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Sample records for ocean tsunami warning

  1. U.S. Tsunami Warning System: Advancements since the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. government embarked on a strengthening program for the U.S. Tsunami Warning System (TWS) in the aftermath of the disastrous 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The program was designed to improve several facets of the U.S. TWS, including: upgrade of the coastal sea level network - 16 new stations plus higher transmission rates; expansion of the deep ocean tsunameter network - 7 sites increased to 39; upgrade of seismic networks - both USGS and Tsunami Warning Center (TWC); increase of TWC staff to allow 24x7 coverage at two centers; development of an improved tsunami forecast system; increased preparedness in coastal communities; expansion of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center facility; and improvement of the tsunami data archive effort at the National Geophysical Data Center. The strengthening program has been completed and has contributed to the many improvements attained in the U.S. TWS since 2004. Some of the more significant enhancements to the program are: the number of sea level and seismic sites worldwide available to the TWCs has more than doubled; the TWC areas-of-responsibility expanded to include the U.S./Canadian Atlantic coasts, Indian Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and U.S. Arctic coast; event response time decreased by approximately one-half; product accuracy has improved; a tsunami forecast system developed by NOAA capable of forecasting inundation during an event has been delivered to the TWCs; warning areas are now defined by pre-computed or forecasted threat versus distance or travel time, significantly reducing the amount of coast put in a warning; new warning dissemination techniques have been implemented to reach a broader audience in less time; tsunami product content better reflects the expected impact level; the number of TsunamiReady communities has quadrupled; and the historical data archive has increased in quantity and accuracy. In addition to the strengthening program, the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP

  2. Integration of WERA Ocean Radar into Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzvonkovskaya, Anna; Helzel, Thomas; Kniephoff, Matthias; Petersen, Leif; Weber, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    High-frequency (HF) ocean radars give a unique capability to deliver simultaneous wide area measurements of ocean surface current fields and sea state parameters far beyond the horizon. The WERA® ocean radar system is a shore-based remote sensing system to monitor ocean surface in near real-time and at all-weather conditions up to 300 km offshore. Tsunami induced surface currents cause increasing orbital velocities comparing to normal oceanographic situation and affect the measured radar spectra. The theoretical approach about tsunami influence on radar spectra showed that a tsunami wave train generates a specific unusual pattern in the HF radar spectra. While the tsunami wave is approaching the beach, the surface current pattern changes slightly in deep water and significantly in the shelf area as it was shown in theoretical considerations and later proved during the 2011 Japan tsunami. These observed tsunami signatures showed that the velocity of tsunami currents depended on a tsunami wave height and bathymetry. The HF ocean radar doesn't measure the approaching wave height of a tsunami; however, it can resolve the surface current velocity signature, which is generated when tsunami reaches the shelf edge. This strong change of the surface current can be detected by a phased-array WERA system in real-time; thus the WERA ocean radar is a valuable tool to support Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). Based on real tsunami measurements, requirements for the integration of ocean radar systems into TEWS are already defined. The requirements include a high range resolution, a narrow beam directivity of phased-array antennas and an accelerated data update mode to provide a possibility of offshore tsunami detection in real-time. The developed software package allows reconstructing an ocean surface current map of the area observed by HF radar based on the radar power spectrum processing. This fact gives an opportunity to issue an automated tsunami identification message

  3. Anatomy of Historical Tsunamis: Lessons Learned for Tsunami Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Y.; Kong, L.; Yamamoto, M.; McCreery, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Tsunamis are high-impact disasters that can cause death and destruction locally within a few minutes of their occurrence and across oceans hours, even up to a day, afterward. Efforts to establish tsunami warning systems to protect life and property began in the Pacific after the 1946 Aleutian Islands tsunami caused casualties in Hawaii. Seismic and sea level data were used by a central control center to evaluate tsunamigenic potential and then issue alerts and warnings. The ensuing events of 1952, 1957, and 1960 tested the new system, which continued to expand and evolve from a United States system to an international system in 1965. The Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ITSU) steadily improved through the decades as more stations became available in real and near-real time through better communications technology and greater bandwidth. New analysis techniques, coupled with more data of higher quality, resulted in better detection, greater solution accuracy, and more reliable warnings, but limitations still exist in constraining the source and in accurately predicting propagation of the wave from source to shore. Tsunami event data collected over the last two decades through international tsunami science surveys have led to more realistic models for source generation and inundation, and within the warning centers, real-time tsunami wave forecasting will become a reality in the near future. The tsunami warning system is an international cooperative effort amongst countries supported by global and national monitoring networks and dedicated tsunami warning centers; the research community has contributed to the system by advancing and improving its analysis tools. Lessons learned from the earliest tsunamis provided the backbone for the present system, but despite 45 years of experience, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reminded us that tsunamis strike and kill everywhere, not just in the Pacific. Today, a global intergovernmental tsunami warning system is coordinated

  4. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  5. Global Tsunami Warning System Development Since 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.; McCreery, C.; Hirshorn, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The 9.1 Mw Great Sumatra Earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004, generated the most destructive tsunami in history killing 227,000 people along Indian Ocean coastlines and was recorded by sea-level instruments world-wide. This tragedy showed the Indian Ocean needed a tsunami warning system to prevent another tragedy on this scale. The Great Sumatra Earthquake also highlighted the need for tsunami warning systems in other ocean basins. Instruments for recording earthquakes and sea-level data useful for tsunami monitoring did not exist outside of the Pacific Ocean in 2004. Seismometers were few in number, and even fewer were high-quality long period broadband instruments. Nor was much of their data made available to the US tsunami warning centers (TWCs). In 2004 the US TWCs relied exclusively on instrumentation provided and maintained by IRIS and the USGS for areas outside of the Pacific.Since 2004, the US TWCs and their partners have made substantial improvements to seismic and sea-level monitoring networks with the addition of new and better instruments, densification of existing networks, better communications infrastructure, and improved data sharing among tsunami warning centers. In particular, the number of sea-level stations transmitting data in near real-time and the amount of seismic data available to the tsunami warning centers has more than tripled. The DART network that consisted of a half-dozen Pacific stations in 2004 now totals nearly 60 stations worldwide. Earthquake and tsunami science has progressed as well. It took nearly three weeks to obtain the first reliable estimates of the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake's magnitude. Today, thanks to improved seismic networks and modern computing power, TWCs use the W-phase seismic moment method to determine accurate earthquake magnitudes and focal mechanisms for great earthquakes within 25 minutes. TWC scientists have also leveraged these modern computers to generate tsunami forecasts in a matter of minutes.Progress towards a

  6. Tsunami Early Warning for the Indian Ocean Region - Status and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterjung, Joern; Rudloff, Alexander; Muench, Ute; Gitews Project Team

    2010-05-01

    The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) for the Indian Ocean region has gone into operation in Indonesia in November 2008. The system includes a seismological network, together with GPS stations and a network of GPS buoys additionally equipped with ocean bottom pressure sensors and a tide gauge network. The different sensor systems have, for the most part, been installed and now deliver respective data either online or interactively upon request to the Warning Centre in Jakarta. Before 2011, however, the different components requires further optimization and fine tuning, local personnel needs to be trained and eventual problems in the daily operation have to be dealt with. Furthermore a company will be founded in the near future, which will guarantee a sustainable maintenance and operation of the system. This concludes the transfer from a temporarily project into a permanent service. This system established in Indonesia differs from other Tsunami Warning Systems through its application of modern scientific methods and technologies. New procedures for the fast and reliable determination of strong earthquakes, deformation monitoring by GPS, the modeling of tsunamis and the assessment of the situation have been implemented in the Warning System architecture. In particular, the direct incorporation of different sensors provides broad information already at the early stages of Early Warning thus resulting in a stable system and minimizing breakdowns and false alarms. The warning system is designed in an open and modular structure based on the most recent developments and standards of information technology. Therefore, the system can easily integrate additional sensor components to be used for other multi-hazard purposes e.g. meteorological and hydrological events. Up to now the German project group is cooperating in the Indian Ocean region with Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Iran, Yemen, Tanzania and Kenya to set up the equipment primarily for

  7. Suitability of Open-Ocean Instrumentation for Use in Near-Field Tsunami Early Warning Along Seismically Active Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Amy L.; Newman, Andrew V.

    2018-05-01

    Over the past decade, the number of open-ocean gauges capable of parsing information about a passing tsunami has steadily increased, particularly through national cable networks and international buoyed efforts such as the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART). This information is analyzed to disseminate tsunami warnings to affected regions. However, most current warnings that incorporate tsunami are directed at mid- and far-field localities. In this study, we analyze the region surrounding four seismically active subduction zones, Cascadia, Japan, Chile, and Java, for their potential to facilitate local tsunami early warning using such systems. We assess which locations currently have instrumentation in the right locations for direct tsunami observations with enough time to provide useful warning to the nearest affected coastline—and which are poorly suited for such systems. Our primary findings are that while some regions are ill-suited for this type of early warning, such as the coastlines of Chile, other localities, like Java, Indonesia, could incorporate direct tsunami observations into their hazard forecasts with enough lead time to be effective for coastal community emergency response. We take into account the effect of tsunami propagation with regard to shallow bathymetry on the fore-arc as well as the effect of earthquake source placement. While it is impossible to account for every type of off-shore tsunamigenic event in these locales, this study aims to characterize a typical large tsunamigenic event occurring in the shallow part of the megathrust as a guide in what is feasible with early tsunami warning.

  8. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  9. Tsunami Warning Services for the U.S. and Canadian Atlantic Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Knight, W.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developed a tsunami warning program for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Within a year, this program extended further to the Atlantic coast of Canada and the Caribbean Sea. Warning services are provided to U.S. and Canadian coasts (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) by the NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) while the NOAA/Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides services for non-U.S. entities in the Caribbean Basin. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is also an active partner in the Caribbean Basin warning system. While the nature of the tsunami threat in the Atlantic Basin is different than in the Pacific, the warning system philosophy is similar. That is, initial messages are based strictly on seismic data so that information is provided to those at greatest risk as fast as possible while supplementary messages are refined with sea level observations and forecasts when possible. The Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) acquire regional seismic data through many agencies, such as the United States Geological Survey, Earthquakes Canada, regional seismic networks, and the PRSN. Seismic data quantity and quality are generally sufficient throughout most of the Atlantic area-of-responsibility to issue initial information within five minutes of origin time. Sea level data are mainly provided by the NOAA/National Ocean Service. Coastal tide gage coverage is generally denser along the Atlantic coast than in the Pacific. Seven deep ocean pressure sensors (DARTs), operated by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Data Buoy Center, are located in the Atlantic Basin (5 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Caribbean, and 1 in the Gulf of Mexico). The DARTs provide TWCs with the means to verify tsunami generation in the Atlantic and provide critical data with which to calibrate forecast models. Tsunami warning response criteria in the Atlantic Basin

  10. Introduction to "Tsunami Science: Ten Years After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Volume I"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Borrero, Jose C.

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Tsunami Science: Ten Years after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami." Eight papers examine various aspects of past events with an emphasis on case and regional studies. Five papers are on tsunami warning and forecast, including the improvement of existing tsunami warning systems and the development of new warning systems in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean region. Three more papers present the results of analytical studies and discuss benchmark problems. Four papers report the impacts of tsunamis, including the detailed calculation of inundation onshore and into rivers and probabilistic analysis for engineering purposes. The final two papers relate to important investigations of the source and tsunami generation. Overall, the volume not only addresses the pivotal 2004 Indian Ocean (Sumatra) and 2011 Japan (Tohoku) tsunamis, but also examines the tsunami hazard posed to other critical coasts in the world.

  11. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.

    2011-03-01

    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  12. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  13. Streamlining Tsunami Messages (e.g., Warnings) of the US National Tsunami Warning Center, Palmer, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.; Johnston, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Spurred in part by world-wide interest in improving warning messaging for and response to tsunamis in the wake of several catastrophic tsunamis since 2004 and growing interest at the US National Weather Service (NWS) to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program, the NWS Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii have made great progress toward enhancing tsunami messages. These include numerous products, among them being Tsunami Warnings, Tsunami Advisories and Tsunami Watches. Beginning in 2010 we have worked with US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) Warning Coordination and Mitigation and Education Subcommittee members; Tsunami Program administrators; and NWS Weather Forecast Officers to conduct a series of focus group meetings with stakeholders in coastal areas of Alaska, American Samoa, California, Hawaii, North Carolina, Oregon, US Virgin Islands and Washington to understand end-user perceptions of existing messages and their existing needs in message products. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a Tsunami Warning Message Metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order, Formatting, and Receiver Characteristics. A sample message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met, whether the message is a full length or short message. Incrementally, this work contributed to revisions in the format, content and style of message products issued by the National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC). Since that time, interest in short warning messages has continued to increase and in May 2016 the NTWC began efforts to revise message products to take advantage of recent NWS policy changes allowing use of mixed-case text

  14. Improving tsunami warning systems with remote sensing and geographical information system input.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Feng; Li, Lian-Fa

    2008-12-01

    An optimal and integrative tsunami warning system is introduced that takes full advantage of remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) in monitoring, forecasting, detection, loss evaluation, and relief management for tsunamis. Using the primary impact zone in Banda Aceh, Indonesia as the pilot area, we conducted three simulations that showed that while the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami claimed about 300,000 lives because there was no tsunami warning system at all, it is possible that only about 15,000 lives could have been lost if the area had used a tsunami warning system like that currently in use in the Pacific Ocean. The simulations further calculated that the death toll could have been about 3,000 deaths if there had been a disaster system further optimized with full use of remote sensing and GIS, although the number of badly damaged or destroyed houses (29,545) could have likely remained unchanged.

  15. Scientific Animations for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's YouTube Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Shiro, B.; Ward, B.

    2013-12-01

    Outreach and education save lives, and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) has a new tool--a YouTube Channel--to advance its mission to protect lives and property from dangerous tsunamis. Such outreach and education is critical for coastal populations nearest an earthquake since they may not get an official warning before a tsunami reaches them and will need to know what to do when they feel strong shaking. Those who live far enough away to receive useful official warnings and react to them, however, can also benefit from PTWC's education and outreach efforts. They can better understand a tsunami warning message when they receive one, can better understand the danger facing them, and can better anticipate how events will unfold while the warning is in effect. The same holds true for emergency managers, who have the authority to evacuate the public they serve, and for the news media, critical partners in disseminating tsunami hazard information. PTWC's YouTube channel supplements its formal outreach and education efforts by making its computer animations available 24/7 to anyone with an Internet connection. Though the YouTube channel is only a month old (as of August 2013), it should rapidly develop a large global audience since similar videos on PTWC's Facebook page have reached over 70,000 viewers during organized media events, while PTWC's official web page has received tens of millions of hits during damaging tsunamis. These animations are not mere cartoons but use scientific data and calculations to render graphical depictions of real-world phenomena as accurately as possible. This practice holds true whether the animation is a simple comparison of historic earthquake magnitudes or a complex simulation cycling through thousands of high-resolution data grids to render tsunami waves propagating across an entire ocean basin. PTWC's animations fall into two broad categories. The first group illustrates concepts about seismology and how it is critical to

  16. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of

  17. Implementation and Challenges of the Tsunami Warning System in the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Gutierrez, E.; Monnier, A.; Roudil, P.; Reymond, D.; Rivera, L.

    2015-03-01

    The French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT) has been in operation since 2012. It is contributing to the North-eastern and Mediterranean (NEAM) tsunami warning and mitigation system coordinated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, and benefits from data exchange with several foreign institutes. This center is supported by the French Government and provides French civil-protection authorities and member states of the NEAM region with relevant messages for assessing potential tsunami risk when an earthquake has occurred in the Western Mediterranean sea or the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean. To achieve its objectives, CENALT has developed a series of innovative techniques based on recent research results in seismology for early tsunami warning, monitoring of sea level variations and detection capability, and effective numerical computation of ongoing tsunamis.

  18. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  20. A tsunami early warning system for the coastal area modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soebroto, Arief Andy; Sunaryo, Suhartanto, Ery

    2015-04-01

    The tsunami disaster is a potential disaster in the territory of Indonesia. Indonesia is an archipelago country and close to the ocean deep. The tsunami occurred in Aceh province in 2004. Early prevention efforts have been carried out. One of them is making "tsunami buoy" which has been developed by BPPT. The tool puts sensors on the ocean floor near the coast to detect earthquakes on the ocean floor. Detection results are transmitted via satellite by a transmitter placed floating on the sea surface. The tool will cost billions of dollars for each system. Another constraint was the transmitter theft "tsunami buoy" in the absence of guard. In this study of the system has a transmission system using radio frequency and focused on coastal areas where costs are cheaper, so that it can be applied at many beaches in Indonesia are potentially affected by the tsunami. The monitoring system sends the detection results to the warning system using a radio frequency with a capability within 3 Km. Test results on the sub module sensor monitoring system generates an error of 0.63% was taken 10% showed a good quality sensing. The test results of data transmission from the transceiver of monitoring system to the receiver of warning system produces 100% successful delivery and reception of data. The test results on the whole system to function 100% properly.

  1. Development of a GNSS-Enhanced Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Melbourne, T. I.; Bock, Y.; Song, Y. T.; Komjathy, A.

    2015-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed a terrible loss of life and economic disruption caused by large earthquakes and resultant tsunamis impacting coastal communities and infrastructure across the Indo-Pacific region. NASA has funded the early development of a prototype real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (RT-GNSS) based rapid earthquake and tsunami early warning (GNSS-TEW) system that may be used to enhance seismic tsunami early warning systems for large earthquakes. This prototype GNSS-TEW system geodetically estimates fault parameters (earthquake magnitude, location, strike, dip, and slip magnitude/direction on a gridded fault plane both along strike and at depth) and tsunami source parameters (seafloor displacement, tsunami energy scale, and 3D tsunami initials) within minutes after the mainshock based on dynamic numerical inversions/regressions of the real-time measured displacements within a spatially distributed real-time GNSS network(s) spanning the epicentral region. It is also possible to measure fluctuations in the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) in the RT-GNSS data caused by the pressure wave from the tsunami. This TEC approach can detect if a tsunami has been triggered by an earthquake, track its waves as they propagate through the oceanic basins, and provide upwards of 45 minutes early warning. These combined real-time geodetic approaches will very quickly address a number of important questions in the immediate minutes following a major earthquake: How big was the earthquake and what are its fault parameters? Could the earthquake have produced a tsunami and was a tsunami generated?

  2. Tsunami: ocean dynamo generator.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2014-01-08

    Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field ('ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that tsunami flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a tsunami, which propagated through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted tsunami characteristics, including the direction and velocity of propagation as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of tsunami are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of tsunami forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of tsunami early-warning systems.

  3. Development and Application of a Message Metric for NOAA NWS Tsunami Warnings and Recommended Guidelines for the NWS TsunamiReady Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Ricthie, L.; Meinhold, S.; Johnson, V.; Scott, C.; Farnham, C.; Houghton, B. F.; Horan, J.; Gill, D.

    2012-12-01

    Improving the quality and effectiveness of tsunami warning messages and the TsunamiReady community preparedness program of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service's (NWS), Tsunami Program are two key objectives of a three year project (Award NA10NWS4670015) to help integrate social science into the NWS' Tsunami Program and improve the preparedness of member states and territories of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP). Research was conducted in collaboration with state and local emergency managers. Based on findings from focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa), and upon review of research literature on behavioral response to warnings, we developed a warning message metric to help guide revisions to tsunami warning messages issued by the NWS' West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, Alaska and Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Hawaii. The metric incorporates factors that predict response to warning information, which are divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the meaning of metric factors and assigning a maximum score of one point per factor. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. From focus groups that gathered information on the usefulness and achievability of tsunami preparedness actions, we developed recommendations for revisions to the proposed draft guidelines of the TsunamiReady Improvement Program. Proposed key revisions include the incorporation of community vulnerability to distant (far-field) versus local (near-field) tsunamis as a primary determinant of mandatory actions, rather than community population. Our team continues to work with

  4. U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers

    Science.gov Websites

    > No Tsunami Warning, Advisory, Watch, or Threat There is No Tsunami Warning Loading Earthquake Layer Loading Alert Layer Earthquake Layer failed to load Alerts/Threats Layer failed to load Default View Alaska Hawaii Guam/CNMI American Samoa Caribbean North America South America

  5. Near-Field Tsunami Models with Rapid Earthquake Source Inversions from Land and Ocean-Based Observations: The Potential for Forecast and Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, D.; Bock, Y.; Crowell, B. W.; Haase, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Computation of predicted tsunami wave heights and runup in the regions adjacent to large earthquakes immediately after rupture initiation remains a challenging problem. Limitations of traditional seismological instrumentation in the near field which cannot be objectively employed for real-time inversions and the non-unique source inversion results are a major concern for tsunami modelers. Employing near-field seismic, GPS and wave gauge data from the Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we test the capacity of static finite fault slip models obtained from newly developed algorithms to produce reliable tsunami forecasts. First we demonstrate the ability of seismogeodetic source models determined from combined land-based GPS and strong motion seismometers to forecast near-source tsunamis in ~3 minutes after earthquake origin time (OT). We show that these models, based on land-borne sensors only tend to underestimate the tsunami but are good enough to provide a realistic first warning. We then demonstrate that rapid ingestion of offshore shallow water (100 - 1000 m) wave gauge data significantly improves the model forecasts and possible warnings. We ingest data from 2 near-source ocean-bottom pressure sensors and 6 GPS buoys into the earthquake source inversion process. Tsunami Green functions (tGFs) are generated using the GeoClaw package, a benchmarked finite volume code with adaptive mesh refinement. These tGFs are used for a joint inversion with the land-based data and substantially improve the earthquake source and tsunami forecast. Model skill is assessed by detailed comparisons of the simulation output to 2000+ tsunami runup survey measurements collected after the event. We update the source model and tsunami forecast and warning at 10 min intervals. We show that by 20 min after OT the tsunami is well-predicted with a high variance reduction to the survey data and by ~30 minutes a model that can be considered final, since little changed is observed afterwards, is

  6. Operational Tsunami Modelling with TsunAWI for the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, N.; Harig, S.; Androsov, A.; Fuchs, A.; Immerz, A.; Schröter, J.; Hiller, W.

    2012-04-01

    Starting in 2005, the GITEWS project (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) established from scratch a fully operational tsunami warning system at BMKG in Jakarta. Numerical simulations of prototypic tsunami scenarios play a decisive role in a priori risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. Repositories with currently 3470 regional tsunami scenarios for GITEWS and 1780 Indian Ocean wide scenarios in support of Indonesia as a Regional Tsunami Service Provider (RTSP) were computed with the non-linear shallow water modell TsunAWI. It is based on a finite element discretisation, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview on the model itself, the enhancement of the model physics, and the experiences gained during the process of establishing an operational code suited for thousands of model runs. Technical aspects like computation time, disk space needed for each scenario in the repository, or post processing techniques have a much larger impact than they had in the beginning when TsunAWI started as a research code. Of course, careful testing on artificial benchmarks and real events remains essential, but furthermore, quality control for the large number of scenarios becomes an important issue.

  7. Towards a certification process for tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Jochen; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The natural disaster of the Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 was followed by an information catastrophe. Crucial early warning information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key technical challenge for Tsunami Early Warning research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early warning messages in a proven workflow. A second challenge stems from the main objective of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) Tsunami Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards ocean-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated Tsunami Early Warning Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from individual sensors, to Warning Centers within their particular end-to-end Warning System Environments, and up to federated Systems of Tsunami Warning Systems has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CeGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already, being the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS). This activity is continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7

  8. Tsunami Simulation Method Assimilating Ocean Bottom Pressure Data Near a Tsunami Source Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2018-02-01

    A new method was developed to reproduce the tsunami height distribution in and around the source area, at a certain time, from a large number of ocean bottom pressure sensors, without information on an earthquake source. A dense cabled observation network called S-NET, which consists of 150 ocean bottom pressure sensors, was installed recently along a wide portion of the seafloor off Kanto, Tohoku, and Hokkaido in Japan. However, in the source area, the ocean bottom pressure sensors cannot observe directly an initial ocean surface displacement. Therefore, we developed the new method. The method was tested and functioned well for a synthetic tsunami from a simple rectangular fault with an ocean bottom pressure sensor network using 10 arc-min, or 20 km, intervals. For a test case that is more realistic, ocean bottom pressure sensors with 15 arc-min intervals along the north-south direction and sensors with 30 arc-min intervals along the east-west direction were used. In the test case, the method also functioned well enough to reproduce the tsunami height field in general. These results indicated that the method could be used for tsunami early warning by estimating the tsunami height field just after a great earthquake without the need for earthquake source information.

  9. Sea Level Station Metadata for Tsunami Detection, Warning and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, K. J.; Marra, J.; Kari, U. S.; Weinstein, S. A.; Kong, L.

    2007-12-01

    The devastating earthquake and tsunami of December 26, 2004 has greatly increased recognition of the need for water level data both from the coasts and the deep-ocean. In 2006, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) completed a Tsunami Data Management Report describing the management of data required to minimize the impact of tsunamis in the United States. One of the major gaps defined in this report is the access to global coastal water level data. NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) are working cooperatively to bridge this gap. NOAA relies on a network of global data, acquired and processed in real-time to support tsunami detection and warning, as well as high-quality global databases of archived data to support research and advanced scientific modeling. In 2005, parties interested in enhancing the access and use of sea level station data united under the NOAA NCDC's Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center's Pacific Region Integrated Data Enterprise (PRIDE) program to develop a distributed metadata system describing sea level stations (Kari et. al., 2006; Marra et.al., in press). This effort started with pilot activities in a regional framework and is targeted at tsunami detection and warning systems being developed by various agencies. It includes development of the components of a prototype sea level station metadata web service and accompanying Google Earth-based client application, which use an XML-based schema to expose, at a minimum, information in the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) station database needed to use the PTWC's Tide Tool application. As identified in the Tsunami Data Management Report, the need also exists for long-term retention of the sea level station data. NOAA envisions that the retrospective water level data and metadata will also be available through web services, using an XML-based schema. Five high

  10. Meteotsunamis, destructive tsunami-like waves: from observations and simulations towards a warning system (MESSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepic, Jadranka; Vilibic, Ivica

    2016-04-01

    Atmospherically-generated tsunami-like waves, also known as meteotsunamis, pose a severe threat for exposed coastlines. Although not as destructive as ordinary tsunamis, several meters high meteotsunami waves can bring destruction, cause loss of human lives and raise panic. For that reason, MESSI, an integrative meteotsunami research & warning project, has been developed and will be presented herein. The project has a threefold base: (1) research of atmosphere-ocean interaction with focus on (i) source processes in the atmosphere, (ii) energy transfer to the ocean and (iii) along-propagation growth of meteotsunami waves; (2) estimation of meteotsunami occurrence rates in past, present and future climate, and mapping of meteotsunami hazard; (3) construction of a meteotsunami warning system prototype, with the latter being the main objective of the project. Due to a great frequency of meteotsunamis and its complex bathymetry which varies from the shallow shelf in the north towards deep pits in the south, with a number of funnel-shaped bays and harbours substantially amplifying incoming tsunami-like waves, the Adriatic, northernmost of the Mediterranean seas, has been chosen as an ideal area for realization of the MESSI project and implementation of the warning system. This warning system will however be designed to allow for a wider applicability and easy-to-accomplish transfer to other endangered locations. The architecture of the warning system will integrate several components: (1) real-time measurements of key oceanographic and atmospheric parameters, (2) coupled atmospheric-ocean models run in real time (warning) mode, and (3) semi-automatic procedures and protocols for warning of civil protection, local authorities and public. The effectiveness of the warning system will be tested over the historic events.

  11. How soon is too soon? When to cancel a warning after a damaging tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, G. J.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, S.; Richards, K.

    2012-12-01

    Following an earthquake a tsunami warning center (TWC) must determine if a coastal evacuation is necessary and must do so fast enough for the warning to be useful to affected coastlines. Once a damaging tsunami has arrived, the TWC must decide when to cancel its warning, a task often more challenging than the initial hazard assessment. Here we demonstrate the difficulties by investigating the impact of the Tohoku tsunami of 11 March 2011 on the State of Hawaii, which relies on the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) for tsunami hazard guidance. PTWC issued a Tsunami Watch for Hawaii at 10 March 1956 HST (10 minutes after the earthquake) and upgraded to a Tsunami Warning at 2131 HST. The tsunami arrived in Hawaii just before 0300 HST the next day, reached a maximum runup of over 5 m, and did roughly $50 million in damage throughout the state. PTWC downgraded the Warning to an Advisory at 0730 HST, and canceled the Advisory at 1140 HST. The timing of the downgrade was appropriate—by then it was safe for coastal residents to re-enter the evacuation zone but not to enter the water—but in retrospect PTWC cancelled its Advisory too early. By late morning tide gauges throughout the state had all registered maximum wave heights of 30 cm or less for a couple of hours, so PTWC cancelled. The Center was unaware, however, of ocean behavior at locations without instruments. At Ma'alaea Harbor on the Island of Maui, for example, sea level oscillations exposed the harbor bottom every 20 minutes for several hours after the cancellation. At Waikiki on Oahu, lifeguards rescued 25 swimmers (who had either ignored or were unaware of the cancellation message's caution about hazardous currents) in the hours after the cancellation and performed CPR on one near-drowning victim. Fortunately, there were no deaths. Because of dangerous surges, ocean safety officials closed Hanauma Bay, a popular snorkeling spot on Oahu, for a full day after the tsunami hit. They reassessed the bay the

  12. Elders recall an earlier tsunami on Indian Ocean shores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kakar, Din Mohammad; Naeem, Ghazala; Usman, Abdullah; Hasan, Haider; Lohdi, Hira; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Andrade, Vanessa; Rajendran, C.P.; Naderi Beni, Abdolmajid; Hamzeh, Mohammad Ali; Hoffmann, Goesta; Al Balushi, Noora; Gale, Nora; Kodijat, Ardito; Fritz, Hermann M.; Atwater, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten years on, the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 still looms large in efforts to reduce coastal risk. The disaster has spurred worldwide advances in tsunami detection and warning, tsunami-risk assessment, and tsunami awareness [Satake, 2014]. Nearly a lifetime has passed since the northwestern Indian Ocean last produced a devastating tsunami. Documentation of this tsunami, in November 1945, was hindered by international instability in the wake of the Second World War and, in British India, by the approach of independence and partition. The parent earthquake, of magnitude 8.1, was widely recorded, and the tsunami registered on tide gauges, but intelligence reports and newspaper articles say little about inundation limits while permitting a broad range of catalogued death tolls. What has been established about the 1945 tsunami falls short of what's needed today for ground-truthing inundation models, estimating risk to enlarged populations, and anchoring awareness campaigns in local facts. Recent efforts to reduce coastal risk around the Arabian Sea include a project in which eyewitnesses to the 1945 tsunami were found and interviewed (Fig. 1), and related archives were gathered. Results are being made available through UNESCO's Indian Ocean Tsunami Information Center in hopes of increasing scientific understanding and public awareness of the region's tsunami hazards.

  13. 2011 Tohoku, Japan tsunami data available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Geophysical Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Mccullough, H. L.; Mungov, G.; Harris, E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility for providing tsunami warnings to the Nation, and a leadership role in tsunami observations and research. A key component of this effort is easy access to authoritative data on past tsunamis, a responsibility of the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and collocated World Service for Geophysics. Archive responsibilities include the global historical tsunami database, coastal tide-gauge data from US/NOAA operated stations, the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART®) data, damage photos, as well as other related hazards data. Taken together, this integrated archive supports tsunami forecast, warning, research, mitigation and education efforts of NOAA and the Nation. Understanding the severity and timing of tsunami effects is important for tsunami hazard mitigation and warning. The global historical tsunami database includes the date, time, and location of the source event, magnitude of the source, event validity, maximum wave height, the total number of fatalities and dollar damage. The database contains additional information on run-ups (locations where tsunami waves were observed by eyewitnesses, field reconnaissance surveys, tide gauges, or deep ocean sensors). The run-up table includes arrival times, distance from the source, measurement type, maximum wave height, and the number of fatalities and damage for the specific run-up location. Tide gauge data are required for modeling the interaction of tsunami waves with the coast and for verifying propagation and inundation models. NGDC is the long-term archive for all NOAA coastal tide gauge data and is currently archiving 15-second to 1-minute water level data from the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. DART® buoys, which are essential components of tsunami warning systems, are now deployed in all oceans, giving coastal communities

  14. Tsunami warnings: Understanding in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M.; Swanson, D.A.; Yanagi, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    The devastating southeast Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004 has brought home the destructive consequences of coastal hazards in an absence of effective warning systems. Since the 1946 tsunami that destroyed much of Hilo, Hawai'i, a network of pole mounted sirens has been used to provide an early public alert of future tsunamis. However, studies in the 1960s showed that understanding of the meaning of siren soundings was very low and that ambiguity in understanding had contributed to fatalities in the 1960 tsunami that again destroyed much of Hilo. The Hawaiian public has since been exposed to monthly tests of the sirens for more than 25 years and descriptions of the system have been widely published in telephone books for at least 45 years. However, currently there remains some uncertainty in the level of public understanding of the sirens and their implications for behavioral response. Here, we show from recent surveys of Hawai'i residents that awareness of the siren tests and test frequency is high, but these factors do not equate with increased understanding of the meaning of the siren, which remains disturbingly low (13%). Furthermore, the length of time people have lived in Hawai'i is not correlated systematically with understanding of the meaning of the sirens. An additional issue is that warning times for tsunamis gene rated locally in Hawai'i will be of the order of minutes to tens of minutes and limit the immediate utility of the sirens. Natural warning signs of such tsunamis may provide the earliest warning to residents. Analysis of a survey subgroup from Hilo suggests that awareness of natural signs is only moderate, and a majority may expect notification via alerts provided by official sources. We conclude that a major change is needed in tsunami education, even in Hawai'i, to increase public understanding of, and effective response to, both future official alerts and natural warning signs of future tsunamis. ?? Springer 2006.

  15. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Madlazim

    2012-06-20

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a directmore » procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration

  16. Preliminary numerical simulations of the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami: first results and hints in a tsunami early warning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Gallazzi, Sara; Bressan, Lidia

    2010-05-01

    The tsunamigenic earthquake (M 8.8) that occurred offshore central Chile on 27 February 2010 can be classified as a typical subduction-zone earthquake. The effects of the ensuing tsunami have been devastating along the Chile coasts, and especially between the cities of Valparaiso and Talcahuano, and in the Juan Fernandez islands. The tsunami propagated across the entire Pacific Ocean, hitting with variable intensity almost all the coasts facing the basin. While the far-field propagation was quite well tracked almost in real-time by the warning centres and reasonably well reproduced by the forecast models, the toll of lives and the severity of the damage caused by the tsunami in the near-field occurred with no local alert nor warning and sadly confirms that the protection of the communities placed close to the tsunami sources is still an unresolved problem in the tsunami early warning field. The purpose of this study is two-fold. On one side we perform numerical simulations of the tsunami starting from different earthquake models which we built on the basis of the preliminary seismic parameters (location, magnitude and focal mechanism) made available by the seismological agencies immediately after the event, or retrieved from more detailed and refined studies published online in the following days and weeks. The comparison with the available records of both offshore DART buoys and coastal tide-gauges is used to put some preliminary constraints on the best-fitting fault model. The numerical simulations are performed by means of the finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, Italy, which can solve both the linear and non-linear versions of the shallow-water equations on nested grids. The second purpose of this study is to use the conclusions drawn in the previous part in a tsunami early warning perspective. In the framework of the EU-funded project DEWS (Distant Early Warning System), we will

  17. Implementation of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, John

    2016-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System has issued a Call for Participation to research scientists, geodetic research groups and national agencies in support of the implementation of the IUGG recommendation for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems. The call seeks to establish a working group to be a catalyst and motivating force for the definition of requirements, identification of resources, and for the encouragement of international cooperation in the establishment, advancement, and utilization of GNSS for Tsunami Early Warning. During the past fifteen years the populations of the Indo-Pacific region experienced a series of mega-thrust earthquakes followed by devastating tsunamis that claimed nearly 300,000 lives. The future resiliency of the region will depend upon improvements to infrastructure and emergency response that will require very significant investments from the Indo-Pacific economies. The estimation of earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation are critical to rapid tsunami warning. Geodetic research groups have demonstrated the use of GNSS data to estimate earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation sufficient for the accurate and timely prediction of tsunamis generated by mega-thrust earthquakes. GNSS data have also been used to measure the formation and propagation of tsunamis via ionospheric disturbances acoustically coupled to the propagating surface waves; thereby providing a new technique to track tsunami propagation across ocean basins, opening the way for improving tsunami propagation models, and providing accurate warning to communities in the far field. These two new advancements can deliver timely and accurate tsunami warnings to coastal communities in the near and far field of mega-thrust earthquakes. This presentation will present the justification for and the details of the GGOS Call for

  18. Open Source Seismic Software in NOAA's Next Generation Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, S. B.; Baker, B. I.; Hagerty, M. T.; Leifer, J. M.; Lisowski, S.; Thies, D. A.; Donnelly, B. K.; Griffith, F. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a project spearheaded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to update the United States' Tsunami Warning System software currently employed at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (Eva Beach, Hawaii) and the National Tsunami Warning Center (Palmer, Alaska). This entirely open source software project will integrate various seismic processing utilities with the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office's core software, AWIPS2. For the real-time and near real-time seismic processing aspect of this project, NOAA has elected to integrate the open source portions of GFZ's SeisComP 3 (SC3) processing system into AWIPS2. To provide for better tsunami threat assessments we are developing open source tools for magnitude estimations (e.g., moment magnitude, energy magnitude, surface wave magnitude), detection of slow earthquakes with the Theta discriminant, moment tensor inversions (e.g. W-phase and teleseismic body waves), finite fault inversions, and array processing. With our reliance on common data formats such as QuakeML and seismic community standard messaging systems, all new facilities introduced into AWIPS2 and SC3 will be available as stand-alone tools or could be easily integrated into other real time seismic monitoring systems such as Earthworm, Antelope, etc. Additionally, we have developed a template based design paradigm so that the developer or scientist can efficiently create upgrades, replacements, and/or new metrics to the seismic data processing with only a cursory knowledge of the underlying SC3.

  19. DISTANT EARLY WARNING SYSTEM for Tsunamis - A wide-area and multi-hazard approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the objective to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems based on an open sensor platform. This platform integrates OGC [2] SWE [3] compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of hazardous events, like earthquakes, sea level anomalies, ocean floor occurrences, and ground displacements in the case of tsunami early warning. Based on the upstream information flow DEWS focuses on the improvement of downstream capacities of warning centres especially by improving information logistics for effective and targeted warning message aggregation for a multilingual environment. Multiple telecommunication channels will be used for the dissemination of warning messages. Wherever possible, existing standards have been integrated. The Command and Control User Interface (CCUI), a rich client application based on Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform) [4] and the open source GIS uDig [5], integrates various OGC services. Using WMS (Web Map Service) [6] and WFS (Web Feature Service) [7] spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture and to integrate a simulation system via WPS (Web Processing Service) [8] to identify affected areas. Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS [9] CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) [10] standard together with addressing information defined via EDXL-DE (Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element) [11]. Internal interfaces are realized with SOAP [12] web services. Based on results of GITEWS [13] - in particular the GITEWS Tsunami Service Bus [14] - the DEWS approach provides an implementation for tsunami early warning systems but other geological paradigms are going to follow, e.g. volcanic eruptions or landslides. Therefore in future also multi-hazard functionality is conceivable. The specific software architecture of DEWS makes it possible to dock varying sensors to the

  20. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Reißland, S.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    integrates OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of hazardous events, like earthquakes, sea level anomalies, ocean floor occurrences, and ground displacements. Using OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture. The integration of a simulation system to identify affected areas is considered using the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) together with addressing information defined via the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). The first system demonstrator has been designed and implemented to support plausible scenarios demonstrating the treatment of simulated tsunami threats with an essential subset of a National Tsunami Warning Centre (NTWC). The feasibility and the potentials of the implemented approach are demonstrated covering standard operations as well as tsunami detection and alerting functions. The demonstrator presented addresses information management and decision-support processes in a hypothetical natural crisis situation caused by a tsunami in the Eastern Mediterranean. Developments of the system are based to the largest extent on free and open source software (FOSS) components and industry standards. Emphasis has been and will be made on leveraging open source technologies that support mature system architecture models wherever appropriate. All open source software produced is foreseen to be published on a publicly available software repository thus allowing others to reuse results achieved and enabling further development and collaboration with a wide community including scientists, developers, users and stakeholders. This live demonstration is linked with the talk "TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management Demonstrator for Tsunamis" (EGU2012-7275) given in the session "Architecture of Future Tsunami Warning Systems" (NH5.7/ESSI1.7).

  1. Design and Implementation of a C++ Software Package to scan for and parse Tsunami Messages issued by the Tsunami Warning Centers for Operational use at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardina, V.

    2012-12-01

    The US Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) have traditionally generated their tsunami message products primarily as blocks of text then tagged with headers that identify them on each particular communications' (comms) circuit. Each warning center has a primary area of responsibility (AOR) within which it has an authoritative role regarding parameters such as earthquake location and magnitude. This means that when a major tsunamigenic event occurs the other warning centers need to quickly access the earthquake parameters issued by the authoritative warning center before issuing their message products intended for customers in their own AOR. Thus, within the operational context of the TWCs the scientists on duty have an operational need to access the information contained in the message products issued by other warning centers as quickly as possible. As a solution to this operational problem we designed and implemented a C++ software package that allows scanning for and parsing the entire suite of tsunami message products issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC), and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The scanning and parsing classes composing the resulting C++ software package allow parsing both non-official message products(observatory messages) routinely issued by the TWCs, and all official tsunami message products such as tsunami advisories, watches, and warnings. This software package currently allows scientists on duty at the PTWC to automatically retrieve the parameters contained in tsunami messages issued by WCATWC, JMA, or PTWC itself. Extension of the capabilities of the classes composing the software package would make it possible to generate XML and CAP compliant versions of the TWCs' message products until new messaging software natively adds this capabilities. Customers who receive the TWCs' tsunami message products could also use the package to automatically retrieve information from

  2. Local Tsunami Warnings using GNSS and Seismic Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshorn, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami warning Centers (TWC's) must issue warnings based on imperfect and limited data. Uncertainties increase in the near field, where a tsunami reaches the closest coastal populations to the causative earthquake in a half hour or less. In the absence of a warning, the usual advice is "When the ground shakes so severely that it's difficult to stand, move uphill and away from the coast." But, what if the shaking is not severe? If, for example, the earthquake ruptures slowly (producing very little perceived shaking) this advice will fail. Unfortunately these "Tsunami" earthquakes are not rare: tsunamis from slow earthquakes off of Nicaragua in 1992, and Java in 1994 and 2006, killed 179, 250 and 637 people, respectively, even though very few nearby coastal residents felt any strong ground shaking. TWC's must therefore warn the closest coastal populations to the causative earthquake, where over 80% of the Tsunami based casualties typically occur, as soon possible after earthquake rupture begins. The NWS Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) currently issue local Tsunami Warnings for the US West Coast, Hawaii, and the Puerto Rico - Virgin Island region within 2-4 minutes after origin time. However, our initial short period Magnitude estimates saturate over about Mw 6.5, and Mwp underestimates Mw for events larger than about Mw 7.5 when using data in the 0 to 3 degree epicentral distance range, severely underestimating the danger of a potential Tsunami in the near field. Coastal GNSS networks complement seismic monitoring networks, and enable unsaturated estimates of Mw within 2-3 minutes of earthquake origin time. NASA/JPL, SIO, USGS, CWU, UCB and UW, with funding and guidance from NASA, and leveraging the USGS funded ShakeAlert development, have been working with the National Weather Service TWC's to incorporate real-time GNSS and seismogeodetic data into their operations. These data will soon provide unsaturated estimates of moment magnitude, Centroid Moment Tensor

  3. Application of Seismic Array Processing to Tsunami Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, C.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami wave predictions of the current tsunami warning systems rely on accurate earthquake source inversions of wave height data. They are of limited effectiveness for the near-field areas since the tsunami waves arrive before data are collected. Recent seismic and tsunami disasters have revealed the need for early warning to protect near-source coastal populations. In this work we developed the basis for a tsunami warning system based on rapid earthquake source characterisation through regional seismic array back-projections. We explored rapid earthquake source imaging using onshore dense seismic arrays located at regional distances on the order of 1000 km, which provides faster source images than conventional teleseismic back-projections. We implement this method in a simulated real-time environment, and analysed the 2011 Tohoku earthquake rupture with two clusters of Hi-net stations in Kyushu and Northern Hokkaido, and the 2014 Iquique event with the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array. The results yield reasonable estimates of rupture area, which is approximated by an ellipse and leads to the construction of simple slip models based on empirical scaling of the rupture area, seismic moment and average slip. The slip model is then used as the input of the tsunami simulation package COMCOT to predict the tsunami waves. In the example of the Tohoku event, the earthquake source model can be acquired within 6 minutes from the start of rupture and the simulation of tsunami waves takes less than 2 min, which could facilitate a timely tsunami warning. The predicted arrival time and wave amplitude reasonably fit observations. Based on this method, we propose to develop an automatic warning mechanism that provides rapid near-field warning for areas of high tsunami risk. The initial focus will be Japan, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, where dense seismic networks with the capability of real-time data telemetry and open data accessibility, such as the Japanese HiNet (>800

  4. Emergency management response to a warning-level Alaska-source tsunami impacting California: Chapter J in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kevin M.; Long, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is directed towards two audiences: Firstly, it targets nonemergency management readers, providing them with insight on the process and challenges facing emergency managers in responding to tsunami Warning, particularly given this “short fuse” scenario. It is called “short fuse” because there is only a 5.5-hour window following the earthquake before arrival of the tsunami within which to evaluate the threat, disseminate alert and warning messages, and respond. This action initiates a period when crisis communication is of paramount importance. An additional dynamic that is important to note is that within 15 minutes of the earthquake, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Weather Service (NWS) will issue alert bulletins for the entire Pacific Coast. This is one-half the time actually presented by recent tsunamis from Japan, Chile, and Samoa. Second, the chapter provides emergency managers at all levels with insights into key considerations they may need to address in order to augment their existing plans and effectively respond to tsunami events. We look at emergency management response to the tsunami threat from three perspectives:“Top Down” (Threat analysis and Alert/Warning information from the Federal agency charged with Alert and Warning) “Bottom Up” (Emergency management’s Incident Command approach to responding to emergencies and disasters based on the needs of impacted local jurisdictions) “Across Time” (From the initiating earthquake event through emergency response) We focus on these questions: What are the government roles, relationships, and products that support Tsunami Alert and Warning dissemination? (Emergency Planning and Preparedness.) What roles, relationships, and products support emergency management response to Tsunami Warning and impact? (Engendering prudent public safety response.) What are the key emergency management activities, considerations, and challenges brought

  5. Warnings and reactions to the Tohoku tsunami in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, B. F.; Gregg, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami was the first chance within the USA to document and interpret large-scale response and protective action behavior with regard to a large, destructive tsunami since 1964. The 2011 tsunami offered a unique, short-lived opportunity to transform our understanding of individual and collective behavior in the US in response to a well-publicized tsunami warning and, in particular, to look at the complex interplay of official information sources, informal warnings and information-seeking in communities with significant physical impact from the 2011 tsunami. This study is focused in Hawaii, which suffered significant ($30 M), but localized damage, from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and underwent a full-scale tsunami evacuation. The survey contrasts three Hawaiian communities which either experienced significant tsunami damage (Kona) or little physical impact (Hilo, Honolulu). It also contrasts a long-established local community with experience of evacuation, destruction and loss of life in two tsunamis (Hilo) with a metropolitan population with a large visitor presence (Honolulu) that has not experienced a damaging tsunami in decades. Many factors such as personal perceptions of risk, beliefs, past exposure to the hazard, forecast uncertainty, trust in information sources, channels of transmission of information, the need for message confirmation, responsibilities, obligations, mobility, the ability to prepare, the availability of transportation and transport routes, and an acceptable evacuation center affected behavior. We provide new information on how people reacted to warnings and tsunamis, especially with regard to social integration of official warnings and social media. The results of this study will strengthen community resilience to tsunamis, working with emergency managers to integrate strengths and weaknesses of the public responses with official response plans.

  6. Coastal Amplification Laws for the French Tsunami Warning Center: Numerical Modeling and Fast Estimate of Tsunami Wave Heights Along the French Riviera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Reymond, D.

    2017-11-01

    Tsunami modeling tools in the French tsunami Warning Center operational context provide rapidly derived warning levels with a dimensionless variable at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the tsunami onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal tsunami height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean tsunami amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of tsunami observations in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The preliminary results for the Nice test site on the basis of nine historical and synthetic sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution modeling: the linear approximation is obtained within 1 min in general and provides estimates within a factor of two in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in tsunami amplitude is something that cannot be really assessed because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method is well suited for a fast first estimate of the coastal tsunami threat forecast.

  7. Coastal amplification laws for the French tsunami Warning Center: numerical modeling and fast estimate of tsunami wave heights along the French Riviera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Schindelé, F.; Hebert, H.; Reymond, D.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami modeling tools in the French tsunami Warning Center operational context provide for now warning levels with a no dimension scale, and at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the tsunami onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal tsunami height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean tsunami amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of tsunami observation in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The first encouraging results for the Nice test site on the basis of 9 historical and fake sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution modeling: the linear approximation provides within in general 1 minute estimates less a factor of 2 in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in tsunami amplitude is something that cannot be really appreciated because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method suits well for a fast first estimate of the coastal tsunami threat forecast.

  8. Coastal Amplification Laws for the French Tsunami Warning Center: Numerical Modeling and Fast Estimate of Tsunami Wave Heights Along the French Riviera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Reymond, D.

    2018-04-01

    Tsunami modeling tools in the French tsunami Warning Center operational context provide rapidly derived warning levels with a dimensionless variable at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the tsunami onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal tsunami height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean tsunami amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of tsunami observations in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The preliminary results for the Nice test site on the basis of nine historical and synthetic sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution modeling: the linear approximation is obtained within 1 min in general and provides estimates within a factor of two in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in tsunami amplitude is something that cannot be really assessed because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method is well suited for a fast first estimate of the coastal tsunami threat forecast.

  9. GPS-TEC of the Ionospheric Disturbances as a Tool for Early Tsunami Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav E.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Shalimov, Sergey L.; Krysanov, Boris Yu.; Padokhin, Artem M.; Rekenthaler, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the GPS measurements were used for retrieving the information on the various types of ionospheric responses to seismic events (earthquakes, seismic Rayleigh waves, and tsunami) which generate atmospheric waves propagating up to the ionospheric altitudes where the collisions between the neutrals and charge particles give rise to the motion of the ionospheric plasma. These experimental results can well be used in architecture of the future tsunami warning system. The point is an earlier (in comparison with seismological methods) detection of the ionospheric signal that can indicate the moment of tsunami generation. As an example we consider the two-dimensional distributions of the vertical total electron content (TEC) variations in the ionosphere both close to and far from the epicenter of the Japan undersea earthquake of March 11, 2011 using radio tomographic (RT) reconstruction of high-temporal-resolution (2-minute) data from the Japan and the US GPS networks. Near-zone TEC variations shows a diverging ionospheric perturbation with multi-component spectral composition emerging after the main shock. The initial phase of the disturbance can be used as an indicator of the tsunami generation and subsequently for the tsunami early warning. Far-zone TEC variations reveals distinct wave train associated with gravity waves generated by tsunami. According to observations tsunami arrives at Hawaii and further at the coast of Southern California with delay relative to the gravity waves. Therefore the gravity wave pattern can be used in the early tsunami warning. We support this scenario by the results of modeling with the parameters of the ocean surface perturbation corresponding to the considered earthquake. In addition it was observed in the modeling that at long distance from the source the gravity wave can pass ahead of the tsunami. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 11-05-01157 and 12-05-33065).

  10. Far-field tsunami of 2017 Mw 8.1 Tehuantepec, Mexico earthquake recorded by Chilean tide gauge network: Implications for tsunami warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Carrasco, J. F.; Benavente, R. F.; Zelaya, C.; Núñez, C.; Gonzalez, G.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Mw 8.1, Tehuantepec earthquake generated a moderated tsunami, which was registered in near-field tide gauges network activating a tsunami threat state for Mexico issued by PTWC. In the case of Chile, the forecast of tsunami waves indicate amplitudes less than 0.3 meters above the tide level, advising an informative state of threat, without activation of evacuation procedures. Nevertheless, during sea level monitoring of network we detect wave amplitudes (> 0.3 m) indicating a possible change of threat state. Finally, NTWS maintains informative level of threat based on mathematical filtering analysis of sea level records. After 2010 Mw 8.8, Maule earthquake, the Chilean National Tsunami Warning System (NTWS) has increased its observational capabilities to improve early response. Most important operational efforts have focused on strengthening tide gauge network for national area of responsibility. Furthermore, technological initiatives as Integrated Tsunami Prediction and Warning System (SIPAT) has segmented the area of responsibility in blocks to focus early warning and evacuation procedures on most affected coastal areas, while maintaining an informative state for distant areas of near-field earthquake. In the case of far-field events, NTWS follow the recommendations proposed by Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), including a comprehensive monitoring of sea level records, such as tide gauges and DART (Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) buoys, to evaluate the state of tsunami threat in the area of responsibility. The main objective of this work is to analyze the first-order physical processes involved in the far-field propagation and coastal impact of tsunami, including implications for decision-making of NTWS. To explore our main question, we construct a finite-fault model of the 2017, Mw 8.1 Tehuantepec earthquake. We employ the rupture model to simulate a transoceanic tsunami modeled by Neowave2D. We generate synthetic time series at

  11. An Experimental Seismic Data and Parameter Exchange System for Tsunami Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Hanka, W.; Saul, J.; Weber, B.; Becker, J.; Heinloo, A.; Hoffmann, M.

    2009-12-01

    For several years GFZ Potsdam is operating a global earthquake monitoring system. Since the beginning of 2008, this system is also used as an experimental seismic background data center for two different regional Tsunami Warning Systems (TWS), the IOTWS (Indian Ocean) and the interim NEAMTWS (NE Atlantic and Mediterranean). The SeisComP3 (SC3) software, developed within the GITEWS (German Indian Ocean Tsunami Early Warning System) project, capable to acquire, archive and process real-time data feeds, was extended for export and import of individual processing results within the two clusters of connected SC3 systems. Therefore not only real-time waveform data are routed to the attached warning centers through GFZ but also processing results. While the current experimental NEAMTWS cluster consists of SC3 systems in six designated national warning centers in Europe, the IOTWS cluster presently includes seven centers, with another three likely to join in 2009/10. For NEAMTWS purposes, the GFZ virtual real-time seismic network (GEOFON Extended Virtual Network -GEVN) in Europe was substantially extended by adding many stations from Western European countries optimizing the station distribution. In parallel to the data collection over the Internet, a GFZ VSAT hub for secured data collection of the EuroMED GEOFON and NEAMTWS backbone network stations became operational and first data links were established through this backbone. For the Southeast Asia region, a VSAT hub has been established in Jakarta already in 2006, with some other partner networks connecting to this backbone via the Internet. Since its establishment, the experimental system has had the opportunity to prove its performance in a number of relevant earthquakes. Reliable solutions derived from a minimum of 25 stations were very promising in terms of speed. For important events, automatic alerts were released and disseminated by emails and SMS. Manually verified solutions are added as soon as they become

  12. Tsunami Warning Protocol for Eruptions of Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.; Neal, C.; Nyland, D.; Murray, T.; Power, J.

