest at lowTP sites. Notably, thermal parameters correlated better with coral community traits between site types than productivity, suggesting that temperature (specifically number of days above the thermal bleaching threshold) played a greater role in defining coral community structure than productivity on the MBRS. Dominance of weedy and stress-tolerant genera at highTP sites suggests that corals utilizing

  10. Temperature Regimes Impact Coral Assemblages along Environmental Gradients on Lagoonal Reefs in Belize.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Justin H; Townsend, Joseph E; Courtney, Travis A; Aichelman, Hannah E; Davies, Sarah W; Lima, Fernando P; Castillo, Karl D

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly threatened by global and local anthropogenic stressors such as rising seawater temperature, nutrient enrichment, sedimentation, and overfishing. Although many studies have investigated the impacts of local and global stressors on coral reefs, we still do not fully understand how these stressors influence coral community structure, particularly across environmental gradients on a reef system. Here, we investigate coral community composition across three different temperature and productivity regimes along a nearshore-offshore gradient on lagoonal reefs of the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS). A novel metric was developed using ultra-high-resolution satellite-derived estimates of sea surface temperatures (SST) to classify reefs as exposed to low (lowTP), moderate (modTP), or high (highTP) temperature parameters over 10 years (2003 to 2012). Coral species richness, abundance, diversity, density, and percent cover were lower at highTP sites relative to lowTP and modTP sites, but these coral community traits did not differ significantly between lowTP and modTP sites. Analysis of coral life history strategies revealed that highTP sites were dominated by hardy stress-tolerant and fast-growing weedy coral species, while lowTP and modTP sites consisted of competitive, generalist, weedy, and stress-tolerant coral species. Satellite-derived estimates of Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) were obtained for 13-years (2003-2015) as a proxy for primary production. Chl-a concentrations were highest at highTP sites, medial at modTP sites, and lowest at lowTP sites. Notably, thermal parameters correlated better with coral community traits between site types than productivity, suggesting that temperature (specifically number of days above the thermal bleaching threshold) played a greater role in defining coral community structure than productivity on the MBRS. Dominance of weedy and stress-tolerant genera at highTP sites suggests that corals utilizing

  11. Evaluating the Ocean Component of the US Navy Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean currents, temperature, and salinity observations are used to evaluate the ocean component of the US Navy Earth System Model. The ocean and atmosphere components of the system are an eddy-resolving (1/12.5° equatorial resolution) version of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), and a T359L50 version of the NAVy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), respectively. The system was integrated in hindcast mode and the ocean results are compared against unassimilated observations, a stand-alone version of HYCOM, and the Generalized Digital Environment Model ocean climatology. The different observation types used in the system evaluation are: drifting buoys, temperature profiles, salinity profiles, and acoustical proxies (mixed layer depth, sonic layer depth, below layer gradient, and acoustical trapping). To evaluate the system's performance in each different metric, a scorecard is used to translate the system's errors into scores, which provide an indication of the system's skill in both space and time.

  12. Thermal Investigation in the Cappadocia Region, Central Anatolia-Turkey, Analyzing Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient, and Heat-Flow Maps from the Aeromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilim, Funda; Kosaroglu, Sinan; Aydemir, Attila; Buyuksarac, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, curie point depth (CPD), heat flow, geothermal gradient, and radiogenic heat production maps of the Cappadocian region in central Anatolia are presented to reveal the thermal structure from the aeromagnetic data. The large, circular pattern in these maps matches with previously determined shallow (2 km in average) depression. Estimated CPDs in this depression filled with loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets of continental Neogene units vary from 7 to 12 km, while the geothermal gradient increases from 50 to 68 °C/km. Heat flows were calculated using two different conductivity coefficients of 2.3 and 2.7 Wm-1 K-1. The radiogenic heat production was also obtained between 0.45 and 0.70 μW m-3 in this area. Heat-flow maps were compared with the previous, regional heat-flow map of Turkey and significant differences were observed. In contrast to linear heat-flow increment through the northeast in the previous map in the literature, produced maps in this study include a large, caldera-like circular depression between Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, and Yesilhisar cities indicating high geothermal gradient and higher heat-flow values. In addition, active deformation is evident with young magmatism in the Neogene and Quaternary times and a large volcanic cover on the surface. Boundaries of volcanic eruption centers and buried large intrusions are surrounded with the maxspots of the horizontal gradients of magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal (AS) map pointing-out exact locations of causative bodies is also presented in this study. Circular region in the combined map of AS and maxspots apparently indicates a possible caldera.

