Science.gov

Sample records for oceanography

  1. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  2. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  3. Careers in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Charles D., Ed.

    This booklet was prepared by practicing oceanographers to help college students in their search for professional direction. The booklet: (1) points out some frontiers of current research; (2) describes five major subfields of oceanography (marine geology and geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and…

  4. High School Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falmouth Public Schools, MA.

    This book is a compilation of a series of papers designed to aid high school teachers in organizing a course in oceanography for high school students. It consists of twelve papers, with references, covering each of the following: (1) Introduction to Oceanography, (2) Geology of the Ocean, (3) The Continental Shelves, (4) Physical Properties of Sea…

  5. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  6. Oceanography Information Sources 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Richard C.

    This booklet lists oceanography information sources in the first section under industries, laboratories and departments of oceanography, and other organizations which can provide free information and materials describing programs and activities. Publications listed in the second section include these educational materials: bibliographies, career…

  7. Graduate enrollment in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollister, Charles D.; Sclater, John G.

    Excellent job opportunities exist for well-trained Ph.D. graduates in marine geology, geophysics, chemistry, dynamical-physical oceanography, and oceanographic engineering.This was one conclusion the deans of various schools of oceanography reached at a conference that included deans from Dalhousie University, Florida State University, the University of Hawaii, the University of Miami, Oregon State University, the University of Rhode Island, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Texas A & M University, the University of Washington, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography. The results of this effort, combined with some of our own notions, form the basis of this short report. We hope that these thoughts will serve as a discussion base for more in-depth reflections.

  8. Chemical oceanography dissertations presented

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Neil R.; Graham, William; Green, Edward

    The seventh session of Dissertations in Chemical Oceanography (DISCO VII) was convened February 8-13, 1987, at the East-West Center at the Manoa Campus of the University of Hawaii under joint support from the National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program. These symposia are dedicated to individuals who have recently received Ph.D.s in chemical oceanography or who will do so in the near future. The participants present their thesis research to their peers, and at the end of the meeting the three sponsoring agencies describe their respective programs and respond to questions.

  9. Physics in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnock, H.

    1980-01-01

    Described is physical oceanography as analyzed by seven dependent variables, (three components of velocity, the pressure, density, temperature and salinity) as a function of three space variables and time. Topics discussed include the heat balance of the earth, current patterns in the ocean, heat transport, the air-sea interaction, and prospects…

  10. Oceanography From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeckis, R.

    Oceanography From Space, edited by J.F.R. Gower, is a collection of papers based on the proceedings o f the COSPAR/SCOR/IUCRM symposium held in May 1980 in Venice, Italy. There are 109 papers and nearly 1000 pages of text. The objective of the meeting was a major review of oceanography from space. The papers illustrate the new interest in remote sensing of the oceans generated by recent measurements from the SEASAT, NIMBUS-7, GEOS-3, and TIROS-N satellites. Although the emphasis of the papers is on satellite instrument validation and algorithm development, there are a sufficient number of application papers that illustrate the advantages of the two-dimensional view of the ocean provided by satellites.

  11. NOAA's NESDIS operational satellite oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayler, E.; Chang, P.; Cheney, R.; Clark, D.; Hughes, K.; Strong, A.

    2003-04-01

    Satellite oceanography within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) focuses on observation retrieval and applications to address the NOAA missions of environmental assessment, prediction, and stewardship. The satellite oceanography division encompasses three functional areas: satellite ocean sensors, ocean dynamics/ data assimilation, and marine ecosystems / climate. The breadth of scientific investigation includes sea-surface temperature, sea-surface height, sea-surface height, sea-surface roughness, ocean color, ocean surface winds, sea ice, data assimilation, and operational oceanography. The primary objective is to transition research to operations. This overview of operational oceanography within NOAA's NESDIS provides insight into the capabilities, products, and services.

  12. Physics as an Integrative Theme in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The teaching of physics as an integral part of an undergraduate oceanography course is described. A general outline of oceanography and the corresponding physics topics is given. The objectives, organization, and difficulties of such a course are discussed. (CW)

  13. A Source Book for Teaching Chemical Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Theodore C.; Glibert, Patricia M.

    Chemical oceanography or marine chemistry are taught in many colleges and universities. This publication provides sources for instructors of such courses. The first section of this report is a detailed composite outline of a course in chemical oceanography. It includes fundamental topics taught in many chemical oceanography classes. The outline…

  14. Developing Online Oceanography at UCSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Dodson, H.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanography at UCSB is an introductory general education science course taken by up to 200 students per quarter. The emphasis is on learning science process by engaging in authentic science activities that use real earth data. Recently, to increase student motivation, the course has been modified to include an Earth Summit framework. The online support being developed for this course is the first step in the creation of a completely online oceanography class. Foundation software was first tested in the class during Spring 2001. Online activities that are supported are writing and instructor feedback, online threaded discussion with live chat and graphics, automatically graded homeworks and games, auto graded quizzes with questions randomly selected from a database, and thought problems graded by the instructor(s). Future plans include integration with commercial course management software. To allow choice of assignments, all course activities totaled110%. Since grades were based on A=90-100, B=80-90, C= 70-80, etc, it was possible to get a better than A grade. Students see the effect (on their grade) of each assignment by calculating their current course grade. Course activities included (most of which are automatically graded): weekly lab homeworks, weekly mini-quizzes (10 multiple choice questions selected at random from a topic database), weekly thought questions (graded by the TA), 3 written assignments, and "Question of the Day" from lecture (credit given for handing it in), The online writing software allowed students to enter their writing, edit and link to graphic images, print the paper, and electronically hand it in. This has the enormous advantage of allowing the instructor and TA's convenient access to all student papers. At the end of the course, students were asked how effective each of the course activities were in learning the course material. On a five point scale, ranging from highest contribution to lowest, the percentage of students giving

  15. Genomic perspectives in microbial oceanography.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Edward F; Karl, David M

    2005-09-15

    The global ocean is an integrated living system where energy and matter transformations are governed by interdependent physical, chemical and biotic processes. Although the fundamentals of ocean physics and chemistry are well established, comprehensive approaches to describing and interpreting oceanic microbial diversity and processes are only now emerging. In particular, the application of genomics to problems in microbial oceanography is significantly expanding our understanding of marine microbial evolution, metabolism and ecology. Integration of these new genome-enabled insights into the broader framework of ocean science represents one of the great contemporary challenges for microbial oceanographers.

  16. Estuarine Oceanography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, F. F.

    Estuarine Oceanography is one in a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate and earth science courses. Designed for those interested in coastal oceanography or limnology, the module is structured as a laboratory supplement for undergraduate college classes but should be useful at all levels. The module has two…

  17. LABORATORY EXERCISES IN OCEANOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    DESCRIBED ARE LABORATORY EXERCISES IN OCEANOGRAPHY DEVELOPED FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOLS BY THE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE 1967 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) SUMMER INSTITUTE IN OCEANOGRAPHY AT FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY. INCLUDED ARE SUCH ACTIVITIES AS (1) THE MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE, WATER VAPOR, PRESSURE, SALINITY, DENSITY, AND OTHERS,…

  18. Addressing Challenges for Chemical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savidge, William B.; Brandes, Jay A.

    2009-05-01

    Unknown Knowns and Known Unknowns: Chemical Oceanography in a Changing World; Savannah, Georgia, 22-24 February 2009; Rapid climate change in recent decades has resulted in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. A group of more than 80 chemical oceanographers from the United States and Europe met in Savannah, Ga., to consider the challenges facing the field in upcoming decades and to reflect on what studies and resources are needed to meet these challenges. The primary focus was on carbon and related nutrient cycling and the tools, such as biomarkers, used to investigate these processes. Over the course of 2 days, a series of provocative talks and spirited discussions highlighted several challenges facing chemical oceanographers.

  19. Oceanography Information System of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles

    2016-04-01

    Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All

  20. The Oceans and the Teaching of Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming, the authors of \\textit{The Oceans}, were both ahead of their time, and behind their time. \\textit{The Oceans} built on earlier texts, such as Kummel's \\textit{Handbuch der Ozeanographie} (1907), that summarized our knowledge of the oceans. It differed principally in its depth and breadth, showing the need for specialized courses of study in biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography. Thus, the curriculum at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography was built on this foundation. As a result, no other comparable field of earth science was as well integrated as oceanography. For example, agriculture, which depends in some fundamental ways on weather, climate, and climate change did not include meteorology within its bounds, although it was nearly as broad as oceanography, including the study of soils, chemistry, and biology. The strengths of The Oceans were also its weakness. By emphasizing the strengths of the separate sub-disciplines of biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography the book drew oceanography away from problem-based studies such as those carried out by Bigelow in the Gulf of Maine. Case studies were not part of the basic curriculum. Thus, in 1964, 15 years after the start of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation, the most wide-ranging oceanographic study ever attempted, Scripps did not offer a course on the California fisheries. In contrast, other messy sciences, such as medicine, were often based on case studies. Now, at the start of the 21st century, the circle is nearly complete. Sub-disciplines such as physical oceanography are so broad they cannot be spanned in a single course. And students don't want to learn about important problems until late in their graduate career. To meet their interests, we have begun to offer courses in such topics as global warming or fisheries, bringing in ideas from biological, chemical, and physical oceanography only as needed.

  1. The Oceanography Concept Inventory: A Semicustomizable Assessment for Measuring Student Understanding of Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthurs, Leilani; Hsia, Jennifer F.; Schweinle, William

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated an Oceanography Concept Inventory (OCI), which used a mixed-methods approach to test student achievement of 11 learning goals for an introductory-level oceanography course. The OCI was designed with expert input, grounded in research on student (mis)conceptions, written with minimal jargon, tested on 464 students, and…

  2. French Project For Operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliquen, S.; Petit de La Villéon, L.; Carval, T.; Loaec, G.; Gourmelen, L.; Desaubies, Y.; Coriolis, A.