    2006-12-01

    Augustine is an island volcano that has generated at least one tsunami. During its January 2006 eruption coastal residents of lower Cook Inlet became concerned about tsunami potential. To address this concern, NOAA's West Coast/ Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) jointly developed a tsunami warning protocol for the most likely scenario for tsunami generation at Augustine: a debris avalanche into the Cook Inlet. Tsunami modeling indicates that a wave generated at Augustine volcano could reach coastal communities in approximately 55 minutes. If a shallow seismic event with magnitude greater than 4.5 occurred near Augustine and the AVO had set the level of concern color code to orange or red, the WC/ATWC would immediately issue a warning for the lower Cook Inlet. Given the short tsunami travel times involved, potentially affected communities would be provided as much lead time as possible. Large debris avalanches that could trigger a tsunami in lower Cook Inlet are expected to be accompanied by a strong seismic signal. Seismograms produced by these debris avalanches have unique spectral characteristics. After issuing a warning, the WC/ATWC would compare the observed waveform with known debris avalanches, and would consult with AVO to further evaluate the event using AVO's on-island networks (web cameras, seismic network, etc) to refine or cancel the warning. After the 2006 eruptive phase ended, WC/ATWC, with support from AVO and the University of Alaska Tsunami Warning and Environmental Observatory for Alaska program (TWEAK), developed and installed "splash-gauges" which will provide confirmation of tsunami generation.

  13. NOAA's Integrated Tsunami Database: Data for improved forecasts, warnings, research, and risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, Kelly; Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; McCullough, Heather; Carignan, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has primary responsibility in the United States for tsunami forecast, warning, research, and supports community resiliency. NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics provide a unique collection of data enabling communities to ensure preparedness and resilience to tsunami hazards. Immediately following a damaging or fatal tsunami event there is a need for authoritative data and information. The NGDC Global Historical Tsunami Database (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/) includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. The long-term data from these events, including photographs of damage, provide clues to what might happen in the future. NGDC catalogs the information on global historical tsunamis and uses these data to produce qualitative tsunami hazard assessments at regional levels. In addition to the socioeconomic effects of a tsunami, NGDC also obtains water level data from the coasts and the deep-ocean at stations operated by the NOAA/NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers, and the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and produces research-quality data to isolate seismic waves (in the case of the deep-ocean sites) and the tsunami signal. These water-level data provide evidence of sea-level fluctuation and possible inundation events. NGDC is also building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support real-time forecasts, implemented at 75 US coastal communities. After a damaging or fatal event NGDC begins to collect and integrate data and information from many organizations into the hazards databases. Sources of data include our NOAA partners, the U.S. Geological Survey, the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and International Tsunami Information Center

  14. Determination of Tsunami Warning Criteria for Current Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Wang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Present Tsunami warning issuance largely depends on an event's predicted wave height and inundation depth. Specifically, a warning is issued if the on-shore wave height is greater than 1m. This project examines whether any consideration should be given to current velocity. We apply the idea of force balance to determine theoretical minimum velocity thresholds for injuring people and damaging properties as a function of wave height. Results show that even at a water depth of less than 1m, a current velocity of 2 m/s is enough to pose a threat to humans and cause potential damage to cars and houses. Next, we employ a 1-dimensional shallow water model to simulate Tsunamis with various amplitudes and an assumed wavelength of 250km. This allows for the profiling of current velocity and wave height behavior as the Tsunamis reach shore. We compare this data against our theoretical thresholds to see if any real world scenarios would be dangerous to people and properties. We conclude that for such Tsunamis, the present warning criteria are effective at protecting people against larger events with amplitude greater than ~0.3m. However, for events with amplitude less than ~0.2m, it is possible to have waves less than 1m with current velocity high enough to endanger humans. Thus, the inclusion of current velocity data would help the present Tsunami warning criteria become more robust and efficient, especially for smaller Tsunami events.

  15. Tsunami Hockey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; Fryer, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    An important issue that vexes tsunami warning centers (TWCs) is when to cancel a tsunami warning once it is in effect. Emergency managers often face a variety of pressures to allow the public to resume their normal activities, but allowing coastal populations to return too quickly can put them at risk. A TWC must, therefore, exercise caution when cancelling a warning. Kim and Whitmore (2013) show that in many cases a TWC can use the decay of tsunami oscillations in a harbor to forecast when its amplitudes will fall to safe levels. This technique should prove reasonably robust for local tsunamis (those that are potentially dangerous within only 100 km of their source region) and for regional tsunamis (whose danger is limited to within 1000km of the source region) as well. For ocean-crossing destructive tsunamis such as the 11 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami, however, this technique may be inadequate. When a tsunami propagates across the ocean basin, it will encounter topographic obstacles such as seamount chains or coastlines, resulting in coherent reflections that can propagate great distances. When these reflections reach previously-impacted coastlines, they can recharge decaying tsunami oscillations and make them hazardous again. Warning center scientists should forecast sea-level records for 24 hours beyond the initial tsunami arrival in order to observe any potential reflections that may pose a hazard. Animations are a convenient way to visualize reflections and gain a broad geographic overview of their impacts. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has developed tools based on tsunami simulations using the RIFT tsunami forecast model. RIFT is a linear, parallelized numerical tsunami propagation model that runs very efficiently on a multi-CPU system (Wang et al, 2012). It can simulate 30-hours of tsunami wave propagation in the Pacific Ocean at 4 arc minute resolution in approximately 6 minutes of real time on a 12-CPU system. Constructing a 30-hour animation using 1

  16. Tsunami Early Warning via a Physics-Based Simulation Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. M.; Rundle, J. B.; Donnellan, A.; Ward, S. N.; Komjathy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Through independent efforts, physics-based simulations of earthquakes, tsunamis, and atmospheric signatures of these phenomenon have been developed. With the goal of producing tsunami forecasts and early warning tools for at-risk regions, we join these three spheres to create a simulation pipeline. The Virtual Quake simulator can produce thousands of years of synthetic seismicity on large, complex fault geometries, as well as the expected surface displacement in tsunamigenic regions. These displacements are used as initial conditions for tsunami simulators, such as Tsunami Squares, to produce catalogs of potential tsunami scenarios with probabilities. Finally, these tsunami scenarios can act as input for simulations of associated ionospheric total electron content, signals which can be detected by GNSS satellites for purposes of early warning in the event of a real tsunami. We present the most recent developments in this project.

  17. The One-Meter Criterion for Tsunami Warning: Time for a Reevaluation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, G. J.; Weinstein, S.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. tsunami warning centers issue warnings when runup is anticipated to exceed one meter. The origins of the one-meter criterion are unclear, though Whitmore, et al (2008) showed from tsunami history that one meter is roughly the threshold above which damage occurs. Recent experiences in Hawaii, however, suggest that the threshold could be raised. Tsunami Warnings were issued for 2010 Chile, 2011 Tohoku, and 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunamis; each exceeded one meter runup somewhere in the State. Evacuation, however, was necessary only in 2011, and even then onshore damage (as opposed to damage from currents) occurred only where runup exceeded 1.5m. During both Chile and Haida Gwaii tsunamis the existing criteria led to unnecessary evacuation. Maximum runup during the Chile tsunami was 1.1m at Hilo's Wailoa Boat Harbor, while the Haida Gwaii tsunami peaked at 1.2m at Honouliwai Bay on Molokai. Both tsunamis caused only minor damage and minimal flooding; in both cases a Tsunami Advisory (i.e., there is no need to evacuate, but stay off the beach and out of the water) would have been adequate. The Advisory was originally developed as an ad hoc response to the mildly threatening 2006 Kuril tsunami and has since been formalized as the product we issue when maximum runup is expected to be 0.3-1.0 m. At the time it was introduced, however, there was no discussion that this new low-level warning might allow the criterion for Tsunami Warning itself to be adjusted. We now suggest that the divide between Advisory and Warning be raised from 1.0 to something greater, possibly 1.2m. If the warning threshold were raised to 1.2m, the over-warning for the Chile tsunami still could not have been avoided. Models calibrated against DART data consistently forecast runup just over 1.2m for that event. For Haida Gwaii, adjusting the models to match the DART data increased the forecast runup to almost 2m, which again meant a warning, though in retrospect we should have been skeptical. The

  18. Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis Version 4.0 Brings Forecasting Speed, Accuracy, and Capability Improvements to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, K.; Denbo, D. W.; Eble, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT) software was developed by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) for use in tsunami forecasting and has been used by both U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) since 2012, when SIFTv3.1 was operationally accepted. Since then, advancements in research and modeling have resulted in several new features being incorporated into SIFT forecasting. Following the priorities and needs of the TWCs, upgrades to SIFT forecasting were implemented into SIFTv4.0, scheduled to become operational in October 2016. Because every minute counts in the early warning process, two major time saving features were implemented in SIFT 4.0. To increase processing speeds and generate high-resolution flooding forecasts more quickly, the tsunami propagation and inundation codes were modified to run on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). To reduce time demand on duty scientists during an event, an automated DART inversion (or fitting) process was implemented. To increase forecasting accuracy, the forecasted amplitudes and inundations were adjusted to include dynamic tidal oscillations, thereby reducing the over-estimates of flooding common in SIFTv3.1 due to the static tide stage conservatively set at Mean High Water. Further improvements to forecasts were gained through the assimilation of additional real-time observations. Cabled array measurements from Bottom Pressure Recorders (BPRs) in the Oceans Canada NEPTUNE network are now available to SIFT for use in the inversion process. To better meet the needs of harbor masters and emergency managers, SIFTv4.0 adds a tsunami currents graphical product to the suite of disseminated forecast results. When delivered, these new features in SIFTv4.0 will improve the operational tsunami forecasting speed, accuracy, and capabilities at NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers.

  19. New Tsunami Forecast Tools for the French Polynesia Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Joël; Reymond, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the tsunami warning tools, which are used for the estimation of the seismic source parameters. These tools are grouped under a method called Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism_2 ( PDFM2), that has been developed at the French Polynesia Warning Center, in the framework of the system, as a plug-in concept. The first tool determines the seismic moment and the focal geometry (strike, dip, and slip), and the second tool identifies the "tsunami earthquakes" (earthquakes that cause much bigger tsunamis than their magnitude would imply). In a tsunami warning operation, initial assessment of the tsunami potential is based on location and magnitude. The usual quick magnitude methods which use waves, work fine for smaller earthquakes. For major earthquakes these methods drastically underestimate the magnitude and its tsunami potential because the radiated energy shifts to the longer period waves. Since French Polynesia is located far away from the subduction zones of the Pacific rim, the tsunami threat is not imminent, and this luxury of time allows to use the long period surface wave data to determine the true size of a major earthquake. The source inversion method presented in this paper uses a combination of surface waves amplitude spectra and P wave first motions. The advantage of using long period surface data is that there is a much more accurate determination of earthquake size, and the advantage of using P wave first motion is to have a better constrain of the focal geometry than using the surface waves alone. The method routinely gives stable results at minutes, with being the origin time of an earthquake. Our results are then compared to the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog for validating both the seismic moment and the source geometry. The second tool discussed in this paper is the slowness parameter and is the energy-to-moment ratio. It has been used to identify tsunami earthquakes, which are characterized by having unusual slow

  20. Advanced Geospatial Hydrodynamic Signals Analysis for Tsunami Event Detection and Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab-Zavar, Banafshe; Sabeur, Zoheir

    2013-04-01

    Current early tsunami warning can be issued upon the detection of a seismic event which may occur at a given location offshore. This also provides an opportunity to predict the tsunami wave propagation and run-ups at potentially affected coastal zones by selecting the best matching seismic event from a database of pre-computed tsunami scenarios. Nevertheless, it remains difficult and challenging to obtain the rupture parameters of the tsunamigenic earthquakes in real time and simulate the tsunami propagation with high accuracy. In this study, we propose a supporting approach, in which the hydrodynamic signal is systematically analysed for traces of a tsunamigenic signal. The combination of relatively low amplitudes of a tsunami signal at deep waters and the frequent occurrence of background signals and noise contributes to a generally low signal to noise ratio for the tsunami signal; which in turn makes the detection of this signal difficult. In order to improve the accuracy and confidence of detection, a re-identification framework in which a tsunamigenic signal is detected via the scan of a network of hydrodynamic stations with water level sensing is performed. The aim is to attempt the re-identification of the same signatures as the tsunami wave spatially propagates through the hydrodynamic stations sensing network. The re-identification of the tsunamigenic signal is technically possible since the tsunami signal at the open ocean itself conserves its birthmarks relating it to the source event. As well as supporting the initial detection and improving the confidence of detection, a re-identified signal is indicative of the spatial range of the signal, and thereby it can be used to facilitate the identification of certain background signals such as wind waves which do not have as large a spatial reach as tsunamis. In this paper, the proposed methodology for the automatic detection of tsunamigenic signals has been achieved using open data from NOAA with a recorded

  1. Tsunami Ionospheric warning and Ionospheric seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Rakoto, Virgile; Coisson, Pierdavide; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Larmat, Carene; Walwer, Damien; Astafyeva, Elvira; Hebert, Helene; Okal, Emile; Makela, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The last decade demonstrated that seismic waves and tsunamis are coupled to the ionosphere. Observations of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow perturbations of unique quality and amplitude were made during the Tohoku, 2011 giant Japan quake, and observations of much lower tsunamis down to a few cm in sea uplift are now routinely done, including for the Kuril 2006, Samoa 2009, Chili 2010, Haida Gwai 2012 tsunamis. This new branch of seismology is now mature enough to tackle the new challenge associated to the inversion of these data, with either the goal to provide from these data maps or profile of the earth surface vertical displacement (and therefore crucial information for tsunami warning system) or inversion, with ground and ionospheric data set, of the various parameters (atmospheric sound speed, viscosity, collision frequencies) controlling the coupling between the surface, lower atmosphere and the ionosphere. We first present the state of the art in the modeling of the tsunami-atmospheric coupling, including in terms of slight perturbation in the tsunami phase and group velocity and dependance of the coupling strength with local time, ocean depth and season. We then show the confrontation of modelled signals with observations. For tsunami, this is made with the different type of measurement having proven ionospheric tsunami detection over the last 5 years (ground and space GPS, Airglow), while we focus on GPS and GOCE observation for seismic waves. These observation systems allowed to track the propagation of the signal from the ground (with GPS and seismometers) to the neutral atmosphere (with infrasound sensors and GOCE drag measurement) to the ionosphere (with GPS TEC and airglow among other ionospheric sounding techniques). Modelling with different techniques (normal modes, spectral element methods, finite differences) are used and shown. While the fits of the waveform are generally very good, we analyse the differences and draw direction of future

  2. Tsunami Early Warning Within Five Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Anthony; Michelini, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Tsunamis are most destructive at near to regional distances, arriving within 20-30 min after a causative earthquake; effective early warning at these distances requires notification within 15 min or less. The size and impact of a tsunami also depend on sea floor displacement, which is related to the length, L, width, W, mean slip, D, and depth, z, of the earthquake rupture. Currently, the primary seismic discriminant for tsunami potential is the centroid-moment tensor magnitude, M {w/CMT}, representing the product LWD and estimated via an indirect inversion procedure. However, the obtained M {w/CMT} and the implied LWD value vary with rupture depth, earth model, and other factors, and are only available 20-30 min or more after an earthquake. The use of more direct discriminants for tsunami potential could avoid these problems and aid in effective early warning, especially for near to regional distances. Previously, we presented a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using two, simple measurements on P-wave seismograms—the predominant period on velocity records, T d , and the likelihood, T {50/Ex}, that the high-frequency, apparent rupture-duration, T 0, exceeds 50-55 s. We have shown that T d and T 0 are related to the critical rupture parameters L, W, D, and z, and that either of the period-duration products T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex} gives more information on tsunami impact and size than M {w/CMT}, M wp, and other currently used discriminants. These results imply that tsunami potential is not directly related to the product LWD from the "seismic" faulting model, as is assumed with the use of the M {w/CMT} discriminant. Instead, information on rupture length, L, and depth, z, as provided by T d T 0 or T d T {50/Ex}, can constrain well the tsunami potential of an earthquake. We introduce here special treatment of the signal around the S arrival at close stations, a modified, real-time, M wpd(RT) magnitude, and other procedures to

  3. Tsunamis warning from space :Ionosphere seismology

    SciTech Connect

    Larmat, Carene

    2012-09-04

    Ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from about 85 to 600km containing electrons and electrically charged atoms that are produced by solar radiation. Perturbations - layering affected by day and night, X-rays and high-energy protons from the solar flares, geomagnetic storms, lightning, drivers-from-below. Strategic for radio-wave transmission. This project discusses the inversion of ionosphere signals, tsunami wave amplitude and coupling parameters, which improves tsunami warning systems.

  4. TIDE TOOL: Open-Source Sea-Level Monitoring Software for Tsunami Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Kong, L. S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    -series data in the GUI as well. This GUI also includes mouse-clickable functions such as zooming or expanding the time-series display, measuring tsunami signal characteristics (arrival time, wave period and amplitude, etc.), and removing the tide signal from the time-series data. De-tiding of the time series is necessary to obtain accurate measurements of tsunami wave parameters and to maintain accurate historical tsunami databases. With TIDE TOOL, de-tiding is accomplished with a set of tide harmonic coefficients routinely computed and updated at PTWC for many of the stations in PTWC's inventory (~570). PTWC also uses the decoded time series files (previous 3-5 days' worth) to compute on-the-fly tide coefficients. The latter is useful in cases where the station is new and a long-term stable set of tide coefficients are not available or cannot be easily obtained due to various non-astronomical effects. The international tsunami warning system is coordinated globally by the UNESCO IOC, and a number of countries in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, and Caribbean depend on Tide Tool to monitor tsunamis in real time.

  5. Web-based Tsunami Early Warning System with instant Tsunami Propagation Calculations in the GPU Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, M.; Spazier, J.; Reißland, S.

    2014-12-01

    Usually, tsunami early warning and mitigation systems (TWS or TEWS) are based on several software components deployed in a client-server based infrastructure. The vast majority of systems importantly include desktop-based clients with a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operators in early warning centers. However, in times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms, introduced by continuously evolving approaches in information and communications technology (ICT), have to be considered even for early warning systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in three research projects - 'German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System' (GITEWS), 'Distant Early Warning System' (DEWS), and 'Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises' (TRIDEC) - new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based prototype to open up new prospects for EWS. This prototype, named 'TRIDEC Cloud', merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services into one platform for automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The prototype in its current version addresses tsunami early warning and mitigation. The integration of GPU accelerated tsunami simulation computations have been an integral part of this prototype to foster early warning with on-demand tsunami predictions based on actual source parameters. However, the platform is meant for researchers around the world to make use of the cloud-based GPU computation to analyze other types of geohazards and natural hazards and react upon the computed situation picture with a web-based GUI in a web browser at remote sites. The current website is an early alpha version for demonstration purposes to give the

  6. Development of new tsunami detection algorithms for high frequency radars and application to tsunami warning in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, S. T.; Guérin, C. A.; Shelby, M. R.; Grilli, A. R.; Insua, T. L.; Moran, P., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    A High-Frequency (HF) radar was installed by Ocean Networks Canada in Tofino, BC, to detect tsunamis from far- and near-field seismic sources; in particular, from the Cascadia Subduction Zone. This HF radar can measure ocean surface currents up to a 70-85 km range, depending on atmospheric conditions, based on the Doppler shift they cause in ocean waves at the Bragg frequency. In earlier work, we showed that tsunami currents must be at least 0.15 m/s to be directly detectable by a HF radar, when considering environmental noise and background currents (from tide/mesoscale circulation). This limits a direct tsunami detection to shallow water areas where currents are sufficiently strong due to wave shoaling and, hence, to the continental shelf. It follows that, in locations with a narrow shelf, warning times using a direct inversion method will be small. To detect tsunamis in deeper water, beyond the continental shelf, we proposed a new algorithm that does not require directly inverting currents, but instead is based on observing changes in patterns of spatial correlations of the raw radar signal between two radar cells located along the same wave ray, after time is shifted by the tsunami propagation time along the ray. A pattern change will indicate the presence of a tsunami. We validated this new algorithm for idealized tsunami wave trains propagating over a simple seafloor geometry in a direction normally incident to shore. Here, we further develop, extend, and validate the algorithm for realistic case studies of seismic tsunami sources impacting Vancouver Island, BC. Tsunami currents, computed with a state-of-the-art long wave model are spatially averaged over cells aligned along individual wave rays, located within the radar sweep area, obtained by solving the wave geometric optic equation; for long waves, such rays and tsunami propagation times along those are only function of the seafloor bathymetry, and hence can be precalculated for different incident tsunami

  7. A Walk through TRIDEC's intermediate Tsunami Early Warning System for the Turkish and Portuguese NEAMWave12 exercise tsunami scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammitzsch, Martin; Lendholt, Matthias; Reißland, Sven; Schulz, Jana

    2013-04-01

    the ICG/NEAMTWS NEAMWave12 exercise for the Turkish and Portuguese tsunami exercise scenarios. Impressions gained with the standards compliant TRIDEC system during the exercise will be reported. The system version presented is based on event-driven architecture (EDA) and service-oriented architecture (SOA) concepts and is making use of relevant standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). In this way the system continuously gathers, processes and displays events and data coming from open sensor platforms to enable operators to quickly decide whether an early warning is necessary and to send personalized warning messages to the authorities and the population at large through a wide range of communication channels. The system integrates OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) compliant sensor systems for the rapid detection of hazardous events, like earthquakes, sea level anomalies, ocean floor occurrences, and ground displacements. Using OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) spatial data are utilized to depict the situation picture. The integration of a simulation system to identify affected areas is considered using the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). Warning messages are compiled and transmitted in the OASIS Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) together with addressing information defined via the OASIS Emergency Data Exchange Language - Distribution Element (EDXL-DE). This demonstration is linked with the talk 'Experiences with TRIDEC's Crisis Management Demonstrator in the Turkish NEAMWave12 exercise tsunami scenario' (EGU2013-2833) given in the session "Architecture of Future Tsunami Warning Systems" (NH5.6).

  8. Towards an Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Vanacore, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean region (CR) has a documented history of large damaging earthquakes and tsunamis that have affected coastal areas, including the events of Jamaica in 1692, Virgin Islands in 1867, Puerto Rico in 1918, the Dominican Republic in 1946 and Haiti in 2010. There is clear evidence that tsunamis have been triggered by large earthquakes that deformed the ocean floor around the Caribbean Plate boundary. The CR is monitored jointly by national/regional/local seismic, geodetic and sea level networks. All monitoring institutions are participating in the UNESCO ICG/Caribe EWS, the purpose of this initiative is to minimize loss of life and destruction of property, and to mitigate against catastrophic economic impacts via promoting local research, real time (RT) earthquake, geodetic and sea level data sharing and improving warning capabilities and enhancing education and outreach strategies. Currently more than, 100 broad-band seismic, 65 sea levels and 50 GPS high rate stations are available in real or near real-time. These real-time streams are used by Local/Regional or Worldwide detection and warning institutions to provide earthquake source parameters in a timely manner. Currently, any Caribbean event detected to have a magnitude greater than 4.5 is evaluated, and sea level is measured, by the TWC for tsumanigenic potential. The regional cooperation is motivated both by research interests as well as geodetic, seismic and tsunami hazard monitoring and warning. It will allow the imaging of the tectonic structure of the Caribbean region to a high resolution which will consequently permit further understanding of the seismic source properties for moderate and large events and the application of this knowledge to procedures of civil protection. To reach its goals, the virtual network has been designed following the highest technical standards: BB sensors, 24 bits A/D converters with 140 dB dynamic range, real-time telemetry. Here we will discuss the state of the PR

  9. How Perturbing Ocean Floor Disturbs Tsunami Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaree, A.; Okal, E.

    2017-12-01

    Bathymetry maps play, perhaps the most crucial role in optimal tsunami simulations. Regardless of the simulation method, on one hand, it is desirable to include every detailed bathymetry feature in the simulation grids in order to predict tsunami amplitudes as accurately as possible, but on the other hand, large grids result in long simulation times. It is therefore, of interest to investigate a "sufficiency" level - if any - for the amount of details in bathymetry grids needed to reconstruct the most important features in tsunami simulations, as obtained from the actual bathymetry. In this context, we use a spherical harmonics series approach to decompose the bathymetry of the Pacific ocean into its components down to a resolution of 4 degrees (l=100) and create bathymetry grids by accumulating the resulting terms. We then use these grids to simulate the tsunami behavior from pure thrust events around the Pacific through the MOST algorithm (e.g. Titov & Synolakis, 1995; Titov & Synolakis, 1998). Our preliminary results reveal that one would only need to consider the sum of the first 40 coefficients (equivalent to a resolution of 1000 km) to reproduce the main components of the "real" results. This would result in simpler simulations, and potentially allowing for more efficient tsunami warning algorithms.

  10. Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey : Status Update 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meral Ozel, N.; Necmioglu, O.; Yalciner, A. C.; Kalafat, D.; Yilmazer, M.; Comoglu, M.; Sanli, U.; Gurbuz, C.; Erdik, M.

    2012-04-01

    This is an update to EGU2011-3094 informing on the progress of the establishment of a National Tsunami Warning Center in Turkey (NTWC-TR) under the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission - Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (IOC-ICG/NEAMTWS) initiative. NTWC-TR is integrated into the 24/7 operational National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) of KOERI comprising 129 BB and 61 strong motion sensors. Based on an agreement with the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (DEMP), data from 10 BB stations located in the Aegean and Mediterranean Coast is now transmitted in real time to KOERI. Real-time data transmission from 6 primary and 10 auxiliary stations from the International Monitoring System will be in place in the very near future based on an agreement concluded with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2011. In an agreement with a major Turkish GSM company, KOERI is enlarging its strong-motion network to promote real-time seismology and to extend Earthquake Early Warning system countrywide. 25 accelerometers (included in the number given above) have been purchased and installed at Base Transceiver Station Sites in coastal regions within the scope of this initiative. Data from 3 tide gauge stations operated by General Command of Mapping (GCM) is being transmitted to KOERI via satellite connection and the aim is to integrate all tide-gauge stations operated by GCM into NTWC-TR. A collaborative agreement has been signed with the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and MOD1 Tsunami Scenario Database and TAT (Tsunami Analysis Tool) are received by KOERI and user training was provided. The database and the tool are linked to SeisComp3 and currently operational. In addition KOERI is continuing the work towards providing contributions to JRC in order to develop an improved database

  11. Tide gauge observations of the Indian Ocean tsunami, December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Firing, Y. L.; Aarup, T.; Agricole, W.; Brundrit, G.; Chang-Seng, D.; Farre, R.; Kilonsky, B.; Knight, W.; Kong, L.; Magori, C.; Manurung, P.; McCreery, C.; Mitchell, W.; Pillay, S.; Schindele, F.; Shillington, F.; Testut, L.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Caldwell, P.; Jardin, J.; Nakahara, S.; Porter, F.-Y.; Turetsky, N.

    2005-05-01

    The magnitude 9.0 earthquake centered off the west coast of northern Sumatra (3.307°N, 95.947°E) on December 26, 2004 at 00:59 UTC (United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2005), USGS Earthquake Hazards Program-Latest Earthquakes, Earthquake Hazards Program, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqinthenews/2004/usslav/, 2005) generated a series of tsunami waves that devastated coastal areas throughout the Indian Ocean. Tide gauges operated on behalf of national and international organizations recorded the wave form at a number of island and continental locations. This report summarizes the tide gauge observations of the tsunami in the Indian Ocean (available as of January 2005) and provides a recommendation for the use of the basin-wide tide gauge network for future warnings.

  12. Tsunami Forecast Progress Five Years After Indonesian Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Vasily V.; Bernard, Eddie N.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2010-05-01

    Almost five years after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tragedy, tsunami warnings are finally benefiting from decades of research toward effective model-based forecasts. Since the 2004 tsunami, two seminal advances have been (i) deep-ocean tsunami measurements with tsunameters and (ii) their use in accurately forecasting tsunamis after the tsunami has been generated. Using direct measurements of deep-ocean tsunami heights, assimilated into numerical models for specific locations, greatly improves the real-time forecast accuracy over earthquake-derived magnitude estimates of tsunami impact. Since 2003, this method has been used to forecast tsunamis at specific harbors for different events in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Recent tsunamis illustrated how this technology is being adopted in global tsunami warning operations. The U.S. forecasting system was used by both research and operations to evaluate the tsunami hazard. Tests demonstrated the effectiveness of operational tsunami forecasting using real-time deep-ocean data assimilated into forecast models. Several examples also showed potential of distributed forecast tools. With IOC and USAID funding, NOAA researchers at PMEL developed the Community Model Interface for Tsunami (ComMIT) tool and distributed it through extensive capacity-building sessions in the Indian Ocean. Over hundred scientists have been trained in tsunami inundation mapping, leading to the first generation of inundation models for many Indian Ocean shorelines. These same inundation models can also be used for real-time tsunami forecasts as was demonstrated during several events. Contact Information Vasily V. Titov, Seattle, Washington, USA, 98115

  13. Lessons unlearned in Japan before 2011: Effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on a nuclear plant in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed around 220,000 people and startled the world. North of Chennai (Madras), the Indian plant nearly affected by tsunami in 2004. The local residents really did not get any warning in India. "On December 26, the Madras Atomic Power Station looked like a desolate place with no power, no phones, no water, no security arrangement and no hindrance whatsoever for outsiders to enter any part of the plant," said S.P. Udaykumar of SACCER. Nuclear issues hide behind such big tsunami damaged. Few media reported outside India. As for US, San Francisco Chronicle reported scientists had to rethink about nuclear power plants by the 2004 tsunami in 11th July 2005. Few tsunami scientsts did not pay attention to nucler power plants nearly affected by tsunami in US. On the other hand, US government noticed the Indian plant nearly affected in 2004. US Goverment supported nucler disaster management in several countries. As for Japan, Japanese goverment mainly concentrated reconstrucation in affected areas and tsunami early warning system. I worked in Japanese embassy in Jakarta Indonesia at that time. I did not receive the information about the Indian plant nearly affected by tsunami and US supported nucler safety to the other coutries. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami damaged society and nuclear power stations. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in the largest release of radioactive material since the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Why did not Japanese tsunami scientists learn from warning signs from the nuclear plant in India by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami to the 2011 Fukushima accident? I would like to clarify the reason few tsunami scientist notice this point in my presentation.

  14. The Pacific tsunami warning system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pararas-Carayannis, G.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of tsunamis on human societies can be traced back in written history to 480 BC, when the Minoan civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean was wiped out by great tsunami waves generated by the volcanic explosion of the island of Santorin. In the Pacific Ocean where the majority of these waves have been generated, the historical record, although brief, shows tremendous destruction. In Japan which has one of the most populated coastal regions in the world and a long history of earthquake activity, tsunamis have destroyed entire coastal communities. There is also history of tsunami destruction in Alaska, in Hawaiian Islands, and in South America. 

  15. Historic Tsunami in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Cummins, P. R.; Burbidge, D.

    2005-12-01

    The 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami dramatically highlighted the need for a better understanding of the tsunami hazard in the Indian Ocean. One of the most important foundations on which to base such an assessment is knowledge of tsunami that have affected the region in the historical past. We present a summary of the previously published catalog of Indian Ocean tsunami and the results of a preliminary search of archival material held at the India Records Office at the British Library in London. We demonstrate that in some cases, normal tidal movements and floods associated with tropical cyclones have been erroneously listed as tsunami. We summarise interesting archival material for tsunami that occurred in 1945, 1941, 1881, 1819, 1762 and a tsunami in 1843 not previously identified or reported. We also note the recent discovery, by a Canadian team during a post-tsunami survey following the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami, of archival evidence that the Great Sumatra Earthquake of 1833 generated a teletsunami. Open ocean wave heights are calculated for some of the historical tsunami and compared with those of the Boxing Day Tsunami.

  16. Bodrum-Kos (Turkey-Greece) Mw 6.6 earthquake and tsunami of 20 July 2017: a test for the Mediterranean tsunami warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ishibe, Takeo; Yalciner, Ahmet C.

    2017-12-01

    Various Tsunami Service Providers (TSPs) within the Mediterranean Basin supply tsunami warnings including CAT-INGV (Italy), KOERI-RETMC (Turkey), and NOA/HL-NTWC (Greece). The 20 July 2017 Bodrum-Kos (Turkey-Greece) earthquake (Mw 6.6) and tsunami provided an opportunity to assess the response from these TSPs. Although the Bodrum-Kos tsunami was moderate (e.g., runup of 1.9 m) with little damage to properties, it was the first noticeable tsunami in the Mediterranean Basin since the 21 May 2003 western Mediterranean tsunami. Tsunami waveform analysis revealed that the trough-to-crest height was 34.1 cm at the near-field tide gauge station of Bodrum (Turkey). Tsunami period band was 2-30 min with peak periods at 7-13 min. We proposed a source fault model for this tsunami with the length and width of 25 and 15 km and uniform slip of 0.4 m. Tsunami simulations using both nodal planes produced almost same results in terms of agreement between tsunami observations and simulations. Different TSPs provided tsunami warnings at 10 min (CAT-INGV), 19 min (KOERI-RETMC), and 18 min (NOA/HL-NTWC) after the earthquake origin time. Apart from CAT-INGV, whose initial Mw estimation differed 0.2 units with respect to the final value, the response from the other two TSPs came relatively late compared to the desired warning time of 10 min, given the difficulties for timely and accurate calculation of earthquake magnitude and tsunami impact assessment. It is argued that even if a warning time of 10 min was achieved, it might not have been sufficient for addressing near-field tsunami hazards. Despite considerable progress and achievements made within the upstream components of NEAMTWS (North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Connected seas Tsunami Warning System), the experience from this moderate tsunami may highlight the need for improving operational capabilities of TSPs, but more importantly for effectively integrating civil protection authorities into NEAMTWS and strengthening

  17. Geoethical issues involved in Tsunami Warning System concepts and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampakis, Marinos; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of a Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is to mitigate the effect of an incoming tsunami by alerting coastal population early enough to allow people to evacuate safely from inundation zones. Though this representation might seem oversimplified, nonetheless, achieving successfully this goal requires a positive synergy of geoscience, communication, emergency management, technology, education, social sciences, politics. Geoethical issues arise always when there is an interaction between geoscience and society, and TWS is a paradigmatic case where interaction is very strong and is made critical because a) the formulation of the tsunami alert has to be made in a time as short as possible and therefore on uncertain data, and b) any evaluation error (underestimation or overestimation) can lead to serious (and sometimes catastrophic) consequences involving wide areas and a large amount of population. From the geoethical point of view three issues are critical: how to (i) combine forecasts and uncertainties reasonably and usefully, (ii) cope and possibly solve the dilemma whether it is better over-alerting or under-alerting population and (iii) deal with responsibility and liability of geoscientists, TWS operators, emergency operators and coastal population. The discussion will be based on the experience of the Hellenic National Tsunami Warning Center (HL-NTWC, Greece), which operates on 24/7 basis as a special unit of the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens, and acts also as Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) in the framework of the North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) of the IOC/UNESCO. Since August 2012, when HL-NTWC was officially declared as operational, 14 tsunami warning messages have been disseminated to a large number of subscribers after strong submarine earthquakes occurring in Greece and elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean. It is recognized that the alerting process

  18. Ionospheric detection of tsunami earthquakes: observation, modeling and ideas for future early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, G.; Manta, F.; Rolland, L.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Hill, E.; Astafieva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    .8 Benyak event (2010). In this talk we present all this new tsunami observations in the ionosphere and we discuss, under the light of modelling, the potential role of ionospheric sounding by GNSS-TEC and airglow cameras in oceanic monitoring and future tsunami warning system. All ref. here @ www.ipgp.fr/ ninto

  19. Tsunami Generation Modelling for Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziato, A.; Matias, L.; Ulutas, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Carrilho, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of a collaboration between the European Commission Joint Research Centre and the Institute of Meteorology in Portugal, a complete analytical tool to support Early Warning Systems is being developed. The tool will be part of the Portuguese National Early Warning System and will be used also in the frame of the UNESCO North Atlantic Section of the Tsunami Early Warning System. The system called Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) includes a worldwide scenario database that has been pre-calculated using the SWAN-JRC code (Annunziato, 2007). This code uses a simplified fault generation mechanism and the hydraulic model is based on the SWAN code (Mader, 1988). In addition to the pre-defined scenario, a system of computers is always ready to start a new calculation whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismic networks (such as USGS or EMSC) and is judged capable to generate a Tsunami. The calculation is performed using minimal parameters (epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake): the programme calculates the rupture length and rupture width by using empirical relationship proposed by Ward (2002). The database calculations, as well the newly generated calculations with the current conditions are therefore available to TAT where the real online analysis is performed. The system allows to analyze also sea level measurements available worldwide in order to compare them and decide if a tsunami is really occurring or not. Although TAT, connected with the scenario database and the online calculation system, is at the moment the only software that can support the tsunami analysis on a global scale, we are convinced that the fault generation mechanism is too simplified to give a correct tsunami prediction. Furthermore short tsunami arrival times especially require a possible earthquake source parameters data on tectonic features of the faults like strike, dip, rake and slip in order to minimize real time uncertainty of rupture parameters. Indeed the earthquake

  20. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that

  1. Optimization of the Number and Location of Tsunami Stations in a Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, C.; Liu, P. L. F.; Pritchard, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Optimizing the number and location of tsunami stations in designing a tsunami warning system is an important and practical problem. It is always desirable to maximize the capability of the data obtained from the stations for constraining the earthquake source parameters, and to minimize the number of stations at the same time. During the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event, 28 coastal gauges and DART buoys in the near-field recorded tsunami waves, providing an opportunity for assessing the effectiveness of those stations in identifying the earthquake source parameters. Assuming a single-plane fault geometry, inversions of tsunami data from combinations of various number (1~28) of stations and locations are conducted and evaluated their effectiveness according to the residues of the inverse method. Results show that the optimized locations of stations depend on the number of stations used. If the stations are optimally located, 2~4 stations are sufficient to constrain the source parameters. Regarding the optimized location, stations must be uniformly spread in all directions, which is not surprising. It is also found that stations within the source region generally give worse constraint of earthquake source than stations farther from source, which is due to the exaggeration of model error in matching large amplitude waves at near-source stations. Quantitative discussions on these findings will be given in the presentation. Applying similar analysis to the Manila Trench based on artificial scenarios of earthquakes and tsunamis, the optimal location of tsunami stations are obtained, which provides guidance of deploying a tsunami warning system in this region.

  2. The potential role of real-time geodetic observations in tsunami early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami warning systems (TWS) have the final goal to launch a reliable alert of an incoming dangerous tsunami to coastal population early enough to allow people to flee from the shore and coastal areas according to some evacuation plans. In the last decade, especially after the catastrophic 2004 Boxing Day tsunami in the Indian Ocean, much attention has been given to filling gaps in the existing TWSs (only covering the Pacific Ocean at that time) and to establishing new TWSs in ocean regions that were uncovered. Typically, TWSs operating today work only on earthquake-induced tsunamis. TWSs estimate quickly earthquake location and size by real-time processing seismic signals; on the basis of some pre-defined "static" procedures (either based on decision matrices or on pre-archived tsunami simulations), assess the tsunami alert level on a large regional scale and issue specific bulletins to a pre-selected recipients audience. Not unfrequently these procedures result in generic alert messages with little value. What usually operative TWSs do not do, is to compute earthquake focal mechanism, to calculate the co-seismic sea-floor displacement, to assess the initial tsunami conditions, to input these data into tsunami simulation models and to compute tsunami propagation up to the threatened coastal districts. This series of steps is considered nowadays too time consuming to provide the required timely alert. An equivalent series of steps could start from the same premises (earthquake focal parameters) and reach the same result (tsunami height at target coastal areas) by replacing the intermediate steps of real-time tsunami simulations with proper selection from a large archive of pre-computed tsunami scenarios. The advantage of real-time simulations and of archived scenarios selection is that estimates are tailored to the specific occurring tsunami and alert can be more detailed (less generic) and appropriate for local needs. Both these procedures are still at an

  3. REWSET: A prototype seismic and tsunami early warning system in Rhodes island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerasimos; Argyris, Ilias; Aggelou, Savvas; Karastathis, Vasilis

    2014-05-01

    Tsunami warning in near-field conditions is a critical issue in the Mediterranean Sea since the most important tsunami sources are situated within tsunami wave travel times starting from about five minutes. The project NEARTOWARN (2012-2013) supported by the EU-DG ECHO contributed substantially to the development of new tools for the near-field tsunami early warning in the Mediterranean. One of the main achievements is the development of a local warning system in the test-site of Rhodes island (Rhodes Early Warning System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis - REWSET). The system is composed by three main subsystems: (1) a network of eight seismic early warning devices installed in four different localities of the island, one in the civil protection, another in the Fire Brigade and another two in municipality buildings; (2) two radar-type (ultrasonic) tide-gauges installed in the eastern coastal zine of the island which was selected since research on the historical earthquake and tsunami activity has indicated that the most important, near-field tsunami sources are situated offshore to the east of Rhodes; (3) a crisis Geographic Management System (GMS), which is a web-based and GIS-based application incorporating a variety of thematic maps and other information types. The seismic early warning devices activate by strong (magnitude around 6 or more) earthquakes occurring at distances up to about 100 km from Rhodes, thus providing immediate mobilization of the civil protection. The tide-gauges transmit sea level data, while during the crisis the GMS supports decisions to be made by civil protection. In the near future it is planned the REWSET system to be integrated with national and international systems. REWSET is a prototype which certainly could be developed in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean and beyond.

  4. Tsunami Speed Variations in Density-stratified Compressible Global Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watada, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent tsunami observations in the deep ocean have accumulated unequivocal evidence that tsunami traveltime delays compared with the linear long-wave tsunami simulations occur during tsunami propagation in the deep ocean. The delay is up to 2% of the tsunami traveltime. Watada et al. [2013] investigated the cause of the delay using the normal mode theory of tsunamis and attributed the delay to the compressibility of seawater, the elasticity of the solid earth, and the gravitational potential change associated with mass motion during the passage of tsunamis. Tsunami speed variations in the deep ocean caused by seawater density stratification is investigated using a newly developed propagator matrix method that is applicable to seawater with depth-variable sound speeds and density gradients. For a 4-km deep ocean, the total tsunami speed reduction is 0.45% compared with incompressible homogeneous seawater; two thirds of the reduction is due to elastic energy stored in the water and one third is due to water density stratification mainly by hydrostatic compression. Tsunami speeds are computed for global ocean density and sound speed profiles and characteristic structures are discussed. Tsunami speed reductions are proportional to ocean depth with small variations, except for in warm Mediterranean seas. The impacts of seawater compressibility and the elasticity effect of the solid earth on tsunami traveltime should be included for precise modeling of trans-oceanic tsunamis. Data locations where a vertical ocean profile deeper than 2500 m is available in World Ocean Atlas 2009. The dark gray area indicates the Pacific Ocean defined in WOA09. a) Tsunami speed variations. Red, gray and black bars represent global, Pacific, and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. b) Regression lines of the tsunami velocity reduction for all oceans. c)Vertical ocean profiles at grid points indicated by the stars in Figure 1.

  5. Tsunami Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In December 2004, when a tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in 11 countries around the Indian Ocean, the United States was reminded of its own tsunami risks. In fact, devastating tsunamis have struck North America before and are sure to strike again. Especially vulnerable are the five Pacific States--Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California--and the U.S. Caribbean islands. In the wake of the Indian Ocean disaster, the United States is redoubling its efforts to assess the Nation's tsunami hazards, provide tsunami education, and improve its system for tsunami warning. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is helping to meet these needs, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and with coastal States and counties.

  6. The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program: Successes in Tsunami Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R. I.

    2012-12-01

    Formed in 1995 by Congressional Action, the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP) provides the framework for tsunami preparedness activities in the United States. The Program consists of the 28 U.S. coastal states, territories, and commonwealths (STCs), as well as three Federal agencies: the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Since its inception, the NTHMP has advanced tsunami preparedness in the United States through accomplishments in many areas of tsunami preparedness: - Coordination and funding of tsunami hazard analysis and preparedness activities in STCs; - Development and execution of a coordinated plan to address education and outreach activities (materials, signage, and guides) within its membership; - Lead the effort to assist communities in meeting National Weather Service (NWS) TsunamiReady guidelines through development of evacuation maps and other planning activities; - Determination of tsunami hazard zones in most highly threatened coastal communities throughout the country by detailed tsunami inundation studies; - Development of a benchmarking procedure for numerical tsunami models to ensure models used in the inundation studies meet consistent, NOAA standards; - Creation of a national tsunami exercise framework to test tsunami warning system response; - Funding community tsunami warning dissemination and reception systems such as sirens and NOAA Weather Radios; and, - Providing guidance to NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers regarding warning dissemination and content. NTHMP activities have advanced the state of preparedness of United States coastal communities, and have helped save lives and property during recent tsunamis. Program successes as well as future plans, including maritime preparedness, are discussed.

  7. Research to Operations: From Point Positions, Earthquake and Tsunami Modeling to GNSS-augmented Tsunami Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stough, T.; Green, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    This collaborative research to operations demonstration brings together the data and algorithms from NASA research, technology, and applications-funded projects to deliver relevant data streams, algorithms, predictive models, and visualization tools to the NOAA National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC). Using real-time GNSS data and models in an operational environment, we will test and evaluate an augmented capability for tsunami early warning. Each of three research groups collect data from a selected network of real-time GNSS stations, exchange data consisting of independently processed 1 Hz station displacements, and merge the output into a single, more accurate and reliable set. The resulting merged data stream is delivered from three redundant locations to the TWCs with a latency of 5-10 seconds. Data from a number of seismogeodetic stations with collocated GPS and accelerometer instruments are processed for displacements and seismic velocities and also delivered. Algorithms for locating and determining the magnitude of earthquakes as well as algorithms that compute the source function of a potential tsunami using this new data stream are included in the demonstration. The delivered data, algorithms, models and tools are hosted on NOAA-operated machines at both warning centers, and, once tested, the results will be evaluated for utility in improving the speed and accuracy of tsunami warnings. This collaboration has the potential to dramatically improve the speed and accuracy of the TWCs local tsunami information over the current seismometer-only based methods. In our first year of this work, we have established and deployed an architecture for data movement and algorithm installation at the TWC's. We are addressing data quality issues and porting algorithms into the TWCs operating environment. Our initial module deliveries will focus on estimating moment magnitude (Mw) from Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), within 2

  8. Implications Of The 11 March Tohoku Tsunami On Warning Systems And Vertical Evacuation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, S.; Leonard, G.; Johnston, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11th 2011 claimed over 20,000 lives in an event which inundated over 500 km2 of land on the north-east coast of Japan. Successful execution of tsunami warning procedures and evacuation strategies undoubtedly saved thousands of lives, and there is evidence that vertical evacuation facilities were a key part of reducing the fatality rate in several municipalities in the Sendai Plains. As with all major disasters, however, post-event observations show that there are lessons to be learned in minimising life loss in future events. This event has raised or reinforced several key points that should be considered for implementation in all areas at risk from tsunami around the world. Primary areas for discussion are the need for redundant power supplies in tsunami warning systems; considerations of natural warnings when official warnings may not come; adequate understanding and estimation of the tsunami hazard; thorough site assessments for critical infrastructure, including emergency management facilities and tsunami refuges; and adequate signage of evacuation routes and refuges. This paper will present observations made on two field visits to the Tohoku region during 2011, drawing conclusions from field observations and discussions with local emergency officials. These observations will inform the enhancement of current tsunami evacuation strategies in New Zealand; it is believed discussion of these observations can also benefit continuing development of warning and evacuation strategies existing in the United States and elsewhere.

  9. An automatic tsunami warning system: TREMORS application in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond, D.; Robert, S.; Thomas, Y.; Schindelé, F.

    1996-03-01

    An integrated system named TREMORS (Tsunami Risk Evaluation through seismic Moment of a Real-time System) has been installed in EVORA station, in Portugal which has been affected by historical tsunamis. The system is based on a three component long period seismic station linked to a compatible IBM_PC with a specific software. The goals of this system are the followings: detect earthquake, locate them, compute their seismic moment, give a seismic warning. The warnings are based on the seismic moment estimation and all the processing are made automatically. The finality of this study is to check the quality of estimation of the main parameters of interest in a goal of tsunami warning: the location which depends of azimuth and distance, and at last the seismic moment, M 0, which controls the earthquake size. The sine qua non condition for obtaining an automatic location is that the 3 main seismic phases P, S, R must be visible. This study gives satisfying results (automatic analysis): ± 5° errors in azimuth and epicentral distance, and a standard deviation of less than a factor 2 for the seismic moment M 0.

  10. Science and Engineering of an Operational Tsunami Forecasting System

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Frank

    2009-04-06

    After a review of tsunami statistics and the destruction caused by tsunamis, a means of forecasting tsunamis is discussed as part of an overall program of reducing fatalities through hazard assessment, education, training, mitigation, and a tsunami warning system. The forecast is accomplished via a concept called Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART). Small changes of pressure at the sea floor are measured and relayed to warning centers. Under development is an international modeling network to transfer, maintain, and improve tsunami forecast models.

  11. Science and Engineering of an Operational Tsunami Forecasting System

    ScienceCinema

    Gonzalez, Frank

    2017-12-09

    After a review of tsunami statistics and the destruction caused by tsunamis, a means of forecasting tsunamis is discussed as part of an overall program of reducing fatalities through hazard assessment, education, training, mitigation, and a tsunami warning system. The forecast is accomplished via a concept called Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART). Small changes of pressure at the sea floor are measured and relayed to warning centers. Under development is an international modeling network to transfer, maintain, and improve tsunami forecast models.

  12. Open-Ocean and Coastal Properties of Recent Major Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.; Zaytsev, O.

    2017-12-01

    The properties of six major tsunamis during the period 2009-2015 (2009 Samoa; 2010 Chile; 2011 Tohoku; 2012 Haida Gwaii; 2014 and 2015 Chile) were thoroughly examined using coastal data from British Columbia, the U.S. West Coast and Mexico, and offshore open-ocean DART and NEPTUNE stations. Based on joint spectral analyses of the tsunamis and background noise, we have developed a method to suppress the influence of local topography and to use coastal observations to determine the underlying spectra of tsunami waves in the deep ocean. The "reconstructed" open-ocean tsunami spectra were found to be in close agreement with the actual tsunami spectra evaluated from the analysis of directly measured open-ocean tsunami records. We have further used the spectral estimates to parameterize tsunamis based on their integral open-ocean spectral characteristics. Three key parameters are introduced to describe individual tsunami events: (1) Integral open-ocean energy; (2) Amplification factor (increase of the mean coastal tsunami variance relative to the open-ocean variance); and (3) Tsunami colour, the frequency composition of the open-ocean tsunami waves. In particular, we found that the strongest tsunamis, associated with large source areas (the 2010 Chile and 2011 Tohoku) are "reddish" (indicating the dominance of low-frequency motions), while small-source events (the 2009 Samoa and 2012 Haida Gwaii) are "bluish" (indicating strong prevalence of high-frequency motions).

  13. Community participation in tsunami early warning system in Pangandaran town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadian, Sapari D.; Khadijah, Ute Lies Siti; Saepudin, Encang; Budiono, Agung; Yuliawati, Ayu Krishna

    2017-07-01

    Disaster-resilient communities are communities capable of anticipating and minimizing destructive forces through adaptation. Disaster is an event very close to the people of Indonesia, especially in the small tourism town of Pangadaran located at West Java, Indonesia. On July 17, 2006, the town was hit by a Mw 7.8 earthquake and tsunami that effected over 300 km of the coastline, where the community suffered losses in which more than 600 people were killed, with run up heights exceeding 20 m. The devastation of the tsunami have made the community more alert and together with the local government and other stakeholder develop an Early Warning System for Tsunami. The study is intended to discover issues on tsunami Early Warning System (EWS), disaster risk reduction measures taken and community participation. The research method used is descriptive and explanatory research. The study describe the Tsunami EWS and community based Disaster Risk Reduction in Pangandaran, the implementation of Tsunami alert/EWS in disaster preparedness and observation of community participation in EWS. Data were gathered by secondary data collection, also primary data through interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. Research resulted in a description of EWS implementation, community participation and recommendation to reduce disaster risk in Pangandaran.

  14. The GNSS-based component for the new Indonesian tsunami early warning centre provided by GITEWS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falck, C.; Ramatschi, M.; Bartsch, M.; Merx, A.; Hoeberechts, J.; Rothacher, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Nowadays GNSS technologies are used for a large variety of precise positioning applications. The accuracy can reach the mm level depending on the data analysis methods. GNSS technologies thus offer a high potential to support tsunami early warning systems, e.g., by detection of ground motions due to earthquakes and of tsunami waves on the ocean by GNSS instruments on a buoy. Although GNSS-based precise positioning is a standard method, it is not yet common to apply this technique under tight time constraints and, hence, in the absence of precise satellite orbits and clocks. The new developed GNSS-based component utilises on- and offshore measured GNSS data and is the first system of its kind that was integrated into an operational early warning system. (Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning Centre INATEWS, inaugurated at BMKG, Jakarta on November, 11th 2008) Motivation After the Tsunami event of 26th December 2004 the German government initiated the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) to develop a tsunami early warning system for Indonesia. The GFZ Potsdam (German Research Centre for Geosciences) as the consortial leader of GITEWS also covers several work packages, most of them related to sensor systems. The geodetic branch (Department 1) of the GFZ was assigned to develop a GNSS-based component. Brief system description The system covers all aspects from sensor stations with new developed hard- and software designs, manufacturing and installation of stations, real-time data transfer issues, a new developed automatic near real-time data processing and a graphical user interface for early warning centre operators including training on the system. GNSS sensors are installed on buoys, at tide gauges and as real-time reference stations (RTR stations), either stand-alone or co-located with seismic sensors. The GNSS data are transmitted to the warning centre where they are processed in a near real-time data processing chain. For

  15. Rapid estimate of earthquake source duration: application to tsunami warning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond, Dominique; Jamelot, Anthony; Hyvernaud, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for estimating the source duration of the fault rupture, based on the high-frequency envelop of teleseismic P-Waves, inspired from the original work of (Ni et al., 2005). The main interest of the knowledge of this seismic parameter is to detect abnormal low velocity ruptures that are the characteristic of the so called 'tsunami-earthquake' (Kanamori, 1972). The validation of the results of source duration estimated by this method are compared with two other independent methods : the estimated duration obtained by the Wphase inversion (Kanamori and Rivera, 2008, Duputel et al., 2012) and the duration calculated by the SCARDEC process that determines the source time function (M. Vallée et al., 2011). The estimated source duration is also confronted to the slowness discriminant defined by Newman and Okal, 1998), that is calculated routinely for all earthquakes detected by our tsunami warning process (named PDFM2, Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism, (Clément and Reymond, 2014)). Concerning the point of view of operational tsunami warning, the numerical simulations of tsunami are deeply dependent on the source estimation: better is the source estimation, better will be the tsunami forecast. The source duration is not directly injected in the numerical simulations of tsunami, because the cinematic of the source is presently totally ignored (Jamelot and Reymond, 2015). But in the case of a tsunami-earthquake that occurs in the shallower part of the subduction zone, we have to consider a source in a medium of low rigidity modulus; consequently, for a given seismic moment, the source dimensions will be decreased while the slip distribution increased, like a 'compact' source (Okal, Hébert, 2007). Inversely, a rapid 'snappy' earthquake that has a poor tsunami excitation power, will be characterized by higher rigidity modulus, and will produce weaker displacement and lesser source dimensions than 'normal' earthquake. References: CLément, J

  16. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Paula; Mungov, George; Sweeney, Aaron; Stroker, Kelly; Arcos, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 M w earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 coastal tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were <20 cm. For this event, the maximum tsunami wave heights determined by either definition (maximum peak or amplitude) would have validated the forecasts issued by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height for each tide gauge and

  17. The role of integrating natural and social science concepts for risk governance and the design of people-centred early warning systems. Case study from the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System Project (GITEWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebert, Niklas; Post, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The development of early warning systems are one of the key domains of adaptation to global environmental change and contribute very much to the development of societal reaction and adaptive capacities to deal with extreme events. Especially, Indonesia is highly exposed to tsunami. In average every three years small and medium size tsunamis occur in the region causing damage and death. In the aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004, the German and Indonesian government agreed on a joint cooperation to develop a People Centered End-to-End Early Warning System (GITEWS). The analysis of risk and vulnerability, as an important step in risk (and early warning) governance, is a precondition for the design of effective early warning structures by delivering the knowledge base for developing institutionalized quick response mechanisms of organizations involved in the issuing of a tsunami warning, and of populations exposed to react to warnings and to manage evacuation before the first tsunami wave hits. Thus, a special challenge for developing countries is the governance of complex cross-sectoral and cross-scale institutional, social and spatial processes and requirements for the conceptualization, implementation and optimization of a people centered tsunami early warning system. In support of this, the risk and vulnerability assessment of the case study aims at identifying those factors that constitute the causal structure of the (dis)functionality between the technological warning and the social response system causing loss of life during an emergency situation: Which social groups are likely to be less able to receive and respond to an early warning alert? And, are people able to evacuate in due time? Here, only an interdisciplinary research approach is capable to analyze the socio-spatial and environmental conditions of vulnerability and risk and to produce valuable results for decision makers and civil society to manage tsunami risk in the early warning context

  18. Disaster risk reduction policies and regulations in Aceh after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamsidik; Rusydy, I.; Arief, S.; Munadi, K.; Melianda, E.