  13. Functional Innovations and the Conquest of the Oceans by Acanthomorph Fishes.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Peter C; Longo, Sarah J

    2017-06-05

    The world's oceans are home to many fantastic creatures, including about 16,000 species of actinopterygian, or ray-finned, fishes. Notably, 85% of marine fish species come from a single actinopterygian subgroup, the acanthomorph or spiny-rayed fishes. Here, we review eight functional innovations found in marine acanthomorphs that have been instrumental in the adaptive radiation of this group in the marine realm. Jaw protrusion substantially enhances the suction feeding mechanism found in all fish. Fin spines serve as a major deterrent to predators and enhance the locomotor function of fins. Pharyngognathy, a specialization of the second pair of jaws in the pharynx, enhances the ability of fishes to process hard and tough prey. Endothermy allows fishes to function at high levels of physiological performance in cold waters and facilitates frequent movement across strong thermal gradients found in the open ocean. Intramandibular joints enhance feeding for fishes that bite and scrape prey attached to hard surfaces. Antifreeze proteins prevent ice crystal growth in extracellular fluids, allowing fish to function in cold waters that would otherwise freeze them. Air-breathing allowed fishes at the water's edge to exploit terrestrial habitats. Finally, bioluminescence functions in communication, attracting prey and in hiding from predators, particularly for fishes of the deep ocean. All of these innovations have evolved multiple times in fishes. The frequent occurrence of convergent evolution of these complex functional novelties speaks to the persistence and potency of the selective forces in marine environments that challenge fishes and stimulate innovation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ocean stratification reduces melt rates at the grounding zone of the Ross Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begeman, C. B.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Marsh, O.; Mikucki, J.; Stanton, T. P.; Hodson, T. O.; Siegfried, M. R.; Powell, R. D.; Christianson, K. A.; King, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean-driven melting of ice shelves is often invoked as the primary mechanism for triggering ice loss from Antarctica. However, due to the difficulty in accessing the sub-ice-shelf ocean cavity, the relationship between ice-shelf melt rates and ocean conditions is poorly understood, particularly near the transition from grounded to floating ice, known as the grounding zone. Here we present the first borehole oceanographic observations from the grounding zone of Antarctica's largest ice shelf. Contrary to predictions that tidal currents near grounding zones should mix the water column, driving high ice-shelf melt rates, we find a stratified sub-ice-shelf water column. The vertical salinity gradient dominates stratification over a weakly unstable vertical temperature gradient; thus, stratification takes the form of a double-diffusive staircase. These conditions limit vertical heat fluxes and lead to low melt rates in the ice-shelf grounding zone. While modern grounding zone melt rates may presently be overestimated in models that assume efficient tidal mixing, the high sensitivity of double-diffusive staircases to ocean freshening and warming suggests future melt rates may be underestimated, biasing projections of global sea-level rise.

  15. A uniplanar three-axis gradient set for in vivo magnetic resonance microscopy.

    PubMed

    Demyanenko, Andrey V; Zhao, Lin; Kee, Yun; Nie, Shuyi; Fraser, Scott E; Tyszka, J Michael

    2009-09-01

    We present an optimized uniplanar magnetic resonance gradient design specifically tailored for MR imaging applications in developmental biology and histology. Uniplanar gradient designs sacrifice gradient uniformity for high gradient efficiency and slew rate, and are attractive for surface imaging applications where open access from one side of the sample is required. However, decreasing the size of the uniplanar gradient set presents several unique engineering challenges, particularly for heat dissipation and thermal insulation of the sample from gradient heating. We demonstrate a new three-axis, target-field optimized uniplanar gradient coil design that combines efficient cooling and insulation to significantly reduce sample heating at sample-gradient distances of less than 5mm. The instrument is designed for microscopy in horizontal bore magnets. Empirical gradient current efficiencies in the prototype coils lie between 3.75G/cm/A and 4.5G/cm/A with current and heating-limited maximum gradient strengths between 235G/cm and 450G/cm at a 2% duty cycle. The uniplanar gradient prototype is demonstrated with non-linearity corrections for both high-resolution structural imaging of tissue slices and for long time-course imaging of live, developing amphibian embryos in a horizontal bore 7T magnet.

  16. High-silica Rocks from Oceans, Arcs and Ophiolites: What Can They Tell Us About Ophiolite Origins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfit, M. R.; Lundstrom, C.; Wanless, V. D.

    2015-12-01

    Although the volumes of high-silica rocks in submarine oceanic and supra-subduction zone environments are not well constrained, their common occurrence, field relations and compositions have led to various hypotheses suggesting that silicic intrusions (plagiogranites) in ophiolites formed by similar processes to high-silica volcanic rocks at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) or island arc environments. Geochemical attributes of andesite-rhyolite suites from MOR (East Pacific Rise, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Galapagos Spreading Center, Pacific-Antarctic Rise) and back-arc basins (Manus Basin, Lau Basin, East Scotia Ridge) show both similarities and differences to plagiogranitic suites (qtz. diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite) from ophiolites (Troodos and Semail). Both suites are commonly attributed to: extreme (>90%) fractional crystallization of basaltic melts; fractional crystallization coupled with assimilation of hydrated oceanic crust (AFC); or partial melting of preexisting crust. Normalized incompatible trace element patterns show either highly elevated, relatively flat patterns with negative Eu and Sr anomalies similar to high silica volcanics or have complimentary patterns with low abundance, more depleted patterns with positive Eu and Sr anomalies. None of the mechanisms, however, provide a consistent explanation for the compositional and isotopic variations that are observed among plagiogranites. In fact, ophiolitic plagiogranites can have at least two petrogenetic signatures - one indicative of a MORB parent and another that has been related to later, off-axis formation associated with supra-subduction zone magmatism. Based on thermal gradient experiments, the systematic changes in Fe and Si stable isotope ratios with differentiation observed in ophiolite and MOR high-silica suites may result from melt-mineral reactions within a temperature gradient near the boundaries of MOR magma lenses. Comparative major element, trace element and isotopic data will be presented from MOR