    2003-04-01

    The seven French agencies concerned by ocean research are developing together a strong capability in operational oceanography based on a triad including satellite altimetry (JASON), numerical modelling with assimilation (MERCATOR), and in situ data (CORIOLIS). The CORIOLIS project aims to build a pre-operational structure to collect, valid and distribute ocean data (temperature/salinity profiles and current speeds) to the scientific community and modellers. CORIOLIS aims at four goals : (1) To build up a data management centre, part of the ARGO network for the GODAE experiment, able to provide quality-controlled data in real time and delay modes. (2) To contribute to ARGO floats deployment mainly in the Atlantic with about 250 floats during the 2001-2004 period. (3) To develop and improve profiling ARGO floats. PROVOR is a self-ballasted float, able to drift at a user-defined parking depth and then to dive to 2000m before profiling up to the surface where data are transmitted using the Argos system. More than 100 cycles can be performed during its 3-year lifetime. (4) To integrate into CORIOLIS all other data presently collected at sea by French agencies from surface drifting buoys, PIRATA anchored buoys, oceanographic research vessels (XBT, thermosalinograph and ADCP transmitted on a daily basis). CORIOLIS data centre, already one of the two global data centres for ARGO, and aims to be an important partner in projects within GMES et 6th PRCD calls. In 2004, recommendations will be done to transform the CORIOLIS activity into a permanent, routinely contribution to ocean measurement, in accordance with international plans which will follow the ARGO/GODAE experiment.

  3. New perspectives for noble gases in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschbach, Werner

    2016-08-01

    Conditions prevailing in regions of deep water formation imprint their signature in the concentrations of dissolved noble gases, which are conserved in the deep ocean. Such "recharge conditions" including temperature, salinity, and interactions with sea ice are important in view of ocean-atmosphere CO2 partitioning. Noble gases, especially the temperature sensitive Kr and Xe, are well-established tracers to reconstruct groundwater recharge conditions. In contrast, tracer oceanography has traditionally focused on He isotopes and the light noble gases Ne and Ar, which could be analyzed at the required high precision. Recent developments of analytical and data interpretation methods now provide fresh perspectives for noble gases in oceanography.

  4. Oceanography. Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX.

    Presented are various activities and projects intended to help Boy Scouts earn a merit badge in oceanography. Each project and/or activity is related to a requirement (objective) found in a list at the beginning of the booklet. Topic areas and/or related activities and projects include: (1) nature of oceanography (naming oceanography branches,…

  5. In Pursuit of Oceanography and a Better Life for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of and activities in marine geology/geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and biological oceanography. This information, which includes comments on major employment positions (academic, government, industry, consulting), is provided to help students select possible careers in…

  6. Oceanography for Landlocked Classrooms. Monograph V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr., Ed.; Hounshell, Paul B., Ed.

    This monograph attempts to show the importance of bringing marine biology into science classrooms, discusses what makes the ocean so important and explains why oceanography should be included in the science curriculum regardless of where students live. Section I, "Getting Started," includes discussions on the following: (1) "Why Marine Biology?";…

  7. The Structure of Oceanography in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churgin, James

    1984-01-01

    Describes the structure of marine science in China. Includes organization and activities of China's National Bureau of Oceanography and programs administered through various ministries, Academia Sinica (China's Academy of Sciences), universities, and provincial institutes. Comments on research vessionals and other development initiatives are also…

  8. Remote sensing for oceanography: Past, present, future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgoldrick, L. F.

    1984-01-01

    Oceanic dynamics was traditionally investigated by sampling from instruments in situ, yielding quantitative measurements that are intermittent in both space and time; the ocean is undersampled. The need to obtain proper sampling of the averaged quantities treated in analytical and numerical models is at present the most significant limitation on advances in physical oceanography. Within the past decade, many electromagnetic techniques for the study of the Earth and planets were applied to the study of the ocean. Now satellites promise nearly total coverage of the world's oceans using only a few days to a few weeks of observations. Both a review of the early and present techniques applied to satellite oceanography and a description of some future systems to be launched into orbit during the remainder of this century are presented. Both scientific and technologic capabilities are discussed.

  9. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  10. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  11. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  12. Oceanography in the next decade: Building new partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The field of oceanography has existed as a major scientific discipline in the United States since World War 2, largely funded by the federal government. In this report, the Ocean Studies Board documents the state of the field of oceanography and assesses the health of the partnership between the federal government and the academic oceanography community. The objectives are to document and discuss important trends in the human, physical, and fiscal resources available to oceanographers, especially academic oceanographers, over the last decade; to present the Ocean Studies Board's best assessment of scientific opportunities in physical oceanography, marine geochemistry, marine geology and geophysics, biological oceanography, and coastal oceanography during the upcoming decade; and to provide a blueprint for more productive partnerships between academic oceanographers and federal agencies.

  13. Applying "-omics" Data in Marine Microbial Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrman, Jed; Follows, Mick; Forde, Samantha

    2013-07-01

    Due to biotechnological advances and the ever-decreasing cost of sequencing in recent years, there has been a major shift in microbial oceanography to include data on the sequences of genes, gene transcripts, and proteins from environmentally relevant organisms and naturally occurring mixed communities in studies of marine ecosystems. This research area is collectively called "-omics," referring to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics of individual organisms and metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics of mixed communities. These data provide information about how organisms interact with their environment.

  14. What Oceanography Concepts are Taught in Ohio's Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ray, Jr.; Martin, Ralph E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A survey listing 21 major oceanographic concepts and several sub-concepts was mailed to all Ohio earth science teachers. Respondents indicated that most of the oceanography topics taught were geologically-oriented. Oceanography concepts relating to ecology, chemical, physical or life science are considered less important. (DH)

  15. A Study of Enlisted Training and Education in Applied Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriner, Karl Leonard

    The study concludes that the primary reason for present programs of enlisted training and education in oceanography is to support Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). There is a significant lack of courses, schools, and self-study material available to enlisted personnel on the subject of oceanography. Through more extensive training the aviation ASW…

  16. Assessment of Differences in University Oceanography Students' Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takao, Allison Y.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the differences in university oceanography students' scientific writing. Specifically, the authors examine the argumentation structures of a high scoring paper and a low scoring paper. This study was conducted in an introductory level oceanography course in a large public university. In this course students…

  17. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  18. Microbial oceanography: paradigms, processes and promise.

    PubMed

    Karl, David M

    2007-10-01

    Life on Earth most likely originated as microorganisms in the sea. Over the past approximately 3.5 billion years, microorganisms have shaped and defined Earth's biosphere and have created conditions that have allowed the evolution of macroorganisms and complex biological communities, including human societies. Recent advances in technology have highlighted the vast and previously unknown genetic information that is contained in extant marine microorganisms, from new protein families to novel metabolic processes. Now there is a unique opportunity, using recent advances in molecular ecology, metagenomics, remote sensing of microorganisms and ecological modelling, to achieve a comprehensive understanding of marine microorganisms and their susceptibility to environmental variability and climate change. Contemporary microbial oceanography is truly a sea of opportunity and excitement.

  19. Coupling biology and oceanography in models.

    PubMed

    Fennel, W; Neumann, T

    2001-08-01

    The dynamics of marine ecosystems, i.e. the changes of observable chemical-biological quantities in space and time, are driven by biological and physical processes. Predictions of future developments of marine systems need a theoretical framework, i.e. models, solidly based on research and understanding of the different processes involved. The natural way to describe marine systems theoretically seems to be the embedding of chemical-biological models into circulation models. However, while circulation models are relatively advanced the quantitative theoretical description of chemical-biological processes lags behind. This paper discusses some of the approaches and problems in the development of consistent theories and indicates the beneficial potential of the coupling of marine biology and oceanography in models.

  20. Ecosystem oceanography for global change in fisheries.

    PubMed

    Cury, Philippe Maurice; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Planque, Benjamin; Durant, Joël Marcel; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Travers, Morgane; Grimm, Volker

    2008-06-01

    Overexploitation and climate change are increasingly causing unanticipated changes in marine ecosystems, such as higher variability in fish recruitment and shifts in species dominance. An ecosystem-based approach to fisheries attempts to address these effects by integrating populations, food webs and fish habitats at different scales. Ecosystem models represent indispensable tools to achieve this objective. However, a balanced research strategy is needed to avoid overly complex models. Ecosystem oceanography represents such a balanced strategy that relates ecosystem components and their interactions to climate change and exploitation. It aims at developing realistic and robust models at different levels of organisation and addressing specific questions in a global change context while systematically exploring the ever-increasing amount of biological and environmental data.

  1. Coastal physical oceanography: The next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Boulder Group

    A workshop was held at Boulder, Colo., March 30-April 1, 1987, to consider plans for U.S. research on the physical oceanography of the continental margins. The meeting was convened by R. C. Beardsley (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, Mass.) and J. S. Allen (Oregon State University (OSU), Corvallis), with K. H. Brink (WHOI) as facilitator and G. T. Csanady (Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va.) as rapporteur. A list of those present is given in Table 1. During the first 2 days, the participants presented their views on the current state of knowledge of the various physical processes important in the waters o f the continental margins. These presentations sketched the boundaries of knowledge and illustrated the diversity and vigor of current research on the U.S. margins. The speakers gave their projections of the goals and needs of future research and suggested directions for a national program.

  2. The Current Trajectory of Seismic Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ana E.; Ruddick, Barry R.; Biescas-Gorriz, Berta

    2013-09-01

    Seismic oceanography (SO) uses multichannel seismic techniques to visualize the ocean's fine structure, yielding a tool for investigating ocean mixing processes and their links with mesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, and currents. Ten years after the seminal paper initiating the SO field (W. S. Holbrook, P. Páramo, S. Pearse, and R. W. Schmitt, Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling, Science, 301, 821-824, 2003), a special session and mini-workshop were convened at the International Congress on Acoustics in Montreal on 2-7 June 2013. At the workshop, participants discussed the successes of SO, the challenges it faces as an observational tool, and ways to move the field forward.