    2017-02-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that struck most of coastal cities in Aceh has motivated a numerous changes in the world of disaster risk reduction including to the policies and regulations at local level in Aceh. This paper is aimed at elaborating the changes of policies and regulations in Aceh captured and monitored during 12-year of the tsunami recovery process. A set of questionnaires were distributed to about 245 respondents in Aceh to represent government officials at 6 districts in Aceh. The districts were severely damaged due to the 2004 tsunami. Four aspects were investigated during this research, namely tsunami evacuation mechanism and infrastructures, disaster risk map, disaster data accessibility, perceptions on tsunami risks, and development of tsunami early warning at local level in Aceh. This research found that the spatial planning in several districts in Aceh have adopted tsunami mitigation although they were only significant in terms of land-use planning within several hundreds meter from the coastline. Perceptions of the government officials toward all investigated aspects were relatively good. One concern was found at coordination among disaster stakeholders in Aceh.

  19. A possible space-based tsunami early warning system using observations of the tsunami ionospheric hole.

    PubMed

    Kamogawa, Masashi; Orihara, Yoshiaki; Tsurudome, Chiaki; Tomida, Yuto; Kanaya, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Daiki; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    Ionospheric plasma disturbances after a large tsunami can be detected by measurement of the total electron content (TEC) between a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite and its ground-based receivers. TEC depression lasting for a few minutes to tens of minutes termed as tsunami ionospheric hole (TIH) is formed above the tsunami source area. Here we describe the quantitative relationship between initial tsunami height and the TEC depression rate caused by a TIH from seven tsunamigenic earthquakes in Japan and Chile. We found that the percentage of TEC depression and initial tsunami height are correlated and the largest TEC depressions appear 10 to 20 minutes after the main shocks. Our findings imply that Ionospheric TEC measurement using the existing ground receiver networks could be used in an early warning system for near-field tsunamis that take more than 20 minutes to arrive in coastal areas.

  20. A possible space-based tsunami early warning system using observations of the tsunami ionospheric hole

    PubMed Central

    Kamogawa, Masashi; Orihara, Yoshiaki; Tsurudome, Chiaki; Tomida, Yuto; Kanaya, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Daiki; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Ionospheric plasma disturbances after a large tsunami can be detected by measurement of the total electron content (TEC) between a Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite and its ground-based receivers. TEC depression lasting for a few minutes to tens of minutes termed as tsunami ionospheric hole (TIH) is formed above the tsunami source area. Here we describe the quantitative relationship between initial tsunami height and the TEC depression rate caused by a TIH from seven tsunamigenic earthquakes in Japan and Chile. We found that the percentage of TEC depression and initial tsunami height are correlated and the largest TEC depressions appear 10 to 20 minutes after the main shocks. Our findings imply that Ionospheric TEC measurement using the existing ground receiver networks could be used in an early warning system for near-field tsunamis that take more than 20 minutes to arrive in coastal areas. PMID:27905487

  1. Tsunami Early Warning in Europe: NEAMWave Exercise 2012 - the Portuguese Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammmitzsch, Martin; Schulz, Jana; Reißland, Sven

    2013-04-01

    On 27th and 28th November 2012 the first European-wide tsunami exercise took place under the auspices of UNESCO Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (ICG/NEAMTWS). Four international scenarios were performed - one for each candidate tsunami watch provider France, Greece, Portugal and Turkey. Their task was to generate and disseminate tsunami warning bulletins in-time and in compliance with the official NEAMTWS specifications. The Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA, [1]) in Lissabon and the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI [2]) in Istanbul are the national agencies of Portugal and Turkey responsible for tsunami early warning. Both institutes are partners in the TRIDEC [3] project and were using the TRIDEC Natural Crisis Management (NCM) system during NEAMWave exercise. The software demonstrated the seamless integration of diverse components including sensor systems, simulation data, and dissemination hardware. The functionalities that were showcased significantly exceeded the internationally agreed range of capabilities. Special attention was given to the Command and Control User Interface (CCUI) serving as central application for the operator. Its origins lie in the DEWS project [4] but numerous new functionalities were added to master all requirements defined by the complex NEAMTWS workflows. It was of utmost importance to develop an application handling the complexity of tsunami science but providing a clearly arranged and comprehensible interface that disburdens the operator during time-critical hazard situations. [1] IPMA: www.ipma.pt/ [2] KOERI: www.koeri.boun.edu.tr/ [3] TRIDEC: www.tridec-online.eu [4] DEWS: www.dews-online.org

  2. 1854-2014: 160 years of far-field tsunami detection and warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile

    2014-05-01

    The first scientific study of a tsunami as generated by a distant earthquake can be traced to Bache [1856] who correctly identified waves from the 1854 Nankai earthquake on California tidal gauges. We will review developments in the study of the relationship between earthquake source and far field tsunami, with their logical application to distant warning. Among the principal milestones, we discuss Hochstetter's [1869] work on the 1868 Arica tsunami, Jaggar's real-time, but ignored, warning of the 1923 Kamchatka tsunami in Hawaii, his much greater success with the 1933 Showa Sanriku event, the catastrophic 1946 Aleutian event, which led to the implementation of PTWC, the 1960 events in Hilo, and the 1964 Alaska tsunami, which led to the development of the A[now N]TWC. From the scientific standpoint, we will review the evolution of our attempts to measure the seismic source (in practice its seismic moment), always faster, and at always lower frequencies, culminating in the W-phase inversion, heralded by Kanamori and co-workers in the wake of the Sumatra disaster. Specific problems arise from events violating scaling laws, such as the so-called "tsunami earthquakes", and we will review methodologies to recognize them in real time, such as energy-to-moment ratios. Finally, we will discuss briefly modern technologies aimed at directly detecting the tsunami independently of the seismic source.

  3. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; ,

    2012-01-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  4. On the importance of risk knowledge for an end-to-end tsunami early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Joachim; Strunz, Günter; Riedlinger, Torsten; Mück, Matthias; Wegscheider, Stephanie; Zosseder, Kai; Steinmetz, Tilmann; Gebert, Niklas; Anwar, Herryal

    2010-05-01

    Warning systems commonly use information provided by networks of sensors able to monitor and detect impending disasters, aggregate and condense these information to provide reliable information to a decision maker whether to warn or not, disseminates the warning message and provide this information to people at risk. Ultimate aim is to enable those in danger to make decisions (e.g. initiate protective actions for buildings) and to take action to safe their lives. This involves very complex issues when considering all four elements of early warning systems (UNISDR-PPEW), namely (1) risk knowledge, (2) monitoring and warning service, (3) dissemination and communication, (4) response capability with the ultimate aim to gain as much time as possible to empower individuals and communities to act in an appropriate manner to reduce injury, loss of life, damage to property and the environment and loss of livelihoods. Commonly most warning systems feature strengths and main attention on the technical/structural dimension (monitoring & warning service, dissemination tools) with weaknesses and less attention on social/cultural dimension (e.g. human response capabilities, defined warning chain to and knowing what to do by the people). Also, the use of risk knowledge in early warning most often is treated in a theoretical manner (knowing that it is somehow important), yet less in an operational, practical sense. Risk assessments and risk maps help to motivate people, prioritise early warning system needs and guide preparations for response and disaster prevention activities. Beyond this risk knowledge can be seen as a tie between national level early warning and community level reaction schemes. This presentation focuses on results, key findings and lessons-learnt related to tsunami risk assessment in the context of early warning within the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning) project. Here a novel methodology reflecting risk information needs in the early warning

  5. The TRIDEC Project: Future-Saving FOSS GIS Applications for Tsunami Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewe, P.; Wächter, J.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Boxing Day Tsunami of 2004 killed over 240,000 people in 14 countries and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. This natural disaster coincided with an information catastrophy, as potentially life-saving early warning information existed, yet no means were available to deliver it to the communities under imminent threat. Tsunami Early Warning Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). However, recent tsunami events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 tsunami demonstrate that the key challenge for ongoing TEWS research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early warning messages. Since 2004, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CEGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already: The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a European project funded under the sixth Framework Programme (FP6). These developments are continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). This ongoing project focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application. All TRIDEC developments are based on Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) components and industry standards where-ever possible. Tsunami Early Warning in TRIDEC is also based on mature system architecture models to ensure long-term usability and the flexibility to adapt to future generations of Tsunami sensors. All open source software produced by the project consortium are foreseen to be published on FOSSLAB, a publicly available

  6. Noise Reduction of Ocean-Bottom Pressure Data Toward Real-Time Tsunami Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsushima, H.; Hino, R.

    2008-12-01

    We discuss a method of noise reduction of ocean-bottom pressure data to be fed into the near-field tsunami forecasting scheme proposed by Tsushima et al. [2008a]. In their scheme, the pressure data is processed in real time as follows: (1) removing ocean tide components by subtracting the sea-level variation computed from a theoretical tide model, (2) applying low-pass digital filter to remove high-frequency fluctuation due to seismic waves, and (3) removing DC-offset and linear-trend component to determine a baseline of relative sea level. However, it turns out this simple method is not always successful in extracting tsunami waveforms from the data, when the observed amplitude is ~1cm. For disaster mitigation, accurate forecasting of small tsunamis is important as well as large tsunamis. Since small tsunami events occur frequently, successful tsunami forecasting of those events are critical to obtain public reliance upon tsunami warnings. As a test case, we applied the data-processing described above to the bottom pressure records containing tsunami with amplitude less than 1 cm which was generated by the 2003 Off-Fukushima earthquake occurring in the Japan Trench subduction zone. The observed pressure variation due to the ocean tide is well explained by the calculated tide signals from NAO99Jb model [Matsumoto et al., 2000]. However, the tide components estimated by BAYTAP-G [Tamura et al., 1991] from the pressure data is more appropriate for predicting and removing the ocean tide signals. In the pressure data after removing the tide variations, there remain pressure fluctuations with frequencies ranging from about 0.1 to 1 mHz and with amplitudes around ~10 cm. These fluctuations distort the estimation of zero-level and linear trend to define relative sea-level variation, which is treated as tsunami waveform in the subsequent analysis. Since the linear trend is estimated from the data prior to the origin time of the earthquake, an artificial linear trend is

  7. Steps Towards the Implementation of a Tsunami Detection, Warning, Mitigation and Preparedness Program for Southwestern Coastal Areas of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farreras, Salvador; Ortiz, Modesto; Gonzalez, Juan I.

    2007-03-01

    The highly vulnerable Pacific southwest coast of Mexico has been repeatedly affected by local, regional and remote source tsunamis. Mexico presently has no national tsunami warning system in operation. The implementation of key elements of a National Program on Tsunami Detection, Monitoring, Warning and Mitigation is in progress. For local and regional events detection and monitoring, a prototype of a robust and low cost high frequency sea-level tsunami gauge, sampling every minute and equipped with 24 hours real time transmission to the Internet, was developed and is currently in operation. Statistics allow identification of low, medium and extreme hazard categories of arriving tsunamis. These categories are used as prototypes for computer simulations of coastal flooding. A finite-difference numerical model with linear wave theory for the deep ocean propagation, and shallow water nonlinear one for the near shore and interaction with the coast, and non-fixed boundaries for flooding and recession at the coast, is used. For prevention purposes, tsunami inundation maps for several coastal communities, are being produced in this way. The case of the heavily industrialized port of Lázaro Cárdenas, located on the sand shoals of a river delta, is illustrated; including a detailed vulnerability assessment study. For public education on preparedness and awareness, printed material for children and adults has been developed and published. It is intended to extend future coverage of this program to the Mexican Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas.

  8. Tsunami forecast by joint inversion of real-time tsunami waveforms and seismic of GPS data: application to the Tohoku 2011 tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yong, Wei; Newman, Andrew V.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Titov, Vasily V.; Tang, Liujuan

    2014-01-01

    Correctly characterizing tsunami source generation is the most critical component of modern tsunami forecasting. Although difficult to quantify directly, a tsunami source can be modeled via different methods using a variety of measurements from deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some of which in or near real time. Here we assess the performance of different source models for the destructive 11 March 2011 Japan tsunami using model–data comparison for the generation, propagation, and inundation in the near field of Japan. This comparative study of tsunami source models addresses the advantages and limitations of different real-time measurements with potential use in early tsunami warning in the near and far field. The study highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements and rapid validation of the approximate tsunami source for high-quality forecasting. We show that these tsunami measurements are compatible with other real-time geodetic data, and may provide more insightful understanding of tsunami generation from earthquakes, as well as from nonseismic processes such as submarine landslide failures.

  9. Novel Algorithms Enabling Rapid, Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, A.; Michelini, A.

    2012-12-01

    We have introduced recently new methods to determine rapidly the tsunami potential and magnitude of large earthquakes (e.g., Lomax and Michelini, 2009ab, 2011, 2012). To validate these methods we have implemented them along with other new algorithms within the Early-est earthquake monitor at INGV-Rome (http://early-est.rm.ingv.it, http://early-est.alomax.net). Early-est is a lightweight software package for real-time earthquake monitoring (including phase picking, phase association and event detection, location, magnitude determination, first-motion mechanism determination, ...), and for tsunami early warning based on discriminants for earthquake tsunami potential. In a simulation using archived broadband seismograms for the devastating M9, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, Early-est determines: the epicenter within 3 min after the event origin time, discriminants showing very high tsunami potential within 5-7 min, and magnitude Mwpd(RT) 9.0-9.2 and a correct shallow-thrusting mechanism within 8 min. Real-time monitoring with Early-est givess similar results for most large earthquakes using currently available, real-time seismogram data. Here we summarize some of the key algorithms within Early-est that enable rapid, real-time earthquake monitoring and tsunami early warning worldwide: >>> FilterPicker - a general purpose, broad-band, phase detector and picker (http://alomax.net/FilterPicker); >>> Robust, simultaneous association and location using a probabilistic, global-search; >>> Period-duration discriminants TdT0 and TdT50Ex for tsunami potential available within 5 min; >>> Mwpd(RT) magnitude for very large earthquakes available within 10 min; >>> Waveform P polarities determined on broad-band displacement traces, focal mechanisms obtained with the HASH program (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002); >>> SeisGramWeb - a portable-device ready seismogram viewer using web-services in a browser (http://alomax.net/webtools/sgweb/info.html). References (see also: http

  10. Ocean-bottom pressure changes above a fault area for tsunami excitation and propagation observed by a submarine dense network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, K.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional tsunami excitation and propagation have been formulated by incompressible fluid with velocity components. This approach is valid in most cases because we usually analyze tunamis as "long gravity waves" excited by submarine earthquakes. Newly developed ocean-bottom tsunami networks such as S-net and DONET have dramatically changed the above situation for the following two reasons: (1) tsunami propagations are now directly observed in a 2-D array manner without being suffered by complex "site effects" of sea shore, and (2) initial tsunami features can be directly detected just above a fault area. Removing the incompressibility assumption of sea water, we have formulated a new representation of tsunami excitation based on not velocity but displacement components. As a result, not only dynamics but static term (i.e., the component of zero frequency) can be naturally introduced, which is important for the pressure observed on the ocean floor, which ocean-bottom tsunami stations are going to record. The acceleration on the ocean floor should be combined with the conventional tsunami height (that is, the deformation of the sea level above a given station) in the measurement of ocean-bottom pressure although the acceleration exists only during fault motions in time. The M7.2 Off Fukushima earthquake on 22 November 2016 was the first event that excited large tsunamis within the territory of S-net stations. The propagation of tsunamis is found to be highly non-uniform, because of the strong velocity (i.e., sea depth) gradient perpendicular to the axis of Japan Trench. The earthquake was located in a shallow sea close to the coast, so that all the tsunami energy is reflected by the trench region of high velocity. Tsunami records (pressure gauges) within its fault area recorded clear slow motions of tsunamis (i.e., sea level changes) but also large high-frequency signals, as predicted by our theoretical result. That is, it may be difficult to extract tsunami

  11. The First Real-Time Tsunami Animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C.; Weinstein, S.; Ward, B.

    2014-12-01

    For the first time a U.S. tsunami warning center created and issued a tsunami forecast model animation while the tsunami was still crossing an ocean. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists had predicted they would have this ability (Becker et al., 2012) with their RIFT forecast model (Wang et al., 2009) by using rapidly-determined W-phase centroid-moment tensor earthquake focal mechanisms as tsunami sources in the RIFT model (Wang et al., 2012). PTWC then acquired its own YouTube channel in 2013 for its outreach efforts that showed animations of historic tsunamis (Becker et al., 2013), but could also be a platform for sharing future tsunami animations. The 8.2 Mw earthquake of 1 April 2014 prompted PTWC to issue official warnings for a dangerous tsunami in Chile, Peru and Ecuador. PTWC ended these warnings five hours later, then issued its new tsunami marine hazard product (i.e., no coastal evacuations) for the State of Hawaii. With the international warning canceled but with a domestic hazard still present PTWC generated a forecast model animation and uploaded it to its YouTube channel six hours before the arrival of the first waves in Hawaii. PTWC also gave copies of this animation to television reporters who in turn passed it on to their national broadcast networks. PTWC then created a version for NOAA's Science on a Sphere system so it could be shown on these exhibits as the tsunami was still crossing the Pacific Ocean. While it is difficult to determine how many people saw this animation since local, national, and international news networks showed it in their broadcasts, PTWC's YouTube channel provides some statistics. As of 1 August 2014 this animation has garnered more than 650,000 views. Previous animations, typically released during significant anniversaries, rarely get more than 10,000 views, and even then only when external websites share them. Clearly there is a high demand for a tsunami graphic that shows both the speed and the severity of a

  12. Building strategies for tsunami scenarios databases to be used in a tsunami early warning decision support system: an application to western Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most challenging goals that the geo-scientific community is facing after the catastrophic tsunami occurred on December 2004 in the Indian Ocean is to develop the so-called "next generation" Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). Indeed, the meaning of "next generation" does not refer to the aim of a TEWS, which obviously remains to detect whether a tsunami has been generated or not by a given source and, in the first case, to send proper warnings and/or alerts in a suitable time to all the countries and communities that can be affected by the tsunami. Instead, "next generation" identifies with the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) that, in general terms, relies on 1) an integrated set of seismic, geodetic and marine sensors whose objective is to detect and characterise the possible tsunamigenic sources and to monitor instrumentally the time and space evolution of the generated tsunami, 2) databases of pre-computed numerical tsunami scenarios to be suitably combined based on the information coming from the sensor environment and to be used to forecast the degree of exposition of different coastal places both in the near- and in the far-field, 3) a proper overall (software) system architecture. The EU-FP7 TRIDEC Project aims at developing such a DSS and has selected two test areas in the Euro-Mediterranean region, namely the western Iberian margin and the eastern Mediterranean (Turkish coasts). In this study, we discuss the strategies that are being adopted in TRIDEC to build the databases of pre-computed tsunami scenarios and we show some applications to the western Iberian margin. In particular, two different databases are being populated, called "Virtual Scenario Database" (VSDB) and "Matching Scenario Database" (MSDB). The VSDB contains detailed simulations of few selected earthquake-generated tsunamis. The cases provided by the members of the VSDB are computed "real events"; in other words, they represent the unknowns that the TRIDEC

  13. Tsunami Casualty Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  14. Seismogeodesy for rapid earthquake and tsunami characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude and fault mechanism is critical for earthquake and tsunami warning systems. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. These methods are well developed for ocean basin-wide warnings but are not timely enough to protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure from the effects of local tsunamis, where waves may arrive within 15-30 minutes of earthquake onset time. Direct measurements of displacements by GPS networks at subduction zones allow for rapid magnitude and slip estimation in the near-source region, that are not affected by instrumental limitations and magnitude saturation experienced by local seismic networks. However, GPS displacements by themselves are too noisy for strict earthquake early warning (P-wave detection). Optimally combining high-rate GPS and seismic data (in particular, accelerometers that do not clip), referred to as seismogeodesy, provides a broadband instrument that does not clip in the near field, is impervious to magnitude saturation, and provides accurate real-time static and dynamic displacements and velocities in real time. Here we describe a NASA-funded effort to integrate GPS and seismogeodetic observations as part of NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii. It consists of a series of plug-in modules that allow for a hierarchy of rapid seismogeodetic products, including automatic P-wave picking, hypocenter estimation, S-wave prediction, magnitude scaling relationships based on P-wave amplitude (Pd) and peak ground displacement (PGD), finite-source CMT solutions and fault slip models as input for tsunami warnings and models. For the NOAA/NASA project, the modules are being integrated into an existing USGS Earthworm environment, currently limited to traditional seismic data. We are focused on a network of

  15. UncertiantyQuantificationinTsunamiEarlyWarningCalculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anunziato, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the Tsunami calculations is the estimation of the impact of waves caused by large seismic events on the coasts and the determination of potential inundation areas. In the case of Early Warning Systems, i.e. systems that should allow to anticipate the possible effects and give the possibility to react consequently (i.e. issue evacuation of areas at risk), this must be done in very short time (minutes) to be effective. In reality, the above estimation includes several uncertainty factors which make the prediction extremely difficult. The quality of the very first estimations of the seismic parameters is not very precise: the uncertainty in the determination of the seismic components (location, magnitude and depth) decreases with time because as time passes it is possible to use more and more seismic signals and the event characterization becomes more precise. On the other hand other parameters that are necessary to establish for the performance of a calculation (i.e. fault mechanism) are difficult to estimate accurately also after hours (and in some cases remain unknown) and therefore this uncertainty remains in the estimated impact evaluations; when a quick tsunami calculation is necessary (early warning systems) the possibility to include any possible future variation of the conditions to establish the "worst case scenario" is particularly important. The consequence is that the number of uncertain parameters is so large that it is not easy to assess the relative importance of each of them and their effect on the predicted results. In general the complexity of system computer codes is generated by the multitude of different models which are assembled into a single program to give the global response for a particular phenomenon. Each of these model has associated a determined uncertainty coming from the application of that model to single cases and/or separated effect test cases. The difficulty in the prediction of a Tsunami calculation response is

  16. Tsunami simulation method initiated from waveforms observed by ocean bottom pressure sensors for real-time tsunami forecast; Applied for 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2017-04-01

    After tsunami disaster due to the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake, improvement of the tsunami forecast has been an urgent issue in Japan. National Institute of Disaster Prevention is installing a cable network system of earthquake and tsunami observation (S-NET) at the ocean bottom along the Japan and Kurile trench. This cable system includes 125 pressure sensors (tsunami meters) which are separated by 30 km. Along the Nankai trough, JAMSTEC already installed and operated the cable network system of seismometers and pressure sensors (DONET and DONET2). Those systems are the most dense observation network systems on top of source areas of great underthrust earthquakes in the world. Real-time tsunami forecast has depended on estimation of earthquake parameters, such as epicenter, depth, and magnitude of earthquakes. Recently, tsunami forecast method has been developed using the estimation of tsunami source from tsunami waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure sensors. However, when we have many pressure sensors separated by 30km on top of the source area, we do not need to estimate the tsunami source or earthquake source to compute tsunami. Instead, we can initiate a tsunami simulation from those dense tsunami observed data. Observed tsunami height differences with a time interval at the ocean bottom pressure sensors separated by 30 km were used to estimate tsunami height distribution at a particular time. In our new method, tsunami numerical simulation was initiated from those estimated tsunami height distribution. In this paper, the above method is improved and applied for the tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake. Tsunami source model of the 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake estimated using observed tsunami waveforms, coseimic deformation observed by GPS and ocean bottom sensors by Gusman et al. (2012) is used in this study. The ocean surface deformation is computed from the source model and used as an initial condition of tsunami

  17. Rapid Determination of Appropriate Source Models for Tsunami Early Warning using a Depth Dependent Rigidity Curve: Method and Numerical Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanioka, Y.; Miranda, G. J. A.; Gusman, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, tsunami early warning technique has been improved using tsunami waveforms observed at the ocean bottom pressure gauges such as NOAA DART system or DONET and S-NET systems in Japan. However, for tsunami early warning of near field tsunamis, it is essential to determine appropriate source models using seismological analysis before large tsunamis hit the coast, especially for tsunami earthquakes which generated significantly large tsunamis. In this paper, we develop a technique to determine appropriate source models from which appropriate tsunami inundation along the coast can be numerically computed The technique is tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off Central America. In this study, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, then the fault length and width were determined from scaling relationships. At first, the slip amount was calculated from the seismic moment with a constant rigidity of 3.5 x 10**10N/m2. The tsunami numerical simulation was carried out and compared with the observed tsunami. For the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake, the computed tsunami was much smaller than the observed one. For the 2004 El Astillero earthquake, the computed tsunami was overestimated. In order to solve this problem, we constructed a depth dependent rigidity curve, similar to suggested by Bilek and Lay (1999). The curve with a central depth estimated by the W-phase inversion was used to calculate the slip amount of the fault model. Using those new slip amounts, tsunami numerical simulation was carried out again. Then, the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas for the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake were well explained by the computed one. The other tsunamis from the other three earthquakes were also reasonably well explained

  18. Highly variable recurrence of tsunamis in the 7,400 years before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Rubin, C. M.; Sieh, K.; Jessica, P.; Daly, P.; Ismail, N.; Parnell, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    The devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caught millions of coastal residents and the scientific community off-guard. Subsequent research in the Indian Ocean basin has identified prehistoric tsunamis, but the timing and recurrence intervals of such events are uncertain. Here, we identify coastal caves as a new depositional environment for reconstructing tsunami records and present a 5,000 year record of continuous tsunami deposits from a coastal cave in Sumatra, Indonesia which shows the irregular recurrence of 11 tsunamis between 7,400 and 2,900 years BP. The data demonstrates that the 2004 tsunami was just the latest in a sequence of devastating tsunamis stretching back to at least the early Holocene and suggests a high likelihood for future tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. The sedimentary record in the cave shows that ruptures of the Sunda megathrust vary between large (which generated the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) and smaller slip failures. The chronology of events suggests the recurrence of multiple smaller tsunamis within relatively short time periods, interrupted by long periods of strain accumulation followed by giant tsunamis. The average time period between tsunamis is about 450 years with intervals ranging from a long, dormant period of over 2,000 years, to multiple tsunamis within the span of a century. The very long dormant period suggests that the Sunda megathrust is capable of accumulating large slip deficits between earthquakes. Such a high slip rupture would produce a substantially larger earthquake than the 2004 event. Although there is evidence that the likelihood of another tsunamigenic earthquake in Aceh province is high, these variable recurrence intervals suggest that long dormant periods may follow Sunda Megathrust ruptures as large as that of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The remarkable variability of recurrence suggests that regional hazard mitigation plans should be based upon the high likelihood of future destructive tsunami demonstrated by

  19. 2006 - 2016: Ten Years Of Tsunami In French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond, D.; Jamelot, A.; Hyvernaud, O.

    2016-12-01

    Located in South central Pacific and despite of its far field situation, the French Polynesia is very much concerned by the tsunamis generated along the major subduction zones located around the Pacific. At the time of writing, 10 tsunamis have been generated in the Pacific Ocean since 2006; all these events recorded in French Polynesia, produced different levels of warning, starting from a simple seismic warning with an information bulletin, up to an effective tsunami warning with evacuation of the coastal zone. These tsunamigenic events represent an invaluable opportunity of evolutions and tests of the tsunami warning system developed in French Polynesia: during the last ten years, the warning rules had evolved from a simple criterion of magnitudes up to the computation of the main seismic source parameters (location, slowness determinant (Newman & Okal, 1998) and focal geometry) using two independent methods: the first one uses an inversion of W-phases (Kanamori & Rivera, 2012) and the second one performs an inversion of long period surface waves (Clément & Reymond, 2014); the source parameters such estimated allow to compute in near real time the expected distributions of tsunami heights (with the help of a super-computer and parallelized codes of numerical simulations). Furthermore, two kinds of numerical modeling are used: the first one, very rapid (performed in about 5minutes of computation time) is based on the Green's law (Jamelot & Reymond, 2015), and a more detailed and precise one that uses classical numerical simulations through nested grids (about 45 minutes of computation time). Consequently, the criteria of tsunami warning are presently based on the expected tsunami heights in the different archipelagos and islands of French Polynesia. This major evolution allows to differentiate and use different levels of warning for the different archipelagos,working in tandem with the Civil Defense. We present the comparison of the historical observed tsunami

  20. Evidence-Based Support for the Characteristics of Tsunami Warning Messages for Local, Regional and Distant Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D. M.; Sorensen, J. H.; Vogt Sorensen, B.; Whitmore, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies since 2004 have documented the dissemination and receipt of risk information for local to distant tsunamis and factors influencing people's responses. A few earlier tsunami studies and numerous studies of other hazards provide additional support for developing effective tsunami messages. This study explores evidence-based approaches to developing such messages for the Pacific and National Tsunami Warning Centers in the US. It extends a message metric developed for the NWS Tsunami Program. People at risk to tsunamis receive information from multiple sources through multiple channels. Sources are official and informal and environmental and social cues. Traditionally, official tsunami messages followed a linear dissemination path through relatively few channels from warning center to emergency management to public and media. However, the digital age has brought about a fundamental change in the dissemination and receipt of official and informal communications. Information is now disseminated in very non-linear paths and all end-user groups may receive the same message simultaneously. Research has demonstrated a range of factors that influence rapid respond to an initial real or perceived threat. Immediate response is less common than one involving delayed protective actions where people first engage in "milling behavior" to exchange information and confirm the warning before taking protective action. The most important message factors to achieve rapid response focus on the content and style of the message and the frequency of dissemination. Previously we developed a tsunami message metric consisting of 21 factors divided into message content and style and receiver characteristics. Initially, each factor was equally weighted to identify gaps, but here we extend the work by weighting specific factors. This utilizes recent research that identifies the most important determinants of protective action. We then discuss the prioritization of message information

  1. Highly variable recurrence of tsunamis in the 7,400 years before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Charles M.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Sieh, Kerry; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Daly, Patrick; Ismail, Nazli; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    The devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caught millions of coastal residents and the scientific community off-guard. Subsequent research in the Indian Ocean basin has identified prehistoric tsunamis, but the timing and recurrence intervals of such events are uncertain. Here we present an extraordinary 7,400 year stratigraphic sequence of prehistoric tsunami deposits from a coastal cave in Aceh, Indonesia. This record demonstrates that at least 11 prehistoric tsunamis struck the Aceh coast between 7,400 and 2,900 years ago. The average time period between tsunamis is about 450 years with intervals ranging from a long, dormant period of over 2,000 years, to multiple tsunamis within the span of a century. Although there is evidence that the likelihood of another tsunamigenic earthquake in Aceh province is high, these variable recurrence intervals suggest that long dormant periods may follow Sunda megathrust ruptures as large as that of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. PMID:28722009

  2. Highly variable recurrence of tsunamis in the 7,400 years before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Charles M; Horton, Benjamin P; Sieh, Kerry; Pilarczyk, Jessica E; Daly, Patrick; Ismail, Nazli; Parnell, Andrew C

    2017-07-19

    The devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caught millions of coastal residents and the scientific community off-guard. Subsequent research in the Indian Ocean basin has identified prehistoric tsunamis, but the timing and recurrence intervals of such events are uncertain. Here we present an extraordinary 7,400 year stratigraphic sequence of prehistoric tsunami deposits from a coastal cave in Aceh, Indonesia. This record demonstrates that at least 11 prehistoric tsunamis struck the Aceh coast between 7,400 and 2,900 years ago. The average time period between tsunamis is about 450 years with intervals ranging from a long, dormant period of over 2,000 years, to multiple tsunamis within the span of a century. Although there is evidence that the likelihood of another tsunamigenic earthquake in Aceh province is high, these variable recurrence intervals suggest that long dormant periods may follow Sunda megathrust ruptures as large as that of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.

  3. Highly variable recurrence of tsunamis in the 7,400 years before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Charles M.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Sieh, Kerry; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Daly, Patrick; Ismail, Nazli; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2017-07-01

    The devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caught millions of coastal residents and the scientific community off-guard. Subsequent research in the Indian Ocean basin has identified prehistoric tsunamis, but the timing and recurrence intervals of such events are uncertain. Here we present an extraordinary 7,400 year stratigraphic sequence of prehistoric tsunami deposits from a coastal cave in Aceh, Indonesia. This record demonstrates that at least 11 prehistoric tsunamis struck the Aceh coast between 7,400 and 2,900 years ago. The average time period between tsunamis is about 450 years with intervals ranging from a long, dormant period of over 2,000 years, to multiple tsunamis within the span of a century. Although there is evidence that the likelihood of another tsunamigenic earthquake in Aceh province is high, these variable recurrence intervals suggest that long dormant periods may follow Sunda megathrust ruptures as large as that of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.

  4. Impact of Near-Field, Deep-Ocean Tsunami Observations on Forecasting the 7 December 2012 Japanese Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Eddie; Wei, Yong; Tang, Liujuan; Titov, Vasily

    2014-12-01

    Following the devastating 11 March 2011 tsunami, two deep-ocean assessment and reporting of tsunamis (DART®)(DART® and the DART® logo are registered trademarks of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, used with permission) stations were deployed in Japanese waters by the Japanese Meteorological Agency. Two weeks after deployment, on 7 December 2012, a M w 7.3 earthquake off Japan's Pacific coastline generated a tsunami. The tsunami was recorded at the two Japanese DARTs as early as 11 min after the earthquake origin time, which set a record as the fastest tsunami detecting time at a DART station. These data, along with those recorded at other DARTs, were used to derive a tsunami source using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration tsunami forecast system. The results of our analysis show that data provided by the two near-field Japanese DARTs can not only improve the forecast speed but also the forecast accuracy at the Japanese tide gauge stations. This study provides important guidelines for early detection and forecasting of local tsunamis.

  5. Introduction to "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future, Volume III"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Geist, Eric L.

    2018-04-01

    Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume III of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future". Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 and Volume II as PAGEOPH, vol. 174, No. 8, 2017. Two papers in Volume III focus on specific details of the 2009 Samoa and the 1923 northern Kamchatka tsunamis; they are followed by three papers related to tsunami hazard assessment for three different regions of the world oceans: South Africa, Pacific coast of Mexico and the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean. The next six papers are on various aspects of tsunami hydrodynamics and numerical modelling, including tsunami edge waves, resonant behaviour of compressible water layer during tsunamigenic earthquakes, dispersive properties of seismic and volcanically generated tsunami waves, tsunami runup on a vertical wall and influence of earthquake rupture velocity on maximum tsunami runup. Four papers discuss problems of tsunami warning and real-time forecasting for Central America, the Mediterranean coast of France, the coast of Peru, and some general problems regarding the optimum use of the DART buoy network for effective real-time tsunami warning in the Pacific Ocean. Two papers describe historical and paleotsunami studies in the Russian Far East. The final set of three papers importantly investigates tsunamis generated by non-seismic sources: asteroid airburst and meteorological disturbances. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.

  6. CoopEUS Case Study: Tsunami Modelling and Early Warning Systems for Near Source Areas (Mediterranean, Juan de Fuca).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranzoli, Laura; Best, Mairi; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Galbraith, Nan; Heeseman, Martin; Kelley, Deborah; Pirenne, Benoit; Scofield, Oscar; Weller, Robert

    2015-04-01

    There is a need for tsunami modeling and early warning systems for near-source areas. For example this is a common public safety threat in the Mediterranean and Juan de Fuca/NE Pacific Coast of N.A.; Regions covered by the EMSO, OOI, and ONC ocean observatories. Through the CoopEUS international cooperation project, a number of environmental research infrastructures have come together to coordinate efforts on environmental challenges; this tsunami case study tackles one such challenge. There is a mutual need of tsunami event field data and modeling to deepen our experience in testing methodology and developing real-time data processing. Tsunami field data are already available for past events, part of this use case compares these for compatibility, gap analysis, and model groundtruthing. It also reviews sensors needed and harmonizes instrument settings. Sensor metadata and registries are compared, harmonized, and aligned. Data policies and access are also compared and assessed for gap analysis. Modelling algorithms are compared and tested against archived and real-time data. This case study will then be extended to other related tsunami data and model sources globally with similar geographic and seismic scenarios.

  7. Estimating Seismic Moment From Broadband P-Waves for Tsunami Warnings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshorn, B. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Richard H. Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), located in Ewa Beach, Oahu, Hawaii, is responsible for issuing local, regional, and distant tsunami warnings to Hawaii, and for issuing regional and distant tsunami warnings to the rest of the Pacific Basin, exclusive of the US West Coast. The PTWC must provide these tsunami warnings as soon as technologically possible, based entirely on estimates of a potentially tsunamigenic earthquake's source parameters. We calculate the broadband P-wave moment magnitude, Mwp, from the P or pP wave velocity seismograms [Tsuboi et al., 1995, 1999]. This method appears to work well for regional and teleseismic events [ Tsuboi et al (1999], Whitmore et al (2002), Hirshorn et al (2004) ]. Following Tsuboi, [1995], we consider the displacement record of the P-wave portion of the broadband seismograms as an approximate source time function and integrate this record to obtain the moment rate function, Mo(t), and the moment magnitude [Hanks and Kanamori, 1972] as a function of time, Mw(t). We present results for Mwp for local, regional, and teleseismic broad band recordings for earthquakes in the Mw 5 to 9.3 range. As large Hawaii events are rare, we tested this local case using other Pacific events in the magnitude 5.0 to 7.5 range recorded by nearby stations. Signals were excluded, however, if the epicentral distance was so small (generally less than 1 degree) that there was contamination by the S-wave too closely following the P-waves. Scatter plots of Mwp against the Harvard Mw for these events shows that Mwp does predict Mw well from seismograms recorded at local, regional, and teleseismic distances. For some complex earthquakes, eg. the Mw 8.4(HRV) Peru earthquake of June 21, 2001, Mwp underestimates Mw if the first moment release is not the largest. Our estimates of Mwp for the Mw 9.3 Summatra-Andaman Island's earthquake of December 26, 2004 and for the Mw 8.7 (HRV) Summatra event of March 28, 2005, were Mwp 8

  8. Tsunami early warning system for the western coast of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Partheniu, Raluca; Cioflan, Carmen; Constantin, Angela; Danet, Anton; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ghica, Daniela; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Moldovan, Iren; Neagoe, Cristian; Radulian, Mircea; Raileanu, Victor; Verdes, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea area is liable to tsunamis generation and the statistics show that more than twenty tsunamis have been observed in the past. The last tsunami was observed on 31st of March 1901 in the western part of the Black Sea, in the Shabla area. An earthquake of magnitude generated at a depth of 15 km below the sea level , triggered tsunami waves of 5 m height and material losses as well. The oldest tsunami ever recorded close to the Romanian shore-line dates from year 104. This paper emphasises the participation of The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) to the development of a tsunami warning system for the western cost of the Black Sea. In collaboration with the National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar), the Institute of Oceanology and the Geological Institute, the last two belonging to the Bulgarian Academy of Science, NIEP has participated as partner, to the cross-border project "Set-up and implementation of key core components of a regional early-warning system for marine geohazards of risk to the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area - MARINEGEOHAZARDS", coordinated by GeoEcoMar. The main purpose of the project was the implementation of an integrated early-warning system accompanied by a common decision-support tool, and enhancement of regional technical capability, for the adequate detection, assessment, forecasting and rapid notification of natural marine geohazards for the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea cross-border area. In the last years, NIEP has increased its interest on the marine related hazards, such as tsunamis and, in collaboration with other institutions of Romania, is acting to strengthen the cooperation and data exchanges with institutions from the Black Sea surrounding countries which already have tsunami monitoring infrastructures. In this respect, NIEP has developed a coastal network for marine seismicity, by installing three new seismic stations in the coastal area of the Black Sea, Sea Level Sensors

  9. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  10. Detecting Tsunami Source Energy and Scales from GNSS & Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Yim, S. C.; Mohtat, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, tsunami warnings based on the earthquake magnitude have not been very accurate. According to the 2006 U.S. Government Accountability Office report, an unacceptable 75% false alarm rate has prevailed in the Pacific Ocean (GAO-06-519). One of the main reasons for those inaccurate warnings is that an earthquake's magnitude is not the scale or power of the resulting tsunami. For the last 10 years, we have been developing both theories and algorithms to detect tsunami source energy and scales, instead of earthquake magnitudes per se, directly from real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations along coastlines for early warnings [Song 2007; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2012; Xu and Song 2013; Titov et al, 2016]. Here we will report recent progress on two fronts: 1) Examples of using GNSS in detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and the 2015 M8.3 Illapel earthquake. 2) New results from recent state-of-the-art wave-maker experiments and comparisons with GNSS data will also be presented. Related reference: Titov, V., Y. T. Song, L. Tang, E. N. Bernard, Y. Bar-Sever, and Y. Wei (2016), Consistent estimates of tsunami energy show promise for improved early warning, Pur Appl. Geophs., DOI: 10.1007/s00024-016-1312-1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami (2007

  11. Use of Advanced Tsunami Hazard Assessment Techniques and Tsunami Source Characterizations in U.S. and International Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammerer, A. M.; Godoy, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, as well as the anticipation of the submission of license applications for new nuclear facilities, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear power plants and other coastal facilities in the United States. To undertake this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program jointly undertaken with researchers at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the purpose of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. This study identified and modeled both seismic and landslide tsunamigenic sources in the near- and far-field. The results from this work are now being used directly as the basis for the review of tsunami hazard at potential nuclear plant sites. This application once again shows the importance that the earth sciences can play in addressing issues of importance to society. Because the Indian Ocean Tsunami was a global event, a number of cooperative international activities have also been initiated within the nuclear community. The results of US efforts are being incorporated into updated regulatory guidance for both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United Nation’s International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Coordinated efforts are underway to integrate state-of-the art tsunami warning tools developed by NOAA into NRC and IAEA activities. The goal of the warning systems project is to develop automated protocols that allow scientists at these agencies to have up-to-the minute user-specific information in hand shortly after a potential tsunami has been identified by the US Tsunami Warning System. Lastly, USGS and NOAA scientists are assisting the NRC and IAEA in a special Extra-Budgetary Program (IAEA EBP) on tsunami being coordinated by the IAEA’s International Seismic Safety

  12. Tsunami Hazard in La Réunion Island (SW Indian Ocean): Scenario-Based Numerical Modelling on Vulnerable Coastal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeyer, S.; Quentel, É.; Hébert, H.; Gailler, A.; Loevenbruck, A.

    2017-08-01

    Several major tsunamis have affected the southwest Indian Ocean area since the 2004 Sumatra event, and some of them (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010) have hit La Réunion Island in the southwest Indian Ocean. However, tsunami hazard is not well defined for La Réunion Island where vulnerable coastlines can be exposed. This study offers a first tsunami hazard assesment for La Réunion Island. We first review the historical tsunami observations made on the coastlines, where high tsunami waves (2-3 m) have been reported on the western coast, especially during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Numerical models of historical scenarios yield results consistent with available observations on the coastal sites (the harbours of La Pointe des Galets and Saint-Paul). The 1833 Pagai earthquake and tsunami can be considered as the worst-case historical scenario for this area. In a second step, we assess the tsunami exposure by covering the major subduction zones with syntethic events of constant magnitude (8.7, 9.0 and 9.3). The aggregation of magnitude 8.7 scenarios all generate strong currents in the harbours (3-7 m s^{-1}) and about 2 m of tsunami maximum height without significant inundation. The analysis of the magnitude 9.0 events confirms that the main commercial harbour (Port Est) is more vulnerable than Port Ouest and that flooding in Saint-Paul is limited to the beach area and the river mouth. Finally, the magnitude 9.3 scenarios show limited inundations close to the beach and in the riverbed in Saint-Paul. More generally, the results confirm that for La Runion, the Sumatra subduction zone is the most threatening non-local source area for tsunami generation. This study also shows that far-field coastal sites should be prepared for tsunami hazard and that further work is needed to improve operational warning procedures. Forecast methods should be developed to provide tools to enable the authorities to anticipate the local effects of tsunamis and to evacuate the harbours in

  13. Introduction to “Global tsunami science: Past and future, Volume III”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Geist, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    Twenty papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume III of the PAGEOPH topical issue “Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future”. Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 and Volume II as PAGEOPH, vol. 174, No. 8, 2017. Two papers in Volume III focus on specific details of the 2009 Samoa and the 1923 northern Kamchatka tsunamis; they are followed by three papers related to tsunami hazard assessment for three different regions of the world oceans: South Africa, Pacific coast of Mexico and the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean. The next six papers are on various aspects of tsunami hydrodynamics and numerical modelling, including tsunami edge waves, resonant behaviour of compressible water layer during tsunamigenic earthquakes, dispersive properties of seismic and volcanically generated tsunami waves, tsunami runup on a vertical wall and influence of earthquake rupture velocity on maximum tsunami runup. Four papers discuss problems of tsunami warning and real-time forecasting for Central America, the Mediterranean coast of France, the coast of Peru, and some general problems regarding the optimum use of the DART buoy network for effective real-time tsunami warning in the Pacific Ocean. Two papers describe historical and paleotsunami studies in the Russian Far East. The final set of three papers importantly investigates tsunamis generated by non-seismic sources: asteroid airburst and meteorological disturbances. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.

  14. Hazard Assessment and Early Warning of Tsunamis: Lessons from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M 9.0) was the largest earthquake in Japanese history, and was the best recorded subduction-zone earthquakes in the world. In particular, various offshore geophysical observations revealed large horizontal and vertical seafloor movements, and the tsunami was recorded on high-quality, high-sampling gauges. Analysis of such tsunami waveforms shows a temporal and spatial slip distribution during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The fault rupture started near the hypocenter and propagated into both deep and shallow parts of the plate interface. Very large, ~25 m, slip off Miyagi on the deep part of plate interface corresponds to an interplate earthquake of M 8.8, the location and size similar to 869 Jogan earthquake model, and was responsible for the large tsunami inundation in Sendai and Ishinomaki plains. Huge slip, more than 50 m, occurred on the shallow part near the trench axis ~3 min after the earthquake origin time. This delayed shallow rupture (M 8.8) was similar to the 1896 "tsunami earthquake," and was responsible for the large tsunami on the northern Sanriku coast, measured at ~100 km north of the largest slip. Thus the Tohoku earthquake can be decomposed into an interplate earthquake and the triggered "tsunami earthquake." The Japan Meteorological Agency issued tsunami warning 3 minutes after the earthquake, and saved many lives. However, their initial estimation of tsunami height was underestimated, because the earthquake magnitude was initially estimated as M 7.9, hence the computed tsunami heights were lower. The JMA attempts to improve the tsunami warning system, including technical developments to estimate the earthquake size in a few minutes by using various and redundant information, to deploy and utilize the offshore tsunami observations, and to issue a warning based on the worst case scenario if a possibility of giant earthquake exists. Predicting a trigger of another large earthquake would still be a challenge

  15. Forecasting tsunamis in Poverty Bay, New Zealand, with deep-ocean gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, William; Tolkova, Elena

    2013-12-01

    The response/transfer function of a coastal site to a remote open-ocean point is introduced, with the intent to directly convert open-ocean measurements into the wave time history at the site. We show that the tsunami wave at the site can be predicted as the wave is measured in the open ocean as far as 1,000+ km away from the site, with a straightforward computation which can be performed almost instantaneously. The suggested formalism is demonstrated for the purpose of tsunami forecasting in Poverty Bay, in the Gisborne region of New Zealand. Directional sensitivity of the site response due to different conditions for the excitation of the shelf and the bay's normal modes is investigated and used to explain tsunami observations. The suggested response function formalism is validated with available records of the 2010 Chilean tsunami at Gisborne tide gauge and at the nearby deep-ocean assessment and reporting of tsunamis (DART) station 54401. The suggested technique is also demonstrated by hindcasting the 2011 Tohoku tsunami and 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami at Monterey Bay, CA, using an offshore record of each tsunami at DART station 46411.

  16. Observing Natural Hazards: Tsunami, Hurricane, and El Niño Observations from the NDBC Ocean Observing System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, K.; Bouchard, R.; Burnett, W. H.; Aldrich, C.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) operates and maintains the NDBC Ocean Observing Systems of Systems (NOOSS), comprised of 3 networks that provide critical information before and during and after extreme hazards events, such as tsunamis, hurricanes, and El Niños. While each system has its own mission, they have in common the requirement to remain on station in remote areas of the ocean to provide reliable and accurate observations. After the 2004 Sumatran Tsunami, NOAA expanded its network of tsunameters from six in the Pacific Ocean to a vast network of 39 stations providing information to Tsunami Warning Centers to enable faster and more accurate tsunami warnings for coastal communities in the Pacific, Atlantic, Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. The tsunameter measurements are used to detect the amplitude and period of the tsunamis, and the data can be assimilated into models for the prediction and impact of the tsunamis to coastal communities. The network has been used for the detection of tsunamis generated by earthquakes, including the 2006 and 2007 Kuril Islands, 2007 Peru, and Solomon Islands, and most recently for the 2009 Dusky Sound, New Zealand earthquake. In August 2009, the NOAA adjusted its 2009 Atlantic Hurricane Seasonal Outlooks from above normal to near or below normal activity, primarily due to a strengthening El Niño. A key component in the detection of that El Niño was the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Array (TAO) operated by NDBC. TAO provides real-time data for improved detection, understanding, and prediction of El Niño and La Niña. The 55-buoy TAO array spans the central and eastern equatorial Pacific providing real-time and post-deployment recovery data to support climate analysis and forecasts. Although, in this case, the El Niño benefits the tropical Atlantic, the alternate manifestation, La Niña typically enhances hurricane activity in the Atlantic. The various phases of

  17. Using GPS to Detect Imminent Tsunamis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2009-01-01

    A promising method of detecting imminent tsunamis and estimating their destructive potential involves the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) data in addition to seismic data. Application of the method is expected to increase the reliability of global tsunami-warning systems, making it possible to save lives while reducing the incidence of false alarms. Tsunamis kill people every year. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed about 230,000 people. The magnitude of an earthquake is not always a reliable indication of the destructive potential of a tsunami. The 2004 Indian Ocean quake generated a huge tsunami, while the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) quake did not, even though both were initially estimated to be of the similar magnitude. Between 2005 and 2007, five false tsunami alarms were issued worldwide. Such alarms result in negative societal and economic effects. GPS stations can detect ground motions of earthquakes in real time, as frequently as every few seconds. In the present method, the epicenter of an earthquake is located by use of data from seismometers, then data from coastal GPS stations near the epicenter are used to infer sea-floor displacements that precede a tsunami. The displacement data are used in conjunction with local topographical data and an advanced theory to quantify the destructive potential of a tsunami on a new tsunami scale, based on the GPS-derived tsunami energy, much like the Richter Scale used for earthquakes. An important element of the derivation of the advanced theory was recognition that horizontal sea-floor motions contribute much more to generation of tsunamis than previously believed. The method produces a reliable estimate of the destructive potential of a tsunami within minutes typically, well before the tsunami reaches coastal areas. The viability of the method was demonstrated in computational tests in which the method yielded accurate representations of three historical tsunamis for which well-documented ground

  18. Tsunami.gov: NOAA's Tsunami Information Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiro, B.; Carrick, J.; Hellman, S. B.; Bernard, M.; Dildine, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the new Tsunami.gov website, which delivers a single authoritative source of tsunami information for the public and emergency management communities. The site efficiently merges information from NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers (TWC's) by way of a comprehensive XML feed called Tsunami Event XML (TEX). The resulting unified view allows users to quickly see the latest tsunami alert status in geographic context without having to understand complex TWC areas of responsibility. The new site provides for the creation of a wide range of products beyond the traditional ASCII-based tsunami messages. The publication of modern formats such as Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) can drive geographically aware emergency alert systems like FEMA's Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS). Supported are other popular information delivery systems, including email, text messaging, and social media updates. The Tsunami.gov portal allows NOAA staff to easily edit content and provides the facility for users to customize their viewing experience. In addition to access by the public, emergency managers and government officials may be offered the capability to log into the portal for special access rights to decision-making and administrative resources relevant to their respective tsunami warning systems. The site follows modern HTML5 responsive design practices for optimized use on mobile as well as non-mobile platforms. It meets all federal security and accessibility standards. Moving forward, we hope to expand Tsunami.gov to encompass tsunami-related content currently offered on separate websites, including the NOAA Tsunami Website, National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research, National Geophysical Data Center's Tsunami Database, and National Data Buoy Center's DART Program. This project is part of the larger Tsunami Information Technology Modernization Project, which is consolidating the software architectures of NOAA's existing TWC's into

  19. Mega Tsunamis of the World Ocean and Their Implication for the Tsunami Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusiakov, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Mega tsunamis are the strongest tsunamigenic events of tectonic origin that are characterized by run-up heights up to 40-50 m measured along a considerable part of the coastline (up to 1000 km). One of the most important features of mega-tsunamis is their ability to cross the entire oceanic basin and to cause an essential damage to its opposite coast. Another important feature is their ability to penetrate into the marginal seas (like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea) and cause dangerous water level oscillations along the parts of the coast, which are largely protected by island arcs against the impact of the strongest regional tsunamis. Among all known historical tsunamis (nearly 2250 events during the last 4000 years) they represent only a small fraction (less than 1%) however they are responsible for more than half the total tsunami fatalities and a considerable part of the overall tsunami damage. The source of all known mega tsunamis is subduction submarine earthquakes with magnitude 9.0 or higher having a return period from 200-300 years to 1000-1200 years. The paper presents a list of 15 mega tsunami events identified so far in historical catalogs with their basic source parameters, near-field and far-field impact effects and their generation and propagation features. The far-field impact of mega tsunamis is largely controlled by location and orientation of their earthquake source as well as by deep ocean bathymetry features. We also discuss the problem of the long-term tsunami hazard assessment when the occurrence of mega tsunamis is taken into account.