  17. Ocean warming ameliorates the negative effects of ocean acidification on Paracentrotus lividus larval development and settlement.

    PubMed

    García, Eliseba; Clemente, Sabrina; Hernández, José Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Ocean warming and acidification both impact marine ecosystems. All organisms have a limited body temperature range, outside of which they become functionally constrained. Beyond the absolute extremes of this range, they cannot survive. It is hypothesized that some stressors can present effects that interact with other environmental variables, such as ocean acidification (OA) that have the potential to narrow the thermal range where marine species are functional. An organism's response to ocean acidification can therefore be highly dependent on thermal conditions. This study evaluated the combined effects of predicted ocean warming conditions and acidification, on survival, development, and settlement, of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Nine combined treatments of temperature (19.0, 20.5 and 22.5 °C) and pH (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 units) were carried out. All of the conditions tested were either within the current natural ranges of seawater pH and temperature or are within the ranges that have been predicted for the end of the century, in the sampling region (Canary Islands). Our results indicated that the negative effects of low pH on P. lividus larval development and settlement will be mitigated by a rise in seawater temperature, up to a thermotolerance threshold. Larval development and settlement performance of the sea urchin P. lividus was enhanced by a slight increase in temperature, even under lowered pH conditions. However, the species did show negative responses to the levels of ocean warming and acidification that have been predicted for the turn of the century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Volcanoes and climate: Krakatoa's signature persists in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Gleckler, P J; Wigley, T M L; Santer, B D; Gregory, J M; Achutarao, K; Taylor, K E

    2006-02-09

    We have analysed a suite of 12 state-of-the-art climate models and show that ocean warming and sea-level rise in the twentieth century were substantially reduced by the colossal eruption in 1883 of the volcano Krakatoa in the Sunda strait, Indonesia. Volcanically induced cooling of the ocean surface penetrated into deeper layers, where it persisted for decades after the event. This remarkable effect on oceanic thermal structure is longer lasting than has previously been suspected and is sufficient to offset a large fraction of ocean warming and sea-level rise caused by anthropogenic influences.

  19. Surface Cracking and Interface Reaction Associated Delamination Failure of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Choi, Sung R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, surface cracking and interface reactions of a BSAS coating and a multi-layer ZTO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS/Si thermal and environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were characterized after long-term combined laser thermal gradient and furnace cyclic tests in a water vapor containing environment. The surface cracking was analyzed based on the coating thermal gradient sintering behavior and thermal expansion mismatch stress characteristics under the thermal cyclic conditions. The interface reactions, which were largely enhanced by the coating surface cracking in the water vapor environment, were investigated in detail, and the reaction phases were identified for the coating system after the long- term exposure. The accelerated coating delamination failure was attributed to the increased delamination driving force under the thermal gradient cyclic loading and the reduced interface adhesion due to the detrimental interface reactions.

  20. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

  1. Detecting depth gradients in the mid-Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multivariate data sets can be simplified using techniques like ordination and detrended correspondence analysis to identify important ecological gradients such as water depth, and thus provide insight into the environmental distribution of species (Patzkowsky & Holland, 2012). Here, these methods will be applied to abundance data of foraminiferal assemblages from the Western Interior Seaway through the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary ( 94-93 Ma). Through this interval the seaway experienced rapid and abrupt environmental and oceanographic changes, including the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) and peak transgression. The intense ocean and biosphere changes are well documented in the WIS, but the effect of OAE2 coupled with rising sea level on foraminiferal communities across the seaway is still poorly understood.

  2. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  3. Characterization of the thermal conductivity for Advanced Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Leiser, Daniel B.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Insulations (TUFI) is discussed in terms of their thermal response to an arc-jet air stream. A modification of the existing Ames thermal conductivity program to predict the thermal response of these functionally gradient materials is described in the paper. The modified program was used to evaluate the effect of density, surface porosity, and density gradient through the TUFI materials on the thermal response of these insulations. Predictions using a finite-difference code and calculated thermal conductivity values from the modified program were compared with in-depth temperature measurements taken from TUFI insulations during short exposures to arc-jet hypersonic air streams.