  3. From satellite altimetry to operational oceanography and Argo: three revolutions in oceanography (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. Topex/Poseidon revolutionized our vision and understanding of the ocean. It provided new views of the large scale seasonal and interannual sea level and ocean circulation variations. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. The ERS-1/2 orbit was well adapted for mesoscale circulation sampling but the orbit determination and altimeter performance were much less precise than for T/P. We demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. This was an essential first step for the merging of T/P and ERS-1/2. The second step required the development of a global optimal interpolation method. Near real time high resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 years. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near real time at high resolution was essential to the development of global ocean forecasting, a second revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) (1998-2008) was phased with the T/P and ERS-1/2 successors (Jason-1 and ENVISAT) and was instrumental in the development of global operational oceanography capabilities. Europe played a leading role in GODAE. In 1998, the global in-situ observing system was inadequate for the global scope of GODAE. This led to the development of Argo, an

  4. Oceanography, the new Frontier for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nelson

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the discipline of oceanography and some of its specific areas of concern. Describes the major resources of the oceans and reflects on how these may be utilized and shared by nations in the future. (JR)

  5. From Chaos To MAOS: Launching an Oceanography High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Marlene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the background of a specialty high school in Monterey Bay, California focusing on oceanography. Describes the collaborative research relationship that exists between the school and the scientific community. (DDR)

  6. Titan - a New Laboratory for Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2001-12-01

    Saturn's giant moon Titan has a thick (1.5 bar) nitrogen atmosphere, and quite probably large expanses of liquid hydrocarbons on its surface. The physical processes in these lakes and seas will open new vistas on oceanography and limnology. Although the Voyager-era paradigm of a deep, global ocean is ruled out by radar and infrared data showing that at least part of Titan's surface is icy, the photochemical arguments that originally led to the proposal of hydrocarbon oceans still apply. Even if the methane in the atmosphere is being resupplied by delivery from the interior, the ethane produced by photolysis would still accumulate to form large deposits on the surface. The near-infrared maps of Titan's surface from the Hubble Space Telescope and groundbased adaptive optics consistently show a number of dark (in fact, pitch-black!) regions that are strong candidates for hydrocarbon seas. These could be up to some 500km in extent. Titan promises to be a new laboratory for oceanography. Like in meteorology, many ocean processes are better parameterized than they are understood, and thus the different physical circumstances on Titan may shed new light on them. Titan has a lower gravity and its ocean fluids are of lower density, perhaps of lower viscosity (depending on solutes and suspended material) and probably rather more likely to cavitate. The ratio of atmospheric density to ocean density is much larger on Titan than on Earth, suggesting that liquid motions will be well-coupled to surface winds (although the distance from the sun is such that the energy in such winds is likely to be low.) Titan is also subject to strong tidal forces (the equilibrium tide due to Saturn's gravity is some 400x larger than that of the moon on Earth.) Although the 100m tidal bulge stays almost fixed because Titan rotates synchronously, the eccentricity of Titan's orbit leads to significant libration and variation in the tidal strength. The 500km seas allowed by the IR data may yet have a

  7. Coastal Operational Oceanography: understanding user needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez, J.; Jerez, F.; Hermosilla, F.; Espino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the 7th Framework European project FIELD_AC, SIMO and the LIM/UPC have undertaken a study about the operational oceanography requirements of a selected group of specific end-users in four different European coastal regions, namely Hamburg, Liverpool, Barcelona and Venice. The activities of all the target organisations are related to coastal issues, varying from aquaculture to marinas and port management, Water Framework Directive implementation, renewable energies and flooding alerts. Information has been compiled using a specific questionnaire that has been distributed to all potential users, in addition to workshops held in the four mentioned regions. A total number of 25 questionnaires have been collected in all the locations from a variety of users. Results have been analysed depending on the location but also considering the type of organisation. Information about the spatial and temporal resolution requirements, variables needed, locations to be considered, frequency of data delivery and formats requirements have been gathered. This input from the end-users is being used both in the FIELD_AC modelling set up and also in the development of an application to visualise the results. Regarding the latter, all the modelling results and observational data will be handled using a THREDDS catalogue linked to a web-based GIS application.

  8. Reflections on international cooperation in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Gotthilf

    1999-01-01

    These reflections on past and present trends in international cooperation in marine sciences are dedicated to Gerold Siedler, the former President of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). Over the years Gerold Siedler promoted international cooperation on various scales. Inter alia he was in charge of the bilateral Brazilian-German Programme in Marine Science in the 1970s, and he was deeply involved in the planning of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment WOCE and in its execution, particularly in the South-western Atlantic (Siedler et al., 1996) as well as in the formation of the marine science sector of the Framework Programmes of the European Union. Apart from his leading role in international committees he has countless personal links over the oceans and across political borders. There are always foreign students around him in Kiel, and more than once he has made good-will tours to coastal states bordering the South Atlantic in order to pave the way for Meteor cruises in their EEZs and to encourage their local scientists to join those cruises. Gerold Siedler is one of the leading oceanographers devoted to the idea of the global community of oceanographers. He puts much effort in establishing new and maintaining old contacts between scientists in various parts of the World and he pushes for joining forces in cooperative programmes wherever individual research vessels and institutes cannot solve problems of the understanding, prediction and sustainable exploitation of the oceans and their coastal seas. My contribution to this Festschrift is heavily biassed towards biological oceanography in the Atlantic and to the European and German part in international cooperation. The biological inclination originates from my personal background, the geographical bias pays tribute to the fact that Gerold Siedler is a global minded German European who has mainly worked in the Atlantic. I will concentrate on some historical reflections, on the growing

  9. Graduate students in oceanography: Recruitment, success, and career prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, Arthur R. M.; Hollister, Charles D.

    Graduate education, student quality, stipend support, and subsequent employment form a triad of concern to many oceanographers. While the number of graduate degree programs in oceanography in the U.S. exceeds 50, remarkably few data are available on numbers of student applications, student survival rates, the quality of the applicants and accepted students, and their subsequent employment.Consequently, most discussions within an institution are based on data from a single school, while most statements made to federal government program managers by scientists are based on personal perceptions and feelings. With the emerging global initiatives, which are very labor intensive, it appears appropriate to ask, “Is there an impending crisis in graduate education in oceanography?” Widespread concern about availability of new talent, the quality of incoming students, and the overall national crisis in science and engineering student recruitment has led many scientists to state that oceanography has widespread problems in terms of student numbers and, more importantly, quality. Often, when a scientist does not find a student in the spring application rites, the scientist declares there is a national shortage of well-qualified students. Moreover, in certain subdisciplines of the field (e.g., physical oceanography) the crisis is perceived as severe and immediate, though as we shall see, physical oceanography is in an improving mode and is also experiencing an interesting increase in the numbers of well-qualified women applicants.

  10. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  11. Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography (DIALOG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The DIALOG Program was founded by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), in order to reduce the historical, institutional and philosophical barriers that limit the exchange of information between limnologists and oceanographers, and to foster interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research. This was achieved by targeting a recent cohort of Ph.D. recipients whose work included a biological component of limnology or oceanography. The program included: (1) publication of the submitted Ph.D. dissertation abstracts; (2) a symposium to facilitate exchange across institutions and disciplines; and (3) establishment of a centralized data base for applicant characterization and tracking.

  12. Connecting Middle School, Oceanography, and the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan W.; Hansen, Terri M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity that features 16 oceanography work stations and integrates other disciplines. Assigns students different oceanic life forms and requires students to work in stations. Explains seven of 16 stations which cover oil spills, the periodic table, ocean floor, currents, and classification of oceanic organisms. (YDS)

  13. Biological oceanography of the red oceanic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst

    1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents

  14. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  15. Development of an Introductory Oceanography Concept Inventory Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthurs, L.; Marchitto, T.

    2008-12-01

    Concept inventories are one type of assessment that can be used to evaluate whether a student has an accurate and working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. Although such assessment tools have been developed in astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, fluid mechanics, geology, and physics, none has been available. Our development of an Introductory Oceanography Concept Inventory Survey (IO-CIS) serves to fill this gap. Much of the development of the IO-CIS utilized students enrolled in the Spring 2008 Introduction to Oceanography course taught at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The first step in the development of IO-CIS involved the identification and selection of the critical concepts to be addressed in the course and the survey. Next, learning goals were defined for each critical concept. These learning goals then provided the basis for framing open-ended questions that were administered to students in pre-module in-class Concept Inventory Exercises (CIEs). These open-ended questions each underwent validation and revision with expert and novice input prior to being administered in a CIE. Each CIE comprised 4-5 open-ended questions, which each contained 1-4 parts. During the semester, 4 different CIEs were administered, with the number of respondents for each CIE ranging from 57-134. Student responses were then binned according to misconceptions and alternate conceptions, tallied, and "distractors" were written based on the most popular bins using the same language employed by students in their responses. Student responses were also used as part of the validation process to ensure that the questions were interpreted by students in the manner intended. Student responses were also used as a basis to discard particular questions from inclusion in the overall IO-CIS. After the initial IO-CIS questions and distractors had been designed as described above, 23 one-on-one student interviews were conducted as part of the validation process. As a result of

  16. Private Collection of Geochemistry and Oceanography Articles Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheim, Frank T.

    2014-05-01

    It's time! I'm disposing of a 37-year career's worth of books and other scientific materials in geochemistry and oceanography. Ordinarily, reprints of articles have little value. However, in the course of my research, I assembled what may be the world's most comprehensive private collection of articles on marine ferromanganese deposits up to the late 1980s. It includes foreign language materials, especially Russian language articles. Soviet researchers played an active role in this field (I cooperated with them and was a guest of the Soviet Academy).

  17. (abstract) Satellite Physical Oceanography Data Available From an EOSDIS Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan A.; Collins, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory archives and distributes data as part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Products available from JPL are largely satellite derived and include sea-surface height, surface-wind speed and vectors, integrated water vapor, atmospheric liquid water, sea-surface temperature, heat flux, and in-situ data as it pertains to satellite data. Much of the data is global and spans fourteen years.There is email access, a WWW site, product catalogs, and FTP capabilities. Data is free of charge.

  18. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  19. Diploma of Higher Studies in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents four courses for the diploma of higher studies in oceanography conducted by the Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Egypt. These courses are organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO). Each course is designed to be taught in one academic year…

  20. Curriculum Outline for a General Oceanography Field Laboratory (Review Cycle-Annual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    A curriculum guide, in outline form, for oceanography field laboratories is presented. Designed to complement and expand upon an oceanography lecture course, it provides a list of objectives related to student experiences in three areas: (1) operating oceanographic equipment; (2) gathering, manipulating, and evaluating data; and (3) writing formal…

  1. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    One of the earliest ocean-related flights was that of Amundsen to be first across the North Pole and Arctic from Svalbard to Alaska in the airship Norge in 1926. Twenty five years later Cox & Munk flew a B-17G "Flying Fortress" bomber over Hawaiian waters measuring sea surface slope statistics from photographs of sun glitter and wind speed from a yacht. The value of Cox & Munk's "airborne oceanography" became apparent another twenty five years later with the short-lived Seasat microwave remote-sensing mission, since interpretation of the Seasat data in geophysical variables required scattering theories that relied on their data. The universal acceptance of remote sensing in oceanography began in 1992 with the launch of, and successful analysis of sea surface height data from, the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter. With that and the development of more realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean models it became apparent that our understanding of weather and climate variability in both the atmosphere and the ocean depends crucially on our ability to measure processes in boundary layers spanning the interface. Ten years ago UNOLS formed the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR) "...to improve access to research aircraft facilities for ocean sciences"; an attempt to make access to aircraft as easy as access to research vessels. SCOAR emphasized then that "Aircraft are ideal for both fast-response investigations and routine, long-term measurements, and they naturally combine atmospheric measurements with oceanographic measurements on similar temporal and spatial scales." Since then developments in GPS positioning and miniaturization have made scientific measurements possible from smaller and smaller platforms, including the transition from manned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, ship-launched and recovered UAVs have demonstrated how they can enhance the capabilities and reach of the research vessels, "projecting" research and science

  2. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map

  3. [Oceanography and King Dom Carlos I's collection of iconography].