  20. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  1. Comparison between the Coastal Impacts of Cyclone Nargis and the Indian Ocean Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Blount, C.

    2009-12-01

    penetrated more than 50 km inland along the Ayeyarwady delta while the maximum inundation of the Indian Ocean tsunami was 7 km at Banda Aceh. The extent of affected coast lines differs with 2 m storm surge thresholds of cyclone Nargis spanning 200 km of coastline, whereas East Africa was severely affected by the Indian Ocean tsunami at 5000 km from the epicenter. The available time window for dissemination of warnings and evacuations are significantly shorter for tsunamis than cyclones. Coastal protection in the Indian Ocean must be approached with community-based planning, education and awareness programs suited for a multi-hazard perspective. Ayeyarwady delta in Myanmar after cyclone Nargis: (a) Deforestation of mangroves for use as charcoal and land use as rice paddies; (b) Drinking water wells scoured in surf zone at Aya highlighting more than 100 m land loss due to coastal erosion.

  2. Signals in the ionosphere generated by tsunami earthquakes: observations and modeling suppor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, L.; Sladen, A.; Mikesell, D.; Larmat, C. S.; Rakoto, V.; Remillieux, M.; Lee, R.; Khelfi, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Astafyeva, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting systems failed to predict the magnitude of the 2011 great tsunami in Japan due to the difficulty and cost of instrumenting the ocean with high-quality and dense networks. Melgar et al. (2013) show that using all of the conventional data (inland seismic, geodetic, and tsunami gauges) with the best inversion method still fails to predict the correct height of the tsunami before it breaks onto a coast near the epicenter (< 500 km). On the other hand, in the last decade, scientists have gathered convincing evidence of transient signals in the ionosphere Total Electron Content (TEC) observations that are associated to open ocean tsunami waves. Even though typical tsunami waves are only a few centimeters high, they are powerful enough to create atmospheric vibrations extending all the way to the ionosphere, 300 kilometers up in the atmosphere. Therefore, we are proposing to incorporate the ionospheric signals into tsunami early-warning systems. We anticipate that the method could be decisive for mitigating "tsunami earthquakes" which trigger tsunamis larger than expected from their short-period magnitude. These events are challenging to characterize as they rupture the near-trench subduction interface, in a distant region less constrained by onshore data. As a couple of devastating tsunami earthquakes happens per decade, they represent a real threat for onshore populations and a challenge for tsunami early-warning systems. We will present the TEC observations of the recent Java 2006 and Mentawaii 2010 tsunami earthquakes and base our analysis on acoustic ray tracing, normal modes summation and the simulation code SPECFEM, which solves the wave equation in coupled acoustic (ocean, atmosphere) and elastic (solid earth) domains. Rupture histories are entered as finite source models, which will allow us to evaluate the effect of a relatively slow rupture on the surrounding ocean and atmosphere.

  3. Far-field tsunami magnitude determined from ocean-bottom pressure gauge data around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, T.; Hirata, K.; Kaneda, Y.

    2003-12-01

    \\hspace*{3mm}Tsunami magnitude is the most fundamental parameter to scale tsunamigenic earthquakes. According to Abe (1979), the tsunami magnitude, Mt, is empirically related to the crest to trough amplitude, H, of the far-field tsunami wave in meters (Mt = logH + 9.1). Here we investigate the far-field tsunami magnitude using ocean-bottom pressure gauge data. The recent ocean-bottom pressure measurements provide more precise tsunami data with a high signal-to-noise ratio. \\hspace*{3mm}Japan Marine Science and Technology Center is monitoring ocean bottom pressure fluctuations using two submarine cables of depths of 1500 - 2400 m. These geophysical observatory systems are located off Cape Muroto, Southwest Japan, and off Hokkaido, Northern Japan. The ocean-bottom pressure data recorded with the Muroto and Hokkaido systems have been collected continuously since March, 1997 and October, 1999, respectively. \\hspace*{3mm}Over the period from March 1997 to June 2003, we have observed four far-field tsunami signals, generated by earthquakes, on ocean-bottom pressure records. These far-field tsunamis were generated by the 1998 Papua New Guinea eq. (Mw 7.0), 1999 Vanuatu eq. (Mw 7.2), 2001 Peru eq. (Mw 8.4) and 2002 Papua New Guinea eq. (Mw 7.6). Maximum amplitude of about 30 mm was recorded by the tsunami from the 2001 Peru earthquake. \\hspace*{3mm}Direct application of the Abe's empirical relation to ocean-bottom pressure gauge data underestimates tsunami magnitudes by about an order of magnitude. This is because the Abe's empirical relation was derived only from tsunami amplitudes with coastal tide gauges where tsunami is amplified by the shoaling of topography and the reflection at the coastline. However, these effects do not work for offshore tsunami in deep oceans. In general, amplification due to shoaling near the coastline is governed by the Green's Law, in which the tsunami amplitude is proportional to h-1/4, where h is the water depth. Wave amplitude also is

  4. Large magnitude (M > 7.5) offshore earthquakes in 2012: few examples of absent or little tsunamigenesis, with implications for tsunami early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    We take into account some examples of offshore earthquakes occurred worldwide in year 2012 that were characterised by a "large" magnitude (Mw equal or larger than 7.5) but which produced no or little tsunami effects. Here, "little" is intended as "lower than expected on the basis of the parent earthquake magnitude". The examples we analyse include three earthquakes occurred along the Pacific coasts of Central America (20 March, Mw=7.8, Mexico; 5 September, Mw=7.6, Costa Rica; 7 November, Mw=7.5, Mexico), the Mw=7.6 and Mw=7.7 earthquakes occurred respectively on 31 August and 28 October offshore Philippines and offshore Alaska, and the two Indian Ocean earthquakes registered on a single day (11 April) and characterised by Mw=8.6 and Mw=8.2. For each event, we try to face the problem related to its tsunamigenic potential from two different perspectives. The first can be considered purely scientific and coincides with the question: why was the ensuing tsunami so weak? The answer can be related partly to the particular tectonic setting in the source area, partly to the particular position of the source with respect to the coastline, and finally to the focal mechanism of the earthquake and to the slip distribution on the ruptured fault. The first two pieces of information are available soon after the earthquake occurrence, while the third requires time periods in the order of tens of minutes. The second perspective is more "operational" and coincides with the tsunami early warning perspective, for which the question is: will the earthquake generate a significant tsunami and if so, where will it strike? The Indian Ocean events of 11 April 2012 are perfect examples of the fact that the information on the earthquake magnitude and position alone may not be sufficient to produce reliable tsunami warnings. We emphasise that it is of utmost importance that the focal mechanism determination is obtained in the future much more quickly than it is at present and that this

  5. Knowledge base and sensor bus messaging service architecture for critical tsunami warning and decision-support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Wächter, J.; Middleton, S. E.; Zlatev, Z.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Loewe, P.

    2012-04-01

    The intelligent management of large volumes of environmental monitoring data for early tsunami warning requires the deployment of robust and scalable service oriented infrastructure that is supported by an agile knowledge-base for critical decision-support In the TRIDEC project (TRIDEC 2010-2013), a sensor observation service bus of the TRIDEC system is being developed for the advancement of complex tsunami event processing and management. Further, a dedicated TRIDEC system knowledge-base is being implemented to enable on-demand access to semantically rich OGC SWE compliant hydrodynamic observations and operationally oriented meta-information to multiple subscribers. TRIDEC decision support requires a scalable and agile real-time processing architecture which enables fast response to evolving subscribers requirements as the tsunami crisis develops. This is also achieved with the support of intelligent processing services which specialise in multi-level fusion methods with relevance feedback and deep learning. The TRIDEC knowledge base development work coupled with that of the generic sensor bus platform shall be presented to demonstrate advanced decision-support with situation awareness in context of tsunami early warning and crisis management.

  6. International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

  7. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were <20 cm. For this event, the maximum tsunami wave heights determined by either definition (maximum peak or amplitude) would have validated the forecasts issued by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  8. Forecasting database for the tsunami warning regional center for the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Hebert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2010-12-01

    Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for tsunami warnings to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. Through the establishment of the tsunami warning regional center for NE Atlantic and western Mediterranean Sea, the CEA is especially in charge of providing rapidly a map with uncertainties showing zones in the main axis of energy at the Mediterranean scale. The strategy is based initially on a pre-computed tsunami scenarios database, as source parameters available a short time after an earthquake occurs are preliminary and may be somewhat inaccurate. Existing numerical models are good enough to provide a useful guidance for warning structures to be quickly disseminated. When an event will occur, an appropriate variety of offshore tsunami propagation scenarios by combining pre-computed propagation solutions (single or multi sources) may be recalled through an automatic interface. This approach would provide quick estimates of tsunami offshore propagation, and aid hazard assessment and evacuation decision-making. As numerical model accuracy is inherently limited by errors in bathymetry and topography, and as inundation maps calculation is more complex and expensive in term of computational time, only tsunami offshore propagation modeling will be included in the forecasting database using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid for the numerical modeling. Because of too much variability in the mechanism of tsunamigenic earthquakes, all possible magnitudes cannot be represented in the scenarios database. In principle, an infinite number of tsunami propagation scenarios can be constructed by linear combinations of a finite number of

  9. Tsunami preparedness at the resort facilities along the coast of the Ryukyu Islands - their actions against the 27 February 2010 Okinawan and Chilean tsunami warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2010-12-01

    The economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) is highly relying on the sea. The sea has both “gentle” side to give people healing and “fierce” side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know the whole nature of the sea, Tsunami is the typical case of the “fierce” side of the sea. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. Early morning (5:31 am Japanese Standard Time = JST) on 27 February 2010, a M6.9 earthquake occurred near the coast of Okinawa Ryukyu Island Japan, and just after that Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued a tsunami warning along the coastal area of Okinawa Prefecture. About one hour later the tsunami warning was cancelled. The CMT solution of this earthquake was found to be strike-slip type with NE-SW P-axis. Therefore this did not induce a tsunami. However, in the afternoon on the same day (JST) a M8.6 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile and soon after that a tsunami warning issued along the Pacific coastal area including Japan and Ryukyu Islands. Indeed maximum 1m tsunami hit the eastern coast of Okinawa Island on 28th February (Nakamura, 2010, personal communication). The author conducted a survey about the actions against the both tsunami after the 27 February tsunami warming to the major resort hotels along the coast of the Ryukyu Islands. A questionnaire was sent to about 20 hotels and 6 hotels replied to the questionnaire. Most of these hotels reported the regular training against tsunami attack, preparation of a disaster prevention manual, close communication with the local fire station authority, evacuation procedure towards high stories of the hotel building etc. It was “winter season” when the tsunami took place. However, if that were “summer season,” the other problem such as how they make the people

  10. Development of Real-time Tsunami Inundation Forecast Using Ocean Bottom Tsunami Networks along the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Suzuki, W.; Hirata, K.; Nakamura, H.; Kunugi, T.; Kubo, T.; Maeda, T.

    2015-12-01

    In the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, in which huge tsunami claimed a great deal of lives, the initial tsunami forecast based on hypocenter information estimated using seismic data on land were greatly underestimated. From this lesson, NIED is now constructing S-net (Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench) which consists of 150 ocean bottom observatories with seismometers and pressure gauges (tsunamimeters) linked by fiber optic cables. To take full advantage of S-net, we develop a new methodology of real-time tsunami inundation forecast using ocean bottom observation data and construct a prototype system that implements the developed forecasting method for the Pacific coast of Chiba prefecture (Sotobo area). We employ a database-based approach because inundation is a strongly non-linear phenomenon and its calculation costs are rather heavy. We prepare tsunami scenario bank in advance, by constructing the possible tsunami sources, and calculating the tsunami waveforms at S-net stations, coastal tsunami heights and tsunami inundation on land. To calculate the inundation for target Sotobo area, we construct the 10-m-mesh precise elevation model with coastal structures. Based on the sensitivities analyses, we construct the tsunami scenario bank that efficiently covers possible tsunami scenarios affecting the Sotobo area. A real-time forecast is carried out by selecting several possible scenarios which can well explain real-time tsunami data observed at S-net from tsunami scenario bank. An advantage of our method is that tsunami inundations are estimated directly from the actual tsunami data without any source information, which may have large estimation errors. In addition to the forecast system, we develop Web services, APIs, and smartphone applications and brush them up through social experiments to provide the real-time tsunami observation and forecast information in easy way to understand toward urging people to evacuate.

  11. Seismogeodetic monitoring techniques for tsunami and earthquake early warning and rapid assessment of structural damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.; Saunders, J. K.; Goldberg, D.; Restrepo, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    As part of an effort to promote the use of NASA-sponsored Earth science information for disaster risk reduction, real-time high-rate seismogeodetic data are being incorporated into early warning and structural monitoring systems. Seismogeodesy combines seismic acceleration and GPS displacement measurements using a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic acceleration, velocity and displacement. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. Real-time seismogeodetic observations at subduction zones allow for more robust and rapid magnitude and slip estimation that increase warning time in the near-source region. A NASA-funded effort to utilize GPS and seismogeodesy in NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii integrates new modules for picking, locating, and estimating magnitudes and moment tensors for earthquakes into the USGS earthworm environment at the TWCs. In a related project, NASA supports the transition of this research to seismogeodetic tools for disaster preparedness, specifically by implementing GPS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers for structural monitoring in partnership with earthquake engineers. Real-time high-rate seismogeodetic structural monitoring has been implemented on two structures. The first is a parking garage at the Autonomous University of Baja California Faculty of Medicine in Mexicali, not far from the rupture of the 2011 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake enabled through a UCMexus collaboration. The second is the 8-story Geisel Library at University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The system has also been installed for several proof-of-concept experiments at the UCSD Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table. We present MEMS-based seismogeodetic observations from the 10 June

  12. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

  13. Motional Induction by Tsunamis and Ocean Tides: 10 Years of Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Takuto

    2017-09-01

    Motional induction is the process by which the motion of conductive seawater in the ambient geomagnetic main field generates electromagnetic (EM) variations, which are observable on land, at the seafloor, and sometimes at satellite altitudes. Recent years have seen notable progress in our understanding of motional induction associated with tsunamis and with ocean tides. New studies of tsunami motional induction were triggered by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake tsunami and further promoted by subsequent events, such as the 2010 Chile earthquake and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. These events yielded observations of tsunami-generated EM variations from land and seafloor stations. Studies of magnetic fields generated by ocean tides attracted interest when the Swarm satellite constellation enabled researchers to monitor tide-generated magnetic variations from low Earth orbit. Both avenues of research benefited from the advent of sophisticated seafloor instruments, by which we may exploit motional induction for novel applications. For example, seafloor EM measurements can serve as detectors of vector properties of tsunamis, and seafloor EM data related to ocean tides have proved useful for sounding Earth's deep interior. This paper reviews and discusses the progress made in motional induction studies associated with tsunamis and ocean tides during the last decade.

  14. Physical Observations of the Tsunami during the September 8th 2017 Tehuantepec, Mexico Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Corona, N.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Melgar, D.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.

    2017-12-01

    The September 8th 2017, Mw8.2 earthquake offshore Chiapas, Mexico, is the largest earthquake recorded history in Chiapas since 1902. It caused damage in the states of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Tabasco; it had more than 100 fatalities, over 1.5 million people were affected, and 41,000 homes were damaged in the state of Chiapas alone. This earthquake, a deep intraplate event on a normal fault on the oceanic subducting plate, generated a tsunami recorded at several tide gauge stations in Mexico and on the Pacific Ocean. Here we report the physical effects of the tsunami on the Chiapas coast and analyze the societal implications of this tsunami on the basis of our field observations. Tide gauge data indicate 11.3 and 8.2 cm of coastal subsidence at Salina Cruz and Puerto Chiapas stations. The associated tsunami waves were recorded first at Salina Cruz tide gauge station at 5:13 (GMT). We covered ground observations along 41 km of the coast of Chiapas, encompassing the sites with the highest projected wave heights based on the preliminary tsunami model (maximum tsunami amplitudes between -94.5 and -93.0 W). Runup and inundation distances were measured with an RTK GPS and using a Sokkia B40 level along 8 sites. We corrected runup data with estimated astronomical tide levels at the time of the tsunami. The tsunami occurred at low tide. The maximum runup was 3 m at Boca del Cielo, and maximum inundation distance was 190 m in Puerto Arista, corresponding to the coast directly opposite the epicenter and in the central sector of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. In general, our field data agree with the predicted results from the preliminary tsunami model. Tsunami scour and erosion was evident on the Chiapas coast. Tsunami deposits, mainly sand, reached up to 32 cm thickness thinning landwards up to 172 m distance. Even though the Mexican tsunami early warning system (CAT) issued several warnings, the tsunami arrival struck the Chiapas coast prior to the arrival of official warnings to the

  15. Concerns over modeling and warning capabilities in wake of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-04-01

    Improved earthquake models, better tsunami modeling and warning capabilities, and a review of nuclear power plant safety are all greatly needed following the 11 March Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, according to scientists at the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held 3-8 April in Vienna, Austria. EGU quickly organized a morning session of oral presentations and an afternoon panel discussion less than 1 month after the earthquake and the tsunami and the resulting crisis at Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant, which has now been identified as having reached the same level of severity as the 1986 Chernobyl disaster. Many of the scientists at the EGU sessions expressed concern about the inability to have anticipated the size of the earthquake and the resulting tsunami, which appears likely to have caused most of the fatalities and damage, including damage to the nuclear plant.

  16. MORTALITY, THE FAMILY AND THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Preston, Samuel; Sikoki, Bondan; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Over 130,000 people died in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The correlates of survival are examined using data from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a population-representative survey collected in Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesia, before and after the tsunami. Children, older adults and females were the least likely to survive. Whereas socio-economic factors mattered relatively little, the evidence is consistent with physical strength playing a role. Pre-tsunami household composition is predictive of survival and suggests that stronger members sought to help weaker members: men helped their wives, parents and children, while women helped their children. PMID:25866413

  17. Modeling the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami for Introductory Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Rarick, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop materials to address student interest in the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. We discuss the physical characteristics of tsunamis and some of the specific data regarding the 2004 event. Finally, we create an easy-to-make tsunami tank to run simulations in the classroom. The simulations exhibit three dramatic…

  18. Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Italy is characterized by a great coastal extension, and by a series of possible tsunamigenic sources: many active faults, onshore and offshore, also near the shoreline and in shallow water, active volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Campi Flegrei for example), continental margins where landslides can occur. All these threats justify the establishment of a tsunami early warning system (TEWS), especially in Southern Italy where most of the sources capable of large disastrous tsunamis are located. One of the main characteristics of such sources, that however is common to other countries in not only in the Mediterranean, is their vicinity to the coast, which means that the tsunami lead time for attacking the coastal system is expected to be within 10-15 minutes in several cases. This constraint of time imposes to conceive and adopt specific plans aiming at a quick tsunami detection and alert dissemination for the TEWS, since obviously the TEWS alert must precede and not follow the tsunami first arrival. The need to be quick introduces the specific problem of uncertainty that is though inherent to any forecast system, but it is a very big issue especially when time available is short, since crucial decisions have to be taken in presence of incomplete data and incomplete processing. This is just the big problem that has to be faced by a system like the a TEWS in Italy. Uncertainties can be reduced by increasing the capabilities of the tsunami monitoring system by densifying the traditional instrumental networks (e.g. by empowering seismic and especially coastal and offshore sea-level observation systems) in the identified tsunamigenic source areas. However, uncertainties, though are expected to have a decreasing trend as time passes after the tsunami initiation, cannot be eliminated and have to be appropriately dealt with: uncertainties lead to under- and overestimation of the tsunami size and arrival times, and to missing or to false alerts, or in other terms they degrade the

  19. USGS scientists study sediment deposited by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2005-01-01

    In January, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists traveled to countries on the Indian Ocean to study sediment deposited by the devastating tsunami of December 26, 2004. They hope to gain knowledge that will help them to identify ancient tsunami deposits in the geologic record—which extends much farther into the past than written records—and so compile a history of tsunamis that can be used to assess a region's future tsunami risk.

  20. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization:Developing a Maintainable and Extensible Open Source Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, S. B.; Lisowski, S.; Baker, B.; Hagerty, M.; Lomax, A.; Leifer, J. M.; Thies, D. A.; Schnackenberg, A.; Barrows, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). While this project was funded by NOAA to solve a specific problem, the requirements that the delivered system be both open source and easily maintainable have resulted in the creation of a variety of open source (OS) software packages. The open source software is now complete and this is a presentation of the OS Software that has been funded by NOAA for benefit of the entire seismic community. The design architecture comprises three distinct components: (1) The user interface, (2) The real-time data acquisition and processing system and (3) The scientific algorithm library. The system follows a modular design with loose coupling between components. We now identify the major project constituents. The user interface, CAVE, is written in Java and is compatible with the existing National Weather Service (NWS) open source graphical system AWIPS. The selected real-time seismic acquisition and processing system is open source SeisComp3 (sc3). The seismic library (libseismic) contains numerous custom written and wrapped open source seismic algorithms (e.g., ML/mb/Ms/Mwp, mantle magnitude (Mm), w-phase moment tensor, bodywave moment tensor, finite-fault inversion, array processing). The seismic library is organized in a way (function naming and usage) that will be familiar to users of Matlab. The seismic library extends sc3 so that it can be called by the real-time system, but it can also be driven and tested outside of sc3, for example, by ObsPy or Earthworm. To unify the three principal components we have developed a flexible and lightweight communication layer called SeismoEdex.

  1. Numerical Simulation of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Accurate Flooding and drying in Banda Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Haiyang; Pietrzak, Julie; Stelling, Guus; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused one of the largest tsunamis in recent times and led to widespread devastation and loss of life. One of the worst hit regions was Banda Aceh, which is the capital of the Aceh province, located in the northern part of Sumatra, 150km from the source of the earthquake. A German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (www.gitews.de) is currently under active development. The work presented here is carried out within the GITEWS framework. One of the aims of this project is the development of accurate models with which to simulate the propagation, flooding and drying, and run-up of a tsunami. In this context, TsunAWI has been developed by the Alfred Wegener Institute; it is an explicit, () finite element model. However, the accurate numerical simulation of flooding and drying requires the conservation of mass and momentum. This is not possible in the current version of TsunAWi. The P1NC - P1element guarantees mass conservation in a global sense, yet as we show here it is important to guarantee mass conservation at the local level, that is within each individual cell. Here an unstructured grid, finite volume ocean model is presented. It is derived from the P1NC - P1 element, and is shown to be mass and momentum conserving. Then a number of simulations are presented, including dam break problems flooding over both a wet and a dry bed. Excellent agreement is found. Then we present simulations for Banda Aceh, and compare the results to on-site survey data, as well as to results from the original TsunAWI code.

  2. The 17 July 2006 Tsunami earthquake in West Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.; Mooney, W.D.; Afnimar,; Kurniawan, S.; Anaya, A.I.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2007-01-01

    A tsunami earthquake (Mw = 7.7) occurred south of Java on 17 July 2006. The event produced relatively low levels of high-frequency radiation, and local felt reports indicated only weak shaking in Java. There was no ground motion damage from the earthquake, but there was extensive damage and loss of life from the tsunami along 250 km of the southern coasts of West Java and Central Java. An inspection of the area a few days after the earthquake showed extensive damage to wooden and unreinforced masonry buildings that were located within several hundred meters of the coast. Since there was no tsunami warning system in place, efforts to escape the large waves depended on how people reacted to the earthquake shaking, which was only weakly felt in the coastal areas. This experience emphasizes the need for adequate tsunami warning systems for the Indian Ocean region.

  3. A Case Study of Array-based Early Warning System for Tsunami Offshore Ventura, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Meng, L.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme scenarios of M 7.5+ earthquakes on the Red Mountain and Pitas Point faults can potentially generate significant local tsunamis in southern California. The maximum water elevation could be as large as 10 m in the nearshore region of Oxnard and Santa Barbara. Recent development in seismic array processing enables rapid tsunami prediction and early warning based on the back-projection approach (BP). The idea is to estimate the rupture size by back-tracing the seismic body waves recorded by stations at local and regional distances. A simplified source model of uniform slip is constructed and used as an input for tsunami simulations that predict the tsunami wave height and arrival time. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in southern California by implementing it in a simulated real-time environment and applying to a hypothetical M 7.7 Dip-slip earthquake scenario on the Pitas Point fault. Synthetic seismograms are produced using the SCEC broadband platform based on the 3D SoCal community velocity model. We use S-wave instead of P-wave to avoid S-minus-P travel times shorter than rupture duration. Two clusters of strong-motion stations near Bakersfield and Palmdale are selected to determine the back-azimuth of the strongest high-frequency radiations (0.5-1 Hz). The back-azimuths of the two clusters are then intersected to locate the source positions. The rupture area is then approximated by enclosing these BP radiators with an ellipse or a polygon. Our preliminary results show that the extent of 1294 square kilometers rupture area and magnitude of 7.6 obtained by this approach is reasonably close to the 1849 square kilometers and 7.7 of the input model. The average slip of 7.3 m is then estimated according to the scaling relation between slip and rupture area, which is close to the actual average dislocation amount, 8.3 m. Finally, a tsunami simulation is conducted to assess the wave height and arrival time. The errors of -3 to +9 s in arrival time

  4. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  5. Meteorological tsunamis along the U.S. coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibic, I.; Monserrat, S.; Amores, A.; Dadic, V.; Fine, I.; Horvath, K.; Ivankovic, D.; Marcos, M.; Mihanovic, H.; Pasquet, S.; Rabinovich, A. B.; Sepic, J.; Strelec Mahovic, N.; Whitmore, P.

    2012-04-01

    Meteotsunamis, or meteorological tsunamis, are atmospherically induced ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band that are found to affect coasts in a destructive way in a number of places in the World Ocean, including the U.S. coastline. The Boothbay Harbor, Maine, in October 2008 and Daytona Beach, Florida, in July 1992 were hit by several meters high waves appearing from "nowhere", and a preliminary assessment pointed to the atmosphere as a possible source for the events. As a need for in-depth analyses and proper qualification of these and other events emerged, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) decided to fund the research, currently carried out within the TMEWS project (Towards a MEteotsunami Warning System along the U.S. coastline). The project structure, planned research activities and first results will be presented here. The first objective of the project is creation of a list of potential meteotsunami events, from catalogues, news and high-resolution sea level data, and their proper assessment with regards to the source, generation and dynamics. The assessment will be based on the research of the various types of ocean (tide gauges, buoys), atmospheric (ground stations, buoys, vertical soundings, reanalyses) and remote sensing (satellites) data and products, supported by the atmospheric and ocean modelling efforts. Based on the earned knowledge, the basis for a meteotsunami warning system, i.e. observational systems and communication needs for early detection of a meteotsunami, will be defined. Finally, meteotsunami warning protocols, procedures and decision matrix will be developed, and tested on historical meteotsunami events. These deliverables are expected also to boost meteotsunami research in other parts of the World Ocean, and to contribute to the creation of an efficient meteotsunami warning systems in different regions of interest, such as Mediterranean Sea, western Japan, Western Australia or other.

  6. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and allied networks, the makings of nascent Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning System in Western North America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Glen; Mencin, David; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Meertens, Charles; Phillips, David; Blume, Fredrick; Berglund, Henry; Fox, Otina; Feaux, Karl

    2016-04-01

    The NSF-funded GAGE Facility, managed by UNAVCO, operates approximately ~1300 GNSS stations distributed across North and Central America and in the circum-Caribbean. Following community input starting in 2011 from several workshops and associated reports,UNAVCO has been exploring ways to increase the capability and utility of the geodetic resources under its management to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including properties of seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources. Networks operated by UNAVCO for the NSF have the potential to profoundly transform our ability to rapidly characterize events, provide rapid characterization and warning, as well as improve hazard mitigation and response. Specific applications currently under development include earthquake early warning, tsunami early warning, and tropospheric modeling with university, commercial, non-profit and government partners on national and international scales. In the case of tsunami early warning, for example, an RT-GNSS network can provide multiple inputs in an operational system starting with rapid assessment of earthquake sources and associated deformation, which leads to the initial model of ocean forcing and tsunami generation. In addition, terrestrial GNSScan provide direct measurements of the tsunami through the associated traveling ionospheric disturbance from several 100's of km away as they approach the shoreline,which can be used to refine tsunami inundation models. Any operational system like this has multiple communities that rely on a pan-Pacific real-time open data set. Other scientific and operational applications for high-rate GPS include glacier and ice sheet motions, tropospheric modeling, and better constraints on the dynamics of space weather. Combining existing data sets and user communities, for example seismic data and tide gauge observations, with GNSS and Met data products has proven complicated because of issues related to metadata

  7. Tsunami Generation from Asteroid Airburst and Ocean Impact and Van Dorn Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Darrel

    2016-01-01

    Airburst - In the simulations explored energy from the airburst couples very weakly with the water making tsunami dangerous over a shorter distance than the blast for asteroid sizes up to the maximum expected size that will still airburst (approx.250MT). Future areas of investigation: - Low entry angle airbursts create more cylindrical blasts and might couple more efficiently - Bursts very close to the ground will increase coupling - Inclusion of thermosphere (>80km altitude) may show some plume collapse effects over a large area although with much less pressure center dot Ocean Impact - Asteroid creates large cavity in ocean. Cavity backfills creating central jet. Oscillation between the cavity and jet sends out tsunami wave packet. - For deep ocean impact waves are deep water waves (Phase speed = 2x Group speed) - If the tsunami propagation and inundation calculations are correct for the small (<250MT) asteroids in these simulations where they impact deep ocean basins, the resulting tsunami is not a significant hazard unless particularly close to vulnerable communities. Future work: - Shallow ocean impact. - Effect of continental shelf and beach profiles - Tsunami vs. blast damage radii for impacts close to populated areas - Larger asteroids below presumed threshold of global effects (Ø200 - 800m).

  8. Detecting Tsunami Genesis and Scales Directly from Coastal GPS Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. Tony

    2013-04-01

    Different from the conventional approach to tsunami warnings that rely on earthquake magnitude estimates, we have found that coastal GPS stations are able to detect continental slope displacements of faulting due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami source energy and scales instantaneously. This method has successfully replicated several historical tsunamis caused by the 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the 2005 Nias earthquake, the 2010 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, respectively, and has been compared favorably with the conventional seismic solutions that usually take hours or days to get through inverting seismographs (reference listed). Because many coastal GPS stations are already in operation for measuring ground motions in real time as often as once every few seconds, this study suggests a practical way of identifying tsunamigenic earthquakes for early warnings and reducing false alarms. Reference Song, Y. T., 2007: Detecting tsunami genesis and scales directly from coastal GPS stations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L19602, doi:10.1029/2007GL031681. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami, Ocean Modelling, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2007.10.007. Song, Y. T. and S.C. Han, 2011: Satellite observations defying the long-held tsunami genesis theory, D.L. Tang (ed.), Remote Sensing of the Changing Oceans, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-16541-2, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2012: Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767 (Nature Highlights, March 8, 2012).

  9. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  10. Modeling the 2004Indian Ocean Tsunami for Introductory Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Rarick, Richard A.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we develop materials to address student interest in the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. We discuss the physical characteristics of tsunamis and some of the specific data regarding the 2004 event. Finally, we create an easy-to-make tsunami tank to run simulations in the classroom. The simulations exhibit three dramatic signatures of tsunamis, namely, as a tsunami moves into shallow water its amplitude increases, its wavelength and speed decrease, and its leading edge becomes increasingly steep as if to "break" or "crash." Using our tsunami tank, these realistic features were easy to observe in the classroom and evoked an enthusiastic response from our students.

  11. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  12. 77 FR 6785 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... information following testing of the associated NWS communications systems. The tests are planned annually, in March/April and again in September. Post-test feedback information will be requested from emergency... Collection; Comment Request; Feedback Survey for Annual Tsunami Warning Communications Tests AGENCY: National...

  13. Water level ingest, archive and processing system - an integral part of NOAA's tsunami database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, S. J.; Mungov, G.; Dunbar, P. K.; Price, D. J.; Mccullough, H.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and collocated World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global tsunami data. Archive responsibilities include the NOAA Global Historical Tsunami event and runup database, damage photos, as well as other related hazards data. Beginning in 2008, NGDC was given the responsibility of archiving, processing and distributing all tsunami and hazards-related water level data collected from NOAA observational networks in a coordinated and consistent manner. These data include the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) data provided by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), coastal-tide-gauge data from the National Ocean Service (NOS) network and tide-gauge data from the two National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) regional networks. Taken together, this integrated archive supports tsunami forecast, warning, research, mitigation and education efforts of NOAA and the Nation. Due to the variety of the water level data, the automatic ingest system was redesigned, along with upgrading the inventory, archive and delivery capabilities based on modern digital data archiving practices. The data processing system was also upgraded and redesigned focusing on data quality assessment in an operational manner. This poster focuses on data availability highlighting the automation of all steps of data ingest, archive, processing and distribution. Examples are given from recent events such as the October 2012 hurricane Sandy, the Feb 06, 2013 Solomon Islands tsunami, and the June 13, 2013 meteotsunami along the U.S. East Coast.

  14. Toward the Real-Time Tsunami Parameters Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Marchuk, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Today, a wide well-developed system of deep ocean tsunami detectors operates over the Pacific. Direct measurements of tsunami-wave time series are available. However, tsunami-warning systems fail to predict basic parameters of tsunami waves on time. Dozens examples could be provided. In our view, the lack of computational power is the main reason of these failures. At the same time, modern computer technologies such as, GPU (graphic processing unit) and FPGA (field programmable gates array), can dramatically improve data processing performance, which may enhance timely tsunami-warning prediction. Thus, it is possible to address the challenge of real-time tsunami forecasting for selected geo regions. We propose to use three new techniques in the existing tsunami warning systems to achieve real-time calculation of tsunami wave parameters. First of all, measurement system (DART buoys location, e.g.) should be optimized (both in terms of wave arriving time and amplitude parameter). The corresponding software application exists today and is ready for use [1]. We consider the example of the coastal line of Japan. Numerical tests show that optimal installation of only 4 DART buoys (accounting the existing sea bed cable) will reduce the tsunami wave detection time to only 10 min after an underwater earthquake. Secondly, as was shown by this paper authors, the use of GPU/FPGA technologies accelerates the execution of the MOST (method of splitting tsunami) code by 100 times [2]. Therefore, tsunami wave propagation over the ocean area 2000*2000 km (wave propagation simulation: time step 10 sec, recording each 4th spatial point and 4th time step) could be calculated at: 3 sec with 4' mesh 50 sec with 1' mesh 5 min with 0.5' mesh The algorithm to switch from coarse mesh to the fine grain one is also available. Finally, we propose the new algorithm for tsunami source parameters determination by real-time processing the time series, obtained at DART. It is possible to approximate

  15. Towards Operational Meteotsunami Early Warning System: the Adriatic Project MESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibic, I.; Sepic, J.; Denamiel, C. L.; Mihanovic, H.; Muslim, S.; Tudor, M.; Ivankovic, D.; Jelavic, D.; Kovacevic, V.; Masce, T.; Dadic, V.; Gacic, M.; Horvath, K.; Monserrat, S.; Rabinovich, A.; Telisman-Prtenjak, M.

    2017-12-01

    A number of destructive meteotsunamis - atmospherically-driven long ocean waves in a tsunami frequency band - occurred during the last decade through the world oceans. Owing to significant damage caused by these meteotsunamis, several scientific groups (occasionally in collaboration with public offices) have started developing meteotsunami warning systems. Creation of one such system has been initialized in the late 2015 within the MESSI (Meteotsunamis, destructive long ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band: from observations and simulations towards a warning system) project. Main goal of this project is to build a prototype of a meteotsunami warning system for the eastern Adriatic coast. The system will be based on real-time measurements, operational atmosphere and ocean modeling and real time decision-making process. Envisioned MESSI meteotsunami warning system consists of three modules: (1) synoptic warning module, which will use established correlation between forecasted synoptic fields and high-frequency sea level oscillations to provide qualitative meteotsunami forecasts for up to a week in advance, (2) probabilistic premodeling prediction module, which will use operational WRF-ROMS-ADCIRC modeling system and compare the forecast with an atlas of presimulations to get the probabilistic meteotsunami forecast for up to three days in advance, and (3) real-time module, which is based on real time tracking of properties of air pressure disturbance (amplitude, speed, direction, period, ...) and their real-time comparison with the atlas of meteotsunami simulations. System will be tested on recent meteotsunami events which were recorded in the MESSI area shortly after the operational meteotsunami network installation. Albeit complex, such a multilevel warning system has a potential to be adapted to most meteotsunami hot spots, simply by tuning the system parameters to the available atmospheric and ocean data.