  4. Depth-related gradients of viral activity in Lake Pavin.

    PubMed

    Colombet, J; Sime-Ngando, T; Cauchie, H M; Fonty, G; Hoffmann, L; Demeure, G

    2006-06-01

    High-resolution vertical sampling and determination of viral and prokaryotic parameters in a deep volcanic lake shows that in the absence of thermal stratification but within light, oxygen, and chlorophyll gradients, host availability empirically is prevalent over the physical and chemical environments and favors lytic over lysogenic "viral life cycles."

  5. Behaviour and physiology: the thermal strategy of leatherback turtles.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Brian L; Jones, T Todd; Hastings, Mervin; Jones, David R

    2010-11-10

    Adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) exhibit thermal gradients between their bodies and the environment of ≥8°C in sub-polar waters and ≤4°C in the tropics. There has been no direct evidence for thermoregulation in leatherbacks although modelling and morphological studies have given an indication of how thermoregulation may be achieved. We show for the first time that leatherbacks are indeed capable of thermoregulation from studies on juvenile leatherbacks of 16 and 37 kg. In cold water (< 25°C), flipper stroke frequency increased, heat loss through the plastron, carapace and flippers was minimized, and a positive thermal gradient of up to 2.3°C was maintained between body and environment. In warm water (25 - 31°C), turtles were inactive and heat loss through their plastron, carapace and flippers increased. The thermal gradient was minimized (0.5°C). Using a scaling model, we estimate that a 300 kg adult leatherback is able to maintain a maximum thermal gradient of 18.2°C in cold sub-polar waters. In juvenile leatherbacks, heat gain is controlled behaviourally by increasing activity while heat flux is regulated physiologically, presumably by regulation of blood flow distribution. Hence, harnessing physiology and behaviour allows leatherbacks to keep warm while foraging in cold sub-polar waters and to prevent overheating in a tropical environment.

  6. Development of a continuous flow thermal gradient diffusion chamber for ice nucleation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, David C.

    A supercooled continuous flow, thermal gradient diffusion chamber has been developed to study the ice nucleating properties of natural or artificial aerosols. The chamber has concentric cylinder geometry with the cylinder axis alignment and airflow vertically downward. Sample airflow is 1 l min -1 and occupies the central 10% of the annular lamina; it is separated from the ice-covered walls by filtered sheath air. The wall temperatures are independently controlled over the range from about -4°C to -25°C, so that the vapor concentration at the location of the sample lamina can be set to a well defined value between ice saturation and a few percent water supersaturation. There is a range of temperature and supersaturation values across the sample region; for lamina center conditions of -15°C and +1% with respect to water, the range is -14.6 to -15.4°C and +0.53 to +1.31%. Errors in temperature control produce variations estimated as ±0.1°C and ±0.23%. Typical sample residence time is about 10 s. Ice crystals which form on active nuclei are detected optically at the outlet end of the chamber. To enhance the size difference between ice crystals and cloud droplets, the downstream 25% of the warm ice wall is covered with a thermally insulating vapor barrier which reduces the vapor concentration to ice saturation at the cold wall temperature, so cloud droplets evaporate. A mathematical model was developed to describe the temperature and vapor fields and to calculate the growth, evaporation, and sedimentation of water and ice particles. At 1% water supersaturation, the model predicts that ice particles will grow to about 5 μm diameter, and cloud droplets will achieve about 1 μm before they reach the evaporation section of the chamber. A different model was developed to describe the steady state airflow profile and location of the sample lamina. Experimental tests of the chamber were performed to characterize the airflow, to assess the ability of the technique to

  7. Structure and Dynamics of Decadal Anomalies in the Wintertime Midlatitude North Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean- atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean

  8. Influence of solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton on the thermal structure and circulation of the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert; Ueyoshi, Kyozo; Kampel, Milton

    2007-09-01

    Numerical experiments conducted with an ocean general ocean circulation model reveal the potential influence of solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton on the thermal structure and currents of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean. In the model, solar radiation penetration is parameterized explicitly as a function of chlorophyll-a concentration, the major variable affecting water turbidity in the open ocean. Two types of runs are performed, a clear water (control) run with a constant minimum chlorophyll-a concentration of 0.02 mgm -3, and a turbid water (chlorophyll) run with space- and time-varying chlorophyll-a concentration from satellite data. The difference between results from the two runs yields the biological effects. In the chlorophyll run, nutrients and biology production are implicitly taken into account, even though biogeochemical processes are not explicitly included, since phytoplankton distribution, prescribed from observations, is the result of those processes. Due to phytoplankton-radiation forcing, the surface temperature is higher by 1-2 K on average annually in the region of the North Equatorial current, the Northern part of the South Equatorial current, and the Caribbean system, and by 3-4 K in the region of the Guinea current. In this region, upwelling is reduced, and heat trapped in the surface layers by phytoplankton is not easily removed. The surface temperature is lower by 1 K in the Northern region of the Benguela current, due to increased upwelling. At depth, the equatorial Atlantic is generally cooler, as well as the eastern part of the tropical basin (excluding the region of the sub-tropical gyres). The North and South equatorial currents, as well as the Equatorial undercurrent, are enhanced by as much as 3-4 cms -1, and the circulation of the subtropical gyres is increased. Pole-ward heat transport is slightly reduced North of 35°N, suggesting that phytoplankton, by increasing the horizontal return flow in the subtropical region, may exert a