    PubMed

    Jardim, Maria Estela; Peres, Isabel Marília; Ré, Pedro Barcia; Costa, Fernanda Madalena

    2014-01-01

    After the Challenger expedition (1872-1878), other nations started to show interest in oceanographic research and organizing their own expeditions. As of 1885, Prince Albert I of Monaco conducted oceanographic campaigns with the collaboration of some of the best marine biologists and physical oceanographers of the day, inventing new techniques and instruments for the oceanographic work. Prince Albert's scientific activity certainly helped kindle the interest of his friend, Dom Carlos I, king of Portugal, in the study of the oceans and marine life. Both shared the need to use photography to document their studies. This article analyzes the role of scientific photography in oceanography, especially in the expeditions organized by the Portuguese monarch.

  4. The role of ocean climate data in operational Naval oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesbrough, Radm G.

    1992-01-01

    Local application of global-scale models describes the U.S. Navy's basic philosophy for operational oceanography in support of fleet operations. Real-time data, climatologies, coupled air/ocean models, and large scale computers are the essential components of the Navy's system for providing the war fighters with the performance predictions and tactical decision aids they need to operate safely and efficiently. In peacetime, these oceanographic predictions are important for safety of navigation and flight. The paucity and uneven distribution of real-time data mean we have to fall back on climatology to provide the basic data to operate our models. The Navy is both a producer and user of climatologies; it provides observations to the national archives and in turn employs data from these archives to establish data bases. Suggestions for future improvements to ocean climate data are offered.

  5. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data

  6. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, Elena; Balbin, Rosa; Cabanas, Jose-Manuel; Garcia, Maria-Jesus; Garcia-Martinez, M. Carmen; Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar; Lavin, Alicia; Lopez-Jurado, Jose-Luis; Rodriguez, Carmen; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Sánchez-Leal, Ricardo F.; Vargas-Yáñez, Manuel; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography. Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the Observing System includes six permanent moorings equipped with current meters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and a sea-surface temperature satellite image station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the Argo international programme with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers on the research vessel fleet. The system is completed with the contribution to the Northwest Iberian peninsula and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands such as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programmes of Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits a spatio-temporal description of some events, such as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  7. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  8. Applied Coastal Oceanography--A Course That Integrates Science and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montvilo, Jerome A.; Levin, Douglas R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a course designed to teach students the fundamentals of coastal oceanography and the scientific methodologies used in studying this field. Business applications of this information also play an important role in the course. (DDR)

  9. Introductory Oceanography Taught as a Laboratory Science--An Experiment That Worked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Franz E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a college level introductory oceanography course that incorporates a hands-on laboratory component. The activities include the determination of density and buoyancy, light transmission in sea water, and wave refraction. (MA)

  10. Paleophysical oceanography with an emphasis on transport rates.

    PubMed

    Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Paleophysical oceanography is the study of the behavior of the fluid ocean of the past, with a specific emphasis on its climate implications, leading to a focus on the general circulation. Even if the circulation is not of primary concern, heavy reliance on deep-sea cores for past climate information means that knowledge of the oceanic state when the sediments were laid down is a necessity. Like the modern problem, paleoceanography depends heavily on observations, and central difficulties lie with the very limited data types and coverage that are, and perhaps ever will be, available. An approximate separation can be made into static descriptors of the circulation (e.g., its water-mass properties and volumes) and the more difficult problem of determining transport rates of mass and other properties. Determination of the circulation of the Last Glacial Maximum is used to outline some of the main challenges to progress. Apart from sampling issues, major difficulties lie with physical interpretation of the proxies, transferring core depths to an accurate timescale (the "age-model problem"), and understanding the accuracy of time-stepping oceanic or coupled-climate models when run unconstrained by observations. Despite the existence of many plausible explanatory scenarios, few features of the paleocirculation in any period are yet known with certainty.

  11. Oceanography promotes self-recruitment in a planktonic larval disperser

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Peter R.; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Waters, Jonathan; Beheregaray, Luciano B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of high-resolution genetic data has revealed that oceanographic connectivity in marine species with planktonic larvae can be surprisingly limited, even in the absence of major barriers to dispersal. Australia’s southern coast represents a particularly interesting system for studying planktonic larval dispersal, as the hydrodynamic regime of the wide continental shelf has potential to facilitate onshore retention of larvae. We used a seascape genetics approach (the joint analysis of genetic data and oceanographic connectivity simulations) to assess population genetic structure and self-recruitment in a broadcast-spawning marine gastropod that exists as a single meta-population throughout its temperate Australian range. Levels of self-recruitment were surprisingly high, and oceanographic connectivity simulations indicated that this was a result of low-velocity nearshore currents promoting the retention of planktonic larvae in the vicinity of natal sites. Even though the model applied here is comparatively simple and assumes that the dispersal of planktonic larvae is passive, we find that oceanography alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic structure and self-recruitment. Our study contributes to growing evidence that sophisticated larval behaviour is not a prerequisite for larval retention in the nearshore region in planktonic-developing species. PMID:27687507

  12. Possible satellite oceanography on coastal waters during the NPP stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Asanuma, I.; Zhao, C.; Huang, B.

    2007-09-01

    Ocean color monitoring on the coastal water is still under study because of an incomplete atmospheric correction over the turbid water like over the coastal water along the China main land. Currently available sensors for science as MODIS on Terra or Aqua will terminate their service in the near future and the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be the next satellite to support the satellite oceanography on the coastal water. The Tokyo University of Information Sciences (TUIS) has updated the MODIS receiving system to capture and ingest the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data from NPP, which will be launched in 2008. Data processing software from the Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL), such as the Real-time Software Telemetry Processing (RT-STPS), Simulcast, and DB algorithms, will be core programs in our system. VIIRS has seven bands in VIS&NIR, which are for ocean color research. The spatial resolution is 0.742×0.259 meters at nadir. While the MODIS spatial resolution of the nine ocean color bands is 1000m. The higher spatial resolution MODIS data (250 meters) is used to illustrate the advantage of the higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, such as data from VIIRS. In this study, we propose to combine the higher spatial resolution data with the traditional products of chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature in the low resolution so as to extract further information on the coastal ocean.

  13. Paleophysical oceanography with an emphasis on transport rates.

    PubMed

    Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Paleophysical oceanography is the study of the behavior of the fluid ocean of the past, with a specific emphasis on its climate implications, leading to a focus on the general circulation. Even if the circulation is not of primary concern, heavy reliance on deep-sea cores for past climate information means that knowledge of the oceanic state when the sediments were laid down is a necessity. Like the modern problem, paleoceanography depends heavily on observations, and central difficulties lie with the very limited data types and coverage that are, and perhaps ever will be, available. An approximate separation can be made into static descriptors of the circulation (e.g., its water-mass properties and volumes) and the more difficult problem of determining transport rates of mass and other properties. Determination of the circulation of the Last Glacial Maximum is used to outline some of the main challenges to progress. Apart from sampling issues, major difficulties lie with physical interpretation of the proxies, transferring core depths to an accurate timescale (the "age-model problem"), and understanding the accuracy of time-stepping oceanic or coupled-climate models when run unconstrained by observations. Despite the existence of many plausible explanatory scenarios, few features of the paleocirculation in any period are yet known with certainty. PMID:21141656

  14. IIth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velden, Christopher; Digirolamo, Larry; Glackin, Mary; Hawkins, Jeffrey; Jedlovec, Gary; Lee, Thomas; Petty, Grant; Plante, Robert; Reale, Anthony; Zapotocny, John

    2002-11-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its 11th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin, during 15-18 October 2001. The purpose of the conference, typically held every 18 months, is to promote a forum for AMS membership, international scientists, and student members to present and discuss the latest advances in satellite remote sensing for meteorological and oceanographical applications. This year, surrounded by inspirational designs by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the meeting focused on several broad topics related to remote sensing from space, including environmental applications of land and oceanic remote sensing, climatology and long-term satellite data studies, operational applications, radiances and retrievals, and new technology and methods. A vision of an increasing convergence of satellite systems emerged that included operational and research satellite programs and interdisciplinary user groups.The conference also hosted NASA's Electronic Theater, which was presented to groups of middle and high school students totaling over 5500. It was truly a successful public outreach event. The conference banquet was held on the final evening, where a short tribute to satellite pioneer Verner Suomi was given by Joanne Simpson. Suomi was responsible for establishing the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.

  15. Creating Education and Outreach Opportunities in Microbial Oceanography through Partnerships between Scientists and Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilles, K.; Weersing, K.; Walker, G.; Bruno, B. C.

    2008-05-01

    C-MORE is an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center. Headquartered at the Univ of Hawaii at Manoa, C- MORE has five partner institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Oregon State Univ, Univ of California at Santa Cruz and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Research and education activities occur at all six institutions. C-MORE's goals include educating and training a diverse population of teachers and students in microbial oceanography, providing professional development and training opportunities for scientists and educators, and improving public awareness of microbial oceanography. To date, C-MORE has focused on K-12 teacher-training, which include shipboard experiences, professional development workshops and mini-grants to incorporate microbial oceanography into K-12 curriculum. C-MORE's education and outreach activities are joint efforts between scientists and educators. Scientists have the microbial oceanography content knowledge and research skills, while educators can translate this information into everyday language and develop curriculum aligned with state and national standards. Some examples of upcoming events are given below. During Spring 2008, C-MORE will offer a six-week teacher workshop in microbial oceanography in Hawaii for local teachers. Emphasis is on research methods and laboratory skills. In mid-June, a two-day education cruise will engage teachers in scientific research in microbial oceanography. Working closely with microbial oceanographers, teachers will participate in sampling and analysis. In July, C-MORE will co-sponsor a nationwide teacher workshop on microbial oceanography in Oregon with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), as part of the Education and Research: Testing Hypotheses (EARTH) workshop series (www.mbari.org/earth). For more info: kate.achilles@soest.hawaii.edu or barb@hawaii.edu

  16. A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C.; Allison, D.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs is being modified to support the larger scope of the BCO-DMO effort, which includes ultimately providing a way to exchange data with other data systems. The open access system is based on a philosophy of data stewardship, support for existing and evolving data standards, and use of public domain software. The DMO staff work closely with originating PIs to manage data gathered as part of their individual programs. In the new BCO-DMO data system, project and data set metadata records designed to support re-use of the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL) and the data are stored in or made accessible by the JGOFS/GLOBEC object- oriented, relational, data management system. Data access will be provided via any standard Web browser client user interface through a GIS application (Open Source, OGC-compliant MapServer), a directory listing from the data holdings catalog, or a custom search engine that facilitates data discovery. In an effort to maximize data system interoperability, data will also be available via Web Services; and data set descriptions will be generated to comply with a variety of metadata content standards. The office is located at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and web access is via http://www.bco-dmo.org.