  16. Role of Compressibility on Tsunami Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolali, Ali; Kirby, James T.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, we aim to reduce the discrepancies between tsunami arrival times evaluated from tsunami models and real measurements considering the role of ocean compressibility. We perform qualitative studies to reveal the phase speed reduction rate via a modified version of the Mild Slope Equation for Weakly Compressible fluid (MSEWC) proposed by Sammarco et al. (2013). The model is validated against a 3-D computational model. Physical properties of surface gravity waves are studied and compared with those for waves evaluated from an incompressible flow solver over realistic geometry for 2011 Tohoku-oki event, revealing reduction in phase speed.Plain Language SummarySubmarine earthquakes and submarine mass failures (SMFs), can generate long gravitational waves (or <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>) that propagate at the free surface. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves can travel long distances and are known for their dramatic effects on coastal areas. Nowadays, numerical models are used to reconstruct the tsunamigenic events for many scientific and socioeconomic aspects i.e. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Systems, inundation mapping, risk and hazard analysis, etc. A number of typically neglected parameters in these models cause discrepancies between model outputs and observations. Most of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> models predict <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival times at distant stations slightly early in comparison to observations. In this study, we show how <span class="hlt">ocean</span> compressibility would affect the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave propagation speed. In this framework, an efficient two-dimensional model equation for the weakly compressible <span class="hlt">ocean</span> has been developed, validated and tested for simplified and real cases against three dimensional and incompressible solvers. Taking the effect of compressibility, the phase speed of surface gravity waves is reduced compared to that of an incompressible fluid. Then, we used the model for the case of devastating Tohoku-Oki 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event, improving the model accuracy. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4364L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.4364L"><span>The TRIDEC Virtual <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Atlas - customized value-added simulation data products for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> generated on compute clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Löwe, P.; Hammitzsch, M.; Babeyko, A.; Wächter, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The development of new <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Systems (TEWS) requires the modelling of spatio-temporal spreading of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves both recorded from past events and hypothetical future cases. The model results are maintained in digital repositories for use in TEWS command and control units for situation assessment once a real <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurs. Thus the simulation results must be absolutely trustworthy, in a sense that the quality of these datasets is assured. This is a prerequisite as solid decision making during a crisis event and the dissemination of dependable <span class="hlt">warning</span> messages to communities under risk will be based on them. This requires data format validity, but even more the integrity and information value of the content, being a derived value-added product derived from raw <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model output. Quality checking of simulation result products can be done in multiple ways, yet the visual verification of both temporal and spatial spreading characteristics for each simulation remains important. The eye of the human observer still remains an unmatched tool for the detection of irregularities. This requires the availability of convenient, human-accessible mappings of each simulation. The improvement of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> models necessitates the changes in many variables, including simulation end-parameters. Whenever new improved iterations of the general models or underlying spatial data are evaluated, hundreds to thousands of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model results must be generated for each model iteration, each one having distinct initial parameter settings. The use of a Compute Cluster Environment (CCE) of sufficient size allows the automated generation of all <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-results within model iterations in little time. This is a significant improvement to linear processing on dedicated desktop machines or servers. This allows for accelerated/improved visual quality checking iterations, which in turn can provide a positive feedback into the overall model improvement iteratively. An approach to set</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25378746"><span>Establishing an early <span class="hlt">warning</span> alert and response network following the Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in 2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet; Nilles, Eric</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early <span class="hlt">warning</span> alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands' population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance system. By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance system. It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance capabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813215F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813215F"><span>Real-time determination of the worst <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario based on Earthquake Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Furuya, Takashi; Koshimura, Shunichi; Hino, Ryota; Ohta, Yusaku; Inoue, Takuya</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In recent years, real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation forecasting has been developed with the advances of dense seismic monitoring, GPS Earth observation, offshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observation networks, and high-performance computing infrastructure (Koshimura et al., 2014). Several uncertainties are involved in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation modeling and it is believed that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation model is one of the great uncertain sources. Uncertain <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source model has risk to underestimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height, extent of inundation zone, and damage. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> source inversion using observed seismic, geodetic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data is the most effective to avoid underestimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, but needs to expect more time to acquire the observed data and this limitation makes difficult to terminate real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation forecasting within sufficient time. Not waiting for the precise <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observation information, but from disaster management point of view, we aim to determine the worst <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source scenario, for the use of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation forecasting and mapping, using the seismic information of Earthquake Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> (EEW) that can be obtained immediately after the event triggered. After an earthquake occurs, JMA's EEW estimates magnitude and hypocenter. With the constraints of earthquake magnitude, hypocenter and scaling law, we determine possible multi <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source scenarios and start searching the worst one by the superposition of pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Green's functions, i.e. time series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height at offshore points corresponding to 2-dimensional Gaussian unit source, e.g. Tsushima et al., 2014. Scenario analysis of our method consists of following 2 steps. (1) Searching the worst scenario range by calculating 90 scenarios with various strike and fault-position. From maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height of 90 scenarios, we determine a narrower strike range which causes high <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height in the area of concern. (2) Calculating 900 scenarios that have different strike, dip, length</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3725B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3725B"><span>ASTARTE: Assessment Strategy and Risk Reduction for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are low frequency but high impact natural disasters. In 2004, the Boxing Day <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> killed hundreds of thousands of people from many nations along the coastlines of the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> run-up exceeded 35 m. Seven years later, and in spite of some of the best <span class="hlt">warning</span> technologies and levels of preparedness in the world, the Tohoku-Oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Japan dramatically showed the limitations of scientific knowledge on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources, coastal impacts and mitigation measures. The experience from Japan raised serious questions on how to improve the resilience of coastal communities, to upgrade the performance of coastal defenses, to adopt a better risk management, and also on the strategies and priorities for the reconstruction of damaged coastal areas. Societal resilience requires the reinforcement of capabilities to manage and reduce risk at national and local scales.ASTARTE (Assessment STrategy And Risk for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Europe), a 36-month FP7 project, aims to develop a comprehensive strategy to mitigate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact in this region. To achieve this goal, an interdisciplinary consortium has been assembled. It includes all CTWPs of NEAM and expert institutions across Europe and worldwide. ASTARTE will improve i) basic knowledge of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and recurrence going beyond simple catalogues, with novel empirical data and new statistical analyses for assessing long-term recurrence and hazards of large events in sensitive areas of NEAM, ii) numerical techniques for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation, with focus on real-time codes and novel statistical emulation approaches, and iii) methods for assessment of hazard, vulnerability, and risk. ASTARTE will also provide i) guidelines for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Eurocodes, ii) better tools for forecast and <span class="hlt">warning</span> for CTWPs and NTWCs, and iii) guidelines for decision makers to increase sustainability and resilience of coastal communities. In summary, ASTARTE will develop basic scientific and technical elements allowing for a significant</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028940','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028940"><span>Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The December 26, 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> basin. Observations of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9084H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9084H"><span>TRIDEC Cloud - a Web-based Platform for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> tested with NEAMWave14 Scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammitzsch, Martin; Spazier, Johannes; Reißland, Sven; Necmioglu, Ocal; Comoglu, Mustafa; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Carrilho, Fernando; Wächter, Joachim</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In times of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing the use of concepts and paradigms introduced by information and communications technology (ICT) have to be considered even for early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems (EWS). Based on the experiences and the knowledge gained in research projects new technologies are exploited to implement a cloud-based and web-based platform - the TRIDEC Cloud - to open up new prospects for EWS. The platform in its current version addresses <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> and mitigation. It merges several complementary external and in-house cloud-based services for instant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation calculations and automated background computation with graphics processing units (GPU), for web-mapping of hazard specific geospatial data, and for serving relevant functionality to handle, share, and communicate threat specific information in a collaborative and distributed environment. The TRIDEC Cloud can be accessed in two different modes, the monitoring mode and the exercise-and-training mode. The monitoring mode provides important functionality required to act in a real event. So far, the monitoring mode integrates historic and real-time sea level data and latest earthquake information. The integration of sources is supported by a simple and secure interface. The exercise and training mode enables training and exercises with virtual scenarios. This mode disconnects real world systems and connects with a virtual environment that receives virtual earthquake information and virtual sea level data re-played by a scenario player. Thus operators and other stakeholders are able to train skills and prepare for real events and large exercises. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), and the Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA) have used the opportunity provided by NEAMWave14 to test the TRIDEC Cloud as a collaborative activity based on previous partnership and commitments at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs150-00/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs150-00/"><span>Helping coastal communities at risk from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>: the role of U.S. Geological Survey research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Reid, Jane A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>In 1946, 1960, and 1964, major <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (giant sea waves usually caused by earthquakes or submarine landslides) struck coastal areas of the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. In the U.S. alone, these <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> killed hundreds of people and caused many tens of millions of dollars in damage. Recent events in Papua New Guinea (1998) and elsewhere are reminders that a catastrophic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> could strike U.S. coasts at any time. The USGS, working closely with NOAA and other partners in the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program, is helping to reduce losses from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> through increased hazard assessment and improved real-time <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2732B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2732B"><span>The GNSS data processing component within the Indonesian <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> centre provided by GITEWS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartsch, M.; Merx, A.; Falck, C.; Ramatschi, M.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Introduction Within the GITEWS (German Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System) project a near real-time GNSS processing system has been developed, which analizes on- and offshore measured GNSS data. It is the first system of its kind that was integrated into an operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. (Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centre INATEWS, inaugurated at BMKG Jakarta on November, 11th 2008) Brief system description The GNSS data to be processed are received from sensors (GNSS antenna and receiver) installed on buoys, at tide gauges and as real-time reference stations (RTR stations), either stand-alone or co-located with seismic sensors. The GNSS data are transmitted to the <span class="hlt">warning</span> centre in real-time as a stream (RTR stations) or file-based and are processed in a near real-time data processing chain. The fully automatized system uses the BERNESE GPS software as processing core. Kinematic coordinate timeseries with a resolution of 1 Hz (landbased stations) and 1/3 Hz (buoys) are estimated every five minutes. In case of a recently occured earthquake the processing interval decreases from five to two minutes. All stations are processed with the relative technique (baseline-technique) using GITEWS-stations and stations available via IGS as reference. The most suitable reference stations are choosen by querying a database where continiously monitored quality data of GNSS observations are stored. In case of an earthquake at least one reference station should be located on a different tectonic plate to ensure that relative movements can be detected. The primary source for satellite orbit information is the IGS IGU product. If this source is not available for any reason, the system switches automatically to other orbit sources like CODE products or broadcast ephemeris data. For sensors on land the kinematic coordinates are used to detect deviations from their normal, mean coordinates. The deviations or so called displacements are indicators for land mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH32B..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH32B..06C"><span>A new real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chierici, F.; Embriaco, D.; Pignagnoli, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithms play a key role in any <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System. We have developed a new algorithm for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection based on the real-time tide removal and real-time band-pass filtering of sea-bed pressure recordings. The algorithm greatly increases the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection probability, shortens the detection delay and enhances detection reliability, at low computational cost. The algorithm is designed to be used also in autonomous early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems with a set of input parameters and procedures which can be reconfigured in real time. We have also developed a methodology based on Monte Carlo simulations to test the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithms. The algorithm performance is estimated by defining and evaluating statistical parameters, namely the detection probability, the detection delay, which are functions of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and wavelength, and the occurring rate of false alarms. Pressure data sets acquired by Bottom Pressure Recorders in different locations and environmental conditions have been used in order to consider real working scenarios in the test. We also present an application of the algorithm to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event which occurred at Haida Gwaii on October 28th, 2012 using data recorded by the Bullseye underwater node of <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Networks Canada. The algorithm successfully ran for test purpose in year-long missions onboard the GEOSTAR stand-alone multidisciplinary abyssal observatory, deployed in the Gulf of Cadiz during the EC project NEAREST and on NEMO-SN1 cabled observatory deployed in the Western Ionian Sea, operational node of the European research infrastructure EMSO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..05G"><span>Observations and Modeling of Environmental and Human Damages by the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goto, K.; Imamura, F.; Koshimura, S.; Yanagisawa, H.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>On 26 December 2004, one of the largest <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in human history (the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>) struck coastal areas of countries surrounding the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, causing severe property damage and loss of life and causing us to think anew about the fearful consequences of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> devastated more than 10 countries around the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. Since its energy remains almost constant, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height grows tremendously in shallow water. It ranged in runups of ~48m on the western shore of Sumatra, ~18m in Thailand, and ~15m in Sri Lanka. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> killed nearly 230,000 people, including visitors from foreign countries, resulting in great economic losses. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was also affected coastal environment at these countries and induced severe topographic change, and damages to the marine ecosystems as well as vegetations on land. Immediately following the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, number of research teams has investigated damages of environment and human communities by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Numerical analyses of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation have also been carried out to understand the behavior and wave properties of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. However, there are few studies that focused on the integration of the field observations and numerical results, nevertheless that such analysis is critically important to evaluate the environmental and human damages by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In this contribution, we first review damages to the environment and humans due to the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka based on our field observations, and then we evaluate these damages based on high resolution numerical results. For example, we conducted field observation as well as high-resolution (17 m grid cells) numerical calculation for damages of corals (reef rocks) and mangroves at Pakarang Cape, Thailand. We found that hundreds of reef rocks were emplaced on the tidal bench, and 70 % of mangroves were destroyed at the cape. Our numerical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........29H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........29H"><span>Sea level hazards: Altimetric monitoring of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and sea level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamlington, Benjamin Dillon</p> <p></p> <p>Whether on the short timescale of an impending <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> or the much longer timescale of climate change-driven sea level rise, the threat stemming from rising and inundating <span class="hlt">ocean</span> waters is a great concern to coastal populations. Timely and accurate observations of potentially dangerous changes in sea level are vital in determining the precautionary steps that need to be taken in order to protect coastal communities. While instruments from the past have provided in situ measurements of sea level at specific locations across the globe, satellites can be used to provide improved spatial and temporal sampling of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> in addition to producing more accurate measurements. Since 1993, satellite altimetry has provided accurate measurements of sea surface height (SSH) with near-global coverage. Not only have these measurements led to the first definitive estimates of global mean sea level rise, satellite altimetry observations have also been used to detect <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> where wave amplitudes are relatively small, a vital step in providing early <span class="hlt">warning</span> to those potentially affected by the impending <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The use of satellite altimetry to monitor two specific sea level hazards is examined in this thesis. The first section will focus on the detection of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> for the purpose of providing early <span class="hlt">warning</span> to coastal inhabitants. The second section will focus on estimating secular trends using satellite altimetry data with the hope of improving our understanding of future sea level change. Results presented here will show the utility of satellite altimetry for sea level monitoring and will lay the foundation for further advancement in the detection of the two sea level hazards considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4221763','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4221763"><span>Establishing an early <span class="hlt">warning</span> alert and response network following the Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Problem On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. Approach A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early <span class="hlt">warning</span> alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Local setting Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands’ population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance system. Relevant changes By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance system. Lesson learnt It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early <span class="hlt">warning</span> disease surveillance capabilities. PMID:25378746</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH51A1923R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH51A1923R"><span>Contribution of ionospheric monitoring to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span>: results from a benchmark exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolland, L.; Makela, J. J.; Drob, D. P.; Occhipinti, G.; Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Sladen, A.; Rakoto, V.; Grawe, M.; Meng, X.; Komjathy, A.; Liu, T. J. Y.; Astafyeva, E.; Coisson, P.; Budzien, S. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> pressure sensors have proven very effective to quantify <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in real-time. Yet, the cost of these sensors and maintenance strongly limit the extensive deployment of dense networks. Thus a complete observation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave-field is not possible so far. In the last decade, imprints of moderate to large transpacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave-fields have been registered in the ionosphere through the atmospheric internal gravity wave coupled with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> during its propagation. Those ionospheric observations could provide a an additional description of the phenomenon with a high spatial coverage. Ionospheric observations have been supported by numerical modeling of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, developed by different groups. We present here the first results of a cross-validation exercise aimed at testing various forward simulation techniques. In particular, we compare different approaches for modeling <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced gravity waves including a pseudo-spectral method, finite difference schemes, a fully coupled normal modes modeling approach, a Fourier-Laplace compressible ray-tracing solution, and a self-consistent, three-dimensional physics-based wave perturbation (WP) model based on the augmented Global Thermosphere-Ionosphere Model (WP-GITM). These models and other existing models use either a realistic sea-surface motion input model or a simple analytic model. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the different methods and setup common inputs to the models so that meaningful comparisons of model outputs can be made to higlight physical conclusions and understanding. Nominally, we highlight how the different models reproduce or disagree for two study cases: the ionospheric observations related to the 2012 Mw7.7 Haida Gwaii, Canada, and 2015 Mw8.3 Illapel, Chile, events. Ultimately, we explore the possibility of computing a transfer function in order to convert ionospheric perturbations directly into <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NHESS..10.1411S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NHESS..10.1411S"><span>Experience from three years of local capacity development for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> in Indonesia: challenges, lessons and the way ahead</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spahn, H.; Hoppe, M.; Vidiarina, H. D.; Usdianto, B.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Five years after the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, a lot has been achieved to make communities in Indonesia better prepared for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. This achievement is primarily linked to the development of the Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (InaTEWS). However, many challenges remain. This paper describes the experience with local capacity development for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> (TEW) in Indonesia, based on the activities of a pilot project. TEW in Indonesia is still new to disaster management institutions and the public, as is the paradigm of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The technology components of InaTEWS will soon be fully operational. The major challenge for the system is the establishment of clear institutional arrangements and capacities at national and local levels that support the development of public and institutional response capability at the local level. Due to a lack of information and national guidance, most local actors have a limited understanding of InaTEWS and DRR, and often show little political will and priority to engage in TEW. The often-limited capacity of local governments is contrasted by strong engagement of civil society organisations that opt for early <span class="hlt">warning</span> based on natural <span class="hlt">warning</span> signs rather than technology-based early <span class="hlt">warning</span>. Bringing together the various actors, developing capacities in a multi-stakeholder cooperation for an effective <span class="hlt">warning</span> system are key challenges for the end-to-end approach of InaTEWS. The development of local response capability needs to receive the same commitment as the development of the system's technology components. Public understanding of and trust in the system comes with knowledge and awareness on the part of the end users of the system and convincing performance on the part of the public service provider. Both sides need to be strengthened. This requires the integration of TEW into DRR, clear institutional arrangements, national guidance and intensive support for capacity development at local levels as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1152/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1152/"><span>Program and abstracts of the Second <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Workshop; July 19-20, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lee, W.H.K.; Kirby, S.H.; Diggles, M.F.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In response to a request by the National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for computing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagations in the western Pacific, Eric Geist asked Willie Lee for assistance in providing parameters of earthquakes which may be future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Working Group (TSWG) was initiated in August 2005. An ad hoc group of diverse expertise was formed, with Steve Kirby as the leader. The founding members are: Rick Blakely, Eric Geist, Steve Kirby, Willie Lee, George Plafker, Dave Scholl, Roland von Huene, and Ray Wells. Half of the founding members are USGS emeritus scientists. A report was quickly completed because of NOAA's urgent need to precalculate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation paths for early <span class="hlt">warning</span> purposes. It was clear to the group that much more work needed to be done to improve our knowledge about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources worldwide. The group therefore started an informal research program on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources and meets irregularly to share ideas, data, and results. Because our group activities are open to anyone, we have more participants now, including, for example, Harley Benz and George Choy (USGS, Golden, Colo.), Holly Ryan and Stephanie Ross (USGS, Menlo Park, Calif.), Hiroo Kanamori (Caltech), Emile Okal (Northwestern University), and Gerard Fryer and Barry Hirshorn (Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center, Hawaii). To celebrate the fifth anniversary of the TSWG, a workshop is being held in the Auditorium of Building 3, USGS, Menlo Park, on July 19-20, 2010 (Willie Lee and Steve Kirby, Conveners). All talks (except one) will be video broadcast. The first <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source workshop was held in April 2006 with about 100 participants from many institutions. This second workshop (on a much smaller scale) will be devoted primarily to recent work by the USGS members. In addition, Hiroo Kanamori (Caltech) will present his recent work on the 1960 and 2010 Chile earthquakes, Barry Hirshorn and Stuart Weinstein (Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112632P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112632P"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> prevention and mitigation necessities and options derived from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment in Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Steinmetz, T.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Risk and vulnerability assessment is an important component of an effective End-to-End <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System and therefore contributes significantly to disaster risk reduction. Risk assessment is a key strategy to implement and design adequate disaster prevention and mitigation measures. The knowledge about expected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard impacts, exposed elements, their susceptibility, coping and adaptation mechanisms is a precondition for the development of people-centred <span class="hlt">warning</span> structures, local specific response and recovery policy planning. The developed risk assessment and its components reflect the disaster management cycle (disaster time line) and cover the early <span class="hlt">warning</span> as well as the emergency response phase. Consequently the components hazard assessment, exposure (e.g. how many people/ critical facilities are affected?), susceptibility (e.g. are the people able to receive a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span>?), coping capacity (are the people able to evacuate in time?) and recovery (are the people able to restore their livelihoods?) are addressed and quantified. Thereby the risk assessment encompasses three steps: (i) identifying the nature, location, intensity and probability of potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threats (hazard assessment); (ii) determining the existence and degree of exposure and susceptibility to those threats; and (iii) identifying the coping capacities and resources available to address or manage these threats. The paper presents results of the research work, which is conducted in the framework of the GITEWS project and the Joint Indonesian-German Working Group on Risk Modelling and Vulnerability Assessment. The assessment methodology applied follows a people-centred approach to deliver relevant risk and vulnerability information for the purposes of early <span class="hlt">warning</span> and disaster management. The analyses are considering the entire coastal areas of Sumatra, Java and Bali facing the Sunda trench. Selected results and products like risk maps, guidelines, decision support</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH33A1379R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH33A1379R"><span>Public Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> and the NOAA <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Ready Program in Los Angeles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosati, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>After the devastating December 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>, California and other coastal states began installing "<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Zone" and "Evacuation Route" signs at beaches and major access roads. The geography of the Los Angeles area may not be conducive to signage alone for communication of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk and safety precautions. Over a year after installation, most people surveyed did not know about or recognize the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signs. More alarming is that many did not believe a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> could occur in the area even though earthquake generated waves have reached nearby beaches as recently as September 2009! UPDATE: FEB. 2010. Fifty two percent of the 147 people surveyed did not believe they would survive a natural disaster in Los Angeles. Given the unique geography of Los Angeles, how can the city and county improve the mental health of its citizens before and after a natural disaster? This poster begins to address the issues of community self-efficacy and resiliency in the face of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Of note for future research, the data from this survey showed that most people believed climate change would increase the occurrence of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Also, the public understanding of water inundation was disturbingly low. As scientists, it is important to understand the big picture of our research - how it is ultimately communicated, understood, and used by the public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035272','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035272"><span>Near-field hazard assessment of March 11, 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> sources inferred from different methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wei, Y.; Titov, V.V.; Newman, A.; Hayes, G.; Tang, L.; Chamberlin, C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> source is the origin of the subsequent transoceanic water waves, and thus the most critical component in modern <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast methodology. Although impractical to be quantified directly, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source can be estimated by different methods based on a variety of measurements provided by deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some in real time, some in post real-time. Here we assess these different sources of the devastating March 11, 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> by model-data comparison for generation, propagation and inundation in the near field of Japan. This study provides a comparative study to further understand the advantages and shortcomings of different methods that may be potentially used in real-time <span class="hlt">warning</span> and forecast of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards, especially in the near field. The model study also highlights the critical role of deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements for high-quality <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast, and its combination with land GPS measurements may lead to better understanding of both the earthquake mechanisms and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation process. ?? 2011 MTS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1771F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1771F"><span>Statistical Features of Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Based on 30 Years of Bottom Pressure Observations in the Northeast Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fine, I.; Thomson, R.; Chadwick, W. W., Jr.; Davis, E. E.; Fox, C. G.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We have used a set of high-resolution bottom pressure recorder (BPR) time series collected at Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge beginning in 1986 to examine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves of seismological origin in the northeast Pacific. These data are a combination of autonomous, internally-recording battery-powered instruments and cabled instruments on the OOI Cabled Array. Of the total of 120 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events catalogued for the coasts of Japan, Alaska, western North America and Hawaii, we found evidence for 38 events in the Axial Seamount BPR records. Many of these <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were not observed along the adjacent west coast of the USA and Canada because of the much higher noise level of coastal locations and the lack of digital tide gauge data prior to 2000. We have also identified several <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of apparent seismological origin that were observed at coastal stations but not at the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> site. Careful analysis of these observations suggests that they were likely of meteorological origin. Analysis of the pressure measurements from Axial Seamount, along with BPR measurements from a nearby ODP CORK (<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Program Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) borehole and DART (Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>) locations, reveals features of deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that are markedly different from features observed at coastal locations. Results also show that the energy of deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can differ significantly among the three sets of stations despite their close spatial spacing and that this difference is strongly dependent on the direction of the incoming <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. These deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> observations provide the most comprehensive statistics possible for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> over the past 30 years. New insight into the distribution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes and wave energy derived from the deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> sites should prove useful for long-term <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prediction and mitigation for coastal communities along the west coast of the USA and Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3955A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3955A"><span>A Pilot <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inundation Forecast System for Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Stewart C. R.; Greenslade, Diana J. M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Joint Australian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centre (JATWC) provides a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> service for Australia. <span class="hlt">Warnings</span> are currently issued according to a technique that does not include explicit modelling at the coastline, including any potential coastal inundation. This paper investigates the feasibility of developing and implementing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation modelling as part of the JATWC <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. An inundation model was developed for a site in Southeast Australia, on the basis of the availability of bathymetric and topographic data and observations of past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The model was forced using data from T2, the operational deep-water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario database currently used for generating <span class="hlt">warnings</span>. The model was evaluated not only for its accuracy but also for its computational speed, particularly with respect to operational applications. Limitations of the proposed forecast processes in the Australian context and areas requiring future improvement are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMOS32A..07F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMOS32A..07F"><span>THE <span class="hlt">TSUNAMI</span> SERVICE BUS, AN INTEGRATION PLATFORM FOR HETEROGENEOUS SENSOR SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleischer, J.; Häner, R.; Herrnkind, S.; Kriegel, U.; Schwarting, H.; Wächter, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Service Bus (TSB) is the sensor integration platform of the German Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (GITEWS) [1]. The primary goal of GITEWS is to deliver reliable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warnings</span> as fast as possible. This is achieved on basis of various sensor systems like seismometers, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> instrumentation, and GPS stations, all providing fundamental data to support prediction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave propagation by the GITEWS <span class="hlt">warning</span> center. However, all these sensors come with their own proprietary data formats and specific behavior. Also new sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced. To keep GITEWS flexible the TSB was developed in order to access and control sensors in a uniform way. To meet these requirements the TSB follows the architectural blueprint of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The integration platform implements dedicated services communicating via a service infrastructure. The functionality required for early <span class="hlt">warnings</span> is provided by loosely coupled services replacing the "hard-wired" coupling at data level. Changes in the sensor specification are confined to the data level without affecting the <span class="hlt">warning</span> center. Great emphasis was laid on following the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standard [2], specified by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) [3]. As a result the full functionality needed in GITEWS could be achieved by implementing the four SWE services: The Sensor Observation Service for retrieving sensor measurements, the Sensor Alert Service in order to deliver sensor alerts, the Sensor Planning Service for tasking sensors, and the Web Notification Service for conduction messages to various media channels. Beyond these services the TSB also follows SWE Observation & Measurements specifications (O&M) for data encoding and Sensor Model Language (SensorML) for meta information. Moreover, accessing sensors via the TSB is not restricted to GITEWS. Multiple instances of the TSB can be composed to realize federate <span class="hlt">warning</span> system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030484','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030484"><span>Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jankaew, K.; Atwater, B.F.; Sawai, Y.; Choowong, M.; Charoentitirat, T.; Martin, M.E.; Prendergast, A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Recent centuries provide no precedent for the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, either on the coasts it devastated or within its source area. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> claimed nearly all of its victims on shores that had gone 200 years or more without a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster. The associated earthquake of magnitude 9.2 defied a Sumatra-Andaman catalogue that contains no nineteenth-century or twentieth-century earthquake larger than magnitude 7.9 (ref. 2). The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and the earthquake together resulted from a fault rupture 1,500 km long that expended centuries' worth of plate convergence. Here, using sedimentary evidence for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, we identify probable precedents for the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at a grassy beach-ridge plain 125 km north of Phuket. The 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, running 2 km across this plain, coated the ridges and intervening swales with a sheet of sand commonly 5-20 cm thick. The peaty soils of two marshy swales preserve the remains of several earlier sand sheets less than 2,800 years old. If responsible for the youngest of these pre-2004 sand sheets, the most recent full-size predecessor to the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurred about 550-700 years ago. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030090','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030090"><span>Long-term perspectives on giant earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> at subduction zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Satake, K.; Atwater, B.F.; ,</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Histories of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, inferred from geological evidence, aid in anticipating future catastrophes. This natural <span class="hlt">warning</span> system now influences building codes and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> planning in the United States, Canada, and Japan, particularly where geology demonstrates the past occurrence of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> larger than those known from written and instrumental records. Under favorable circumstances, paleoseismology can thus provide long-term advisories of unusually large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The extraordinary Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 2004 resulted from a fault rupture more than 1000 km in length that included and dwarfed fault patches that had broken historically during lesser shocks. Such variation in rupture mode, known from written history at a few subduction zones, is also characteristic of earthquake histories inferred from geology on the Pacific Rim. Copyright ?? 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28345751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28345751"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> evacuation buildings and evacuation planning in Banda Aceh, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuzal, Hendri; Kim, Karl; Pant, Pradip; Yamashita, Eric</p> <p></p> <p>Indonesia, a country of more than 17,000 islands, is exposed to many hazards. A magnitude 9.1 earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 26, 2004. It triggered a series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves that spread across the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> causing damage in 11 countries. Banda Aceh, the capital city of Aceh Province, was among the most damaged. More than 31,000 people were killed. At the time, there were no early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems nor evacuation buildings that could provide safe refuge for residents. Since then, four <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation buildings (TEBs) have been constructed in the Meuraxa subdistrict of Banda Aceh. Based on analysis of evacuation routes and travel times, the capacity of existing TEBs is examined. Existing TEBs would not be able to shelter all of the at-risk population. In this study, additional buildings and locations for TEBs are proposed and residents are assigned to the closest TEBs. While TEBs may be part of a larger system of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation efforts, other strategies and approaches need to be considered. In addition to TEBs, robust detection, <span class="hlt">warning</span> and alert systems, land use planning, training, exercises, and other preparedness strategies are essential to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk reduction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S41F..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S41F..04M"><span>Incorporating Geodectic Processing Modules into a Real-Time Earthworm Environment to Enhance NOAA's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macpherson, K. A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's National and Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers currently rely on traditional seismic data in order to detect and evaluate potential tsunamigenic earthquakes anywhere on the globe. The first information products disseminated by the centers following a significant seismic event are based solely on seismically-derived earthquake locations and magnitudes, and are issued within minutes of the earthquake origin time. Thus, the rapid and reliable determination of the earthquake magnitude is a critical piece of information needed by the centers to generate the appropriate alert levels. However, seismically-derived magnitudes of large events are plagued by well-known problems, particularly during the first few minutes following the origin time; near-source broad-band instruments may go off scale, and magnitudes tend to saturate until sufficient teleseismic data arrive to represent the long-period signal that characterizes large events. However, geodetic data such as high-rate Global Positioning System (hGPS) displacements and seismogeodetic data that is a combination of collocated hGPS and accelerometer data do not suffer from these limitations. These sensors stay on scale, even for large events, and they record both dynamic and static displacements that may be used to estimate magnitude without saturation. Therefore, there is an ongoing effort to incorporate these data streams into the operations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> centers to enhance current magnitude determination capabilities, and eventually, to invert the geodetic displacements for mechanism and finite-fault information. These later quantities will be useful for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling and forecasting. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> centers rely on the Earthworm system for real-time data acquisition, so we have developed Earthworm modules for the Magnitude from Peak Ground Displacement (MPGD) algorithm, developed at the University of Washington and the University of California</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0244J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0244J"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Amplitude Estimation from Real-Time GNSS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeffries, C.; MacInnes, B. T.; Melbourne, T. I.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems currently comprise modeling of observations from the global seismic network, deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> DART buoys, and a global distribution of tide gauges. While these tools work well for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> traveling teleseismic distances, saturation of seismic magnitude estimation in the near field can result in significant underestimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation for local <span class="hlt">warning</span>. Moreover, DART buoy and tide gauge observations cannot be used to rectify the underestimation in the available time, typically 10-20 minutes, before local runup occurs. Real-time GNSS measurements of coseismic offsets may be used to estimate finite faulting within 1-2 minutes and, in turn, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation for local <span class="hlt">warning</span> purposes. We describe here a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude estimation algorithm; implemented for the Cascadia subduction zone, that uses continuous GNSS position streams to estimate finite faulting. The system is based on a time-domain convolution of fault slip that uses a pre-computed catalog of hydrodynamic Green's functions generated with the GeoClaw shallow-water wave simulation software and maps seismic slip along each section of the fault to points located off the Cascadia coast in 20m of water depth and relies on the principle of the linearity in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave propagation. The system draws continuous slip estimates from a message broker, convolves the slip with appropriate Green's functions which are then superimposed to produce wave amplitude at each coastal location. The maximum amplitude and its arrival time are then passed into a database for subsequent monitoring and display. We plan on testing this system using a suite of synthetic earthquakes calculated for Cascadia whose ground motions are simulated at 500 existing Cascadia GPS sites, as well as real earthquakes for which we have continuous GNSS time series and surveyed runup heights, including Maule, Chile 2010 and Tohoku, Japan 2011. This system has been implemented in the CWU Geodesy Lab for the Cascadia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS33B1823N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS33B1823N"><span>Sedimentology of onshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits of the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, 2004 in the mangrove forest of the Curieuse Marine National Park, Seychelles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nentwig, V.; Bahlburg, H.; Monthy, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Seychelles were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Since the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historiography we conducted a study of onshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits on the Seychelles in order to understand the scale of impact of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and potential predecessors. As part of this project we found and studied onshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay on the east coast of Curieuse Island. The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused a change of habitat due to sedimentation of an extended sand sheet in the mangrove forest. We present results of the first detailed sedimentological study of onshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> conducted on the Seychelles. The Curieuse mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond bay is part of the Curieuse Marine National Park. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>. The silt to fine sand sized and organic rich mangrove soil was subsequently covered by carbonate fine to medium sand (1.5 to 2.1 Φ) containing coarser carbonate shell debris which had been trapped outside the mangrove bay before the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposited a sand sheet which is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of morphology. Maximum inundation distance is 200 m. The sediments often cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. No landward fining trend of the sand sheet has been observed. On the different sand lobes carbonate-cemented sandstone debris ranging in size from 0.5 up to 12 cm occurs. Also numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and molluscs were distributed on top of the sand lobes. Intact bivalve shells were mostly positioned with the convex side upwards</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5567A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5567A"><span>Database of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario simulations for Western Iberia: a tool for the TRIDEC Project Decision Support System for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>TRIDEC is a EU-FP7 Project whose main goal is, in general terms, to develop suitable strategies for the management of crises possibly arising in the Earth management field. The general paradigms adopted by TRIDEC to develop those strategies include intelligent information management, the capability of managing dynamically increasing volumes and dimensionality of information in complex events, and collaborative decision making in systems that are typically very loosely coupled. The two areas where TRIDEC applies and tests its strategies are <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> and industrial subsurface development. In the field of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span>, TRIDEC aims at developing a Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates 1) a set of seismic, geodetic and marine sensors devoted to the detection and characterisation of possible tsunamigenic sources and to monitoring the time and space evolution of the generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, 2) large-volume databases of pre-computed numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios, 3) a proper overall system architecture. Two test areas are dealt with in TRIDEC: the western Iberian margin and the eastern Mediterranean. In this study, we focus on the western Iberian margin with special emphasis on the Portuguese coasts. The strategy adopted in TRIDEC plans to populate two different databases, called "Virtual Scenario Database" (VSDB) and "Matching Scenario Database" (MSDB), both of which deal only with earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. In the VSDB we simulate numerically few large-magnitude events generated by the major known tectonic structures in the study area. Heterogeneous slip distributions on the earthquake faults are introduced to simulate events as "realistically" as possible. The members of the VSDB represent the unknowns that the TRIDEC platform must be able to recognise and match during the early crisis management phase. On the other hand, the MSDB contains a very large number (order of thousands) of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations performed starting from many different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1868H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1868H"><span>U.S. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Information technology (TIM) Modernization: Performance Assessment of Tsunamigenic Earthquake Discrimination System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hagerty, M. T.; Lomax, A.; Hellman, S. B.; Whitmore, P.; Weinstein, S.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Knight, W. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> centers must rapidly decide whether an earthquake is likely to generate a destructive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in order to issue a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> quickly after a large event. For very large events (Mw > 8 or so), magnitude and location alone are sufficient to warrant an alert. However, for events of smaller magnitude (e.g., Mw ~ 7.5), particularly for so-called "<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes", magnitude alone is insufficient to issue an alert and other measurements must be rapidly made and used to assess tsunamigenic potential. The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). We (ISTI) are responsible for implementing the seismic monitoring components in this new system, including real-time seismic data collection and seismic processing. The seismic data processor includes a variety of methods aimed at real-time discrimination of tsunamigenic events, including: Mwp, Me, slowness (Theta), W-phase, mantle magnitude (Mm), array processing and finite-fault inversion. In addition, it contains the ability to designate earthquake scenarios and play the resulting synthetic seismograms through the processing system. Thus, it is also a convenient tool that integrates research and monitoring and may be used to calibrate and tune the real-time monitoring system. Here we show results of the automated processing system for a large dataset of subduction zone earthquakes containing recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes and we examine the accuracy of the various discrimation methods and discuss issues related to their successful real-time application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Geomo.306..314K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Geomo.306..314K"><span>Barrier spit recovery following the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at Pakarang Cape, southwest Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koiwa, Naoto; Takahashi, Mio; Sugisawa, Shuhei; Ito, Akifumi; Matsumoto, Hide-aki; Tanavud, Charlchai; Goto, Kazuhisa</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> had notable impacts on coastal landforms. Temporal change in topography by coastal erosion and subsequent formation of a new barrier spit on the nearshore of Pakrang Cape, southeastern Thailand, had been monitored for 10 years since 2005 based on field measurement using satellite images, high-resolution differential GPS, and/or handy GPS. Monitored topography data show that a barrier island was formed offshore from the cape several months after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event through progradation of multiple elongated gravelly beach ridges and washover fan composed of coral gravels. Subsequently, the barrier spit expanded to the open sea. The progradation and expansion were supported by supply of a large amount of coral debris produced by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. These observations provide useful data to elucidate processes of change in coastal landforms after a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> played an important role in barrier spit evolution over a period of at least a decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3895G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3895G"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Detection by High-Frequency Radar Beyond the Continental Shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grosdidier, Samuel; Guérin, Charles-Antoine</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Where coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard is governed by near-field sources, such as submarine mass failures or meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation times may be too small for a detection based on deep or shallow water buoys. To offer sufficient <span class="hlt">warning</span> time, it has been proposed to implement early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems relying on high-frequency (HF) radar remote sensing, that can provide a dense spatial coverage as far offshore as 200-300 km (e.g., for Diginext Ltd.'s Stradivarius radar). Shore-based HF radars have been used to measure nearshore currents (e.g., CODAR SeaSonde® system; http://www.codar.com/), by inverting the Doppler spectral shifts, these cause on <span class="hlt">ocean</span> waves at the Bragg frequency. Both modeling work and an analysis of radar data following the Tohoku 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, have shown that, given proper detection algorithms, such radars could be used to detect <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced currents and issue a <span class="hlt">warning</span>. However, long wave physics is such that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents will only rise above noise and background currents (i.e., be at least 10-15 cm/s), and become detectable, in fairly shallow water which would limit the direct detection of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents by HF radar to nearshore areas, unless there is a very wide shallow shelf. Here, we use numerical simulations of both HF radar remote sensing and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation to develop and validate a new type of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithm that does not have these limitations. To simulate the radar backscattered signal, we develop a numerical model including second-order effects in both wind waves and radar signal, with the wave angular frequency being modulated by a time-varying surface current, combining <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and background currents. In each "radar cell", the model represents wind waves with random phases and amplitudes extracted from a specified (wind speed dependent) energy density frequency spectrum, and includes effects of random environmental noise and background current; phases, noise, and background current are extracted from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP22A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP22A..05S"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> magnetic signals in the Northwestern Pacific seafloor magnetic measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schnepf, N. R.; An, C.; Nair, M. C.; Maus, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In the past two decades, underwater cables and seafloor magnetometers have observed motional inductance from <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. This study aimed to characterize the electromagnetic signatures of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from seafloor stations to assist in the long-term goal of real-time <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection and <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems. Four <span class="hlt">ocean</span> seafloor stations (T13, T14, T15, T18) in the Northeastern Philippine Sea collected vector measurements of the electric and magnetic fields every minute during the period of 10/05/2005 to 11/30/2007 (Baba et al., 2010 PEPI). During this time, four major <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurred as a result of moment magnitude 8.0-8.1 earthquakes. These <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> include the 05/03/2006 Tonga event, the 01/13/2007 Kuril Islands event, the 04/01/2007 Solomon Islands event, and the 08/15/2007 Peru event. The Cornell Multi-grid Coupled <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> model (COMCOT) was used to predict the arrival time of the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> at each of the seafloor stations. The stations' raw magnetic field signals underwent a high pass filter to then be examined for signals of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival. The high pass filtering showed clear <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals for the Tonga event, but a clear signal was not seen for the other events. This may be due to signals from near Earth space with periods similar to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. To remove extraneous atmospheric magnetic signals, a cross-wavelet analysis was conducted using the horizontal field components from three INTERMAGNET land stations and the vertical component from the seafloor stations. The cross-wavelet analysis showed that for three of the six stations (two of the four <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events) the peak in wavelet amplitude matched the arrival of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. We discuss implications of our finding in magnetic monitoring of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.7992R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.7992R"><span>The 2004 Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Southeastern Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: New Global Insight from Observations and Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabinovich, A. B.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Eblé, M. C.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The 2004 Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was an unprecedented global disaster measured throughout the world <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. The present study focused on a region of the southeastern Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> where the "westward" circumferentially propagating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> branch converged with the "eastward" branch, based on data from fortuitously placed Chilean DART 32401 and tide gauges along the coast of South America. By comparison of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and background spectra, we suppressed the influence of topography and reconstructed coastal "spectral ratios" that were in close agreement with a ratio at DART 32401 and spectral ratios in other <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. Findings indicate that even remote <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records carry spectral source signatures ("birth-marks"). The 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves were found to occupy the broad frequency band of 0.25-10 cph with the prominent ratio peak at period of 40 min related to the southern fast-slip source domain. This rupture "hot-spot" of ˜350 km was responsible for the global impact of the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Data from DART 32401 provided validation of model results: the simulated maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height of 2.25 cm was a conservative approximation to the measured height of 2.05 cm; the computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> travel time of 25 h 35 min to DART 32401, although 20 min earlier than the actual travel time, provided a favorable result in comparison with 24 h 25 min estimated from classical kinematic theory. The numerical simulations consistently reproduced the wave height changes observed along the coast of South America, including local amplification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves at the northern stations of Arica (72 cm) and Callao (67 cm).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.U43A..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.U43A..06C"><span>The Boxing Day <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>: Could the Disaster have been Anticipated?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cummins, P. R.; Burbdige, D.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The occurrence of the 26 December, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the accompanying "Boxing Day" <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>, which killed over 280,00, has been described as one of the most lethal natural disasters in human history. Many lives could have been saved had a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system, similar to that which exists for the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, been in operation for the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The former exists because great subduction zone earthquakes have generated destructive, Pacific-wide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> with some frequency. Prior to 26 December, 2004, all of the world's earthquakes with magnitude > 9 were widely thought to have occurred in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, where they caused destructive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Could the occurrence of similar earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> been predicted prior to the 2004 Box Day Tragedy? This presentation will argue that the answer is "Yes". Almost without exception (the exception being the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake) the massive subduction zone earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> have been associated with the subduction of relatively young <span class="hlt">ocean</span> lithosphere (< 60 Ma), and the theory for why this should be so seems well established. Although the eastern part of the Sunda Arc off Java does not meet this criterion, the western part of the Sunda Arc offshore Sumatra does. Although there appears to be no reference to the great earthquakes off Sumatra which occurred in 1833 and 1861 in widely-used earthquake catalogs, these events have been reported in the literature and were the subject of recent research. In particular, research by Zachariasen et al. (1999 and 2000) had inferred that the magnitude of the 1833 event may have been as high as 9.2. Calculations for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that might have been associated with this event had shown, prior to 26 Dec, that it would affect the entire Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> basin, although due to the earthquake's location 1000 km southeast of the Boxing day event, the effects in the Bay of Bengal would not have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH51D..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH51D..04R"><span>The Great Chilean <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> of 2010, 2014 and 2015 on the Coast and Offshore of Mexico: Comparative Features Based on Open-<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Energy Parameterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabinovich, A.; Zaytsev, O.; Thomson, R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The three recent great earthquakes offshore of Chile on 27 February 2010 (Maule, Mw 8.8), 1 April 2014 (Iquique, Mw 8.2) and 16 September 2015 (Illapel, Mw 8.3) generated major trans-<span class="hlt">oceanic</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that spread throughout the entire Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and were measured by numerous coastal tide gauges and open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> DART stations. Statistical and spectral analyses of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from the three events recorded on the Pacific coast of Mexico enabled us to compare the events and to identify coastal "hot spots", regions with maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk. Based on joint spectral analyses of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and background noise, we have developed a method for reconstructing the "true" <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> spectra in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The "reconstructed" open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> spectra are in excellent agreement with the actual <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> spectra evaluated from direct analysis of the DART records offshore of Mexico. We have further used the spectral estimates to parameterize the energy of the three Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> based on the total open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy and frequency content of the individual events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4094T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4094T"><span><span class="hlt">Warning</span> and prevention based on estimates with large uncertainties: the case of low-frequency and large-impact events like <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Geoscientists deal often with hazardous processes like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, hurricanes, etc., and their research is aimed not only to a better understanding of the physical processes, but also to provide assessment of the space and temporal evolution of a given individual event (i.e. to provide short-term prediction) and of the expected evolution of a group of events (i.e. to provide statistical estimates referred to a given return period, and a given geographical area). One of the main issues of any scientific method is how to cope with measurement errors, a topic which in case of forecast of ongoing or of future events translates into how to deal with forecast uncertainties. In general, the more data are available and processed to make a prediction, the more accurate the prediction is expected to be if the scientific approach is sound, and the smaller the associated uncertainties are. However, there are several important cases where assessment is to be made with insufficient data or insufficient time for processing, which leads to large uncertainties. Two examples can be given taken from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> science, since <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are rare events that may have destructive power and very large impact. One example is the case of <span class="hlt">warning</span> for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by a near-coast earthquake, which is an issue at the focus of the European funded project NearTo<span class="hlt">Warn</span>. <span class="hlt">Warning</span> has to be launched before <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hits the coast, that is in a few minutes after its generation. This may imply that data collected in such a short time are not yet enough for an accurate evaluation, also because the implemented monitoring system (if any) could be inadequate (f.i. one reason of inadequacy could be that implementing a dense instrumental network could be judged too expensive for rare events) The second case is the long term prevention from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> strikes. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> infrequency may imply that the historical record for a given piece of coast is too short to capture a statistical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610035M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610035M"><span>The Hellenic National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centre (HL-NTWC): Recent updates and future developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melis, Nikolaos S.; Charalampakis, Marinos</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Hellenic NTWC (HL-NTWC) was established officially by Greek Law in September 2010. HL-NTWC is hosted at the National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Geodynamics (NOA-IG), which also operates a 24/7 earthquake monitoring service in Greece and coordinates the newly established Hellenic Unified National Seismic Network. NOA-IG and HL-NTWC Operational Centre is linked to the Civil Protection Operational Centre and serves as the official alerting agency to the General Secretariat for Civil Protection in Greece, regarding earthquake events and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> watch. Since August 2012, HL-NTWC acts as Candidate <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Watch Provider (CTWP) under the UNESCO IOC - ICG NEAMTWS <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system (NEAM: North-Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas) and offers its services to the NEAMTWS system. HL-NTWC has participated in all Communication Test Exercises (CTE) under NEAMTWS and also it has provided <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios for extended system testing exercises such as NEAMWAVE12. Some of the recent developments at HL-NTWC in Greece include: deployment of new tide gauge stations for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> watch purposes, computation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios and extending the database in use, improving alerting response times, earthquake magnitude estimation and testing newly established software modules for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and earthquake alerting (i.e. Early-Est, SeisComP3 etc.) in Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. Although funding today is limited, an advantage of the participation in important EC funded research projects, i.e. NERIES, NERA, TRANSFER, NEAMTIC and ASTARTE, demonstrates that collaboration of top class Research Institutions that care to produce important and useful results in the research front in Europe, can facilitate towards developing and operating top class Operational Centers, useful for Civil Protection purposes in regions in need. Last, it is demonstrated that HL-NTWC collaboration with important key role Research Centers in the Security and Safety issues (e</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..3313601C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..3313601C"><span>Distribution of runup heights of the December 26, 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Byung Ho; Hong, Sung Jin; Pelinovsky, Efim</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>A massive earthquake with magnitude 9.3 occurred on December 26, 2004 off the northern Sumatra generated huge <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves affected many coastal countries in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A number of field surveys have been performed after this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event; in particular, several surveys in the south/east coast of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Malaysia, and Thailand have been organized by the Korean Society of Coastal and <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Engineers from January to August 2005. Spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> runup is used to analyze the distribution function of the wave heights on different coasts. Theoretical interpretation of this distribution is associated with random coastal bathymetry and coastline led to the log-normal functions. Observed data also are in a very good agreement with log-normal distribution confirming the important role of the variable <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bathymetry in the formation of the irregular wave height distribution along the coasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=3650&hterms=worlds+oceans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dworlds%2Boceans','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=3650&hterms=worlds+oceans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dworlds%2Boceans"><span>Deep <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waves off the Sri Lankan Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves resulting from the undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) on December 26, 2004, off the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, took a little over 2 hours to reach the teardrop-shaped island of Sri Lanka. Additional waves continued to arrive for many hours afterward. At approximately 05:15 UTC, as NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captured this image of deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves about 30-40 kilometers from Sri Lanka's southwestern coast. The waves are made visible due to the effects of changes in sea-surface slope on the reflected sunglint pattern, shown here in MISR's 46-degree-forward-pointing camera. Sunglint occurs when sunlight reflects off a water surface in much the same way light reflects off a mirror, and the position of the Sun, angle of observation, and orientation of the sea surface determines how bright each part of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> appears in the image. These large wave features were invisible to MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera. The image covers an area of 208 kilometers by 207 kilometers. The greatest impact of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was generally in an east-west direction, so the havoc caused by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along the southwestern shores of Sri Lanka was not as severe as along the eastern coast. However, substantial damage did occur in this region' as evidenced by the brownish debris in the water' because <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves can diffract around land masses. The ripple-like wave pattern evident in this MISR image roughly correlates with the undersea boundary of the continental shelf. The surface wave pattern is likely to have been caused by interaction of deep waves with the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, rather than by the more usually observed surface waves, which are driven by winds. It is possible that this semi-concentric pattern represents wave reflection from the continental land mass; however, a combination of wave modeling and detailed bathymetric data is required to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7551U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7551U"><span>Real time assessment of the 15 July 2009 New Zealand <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uslu, Burak; Power, William; Greensdale, Dianne; Titov, Vasily</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>On the 15th July 2009 a Mw 7.6 earthquake occurred off the coast of Fiordland in the South Island of New Zealand, about 1200 km from Auckland, New Zealand, 1500 km from Hobart, Tasmania and 1800 km from Sydney, Australia. A <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was generated and an initial <span class="hlt">warning</span> issued by the PTWC. The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate issued its first <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> for coastal regions of eastern Australia and New Zealand 24 minutes after the earthquake. By serendipitous coincidence, the earthquake struck while the International <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Symposium was in session in Novosibirsk Russia. This provided the opportunity to test, in real-time, several <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems in front of attending scientists (Schiermeier, 2009). NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research, Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center, GNS Science, and Centre for Australian Weather and Climate scientists were present at the symposium and worked together. Vasily Titov showed "live" NOAA's methodology (Bernard et al, 2006) to assess the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> potential and, in consultation with colleagues, provided <span class="hlt">warning</span> guidance, and the <span class="hlt">warning</span> was eventually canceled. We discuss how the forecast was done and how accurate the initial determination was. References Bernard E.N. et al., 2006, <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>: scientific frontiers, mitigation, forecasting and policy implications, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 364:1989-2007; doi:10.1098/rsta.2006.1809 Schiermeier, Q., 2009, <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> forecast in real time, Published online 16 July 2009 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news.2009.702</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392618"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>: bridging science, engineering and society.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kânoğlu, U; Titov, V; Bernard, E; Synolakis, C</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are high-impact, long-duration disasters that in most cases allow for only minutes of <span class="hlt">warning</span> before impact. Since the 2004 Boxing Day <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, there have been significant advancements in <span class="hlt">warning</span> methodology, pre-disaster preparedness and basic understanding of related phenomena. Yet, the trail of destruction of the 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, broadcast live to a stunned world audience, underscored the difficulties of implementing advances in applied hazard mitigation. We describe state of the art methodologies, standards for <span class="hlt">warnings</span> and summarize recent advances in basic understanding, and identify cross-disciplinary challenges. The stage is set to bridge science, engineering and society to help build up coastal resilience and reduce losses. © 2015 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMIN22A..03K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMIN22A..03K"><span>A <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-Focused Tide Station Data Sharing Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kari, U. S.; Marra, J. J.; Weinstein, S. A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> of 26 December 2004 made it clear that information about tide stations that could be used to support detection and <span class="hlt">warning</span> (such as location, collection and transmission capabilities, operator identification) are insufficiently known or not readily accessible. Parties interested in addressing this problem united under the Pacific Region Data Integrated Data Enterprise (PRIDE), and in 2005 began a multiyear effort to develop a distributed metadata system describing tide stations starting with pilot activities in a regional framework and focusing on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection and <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems being developed by various agencies. First, a plain semantic description of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-focused tide station metadata was developed. The semantic metadata description was, in turn, developed into a formal metadata schema championed by International <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Information Centre (ITIC) as part of a larger effort to develop a prototype web service under the PRIDE program in 2005. Under the 2006 PRIDE program the formal metadata schema was then expanded to corral input parameters for the TideTool application used by Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (PTWC) to drill down into wave activity at a tide station that is located using a web service developed on this metadata schema. This effort contributed to formalization of web service dissemination of PTWC watch and <span class="hlt">warning</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> bulletins. During this time, the data content and sharing issues embodied in this schema have been discussed at various forums. The result is that the various stakeholders have different data provider and user perspectives (semantic content) and also exchange formats (not limited to just XML). The challenge then, is not only to capture all data requirements, but also to have formal representation that is easily transformed into any specified format. The latest revision of the tide gauge schema (Version 0.3), begins to address this challenge. It encompasses a broader range of provider and user</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006003&hterms=foster&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfoster','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006003&hterms=foster&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfoster"><span>Observing <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210998Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210998Z"><span>Modeling of influence from remote <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at the coast of Sakhalin and Kuriles islands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Yalciner, Ahmet; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Far East coast of Russia (Kuriles islands, Sakhalin, Kamchatka) is the area where the dangerous natural phenomena as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is located. A lot of works are established for decreasing of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>'s influence. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> mapping and mitigation strategy are given for some regions. The centers of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System are opened, enough plenty of records of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are collected. The properties of local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are studied well. At the same time, the catastrophic event of the Indonesian <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which had happened in December, 2004, when the sufficient waves have reached the coasts of Africa and South America, it is necessary to note, that the coats, which was far from the epicenter of earthquakes can be effected by catastrophic influence. Moreover, it is practically unique case, when using <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System can reduce the number of human victims to zero. Development of the computer technologies, numerical methods for the solution of systems of the nonlinear differential equations makes computer modeling real and hypothetical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is the basic method of studying features of distribution of waves in water areas and their influence at coast. Numerical modeling of distribution of historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from the seismic sources in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> was observed. The events with an epicenter, remote from Far East coast of Russia were considered. The estimation of the remote <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves propagation was developed. Impact force of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> was estimated. The features of passage of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> through Kuril Straits were considered. The spectral analysis of records in settlements of Sakhalin and Kuriles is lead. NAMI-DANCE program was used for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation numerical modeling. It is used finite element numerical schemes for Shallow Water Equations and Nonlinear-Dispersive Equations, with use Nested Grid.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1656W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1656W"><span>Availability and Reliability of Disaster Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Systems and the IT Infrastructure Library</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wächter, J.; Loewe, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Boxing Day <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> of 2004 caused an information catastrophy. Crucial early <span class="hlt">warning</span> information could not be delivered to the communities under imminent threat, resulting in over 240,000 casualties in 14 countries. This tragedy sparked the development of a new generation of integrated modular <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Systems (TEWS). While significant advances were accomplished in the past years, recent events, like the Chile 2010 and the Tohoku 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> demonstrate that the key technical challenge for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> research on the supranational scale still lies in the timely issuing of status information and reliable early <span class="hlt">warning</span> messages. A key challenge stems from the main objective of the IOC <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Programme, the integration of national TEWS towards <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-wide networks: Each of the increasing number of integrated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centres has to cope with the continuing evolution of sensors, hardware and software while having to maintain reliable inter-center information exchange services. To avoid future information catastrophes, the performance of all components, ranging from sensors to <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers, has to be regularly validated against defined criteria. This task is complicated by the fact that in term of ICT system life cycles <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are very rare event resulting in very difficult framing conditions to safeguard the availability and reliability of TWS. Since 2004, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) has built up expertise in the field of TEWS. Within GFZ, the Centre for GeoInformation Technology (CEGIT) has focused its work on the geoinformatics aspects of TEWS in two projects already: The German Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (GITEWS) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Distant Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (DEWS), a European project funded under the sixth Framework Programme (FP6). These developments are continued in the TRIDEC project (Collaborative, Complex, and Critical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1897A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1897A"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Evacuation Plans, Maps, And Procedures: Pilot Project in Central America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arcos, N. P.; Kong, L. S. L.; Arcas, D.; Aliaga, B.; Coetzee, D.; Leonard, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the End-to-End <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> chain, once a forecast is provided and a <span class="hlt">warning</span> alert issued, communities must know what to do and where to go. The 'where to' answer would be reliable and practical community-level <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation maps. Following the Exercise Pacific Wave 2011, a questionnaire was sent to the 46 Member States of Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (PTWS). The results revealed over 42 percent of Member States lacked <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mass coastal evacuation plans. Additionally, a significant gap in mapping was exposed as over 55 percent of Member States lacked <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation maps, routes, signs and assembly points. Thereby, a significant portion of countries in the Pacific lack appropriate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> planning and mapping for their at-risk coastal communities. While a variety of tools exist to establish <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation areas, these are inconsistent while a methodology has not been developed to assist countries develop <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation maps, plans, and procedures. The International <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Information Center (ITIC) and partners is leading a Pilot Project in Honduras demonstrating that globally standardized tools and methodologies can be applied by a country, with minimal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> and mitigation resources, towards the determination of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation areas and subsequently community-owned <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation maps and plans for at-risk communities. The Pilot involves a 1- to 2-year long process centered on a series of linked <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> training workshops on: evacuation planning, evacuation map development, inundation modeling and map creation, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> & emergency response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and conducting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> exercises (including evacuation). The Pilot's completion is capped with a UNESCO/IOC document so that other countries can replicate the process in their <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-prone communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43A1739M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43A1739M"><span>NOAA <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> water level archive - scientific perspectives and discoveries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mungov, G.; Eble, M. C.; McLean, S. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics (WDS) provides long-term archive, data management, and access to national and global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data. Currently, NGDC archives and processes high-resolution data recorded by the Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (DART) network, the coastal-tide-gauge network from the National <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Service (NOS) as well as tide-gauge data recorded by all gauges in the two National Weather Service (NWS) <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers' (TWCs) regional networks. The challenge in processing these data is that the observations from the deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span>, Pacific Islands, Alaska region, and United States West and East Coasts display commonalities, but, at the same time, differ significantly, especially when extreme events are considered. The focus of this work is on how time integration of raw observations (10-seconds to 1-minute) could mask extreme water levels. Analysis of the statistical and spectral characteristics obtained from records with different time step of integration will be presented. Results show the need to precisely calibrate the despiking procedure against raw data due to the significant differences in the variability of deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> and coastal tide-gauge observations. It is shown that special attention should be drawn to the very strong water level declines associated with the passage of the North Atlantic cyclones. Strong changes for the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and for the West Coast have implications for data quality but these same features are typical for the East Coast regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..465N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..465N"><span>Initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals in the lithosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novik, O.; Ershov, S.; Mikhaylovskaya, I.