  9. Thermal tolerance and preference of exploited turbinid snails near their range limit in a global warming hotspot.

    PubMed

    Lah, Roslizawati Ab; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Bucher, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Predicted global climate change has prompted numerous studies of thermal tolerances of marine species. The upper thermal tolerance is unknown for most marine species, but will determine their vulnerability to ocean warming. Gastropods in the family Turbinidae are widely harvested for human consumption. To investigate the responses of turbinid snails to future conditions we determined critical thermal maxima (CTMax) and preferred temperatures of Turbo militaris and Lunella undulata from the tropical-temperate overlap region of northern New South Wales, on the Australian east coast. CTMax were determined at two warming rates: 1°C/30min and 1°C/12h. The number of snails that lost attachment to the tank wall was recorded at each temperature increment. At the faster rate, T. militaris had a significantly higher CTMax (34.0°C) than L. undulata (32.2°C). At the slower rate the mean of both species was lower and there was no significant difference between them (29.4°C for T. militaris and 29.6°C for L. undulata). This is consistent with differences in thermal inertia possibly allowing animals to tolerate short periods at higher temperatures than is possible during longer exposure times, but other mechanisms are not discounted. The thermoregulatory behaviour of the turban snails was determined in a horizontal thermal gradient. Both species actively sought out particular temperatures along the gradient, suggesting that behavioural responses may be important in ameliorating short-term temperature changes. The preferred temperatures of both species were higher at night (24.0°C and 26.0°C) than during the day (22.0°C and 23.9°C). As the snails approached their preferred temperature, net hourly displacement decreased. Preferred temperatures were within the average seasonal seawater temperature range in this region. However, with future predicted water temperature trends, the species could experience increased periods of thermal stress, possibly exceeding CTMax and

  10. Patterns and controlling factors of species diversity in the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, Gene; van Dijken, Gert; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Wollenburg, Jutta E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim  The Arctic Ocean is one of the last near-pristine regions on Earth, and, although human activities are expected to impact on Arctic ecosystems, we know very little about baseline patterns of Arctic Ocean biodiversity. This paper aims to describe Arctic Ocean-wide patterns of benthic biodiversity and to explore factors related to the large-scale species diversity patterns.Location  Arctic Ocean.Methods  We used large ostracode and foraminiferal datasets to describe the biodiversity patterns and applied comprehensive ecological modelling to test the degree to which these patterns are potentially governed by environmental factors, such as temperature, productivity, seasonality, ice cover and others. To test environmental control of the observed diversity patterns, subsets of samples for which all environmental parameters were available were analysed with multiple regression and model averaging.Results  Well-known negative latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs) were found in metazoan Ostracoda, but the LSDGs were unimodal with an intermediate maximum with respect to latitude in protozoan foraminifera. Depth species diversity gradients were unimodal, with peaks in diversity shallower than those in other oceans. Our modelling results showed that several factors are significant predictors of diversity, but the significant predictors were different among shallow marine ostracodes, deep-sea ostracodes and deep-sea foraminifera.Main conclusions  On the basis of these Arctic Ocean-wide comprehensive datasets, we document large-scale diversity patterns with respect to latitude and depth. Our modelling results suggest that the underlying mechanisms causing these species diversity patterns are unexpectedly complex. The environmental parameters of temperature, surface productivity, seasonality of productivity, salinity and ice cover can all play a role in shaping large-scale diversity patterns, but their relative importance may depend on the ecological

  11. Laminar Flow in the Ocean Ekman Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, J. T. H.

    INTRODUCTION THE EFFECT OF A STABLE DENSITY GRADIENT THE FATAL FLAW FLOW VISUALIZATION THE DISCOVERY OF LAMINAR FLOW FINE STRUCTURE WAVE-INDUCED SHEAR INSTABILITY BILLOW TURBULENCE REVERSE TRANSITION REVISED PARADIGM ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF THE UPPER OCEAN DIURNAL VARIATION BUOYANT CONVECTION BILLOW TURBULENCE IN THE DIURNAL THERMOCLINE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE EKMAN CURRENT PROFILE SOLAR RADIATION APPLICATIONS Slippery Seas of Acapulco Pollution Afternoon Effect in Sonar Patchiness Fisheries Climate DISCUSSION CONCLUSION REFERENCES

  12. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barrera, M. T., E-mail: mariate9590@gmail.com; Barros, H.; Pino, F.