  17. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  18. A perspective on the future of physical oceanography.

    PubMed

    Garabato, Alberto C Naveira

    2012-12-13

    oceanography towards a more operational enterprise by contextual factors. The basic elements that a strategy for the future must have to foster progress in these two areas are discussed, with an overarching emphasis on the promotion of curiosity-driven fundamental research against opposing external pressures and on the importance of upholding fundamental research as the apex of education in the field.

  19. Using Earth Data in an Introductory Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2002-12-01

    Activities that engage students in the use and interpretation of real earth data provide an effective way of promoting an understanding of the science process. In UCSB's introductory Oceanography course, major goals are to improve student understanding of how science works and how to interpret science claims in the popular media. Activities are modeled after those of practicing scientists. These include: a) posing a solvable problem, b) choosing and acquiring relevant data, c) describing the data, d) interpreting the data, e) giving talks to peers, and f) publishing and reviewing findings. Each of these activities poses pedagogical challenges that must be addressed in carefully sequenced course assignments that build upon each other, and respond to a variety of learning styles. The use of earth data in education also presents significant challenges in creating effective data acquisition and display tools. However, only item b, above, is pertinent to these tools. The other items present similar challenges. During the course, learners must acquire enough subject knowledge to successfully interpret the data. They must understand the theory or model they are testing, how the relevant data can be used to test the model, and how to illustrate and present their findings orally and in writing. Some of the assignments that support this are: online homework, online subject area mini-quizzes (randomly created from a database of questions), "questions of the day" in lecture, online short answer thought questions, lab section guided mini-investigations, lab section group presentations, short writing exercises, and 2 longer writing assignments. Students rate the writing assignments as the most effective course component that contributes to their learning. The writing assignments focus student effort and also produce a product that we can study in an attempt to measure student learning. Prof. Gregory Kelly and Prof. Charles Bazerman (UCSB Graduate School of Education) are

  20. A perspective on the future of physical oceanography.

    PubMed

    Garabato, Alberto C Naveira

    2012-12-13

    oceanography towards a more operational enterprise by contextual factors. The basic elements that a strategy for the future must have to foster progress in these two areas are discussed, with an overarching emphasis on the promotion of curiosity-driven fundamental research against opposing external pressures and on the importance of upholding fundamental research as the apex of education in the field. PMID:23129710

  1. A Retrospective Self-Assessment of the SURFO Summer Internship Program in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Donohue, K. A.; Fliegler, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships in Oceanography (SURFO) program at the Graduate School of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island is an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates site program with a programmatic research niche focused on quantitative aspects of Oceanography. Each summer-cohort includes 9-12 participants (rising seniors) who are paired with a primary research advisor and often with a graduate student mentor. The primary components of the 10-week program include a 4-week introductory phase and a 6-week core research phase. A retrospective self-assessment instrument gauged the confidence, attitude and comfort level of participants with; 1) core math and science subjects, 2) oceanography-related subjects, 3) research skills, and 4) SURFO and GSO staff. SURFO participants evaluated themselves at the start of the program, after the introductory phase, and at the end of the program. Participants were also asked to reassess their initial evaluations and provide an updated score. The pre-assessment results indicate that the program recruits students from the target group (e.g., strong physics and math backgrounds, but with limited exposure to oceanography). The results also indicate that the students are initially comfortable with their advising team, but not so comfortable with their research topic and research skills. The post-introductory phase results indicate large increases in comfort level with the advising team and the local research community yet little or no change is indicated for research skills. The final assessments show large changes in oceanography-content knowledge, research topic, and research skills. The retrospective reassessment indicates an initial overconfidence in most categories. Overall, the largest changes occurred during the core research portion of the program. These results reinforce the importance/effectiveness of authentic, hands-on, inquiry-based research for higher learning and training the next

  2. Shedding light on the sea: André Morel's legacy to optical oceanography.

    PubMed

    Antoine, David; Babin, Marcel; Berthon, Jean-François; Bricaud, Annick; Gentili, Bernard; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stéphane; Stramski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article first summarizes his career and then successively covers different aspects of optical oceanography where he made significant contributions, from fundamental work on optical properties of water and particles to global oceanographic applications using satellite ocean color observations. At the end, we share our views on André's legacy to our research field and scientific community.

  3. Bringing the Ocean into the Social Studies Classroom: What Can Oceanography Do for Sixth through Twelfth Grade Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul B.; Earl, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors show how oceanography can enlighten and energize the teaching of middle- and high-school social studies on a grade-by-grade basis, and they describe "hooks" from oceanography that will heighten students' interest in various social studies topics. They base the article on their own experiences--as a university-level…

  4. Research and Teaching: Implementation of Interactive Engagement Teaching Methods in a Physical Oceanography Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiner, Louis E.; Gilman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the effects of increased faculty-student engagement on student learning, success rates, and perceptions in a Physical Oceanography course. The study separately implemented two teaching methods that had been shown to be successful in a different discipline, introductory physics. These methods were the use of interactive…

  5. Developing a Teaching Assistant Preparation Program in the School of Oceanography, University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Dean A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the development of a program preparing graduate students to teach in the School of Oceanography, University of Washington, in response to repeated graduate student complaints about the lack of a program. Describes the program which is based on surveys of groups affected by the program and research on teaching assistant preparation,…

  6. Applying Argumentation Analysis To Assess the Quality of University Oceanography Students' Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takao, Allison Y.; Prothero, William A.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the methods and results of an assessment of students' scientific writing. Studies an introductory oceanography course in a large public university that used an interactive CD-ROM, "Our Dynamic Planet". Analyzes the quality of students' written arguments by using a grading rubric and an argumentation analysis model. Includes 18 references.…

  7. Epistemic Levels in Argument: An Analysis of University Oceanography Students' Use of Evidence in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Takao, Allison

    2002-01-01

    Examines university oceanography students' use of evidence in writing considering the relative epistemic status of propositions comprising student' written texts. Defines the epistemic levels by discipline-specific geological constructs from descriptions of data, to identification of features, to relational aspects of features, to theoretical…

  8. A Naturalistic Study of Epistemology: Oceanography Constructed through Oral and Written Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Chen, Catherine

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how the epistemology of a discipline is interactionally accomplished, acknowledged, and appropriated in a university oceanography course. Drawing from sociological and anthropological studies of scientific communities, this study uses an ethnographic perspective to explore how teachers and students came to…

  9. Officer Education and Training in Oceanography for ASW and Other Naval Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Larry Wayne

    The study into the knowledge and experience required for optimum performance by officers assigned to operational, R & D, and managerial duties in Anti-submarine Warfare concludes that oceanography should receive the major emphasis on an interdisciplinary graduate level program of the contributing disciplines in ASW. In planning education and…

  10. The Epistemological Framing of a Discipline: Writing Science in University Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Chen, Catherine; Prothero, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines how instruction in scientific writing in a university oceanography course communicated epistemological positions of the discipline. Uses an ethnographic perspective to explore how teachers and students came to define particular views of disciplinary knowledge. Identifies epistemological issues such as uses of evidence, role of expertise,…

  11. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 10, Ocean Engineering and Oceanography. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    In order to determine the potential utilization of displaced aerospace and defense technical professionals in oceanography and ocean engineering, a study of ocean-oriented industry in Florida and Southern California was conducted by The National Society of Professional Engineers for the U.S. Department of Labor. After recent consolidation, this…

  12. Digital image enhancement techniques used in some ERTS application problems. [geology, geomorphology, and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Billingsley, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Enhancements discussed include contrast stretching, multiratio color displays, Fourier plane operations to remove striping and boosting MTF response to enhance high spatial frequency content. The use of each technique in a specific application in the fields of geology, geomorphology and oceanography is demonstrated.

  13. Let's Talk About You and Sharks, American Oceanography Special Educational Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas L.; Miloy, Leatha

    1971-01-01

    This special educational newsletter of the American Society for Oceanography presents information on marine oriented subjects, primarily for reading by junior high and secondary school students. Major articles consider the habits and stinging effects of sharks, jelly fish, and sting rays, and what one should do if stung by these fish while…

  14. Beyond the Golden Gate; oceanography, geology, biology, and environmental issues in the Gulf of the Farallones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Chin, John L.; Ueber, Edward; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored a multidisciplinary, multiagency investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones, which lies offshore of the San Francisco Bay region. This book discussess the results of the endeavor, covering the topics of oceanography and geology, biology and ecological niches, and issues of environmental management.

  15. Short Training Course in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course in oceanography intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates in physics, mathematics, chemistry, zoology, botany or geology to give them the minimum qualifications required to work in any of the marine science stations. This 14-week course, organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and…

  16. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  17. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  18. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  19. Developing European operational oceanography for Blue Growth, climate change adaptation and mitigation, and ecosystem-based management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Allen, Icarus; Buch, Erik; Crise, Alessandro; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Lips, Urmas; Nolan, Glenn; Pinardi, Nadia; Reißmann, Jan H.; Siddorn, John; Stanev, Emil; Wehde, Henning

    2016-07-01

    Operational approaches have been more and more widely developed and used for providing marine data and information services for different socio-economic sectors of the Blue Growth and to advance knowledge about the marine environment. The objective of operational oceanographic research is to develop and improve the efficiency, timeliness, robustness and product quality of this approach. This white paper aims to address key scientific challenges and research priorities for the development of operational oceanography in Europe for the next 5-10 years. Knowledge gaps and deficiencies are identified in relation to common scientific challenges in four EuroGOOS knowledge areas: European Ocean Observations, Modelling and Forecasting Technology, Coastal Operational Oceanography and Operational Ecology. The areas "European Ocean Observations" and "Modelling and Forecasting Technology" focus on the further advancement of the basic instruments and capacities for European operational oceanography, while "Coastal Operational Oceanography" and "Operational Ecology" aim at developing new operational approaches for the corresponding knowledge areas.