</p> <p></p> <p>Satellite and ground based instrumentations for monitoring of dynamical processes under the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> floor 3 4 of the Earth surface and resulting catastrophic events should be adapted to unknown physical nature of transformation of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> lithosphere s energy of seismogenic deformations into measurable acoustic electromagnetic EM temperature and hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves To describe the initial up to a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave far from a shore stage of this transformation and to understand mechanism of EM signals arising above the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during seismic activation we formulate a nonlinear mathematical model of seismo-hydro-EM geophysical field interaction in the lithosphere-<span class="hlt">Ocean</span>-atmosphere medium from the upper mantle under the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> up to the ionosphere domain D The model is based on the theory of elasticity electrodynamics fluid dynamics thermodynamics and geophysical data On the basis of this model and its mathematical investigation we calculate generation and propagation of different see above waves in the basin of a model marginal sea the data on the central part of the Sea of Japan were used At the moment t 0 the dynamic interaction process is supposed to be caused by weak may be precursory sub-vertical elastic displacements with the amplitude duration and main frequency of the order of a few cm sec and tenth of Hz respectively at the depth of 37 km under the sea level i e in the upper mantle Other seismic excitations may be considered as well The lithosphere EM signal is generated in the upper mantle conductive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712463M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712463M"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> disaster risk management capabilities in Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Greece is vulnerable to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-<span class="hlt">warning</span> systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/marine/marine.shtml','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/marine/marine.shtml"><span>Marine, Tropical, and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/aboutsearch.html">Science.gov Websites</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>essential to the conduct of <em>safe</em> and efficient maritime operations and for the protection of the marine - Managed by National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) Awareness Weeks: <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness Campaigns National <em>Safe</em> Prepared and Stay <em>Safe</em>! <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness: Applying Lessons from the Past Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008554&hterms=foster&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfoster','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008554&hterms=foster&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfoster"><span>Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Using GPS TEC Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. These observations are compared to estimates of expected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> speed and amplitude that may be useful for early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Geomo.104..134C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Geomo.104..134C"><span>Beach recovery after 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from Phang-nga, Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choowong, Montri; Phantuwongraj, Sumet; Charoentitirat, Thasinee; Chutakositkanon, Vichai; Yumuang, Sombat; Charusiri, Punya</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> devastated the coastal areas along the Andaman western coast of Thailand and left unique physical evidence of its impact, including the erosional landforms of the pre-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> topography. Here we show the results from monitoring the natural recovery of beach areas at Khuk Khak and Bang Niang tidal channels of Khao Lak area, Phang-nga, Thailand. A series of satellite images before and after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event was employed for calculating the beach area and locating the position of the changed shoreline. Field surveys to follow-up the development of the post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> beach area were conducted from 2005 to 2007 and the yearly beach profile was measured in 2006. As a result, the scoured beach areas where the tidal channel inlets were located underwent continuous recovery. The return of post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sediments within the beach zone was either achieved by normal wind and wave processes or during the storm surges in the rainy season. Post-2004 beach sediments were derived mainly from near offshore sources. The present situation of the beach zone has almost completed reversion back to the equilibrium stage and this has occurred within 2 years after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. We suggest these results provide a better understanding of the geomorphological process involved in beach recovery after severe erosion such as by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1867K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1867K"><span>Leading Wave Amplitude of a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of <span class="hlt">warning</span> to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S53B0673M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S53B0673M"><span>New constraints on the magnitude of the 4 January 1907 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake off Sumatra, Indonesia, and its Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>-wide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, S. S.; Li, L.; Okal, E.; Kanamori, H.; Morin, J.; Sieh, K.; Switzer, A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>On 4 January 1907, an earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurred off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, causing at least 2,188 fatalities. The earthquake was given an instrumental surface-wave magnitude (MS) in the range of 7.5 to 8.0 at periods of ≈40s. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> it triggered was destructive on the islands of Nias and Simeulue; on the latter, this gave rise to the legend of the S'mong. This <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> appears in records in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and as far as the island of La Réunion. In relation to published seismic magnitudes for the earthquake, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was anomalously large, qualifying it as a "<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake." Relocations using reported arrival times suggest an epicentral location near the trench. However, unusually for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake the reported macroseismic intensities were higher than expected on Nias (6-7 EMS). We present a new study of this event based on macroseismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations culled from published literature and colonial press reports, as well as existing and newly acquired digitized or print seismograms. This multidisciplinary combination of macroseismic and seismological data with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modelling has yielded new insights into this poorly understood but scientifically and societally important <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. With these new data, we discriminated two large earthquakes within an hour of each other with clear differences in seismological character. The first, we interpret to be a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquake with low levels of shaking (3-4 EMS). For this event, we estimate a seismic moment (M0) between 0.8 and 1.2 x1021 Nm (≈MW 7.9 to 8.0) based on digitized Wiechert records at Göttingen in the frequency band 6-8 mHz. These records document a regular growth of moment with period and suggest possibly larger values of M0 at even longer periods. The second earthquake caused damage on Nias (6-7 EMS). We estimate MS 6 ¾ - 7 for the second event based on seismograms from Manila, Mizusawa, and Osaka. We also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4872529','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4872529"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves extensively resurfaced the shorelines of an early Martian <span class="hlt">ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Platz, Thomas; Komatsu, Goro; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Yan, Jianguo; Gulick, Virginia; Higuchi, Kana; Baker, Victor R.; Glines, Natalie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It has been proposed that ~3.4 billion years ago an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> fed by enormous catastrophic floods covered most of the Martian northern lowlands. However, a persistent problem with this hypothesis is the lack of definitive paleoshoreline features. Here, based on geomorphic and thermal image mapping in the circum-Chryse and northwestern Arabia Terra regions of the northern plains, in combination with numerical analyses, we show evidence for two enormous <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events possibly triggered by bolide impacts, resulting in craters ~30 km in diameter and occurring perhaps a few million years apart. The <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> produced widespread littoral landforms, including run-up water-ice-rich and bouldery lobes, which extended tens to hundreds of kilometers over gently sloping plains and boundary cratered highlands, as well as backwash channels where wave retreat occurred on highland-boundary surfaces. The ice-rich lobes formed in association with the younger <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, showing that their emplacement took place following a transition into a colder global climatic regime that occurred after the older <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. We conclude that, on early Mars, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> played a major role in generating and resurfacing coastal terrains. PMID:27196957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27196957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27196957"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> waves extensively resurfaced the shorelines of an early Martian <span class="hlt">ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Fairén, Alberto G; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Platz, Thomas; Komatsu, Goro; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Yan, Jianguo; Gulick, Virginia; Higuchi, Kana; Baker, Victor R; Glines, Natalie</p> <p>2016-05-19</p> <p>It has been proposed that ~3.4 billion years ago an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> fed by enormous catastrophic floods covered most of the Martian northern lowlands. However, a persistent problem with this hypothesis is the lack of definitive paleoshoreline features. Here, based on geomorphic and thermal image mapping in the circum-Chryse and northwestern Arabia Terra regions of the northern plains, in combination with numerical analyses, we show evidence for two enormous <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events possibly triggered by bolide impacts, resulting in craters ~30 km in diameter and occurring perhaps a few million years apart. The <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> produced widespread littoral landforms, including run-up water-ice-rich and bouldery lobes, which extended tens to hundreds of kilometers over gently sloping plains and boundary cratered highlands, as well as backwash channels where wave retreat occurred on highland-boundary surfaces. The ice-rich lobes formed in association with the younger <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, showing that their emplacement took place following a transition into a colder global climatic regime that occurred after the older <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. We conclude that, on early Mars, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> played a major role in generating and resurfacing coastal terrains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3385H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3385H"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Impact Computed from Offshore Modeling and Coastal Amplification Laws: Insights from the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> gave the opportunity to gather unprecedented <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observation databases for various coastlines. We present here an analysis of such databases gathered for 3 coastlines, among the most impacted in 2004 in the intermediate- and far field: Thailand-Myanmar, SE India-Sri Lanka, and SE Madagascar. Non-linear shallow water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling performed on a single 4' coarse bathymetric grid is compared to these observations, in order to check to which extent a simple approach based on the usual energy conservation laws (either Green's or Synolakis laws) can explain the data. The idea is to fit <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data with numerical modeling carried out without any refined coastal bathymetry/topography. To this end several parameters are discussed, namely the bathymetric depth to which model results must be extrapolated (using the Green's law), or the mean bathymetric slope to consider near the studied coast (when using the Synolakis law). Using extrapolation depths from 1 to 10 m generally allows a good fit; however, a 0.1 m is required for some others, especially in the far field (Madagascar) possibly due to enhanced numerical dispersion. Such a method also allows describing the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact variability along a given coastline. Then, using a series of scenarios, we propose a preliminary statistical assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact for a given earthquake magnitude along the Indonesian subduction. Conversely, the sources mostly contributing to a specific hazard can also be mapped onto the sources, providing a first order definition of which sources are threatening the 3 studied coastlines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/tsunamis.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/tsunamis.html"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is a series of huge <span class="hlt">ocean</span> waves created by an underwater disturbance. Causes include earthquakes, landslides, volcanic ... space that strike the surface of Earth. A <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> can move hundreds of miles per hour in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH12A..08G"><span>Development of algorithms for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection by High Frequency Radar based on modeling <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the Mediterranean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, S. T.; Guérin, C. A.; Grosdidier, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Where coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard is governed by near-field sources, Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs) or earthquakes, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation times may be too small for a detection based on deep or shallow water buoys. To offer sufficient <span class="hlt">warning</span> time, it has been proposed by others to implement early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems relying on High Frequency Radar (HFR) remote sensing, that has a dense spatial coverage far offshore. A new HFR, referred to as STRADIVARIUS, is being deployed by Diginext Inc. (in Fall 2014), to cover the "Golfe du Lion" (GDL) in the Western Mediterranean Sea. This radar uses a proprietary phase coding technology that allows detection up to 300 km, in a bistatic configuration (for which radar and antennas are separated by about 100 km). Although the primary purpose of the radar is vessel detection in relation to homeland security, the 4.5 MHz HFR will provide a strong backscattered signal for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface waves at the so-called Bragg frequency (here, wavelength of 30 m). The current caused by an arriving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> will shift the Bragg frequency, by a value proportional to the current magnitude (projected on the local radar ray direction), which can be easily obtained from the Doppler spectrum of the HFR signal. Using state of the art <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and propagation models, we modeled <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the western Mediterranean basin (both seismic and SMFs) and simulated the HFR backscattered signal that would be detected for the entire GDL and beyond. Based on simulated HFR signal, we developed two types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithms: (i) one based on standard Doppler spectra, for which we found that to be detectable within the environmental and background current noises, the Doppler shift requires <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents to be at least 10-15 cm/s, which typically only occurs on the continental shelf in fairly shallow water; (ii) to allow earlier detection, a second algorithm computes correlations of the HFR signals at two distant locations, shifted in time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6564G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6564G"><span>Development of algorithms for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection by High Frequency Radar based on modeling <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the Mediterranean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grilli, Stéphan; Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Grosdidier, Samuel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Where coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard is governed by near-field sources, Submarine Mass Failures (SMFs) or earthquakes, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation times may be too small for a detection based on deep or shallow water buoys. To offer sufficient <span class="hlt">warning</span> time, it has been proposed by others to implement early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems relying on High Frequency Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR) remote sensing, that has a dense spatial coverage far offshore. A new HFSWR, referred to as STRADIVARIUS, has been recently deployed by Diginext Inc. to cover the "Golfe du Lion" (GDL) in the Western Mediterranean Sea. This radar, which operates at 4.5 MHz, uses a proprietary phase coding technology that allows detection up to 300 km in a bistatic configuration (with a baseline of about 100 km). Although the primary purpose of the radar is vessel detection in relation to homeland security, it can also be used for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> current monitoring. The current caused by an arriving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> will shift the Bragg frequency by a value proportional to a component of its velocity, which can be easily obtained from the Doppler spectrum of the HFSWR signal. Using state of the art <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation and propagation models, we modeled <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case studies in the western Mediterranean basin (both seismic and SMFs) and simulated the HFSWR backscattered signal that would be detected for the entire GDL and beyond. Based on simulated HFSWR signal, we developed two types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection algorithms: (i) one based on standard Doppler spectra, for which we found that to be detectable within the environmental and background current noises, the Doppler shift requires <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents to be at least 10-15 cm/s, which typically only occurs on the continental shelf in fairly shallow water; (ii) to allow earlier detection, a second algorithm computes correlations of the HFSWR signals at two distant locations, shifted in time by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation time between these locations (easily computed based on bathymetry). We found that this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH11A1335H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH11A1335H"><span>Field Survey in French Polynesia and Numerical Modeling of the 11 March 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hyvernaud, O.; Reymond, D.; Okal, E.; Hebert, H.; Clément, J.; Wong, K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We present the field survey and observations of the Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of March 2011, in Society and Marquesas islands. Without being catastrophic the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> produced some damages in the Marquesas, which are always the most prone to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplification in French Polynesia: 8 houses were destroyed and inundated (up to 4.5 m of run-up measured). Surprisingly, the maximum run-up was observed on the South-West coast of Nuku Hiva island (a bay open to the opposite direction of the wave-front). In Tahiti, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was much more moderate, with a maximum height observed on the North coast: about 3 m of run-up observed, corresponding to the highest level of the seasonal <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> swell without damage (just the main road inundated). These observations are well explained and reproduced by the numerical modeling of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The results obtained confirm the exceptional source dimensions. Concerning the real time aspect, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height has been also rapidly predicted during the context of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span>, with 2 methods: the first uses a database of pre-computed numeric simulations, and the second one uses a formula giving the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude in deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> in function of the source parameters (coordinates of the source, scalar moment and fault azimuth) and of the coordinates of the receiver. The population responded responsibly to the evacuation order on the 19 islands involved, helped in part by a favourable arrival time of the wave (7:30 a.m., local time).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO14B2758E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO14B2758E"><span>NOAA Propagation Database Value in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast Guidance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eble, M. C.; Wright, L. M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research (NCTR) has developed a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting capability that combines a graphical user interface with data ingestion and numerical models to produce estimates of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave arrival times, amplitudes, current or water flow rates, and flooding at specific coastal communities. The capability integrates several key components: deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> observations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in real-time, a basin-wide pre-computed propagation database of water level and flow velocities based on potential pre-defined seismic unit sources, an inversion or fitting algorithm to refine the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source based on the observations during an event, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast models. As <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves propagate across the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, observations from the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> are automatically ingested into the application in real-time to better define the source of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> itself. Since passage of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves over a deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> reporting site is not immediate, we explore the value of the NOAA propagation database in providing placeholder forecasts in advance of deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observations. The propagation database consists of water elevations and flow velocities pre-computed for 50 x 100 [km] unit sources in a continuous series along all known <span class="hlt">ocean</span> subduction zones. The 2011 Japan Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is presented as the case study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5854A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5854A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> in the central Mediterranean: effect of the heterogeneity of the seismic source on the timely detectability of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The central Mediterranean, and in particular the coasts of southern Italy, is one of the areas with the highest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in Europe. Limiting our attention to earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, the sources of historical events hitting this region, as well as the largest part of the potential tsunamigenic seismic sources mapped there, are found at very short distances from the closest shorelines, reducing the time needed for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to attack the coasts themselves to few minutes. This represents by itself an issue from the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> (TEW) perspective. To make the overall problem even more intriguing and challenging, it is known that large tsunamigenic earthquakes are generally characterized by highly heterogeneous distributions of the slip on the fault. This feature has been recognized clearly, for instance, in the giant Sumatra 2004, Chile 2010, and Japan 2011 earthquakes (magnitude 9.3, 8.8 and 9.0, respectively), but it was a property also of smaller magnitude events occurred in the region considered in this study, like the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunamigenic earthquake (M=7.2). In terms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact, the parent fault slip heterogeneity usually determines a high variability of run-up and inundation on the near-field coasts, which further complicates the TEW problem. The information on the details of the seismic source rupture coming from the seismic (and possibly geodetic) networks, though of primary importance, is typically available after a time that is comparable or larger than the time comprised between the generation and the impact of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In the framework of the EU-FP7 TRIDEC Project, we investigate how a proper marine sensors coverage both along the coasts and offshore can help posing constraints on the characteristics of the source in near-real time. Our approach consists in discussing numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios in the central Mediterranean involving different slip distributions on the parent fault; the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21C1525F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21C1525F"><span>Fast Simulation of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in Real Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fryer, G. J.; Wang, D.; Becker, N. C.; Weinstein, S. A.; Walsh, D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers primarily base their wave height forecasts on precomputed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios, such as the SIFT model (Standby Inundation Forecasting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>) developed by NOAA's Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research. In SIFT, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations for about 1600 individual earthquake sources, each 100x50 km, define shallow subduction worldwide. These simulations are stored in a database and combined linearly to make up the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from any great earthquake. Precomputation is necessary because the nonlinear shallow-water wave equations are too time consuming to compute during an event. While such scenario-based models are valuable, they tacitly assume all energy in a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> comes from thrust at the décollement. The thrust assumption is often violated (e.g., 1933 Sanriku, 2007 Kurils, 2009 Samoa), while a significant number of tsunamigenic earthquakes are completely unrelated to subduction (e.g., 1812 Santa Barbara, 1939 Accra, 1975 Kalapana). Finally, parts of some subduction zones are so poorly defined that precomputations may be of little value (e.g., 1762 Arakan, 1755 Lisbon). For all such sources, a fast means of estimating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> size is essential. At the Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center, we have been using our model RIFT (Real-time Inundation Forecasting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>) experimentally for two years. RIFT is fast by design: it solves only the linearized form of the equations. At 4 arc-minutes resolution calculations for the entire Pacific take just a few minutes on an 8-processor Linux box. Part of the rationale for developing RIFT was earthquakes of M 7.8 or smaller, which approach the lower limit of the more complex SIFT's abilities. For such events we currently issue a fixed <span class="hlt">warning</span> to areas within 1,000 km of the source, which typically means a lot of over-<span class="hlt">warning</span>. With sources defined by W-phase CMTs, exhaustive comparison with runup data shows that we can reduce the <span class="hlt">warning</span> area significantly. Even before CMTs are available, we routinely run models</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4924A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4924A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> in the Mediterranean: role, structure and tricks of pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation databases and matching/forecasting algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The general idea that pre-computed simulated scenario databases can play a key role in conceiving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems is commonly accepted by now. But it was only in the last decade that it started to be applied to the Mediterranean region, taking special impulse from initiatives like the GDACS and from recently concluded EU-funded projects such as TRIDEC and NearTo<span class="hlt">Warn</span>. With reference to these two projects and with the possibility of further developing this research line in the frame of the FP7 ASTARTE project, we discuss some results we obtained regarding two major topics, namely the strategies applicable to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario database building and the design and performance assessment of a timely and "reliable" elementary-scenario combination algorithm to be run in real-time. As for the first theme, we take advantage of the experience gained in the test areas of Western Iberia, Rhodes (Greece) and Cyprus to illustrate the criteria with which a "Matching Scenario Database" (MSDB) can be built. These involve 1) the choice of the main tectonic tsunamigenic sources (or areas), 2) their tessellation with matrices of elementary faults whose dimension heavily depend on the particular studied area and must be a compromise between the needs to represent the tsunamigenic area in sufficient detail and of limiting the number of scenarios to be simulated, 3) the computation of the scenarios themselves, 4) the choice of the relevant simulation outputs and the standardisation of their formats. Regarding the matching/forecast algorithm, we want it to select and combine the MSDB elements based on the initial earthquake magnitude and location estimate, and to produce a forecast of (at least) the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival time, amplitude and period at the closest tide-level sensors and in all needed forecast points. We discuss the performance of the algorithm in terms of the time needed to produce the forecast after the earthquake is detected. In particular, we analyse the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..11412025T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..11412025T"><span>Development, testing, and applications of site-specific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation models for real-time forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, L.; Titov, V. V.; Chamberlin, C. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The study describes the development, testing and applications of site-specific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation models (forecast models) for use in NOAA's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast and <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. The model development process includes sensitivity studies of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave characteristics in the nearshore and inundation, for a range of model grid setups, resolutions and parameters. To demonstrate the process, four forecast models in Hawaii, at Hilo, Kahului, Honolulu, and Nawiliwili are described. The models were validated with fourteen historical <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and compared with numerical results from reference inundation models of higher resolution. The accuracy of the modeled maximum wave height is greater than 80% when the observation is greater than 0.5 m; when the observation is below 0.5 m the error is less than 0.3 m. The error of the modeled arrival time of the first peak is within 3% of the travel time. The developed forecast models were further applied to hazard assessment from simulated magnitude 7.5, 8.2, 8.7 and 9.3 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> based on subduction zone earthquakes in the Pacific. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment study indicates that use of a seismic magnitude alone for a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source assessment is inadequate to achieve such accuracy for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude forecasts. The forecast models apply local bathymetric and topographic information, and utilize dynamic boundary conditions from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source function database, to provide site- and event-specific coastal predictions. Only by combining a Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-constrained <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude with site-specific high-resolution models can the forecasts completely cover the evolution of earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves: generation, deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> propagation, and coastal inundation. Wavelet analysis of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves suggests the coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> frequency responses at different sites are dominated by the local bathymetry, yet they can be partially related to the locations of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources. The study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S14A..06F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S14A..06F"><span>Survey of the July 17, 2006 Central Javan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> reveals 21m runup heights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, H.; Goff, J.; Harbitz, C.; McAdoo, B.; Moore, A.; Latief, H.; Kalligeris, N.; Kodjo, W.; Uslu, B.; Titov, V.; Synolakis, C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Monday, July 17, 2006 Central Javan 7.7 earthquake triggered a substantial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that killed 600 people along a 200km stretch of coastline. The earthquake was not reported felt along the coastline. While there was a <span class="hlt">warning</span> issued by the PTWC, it did not trigger an evacuation <span class="hlt">warning</span> (Synolakis, 2006). The Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System announced by UNESCO as operational in a press release two weeks before the event did not function as promised. There were no seismic recordings transmitted to the PTWC, and two German tsunameter buoys had broken off their moorings and were not operational. Lifeguards along a tourist beach reported that while the observed the harbinger shoreline recession, they attributed to exteme storm waves that were pounding the beaches that day. Had the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> struck on the preceding Sunday, instead of Monday, the death toll would had been far higher. The International <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Survey Team (ITST) surveyed the coastline measuring runup, inundation, flow depths and sediment deposition, with standard methods (Synolakis and Okal, 2004). Runup values ranged up to 21m with several readings over 10m, while sand sheets up to 15cm were deposited. The parent earthquake was similar, albeit of smaller magnitude, to the 1994 East Javan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which struck about 200km east (Synolakis, et al, 1995) and reached a maximum of 11m runup height only at one location on steep cliffs. The unusual distribution of runup heights, and the pronounced extreme values near Nusa Kambangan, suggest a local coseismic landslide may have triggered an additional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> (Okal and Synolakis, 2005). The ITST observed that many coastal villages were completely abandoned after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, even in locales where there were no casualties. Whether residents will return is uncertain, but it is clear that an education campaign in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard mitigation is urgently needed. In the aftermath of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the Government of Indonesia enforced urgent emergency preparedness</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4401H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4401H"><span>Recent Findings on <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazards in the Makran Subduction Zone, NW Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heidarzadeh, M.; Satake, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present recent findings on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards in the Makran subduction zone (MSZ), NW Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, based on the results of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source analyses for two Makran <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of 1945 and 2013. A re-analysis of the source of the 27 November 1945 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the MSZ showed that the slip needs to be extended to deep waters around the depth contour of 3000 m in order to reproduce the observed tide gauge waveforms at Karachi and Mumbai. On the other hand, coastal uplift report at Ormara (Pakistan) implies that the source fault needs to be extended inland. In comparison to other existing fault models, our fault model is longer and includes a heterogeneous slip with larger maximum slip. The recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on 24 September 2013 in the Makran region was triggered by an inland Mw 7.7 earthquake. While the main shock and all aftershocks were located inland, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with a dominant period of around 12 min was recorded on tide gauges and a DART station. We examined different possible sources for this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> including a mud volcano, a mud/shale diapir, and a landslide/slump through numerical modeling. Only a submarine slump with a source dimension of 10-15 km and a thickness of around 100 m, located 60-70 km offshore Jiwani (Pakistan) at the water depth of around 2000m, was able to reasonably reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms. In terms of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards, analyses of the two <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> provide new insights: 1) large runup heights can be generated in the coastal areas due to slip in deep waters, and 2) even an inland earthquake may generate tsunamigenic submarine landslides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26119833"><span>Widespread <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B; Monserrat, Sebastian</p> <p>2015-06-29</p> <p>A series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period <span class="hlt">ocean</span> oscillations known as meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked propagating eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. This pattern favoured generation and propagation of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4483776','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4483776"><span>Widespread <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Monserrat, Sebastian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A series of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period <span class="hlt">ocean</span> oscillations known as meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked propagating eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. This pattern favoured generation and propagation of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems. PMID:26119833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PApGe.168.1125P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PApGe.168.1125P"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecasting and Monitoring in New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Power, William; Gale, Nora</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>New Zealand is exposed to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threats from several sources that vary significantly in their potential impact and travel time. One route for reducing the risk from these <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources is to provide advance <span class="hlt">warning</span> based on forecasting and monitoring of events in progress. In this paper the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System framework, including the responsibilities of key organisations and the procedures that they follow in the event of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threatening New Zealand, are summarised. A method for forecasting threat-levels based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> models is presented, similar in many respects to that developed for Australia by Allen and Greenslade (Nat Hazards 46:35-52, 2008), and a simple system for easy access to the threat-level forecasts using a clickable pdf file is presented. Once a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> enters or initiates within New Zealand waters, its progress and evolution can be monitored in real-time using a newly established network of online <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> gauge sensors placed at strategic locations around the New Zealand coasts and offshore islands. Information from these gauges can be used to validate and revise forecasts, and assist in making the all-clear decision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S23A2749W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.S23A2749W"><span>An Offshore Geophysical Network in the Pacific Northwest for Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> and Hazard Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilcock, W. S. D.; Schmidt, D. A.; Vidale, J. E.; Harrington, M.; Bodin, P.; Cram, G.; Delaney, J. R.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Kelley, D. S.; LeVeque, R. J.; Manalang, D.; McGuire, C.; Roland, E. C.; Tilley, J.; Vogl, C. J.; Stoermer, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Cascadia subduction zone hosts catastrophic earthquakes every few hundred years. On land, there are extensive geophysical networks available to monitor the subduction zone, but since the locked portion of the plate boundary lies mostly offshore, these networks are ideally complemented by seafloor observations. Such considerations helped motivate the development of scientific cabled observatories that cross the subduction zone at two sites off Vancouver Island and one off central Oregon, but these have a limited spatial footprint along the strike of the subduction zone. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network is leading a collaborative effort to implement an earthquake early <span class="hlt">warning</span> system in the Washington and Oregon using data streams from land networks as well as the few existing offshore instruments. For subduction zone earthquakes that initiate offshore, this system will provide a <span class="hlt">warning</span>. However, the availability of real time offshore instrumentation along the entire subduction zone would improve its reliability and accuracy, add up to 15 s to the <span class="hlt">warning</span> time, and ensure an early <span class="hlt">warning</span> for coastal communities near the epicenter. Furthermore, real-time networks of seafloor pressure sensors above the subduction zone would enable monitoring and contribute to accurate predictions of the incoming <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. There is also strong scientific motivation for offshore monitoring. We lack a complete knowledge of the plate convergence rate and direction. Measurements of steady deformation and observations of transient processes such as fluid pulsing, microseismic cycles, tremor and slow-slip are necessary for assessing the dimensions of the locked zone and its along-strike segmentation. Long-term monitoring will also provide baseline observations that can be used to detect and evaluate changes in the subduction environment. There are significant engineering challenges to be solved to ensure the system is sufficiently reliable and maintainable. It must provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..05W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..05W"><span>Dynamic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Data Assimilation (DTDA) Based on Green's Function: Theory and Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Y.; Satake, K.; Gusman, A. R.; Maeda, T.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p> aircraft and satellite observation above the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, to forecast the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Sri Lanka, India and Thailand. It shows that DTDA provides reliable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting for these countries, and the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> can be issued half an hour before the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrives to reduce the damage along the coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1753T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1753T"><span>Defining <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Magnitude as Measure of Potential Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, V. V.; Tang, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The goal of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast, as a system for predicting potential impact of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at coastlines, requires quick estimate of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude. This goal has been recognized since the beginning of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research. The work of Kajiura, Soloviev, Abe, Murty, and many others discussed several scales for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude based on estimates of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy. However, difficulties of estimating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy based on available <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurements at coastal sea-level stations has carried significant uncertainties and has been virtually impossible in real time, before <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts coastlines. The slow process of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude estimates, including collection of vast amount of available coastal sea-level data from affected coastlines, made it impractical to use any <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude scales in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> operations. Uncertainties of estimates made <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitudes difficult to use as universal scale for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> analysis. Historically, the earthquake magnitude has been used as a proxy of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact estimates, since real-time seismic data is available of real-time processing and ample amount of seismic data is available for an elaborate post event analysis. This measure of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact carries significant uncertainties in quantitative <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact estimates, since the relation between the earthquake and generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy varies from case to case. In this work, we argue that current <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> measurement capabilities and real-time modeling tools allow for establishing robust <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude that will be useful for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> as a quick estimate for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact and for post-event analysis as a universal scale for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> inter-comparison. We present a method for estimating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> magnitude based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy and present application of the magnitude analysis for several historical events for inter-comparison with existing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..641N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172..641N"><span>Sedimentology of Coastal Deposits in the Seychelles Islands—Evidence of the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nentwig, Vanessa; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Monthy, Devis</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The Seychelles, an archipelago in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> at a distance of 4,500-5,000 km from the west coast of Sumatra, were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with wave heights up to 4 m. Since the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historical record, it is important to study the geological traces of high energy events preserved along their coasts. We conducted a survey of the impact of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the inner Seychelles islands. In detail we studied onshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond in the Curieuse Marine National Park on the east coast of Curieuse Island. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in 2004 by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap and assuring a low energetic hydrodynamic environment for the protection of the mangroves. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused a change of habitat by the sedimentation of sand lobes in the mangrove forest. The dark organic rich mangrove soil (1.9 Φ) was covered by bimodal fine to medium carbonate sand (1.7-2.2 Φ) containing coarser carbonate shell fragments and debris. Intertidal sediments and the mangrove soil acted as sources of the lobe deposits. The sand sheet deposited by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of the morphology of the onshore area. The maximum extent of 180 m from the shoreline indicates the minimum inundation distance to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The top parts of the sand lobes cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. There is no landward fining trend along the sand lobes and normal grading of the deposits is rare, occurring only in 1 of 7 sites. The sand lobe deposits also lack sedimentary structures. On the surface of the sand lobes numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3847G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3847G"><span>Impact of Hellenic Arc <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> on Corsica (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, Audrey; Schindelé, F.; Hébert, H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In the historical period, the Eastern Mediterranean has been devastated by several <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, the two most damaging were those of AD 365 and AD 1303, generated by great earthquakes of magnitude >8 at the Hellenic plate boundary. Recently, events of 6-7 magnitude have occurred in this region. As the French <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> center has to ensure the <span class="hlt">warning</span> for the French coastlines, the question has raised the possibility for a major <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> triggered along the Hellenic arc to impact the French coasts. The focus is on the Corsica coasts especially, to estimate what would be the expected wave heights, and from which threshold of magnitude it would be necessary to put the population under cover. This study shows that a magnitude 8.0 earthquake nucleated along the Hellenic arc could induce in some cases a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that would be observed along the Corsica coasts, and for events of 8.5 magnitude amplitudes exceeding 50 cm can be expected, which would be dangerous in harbors and beach areas especially. The main contribution of these results is the establishment of specific thresholds of magnitude for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> along the French coasts, 7.8 for the advisory level (coastal marine threat with harbors and beaches evacuation), and 8.3 for the watch level (inland inundation threat) for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated along the Hellenic arc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1830H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1830H"><span>A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Disaster Prevention in Java, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horns, D. M.; Hall, S.; Harris, R. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The island of Java in Indonesia is the most densely populated island on earth, and is situated within one of the most tectonically active regions on the planet. Deadly <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> struck Java in 1994 and 2006. We conducted an assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards on the south coast of Java using a team of geologists, public health professionals, and disaster education specialists. The social science component included <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> awareness surveys, education in communities and schools, evacuation drills, and evaluation. We found that the evacuation routes were generally appropriate for the local hazard, and that most people were aware of the routes and knew how to use them. However, functional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems were lacking in most areas and knowledge of natural <span class="hlt">warning</span> signs was incomplete. We found that while knowledge of when to evacuate improved after our educational lesson, some incorrect beliefs persisted (e.g. misconceptions about types of earthquakes able to generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and how far inland <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can reach). There was a general over-reliance on government to alert when evacuation is needed as well as reluctance on the part of local leaders to take initiative to sound <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alerts. Many people on earth who are at risk of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> live in areas where the government lacks resources to maintain a functional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. The best hope for protecting those people is direct education working within the local cultural belief system. Further collaboration is needed with government agencies to design consistent and repeated messages challenging misperceptions about when to evacuate and to encourage individuals to take personal responsibility based on natural <span class="hlt">warning</span> signs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..03O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH52A..03O"><span>From Sumatra 2004 to Today, through Tohoku-Oki 2011: what we learn about <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> detection by ionospheric sounding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Bablet, A.; Coisson, P.; Lognonne, P. H.; Hebert, H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p> we present all this new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations in the ionosphere and we discuss, under the light of modelling, the potential role of ionospheric sounding in the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> monitoring and future <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system (Occhipinti, 2015). All ref. here @ www.ipgp.fr/ ninto</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1528Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1528Q"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard assessment in La Reunion and Mayotte Islands in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> : detailed modeling of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts for the PREPARTOI project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Sahal, A.; Lavigne, F.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Significant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have often affected the southwest Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The scientific project PREPARTOI (Prévention et REcherche pour l'Atténuation du Risque <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> dans l'Océan Indien), partly founded by the MAIF foundation, aims at assessing the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk on both french islands of this region, La Réunion and Mayotte. Further purpose of this project is the detailed hazard and vulnerability study for specific places of these islands, selected according to their environmental and human issues and observed impacts of past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> hazard in this region, recently highlighted by major events in the southwest Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, has never been thoroughly evaluated. Our study, within the PREPARTOI project, contributes to fill in this lack. It aims at examining transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard related to earthquakes by modeling the scenarios of major historical events. We consider earthquakes with magnitude greater than Mw 7.7 located on the Sumatra (1833, 2004, 2010), Java (2006) and Makran (1945) subduction zones. First, our simulations allow us to compare the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact at regional scale according to the seismic sources; we thus identify earthquakes locations which most affect the islands and describe the impact distribution along their coastline. In general, we note that, for the same magnitude, events coming from the southern part of Sumatra subduction zone induce a larger impact than the north events. The studied <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> initiated along the Java and Makran subduction zones have limited effects on both French islands. Then, detailed models for the selected sites are performed based on high resolution bathymetric and topographic data; they provide estimations of the water currents, the water heights and the potential inundations. When available, field measurements and maregraphic records allow testing our models. Arrival time, amplitude of the first wave and impact on the tide gauge time series are well reproduced. Models are consistent with the observations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1843A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1843A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Data and Scientific Data Diplomacy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arcos, N. P.; Dunbar, P. K.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Kong, L. S. L.; Aliaga, B.; Yamamoto, M.; Stroker, K. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Free and open access to data and information fosters scientific progress and can build bridges between nations even when political relationships are strained. Data and information held by one stakeholder may be vital for promoting research of another. As an emerging field of inquiry, data diplomacy explores how data-sharing helps create and support positive relationships between countries to enable the use of data for societal and humanitarian benefit. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> has arguably been the only natural hazard that has been addressed so effectively at an international scale and illustrates the success of scientific data diplomacy. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> mitigation requires international scientific cooperation in both <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> science and technology development. This requires not only international agreements, but working-level relationships between scientists from countries that may have different political and economic policies. For example, following the Pacific wide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 1960 that killed two thousand people in Chile and then, up to a day later, hundreds in Hawaii, Japan, and the Philippines; delegates from twelve countries met to discuss and draft the requirements for an international <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. The Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System led to the development of local, regional, and global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> databases and catalogs. For example, scientists at NOAA/NCEI and the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Laboratory/Russian Academy of Sciences have collaborated on their <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> catalogs that are now routinely accessed by scientists and the public around the world. These data support decision-making during <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, are used in developing inundation and evacuation maps, and hazard assessments. This presentation will include additional examples of agreements for data-sharing between countries, as well as challenges in standardization and consistency among the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research community. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> data and scientific data diplomacy have ultimately improved understanding of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and associated impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/marine/cwd.htm','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/marine/cwd.htm"><span>Coastal <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Display Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/aboutsearch.html">Science.gov Websites</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>! Boating Safety Beach Hazards Rip Currents Hypothermia Hurricanes Thunderstorms Lightning <em>Coastal</em> Flooding <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts <em>COASTAL</em> <span class="hlt">WARNING</span> DISPLAY PROGRAM Marine <em>COASTAL</em> <span class="hlt">WARNING</span> DISPLAY PROGRAM As of February 15, 1989, the National Weather Service retired its <em>Coastal</em></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH53D..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH53D..04R"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> normal modes with solid earth and atmospheric coupling and inversion of the TEC data to estimate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> water height in the case of the Queen Charlotte <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Large underwater earthquakes (Mw > 7) can transmit part of their energy to the surrounding <span class="hlt">ocean</span> through large sea-floor motions, generating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that propagate over long distances. The forcing effect of long period <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface vibrations due to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves on the atmosphere trigger atmospheric internal gravity waves (IGWs) that induce ionospheric disturbances when they reach the upper atmosphere. In this poster, we study the IGWs associated to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> using a normal modes 1D modeling approach. Our model is first applied to the case of the October 2012 Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observed offshore Hawaii. We found three resonances between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modes and the atmospheric gravity modes occurring around 1.5 mHz, 2 mHz and 2.5 mHz, with a large fraction of the energy of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modes transferred from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> to the atmosphere. At theses frequencies, the gravity branches are interacting with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> one and have large amplitude in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. As opposed to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, a fraction of their energy is therefore transferred from the atmosphere to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. We also show that the fundamental of the gravity waves should arrive before the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> due to higher group velocity below 1.6 mHz. We demonstrate that only the 1.5 mHz resonance of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mode can trigger observable ionospheric perturbations, most often monitored using GPS dual-frequency measurements. Indeed, we show that the modes at 2 mHz and 2.5 mHz are already evanescent at the height of the F2 peak and have little energy in the ionosphere. This normal modes modeling offers a novel and comprehensive study of the transfer function from a propagating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to the upper atmosphere. In particular, we can invert the perturbed TEC data induced by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in order to estimate the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform using a least square method. This method has been performed in the case of the Haida Gwaii <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The results showed a good agreement with the measurement of the dart buoy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24573765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24573765"><span>The impact of parental death on child well-being: evidence from the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cas, Ava Gail; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Suriastini, Wayan; Thomas, Duncan</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Identifying the impact of parental death on the well-being of children is complicated because parental death is likely to be correlated with other, unobserved factors that affect child well-being. Population-representative longitudinal data collected in Aceh, Indonesia, before and after the December 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are used to identify the impact of parental deaths on the well-being of children aged 9-17 at the time of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Exploiting the unanticipated nature of parental death resulting from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in combination with measuring well-being of the same children before and after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, models that include child fixed effects are estimated to isolate the causal effect of parental death. Comparisons are drawn between children who lost one or both parents and children whose parents survived. Shorter-term impacts on school attendance and time allocation one year after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are examined, as well as longer-term impacts on education trajectories and marriage. Shorter- and longer-term impacts are not the same. Five years after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, there are substantial deleterious impacts of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on older boys and girls, whereas the effects on younger children are more muted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229656','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229656"><span>The Impact of Parental Death on Child Well-being: Evidence From the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cas, Ava Gail; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Suriastini, Wayan; Thomas, Duncan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Identifying the impact of parental death on the well-being of children is complicated because parental death is likely to be correlated with other, unobserved factors that affect child well-being. Population-representative longitudinal data collected in Aceh, Indonesia, before and after the December 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are used to identify the impact of parental deaths on the well-being of children aged 9–17 at the time of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Exploiting the unanticipated nature of parental death resulting from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in combination with measuring well-being of the same children before and after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, models that include child fixed effects are estimated to isolate the causal effect of parental death. Comparisons are drawn between children who lost one or both parents and children whose parents survived. Shorter-term impacts on school attendance and time allocation one year after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are examined, as well as longer-term impacts on education trajectories and marriage. Shorter- and longer-term impacts are not the same. Five years after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, there are substantial deleterious impacts of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on older boys and girls, whereas the effects on younger children are more muted. PMID:24573765</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7377K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7377K"><span>Development of a GPS buoy system for monitoring <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, sea waves, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom crustal deformation and atmospheric water vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Teruyuki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nagai, Toshihiko; Koshimura, Shun'ichi</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We have developed a GPS buoy system for monitoring <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> for over 12 years. The idea was that a buoy equipped with a GPS antenna and placed offshore may be an effective way of monitoring <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> before its arrival to the coast and to give <span class="hlt">warning</span> to the coastal residents. The key technology for the system is real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. We have successfully developed the system; we have detected <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of about 10cm in height for three large earthquakes, namely, the 23 June 2001 Peru earthquake (Mw8.4), the 26 September 2003 Tokachi earthquake (Mw8.3) and the 5 September 2004 earthquake (Mw7.4). The developed GPS buoy system is also capable of monitoring sea waves that are mainly caused by winds. Only the difference between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and sea waves is their frequency range and can be segregated each other by a simple filtering technique. Given the success of GPS buoy experiments, the system has been adopted as a part of the Nationwide <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Wave information system for Port and HArborS (NOWPHAS) by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan. They have established more than eight GPS buoys along the Japanese coasts and the system has been operated by the Port and Airport Research Institute. As a future scope, we are now planning to implement some other additional facilities for the GPS buoy system. The first application is a so-called GPS/Acoustic system for monitoring <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom crustal deformation. The system requires acoustic waves to detect <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom reference position, which is the geometrical center of an array of transponders, by measuring distances between a position at the sea surface (vessel) and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom equipments to return the received sonic wave. The position of the vessel is measured using GPS. The system was first proposed by a research group at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in early 1980's. The system was extensively developed by Japanese researchers and is now capable of detecting <span class="hlt">ocean</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JESS..123..905V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JESS..123..905V"><span>Identification and characterization of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits off southeast coast of India from the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: Rock magnetic and geochemical approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Basavaiah, N.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Deenadayalan, K.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The December 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (IOT) had a major impact on the geomorphology and sedimentology of the east coast of India. Estimation of the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from its deposits is a challenging topic to be developed in studies on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment. Two core sediments (C1 and C2) from Nagapattinam, southeast coast of India were subjected to textural, mineral, geochemical and rock-magnetic measurements. In both cores, three zones (zone I, II and III) have been distinguished based on mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic data. Zone II is featured by peculiar rock-magnetic, textural, mineralogical and geochemical signatures in both sediment cores that we interpret to correspond to the 2004 IOT deposit. Textural, mineralogical, geochemical and rock-magnetic investigations showed that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposit is featured by relative enrichment in sand, quartz, feldspar, carbonate, SiO 2, TiO 2, K 2O and CaO and by a depletion in clay and iron oxides. These results point to a dilution of reworked ferromagnetic particles into a huge volume of paramagnetic materials, similar to what has been described in other nearshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits (Font et al. 2010). Correlation analysis elucidated the relationships among the textural, mineral, geochemical and magnetic parameters, and suggests that most of the quartz-rich coarse sediments have been transported offshore by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave. These results agreed well with the previously published numerical model of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> induced sediment transport off southeast coast of India and can be used for future comparative studies on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16844654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16844654"><span>Global early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems for natural hazards: systematic and people-centred.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Basher, Reid</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>To be effective, early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems for natural hazards need to have not only a sound scientific and technical basis, but also a strong focus on the people exposed to risk, and with a systems approach that incorporates all of the relevant factors in that risk, whether arising from the natural hazards or social vulnerabilities, and from short-term or long-term processes. Disasters are increasing in number and severity and international institutional frameworks to reduce disasters are being strengthened under United Nations oversight. Since the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of 26 December 2004, there has been a surge of interest in developing early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems to cater to the needs of all countries and all hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1027B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53A1027B"><span>The Catalog of Event Data of the Operational Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (DART) Stations at the National Data Buoy Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouchard, R.; Locke, L.; Hansen, W.; Collins, S.; McArthur, S.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>DART systems are a critical component of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system as they provide the only real-time, in situ, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection before landfall. DART systems consist of a surface buoy that serves as a position locater and communications transceiver and a Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR) on the seafloor. The BPR records temperature and pressure at 15-second intervals to a memory card for later retrieval for analysis and use by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> researchers, but the BPRs are normally recovered only once every two years. The DART systems also transmit subsets of the data, converted to an estimation of the sea surface height, in near real-time for use by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> community. These data are available on NDBC's webpages, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/dart.shtml. Although not of the resolution of the data recorded to the BPR memory card, the near real-time data have proven to be of value in research applications [1]. Of particular interest are the DART data associated with geophysical events. The DART BPR continuously compares the measured sea height with a predicted sea-height and when the difference exceeds a threshold value, the BPR goes into Event Mode. Event Mode provides an extended, more frequent near real-time reporting of the sea surface heights for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection. The BPR can go into Event Mode because of geophysical triggers, such as <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> or seismic activity, which may or may not be tsunamigenic. The BPR can also go into Event Mode during recovery of the BPR as it leaves the seafloor, or when manually triggered by the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers in advance of an expected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. On occasion, the BPR will go into Event Mode without any associated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> or seismic activity or human intervention and these are considered "False'' Events. Approximately one- third of all Events can be classified as "False". NDBC is responsible for the operations, maintenance, and data management of the DART stations. Each DART station has a webpage with a drop-down list of all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/97/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/97/"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness in Washington (video)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards and <span class="hlt">warnings</span>, who have been working on ways of making the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2270O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2270O"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in the Ionosphere ? a pinch of gravity with a good plasma sauce !</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Ms Lucie; Kherani, Alam; Lognonné, Philippe; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony</p> <p></p> <p>A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has been reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005) and after the recent earthquakes in Sumatra and Chile in 2007. All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> regions. Most of these ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006) via the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>/neutral atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In addition, the numerical modeling supplies useful helps in the estimation of expected anomalies in the global scale to explore the effect of geomagnetic field in the neutral/plasma coupling (Occhipinti et al., 2008). Here we present an overview of the physical coupling mechanism highlighting the strong ampli- fication mechanism of atmospheric IGW; it allows to detect these anomalies when the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. This property adds to the increasing coverage of ionospheric sounding measurements, suggests the implication of ionospheric sounding in the future <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> monitoring and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., in press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PApGe.166...37D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PApGe.166...37D"><span>The November 15, 2006 Kuril Islands-Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Crescent City, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dengler, L.; Uslu, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Yim, S. C.; Kelly, A.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>On November 15, 2006, Crescent City in Del Norte County, California was hit by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by a M w 8.3 earthquake in the central Kuril Islands. Strong currents that persisted over an eight-hour period damaged floating docks and several boats and caused an estimated 9.2 million in losses. Initial <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert bulletins issued by the West Coast Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska were cancelled about three and a half hours after the earthquake, nearly five hours before the first surges reached Crescent City. The largest amplitude wave, 1.76-meter peak to trough, was the sixth cycle and arrived over two hours after the first wave. Strong currents estimated at over 10 knots, damaged or destroyed three docks and caused cracks in most of the remaining docks. As a result of the November 15 event, WCATWC changed the definition of Advisory from a region-wide alert bulletin meaning that a potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is 6 hours or further away to a localized alert that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> water heights may approach <span class="hlt">warning</span>- level thresholds in specific, vulnerable locations like Crescent City. On January 13, 2007 a similar Kuril event occurred and hourly conferences between the <span class="hlt">warning</span> center and regional weather forecasts were held with a considerable improvement in the flow of information to local coastal jurisdictions. The event highlighted the vulnerability of harbors from a relatively modest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and underscored the need to improve public education regarding the duration of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards, improve dialog between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> centers and local jurisdictions, and better understand the currents produced by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in harbors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13E..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13E..03S"><span>Lessons Learned and Unlearned from the 2004 Great Sumatran <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Synolakis, C.; Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Huppert & Sparks (2006 Phil Trans Math Phys Eng Sci) wrote It is likely that in the future, we will experience several disasters per year that kill more than 10,000 people. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster alone resulted in more than 20,000 casualties. Synolakis & Bernard (2006 Phil Trans Math Phys Eng Sci) concluded that Before the next Sumatra-type <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> strikes, we must resolve to create a world that can coexist with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. The 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> dramatically showed that we are not there yet. Despite substantial advances after the 2004 Boxing Day <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, substantial challenges remain for improving <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard mitigation. If the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> community appeared at first perplexed in the aftermath of the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, it was not due to the failure of recognized hydrodynamic paradigms, much as certain geophysical ones and scaling laws failed, but at the worst surprise, the lack of preparedness and education. Synolakis et al. (2008 Pure Appl Geophys) presented standards for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling; for both <span class="hlt">warnings</span> and inundation maps (IMs). Although at least one forecasting methodology has gone through extensive testing, and is now officially in use by the <span class="hlt">warning</span> centers (WCs), standards need urgently to be formalized for <span class="hlt">warnings</span>. In Europe, several WCs have been established, but none has yet to issue an operational <span class="hlt">warning</span> for a hazardous event. If it happens, there might be confusion with possibly contradictory/competing <span class="hlt">warnings</span>. Never again should there be a repeat of the TEPCO analysis for the safety of the Fukushima NPP. This was primarily due to lacks of familiarity with the context of numerical predictions and experience with real <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The accident was the result of a cascade of stupid errors, almost impossible to ignore by anyone in the field (Synolakis, 26.03.2011 The New York Times). Current practices in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> studies for US NPPs and for IMs do not provide us with optimism that the Fukushima lessons have been absorbed and that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA21B..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSA21B..01M"><span>Imaging, radio, and modeling results pertaining to the ionospheric signature of the 11 March 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> over the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makela, J. J.; Lognonne, P.; Occhipinti, G.; Hebert, H.; Gehrels, T.; Coisson, P.; Rolland, L. M.; Allgeyer, S.; Kherani, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Mw=9.0 earthquake that occurred off the east coast of Honshu, Japan on 11 March 2011 launched a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that traveled across the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, in turn launching vertically propagating atmospheric gravity waves. Upon reaching 250-350 km in altitude, these waves impressed their signature on the thermosphere/ionosphere system. We present observations of this signature obtained using a variety of radio instruments and an imaging system located on the islands of Hawaii. These measurements represent the first optical images recorded of the airglow signature resulting from the passage of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Results from these instruments clearly show wave structure propagating in the upper atmosphere with the same velocity as the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, emphasizing the coupled nature of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, atmosphere, and ionosphere. Modeling results are also presented to highlight current understandings of this coupling process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1531L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH21D1531L"><span>Contribution to the top-down alert system associated with the upcoming French <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> center (CENALT): <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment along the French Mediterranean coast for the ALDES project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loevenbruck, A.; Quentel, E.; Hebert, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The catastrophic 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> drew the international community's attention to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk in all basins where <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurred but no <span class="hlt">warning</span> system exists. Consequently, under the coordination of UNESCO, France decided to create a regional center, called CENALT, for the north-east Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. This <span class="hlt">warning</span> system, which should be operational by 2012, is set up by the CEA in collaboration with the SHOM and the CNRS. The French authorities are in charge of the top-down alert system including the local alert dissemination. In order to prepare the appropriate means and measures, they initiated the ALDES (Alerte Descendante) project to which the CEA also contributes. It aims at examining along the French Mediterranean coast the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk related to earthquakes and landslides. In addition to the evaluation at regional scale, it includes the detailed studies of 3 selected sites; the local alert system will be designed for one of them. In this project, our main task at CEA consists in assessing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard related to seismic sources using numerical modeling. <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> have already affected the west Mediterranean coast; however past events are too few and poorly documented to provide a suitable database. Thus, a synthesis of earthquakes representative of the tsunamigenic seismic activity and prone to induce the largest impact to the French coast is performed based on historical data, seismotectonics and first order models. The North Africa Margin, the Ligurian and the South Tyrrhenian Seas are considered as the main tsunamigenic zones. In order to forecast the most important plausible effects, the magnitudes are estimated by enhancing to some extent the largest known values. Our hazard estimation is based on the simulation of the induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> scenarios performed with the CEA code. Models of propagation in the basin and off the French coast allow evaluating the potential threat at regional scale in terms of sources location and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/91/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/91/"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness in California (videos)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness in California distinguish between a local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards and <span class="hlt">warnings</span>, who have been working on ways of making the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/96/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/96/"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness in Oregon (video)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards and <span class="hlt">warnings</span>, who have been working on ways of making the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4219G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4219G"><span>Ionospheric manifestations of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in a dynamic atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Godin, Oleg A.; Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Zabotina, Liudmila</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Observations of the ionosphere provide a new, promising modality for characterizing large-scale physical processes that occur on land and in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. There is a large and rapidly growing body of evidence that a number of natural hazards, including large earthquakes, strong <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and powerful tornadoes, have pronounced ionospheric manifestations, which are reliably detected by ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. As the focus shifts from detecting the ionospheric features associated with the natural hazards to characterizing the hazards for the purposes of improving early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems and contributing to disaster recovery, it becomes imperative to relate quantitatively characteristics of the observed ionospheric disturbances and the underlying natural hazard. The relation between perturbations at the ground level and their ionospheric manifestations is strongly affected by parameters of the intervening atmosphere. In this paper, we employ the ray theory to model propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in three-dimensionally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Huygens' wavefront-tracing and Hamiltonian ray-tracing algorithms are used to simulate propagation of body waves from an earthquake hypocenter through the earth's crust and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> to the upper atmosphere. We quantify the influence of temperature stratification and winds, including their seasonal variability, and air viscosity and thermal conductivity on the geometry and amplitude of ionospheric disturbances that are generated by seismic surface waves and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Modeling results are verified by comparing observations of the velocity fluctuations at altitudes of 150-160 km by a coastal Dynasonde HF radar system with theoretical predictions of ionospheric manifestations of background infragravity waves in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Dynasonde radar systems are shown to be a promising means for monitoring acoustic-gravity wave activity and observing ionospheric perturbations due to earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We will discuss</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1857j0002P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1857j0002P"><span>Potential coping capacities to avoid <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in Mentawai</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panjaitan, Berton; Gomez, Christopher; Pawson, Eric</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In 2010 a tsunamigenic earthquake triggered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves reaching the Mentawai archipelago in less than ten minutes. Similar events can occur any time as seismic scholars predict enormous energy remains trapped on the Sunda Megathrust - approximately 30 km offshore from the archipelago. Therefore, the local community of Mentawai is vulnerable to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards. In the absence of modern technology to monitor the sea surface interventions, existing strategies need to be improved. This study was based on a qualitative research and literature review about developing coping capacity on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards for Mentawai. A community early-<span class="hlt">warning</span> system is the main strategy to develop the coping capacity at the community level. This consists of risk knowledge, monitoring, <span class="hlt">warning</span> dissemination, and capability response. These are interlocked and are an end-to-end effort. From the study, the availability of risk assessments and risk mappings were mostly not found at dusun, whereas they are effective to increase <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk knowledge. Also, the monitoring of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves can be maximized by strengthening and expanding the community systems for the people to avoid the waves. Moreover, the traditional tools are potential to deliver <span class="hlt">warnings</span>. Lastly, although the local government has provided a few public facilities to increase the response capability, the people often ignore them. Therefore, their traditional values should be revitalized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3890M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3890M"><span>Impact of earthquake-induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on public health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mavroulis, Spyridon; Mavrouli, Maria; Lekkas, Efthymios; Tsakris, Athanassios</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are caused by rapid sea floor displacement during earthquakes, landslides and large explosive eruptions in marine environment setting. Massive amounts of sea water in the form of devastating surface waves travelling hundreds of kilometers per hour have the potential to cause extensive damage to coastal infrastructures, considerable loss of life and injury and emergence of infectious diseases (ID). This study involved an extensive and systematic literature review of 50 research publications related to public health impact of the three most devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of the last 12 years induced by great earthquakes, namely the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (moment magnitude Mw 9.2), the 2009 Samoa earthquake (Mw 8.1) and the 2011 Tōhoku (Japan) earthquake (Mw 9.0) in the Indian, Western Pacific and South Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> respectively. The inclusion criteria were literature type comprising journal articles and official reports, natural disaster type including <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> induced only by earthquakes, population type including humans, and outcome measure characterized by disease incidence increase. The potential post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> ID are classified into 11 groups including respiratory, pulmonary, wound-related, water-borne, skin, vector-borne, eye, fecal-oral, food-borne, fungal and mite-borne ID. Respiratory infections were detected after all the above mentioned <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Wound-related, skin and water-borne ID were observed after the 2004 and 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, while vector-borne, fecal-oral and eye ID were observed only after the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and pulmonary, food-borne and mite-borne ID were diagnosed only after the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Based on available age and genre data, it is concluded that the most vulnerable population groups are males, children (age ≤ 15 years) and adults (age ≥ 65 years). Tetanus and pneumonia are the deadliest post-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> ID. The detected risk factors include (1) lowest socioeconomic conditions, poorly constructed buildings and lack of prevention</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TE-1767_web.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/TE-1767_web.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> geology in paleoseismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. For the assessment of future risk posed by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> it is necessary to understand past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events. Recent work on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (e.g. [187–189]). <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are observed not only on the margin of <span class="hlt">oceans</span> but also in lakes. The majority of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. These non-earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occur less frequently than earthquake <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modelers use as a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>'s initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events [190, 191]. In some cases, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and are called ‘<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits’ (Figs. 26</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1844M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1844M"><span>Challenges and Alternatives in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Water Levels Processing in NOAA/NCEI-CO Global Water-Level Data Repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mungov, G.; Dunbar, P. K.; Stroker, K. J.; Sweeney, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information is data repository for high-resolution, integrated water-level data to support <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research, risk assessment and mitigation to protect life and property damages along the coasts. NCEI responsibilities include, but are not limited to process, archiv and distribut and coastal water level data from different sourcesg <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and storm-surge inundation, sea-level change, climate variability, etc. High-resolution data for global historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events are collected by the Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (DART®) tsunameter network maintained by NOAA's National Data Buoy Center NDBC, coastal tide-gauges maintained by NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers, historic marigrams and images, bathymetric data, and from other national and international sources. NCEI-CO water level database is developed in close collaboration with all data providers along with NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. We outline here the present state in water-level data processing regarding the increasing needs for high-precision, homogeneous and "clean" <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> records from data different sources and different sampling interval. Two tidal models are compared: the Mike Foreman's improved oceanographic model (2009) and the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion approach applied by Tamura et al. (1991). The effects of filtering and the limits of its application are also discussed along with the used method for de-spiking the raw time series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V51C1693B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V51C1693B"><span>New Coastal <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Gauges: Application at Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burgy, M.; Bolton, D. K.