    2015-07-23

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). Thesemore » covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (∼1.6 10{sup 4} neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.« less

  13. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C. B.; Genens, L.

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. Different OTEC plants are described that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor; the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs where appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed; 40 inch high density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii.

  14. Petrologic evidence that most ocean islands derive from thermally driven mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putirka, K. D.

    2006-12-01

    Perhaps the most crucial test of the mantle plume hypothesis concerns whether hot spots are indeed hot. To conduct this test, olivine-liquid equilibria are used to estimate mantle potential temperatures (Tp) for 15 putative plume localities (using the GEOROC database). Ocean islands (OIB) were selected on the availability of rocks that attain olivine control (where olivine addition/removal alone controls rock composition) so that primitive FeO contents could be estimated. Several other variables in addition to FeO must also be known: Except at Iceland and Hawaii, where large numbers of olivine analyses allow individual estimates for the maximum forsterite contents (Fomax) of olivines, a single Fomax value, 91.5, is adopted for all OIB (and MORB; determined from a global database of olivine compositions); as a null hypothesis, MORB-like values for oxygen fugacity (QFM-1; Bezos and Humler, 2005) and the Fe-Mg exchange coefficient between olivine and liquid (0.31; calculated from Toplis, 2005, Herzberg and O'Hara, 1998) are adopted. Generalized differences in water contents between OIB and MORB (Dixon et al., 2002) are also accounted for. All temperatures are calculated at 1 GPa, using averages of existing (Beattie, 1993) and new (Putirka et al., 2006) olivine geothermometers. Except for Galapagos, primitive OIBs have nearly uniform FeO contents that are higher compared to MORB (at MgO>10 wt. %, mean OIB FeOt = 11.6 wt. %). These high FeO contents require higher mean temperatures of olivine-liquid equilibration for OIB, by an average of 150±20°C compared to MORB. Olivine equilibration temperatures do not depend on mantle source composition, so are independent of whether eclogite-type components occur in the mantle. If a peridotite bulk composition is assumed (to estimate melt fraction from partial melting experiments) olivine equilibration temperatures can be converted to Tp; OIB (Galapagos excepted) yield a mean Tp of 1583°C, compared to 1397°C for MORB. When

  15. Surface Cracking and Interface Reaction Associated Delamination Failure of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, surface cracking and interface reactions of a BSAS coating and a multi-layer ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS/Si thermal and environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were characterized after long-term combined laser thermal gradient and furnace cyclic tests in a water vapor containing environment. The surface cracking was analyzed based on the coating thermal gradient sintering behavior and thermal expansion mismatch stress characteristics under the thermal cyclic conditions. The interface reactions, which were largely enhanced by the coating surface cracking in the water vapor environment, were investigated in detail, and the reaction phases were identified for the coating system after the long-term exposure. The accelerated coating delamination failure was attributed to the increased delamination driving force under the thermal gradient cyclic loading and the reduced interface adhesion due to the detrimental interface reactions.

  16. Impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization due to ocean-surge inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Huichen; Yu, Xuan; Graf, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.

    2018-01-01

    Ocean surges cause seawater inundation of coastal inland areas. Subsequently, seawater infiltrates into coastal aquifers and threatens the fresh groundwater resource. The severity of resulting salinization can be affected by hydrogeological factors including aquifer properties and hydrologic conditions, however, little research has been done to assess these effects. To understand the impacts of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization, we numerically simulated an ocean-surge inundation event on a two-dimensional conceptual coastal aquifer using a coupled surface-subsurface approach. We varied model permeability (including anisotropy), inland hydraulic gradient, and recharge rate. Three salinization-assessment indicators were developed, based on flushing time, depth of salt penetration, and a combination of the two, weighted flushing time, with which the impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater vulnerability to salinization were quantitatively assessed. The vulnerability of coastal aquifers increases with increasing isotropic permeability. Low horizontal permeability (kx) and high vertical permeability (kz) lead to high aquifer vulnerability, and high kx and low kz lead to low aquifer vulnerability. Vulnerability decreases with increasing groundwater hydraulic gradient and increasing recharge rate. Additionally, coastal aquifers with a low recharge rate (R ≤ 300 mm yr-1) may be highly vulnerable to ocean-surge inundation. This study shows how the newly introduced indicators can be used to quantitatively assess coastal aquifer vulnerability. The results are important for global vulnerability assessment of coastal aquifers to ocean-surge inundation.