  20. Fast neural network surrogates for very high dimensional physics-based models in computational oceanography.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Rudolph; Leen, Todd K; Lu, Zhengdong; Frolov, Sergey; Baptista, Antonio M

    2007-05-01

    We present neural network surrogates that provide extremely fast and accurate emulation of a large-scale circulation model for the coupled Columbia River, its estuary and near ocean regions. The circulation model has O(10(7)) degrees of freedom, is highly nonlinear and is driven by ocean, atmospheric and river influences at its boundaries. The surrogates provide accurate emulation of the full circulation code and run over 1000 times faster. Such fast dynamic surrogates will enable significant advances in ensemble forecasts in oceanography and weather.

  1. Fast neural network surrogates for very high dimensional physics-based models in computational oceanography.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Rudolph; Leen, Todd K; Lu, Zhengdong; Frolov, Sergey; Baptista, Antonio M

    2007-05-01

    We present neural network surrogates that provide extremely fast and accurate emulation of a large-scale circulation model for the coupled Columbia River, its estuary and near ocean regions. The circulation model has O(10(7)) degrees of freedom, is highly nonlinear and is driven by ocean, atmospheric and river influences at its boundaries. The surrogates provide accurate emulation of the full circulation code and run over 1000 times faster. Such fast dynamic surrogates will enable significant advances in ensemble forecasts in oceanography and weather. PMID:17517493

  2. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  3. Study of the marine environment of the northern Gulf of California. [seasonal variations in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of studies of the oceanography of the northern Gulf of California (Mexico) are reported. A remote, instrumented buoy measuring and telemetering oceanographic data by ERTS-1 satellite was designed, constructed, deployed, and tested. Regular cruises by a research ship on a pattern of 47 oceanographic stations collected data which are analyzed and referenced to analysis of ERTS-1 satellite imagery. A thermal dynamic model of current patterns in the northern Gulf of California is proposed. Findings are examined in relation to the model.

  4. Oceanography survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Richard C.

    The following report highlights data on age, sex, race, education, expertise, employment activities, and career histories of more than 4000 U.S. marine scientists obtained from a 1980 questionnaire sent to all of the oceanographic laboratories in the United States in order to procure information for the 1982 U.S. Directory of Marine Scientists (available from National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., $12.25). Of those responding, 93% were male, 95% were U.S. citizens, 93% were white, and their median age was 40.

  5. Geophysics, Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of decade-long time series of global surface wind measurements for studies ofseasonal-to-interannual climate variability presents unique challenges for space- borne instrumentationbecause of the necessity to combine data sets of 3- to 5-year lifetimes. Before the first Special SensorMicrowave Imager (SSMI), which was launched on the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F8 spacecraft in July 1987, stopped recording wind speed in December 1991, another SSMIwas launched on DMSP F10 in December 1991. Interpretation of the 1987 - 1993 composite timeseries is dependent upon the space and time characteristics of the differences between concurrent F8and F10 SSMI measurements. This paper emphasizes large geographical regions and 1-month timescale. The F8-F10 area-weighted difference between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees S during 305 daysof 1991 (-0.12 m s^(-1)) was comparable to the year-to-year wind speed variations during 1988-1991. The 10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 difference was negative (positive) forwind speeds less (greater) than 7.9 m s^(-1), reaching - 0.43(0.32) m s^(-1) at 5(10) m s^(-1). The10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 bias had considerable variations throughout the yearand between 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, with the largest temporal variation (1.4 m s^(-1)) in the 50degrees - 60 degrees N region from February to April. The 1991 average value of the monthly meanroot-mean-square (rms) difference between F8 and F10 daily wind speeds in 10 degree-longitudinalbands was 2.0 m s^(-1) over 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, the amplitude of the annual cycle of therms difference was largest in the northern hemisphere middle latitudes, and the rms difference wasrelated to the wind speed (e.g., at 6 and 10 m s^(-1), the rms difference was 1.7 and 2.7 m s^(-1),respectively). The relationship between monthly mean 1/3 degrees x 1/3 degrees F8-F10 SSMI windspeed differences and integrated water vapor and liquid water content in the atmosphere is discussed.

  6. Comments on R.W. Stewart's "Physical oceanography to the end of the twentieth century"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, C.

    My comments on this note are mostly general. The major one is that in the context of a Hilbert-like discussion of the "key problems" the paper doesn't really do that at all. Rather, Stewart is mainly speculating on what the state of the subject is likely to be about the year 2000, along with some description of the trials people will have in doing it. As such, it is reminiscent of more elaborate efforts along the same line (I believe that SCOR produced an entire document, under K. Hasselmann's editorship, only four or five years ago, that talked about oceanography to the end of the century.) Furthermore, all our experience in oceanography is that a decade is a very short time for major changes. It is exceedingly optimistic to use 10 years as the time for an instrument to go from conception to widespread use; I believe that the true timescale is closer to twice that (there's a long list of examples, including current meters, CTD's, etc.)

  7. The Indigo V Indian Ocean Expedition: a prototype for citizen microbial oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, Federico; Senstius, Jacob; Cullen, Jay; Lauro, Rachelle; Neches, Russell; Grzymski, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Microbial Oceanography has long been an extremely expensive discipline, requiring ship time for sample collection and thereby economically constraining the number of samples collected. This is especially true for under-sampled water bodies such as the Indian Ocean. Specialised scientific equipment only adds to the costs. Moreover, long term monitoring of microbial communities and large scale modelling of global biogeochemical cycles requires the collection of high-density data both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. Thousands of private ocean-going vessels are cruising around the world's oceans every day. We believe that a combination of new technologies, appropriate laboratory protocols and strategic operational partnerships will allow researchers to broaden the scope of participation in basic oceanographic research. This will be achieved by equipping sailing vessels with small, satcom-equipped sampling devices, user-friendly collection techniques and a 'pre-addressed-stamped-envelope' to send in the samples for analysis. We aim to prove that 'bigger' is not necessarily 'better' and the key to greater understanding of the world's oceans is to forge the way to easier and cheaper sample acquisition. The ultimate goal of the Indigo V Expedition is to create a working blue-print for 'citizen microbial oceanography'. We will present the preliminary outcomes of the first Indigo V expedition, from Capetown to Singapore, highlighting the challenges and opportunities of such endeavours.

  8. Increasing Climate Literacy in Introductory Oceanography Classes Using Ocean Observation Data from Project Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hams, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    This session will present educational activities developed for an introductory Oceanography lecture and laboratory class by NOAA Teacher-at-Sea Jacquelyn Hams following participation in Leg 3 of Project DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) in November-December 2011. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an important tropical weather phenomenon with origins in the Indian Ocean that impacts many other global climate patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Northern Hemisphere monsoons, tropical storm development, and pineapple express events. The educational activities presented include a series of lessons based on the observational data collected during Project DYNAMO which include atmospheric conditions, wind speeds and direction, surface energy flux, and upper ocean turbulence and mixing. The lessons can be incorporated into any introductory Oceanography class discussion on ocean properties such as conductivity, temperature, and density, ocean circulation, and layers of the atmosphere. A variety of hands-on lessons will be presented ranging from short activities used to complement a lecture to complete laboratory exercises.

  9. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  10. Autonomous profiling buoy system: a new powerful tool for research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aracri, Simona; Borghini, Mireno; Canesso, Devis; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Durante, Sara; Griffa, Annalisa; Schroeder, Katrin; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Vetrano, Anna; Kitawaza, Yuji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    Oceanography is nowadays a fast-changing field. The scientific community is orienting towards the implementation of a growing array of satellite-borne or mobile and moored high-tech devices and sensors, while sending fewer scientists at sea to collect measurements, minimizing the expensive ship-time costs. In other words, oceanography is now moving from a platform-centric sensing system to a net-centric distributed sensing system. Integration with operational ocean models, providing the best estimate of the ocean state by means of data assimilation, is the step forward, with nowadays mature initiatives at global scale and at regional scale in the Mediterranean Sea. While the ocean still remains a complex system, largely undersampled, multiplatform-integration, improvements in tools capabilities and assimilation in models represents one way to reduce uncertainties in marine areas. In this context, and differently from mobile platforms (e.g, gliders, argos), fixed-point moorings nicely provide long term point wise time-series, but limited by a low vertical resolution. Technology is fast evolving towards the implementation of automatic profilers, which partially overcome this limitation. In June 2013 the Institute of Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR) started the test phase of one of the very few Mediterranean autonomous profiling systems installed in a open-sea mooring, transmitting, daily, hydrological vertical profiles in real time through satellite communication. The selected site was the Corsica Channel, a narrow passage between Corsica and Capraia islands, connecting the two main regions of the western Mediterranean: the Tyrrhenian and the Liguro-Provençal basins. The Corsica Channel represents a 'choke point' for the study of the dynamics and evolution of the western Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies in this passage indicate an annual and seasonal cycle with northward winter fluxes representing about the 60% of the total

  11. The ARMADA Project: Bringing Oceanography and the Arctic to the Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazol, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is

  12. Seasonal oceanography from physics to micronekton in the south-west Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menkes, C. E.; Allain, V.; Rodier, M.; Gallois, F.; Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Smeti, H.; Pagano, M.; Josse, E.; Daroux, A.; Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Kestenare, E.; Lorrain, A.; Nicol, S.

    2015-03-01

    Tuna catches represent a major economic and food source in the Pacific Ocean, yet are highly variable. This variability in tuna catches remains poorly explained. The relationships between the distributions of tuna and their forage (micronekton) have been mostly derived from model estimates. Observations of micronekton and other mid-trophic level organisms, and their link to regional oceanography, however are scarce and constitute an important gap in our knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of pelagic ecosystems. To fill this gap, we conducted two multidisciplinary cruises (Nectalis1 and Nectalis2) in the New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) at the southeastern edge the Coral Sea, in 2011 to characterize the oceanography of the region during the cool (August) and the hot (December) seasons. The physical and biological environments were described by hydrology, nutrients and phytoplankton size structure and biomass. Zooplankton biomass was estimated from net sampling and acoustics and micronecton was estimated from net sampling, the SEAPODYM ecosystem model, a dedicated echosounder and non-dedicated acoustics. Results demonstrated that New Caledonia is located in an oligotrophic area characterized by low nutrient and low primary production which is dominated by a high percentage of picoplankton cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus (>90%). The area exhibits a large-scale north-south temperature and salinity gradient. The northern area is influenced by the equatorial Warm Pool and the South Pacific Convergence Zone and is characterized by higher temperature, lower salinity, lower primary production and micronekton biomass. The southern area is influenced by the Tasman Sea and is characterized by cooler temperature, higher salinity, higher primary production and micronekton biomass. The dynamic oceanography and the complex topography create a myriad of mesoscale features including eddies, inducing patchy structures in the ecosystem. During the cool season, a

  13. Active-Learning Methods To Improve Student Performance and Scientific Interest in a Large Introductory Oceanography Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuretich, Richard F.; Khan, Samia A.; Leckie, R. Mark; Clement, John J.