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Recent eruptive activity at Augustine Volcano and its associated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat to lower Cook Inlet pointed out the need for a quickly deployable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detector which could be installed on Augustine Island's coast. The detector's purpose would be to verify <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation by direct observation of the wave at the source to support <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> decisions along populated coastlines. To fill this need the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Mobile Alert Real-Time (TSMART) system was developed at NOAA's West Coast/Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center with support from the University of Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> and Environmental Observatory for Alaska program (TWEAK) and the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). The TSMART system consists of a pressure sensor installed as near as possible to the low tide line. The sensor is enclosed in a water-tight hypalon bag filled with propylene-glycol to prevent silt damage to the sensor and freezing. The bag is enclosed in a perforated, strong plastic pipe about 16 inches long and 8 inches in diameter enclosed at both ends for protection. The sensor is cabled to a data logger/radio/power station up to 300 feet distant. Data are transmitted to a base station and made available to the <span class="hlt">warning</span> center in real-time through the internet. This data telemetry system can be incorporated within existing AVO and Plate Boundary Observatory networks which makes it ideal for volcano-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> monitoring. A TSMART network can be utilized anywhere in the world within 120 miles of an internet connection. At Augustine, two test stations were installed on the east side of the island in August 2006. The sensors were located very near the low tide limit and covered with rock, and the cable was buried to the data logger station which was located well above high tide mark. Data logger, radio, battery and other electronics are housed in an enclosure mounted to a pole which also supports an antenna and solar panel. Radio signal is transmitted to a repeater station higher up on the island</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1853F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43B1853F"><span>2015 Volcanic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Earthquake near Torishima Island: Array analysis of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom pressure gauge records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.; Sandanbata, O.; Watada, S.; Satake, K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>An array of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom pressure gauges was deployed off east of Aogashima island of the Izu-Bonin arc from May 2014 to May 2015. The array consists of 10 <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom pressure gauges using ParoScientific quartz resonators which can measure absolute water pressure at 7000m depth with nano-resolution. The array configures equilateral triangles with minimum and maximum lengths of 10 and 30km. This array recorded seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from the CLVD-type earthquake (M5.7) of May 02, 2015, that occurred near Torishima Island 100 km distant from the array. Comparison with records of ordinary thrust earthquakes with similar magnitudes at similar distances indicates that this event generated anomalously large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> relative to seismic waves. We made an array analysis for the phase speed, propagating azimuth and travel time of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave in a frequency range 1-10 mHz, where the dispersion effect is significant. The results show excellent agreements with the frequency-dependent ray-tracing calculations. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> trace apparently starts with positive onset (pressure increase) and reaches a maximum amplitude of about 200Pa (≈2cm in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height). A closer inspection, however, shows a preceding negative small pulse (Fig. 1), suggesting that the seafloor deformation at the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source consists of a central large uplift and a peripheral small depression. This mode of deformation is qualitatively consistent with a finite CLVD source uniformly shortened laterally and uniformly stretched vertically without volume change. The detection of weak initial motions is indebted to the array deployment of sensitive pressure gauges far away from coastal regions. The bandpass-filtered waveform is drastically different between the lower and higher frequency ranges. The waveform is single-peaked in the lower frequency range (<5 mHz) but is ringing in the higher frequency range (>5 mHz), corresponding to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> spectrum that consists of the broad primary peak around 3.5 m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..132a2012J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E%26ES..132a2012J"><span>Correlation Equation of Fault Size, Moment Magnitude, and Height of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Case Study: Historical <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Database in Sulawesi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Julius, Musa, Admiral; Pribadi, Sugeng; Muzli, Muzli</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Sulawesi, one of the biggest island in Indonesia, located on the convergence of two macro plate that is Eurasia and Pacific. NOAA and Novosibirsk <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Laboratory show more than 20 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data recorded in Sulawesi since 1820. Based on this data, determination of correlation between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and earthquake parameter need to be done to proved all event in the past. Complete data of magnitudes, fault sizes and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights on this study sourced from NOAA and Novosibirsk <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> database, completed with Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (PTWC) catalog. This study aims to find correlation between moment magnitude, fault size and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height by simple regression. The step of this research are data collecting, processing, and regression analysis. Result shows moment magnitude, fault size and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights strongly correlated. This analysis is enough to proved the accuracy of historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> database in Sulawesi on NOAA, Novosibirsk <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Laboratory and PTWC.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH32B..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH32B..04B"><span>Development of Physics and Control of Multiple Forcing Mechanisms for the Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahng, B.; Whitmore, P.; Macpherson, K. A.; Knight, W. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast Model (ATFM) is a numerical model used to forecast propagation and inundation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by earthquakes or other mechanisms in either the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Atlantic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> or Gulf of Mexico. At the U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (NTWC), the use of the model has been mainly for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> pre-computation due to earthquakes. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> to immediately produce forecasts. The model has also been used for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hindcasting due to submarine landslides and due to atmospheric pressure jumps, but in a very case-specific and somewhat limited manner. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves approach coastal waters. The shallow-water wave physics is readily applicable to all of the above <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> as well as to tides. Recently, the model has been expanded to include multiple forcing mechanisms in a systematic fashion, and to enhance the model physics for non-earthquake events.ATFM is now able to handle multiple source mechanisms, either individually or jointly, which include earthquake, submarine landslide, meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and tidal forcing. As for earthquakes, the source can be a single unit source or multiple, interacting source blocks. Horizontal slip contribution can be added to the sea-floor displacement. The model now includes submarine landslide physics, modeling the source either as a rigid slump, or as a viscous fluid. Additional shallow-water physics have been implemented for the viscous submarine landslides. With rigid slumping, any trajectory can be followed. As for meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the forcing mechanism is capable of following any trajectory shape. Wind stress physics has also been implemented for the meteo-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> case, if required. As an example of multiple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EP%26S...69..117L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EP%26S...69..117L"><span>Should <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> propagation in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible <span class="hlt">ocean</span> with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. We also compare <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves to their initial state by solving the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH52A..04V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH52A..04V"><span>CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Exercises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Over 75 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and other Coastal Hazards <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center and/or the Puerto Rico</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U11A0814K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U11A0814K"><span>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in Maldives: waves and disaster affected by shape of coral reefs and islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kan, H.; Ali, M.; Riyaz, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>In Maldives, 39 islands are significantly damaged among 200 inhabited islands and nearly a third of the Maldivian people are severely affected by the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in 26 December 2004. We surveyed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact in 43 islands by measuring island topography and run-up height, interview to local people and mapping of the flooded and destructed areas. The differences in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height and disaster corresponding to the atoll shape and island topography are observed. In the northern atolls, atoll rims consist of many ring-shaped reefs, i.e. miniature atolls called `faro', and interrupted many channels between them. The interrupted atoll rim may play an important role to reducing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up height. Severe damage was not observed in the eastern coast of the islands. Beach ridge also contribute to the protection against <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. However, in some islands, houses beside the lagoon are damaged by backwashing floodwater from the lagoon. Water marks show the run-up height of -1.8m above MSL. The lagoon water-level seems to set-up by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which permeates into the lagoon through the interrupted atoll rim. The disaster was severe at the southern atolls of Meemu, Thaa and Laamu. The higher run-up heights of up to 3.2m above MSL and enormous building damages were observed at the islands on the eastern atoll rims. The continuous atoll rim of these atolls may reinforce <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact at the eastern islands. In addition, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> surge washed the islands totally because of low island topography without beach ridge. Significant floodwater from lagoon was not observed in these atolls. It seems the lagoon water-level was not set-up largely. The continuous atoll rim reduces the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> influence to the lagoon and the western side of the atolls. The continuity of atoll rim is probably the major factor to cause the difference in water movement, i.e. <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up and lagoon set-up, which affects the disaster in the islands. Beach ridge contribute to reduce the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impact to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611818R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611818R"><span>Operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling with TsunAWI - Examples for Indonesia and Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Fuchs, Annika; Behrens, Jörn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (GITEWS). The numerical simulation of prototypical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priory risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early <span class="hlt">warning</span> process itself. TsunAWI is based on a finite element discretization, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview of the model itself and presents two applications. For GITEWS, the existing scenario database covering 528 epicenters / 3450 scenarios from Sumatra to Bali was extended by 187 epicenters / 1100 scenarios in the Eastern Sunda Arc. Furthermore, about 1100 scenarios for the Western Sunda Arc were recomputed on the new model domain covering the whole Indonesian Seas. These computations would not have been feasible in the beginning of the project. The unstructured computational grid contains 7 million nodes and resolves all coastal regions with 150m, some project regions and the surrounding of tide gauges with 50m, and the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> with 12km edge length. While in the Western Sunda Arc, the large islands of Sumatra and Java shield the Northern Indonesian Archipelago, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Eastern Sunda Arc can propagate to the North. The unstructured grid approach allows TsunAWI to easily simulate the complex propagation patterns with the self-interactions and the reflections at the coastal regions of myriads of islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) to provide data for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). This work is part of the initiation project "Multi hazard information and early <span class="hlt">warning</span> system in cooperation with Chile" and aims at sharing our experience from GITEWS with the Chilean partners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESRv..114..175A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESRv..114..175A"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> of the northeast Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> with a particular focus on the Bay of Bengal region—A synthesis and review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alam, Edris; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (2004 IOT) challenged assumptions about the level of regional hazard. Significantly, there has been some debate about the hypothesis that the northern Bay of Bengal may be capable of generating large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> similar to the 2004 IOT. To test this hypothesis, we documented historical and palaeotsunamis in the northeast Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Using multiple sources, we identified 135 purported <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. After completing a process of validity assessment, we categorised 31 definite <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, 27 probable <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, 51 doubtful <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and 20 events that only caused a seiche or disturbance in an inland river. Six of the purported events were identified as either cyclones or earthquakes without any associated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Using the reported list of 135 events, we identified different tsunamigenic regions and explored the temporal distribution of past events, with the oldest event dated to around 38,000BC (although the dated material is most likely reworked and this was probably a Holocene event). The second oldest event dated to 3000-2000BC. Historical records indicate that only one definite <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, occurring in AD1762, was generated in the northern Bay of Bengal. We encountered a number of significant challenges in reviewing and analysing data contained within the documents and sources we consulted. Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data from AD1710 to AD2010 suggests that the occurrence of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affecting the coasts of Bangladesh and Myanmar is 0.99% in any given year, and 63% in a century. We recognise that this incomplete <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> dataset limits the capacity to fully quantify the hazard. As such, we recommend further 'deep' archival research coupled with regional palaeotsunami studies to gain a more sophisticated understanding of the hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410014E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410014E"><span>A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of <span class="hlt">warning</span> messages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster affecting the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection, public <span class="hlt">warning</span> processes as well as intergovernmental <span class="hlt">warning</span> message exchange in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> region. In that regard, early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems require that the dissemination of early <span class="hlt">warning</span> messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the <span class="hlt">warning</span> dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early <span class="hlt">warning</span> capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored <span class="hlt">warning</span> messages and alerts flow from the <span class="hlt">warning</span> centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP <span class="hlt">warning</span> messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH14A..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH14A..05C"><span>Modeling of the 2011 Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and its Impacts on Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Roeber, V.; Lay, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The 2011 Tohoku-oki great earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a destructive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along the entire Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which registered 6.7 m amplitude at a coastal GPS gauge and 1.75 m at an open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> DART buoy, triggered <span class="hlt">warnings</span> across the Pacific. The waves reached Hawaii 7 hours after the earthquake and caused localized damage and persistent coastal oscillations along the island chain. Several tide gauges and a DART buoy west of Hawaii Island recorded clear signals of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Observer Program of Hawaii State Civil Defense immediately conducted field surveys to gather runup and inundation data on Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii Island. The extensive global seismic networks and geodetic instruments allows evaluation and validation of finite fault solutions for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling. We reconstruct the 2011 Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> using the long-wave model NEOWAVE (Non-hydrostatic Evolution of <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> WAVEs) and a finite fault solution based on inversion of teleseismic P waves. The depth-integrated model describes dispersive waves through the non-hydrostatic pressure and vertical velocity, which also account for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation from time histories of seafloor deformation. The semi-implicit, staggered finite difference model captures flow discontinuities associated with bores or hydraulic jumps through the momentum-conserved advection scheme. Four levels of two-way nested grids in spherical coordinates allow description of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evolution processes of different time and spatial scales for investigation of the impacts around the Hawaiian Islands. The model results are validated with DART data across the Pacific as well as tide gauge and runup measurements in Hawaii. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals a series of resonance modes over the insular shelf and slope complex along the archipelago. Resonance oscillations provide an explanation for the localized impacts and the persistent wave activities in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CRGeo.342..434S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CRGeo.342..434S"><span>A catalog of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in New Caledonia from 28 March 1875 to 30 September 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahal, Alexandre; Pelletier, Bernard; Chatelier, Jean; Lavigne, Franck; Schindelé, François</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>In order to establish a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alert system in New Caledonia in April 2008, the French Secretary of State for Overseas Affairs, with the aid of the UNESCO French Commission, mandated an investigation to build a more complete record of the most recent <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. To complete this task, a call for witnesses was broadcast through various media and in public locations. These witnesses were then interviewed onsite about the phenomenon they had observed. Previous witness reports that had been obtained in the last few years were also used. For the most recent events, various archives were consulted. In total, 18 events were documented, of which 12 had not been previously mentioned in past work. These results confirm an exposure to a hazard of: (1) local origin (the southern part of the Vanuatu arc) with a very short post-seismic delay (< 30 min) before the arrival of wave trains; (2) regional origin (Solomon Islands arc, northern part of the Vanuatu arc) with a delay of several hours; and (3) an exposure to trans-<span class="hlt">oceanic</span> <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (Kamchatka 1952, South Chile 1960, Kuril Islands 2006, North Tonga 2009), unknown until today. These results highlight the necessity for New Caledonia to adopt an alert system, coupled with <span class="hlt">ocean</span> tide gauges, that liaises with the main alert system for the Pacific (Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center), and brings to light the importance of establishing a prevention campaign.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393107"><span>Seismically generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arcas, Diego; Segur, Harvey</p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>People around the world know more about <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> than they did 10 years ago, primarily because of two events: a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on 26 December 2004 that killed more than 200,000 people around the shores of the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; and an earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> off the coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 that killed nearly 15,000 more and triggered a nuclear accident, with consequences that are still unfolding. This paper has three objectives: (i) to summarize our current knowledge of the dynamics of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>; (ii) to describe how that knowledge is now being used to forecast <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>; and (iii) to suggest some policy changes that might protect people better from the dangers of future <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED53A0323L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED53A0323L"><span>The Waves and <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Frashure, K.; Micozzi, N.; Stephen, R. A.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The goals of the Waves and <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Project are "to make waves real" to middle school students and to teach them some fundamental concepts of waves. The curriculum was designed in Fall 2004 (before the Sumatra <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) and involves an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> scientist classroom visit, hands-on demonstrations, and an interactive website designed to explain <span class="hlt">ocean</span> wave properties. The website is called 'The Plymouth Wave Lab' and it has had more than 40,000 hits since the Sumatra event. One inexpensive and interesting demonstration is based on a string composed of alternating elastic bands and paper clips. Washers can be added to the paper clips to construct strings with varying mass. For example, a tapered string with mass decreasing in the wave propagation direction is an analog of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves propagating from deep to shallow water. The Waves and <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Project evolved as a collaborative effort involving an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> science researcher and middle school science teachers. It was carried out through the direction of the Centers of <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Science Education Excellence New England (COSEE-NE) <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Science Education Institute (OSEI). COSEE-NE is involved in developing models for sustainable involvement of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> science researchers in K-12 education ( http://necosee.net ). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112665P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112665P"><span>Quantifying human response capabilities towards <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threats at community level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Post, J.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Taubenböck, H.; Strunz, G.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Decision makers at the community level need detailed information on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risks in their area. Knowledge on potential hazard impact, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, people's coping capacity and recovery potential are crucial to plan precautionary measures for adaptation and to mitigate potential impacts of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on society and the environment. A crucial point within a people-centred <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk assessment is to quantify the human response capabilities towards <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threats. Based on this quantification and spatial representation in maps <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected and safe areas, difficult-to-evacuate areas, evacuation target points and evacuation routes can be assigned and used as an important contribution to e.g. community level evacuation planning. Major component in the quantification of human response capabilities towards <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts is the factor time. The human response capabilities depend on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the time until technical or natural <span class="hlt">warning</span> signs (ToNW) can be received, the reaction time (RT) of the population (human understanding of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> and the decision to take appropriate action), the evacuation time (ET, time people need to reach a safe area) and the actual available response time (RsT = ETA - ToNW - RT). If RsT is larger than ET, people in the respective areas are able to reach a safe area and rescue themselves. Critical areas possess RsT values equal or even smaller ET and hence people whin these areas will be directly affected by a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Quantifying the factor time is challenging and an attempt to this is presented here. The ETA can be derived by analyzing pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios for a respective area. For ToNW we assume that the early <span class="hlt">warning</span> center is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a <span class="hlt">warning</span> within 5 minutes. RT is difficult as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> knowledge and experience</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH54A..05W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH54A..05W"><span>New Activities of the U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program, Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, R. I.; Eble, M. C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is comprised of representatives from coastal states and federal agencies who, under the guidance of NOAA, work together to develop protocols and products to help communities prepare for and mitigate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards. Within the NTHMP are several subcommittees responsible for complimentary aspects of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> assessment, mitigation, education, <span class="hlt">warning</span>, and response. The Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee (MMS) is comprised of state and federal scientists who specialize in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source characterization, numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling, inundation map production, and <span class="hlt">warning</span> forecasting. Until September 2012, much of the work of the MMS was authorized through the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> and Education Act, an Act that has since expired but the spirit of which is being adhered to in parallel with reauthorization efforts. Over the past several years, the MMS has developed guidance and best practices for states and territories to produce accurate and consistent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps for community level evacuation planning, and has conducted benchmarking of numerical inundation models. Recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events have highlighted the need for other types of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analyses and products for improving evacuation planning, vertical evacuation, maritime planning, land-use planning, building construction, and <span class="hlt">warning</span> forecasts. As the program responsible for producing accurate and consistent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> products nationally, the NTHMP-MMS is initiating a multi-year plan to accomplish the following: 1) Create and build on existing demonstration projects that explore new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis techniques and products, such as maps identifying areas of strong currents and potential damage within harbors as well as probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis for land-use planning. 2) Develop benchmarks for validating new numerical modeling techniques related to current velocities and landslide sources. 3) Generate guidance and protocols for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S33G2943W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.S33G2943W"><span>Preliminary Report Summarizes <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Impacts and Lessons Learned from the September 7, 2017, M8.1 Tehuantepec Earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, R. I.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Dengler, L. A.; Miller, K.; LaDuke, Y.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The preliminary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts from the September 7, 2017, M8.1 Tehuantepec Earthquake have been summarized in the following report: https://www.eeri.org/wp-content/uploads/EERI-Recon-Rpt-090717-Mexico-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>_fn.pdf. Although the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacts were not as significant as those from the earthquake itself (98 fatalities and 41,000 homes damaged), the following are highlights and lessons learned: The Tehuantepec earthquake was one of the largest down-slab normal faulting events ever recorded. This situation complicated the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast since forecast methods and pre-event modeling are primarily associated with megathrust earthquakes where the most significant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are generated. Adding non-megathrust source modeling to the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast databases of conventional <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems should be considered. Offshore seismic and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analyses using past events should incorporate the potential for large earthquakes occurring along sources other than the megathrust boundary. From an engineering perspective, initial reports indicate there was only minor <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage along the Mexico coast. There was damage to Marina Chiapas where floating docks overtopped their piles. Increasing pile heights could reduce the potential for damage to floating docks. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> notifications did not get to the public in time to assist with evacuation. Streamlining the messaging in Mexico from the <span class="hlt">warning</span> system directly to the public should be considered. And, for local events, preparedness efforts should place emphasis on responding to feeling the earthquake and not waiting to be notified. Although the U.S. <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> centers were timely with their international and domestic messaging, there were some issues with how those messages were presented and interpreted. The use of a "<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Threat" banner on the new main <span class="hlt">warning</span> center website created confusion with emergency managers in the U.S. where no <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat was expected to exist. Also, some U.S. states and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8040M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8040M"><span>A Distributed Architecture for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> and Collaborative Decision-support in Crises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moßgraber, J.; Middleton, S.; Hammitzsch, M.; Poslad, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The presentation will describe work on the system architecture that is being developed in the EU FP7 project TRIDEC on "Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises". The challenges for a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (TEWS) are manifold and the success of a system depends crucially on the system's architecture. A modern <span class="hlt">warning</span> system following a system-of-systems approach has to integrate various components and sub-systems such as different information sources, services and simulation systems. Furthermore, it has to take into account the distributed and collaborative nature of <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems. In order to create an architecture that supports the whole spectrum of a modern, distributed and collaborative <span class="hlt">warning</span> system one must deal with multiple challenges. Obviously, one cannot expect to tackle these challenges adequately with a monolithic system or with a single technology. Therefore, a system architecture providing the blueprints to implement the system-of-systems approach has to combine multiple technologies and architectural styles. At the bottom layer it has to reliably integrate a large set of conventional sensors, such as seismic sensors and sensor networks, buoys and tide gauges, and also innovative and unconventional sensors, such as streams of messages from social media services. At the top layer it has to support collaboration on high-level decision processes and facilitates information sharing between organizations. In between, the system has to process all data and integrate information on a semantic level in a timely manner. This complex communication follows an event-driven mechanism allowing events to be published, detected and consumed by various applications within the architecture. Therefore, at the upper layer the event-driven architecture (EDA) aspects are combined with principles of service-oriented architectures (SOA) using standards for communication and data exchange. The most prominent challenges on this layer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH13G..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH13G..04M"><span>An unified numerical simulation of seismic ground motion, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustics, coseismic deformations and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of 2011 Tohoku earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maeda, T.; Furumura, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takemura, S.; Iwai, K.; Lee, S.; Sakai, S.; Shinohara, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The fault rupture of the 2011 Tohoku (Mw9.0) earthquake spread approximately 550 km by 260 km with a long source rupture duration of ~200 s. For such large earthquake with a complicated source rupture process the radiation of seismic wave from the source rupture and initiation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> due to the coseismic deformation is considered to be very complicated. In order to understand such a complicated process of seismic wave, coseismic deformation and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, we proposed a unified approach for total modeling of earthquake induced phenomena in a single numerical scheme based on a finite-difference method simulation (Maeda and Furumura, 2011). This simulation model solves the equation of motion of based on the linear elastic theory with equilibrium between quasi-static pressure and gravity in the water column. The height of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is obtained from this simulation as a vertical displacement of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface. In order to simulate seismic waves, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustics, coseismic deformations, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we assembled a high-resolution 3D heterogeneous subsurface structural model of northern Japan. The area of simulation is 1200 km x 800 km and 120 km in depth, which have been discretized with grid interval of 1 km in horizontal directions and 0.25 km in vertical direction, respectively. We adopt a source-rupture model proposed by Lee et al. (2011) which is obtained by the joint inversion of teleseismic, near-field strong motion, and coseismic deformation. For conducting such a large-scale simulation, we fully parallelized our simulation code based on a domain-partitioning procedure which achieved a good speed-up by parallel computing up to 8192 core processors with parallel efficiency of 99.839%. The simulation result demonstrates clearly the process in which the seismic wave radiates from the complicated source rupture over the fault plane and propagating in heterogeneous structure of northern Japan. Then, generation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from coseismic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3644289','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3644289"><span>The Human Impact of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction. Although rare, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event –the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems may help mitigate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related loss of life. PMID:23857277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23857277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23857277"><span>The human impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D</p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>Introduction. Although rare, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event -the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems may help mitigate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related loss of life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392617"><span>Source mechanisms of volcanic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paris, Raphaël</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Volcanic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and <span class="hlt">warning</span> of volcanic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1890I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1890I"><span>Preliminary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observatories, is developing a new generation of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observing systems (referred to as Smart <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> project is a Smart <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations are underway for the BC coast. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S22B..01A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S22B..01A"><span>Prioritizing earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> alerting efforts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a <span class="hlt">warning</span>. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to <span class="hlt">warn</span> of the shaking hazard, but also the local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911503H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911503H"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations in the western Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We carried out <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulations in the western Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation is likely to be affected by the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> we simulated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26809470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26809470"><span>The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions implemented after the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>: A systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lipinski, Kyle; Liu, Lucia L; Wong, Paul W C</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Currently, the number of natural disasters has increased sixfold when compared to the 1960s. The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> offered provided an opportunity for scientifically investigating the effectiveness of post-disaster programs across countries with diverse ethnic, religious and cultural backgrounds. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of psychological interventions focused on the prevention or reduction in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and/or enhancement of psychological well-being implemented after the 2004 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>. We systematically searched through MEDLINE, PsycINFO and The Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) databases using the following keywords: '<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>' OR 'Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>', AND 'intervention'. Our systematic review included 10 studies which adopted 10 different psychological interventions. A total of 8 of the 10 studies reported positive results in reducing PTSD symptoms and most interventions showed high levels of cultural sensitivity. No significant harmful effects of the included interventions were identified although two studies used potentially harmful interventions. Evidence-based practice is a process of collaborative decision-making between the affected ones and interventionists. The practitioner assesses not only the availability of the level of evidence of the preferred interventions, but he or she also assesses his or her own expertise, the availability of resources, the surrounding context and the characteristics, values and preferences of relevant stakeholders. © The Author(s) 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10466E..4VS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10466E..4VS"><span>Cloud manifestations of atmospheric gravity waves over the water area of the Kuril Islands during the propagation of powerful transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Skorokhodov, A. V.; Shevchenko, G. V.; Astafurov, V. G.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The investigation results of atmospheric gravity waves cloudy manifestations observed over the water area of the Kuril Island ridge during the propagation of powerful transoceanic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> 2009-2010 are shown. The description of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics is based on the use of information from autonomous deep-water stations of the Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics FEB RAS in the Southern Kuril Islands and the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Service telemetering recorder located in one of the ports on Paramushir Island. The environment condition information was extracted from the results of remote sensing of the Earth from space by the MODIS sensor and aerological measurements at the meteorological station of Severo-Kurilsk. The results of analyzing the characteristics of wave processes in the atmosphere and the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> are discussed and their comparison is carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1754B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1754B"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Modeling and Prediction Using a Data Assimilation Technique with Kalman Filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnier, G.; Dunham, E. M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Earthquake-induced <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> cause dramatic damages along densely populated coastlines. It is difficult to predict and anticipate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in advance, but if the earthquake occurs far enough from the coast, there may be enough time to evacuate the zones at risk. Therefore, any real-time information on the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield (as it propagates towards the coast) is extremely valuable for early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, a dense <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-monitoring network (S-net) based on cabled <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-bottom pressure sensors has been deployed along the Pacific coast in Northeastern Japan. Maeda et al. (GRL, 2015) introduced a data assimilation technique to reconstruct the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield in real time by combining numerical solution of the shallow water wave equations with additional terms penalizing the numerical solution for not matching observations. The penalty or gain matrix is determined though optimal interpolation and is independent of time. Here we explore a related data assimilation approach using the Kalman filter method to evolve the gain matrix. While more computationally expensive, the Kalman filter approach potentially provides more accurate reconstructions. We test our method on a 1D <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model derived from the Kozdon and Dunham (EPSL, 2014) dynamic rupture simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. For appropriate choices of model and data covariance matrices, the method reconstructs the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield prior to wave arrival at the coast. We plan to compare the Kalman filter method to the optimal interpolation method developed by Maeda et al. (GRL, 2015) and then to implement the method for 2D.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S13A1051M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S13A1051M"><span>Near-Field Population Response During the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Baumwoll, J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>When the magnitude 8.1 earthquake and subsequent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hit the Solomon Islands on 2 April 2007 it killed 52 people. On Ghizo Island, home of the capital of the Western Province, Gizo, waves approaching 4 m in height inundated the south coast villages. Eyewitness accounts supported by geologic data from the offshore coral reef and sediment deposited on land suggest a wave that came in as the shaking stopped as a rapidly-rising tide rather than a turbulent bore- vehicles and houses were floated inland with very little damage. Those that survived in villages affected by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> had indigenous knowledge of prior events, whereas immigrant populations died in higher proportions. While buoy-based early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems are necessary to mitigate the effects of teletsunamis, they would have done little good in this near-field environment. In Pailongge, a village of 76 indigenous Solomon Islanders on Ghizo's south coast, there were no deaths. Village elders directed the people inland following the shaking and the almost immediate withdrawal of water from the lagoon, and heads of household made sure that children were accounted for and evacuated. Of the 366 Gilbertese living in Titiana, however, 13 people died, 8 of which were children who were exploring the emptied lagoon. A large proportion of the dead were children (24) as they were likely too weak to swim against the non-bore flow. The Gilbertese migrated from Kiribati in the 1950"s, and had not experienced a major earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, hence had no cultural memory. In the case of the Solomon Islands <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, as was the case in the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, indigenous knowledge served the people in the near-field well. In the case of the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> where there was 10-20 minutes separation between the time the shaking began and the waves arrived, the combination of an in-place plan and a suitable physical geography allowed the population of Simeulue Island and the Moken people of Thailand to escape before the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11D2125R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T11D2125R"><span>The <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Geology of the Bay of Bengal Shores and the Predecessors of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Seshachalam, S.; Andrade, V.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The 2004 Aceh-Andaman earthquake exceeded the known Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> precedents by its 1,300-km long fault rupture and the height and reach of its <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Literature of the ancient Chola dynasty (AD 9-11 centuries) of south India and the archeological excavations allude to a sea flood that crippled the historic port at Kaveripattinam, a trading hub for Southeast Asia. Here, we combine a variety of data from the rupture zone as well as the distant shores to build a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> history of the Bay of Bengal. A compelling set of geological proxies of possible <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation include boulder beds of Car Nicobar Island in the south and the East Island in the northernmost Andaman, a subsided fossil mangrove forest near Port Blair and a washover sedimentation identified in the Kaveripattinam coast of Tamil Nadu, south India. We have developed an extensive chronology for these geological proxies, and we analyze them in conjunction with the historical information culled from different sources for major sea surges along the Bay of Bengal shores. The age data and the depositional characteristics of these geological proxies suggest four major <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the last 2000 years in the Bay of Bengal, including the 1881 Car Nicobar <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Among these, the evidence for the event of 800-1200 cal yr BP is fairly well represented on both sides of the Bay of Bengal shores. Thus, we surmise that the 800-1000-year old <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mimics the transoceanic reach of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the age constraints also agree with the sea surge during the Chola period. We also obtained clues for a possible medieval <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from the islands occurred probably a few hundred years after the Chola <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, but its size cannot constrained, nor its source. The convergence of ages and the multiplicity of sites would suggest at least one full size predecessor of the 2004 event 1000-800 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031446','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031446"><span>Impacts of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1819G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH43A1819G"><span>Multiple Solutions of Real-time <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecasting Using Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> Tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gica, E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (SIFT) tool, developed by NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research (NCTR) at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), is used in forecast operations at the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The SIFT tool relies on a pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation database, real-time DART buoy data, and an inversion algorithm to define the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation database is composed of 50×100km unit sources, simulated basin-wide for at least 24 hours. Different combinations of unit sources, DART buoys, and length of real-time DART buoy data can generate a wide range of results within the defined <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source. For an inexperienced SIFT user, the primary challenge is to determine which solution, among multiple solutions for a single <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event, would provide the best forecast in real time. This study investigates how the use of different <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources affects simulated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> at tide gauge locations. Using the tide gauge at Hilo, Hawaii, a total of 50 possible solutions for the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are considered. Maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave amplitude and root mean square error results are used to compare tide gauge data and the simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> time series. Results of this study will facilitate SIFT users' efforts to determine if the simulated tide gauge <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> time series from a specific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source solution would be within the range of possible solutions. This study will serve as the basis for investigating more historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events and tide gauge locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21A3827C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21A3827C"><span>When is a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> a Mega-<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Terry, J. P.; Goto, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> is commonly called a mega-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and this attribute has also been linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. However, since this term was first coined in the early 1990's there have been very few attempts to define it. As such it has been applied in a rather arbitrary fashion to a number of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> characteristics, such as wave height or amplitude at both the source and at distant locations, run-up height, geographical extent and impact. The first use of the term is related to a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by a large bolide impact and indeed it seems entirely appropriate that the term should be used for such rare events on geological timescales. However, probably as a result of media-driven hyperbole, scientists have used this term at least twice in the last decade, which is hardly a significant portion of the geological timescale. It therefore seems reasonable to suggest that these recent unexpectedly large events do not fall in the category of mega-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> but into a category of exceptional events within historical experience and local perspective. The use of the term mega-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> over the past 14 years is discussed and a definition is provided that marks the relative uniqueness of these events and a new term, appropriately Japanese in origin, namely that of souteigai-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, is proposed. Examples of these <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> will be provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH34A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH34A..03S"><span>SEQUENCING of <span class="hlt">TSUNAMI</span> WAVES: Why the first wave is not always the largest?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Synolakis, C.; Okal, E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We discuss what contributes to the `sequencing' of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in the far field, that is, to the distribution of the maximum sea surface amplitude inside the dominant wave packet constituting the primary arrival at a distant harbour. Based on simple models of sources for which analytical solutions are available, we show that, as range is increased, the wave pattern evolves from a regime of maximum amplitude in the first oscillation to one of delayed maximum, where the largest amplitude takes place during a subsequent oscillation. In the case of the simple, instantaneous uplift of a circular disk at the surface of an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> of constant depth, the critical distance for transition between those patterns scales as r 30 /h2 where r0 is the radius of the disk and h the depth of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. This behaviour is explained from simple arguments based on a model where sequencing results from frequency dispersion in the primary wave packet, as the width of its spectrum around its dominant period T0 becomes dispersed in time in an amount comparable to T0 , the latter being controlled by a combination of source size and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> depth. The general concepts in this model are confirmed in the case of more realistic sources for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation by a finite-time deformation of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, as well as in real-life simulations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> excited by large subduction events, for which we find that the influence of fault width on the distribution of sequencing is more important than that of fault length. Finally, simulation of the major events of Chile (2010) and Japan (2011) at large arrays of virtual gauges in the Pacific Basin correctly predicts the majority of the sequencing patterns observed on DART buoys during these events. By providing insight into the evolution with time of wave amplitudes inside primary wave packets for far field <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by large earthquakes, our results stress the importance, for civil defense authorities, of issuing <span class="hlt">warning</span> and evacuation orders</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4394Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21A4394Z"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment for Makran considering recently suggested larger maximum magnitudes and sensitivity analysis for GNSS-based early <span class="hlt">warning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zamora, N.; Hoechner, A.; Babeyko, A. Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Iran and Pakistan are countries frequently affected by destructive earthquakes, as for instance, the magnitude 6.6 Bam earthquake in 2003 in Iran with about 30 000 casualties, or the magnitude 7.6 Kashmir earthquake 2005 in Pakistan with about 80'000 casualties. Both events took place inland, but in terms of magnitude, even significantly larger events can be expected to happen offshore, at the Makran subduction zone. This small subduction zone is seismically rather quiescent, nevertheless a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused by a thrust event in 1945 (Balochistan earthquake) led to about 4000 casualties. Nowadays, the coastal regions are more densely populated and vulnerable to similar events. Furthermore, some recent publications discuss the possiblity of rather rare huge magnitude 9 events at the Makran subduction zone. We analyze the seismicity at the subduction plate interface and generate various synthetic earthquake catalogs spanning 100000 years. All the events are projected onto the plate interface using scaling relations and a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model is run for every scenario. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard along the coast is computed and presented in the form of annual probability of exceedance, probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height for different time periods and other measures. We show how the hazard reacts to variation of the Gutenberg-Richter parameters and maximum magnitudes.We model the historic Balochistan event and its effect in terms of coastal wave heights. Finally, we show how an effective <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> could be achieved by using an array of high-precision real-time GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receivers along the coast by applying it to the 1945 event and by performing a sensitivity analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U21E2176D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U21E2176D"><span>2009 Samoa <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: factors that exacerbated or reduced impacts in Samoa and American Samoa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dengler, L. A.; Ewing, L.; Brandt, J.; Irish, J. L.; Jones, C.; Long, K.; Lazrus, H.; McCullough, N.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>An interdisciplinary team with expertise in coastal and port engineering, coastal management, environmental science, anthropology, emergency management, and mitigation visited Samoa and American Samoa in late October and November, 2009. The team, sponsored by ASCE/COPRI, EERI, and the NTHMP focused on identifying the factors which effected the impacts of the September 29, 2009 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The engineering group assessed the value of engineered coastal protection and natural protective features (reefs, mangroves, etc.) in reducing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation by comparing protected and unprotected coastlines and examined possible correlations between damage to the built environment and hydrodynamic forcing, namely loading by runup and velocity. The EERI group looked at how coastal land use planning and management, emergency planning and response, and culture, education and awareness of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards affected outcomes. The group also looked at public response to the natural <span class="hlt">warnings</span> of September 29 and the official <span class="hlt">warnings</span> following the October 7 Vanuatu <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.S24A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.S24A..05S"><span>Implementation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk. On September 1, 1992, a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> plan; -Improvements of the national <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. -Installation of sirens for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> -Installation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3716B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3716B"><span>Development of Parallel Code for the Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahng, B.; Knight, W. R.; Whitmore, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Forecast Model (ATFM) is a numerical model used to forecast propagation and inundation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by earthquakes and other means in both the Pacific and Atlantic <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. At the U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (NTWC), the model is mainly used in a pre-computed fashion. That is, results for hundreds of hypothetical events are computed before alerts, and are accessed and calibrated with observations during <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> to immediately produce forecasts. ATFM uses the non-linear, depth-averaged, shallow-water equations of motion with multiply nested grids in two-way communications between domains of each parent-child pair as waves get closer to coastal waters. Even with the pre-computation the task becomes non-trivial as sub-grid resolution gets finer. Currently, the finest resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) used by ATFM are 1/3 arc-seconds. With a serial code, large or multiple areas of very high resolution can produce run-times that are unrealistic even in a pre-computed approach. One way to increase the model performance is code parallelization used in conjunction with a multi-processor computing environment. NTWC developers have undertaken an ATFM code-parallelization effort to streamline the creation of the pre-computed database of results with the long term aim of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasts from source to high resolution shoreline grids in real time. Parallelization will also permit timely regeneration of the forecast model database with new DEMs; and, will make possible future inclusion of new physics such as the non-hydrostatic treatment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation. The purpose of our presentation is to elaborate on the parallelization approach and to show the compute speed increase on various multi-processor systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.1855U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12.1855U"><span>Web-based <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System: a case study of the 2010 Kepulaunan Mentawai Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulutas, E.; Inan, A.; Annunziato, A.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>This study analyzes the response of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS) in relation to a case study: the Kepulaunan Mentawai earthquake and related <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, which occurred on 25 October 2010. The GDACS, developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center, combines existing web-based disaster information management systems with the aim to alert the international community in case of major disasters. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation system is an integral part of the GDACS. In more detail, the study aims to assess the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard on the Mentawai and Sumatra coasts: the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> heights and arrival times have been estimated employing three propagation models based on the long wave theory. The analysis was performed in three stages: (1) pre-calculated simulations by using the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario database for that region, used by the GDACS system to estimate the alert level; (2) near-real-time simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasts, automatically performed by the GDACS system whenever a new earthquake is detected by the seismological data providers; and (3) post-event <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> calculations using GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor) fault mechanism solutions proposed by US Geological Survey (USGS) for this event. The GDACS system estimates the alert level based on the first type of calculations and on that basis sends alert messages to its users; the second type of calculations is available within 30-40 min after the notification of the event but does not change the estimated alert level. The third type of calculations is performed to improve the initial estimations and to have a better understanding of the extent of the possible damage. The automatic alert level for the earthquake was given between Green and Orange Alert, which, in the logic of GDACS, means no need or moderate need of international humanitarian assistance; however, the earthquake generated 3 to 9 m <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> run-up along southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands where 431 people died. The post</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2584S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2584S"><span>Parallel Processing of Numerical <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Simulations on a High Performance Cluster based on the GDAL Library</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schroeder, Matthias; Jankowski, Cedric; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> different shapefiles for certain time steps. The shapefiles contain afterwards lines for visualizing the isochrones of the wave propagation and moreover, data about the maximum wave height and the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) at the coast. Our contribution shows the entire workflow and the visualizing results of the-processing for the example region Western Iberian <span class="hlt">ocean</span> margin. [1] Armigliato A., Pagnoni G., Zaniboni F, Tinti S. (2013), Database of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenario simulations for Western Iberia: a tool for the TRIDEC Project Decision Support System for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span>, Vol. 15, EGU2013-5567, EGU General Assembly 2013, Vienna (Austria). [2] Löwe, P., Wächter, J., Hammitzsch, M., Lendholt, M., Häner, R. (2013): The Evolution of Service-oriented Disaster Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Systems in the TRIDEC Project, 23rd International <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Polar Engineering Conference - ISOPE-2013, Anchorage (USA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2961Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2961Z"><span>The 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> on the Coast of Mexico: A Case Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaytsev, Oleg; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The Tohoku (East Japan) earthquake of 11 March 2011 ( M w 9.0) generated a great trans-<span class="hlt">oceanic</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that spread throughout the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, where it was measured by numerous coastal tide gauges and open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> DART (Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>) stations. Statistical and spectral analyses of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves recorded along the Pacific coast of Mexico have enabled us to estimate the principal parameters of the waves along the coast and to compare statistical features of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> with other <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> recorded on this coast. We identify coastal "hot spots"—Manzanillo, Zihuatanejo, Acapulco, and Ensenada—corresponding to sites having highest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard potential, where wave heights during the 2011 event exceeded 1.5-2 m and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced currents were strong enough to close port operations. Based on a joint spectral analysis of the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and background noise, we reconstructed the spectra of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and found that, with the exception of the high-frequency spectral band (>5 cph), the spectra are in close agreement with the "true" <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> spectra determined from DART bottom pressure records. The departure of the high-frequency spectra in the coastal region from the deep-sea spectra is shown to be related to background infragravity waves generated in the coastal zone. The total energy and frequency content of the Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is compared with the corresponding results for the 2010 Chilean <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Our findings show that the integral open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy, I 0, was 2.30 cm2, or approximately 1.7 times larger than for the 2010 event. Comparison of this parameter with the mean coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> variance (451 cm2) indicates that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves propagating onshore from the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> amplified by 14 times; the same was observed for the 2010 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The "<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> colour" (frequency content) for the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was "red", with about 65% of the total energy associated with low-frequency waves at frequencies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12..555H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NHESS..12..555H"><span>User interface prototype for geospatial early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems - a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> showcase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.; Esbrí, M. Á.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The command and control unit's graphical user interface (GUI) is a central part of early <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems (EWS) for man-made and natural hazards. The GUI combines and concentrates the relevant information of the system and offers it to human operators. It has to support operators successfully performing their tasks in complex workflows. Most notably in critical situations when operators make important decisions in a limited amount of time, the command and control unit's GUI has to work reliably and stably, providing the relevant information and functionality with the required quality and in time. The design of the GUI application is essential in the development of any EWS to manage hazards effectively. The design and development of such GUI is performed repeatedly for each EWS by various software architects and developers. Implementations differ based on their application in different domains. But similarities designing and equal approaches implementing GUIs of EWS are not quite harmonized enough with related activities and do not exploit possible synergy effects. Thus, the GUI's implementation of an EWS for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is successively introduced, providing a generic approach to be applied in each EWS for man-made and natural hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3663G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173.3663G"><span>Introduction to "Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Science: Past and Future, Volume I"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Tanioka, Yuichiro</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Twenty-five papers on the study of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Science: Past and Future". Six papers examine various aspects of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> probability and uncertainty analysis related to hazard assessment. Three papers relate to deterministic hazard and risk assessment. Five more papers present new methods for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> and detection. Six papers describe new methods for modeling <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics. Two papers investigate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by non-seismic sources: landslides and meteorological disturbances. The final three papers describe important case studies of recent and historical events. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7742B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.7742B"><span>Origin of the ahead of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> traveling ionospheric disturbances during Sumatra <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and offshore forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bagiya, Mala S.; Kherani, E. A.; Sunil, P. S.; Sunil, A. S.; Sunda, S.; Ramesh, D. S.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The presence of ionospheric disturbances associated with Sumatra 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that propagated ahead of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> itself has previously been identified. However, their origin remains unresolved till date. Focusing on their origin mechanism, we document these ionospheric disturbances referred as Ahead of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (ATIDs). Using total electron content (TEC) data from GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation GPS receivers located near the Indian east coast, we first confirm the ATIDs presence in TEC that appear 90 min ahead of the arrival of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> at the Indian east coast. We propose here a simulation study based on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-atmospheric-ionospheric coupling that considers tsunamigenic acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) to excite these disturbances. We explain the ATIDs generation based on the dissipation of transverse mode of the primary AGWs. The simulation corroborates the excitation of ATIDs with characteristics similar to the observations. Therefore, we offer an alternative theoretical tool to monitor the offshore ATIDs where observations are either rare or not available and could be potentially important for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392614"><span>The meteorite impact-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wünnemann, K; Weiss, R</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>When a cosmic object strikes the Earth, it most probably falls into an <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Depending on the impact energy and the depth of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, a large amount of water is displaced, forming a temporary crater in the water column. Large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves originate from the collapse of the cavity in the water and the ejecta splash. Because of the far-reaching destructive consequences of such waves, an <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> impact has been suggested to be more severe than a similar-sized impact on land; in other words, <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> impacts may punch over their weight. This review paper summarizes the process of impact-induced wave generation and subsequent propagation, whether the wave characteristic differs from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by other classical mechanisms, and what methods have been applied to quantify the consequences of an <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> impact. Finally, the impact-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard will be evaluated by means of the Eltanin impact event. © 2015 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156824','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156824"><span>Earthquake mechanism and seafloor deformation for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Oglesby, David D.; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are generated in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> by rapidly displacing the entire water column over a significant area. The potential energy resulting from this disturbance is balanced with the kinetic energy of the waves during propagation. Only a handful of submarine geologic phenomena can generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>: large-magnitude earthquakes, large landslides, and volcanic processes. Asteroid and subaerial landslide impacts can generate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from above the water. Earthquakes are by far the most common generator of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Generally, earthquakes greater than magnitude (M) 6.5–7 can generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> if they occur beneath an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and if they result in predominantly vertical displacement. One of the greatest uncertainties in both deterministic and probabilistic hazard assessments of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is computing seafloor deformation for earthquakes of a given magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3557D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3557D"><span>Evaluation of the Relationship Between Coral Damage and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Dynamics; Case Study: 2009 Samoa <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dilmen, Derya I.; Titov, Vasily V.; Roe, Gerard H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>On September 29, 2009, an Mw = 8.1 earthquake at 17:48 UTC in Tonga Trench generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga islands. Tutuila island, which is located 250 km from the earthquake epicenter, experienced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flooding and strong currents on the north and east coasts, causing 34 fatalities (out of 192 total deaths from this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>) and widespread structural and ecological damage. The surrounding coral reefs also suffered heavy damage. The damage was formally evaluated based on detailed surveys before and immediately after the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. This setting thus provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> dynamics and coral damage. In this study, estimates of the maximum wave amplitudes and coastal inundation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> are obtained with the MOST model (T itov and S ynolakis, J. Waterway Port Coast <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Eng: pp 171, 1998; T itov and G onzalez, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL PMEL 112:11, 1997), which is now the operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast tool used by the National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The earthquake source function was constrained using the real-time deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data from three DART® (Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span>) systems in the far field, and by tide-gauge observations in the near field. We compare the simulated run-up with observations to evaluate the simulation performance. We present an overall synthesis of the tide-gauge data, survey results of the run-up, inundation measurements, and the datasets of coral damage around the island. These data are used to assess the overall accuracy of the model run-up prediction for Tutuila, and to evaluate the model accuracy over the coral reef environment during the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. Our primary findings are that: (1) MOST-simulated run-up correlates well with observed run-up for this event ( r = 0.8), it tends to underestimated amplitudes over coral reef environment around Tutuila (for 15 of 31 villages, run</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9936K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9936K"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The severity of the climate and sparsely populated coastal regions are the reason why the Russian part of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> belongs to the least studied areas of the World <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. In the same time intensive economic development of the Arctic region, specifically oil and gas industry, require studies of potential thread natural disasters that can cause environmental and technical damage of the coastal and maritime infrastructure of energy industry complex (FEC). Despite the fact that the seismic activity in the Arctic can be attributed to a moderate level, we cannot exclude the occurrence of destructive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves, directly threatening the FEC. According to the IAEA requirements, in the construction of nuclear power plants it is necessary to take into account the impact of all natural disasters with frequency more than 10-5 per year. Planned accommodation in the polar regions of the Russian floating nuclear power plants certainly requires an adequate risk assessment of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in the areas of their location. Develop the concept of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment would be based on the numerical simulation of different scenarios in which reproduced the hypothetical seismic sources and generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The analysis of available geological, geophysical and seismological data for the period of instrumental observations (1918-2015) shows that the highest earthquake potential within the Arctic region is associated with the underwater Mid-Arctic zone of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom spreading (interplate boundary between Eurasia and North American plates) as well as with some areas of continental slope within the marginal seas. For the Arctic coast of Russia and the adjacent shelf area, the greatest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> danger of seismotectonic origin comes from the earthquakes occurring in the underwater Gakkel Ridge zone, the north-eastern part of the Mid-Arctic zone. In this area, one may expect earthquakes of magnitude Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0 at a rate of 10-2 per year and of magnitude Mw ˜ 7.5 at a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750005423','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750005423"><span>Marine geodesy a multipurpose approach to solve <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> problems. [including submersible navigation under iced seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and ecology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saxena, N.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-bottom control-net unit is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPA31D2224B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMPA31D2224B"><span>PTWC Creating a New Catalog of Historic <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Animations for NOAA Science-on-a-Sphere Exhibits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker, N. C.; Geschwind, L. R.; Wang, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Throughout 2016 the Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (PTWC) has been developing a catalog of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> animations for NOAA's Science on a Sphere (SOS) display system. The SOS consists of a six-foot (1.8 m) diameter sphere that serves as a projection screen for four high-definition video projectors that can show any global dataset. SOS systems have been installed in over 100 locations around the world, primarily in venues such as science museums. Education and outreach are a vital part of PTWC's mission and SOS can show the global impacts of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards in an intuitive and engaging presentation analogous to a planetarium. PTWC has been releasing these animations for the anniversaries of significant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> throughout the year and has so far has produced them for Cascadia 1700, Chile 2010, Japan 2011, Aleutian Islands 1946, Alaska 1964, and Chile 1960, and before the end of the year the library will include Samoa 2009 and Sumatra 2004. PTWC created these animations at 8k video resolution to future-proof them against SOS upgrades such as higher definition projectors and larger spheres. Though not the first SOS <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> animations, these are the first ones to show impacts to coastlines, the criteria that PTWC uses to determine the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard guidance it will issue to the coastal populations it serves. These animations also all use a common color scheme based on PTWC's alert criteria such that they will be consistent with each other as well as with PTWC's <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> messages. PTWC created these animations using the same <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast model it routinely uses in its <span class="hlt">warning</span> operations, and PTWC has even demonstrated that it can produce a SOS <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> animation while a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was still crossing the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and so this library of animations can also be used to prepare docents and audiences to interpret such a real-time animation should it become available for the next major <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. One does not need access to a SOS exhibit, however, to view these animations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22393116"><span>Synthetic <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> along the Israeli coast.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tobias, Joshua; Stiassnie, Michael</p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>The new mathematical model for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1525B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.175.1525B"><span>Airburst-Generated <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Marsha; Goodman, Jonathan</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>This paper examines the questions of whether smaller asteroids that burst in the air over water can generate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that could pose a threat to distant locations. Such airburst-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are qualitatively different than the more frequently studied earthquake-generated <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, and differ as well from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by asteroids that strike the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Numerical simulations are presented using the shallow water equations in several settings, demonstrating very little <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> threat from this scenario. A model problem with an explicit solution that demonstrates and explains the same phenomena found in the computations is analyzed. We discuss the question of whether compressibility and dispersion are important effects that should be included, and show results from a more sophisticated model problem using the linearized Euler equations that begins to addresses this.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMOS23D1350K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFMOS23D1350K"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Risk for the Caribbean Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kozelkov, A. S.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Zahibo, N.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned <span class="hlt">warning</span> system for the Caribbean Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0208T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0208T"><span>Real-time correction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> site effect by frequency-dependent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-amplification factor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsushima, H.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span>, I developed frequency-dependent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-amplification factor and used it to design a recursive digital filter that can be applicable for real-time correction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> site response. In this study, I assumed that a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform at an observing point could be modeled by convolution of source, path and site effects in time domain. Under this assumption, spectral ratio between offshore and the nearby coast can be regarded as site response (i.e. frequency-dependent amplification factor). If the amplification factor can be prepared before tsunamigenic earthquakes, its temporal convolution to offshore <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveform provides <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> prediction at coast in real time. In this study, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms calculated by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical simulations were used to develop frequency-dependent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-amplification factor. Firstly, I performed numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations based on nonlinear shallow-water theory from many tsuanmigenic earthquake scenarios by varying the seismic magnitudes and locations. The resultant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms at offshore and the nearby coastal observing points were then used in spectral-ratio analysis. An average of the resulted spectral ratios from the tsunamigenic-earthquake scenarios is regarded as frequency-dependent amplification factor. Finally, the estimated amplification factor is used in design of a recursive digital filter that can be applicable in time domain. The above procedure is applied to Miyako bay at the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The averaged <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-height spectral ratio (i.e. amplification factor) between the location at the center of the bay and the outside show a peak at wave-period of 20 min. A recursive digital filter based on the estimated amplification factor shows good performance in real-time correction of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-height amplification due to the site effect. This study is supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant 15K16309.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH12A..06A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH12A..06A"><span>Comparison of Human Response against Earthquake and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arikawa, T.; Güler, H. G.; Yalciner, A. C.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The evacuation response against the earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is very important for the reduction of human damages against <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. But it is very difficult to predict the human behavior after shaking of the earthquake. The purpose of this research is to clarify the difference of the human response after the earthquake shock in the difference countries and to consider the relation between the response and the safety feeling, knowledge and education. For the objective of this paper, the questionnaire survey was conducted after the 21st July 2017 Gokova earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Then, consider the difference of the human behavior by comparison of that in 2015 Chilean earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and 2011 Japan earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The seismic intensity of the survey points was almost 6 to 7. The contents of the questions include the feeling of shaking, recalling of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, the behavior after shock and so on. The questionnaire was conducted for more than 20 20 people in 10 areas. The results are the following; 1) Most people felt that it was a strong shake not to stand, 2) All of the questionnaires did not recall the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, 3) Depending on the area, they felt that after the earthquake the beach was safer than being at home. 4) After they saw the sea drawing, they thought that a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> would come and ran away. Fig. 1 shows the comparison of the evacuation rate within 10 minutes in 2011 Japan, 2015 Chile and 2017 Turkey.. From the education point of view, education for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is not done much in Turkey. From the protection facilities point of view, the high sea walls are constructed only in Japan. From the <span class="hlt">warning</span> alert point of view, there is no <span class="hlt">warning</span> system against <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Mediterranean Sea. As a result of this survey, the importance of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> education is shown, and evacuation tends to be delayed if dependency on facilities and alarms is too high.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2694F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.2694F"><span>Assessment of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> extreme <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> conditions. The results of this study will be useful for the design of coastal engineering projects and the establishment of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> system for Shandong Province.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..199P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..199P"><span>Traveltime delay relative to the maximum energy of the wave train for dispersive <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> propagating across the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: the case of 2010 and 2015 Chilean <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poupardin, A.; Heinrich, P.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Jamelot, A.; Reymond, D.; Sugioka, H.