  17. Multidecadal-scale adjustment of the ocean mixed layer heat budget in the tropics: examining ocean reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.; Sun, Xiaoming

    2018-03-01

    Distributions of ocean mixed layer temperature trends and trends in the net heat flux from the atmosphere differ, indicating the important role of the transport of heat within the ocean for determining temperature trends. Annual-mean, linear trends in the components of the tropical ocean mixed layer heat budget for 1980-2015 are diagnosed in 4 ocean reanalyses to improve our physical understanding of multidecadal-scale SST trends. The well-known temperature trend in the tropical Pacific, with cooling in the east and warming in the west, is reproduced in each reanalysis with high statistical significance. Cooling in the east is associated with negative trends in the net heat flux from the atmosphere and enhanced equatorial upwelling related to a strengthening of the subtropical cells. Negative trends in the net heat flux also occur in the western tropical Pacific, but advective warming associated with a strengthening and shoaling of the equatorial undercurrent overwhelms these negative trends. The strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent is consistent with enhanced easterly wind stress, which is applied to the ocean reanalyses, and differential sea level trends that enhance the negative zonal height gradient across the Pacific. The Pacific North Equatorial countercurrent is also strengthening in all 4 reanalyses in association with a strengthening of the sea level trough at 10°N in the central and eastern Pacific. All 4 ocean reanalyses produce warming of 0.1-0.3 K/decade in the North Atlantic with statistical significance levels ranging from below 90-99%. The Atlantic is similar to the Pacific in having the equatorial undercurrent strengthening, but indications of shoaling are less consistent in the reanalyses and the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the Atlantic is not strengthening. Large-scale ocean mixed layer warming trends in the Indian Ocean in the reanalyses are interrupted by some regional cooling close to the equator. Net surface heat flux trends

  18. Thermal preference predicts animal personality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Marco; Rey, Sonia; Silva, Tome; Featherstone, Zoe; Crumlish, Margaret; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    Environmental temperature gradients provide habitat structure in which fish orientate and individual thermal choice may reflect an essential integrated response to the environment. The use of subtle thermal gradients likely impacts upon specific physiological and behavioural processes reflected as a suite of traits described by animal personality. In this study, we examine the relationship between thermal choice, animal personality and the impact of infection upon this interaction. We predicted that thermal choice in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reflects distinct personality traits and that under a challenge individuals exhibit differential thermal distribution. Nile tilapia were screened following two different protocols: 1) a suite of individual behavioural tests to screen for personality and 2) thermal choice in a custom-built tank with a thermal gradient (TCH tank) ranging from 21 to 33 °C. A first set of fish were screened for behaviour and then thermal preference, and a second set were tested in the opposite fashion: thermal then behaviour. The final thermal distribution of the fish after 48 h was assessed reflecting final thermal preferendum. Additionally, fish were then challenged using a bacterial Streptococcus iniae model infection to assess the behavioural fever response of proactive and reactive fish. Results showed that individuals with preference for higher temperatures were also classified as proactive with behavioural tests and reactive contemporaries chose significantly lower water temperatures. All groups exhibited behavioural fever recovering personality-specific thermal preferences after 5 days. Our results show that thermal preference can be used as a proxy to assess personality traits in Nile tilapia and it is a central factor to understand the adaptive meaning of animal personality within a population. Importantly, response to infection by expressing behavioural fever overrides personality-related thermal choice. © 2016 The Authors

  19. Garnet Signatures in Geophysical and Geochemical Observations: Insights into the Thermo-Petrological Structure of Oceanic Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grose, C. J.; Afonso, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed new physically comprehensive thermal plate models of the oceanic lithosphere which incorporate temperature- and pressure-dependent heat transport properties and thermal expansivity, melting beneath ridges, hydrothermal circulation near ridge axes, and insulating oceanic crust. These models provide good fits to global databases of seafloor topography and heat flow, and seismic evidence of thermal structure near ridge axes. We couple these thermal plate models with thermodynamic models to predict the petrology of oceanic lithosphere. Geoid height predictions from our models suggest that there is a strong anomaly in geoid slope (over age) above ~25 Ma lithosphere due to the topography of garnet-field mantle. A similar anomaly is also present in geoid data over fracture zones. In addition, we show that a new assessment of a large database of ocean island basalt Sm/Yb systematics indicates that there is an unmistakable step-like increase in Sm/Yb values around 15-20 Ma, indicating the presence of garnet. To explain this feature, we have attempted to couple our thermo-petrological models of oceanic upper mantle with an open system, non-modal, dynamic melting model with diffusion kinetics to investigate trace element partitioning in an ascending mantle column.

  20. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  1. Efficient thermal diode with ballistic spacer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shunda; Donadio, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2018-03-01

    Thermal rectification is of importance not only for fundamental physics, but also for potential applications in thermal manipulations and thermal management. However, thermal rectification effect usually decays rapidly with system size. Here, we show that a mass-graded system, with two diffusive leads separated by a ballistic spacer, can exhibit large thermal rectification effect, with the rectification factor independent of system size. The underlying mechanism is explained in terms of the effective size-independent thermal gradient and the match or mismatch of the phonon bands. We also show the robustness of the thermal diode upon variation of the model's parameters. Our finding suggests a promising way for designing realistic efficient thermal diodes.