    2001-01-01

    Transfers the environment of a large enrollment oceanography course by modifying lectures to include cooperative learning via interactive in-class exercises and directed discussion. Results of student surveys, course evaluations, and exam performance demonstrate that learning of the subject under these conditions has improved. (Author/SAH)

  14. Operation Pathfinder: Oceanography, Coastal Processes for Elementary, Middle School Teachers--Program Reaches Minority Students, Puts 'AAAH' into Ocean Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a 12-day teacher inservice course in oceanography and coastal processes that focuses on enhanced content knowledge, improved teaching strategies, role modeling, and leadership development. The primary objective is improving the teaching techniques of elementary and middle school teachers of predominantly minority students. Strategies…

  15. What Is Physical Oceanography? A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 217. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    This unit is concerned with an overview of physical oceanography - the study of currents, tides, waves, and particle movements. The activities are designed for use by junior high school age students. Included in the unit are activities related to properties of sea water, physical phenomena of the ocean, and physical features of the ocean.…

  16. Learning about Oceanography. Superific Science Book VII. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based upon the recognition that the sea has great potential as a future source of energy, minerals, and water, this document was developed to provide students with learning experiences in oceanography. It contains background information about ocean tides, waves, chemistry, depths, and plant and animal life. The book provides the teacher with…

  17. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  18. Geomicrobiology in oceanography: microbe-mineral interactions at and below the seafloor.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katrina J; Bach, Wolfgang; McCollom, Thomas M

    2005-09-01

    Oceanography is inherently interdisciplinary and, since its inception, has included the study of microbe-mineral interactions. From early studies of manganese nodules, to the discovery of hydrothermal vents, it has been recognized that microorganisms are involved at various levels in the transformation of rocks and minerals at and below the seafloor. Recent studies include mineral weathering at low temperatures and microbe-mineral interactions in the subseafloor "deep biosphere". A common characteristic of seafloor and subseafloor geomicrobiological processes that distinguishes them from terrestrial or near-surface processes is that they occur in the dark, one or more steps removed from the sunlight that fuels the near-surface biosphere on Earth. This review focuses on geomicrobiological studies and energy flow in dark, deep-ocean and subseafloor rock habitats.

  19. Virophages to viromes: a report from the frontier of viral oceanography.

    PubMed

    Culley, Alexander I

    2011-07-01

    The investigation of marine viruses has advanced our understanding of ecology, evolution, microbiology, oceanography and virology. Significant findings discussed in this review include the discovery of giant viruses that have genome sizes and metabolic capabilities that distort the line between virus and cell, viruses that participate in photosynthesis and apoptosis, the detection of communities of viruses of all genomic compositions and the preeminence of viruses in the evolution of marine microbes. Although we have made great progress, we have yet to synthesize the rich archive of viral genomic data with oceanographic processes. The development of cutting edge methods such as single virus genomics now provide a toolset to better integrate viruses into the ecology of the ocean.

  20. Data catalog for JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory contains satellite data sets and ancillary in-situ data for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Geophysical parameters available from the archive include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, surface-wind speed, surface-wind stress vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, integrated water vapor, phytoplankton pigment concentration, heat flux, and in-situ data. PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System and is the United States distribution site for TOPEX/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  1. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  2. High-precision GPS autonomous platforms for sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegui, P.; Wilkinson, J.; Olsson, M.; Rodwell, S.; James, A.; Hagan, B.; Hwang, B.; Forsberg, R.; Gerdes, R.; Johannessen, J.; Wadhams, P.; Nettles, M.; Padman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Project "Arctic Ocean sea ice and ocean circulation using satellite methods" (SATICE), is the first high-rate, high-precision, continuous GPS positioning experiment on sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. The SATICE systems collect continuous, dual-frequency carrier-phase GPS data while drifting on sea ice. Additional geophysical measurements also collected include ocean water pressure, ocean surface salinity, atmospheric pressure, snow-depth, air-ice-ocean temperature profiles, photographic imagery, and others, enabling sea ice drift, freeboard, weather, ice mass balance, and sea-level height determination. Relatively large volumes of data from each buoy are streamed over a satellite link to a central computer on the Internet in near real time, where they are processed to estimate the time-varying buoy positions. SATICE system obtains continuous GPS data at sub-minute intervals with a positioning precision of a few centimetres in all three dimensions. Although monitoring of sea ice motions goes back to the early days of satellite observations, these autonomous platforms bring out a level of spatio-temporal detail that has never been seen before, especially in the vertical axis. These high-resolution data allows us to address new polar science questions and challenge our present understanding of both sea ice dynamics and Arctic oceanography. We will describe the technology behind this new autonomous platform, which could also be adapted to other applications that require high resolution positioning information with sustained operations and observations in the polar marine environment, and present results pertaining to sea ice dynamics and physical oceanography.

  3. The Application of a Technique for Vector Correlation to Problems in Meteorology and Oceanography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breaker, L. C.; Gemmill, W. H.; Crosby, D. S.

    1994-11-01

    In a recent study, Crosby et al. proposed a definition for vector correlation that has not been commonly used in meteorology or oceanography. This definition has both a firm theoretical basis and a rather complete set of desirable statistical properties. In this study, the authors apply the definition to practical problems arising in meteorology and oceanography. In the first of two case studies, vector correlations were calculated between subsurface currents for five locations along the southeastern shore of Lake Erie. Vector correlations for one sample size were calculated for all current meter combinations, first including the seiche frequency and then with the seiche frequency removed. Removal of the seiche frequency, which was easily detected in the current spectra, had only a small effect on the vector correlations. Under reasonable assumptions, the vector correlations were in most cases statistically significant and revealed considerable fine structure in the vector correlation sequences. In some cases, major variations in vector correlation coincided with changes in surface wind. The vector correlations for the various current meter combinations decreased rapidly with increasing spatial separation. For one current meter combination, canonical correlations were also calculated; the first canonical correlation tended to retain the underlying trend, whereas the second canonical correlation retained the peaks in the vector correlations.In the second case study, vector correlations were calculated between marine surface winds derived from the National Meteorological Center's Global Data Assimilation System and observed winds acquired from the network of National Data Buoy Center buoys that are located off the continental United States and in the Gulf of Alaska. Results of this comparison indicated that 1) there was a significant decrease in correlation between the predicted and observed winds with increasing forecast interval out to 72 h, 2) the technique

  4. Space data research center all-union research institute of marine fisheries and oceanography (VNIRO) ussr ministry of fisheries. Current status and future of space data application in fishery oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyushin, G. P.; Zonov, Yu. V.; Potaiohuk, S. I.

    The soale of operations oarried out by the USSR Ministry of Fisheries' fishing fleet requires a sound scientific basis. Such a basis is provided by "fishery oceanography" - a branch of science that studies the environmental factors which exert influence on fishing conditions. Remote sensing satellites are a new source of data on oceanic conditions for fishery oceanography. The USSR Ministry of Fisheries is developing space data service for its own needs. At present the main output of the Service are sea surface temperature maps which are distributed between the Ministry' users. Other types of information are results of interpretation of vides imagery in different spectral regions. A joint analysis of all the available data is employed by fishery oceanographers for managing search and fishing fleet operations.

  5. Virtual Research Expeditions along Plate Margins: Examples from an Online Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Moore, G. F.; Bangs, N. L.; Tobin, H. J.

    2010-12-01

    An undergraduate online course in oceanography is based on the participation of each student in a series of virtual, at-sea, research expeditions, two of which are used to examine the tectonic processes at plate boundaries. The objective is to leverage the results of major federal research initiatives in the ocean sciences into effective learning tools with a long lifespan for use in undergraduate geoscience courses. These web-based expeditions examine: (1) hydrothermal vents along the divergent plate boundary at the Explorer Ridge and (2) the convergent plate boundary fault along the Nankai Trough, which is the objective of the multi-year NanTroSEIZE drilling program. Here we focus on the convergent plate boundary in NanTroSEIZE 3-D, which is based on a seismic survey supported through NSF-MARGINS, IODP and CDEX in Japan to study the properties of the plate boundary fault system in the upper limit of the seismogenic zone off Japan. The virtual voyage can be used in undergraduate classes at anytime, since it is not directly tied to the finite duration of a specific seagoing project, and comes in two versions, one that is being used in geoscience major courses and the other in non-major courses, such as the oceanography course mentioned above and a lower-division global studies course with a science emphasis. NanTroSEIZE in 3-D places undergraduate learning in an experiential framework as students participate on the expedition and carry out research on the structure of the plate boundary fault. Students learn the scientific background of the program, especially the critical role of international collaboration, and meet the chief scientists before joining the 3-D seismic imaging expedition to identify the active faults that were the likely sources of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis in Japan in 1944 and 1948. The initial results of phase I ODP drilling that began in 2007 are also reviewed. Students document their research on a worksheet that accompanies the

  6. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program as a model for effective professional development experience in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the

  7. North American Paleozoic Oceanography: Overview of Progress Toward a Modern Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1987-04-01

    Three fundamental questions have confronted paleoceanographers from the beginning of their North American explorations. What was the size and timing of ancient epicontinental seas: large and long-lasting or small and brief? What characterized the distribution of biotas and sediments at any one point in time: a multitude of complex facies patterns or a more spacially homogeneous cover? What promoted continental foundering: eustatic changes in sea level or relative changes in sea level brought about by regional tectonics? These questions have been debated by North Americans since the middle 1800s in response to various new insights, usually coming from abroad but often elaborated into substantial contributions of equal standing. Contemporary facies zones in Mediterranean biota found by the Englishman E. Forbes attracted the notice of geologists as early as 1844. C. Whittlesey was among the first to apply the bathymetric scheme of Forbes to the interpretation of American Paleozoic strata in 1851. The outstanding "native" innovation of the period was J. Hall's geosyncline concept, which is reflected in the earliest map of Paleozoic North America made by T. C. Chamberlin in 1881. Another wave of influence spread from the late 19th century work on stratigraphic facies patterns by the German J. Walther. A. W. Grabau is best remembered as Walther's foremost American champion against the formidable layer-caker E. O. Ulrich in the first decades of the 20th century, but he also made pioneering contributions of his own on Paleozoic sea level studies and global paleogeographic reconstructions. Charles Schuchert was the consummate paleogeographer of this period. Meanwhile, the term "cyclothem" was coined by J. Marvin Weller in 1930 for recurrent Carboniferous strata in Illinois. Controversy fast erupted over a glacial as opposed to tectonic mode of origin for these cycles. In 1964, A. B. Shaw restimulated interest in Paleozoic oceanography through his reformulation of Walther

  8. Current and future prospects for the application of systematic theoretical methods to the study of problems in physical oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, A.; Johnson, R. S.