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>This paper evaluates the importance of frequency dispersion in the propagation of recent trans-Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Frequency dispersion induces a time delay for the most energetic waves, which increases for long propagation distances and short source dimensions. To calculate this time delay, propagation of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is simulated and analyzed from spectrograms of time-series at specific gauges in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. One- and two-dimensional simulations are performed by solving either shallow water or Boussinesq equations and by considering realistic seismic sources. One-dimensional sensitivity tests are first performed in a constant-depth channel to study the influence of the source width. Two-dimensional tests are then performed in a simulated Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> with a 4000-m constant depth and by considering tectonic sources of 2010 and 2015 Chilean earthquakes. For these sources, both the azimuth and the distance play a major role in the frequency dispersion of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Finally, simulations are performed considering the real bathymetry of the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Multiple reflections, refractions as well as shoaling of waves result in much more complex time series for which the effects of the frequency dispersion are hardly discernible. The main point of this study is to evaluate frequency dispersion in terms of traveltime delays by calculating spectrograms for a time window of 6 hours after the arrival of the first wave. Results of the spectral analysis show that the wave packets recorded by pressure and tide sensors in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> seem to be better reproduced by the Boussinesq model than the shallow water model and approximately follow the theoretical dispersion relationship linking wave arrival times and frequencies. Additionally, a traveltime delay is determined above which effects of frequency dispersion are considered to be significant in terms of maximum surface elevations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH32A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH32A..06S"><span>Early waning and evacuation from <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>, volcano, flood and other hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugimoto, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In reconsideration of the great sacrifice among the people, evacuation calls for evacuation through Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), local governments and Medias have been drastically changed after the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Japan. One of example is that JMA changed from forecasted concrete figure of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height to one of 3 levels of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height. A data shows the border between life and death is just 2 minutes of earlier evacuation in case of the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. It shows how importance for communities to prompt early evacuation for survivals. However, the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> revealed there is no reliable trigger to prompt early evacuation to people in case of blackout under disasters, excluding effective education. The <span class="hlt">warning</span> call was still complicated situations in Japan in July 2012. The 2012 Northern Kyusyu downpours was at worst around 110 millimeters an hour and casualties 30 in Japan. JMA learned from the last <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. In this time JMA informed to local governments as a waning call "Unexpected severe rains" to local governments. However, local governments did not notice the call from JMA in the same as usual informed way. One of the local government said "We were very busy for preparing for staffs. We looked at the necessary information of the water levels of rivers and flood prevention under emergent situation" (NHK 2012). This case shows JMA's evacuation calls from upstream to midstream of local government and downstream of communities started, however upstream calls have not engaged with midstream and communities yet. Calls of early <span class="hlt">warning</span> from upstream is still a self-centered idea for both midstream and downstream. Finally JMA could not convey a crisis mentality to local government. The head of Oarai town independently decided to use the different <span class="hlt">warning</span> call "Order townspersons to evacuate immediately" in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan from the other municipalities in 2011 though there was not such a manuals calls in Japan. This risk communication</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..210A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018GeoJI.tmp..210A"><span>A Sensitivity Analysis of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Inversions on the Number of Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>An, Chao; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Meng, Lingsen</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Current finite-fault inversions of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> recordings generally adopt as many <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> stations as possible to better constrain earthquake source parameters. In this study, inversions are evaluated by the waveform residual that measures the difference between model predictions and recordings, and the dependence of the quality of inversions on the number <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> stations is derived. Results for the 2011 Tohoku event show that, if the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> stations are optimally located, the waveform residual decreases significantly with the number of stations when the number is 1 ˜ 4 and remains almost constant when the number is larger than 4, indicating that 2 ˜ 4 stations are able to recover the main characteristics of the earthquake source. The optimal location of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> stations is explained in the text. Similar analysis is applied to the Manila Trench in the South China Sea using artificially generated earthquakes and virtual <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> stations. Results confirm that 2 ˜ 4 stations are necessary and sufficient to constrain the earthquake source parameters, and the optimal sites of stations are recommended in the text. The conclusion is useful for the design of new <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems. Current strategies of tsunameter network design mainly focus on the early detection of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves from potential sources to coastal regions. We therefore recommend that, in addition to the current strategies, the waveform residual could also be taken into consideration so as to minimize the error of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave prediction for <span class="hlt">warning</span> purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..08T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH14A..08T"><span>Modeling Extra-Long <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Propagation: Assessing Data, Model Accuracy and Forecast Implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Rabinovich, A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Detecting and modeling <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> propagating tens of thousands of kilometers from the source is a formidable scientific challenge and seemingly satisfies only scientific curiosity. However, results of such analyses produce a valuable insight into the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation dynamics, model accuracy and would provide important implications for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast. The Mw = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the coast of Sumatra generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that devastated Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> coastlines and spread into the Pacific and Atlantic <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was recorded by a great number of coastal tide gauges, including those located in 15-25 thousand kilometers from the source area. To date, it is still the farthest instrumentally detected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The data from these instruments throughout the world <span class="hlt">oceans</span> enabled to estimate various statistical parameters and energy decay of this event. High-resolution records of this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> from DARTs 32401 (offshore of northern Chile), 46405 and NeMO (both offshore of the US West Coast), combined with the mainland tide gauge measurements enabled us to examine far-field characteristics of the 2004 in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and to compare the results of global numerical simulations with the observations. Despite their small heights (less than 2 cm at deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> locations), the records demonstrated consistent spatial and temporal structure. The numerical model described well the frequency content, amplitudes and general structure of the observed waves at deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> and coastal gages. We present analysis of the measurements and comparison with model data to discuss implication for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast accuracy. Model study for such extreme distances from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source and at extra-long times after the event is an attempt to find accuracy bounds for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> models and accuracy limitations of model use for forecast. We discuss results in application to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model forecast and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling in general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.tmp.1271C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PApGe.tmp.1271C"><span>The 2017 México <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Record, Numerical Modeling and Threat Assessment in Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>An M w 8.2 earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurred offshore the Pacific coast of México on 2017-09-08, at 04:49 UTC. Costa Rican tide gauges have registered a total of 21 local, regional and far-field <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The Quepos gauge registered 12 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> between 1960 and 2014 before it was relocated inside a harbor by late 2014, where it registered two more <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. This paper analyzes the 2017 México <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> as recorded by the Quepos gauge. It took 2 h for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> to arrive to Quepos, with a first peak height of 9.35 cm and a maximum amplitude of 18.8 cm occurring about 6 h later. As a decision support tool, this <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was modeled for Quepos in real time using ComMIT (Community Model Interface for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>) with the finer grid having a resolution of 1 arcsec ( 30 m). However, the model did not replicate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> record well, probably due to the lack of a finer and more accurate bathymetry. In 2014, the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Monitoring System of Costa Rica (SINAMOT) was created, acting as a national <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> center. The occurrence of the 2017 México <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> raised concerns about <span class="hlt">warning</span> dissemination mechanisms for most coastal communities in Costa Rica, due to its short travel time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036432','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036432"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> risk mapping simulation for Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.; Moh, Y.T.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The 26 December 2004 Andaman mega <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> killed about a quarter of a million people worldwide. Since then several significant <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have recurred in this region, including the most recent 25 October 2010 Mentawai <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. These <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> grimly remind us of the devastating destruction that a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> might inflict on the affected coastal communities. There is evidence that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> of similar or higher magnitudes might occur again in the near future in this region. Of particular concern to Malaysia are tsunamigenic earthquakes occurring along the northern part of the Sunda Trench. Further, the Manila Trench in the South China Sea has been identified as another source of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes that might trigger large <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. To protect coastal communities that might be affected by future <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, an effective early <span class="hlt">warning</span> system must be properly installed and maintained to provide adequate time for residents to be evacuated from risk zones. Affected communities must be prepared and educated in advance regarding <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk zones, evacuation routes as well as an effective evacuation procedure that must be taken during a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurrence. For these purposes, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk zones must be identified and classified according to the levels of risk simulated. This paper presents an analysis of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations for the South China Sea and the Andaman Sea for the purpose of developing a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk zone classification map for Malaysia based upon simulated maximum wave heights. ?? 2011 WIT Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70179086','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70179086"><span>Introduction to “Global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> science: Past and future, Volume I”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geist, Eric L.; Fritz, Hermann; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Tanioka, Yuichiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Twenty-five papers on the study of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are included in Volume I of the PAGEOPH topical issue “Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Science: Past and Future”. Six papers examine various aspects of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> probability and uncertainty analysis related to hazard assessment. Three papers relate to deterministic hazard and risk assessment. Five more papers present new methods for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> and detection. Six papers describe new methods for modeling <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics. Two papers investigate <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by non-seismic sources: landslides and meteorological disturbances. The final three papers describe important case studies of recent and historical events. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0212Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0212Q"><span>Characterization of the Spatio-temporal Evolution of the Energy of Recent <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in Chile and its Connection with the Seismic Source and Geomorphological Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quiroz, M.; Cienfuegos, R.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>At present, there is good knowledge acquired by the scientific community on characterizing the evolution of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy at <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and shelf scales. For instance, the investigations of Rabinovich (2013) and Yamazaki (2011), represent some important advances in this subject. In the present paper we rather focus on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy evolution, and ultimately its decay, in coastal areas because characteristic time scales of this process has implications for early <span class="hlt">warning</span>, evacuation initiation, and cancelling. We address the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy evolution analysis at three different spatial scales, a global scale at the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basin level, in particular the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> basin, a regional scale comprising processes that occur at the continental shelf level, and finally a local scale comprising coastal areas or bays. These scales were selected following the motivation to understand how the response is associated with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and how the energy evolves until it is completely dissipated. Through signal processing methods, such as discrete and wavelets analysis, we analyze time series of recent tsunamigenic events in the main Chilean coastal cities. Based on this analysis, we propose a conceptual model based on the influence of geomorphological variables on the evolution and decay of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy. This model acts as a filter from the seismic source to the observed response in coastal zones. Finally, we hope to conclude with practical tools that will establish patterns of behavior and scaling of energy evolution through interconnections from seismic source variables and the geomorphological component to understand the response and predict behavior for a given site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111202M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111202M"><span>PACT - a bottom pressure based, compact deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> tsunameter with acoustic surface coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macrander, A.; Gouretski, V.; Boebel, O.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The German-Indonsian <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System (GITEWS) processes a multitude of information to comprehensively and accurately evaluate the possible risks inherent to seismic events around Indonesia. Within just a few minutes, measurements of the vibration and horizontal movements off the coastal regions of Indonesia provide a clear picture of the location and intensity of a seaquake. However, not every seaquake causes a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, nor is every <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused by a seaquake. To avoid nerve-wrecking and costly false alarms and to protect against <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> caused by landslides, the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> sea-level must be measured directly. This goal is pursued in the GITEWS work package "<span class="hlt">ocean</span> instrumentation", aiming at a a highest reliability and redundancy by developing a set of independent instruments, which measure the sea-level both offshore in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and at the coast on the islands off Indonesia. Deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> sea-level changes less than a centimetre can be detected by pressure gauges deployed at the sea floor. Based on some of the concepts developed as part of the US DART system, a bottom pressure based, acoustically coupled <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detector (PACT) was developed under the auspices of the AWI in collaboration with two German SME and with support of University of Bremen and University of Rhode Island. The PACT system records <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom pressure, performs on-board <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection and acoustically relays the data to the surface buoy. However, employing computational powers and communication technologies of the new millennium, PACT integrates the entire sea-floor package (pressure gauge, data logger and analyzer, acoustic modem, acoustic release and relocation aids) into a single unit, i.e. a standard benthos sphere. PACT thereby reduces costs, minimizes the deployment efforts, while maximizing reliability and maintenance intervals. Several PACT systems are scheduled for their first deployment off Indonesia during 2009. In this presentation, the technical specifications</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0245W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0245W"><span>New Science Applications Within the U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, R. I.; Eble, M. C.; Forson, C. K.; Horrillo, J. J.; Nicolsky, D.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) is a collaborative State and Federal program which supports consistent and cost effective <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness and mitigation activities at a community level. The NTHMP is developing a new five-year Strategic Plan based on the 2017 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span>, Education, and Research Act as well as recommendations the 2017 NTHMP External Review Panel. Many NTHMP activities are based on the best available scientific methods through the NTHMP Mapping and Modeling Subcommittee (MMS). The primary activities for the MMS member States are to characterize significant <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sources, numerically model those sources, and create <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation maps for evacuation planning. This work remains a focus for many unmapped coastlines. With the lessons learned from the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and 2011 Tohoku Japan <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, where both immediate risks and long-term recovery issues where recognized, the NTHMP MMS is expanding efforts into other areas that address community resilience. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> evacuation modeling based on both pedestrian and vehicular modes of transportation are being developed by NTHMP States. Products include tools for the public to create personal evacuation maps. New <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> response planning tools are being developed for both maritime and coastal communities. Maritime planning includes <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> current-hazard maps for in-harbor and offshore response activities. Multi-tiered <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation plans are being developed in some states to address local- versus distant-source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, as well as real-time evacuation plans, or "playbooks," for distant-source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> forecasted to be less than the worst-case flood event. Products to assist community mitigation and recovery are being developed at a State level. Harbor Improvement Reports, which evaluate the impacts of currents, sediment, and debris on harbor infrastructure, include direct mitigation activities for Local Hazard Mitigation Plans. Building code updates in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170000013&hterms=tsunami&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtsunami','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170000013&hterms=tsunami&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtsunami"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waves Extensively Resurfaced the Shorelines of an Early Martian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Fairen, A. G.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Platz, T.; Komatsu, G.; Kargel, J. S.; Gulick, V.; Jianguo, Y.; Higuchi, K.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170000013'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170000013_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170000013_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170000013_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170000013_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Viking image-based mapping of a widespread deposit covering most of the northern low-lands of Mars led to the proposal by Parker et al. that the deposit represents the vestiges of an enormous <span class="hlt">ocean</span> that existed approx. 3.4 Ga. Later identified as the Vastitas Borealis Formation, the latest geologic map of Mars identifies this deposit as the Late Hesperian lowland unit (lHl). This deposit is typically bounded by raised lobate margins. In addition, some margins have associated rille channels, which could have been produced sub-aerially by the back-wash of high-energy <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. Radar-sounding data indicate that the deposit is ice-rich. However, until now, the lack of wave-cut shoreline features and the presence of lobate margins have remained an im-pediment to the acceptance of the paleo-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..03N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH22A..03N"><span>Should <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> models use a nonzero initial condition for horizontal velocity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nava, G.; Lotto, G. C.; Dunham, E. M.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> propagation in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require two initial conditions: one on sea surface height and another on depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible <span class="hlt">ocean</span> with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (with dispersion at short wavelengths). We run several full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in geometries with a sloping seafloor, using both idealized structures and a more realistic Tohoku structure. Substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, but almost all momentum is carried away in the form of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustic waves. We compare <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation in each full-physics simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial conditions. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves (from <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acoustic and seismic waves) at some final time, and backpropagating the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11C1651A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS11C1651A"><span>Errors in <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Source Estimation from Tide Gauges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arcas, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Linearity of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in deep water can be assessed as a comparison of flow speed, u to wave propagation speed √gh. In real <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios this evaluation becomes impractical due to the absence of observational data of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flow velocities in shallow water. Consequently the extent of validity of the linear regime in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> is unclear. Linearity is the fundamental assumption behind <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source inversion processes based on linear combinations of unit propagation runs from a deep water propagation database (Gica et al., 2008). The primary <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> elevation data for such inversion is usually provided by National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric (NOAA) deep-water <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> detection systems known as DART. The use of tide gauge data for such inversions is more controversial due to the uncertainty of wave linearity at the depth of the tide gauge site. This study demonstrates the inaccuracies incurred in source estimation using tide gauge data in conjunction with a linear combination procedure for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH22A..02V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH22A..02V"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Ready Recognition Program for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Launched in 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Hinds, K.; Aliaga, B.; Brome, A.; Lopes, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Over 75 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years with 4,561 associated deaths according to the NOAA <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Database. The most recent devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> occurred in 1946 in Dominican Republic; 1865 died. With the explosive increase in residents, tourists, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coasts, the potential for human and economic loss is enormous. It has been estimated that on any day, more than 500,000 people in the Caribbean could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> hazard zones. In 2005 the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> and other Coastal Hazards <span class="hlt">Warning</span> System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG CARIBE EWS) to coordinate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> efforts among the 48 participating countries in territories in the region. In addition to monitoring, modeling and communication systems, one of the fundamental components of the <span class="hlt">warning</span> system is community preparedness, readiness and resilience. Over the past 10 years 49 coastal communities in the Caribbean have been recognized as <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Ready® by the US National Weather Service (NWS) in the case of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and jointly by UNESCO and NWS in the case of the non US jurisdictions of Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands. In response to the positive feedback of the implementation of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Ready, the ICG CARIBE EWS in 2015 recommended the approval of the guidelines for a Community Performance Based Recognition program. It also recommended the adoption of the name "<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Ready", which has been positively consulted with the NWS. Ten requirements were established for recognition and are divided among Preparedness, Mitigation and Response elements which were adapted from the proposed new US <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Ready guidelines and align well with emergency management functions. Both a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17904271','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17904271"><span>Environmental implications for disaster preparedness: lessons learnt from the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srinivas, Hari; Nakagawa, Yuko</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The impact of disasters, whether natural or man-made, not only has human dimensions, but environmental ones as well. Environmental conditions may exacerbate the impact of a disaster, and vice versa, disasters tend to have an impact on the environment. Deforestation, forest management practices, or agriculture systems can worsen the negative environmental impacts of a storm or typhoon, leading to landslides, flooding, silting, and ground/surface water contamination. We have only now come to understand these cyclical causes and impacts and realize that taking care of our natural resources and managing them wisely not only assures that future generations will be able to live in sustainable ways, but also reduces the risks that natural and man-made hazards pose to people living today. Emphasizing and reinforcing the centrality of environmental concerns in disaster management has become a critical priority, requiring the sound management of natural resources as a tool to prevent disasters and lessen their impacts on people, their homes, and livelihoods. As the horrors of the Asian <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of December 2004 continue to be evaluated, and people in the region slowly attempt to build a semblance of normalcy, we have to look to the lessons learnt from the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster as an opportunity to prepare ourselves better for future disasters. This article focuses on findings and lessons learnt on the environmental aspects of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, and its implications on disaster preparedness plans. This article essentially emphasizes the cyclical interrelations between environments and disasters, by studying the findings and assessments of the recent Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> that struck on 26 December 2004. It specifically looks at four key affected countries--Maldives, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Thailand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0194A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMNH23A0194A"><span>Preliminary Hazard Assessment for Tectonic <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in the Eastern Mediterranean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aydin, B.; Bayazitoglu, O.; Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>There are many critical industrial facilities such as energy production units and energy transmission lines along the southeast coast of Turkey. This region is also active on tourism, and agriculture and aquaculture production. There are active faults in the region, i.e. the Cyprus Fault, which extends along the Mediterranean basin in the east-west direction and connects to the Hellenic Arc. Both the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc are seismologically active and are capable of generating earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. Even a small <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the region could cause confusion as shown by the recent 21 July 2017 earthquake of Mw 6.6, which occurred in the Aegean Sea, between Bodrum, Turkey and Kos Island, Greece since region is not prepared for such an event. Moreover, the Mediterranean Sea is one of the most vulnerable regions against sea level rise due to global warming, according to the 5th Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For these reasons, a marine hazard such as a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> can cause much worse damage than expected in the region (Kanoglu et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 373, 2015). Hence, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment is required for the region. In this study, we first characterize earthquakes which have potential to generate a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the Eastern Mediterranean. Such study is a prerequisite for regional <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation studies. For fast and timely predictions, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> systems usually employ databases that store pre-computed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation resulting from hypothetical earthquakes with pre-defined parameters. These pre-defined sources are called <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> unit sources and they are linearly superposed to mimic a real event, since wave propagation is linear offshore. After investigating historical earthquakes along the Cyprus Fault and the Hellenic Arc, we identified tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Eastern Mediterranean and proposed <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> unit sources for the region. We used the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical model MOST (Titov et al</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/ts261.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://library.lanl.gov/tsunami/ts261.pdf"><span>Preliminary analysis of the earthquake (MW 8.1) and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> of April 1, 2007, in the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fisher, Michael A.; Geist, Eric L.; Sliter, Ray; Wong, Florence L.; Reiss, Carol; Mann, Dennis M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>On April 1, 2007, a destructive earthquake (Mw 8.1) and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> struck the central Solomon Islands arc in the southwestern Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The earthquake had a thrust-fault focal mechanism and occurred at shallow depth (between 15 km and 25 km) beneath the island arc. The combined effects of the earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused dozens of fatalities and thousands remain without shelter. We present a preliminary analysis of the Mw-8.1 earthquake and resulting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Multichannel seismic-reflection data collected during 1984 show the geologic structure of the arc's frontal prism within the earthquake's rupture zone. Modeling <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-wave propagation indicates that some of the islands are so close to the earthquake epicenter that they were hard hit by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves as soon as 5 min. after shaking began, allowing people scant time to react.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11C..04W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH11C..04W"><span>The FASTER Approach: A New Tool for Calculating Real-Time <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Flood Hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, R. I.; Cross, A.; Johnson, L.; Miller, K.; Nicolini, T.; Whitmore, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In the aftermath of the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> that struck the California coastline, emergency managers requested that the state <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> program provide more detailed information about the flood potential of distant-source <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> well ahead of their arrival time. The main issue is that existing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation plans call for evacuation of the predetermined "worst-case" <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation zone (typically at a 30- to 50-foot elevation) during any "<span class="hlt">Warning</span>" level event; the alternative is to not call an evacuation at all. A solution to provide more detailed information for secondary evacuation zones has been the development of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> evacuation "playbooks" to plan for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> scenarios of various sizes and source locations. To determine a recommended level of evacuation during a distant-source <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, an analytical tool has been developed called the "FASTER" approach, an acronym for factors that influence the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flood hazard for a community: Forecast Amplitude, Storm, Tides, Error in forecast, and the Run-up potential. Within the first couple hours after a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is generated, the National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center provides <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecast amplitudes and arrival times for approximately 60 coastal locations in California. At the same time, the regional NOAA Weather Forecast Offices in the state calculate the forecasted coastal storm and tidal conditions that will influence <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flooding. Providing added conservatism in calculating <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flood potential, we include an error factor of 30% for the forecast amplitude, which is based on observed forecast errors during recent events, and a site specific run-up factor which is calculated from the existing state <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modeling database. The factors are added together into a cumulative FASTER flood potential value for the first five hours of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> activity and used to select the appropriate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> phase evacuation "playbook" which is provided to each coastal community shortly after the forecast</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EOSTr..87R.254Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EOSTr..87R.254Z"><span>Challenges for U.S. <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness; NASA's Genesis crash blamed on design flaw</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zielinski, Sarah</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Challenges for U.S. <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparednessDespite recent improvements in U.S. tsunamipreparedness, greater efforts are neededin <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment, detection, <span class="hlt">warning</span>,and mitigation, according to a 5 June reportfrom the U.S. Government AccountabilityOffice (GAO).Eos 87(21), 2006).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513929L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513929L"><span>Integrating TWES and Satellite-based remote sensing: Lessons learned from the Honshu 2011 <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Löwe, Peter; Wächter, Joachim</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Boxing Day <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> killed 240,000 people and inundated the affected shorelines with waves reaching heights up to 30m. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Capabilities have improved in the meantime by continuing development of modular <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Early <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Systems (TEWS). However, recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events, like the Chile 2010 and the Honshu 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> demonstrate that the key challenge for TEWS research still lies in the timely issuing of reliable early <span class="hlt">warning</span> messages to areas at risk, but also to other stakeholders professionally involved in the unfolding event. Until now remote sensing products for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> events, including crisis maps and change detection products, are exclusively linked to those phases of the disaster life cycle, which follow after the early <span class="hlt">warning</span> stage: Response, recovery and mitigation. The International Charter for Space and Major Disasters has been initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in 1999. It coordinates a voluntary group of governmental space agencies and industry partners, to provide rapid crisis imaging and mapping to disaster and relief organisations to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life, property and the environment. The efficiency of this approach has been demonstrated in the field of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> by Charter activations following the Boxing Day <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> 2004, the Chile <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> 2010 and the Honshu <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> 2011. Traditional single-satellite operations allow at best bimonthly repeat rates over a given Area of Interest (AOI). This allows a lot of time for image acquisition campaign planning between imaging windows for the same AOI. The advent of constellations of identical remote sensing satellites in the early 21st century resulted both in daily AOI revisit capabilities and drastically reduced time frames for acquisition planning. However, the image acquisition planning for optical remote sensing satellite constellations is constrained by orbital and communication</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=tsunami+AND+physics&id=EJ195211','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=tsunami+AND+physics&id=EJ195211"><span>Ionospheric Method of Detecting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>-Generating Earthquakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Najita, Kazutoshi; Yuen, Paul C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Reviews the earthquake phenomenon and its possible relation to ionospheric disturbances. Discusses the basic physical principles involved and the methods upon which instrumentation is being developed for possible use in a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> disaster <span class="hlt">warning</span> system. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22E..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22E..07S"><span>Twin predecessor of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: Implications for rebuilt coastal communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sieh, K.; Daly, P.; McKinnon, E.; Chiang, H.; Pilarczyk, J.; Daryono, M. R.; Horton, B.; Shen, C.; Rubin, C. M.; Ismail, N.; Kelsey, H. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present stratigraphic, historical and archeological evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. Beachcliff exposures reveal two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Stratigraphical consistent radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate the the two beds were emplaced in the mid- to late 14th century, correlative with paleoseismic evidence of sudden uplifts of coral reefs on nearby Simeulue island in AD 1394 and, again in AD 1450. A nearby seacliff exposure contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from ~AD 1240 to 1367, followed by <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> destruction. Evidence of continuous settlement included South Asian ceramic and stoneware fragments, as well as a single Chinese coin dating to AD 1111-1118. Our data may solve the mysterious 15th century discontinuity in cultures along the northern Sumatran coast of the maritime silk route. This history of a doublet <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has implications for communities around the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> that were rebuilt after the devastation of 2004, since reconstruction occurred with the tacit belief that such an event would not happen in the foreseeable future. History, geology and archeology hint that such a view may prove tragically incorrect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3357P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PApGe.172.3357P"><span>OSL Dating and GPR Mapping of Palaeotsunami Inundation: A 4000-Year History of Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> as recorded in Sri Lanka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Premasiri, Ranjith; Styles, Peter; Shrira, Victor; Cassidy, Nigel; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To evaluate and mitigate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard, as long as possible records of inundations and dates of past events are needed. Coastal sediments deposited by <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> (tsunamites) can potentially provide this information. However, of the three key elements needed for reconstruction of palaeotsunamis (identification of sediments, dating and finding the inundation distance) the latter remains the most difficult. The existing methods for estimating the extent of a palaeotsunami inundation rely on extensive excavation, which is not always possible. Here, by analysing tsunamites from Sri Lanka identified using sedimentological and paleontological characteristics, we show that their internal dielectric properties differ significantly from surrounding sediments. The significant difference in the value of dielectric constant of the otherwise almost indistinguishable sediments is due to higher water content of tsunamites. The contrasts were found to be sharp and not to erode over thousands of years; they cause sizeable electromagnetic wave reflections from tsunamite sediments, which permit the use of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to trace their extent and morphology. In this study of the 2004 Boxing Day Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, we use GPR in two locations in Sri Lanka to trace four identified major palaeotsunami deposits for at least 400 m inland (investigation inland was constrained by inaccessible security zones). The subsurface extent of tsunamites (not available without extensive excavation) provides a good proxy for inundation. The deposits were dated using the established method of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). This dating, partly corroborated by available historical records and independent studies, contributes to the global picture of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The proposed method of combined GPR/OSL-based reconstruction of palaeotsunami deposits enables estimates of inundation, recurrence and, therefore, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard for any sandy coast with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RvGeo..48.4006W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RvGeo..48.4006W"><span>Impact of a Cosmic Body into Earth's <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the Generation of Large <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Waves: Insight from Numerical Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G. S.; Weiss, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The strike of a cosmic body into a marine environment differs in several respects from impact on land. <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> cover approximately 70% of the Earth's surface, implying not only that <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> impact is a very likely scenario for future impacts but also that most impacts in Earth's history must have happened in marine environments. Therefore, the study of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> impact is imperative in two respects: (1) to quantify the hazard posed by future <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> impacts, including the potential threat of large impact-generated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves, and (2) to reconstruct Earth's impact record by accounting for the large number of potentially undiscovered crater structures in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> crust. Reconstruction of the impact record is of crucial importance both for assessing the frequency of collision events in the past and for better predicting the probability of future impact. We summarize the advances in the study of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> impact over the last decades and focus in particular on how numerical models have improved our understanding of cratering in the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> environment and the generation of waves by impact. We focus on insight gleaned from numerical modeling studies into the deceleration of the projectile by the water, cratering of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, the late stage modification of the crater due to gravitational collapse, and water resurge. Furthermore, we discuss the generation and propagation of large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-like waves as a result of a strike of a cosmic body in marine environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22E..08P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T22E..08P"><span>Predecessors of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in a coastal cave, Aceh Province, Sumatra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pilarczyk, J.; Rubin, C. M.; Sieh, K.; Horton, B.; Daly, P.; Majewski, J.; Ismail, N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Geological studies of coral reefs and coastal plains have uncovered short and incomplete records of predecessors for the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Here we present a longer and more-complete mid- to late Holocene <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> history from an extraordinary sedimentary deposit in northwestern Aceh Province, Sumatra. We exposed clastic sediment in six trenches up to 2 m deep within a sheltered limestone cave 200 m from the present coastline. The trim line of the 2004 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is about 25 m above sea level and 15 m above the top of the 10-m high entrance to the cave. Within the cave, the deposits of 2004 comprise a 15 - 20 cm thick, laterally continuous sand sheet. Beneath this youngest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sand is a <3-cm thick bed rich in guano dropped by insect feeding bats (Microchiroptera). Many similar couplets of sand and bat guano occur lower in the stratigraphic sequence. The sands have many diagnostic features of the 2004 deposit, namely a distinctly marine geochemical signature, high-diversity foraminiferal assemblages that include offshore species, normal grading, basal rip-up clasts, lenticular laminations, and articulated bivalves. Minor, local, non-tectonic normal and decollement faults that break the layers at several locations are likely due to strong ground shaking. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and molluscs establish a mid- to late Holocene age range for the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> sands. Other than the 2004 deposit, layers younger than about 2,000 years are absent, because by about 2,000 years ago, accommodation space beneath the level of the rocky entrance to the cave had been filled. Pending analyses will reveal whether three clay layers within the sequence are of marine or of freshwater origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.204..719O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.204..719O"><span>Sequencing of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves: why the first wave is not always the largest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okal, Emile A.; Synolakis, Costas E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper examines the factors contributing to the `sequencing' of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves in the far field, that is, to the distribution of the maximum sea surface amplitude inside the dominant wave packet constituting the primary arrival at a distant harbour. Based on simple models of sources for which analytical solutions are available, we show that, as range is increased, the wave pattern evolves from a regime of maximum amplitude in the first oscillation to one of delayed maximum, where the largest amplitude takes place during a subsequent oscillation. In the case of the simple, instantaneous uplift of a circular disk at the surface of an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> of constant depth, the critical distance for transition between those patterns scales as r_0^3 / h^2 where r0 is the radius of the disk and h the depth of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. This behaviour is explained from simple arguments based on a model where sequencing results from frequency dispersion in the primary wave packet, as the width of its spectrum around its dominant period T0 becomes dispersed in time in an amount comparable to T0, the latter being controlled by a combination of source size and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> depth. The general concepts in this model are confirmed in the case of more realistic sources for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> excitation by a finite-time deformation of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, as well as in real-life simulations of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> excited by large subduction events, for which we find that the influence of fault width on the distribution of sequencing is more important than that of fault length. Finally, simulation of the major events of Chile (2010) and Japan (2011) at large arrays of virtual gauges in the Pacific Basin correctly predicts the majority of the sequencing patterns observed on DART buoys during these events. By providing insight into the evolution with time of wave amplitudes inside primary wave packets for far field <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by large earthquakes, our results stress the importance, for civil defense authorities, of issuing <span class="hlt">warning</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912891R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912891R"><span>Combining historical eyewitness accounts on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced waves and numerical simulations for getting insights in uncertainty of source parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rohmer, Jeremy; Rousseau, Marie; Lemoine, Anne; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Lambert, Jerome; benki, Aalae</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events including the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> have caused many casualties and damages to structures. Advances in numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced wave processes have tremendously improved forecast, hazard and risk assessment and design of early <span class="hlt">warning</span> for <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Among the major challenges, several studies have underlined uncertainties in earthquake slip distributions and rupture processes as major contributor on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height and inundation extent. Constraining these uncertainties can be performed by taking advantage of observations either on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves (using network of water level gauge) or on inundation characteristics (using field evidence and eyewitness accounts). Despite these successful applications, combining <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations and simulations still faces several limitations when the problem is addressed for past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> events like 1755 Lisbon. 1) While recent inversion studies can benefit from current modern networks (e.g., tide gauges, sea bottom pressure gauges, GPS-mounted buoys), the number of tide gauges can be very scarce and testimonies on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observations can be limited, incomplete and imprecise for past <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> events. These observations often restrict to eyewitness accounts on wave heights (e.g., maximum reached wave height at the coast) instead of the full observed waveforms; 2) <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> phenomena involve a large span of spatial scales (from <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basin scales to local coastal wave interactions), which can make the modelling very demanding: the computation time cost of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulation can be very prohibitive; often reaching several hours. This often limits the number of allowable long-running simulations for performing the inversion, especially when the problem is addressed from a Bayesian inference perspective. The objective of the present study is to overcome both afore-described difficulties in the view to combine historical observations on past <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-induced waves</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43A1734B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH43A1734B"><span>Sources of information for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting in New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barberopoulou, A.; Ristau, J. P.; D'Anastasio, E.; Wang, X.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> science has evolved considerably in the last two decades due to technological advancements which also helped push for better numerical modelling of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> phases (generation to inundation). The deployment of DART buoys has also been a considerable milestone in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> forecasting is one of the parts that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> modelling feeds into and is related to response, preparedness and planning. Usually <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting refers to short-term forecasting that takes place in real-time after a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> has or appears to have been generated. In this report we refer to all types of forecasting (short-term or long-term) related to work in advance of a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacting a coastline that would help in response, planning or preparedness. We look at the standard types of data (seismic, GPS, water level) that are available in New Zealand for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting, how they are currently being used, other ways to use these data and provide recommendations for better utilisation. The main findings are: -Current investigations of the use of seismic parameters quickly obtained after an earthquake, have potential to provide critical information about the tsunamigenic potential of earthquakes. Further analysis of the most promising methods should be undertaken to determine a path to full implementation. -Network communication of the largest part of the GPS network is not currently at a stage that can provide sufficient data early enough for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span>. It is believed that it has potential, but changes including data transmission improvements may have to happen before real-time processing oriented to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> is implemented on the data that is currently provided. -Tide gauge data is currently under-utilised for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> forecasting. Spectral analysis, modal analysis based on identified modes and arrival times extracted from the records can be useful in forecasting. -The current study is by no means exhaustive of the ways the different types</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SedG..239..146B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SedG..239..146B"><span>Potential predecessors of the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> — Sedimentary evidence of extreme wave events at Ban Bang Sak, SW Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brill, D.; Brückner, H.; Jankaew, K.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Where historical records are short and/or fragmentary, geological evidence is an important tool to reconstruct the recurrence rate of extreme wave events (<span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> and/or storms). This is particularly true for those coastal zones around the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, where predecessors of similar magnitude as the 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (IOT) have not been reported by written sources. In this context, the sedimentary record of the Holocene coastal plain of Ban Bang Sak (Phang-nga province, Thailand) provides evidence of multiple prehistoric coastal flooding events in the form of allochthonous sand beds, which were radiocarbon dated to 700-500, 1350-1180, and younger than 2000 cal BP. The layers were assigned to high-energy events of marine origin, which could be either <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> or tropical storms, by means of granulometry, geochemistry, vertical structure, and macrofossil content. Although no landfall of a strong storm has occurred in the last 150 years of meteorological data recording, cyclones cannot be ruled out for the last centuries and millennia. However, discrimination between <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and storm origin was mainly based on the comparison of the palaeoevent beds with the local deposit of the IOT, which revealed similar characteristics in regard to spatial extend and sediment properties. Furthermore, the youngest palaeoevent correlates with contemporaneous deposits from Thailand and more distant coasts. Hence, we relate it to a basin wide <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which took place 700-500 years ago. For the sediments of older extreme events, deposited between 2000 and 1180 cal BP, we found no unambiguous counterparts at other sites; nevertheless, at least for now, they are treated as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> candidates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMIN23D0109E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMIN23D0109E"><span>Rescue, Archival and Discovery of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Events on Marigrams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eble, M. C.; Wright, L. M.; Stroker, K. J.; Sweeney, A.; Lancaster, M.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The Big Earth Data Initiative made possible the reformatting of paper marigram records on which were recorded measurements of the 1946, 1952, 1960, and 1964 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Data contained within each record were determined to be invaluable for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> researchers and operational agencies with a responsibility for issuing <span class="hlt">warnings</span> during a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> event. All marigrams were carefully digitized and metadata were generated to form numerical datasets in order to provide the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and other research and application-driven communities with quality data. Data were then packaged as CF-compliant netCDF datafiles and submitted to the NOAA Centers for Environmental Information for long-term stewardship, archival, and public discovery of both original scanned images and data in digital netCDF and CSC formats. The PNG plots of each time series were generated and included with data packages to provide a visual representation of the numerical data sets. ISO-compliant metadata were compiled for the collection at the event level and individual DOIs were minted for each of the four events included in this project. The procedure followed to reformat each record in this four-event subset of the larger NCEI scanned marigram inventory is presented and discussed. The practical use of these data is presented to highlight that even infrequent measurements of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> hold information that may potentially help constrain earthquake rupture area, provide estimates of earthquake co-seismic slip distribution, identify subsidence or uplift, and significantly increase the holdings of situ data available for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model validation. These same data may also prove valuable to the broader global tide community for validation and further development of tide models and for investigation into the stability of tidal harmonic constants. Data reformatted as part of this project are PARR compliant and meet the requirements for Data Management, Discoverability, Accessibility</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7510A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7510A"><span>The November 17, 2015 Lefkada offshore (non-?)tsunamigenic earthquake: preliminary considerations and implications for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard and <span class="hlt">warning</span> in the Ionian Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armigliato, Alberto; Tinti, Stefano; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Ausilia Paparo, Maria; Zaniboni, Filippo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> first case we will try at least to reproduce the observed signal, otherwise we will try to understand whether the non-tsunamigenic nature of the event is confirmed by the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> simulations. The second problem is more related to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> early <span class="hlt">warning</span> issues, in particular with the performance of the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Decision Matrix for the Mediterranean, presently adopted for example by the candidate <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Service Providers at NOA (Greece) and INGV (Italy). We will briefly discuss whether the present form of the matrix, which does not include any information on focal mechanism, is well suited to a peculiar event like the November 17 earthquake, which was of strike-slip nature and had a magnitude lying just at the border between two distinct classes of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> potential forecast. This study is funded in the frame of the EU Project called ASTARTE - "Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in Europe", Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3), and of the Italian Flagship Project RITMARE ("La Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE").</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001360&hterms=earth+quakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bquakes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001360&hterms=earth+quakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dearth%2Bquakes"><span>Camana, Peru, and <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Vulnerability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> washed over the low-lying coastal resort region near Camana, southern Peru, following a strong earthquake on June 23, 2001. The earthquake was one of the most powerful of the last 35 years and had a magnitude of 8.4. After the initial quake, coastal residents witnessed a sudden drawdown of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and knew a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was imminent. They had less than 20 minutes to reach higher ground before the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hit. Waves as high as 8 m came in four destructive surges reaching as far as 1.2 km inland. The dashed line marks the approximate area of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation. Thousands of buildings were destroyed, and the combined earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> killed as many as 139 people. This image (ISS004-ESC-6128) was taken by astronauts onboard the International Space Station on 10 January 2002. It shows some of the reasons that the Camana area was so vulnerable to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> damage. The area has a 1 km band of coastal plain that is less than 5 m in elevation. Much of the plain can be seen by the bright green fields of irrigated agriculture that contrast with the light-colored desert high ground. Many of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-related deaths were workers in the onion fields in the coastal plain that were unwilling to leave their jobs before the end of the shift. A number of lives were spared because the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> occurred during the resort off-season, during the daylight when people could see the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> drawdown, and during one of the lowest tides of the year. Information on the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> that hit Camana can be found in a reports on the visit by the International <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Survey Team and the USC <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research Lab. Earthquake Epicenter, Peru shows another image of the area. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2883R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174.2883R"><span>Introduction to "Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Science: Past and Future, Volume II"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Geist, Eric L.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Twenty-two papers on the study of <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Global <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Science: Past and Future". Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 (Eds., E. L. Geist, H. M. Fritz, A. B. Rabinovich, and Y. Tanioka). Three papers in Volume II focus on details of the 2011 and 2016 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-generating earthquakes offshore of Tohoku, Japan. The next six papers describe important case studies and observations of recent and historical events. Four papers related to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment are followed by three papers on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hydrodynamics and numerical modelling. Three papers discuss problems of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> and real-time forecasting. The final set of three papers importantly investigates <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated by non-seismic sources: volcanic explosions, landslides, and meteorological disturbances. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH31D..04D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH31D..04D"><span>The Redwood Coast <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> resilience on California's North Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span>Ready by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26392621"><span>The quest for wisdom: lessons from 17 <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, 2004-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okal, Emile A</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Since the catastrophic Sumatra-Andaman <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> took place in 2004, 16 other <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> have resulted in significant damage and 14 in casualties. We review the fundamental changes that have affected our command of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> issues as scientists, engineers and decision-makers, in the quest for improved wisdom in this respect. While several scientific paradigms have had to be altered or abandoned, new algorithms, e.g. the W seismic phase and real-time processing of fast-arriving seismic P waves, give us more powerful tools to estimate in real time the tsunamigenic character of an earthquake. We assign to each event a 'wisdom index' based on the <span class="hlt">warning</span> issued (or not) during the event, and on the response of the population. While this approach is admittedly subjective, it clearly shows several robust trends: (i) we have made significant progress in our command of far-field <span class="hlt">warning</span>, with only three casualties in the past 10 years; (ii) self-evacuation by educated populations in the near field is a key element of successful <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> mitigation; (iii) there remains a significant cacophony between the scientific community and decision-makers in industry and government as documented during the 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku events; and (iv) the so-called '<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> earthquakes' generating larger <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> than expected from the size of their seismic source persist as a fundamental challenge, despite scientific progress towards characterizing these events in real time. © 2015 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/105/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/105/"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazards and <span class="hlt">warnings</span>, who have been working on ways of making the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5004/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5004/"><span>Variations in Community Exposure and Sensitivity to <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazards on the Open-<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Strait of Juan de Fuca Coasts of Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wood, Nathan; Soulard, Christopher</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Evidence of past events and modeling of potential future events suggest that <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> are significant threats to communities on the open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> and Strait of Juan de Fuca coasts of Washington. Although potential <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-inundation zones from a Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) earthquake have been delineated, the amount and type of human development in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-prone areas have not been documented. A vulnerability assessment using geographic-information-system tools was conducted to document variations in developed land, human populations, economic assets, and critical facilities relative to CSZ-related <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-inundation zones among communities on the open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> and Strait of Juan de Fuca coasts of Washington (including Clallam, Jefferson, Grays Harbor, and Pacific Counties). The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-inundation zone in these counties contains 42,972 residents (24 percent of the total study-area population), 24,934 employees (33 percent of the total labor force), and 17,029 daily visitors to coastal Washington State Parks. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-inundation zone also contains 2,908 businesses that generate $4.6 billion in annual sales volume (31 and 40 percent of study-area totals, respectively) and tax parcels with a combined total value of $4.5 billion (25 percent of the study-area total). Although occupancy values are not known for each site, the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-inundation zone also contains numerous dependent-population facilities (for example, schools and child-day-care centers), public venues (for example, religious organizations), and critical facilities (for example, police stations and public-work facilities). Racial diversity of residents in <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-prone areas is low?89 percent of residents are White and 8 percent are American Indian or Alaska Native. Nineteen percent of the residents in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-inundation zone are over 65 years in age, 30 percent of the residents live on unincorporated county lands, and 35 percent of the households are renter occupied. Employees in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13E..06W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13E..06W"><span>New Measurements and Modeling Capability to Improve Real-time Forecast of Cascadia <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> along U.S. West Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Bernard, E. N.; Spillane, M. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>, especially in the near field. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the past and this geological process will cause <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the future. Existing observational instruments along the Cascadia Subduction Zone are capable of providing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> data within minutes of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation. However, this strategy requires separation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals from the overwhelming high-frequency seismic waves produced during a strong earthquake- a real technical challenge for existing operational <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> observational network. A new-generation of nano-resolution pressure sensors can provide high temporal resolution of the earthquake and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signals without loosing precision. The nano-resolution pressure sensor offers a state-of the-science ability to separate earthquake vibrations and other <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> noise from <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waveforms, paving the way for accurate, early <span class="hlt">warnings</span> of local <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. This breakthrough underwater technology has been tested and verified for a couple of micro-<span class="hlt">tsunami</span> events (Paros et al., 2011). Real-time forecast of Cascadia <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> is becoming a possibility with the development of nano-tsunameter technology. The present study provides an investigation on optimizing the placement of these new sensors so that the forecast time can be shortened.. The presentation will cover the optimization of an observational array to quickly detect and forecast a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated by a strong Cascadia earthquake, including short and long rupture scenarios. Lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> will be examined to demonstrate how we can improve the local forecast using the new technology We expect this study to provide useful guideline for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..649B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EOSTr..69..649B"><span>On mitigating rapid onset natural disasters: Project THRUST (<span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazards Reduction Utilizing Systems Technology)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernard, E. N.; Behn, R. R.; Hebenstreit, G. T.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Krumpe, P.; Lander, J. F.; Lorca, E.; McManamon, P. M.; Milburn, H. B.</p> <p></p> <p>Rapid onset natural hazards have claimed more than 2.8 million lives worldwide in the past 20 years. This category includes such events as earthquakes, landslides, hurricanes, tornados, floods, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. Effective hazard mitigation is particularly difficult in such cases, since the time available to issue <span class="hlt">warnings</span> can be very short or even nonexistent. This paper presents the concept of a local <span class="hlt">warning</span> system that exploits and integrates the existing technologies of risk evaluation, environmental measurement, and telecommunications. We describe Project THRUST, a successful implementation of this general, systematic approach to <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. The general approach includes pre-event emergency planning, real-time hazard assessment, and rapid <span class="hlt">warning</span> via satellite communication links.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1852S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23A1852S"><span>Benchmarking on <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Currents with ComMIT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There were no standards for the validation and verification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical models before 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Even, number of numerical models has been used for inundation mapping effort, evaluation of critical structures, etc. without validation and verification. After 2004, NOAA Center for <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Research (NCTR) established standards for the validation and verification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical models (Synolakis et al. 2008 Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228), which will be used evaluation of critical structures such as nuclear power plants against <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> attack. NCTR presented analytical, experimental and field benchmark problems aimed to estimate maximum runup and accepted widely by the community. Recently, benchmark problems were suggested by the US National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Hazard Mitigation Program Mapping & Modeling Benchmarking Workshop: <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Currents on February 9-10, 2015 at Portland, Oregon, USA (http://nws.weather.gov/nthmp/index.html). These benchmark problems concentrated toward validation and verification of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical models on <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> currents. Three of the benchmark problems were: current measurement of the Japan 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, USA and in Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand, and single long-period wave propagating onto a small-scale experimental model of the town of Seaside, Oregon, USA. These benchmark problems were implemented in the Community Modeling Interface for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (ComMIT) (Titov et al. 2011 Pure Appl. Geophys. 168, 2121-2131), which is a user-friendly interface to the validated and verified Method of Splitting <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis 1995 J. Waterw. Port Coastal <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Eng. 121, 308-316) model and is developed by NCTR. The modeling results are compared with the required benchmark data, providing good agreements and results are discussed. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1909S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH23C1909S"><span>Compilation and Analysis of a Database of Local <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Bulletins issued by the Pacific <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (PTWC) to the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency (HI-EMA) between September 2003 and July, 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sardina, V.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Walsh, D.; Becker, N. C.; McCreery, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The PTWC functions not only as official international <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> center (TWC) for nations with coasts around the Pacific rim, the Caribbean, and other regions of the world, but also as the local TWC for the State of Hawaii. The PTWC began sending local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> messages to HI-EMA only since September, 2003. As part of its routine operations, the PTWC strives to send a local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> message product for any Hawaii earthquake with a 4.0 magnitude or larger within five minutes of origin time. To evaluate PTWC's performance in that regard, however, we must first compile a suitable local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> bulletins' database. For this purpose, we scanned all the available logs for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) communications' circuit between 2003 and 2015 and retrieved 104 local bulletins. We parsed these bulletins and extracted the parametric data needed to evaluate PTWC's performance in terms of essential statistics such as message delay time, epicenter offsets, and magnitude residuals as compared with more authoritative earthquake source parametrizations. To that end, we cross-validated 88 of these seismic events having magnitudes between 2.8 and 6.7 with the corresponding source parameters obtained from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) and the National Earthquake Information Center's (NEIC) online catalog. Analysis of events with magnitude 4.0 or larger gives a median message delay time of 3 minutes and 33 seconds, a median epicentral offset of 3.2 km, and a median magnitude residual of 0.2 unit. Several message delay outliers exist due to the fact that PTWC has sent local <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> information statements (TIS) for felt events with magnitudes as small as 2.8 located west of the Big Island. Routine use of a synthetic Wood-Anderson magnitude since the end of 2012 appears to have brought consistency to PTWC's local magnitude estimates and a reduction in the message delays. Station site corrections, a refined attenuation model, and optimization of the peak</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..636K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..636K"><span>Transformation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves passing through the Straits of the Kuril Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostenko, Irina; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Zaytsev, Andrey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Pacific <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and themselves Kuril Islands are located in the zone of high seismic activity, where underwater earthquakes cause <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. They propagate across Pacific <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and penetrates into the Okhotsk sea. It is natural to expect that the Kuril Islands reflect the Okhotsk sea from the Pacific <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. It has long been noted that the historical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> appeared less intense in the sea of Okhotsk in comparison with the Pacific coast of the Kuril Islands. Despite the fact that in the area of the Kuril Islands and in the Pacific <span class="hlt">ocean</span> earthquakes with magnitude more than 8 occur, in the entire history of observations on the Okhotsk sea coast catastrophic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was not registered. The study of the peculiarities of the propagation of historical and hypothetical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> in the North-Eastern part of the Pacific <span class="hlt">ocean</span> was carried out in order to identify level of effect of the Kuril Islands and Straits on them. <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> sources were located in the Okhotsk sea and in the Pacific <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. For this purpose, we performed a series of computational experiments using two bathymetries: 1) with use Kuril Islands; 2) without Kuril Islands. Magnitude and intensity of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>, obtained during numerical simulation of height, were analyzed. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Numerical experiments have shown that in the simulation without the Kuril Islands <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> in the Okhotsk sea have higher waves, and in the Central part of the sea relatively quickly damped than in fact. Based on shallow-water equation <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3351F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3351F"><span>Marshall Islands Fringing Reef and Atoll Lagoon Observations of the Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ford, Murray; Becker, Janet M.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Song, Y. Tony</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011 generated a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> which caused significant impacts throughout the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A description of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> within the lagoons and on the surrounding fringing reefs of two mid-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> atoll islands is presented using bottom pressure observations from the Majuro and Kwajalein atolls in the Marshall Islands, supplemented by tide gauge data in the lagoons and by numerical model simulations in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Although the initial wave arrival was not captured by the pressure sensors, subsequent oscillations on the reef face resemble the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> signal simulated by two numerical models, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes over the atoll outer reefs are similar to that in deep water. In contrast, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> oscillations in the lagoon are more energetic and long lasting than observed on the reefs or modelled in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> energy in the Majuro lagoon exhibits persistent peaks in the 30 and 60 min period bands that suggest the excitation of closed and open basin normal modes, while energy in the Kwajalein lagoon spans a broader range of frequencies with weaker, multiple peaks than observed at Majuro, which may be associated with the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> behavior within the more irregular geometry of the Kwajalein lagoon. The propagation of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> across the reef flats is shown to be tidally dependent, with amplitudes increasing/decreasing shoreward at high/low tide. The impact of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the Marshall Islands was reduced due to the coincidence of peak wave amplitudes with low tide; however, the observed wave amplitudes, particularly in the atoll lagoon, would have led to inundation at different tidal phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1742K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH41A1742K"><span><span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Focusing and Leading Amplitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanoglu, U.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> transform substantially through spatial and temporal spreading from their source region. This substantial spreading might result unique maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights which might be attributed to the source configuration, directivity, the waveguide structures of mid-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> ridges and continental shelves, focusing and defocusing through submarine seamounts, random focusing due to small changes in bathymetry, dispersion, and, most likely, combination of some of these effects. In terms of the maximum <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height, after Okal and Synolakis (2016 Geophys. J. Int. 204, 719-735), it is clear that dispersion would be one of the reasons to drive the leading wave amplitude in a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave train. Okal and Synolakis (2016), referring to this phenomenon as sequencing -later waves in the train becoming higher than the leading one, considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp) formalism, in addition to LeMéhauté and Wang's (1995 Water waves generated by underwater explosion, World Scientific, 367 pp), to evaluate linear dispersive <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation from a circular plug uplifted on an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> of constant depth. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, performing parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Here, we extend Okal and Synolakis' (2016) analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> initial wave form of N-wave (Tadepalli and Synolakis, 1994 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 445, 99-112). First, we investigate the focusing feature in the leading-depression side, which enhance <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave height as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013 Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 469, 20130015). We then discuss the results in terms of leading wave amplitude presenting a parametric study and identify a simple relation for the transition distance. The solution presented here could be used to better analyze dispersive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH23B..06H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH23B..06H"><span>A Hybrid <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Risk Model for Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Around the margins of the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, denser <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> footprints using the numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flood depths on 30 m grids together with <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U11B0831J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U11B0831J"><span>Effects of the 26 December 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> in the Republic of Seychelles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, L. E.; Barrie, J. V.; Forbes, D. L.; Shaw, J.; Manson, G. K.; Schmidt, M.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The Dec. 26, 2004 Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> impacted Mahé and Praslin islands as a sequence of waves at intervals of tens of minutes to hours. The first <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave struck at low tide, but others occurred through several tidal cycles, so that some subsequent waves arrived at high tide. The first indication of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> on the Mahé tide gauge (sampling interval 4 minutes) was a rise in water level to lower than higher high water at large tides between 08:08 and 08:12 UTC(between 12:08 and 12:12 local time). This was followed by a maximum withdrawal of water in all areas. This level was not recorded by the tide gauge at Mahé, because the stilling well went dry, but evidence from observers indicates that it dropped as much as 4 m below mean sea level. The subsequent highest water levels, highest run-ups, and maximum distances inland that <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> flooding reached were in coastal lowlands generally facing east toward the source of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The highest flood levels on Mahé ranged from ~1.6 m to >4.4 m above mean sea level. On Praslin, they ranged from ~1.8 m to 3.6 m. The shallow (<200 m) shelf platform surrounding the granitic islands played an important role in determining the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave direction and amplitude at the shoreline. The shoaling waves were refracted, causing them to approach the islands from various directions, and amplified so as to cause higher run-up in specific coastal embayments. Consequently, <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> inundation and damage were not confined to east-facing shores. Run-up and damage were locally as severe along shores of Mahé and Praslin facing away from the source of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. Some observers on the west sides of both islands reported water approaching from two directions (northwest and southeast). Furthermore, the timing of maximum inundation varied around the archipelago as <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves arrived at different times in the tidal cycle: the maximum inundation at Anse-à-la-Mouche (on the west side of Mahé) occurred about 4 hours after the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20995674-evaluation-numerical-simulation-tsunami-coastal-nuclear-power-plants-india','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20995674-evaluation-numerical-simulation-tsunami-coastal-nuclear-power-plants-india"><span>Evaluation and Numerical Simulation of <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> for Coastal Nuclear Power Plants of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sharma, Pavan K.; Singh, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Recent <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early <span class="hlt">warning</span> system for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>-genic earthquakes. The <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span> originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of themore » seabed. There are three phases of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early <span class="hlt">warning</span> system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. (authors)« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1704B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH41B1704B"><span>A User's Guide to the <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Datasets at NOAA's National Data Buoy Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouchard, R. H.; O'Neil, K.; Grissom, K.; Garcia, M.; Bernard, L. J.; Kern, K. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) has maintained and operated the National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunameter network since 2003. The tsunameters employ the NOAA-developed Deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Assessment and Reporting of <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (DART) technology. The technology measures the pressure and temperature every 15 seconds on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor and transforms them into equivalent water-column height observations. A complex series of subsampled observations are transmitted acoustically in real-time to a moored buoy or marine autonomous vehicle (MAV) at the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface. The surface platform uses its satellite communications to relay the observations to NDBC. NDBC places the observations onto the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) for relay to NOAA's <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Centers (TWC) in Hawai'i and Alaska and to the international community. It takes less than three minutes to speed the observations from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor to the TWCs. NDBC can retrieve limited amounts of the 15-s measurements from the instrumentation on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor using the technology's two-way communications. NDBC recovers the full resolution 15-s measurements about every 2 years and forwards the datasets and metadata to the National Geophysical Data Center for permanent archive. Meanwhile, NDBC retains the real-time observations on its website. The type of real-time observation depends on the operating mode of the tsunameter. NDBC provides the observations in a variety of traditional and innovative methods and formats that include descriptors of the operating mode. Datasets, organized by station, are available from the NDBC website as text files and from the NDBC THREDDS server in netCDF format. The website provides alerts and lists of events that allow users to focus on the information relevant for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard analysis. In addition, NDBC developed a basic web service to query station information and observations to support the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> (SIFT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8859G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8859G"><span>Rapid inundation estimates at harbor scale using <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights offshore simulation and Green's law approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène; Loevenbruck, Anne</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warnings</span> to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> propagation and inundation models are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise modeling of the coastline response on the scale of an individual harbor. In fact, when facing the problem of the interaction of the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wavefield with a shoreline, any numerical simulation must be performed over an increasingly fine grid, which in turn mandates a reduced time step, and the use of a fully non-linear code. Such calculations become then prohibitively time-consuming, which is clearly unacceptable in the framework of real-time <span class="hlt">warning</span>. Thus only <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> offshore propagation modeling tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> wave heights in high seas, and <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> maps at western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a preliminary work that performs quick estimates of the inundation at individual harbors from these deep wave heights simulations. The method involves an empirical correction relation derived from Green's law, expressing conservation of wave energy flux to extend the gridded wave field into the harbor with respect to the nearby deep-water grid node. The main limitation of this method is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911871N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911871N"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment in Greece for seismic sources along the segmented Hellenic Arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novikova, Tatyana; Babeyko, Andrey; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Greece and adjacent coastal areas are characterized by a high population exposure to <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard. The Hellenic Arc is the most active geotectonic structure for the generation of earthquakes and <span class="hlt">tsunamis</span>. We performed probabilistic <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> hazard assessment for selected locations of Greek coastlines which are the forecasting points officially used in the <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">warning</span> operations by the Hellenic National <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center and the NEAMTWS/IOC/UNESCO. In our analysis we considered seismic sources for <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> generation along the western, central and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc. We first created a synthetic catalog as long as 10,000 years for all the significant earthquakes with magnitudes in the range from 6.0 to 8.5, the real events being included in this catalog. For each event included in the synthetic catalog a <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was generated and propagated using Boussinesq model. The probability of occurrence for each event was determined by Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency distribution. The results of our study are expressed as hazard curves and hazard maps. The hazard curves were obtained for the selected sites and present the annual probability of exceedance as a function of pick coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitude. Hazard maps represent the distribution of peak coastal <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes corresponding to a fixed annual probability. In such forms our results can be easily compared to the ones obtained in other studies and further employed for the development of <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> risk management plans. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for <span class="hlt">Tsunamis</span> in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH11A1346M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH11A1346M"><span>State Emergency Response and Field Observation Activities in California (USA) during the March 11, 2011, Tohoku <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, K. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Goltz, J.; Fenton, J.; Long, K.; Dengler, L.; Rosinski, A.; California Tsunami Program</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This poster will present an overview of successes and challenges observed by the authors during this major <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> response event. The Tohoku, Japan <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was the most costly to affect California since the 1964 Alaskan earthquake and ensuing <span class="hlt">tsunami</span>. The Tohoku <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> caused at least $50 million in damage to public facilities in harbors and marinas along the coast of California, and resulted in one fatality. It was generated by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake which occurred at 9:46PM PST on Thursday, March 10, 2011 in the sea off northern Japan. The <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> was recorded at tide gages monitored by the West Coast/Alaska <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center (WCATWC), which projected <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> surges would reach California in approximately 10 hours. At 12:51AM on March 11, 2011, based on forecasted <span class="hlt">tsunami</span> amplitudes, the WCATWC placed the California coast north of Point Conception (Santa Barbara County) in a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> <span class="hlt">Warning</span>, and the coast south of Point Conception to the Mexican border in a <span class="hlt">Tsunami</span> Advisory. The California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) activated two Regional Emergency Operation Centers (REOCs) and the State Operation Center (SOC). The California Geological Survey (CGS) deployed a field team which collected data before, during and after the event through an information clearinghouse. Conference calls were conducted hourly between the WCATWC and State <span class="hlt">Warning</span> Center, as well as with emergency managers in the 20 coastal counties. Coordination focused on local response measures, public information messaging, assistance needs, evacuations, emergency shelters, damage, and recovery issues. In the early morning hours, some communities in low lying areas recommended evacuation for their citiz