  2. Sea-surface temperature gradients across blue whale and sea turtle foraging trajectories off the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etnoyer, Peter; Canny, David; Mate, Bruce R.; Morgan, Lance E.; Ortega-Ortiz, Joel G.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2006-02-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) fronts are integral to pelagic ecology in the North Pacific Ocean, so it is necessary to understand their character and distribution, and the way these features influence the behavior of endangered and highly migratory species. Here, telemetry data from sixteen satellite-tagged blue whales ( Balaenoptera musculus) and sea turtles ( Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, and Lepidochelys olivacea) are employed to characterize 'biologically relevant' SST fronts off Baja California Sur. High residence times are used to identify presumed foraging areas, and SST gradients are calculated across advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images of these regions. The resulting values are compared to classic definitions of SST fronts in the oceanographic literature. We find subtle changes in surface temperature (between 0.01 and 0.10 °C/km) across the foraging trajectories, near the lowest end of the oceanographic scale (between 0.03 and 0.3 °C/km), suggesting that edge-detection algorithms using gradient thresholds >0.10 °C/km may overlook pelagic habitats in tropical waters. We use this information to sensitize our edge-detection algorithm, and to identify persistent concentrations of subtle SST fronts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean between 2002 and 2004. The lower-gradient threshold increases the number of fronts detected, revealing more potential habitats in different places than we find with a higher-gradient threshold. This is the expected result, but it confirms that pelagic habitat can be overlooked, and that the temperature gradient parameter is an important one.

  3. Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shue, Jack; Ramirez, Julian B.; Sullivan, David; Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Surface Thermal Profiles of Eagle Picher rabbit-ear 50Ah NiH2 and of Saft 40 Ah Li-ion cylindrical cells have been studied using ThermCAM S60 FLIR Systems. Popping Phenomenon in NiH2 cell is demonstrated Temperature gradient in NiH2 is slightly higher than normally considered, for example. Middle of stack to top or bottom is about 12.9 C compared to <7 C (may be due to passive cooling). Less than 1 C thermal gradient on the Li-Ion cell vessel surface. Significantly lower heat generation in Li-Ion cell compared to NiH2 cell. -May be due to a favorable charge method used for Li-Ion cell.

  4. A Model for the Thermal and Chemical Evolution of the Moon's Interior: Implications for the Onset of Mare Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Paul C.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallization of the lunar magma ocean creates a chemically stratified Moon consisting of an anorthositic crust and magma ocean cumulates overlying the primitive lunar interior. Within the magma ocean cumulates the last liquids to crystallize form dense, ilmenite-rich cumulates that contain high concentrations of incompatible radioactive elements. The underlying olivine-orthopyroxene cumulates are also stratified with later crystallized, denser, more Fe-rich compositions at the top. This paper explores the chemical and thermal consequences of an internal evolution model accounting for the possible role of these sources of chemical buoyancy. Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes the dense ilmenite-rich cumulate layer and underlying Fe-rich cumulates to sink toward the center of the Moon, forming a dense lunar core. After this overturn, radioactive heating within the ilmenite-rich cumulate core heats the overlying mantle, causing it to melt. In this model, the source region for high-TiO2 mare basalts is a convectively mixed layer above the core-mantle boundary which would contain small and variable amounts of admixed ilmenite and KREEP. This deep high-pressure melting, as required for mare basalts, occurs after a reasonable time interval to explain the onset of mare basalt volcanism if the content of radioactive elements in the core and the chemical density gradients above the core are sufficiently high but within a range of values that might have been present in the Moon. Regardless of details implied by particular model parameters, gravitational overturn driven by the high density of magma ocean Fe-rich cumulates should concentrate high-TiO2 mare basalt sources, and probably a significant fraction of radioactive heating, toward the center of the Moon. This will have important implications for both the thermal evolution of the Moon and for mare basalt genesis.

  5. A review of the salt-gradient solar pond technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    The state of the salt-gradient solar pond technology is reviewed. Highlights of findings and experiences from existing ponds to data are presented, and the behavior, energy yield, operational features, and economics of solar ponds are examined. It is concluded that salt-gradient solar ponds represent a technically feasible, environmentally benign, and economically attractive energy producing alternative. In order to bring this emerging technology to maturity, however, much research and development effort remains to be undertaken. Specific R&D areas requiring the attention and action of technical workers and decision-makers are discussed, both from the perspectives of smaller, thermally-oriented ponds and larger, electricity generating ponds.

  6. Depth-Related Gradients of Viral Activity in Lake Pavin

    PubMed Central

    Colombet, J.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Cauchie, H. M.; Fonty, G.; Hoffmann, L.; Demeure, G.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution vertical sampling and determination of viral and prokaryotic parameters in a deep volcanic lake shows that in the absence of thermal stratification but within light, oxygen, and chlorophyll gradients, host availability empirically is prevalent over the physical and chemical environments and favors lytic over lysogenic “viral life cycles.” PMID:16751565

  7. More-frequent extreme northward shifts of eastern Indian Ocean tropical convergence under greenhouse warming