    2016-09-01

    This essay is a commentary on the pivotal role of systematic theoretical methods in physical oceanography. At some level, there will always be a conflict between theory and experiment/data collection: Which is pre-eminent? Which should come first? This issue appears to be particularly marked in physical oceanography, to the extreme detriment of the development of the subject. It is our contention that the classical theory of fluids, coupled with methods from the theory of differential equations, can play a significant role in carrying the subject, and our understanding, forward. We outline the philosophy behind a systematic theoretical approach, highlighting some aspects of equatorial ocean dynamics where these methods have already been successful, paving the way for much more in the future and leading, we expect, to the better understanding of this and many other types of ocean flow. We believe that the ideas described here promise to reveal a rich and beautiful dynamical structure.

  9. Assessment of Superflux relative to marine science and oceanography. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general assessment of the Superflux project is made in relation to marine science and oceanography. It is commented that the program clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of state-of-the-art technology required to study highly dynamic estuarine plumes, and the necessity of a broadly interdisciplinary, interactive remote sensing and shipboard program required to significantly advance the understanding of transport processes and impacts of estuarine outflows.

  10. The Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater - 2010 (TEOS-10): implications for observational oceanography and ocean modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, Trevor

    2010-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) has endorsed a new equation of state of seawater to replace the International Equation of State of 1980. The new Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10 for short) has been prepared by SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127, and from 1st January 2010, is the new worldwide standard description of seawater. This thermodynamic description of seawater provides accurate algorithms for Absolute Salinity, density, entropy, enthalpy and many other properties. The software of the new seawater standard is available on line from www.TEOS-10.org. The talk will concentrate on three main topics, namely (i) the definition and use of a new form of salinity called Absolute Salinity which takes into account the spatial variation in the composition of seawater, (ii) a thermodynamic variable that can be used to accurately represent the transport and mixing of "heat" in the ocean, and (iii) the differences between the specific volume of TEOS-10 and that of EOS-80 (the International Equation of State of seawater that has been in use since 1980). The talk will discuss the relative improvements in the accuracy of observational oceanography and ocean models that can be expected from adopting TEOS-10.

  11. The Prestige crisis: operational oceanography applied to oil recovery, by the Basque fishing fleet.

    PubMed

    González, Manuel; Uriarte, Adolfo; Pozo, Rogelio; Collins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    On 19th November 2002, the oil tanker Prestige (containing 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel no. 2 (M100)) sank in 3500 m of water, off the coast of northwestern Spain. Intermittent discharge of oil from the stricken tanker, combined with large-scale sea surface dispersion, created a tracking and recovery problem. Initially, conventional oil recovery approaches were adopted, close to the wreck. With time and distance from the source, the oil dispersed dramatically and became less viscous. Consequently, a unique monitoring, prediction and data dissemination system was established, based upon the principles of 'operational oceanography'; this utilised in situ tracked buoys and numerical (spill trajectory) modelling outputs, in combination with remote sensing (satellite sensors and visual observation). Overall, wind effects on the surface waters were found to be the most important mechanism controlling the smaller oil slick movements. The recovery operation involved up to 180 fishing boats, 9-30 m in length. Such labour-intensive recovery of the oil (21,000 tonnes, representing an unprecedented ratio of 6.6 tonnes at sea, per tonne recovered on land) continued over a 10 month period. The overall recovery at sea, by the fishing vessels, represented 63% of the total oil recovered at sea; this compares to only 37% recovered by specialised 'counter- pollution' vessels.

  12. Real-time sea-level gauge observations and operational oceanography.

    PubMed

    Mourre, Baptiste; Crosnier, Laurence; Provost, Christian Le

    2006-04-15

    The contribution of tide-gauge data, which provide a unique monitoring of sea-level variability along the coasts of the world ocean, to operational oceanography is discussed in this paper. Two distinct applications that both demonstrate tide-gauge data utility when delivered in real-time are illustrated. The first case details basin-scale operational model validation of the French Mercator operational system applied to the North Atlantic. The accuracy of model outputs in the South Atlantic Bight both at coastal and offshore locations is evaluated using tide-gauge observations. These data enable one to assess the model's nowcasts and forecasts reliability which is needed in order for the model boundary conditions to be delivered to other coastal prediction systems. Such real-time validation is possible as long as data are delivered within a delay of a week. In the second application, tide-gauge data are assimilated in a storm surge model of the North Sea and used to control model trajectories in real-time. Using an advanced assimilation scheme that takes into account the swift evolution of model error statistics, these observations are shown to be very efficient to control model error, provided that they can be assimilated very frequently (i.e. available within a few hours).

  13. Remote sensing oceanography of a harmful algal bloom off the coast of southeastern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dan Ling; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Doan-Nhu, Hai; Takahashi, Wataru

    2004-03-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the southeastern Vietnamese coastal waters have caused large economic losses in aquacultured and wild fisheries in recent years; however, there have been few oceanographic studies on these HAB events. The present study reports an extensive HAB off southeastern Vietnamese waters during late June to July 2002 with in situ observations and analyzes the oceanographic conditions using satellite remote sensing data. The HAB had high chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (up to 4.5 mg m-3) occurring ˜200 km off the coast and ˜200 km northeast of the Mekong River mouth for a period of ˜6 weeks. The bloom was dominated by the harmful algae haptophyte Phaeocystis cf. globosa and caused a very significant mortality of aquacultured fish and other marine life. In the same period, sea surface temperature (SST) imagery showed a cold water plume extending from the coast to the open sea, and QuikScat data showed strong southwesterly winds blowing parallel to the coastline. This study indicated that the HAB was induced and supported by offshore upwelling that brings nutrients from the deep ocean to the surface and from coastal water to offshore water and that the upwelling was driven by strong wind through Ekman transport when winds were parallel to the coastline. This study demonstrated the possibility of utilizing a combination of satellite data of Chl a, SST, and wind velocity together with coastal bathymetric information and in situ observations to give a better understanding of the biological oceanography of HABs.

  14. The plume of the Yukon River in relation to the oceanography of the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Kenneson G.; Mcroy, C. Peter; Ahlnas, Kristina; Springer, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The ecosystem of the northern Bering-Sea shelf was studied using data from the NOAA Very High Resolution Radiometer and AVHRR and the Landsat MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) in conjunction with shipboard measurements. Emphasis was placed on the influence of the Yukon River on this inner shelf environment and on the evaluation of the utility of the new Landsat TM data for oceanography. It was found that the patterns of water mass distribution obtained from satellite images agreed reasonably well with the areal patterns of temperature, salinity, and phytoplankton distributions. The AVHRR, MSS, and TM data show that the Yukon-River discharge is warmer and more turbid than the surrounding coastal water that originates to the south; thus, the Yukon water contributes to the higher temperatures and lower transmissivity of the coastal water. The high resolution of the TM thermal IR band made it possible to observe complex patterns and structures in the surface water that could not be resolved on previous data sets.

  15. Earth Remote Sensing Center of Excellence at Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    We developed advanced communications and networking capability and satellite reception systems for Earth science to improve the ability of scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) to conduct interdisciplinary research. With matching funds from the SIO Director's office we implemented a "virtual center" utilizing modern networking hardware and software to enhance access for researchers and students to unique satellite and in situ data sets. The center provides facilities and data access to graduate students as well as research scientists at SIO, and outside SIO. Our private sector partners installed and testes and advanced X-band data acquisition system for satellite data capture relevant for Earth science research and applications. Some of the commercial applications of these partners have been developed (or are under development) with NASA SBIR resources. The X-band system collected RADARSAT, ERS-2 and MODIS imagery. Perhaps most importantly, this COE brought together - for the first time - an interdisciplinary team of SIO scientists with interests in Earth remote sensing. The collaboration extended beyond our infrastructure and research accomplishments leading to a dialog that resulted in a report with strong recommendations to the SIO community for enhancing satellite remote sensing at SIO.

  16. Near resonant bubble acoustic cross-section corrections, including examples from oceanography, volcanology, and biomedical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Michael A; Leighton, Timothy G

    2009-11-01

    The scattering cross-section sigma(s) of a gas bubble of equilibrium radius R(0) in liquid can be written in the form sigma(s)=4piR(0) (2)[(omega(1) (2)omega(2)-1)(2)+delta(2)], where omega is the excitation frequency, omega(1) is the resonance frequency, and delta is a frequency-dependent dimensionless damping coefficient. A persistent discrepancy in the frequency dependence of the contribution to delta from radiation damping, denoted delta(rad), is identified and resolved, as follows. Wildt's [Physics of Sound in the Sea (Washington, DC, 1946), Chap. 28] pioneering derivation predicts a linear dependence of delta(rad) on frequency, a result which Medwin [Ultrasonics 15, 7-13 (1977)] reproduces using a different method. Weston [Underwater Acoustics, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series Vol. II, 55-88 (1967)], using ostensibly the same method as Wildt, predicts the opposite relationship, i.e., that delta(rad) is inversely proportional to frequency. Weston's version of the derivation of the scattering cross-section is shown here to be the correct one, thus resolving the discrepancy. Further, a correction to Weston's model is derived that amounts to a shift in the resonance frequency. A new, corrected, expression for the extinction cross-section is also derived. The magnitudes of the corrections are illustrated using examples from oceanography, volcanology, planetary acoustics, neutron spallation, and biomedical ultrasound. The corrections become significant when the bulk modulus of the gas is not negligible relative to that of the surrounding liquid.

  17. Development of 3D interactive visual objects using the Scripps Institution of Oceanography's Visualization Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D.; Reif, C.; Peach, C.; Keen, C. S.; Smith, B.; Mellors, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Within the last year scientists and educators at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the Birch Aquarium at Scripps and San Diego State University have collaborated with education specialists to develop 3D interactive graphic teaching modules for use in the classroom and in teacher workshops at the SIO Visualization center (http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu). The unique aspect of the SIO Visualization center is that the center is designed around a 120 degree curved Panoram floor-to-ceiling screen (8'6" by 28'4") that immerses viewers in a virtual environment. The center is powered by an SGI 3400 Onyx computer that is more powerful, by an order of magnitude in both speed and memory, than typical base systems currently used for education and outreach presentations. This technology allows us to display multiple 3D data layers (e.g., seismicity, high resolution topography, seismic reflectivity, draped interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, etc.) simultaneously, render them in 3D stereo, and take a virtual flight through the data as dictated on the spot by the user. This system can also render snapshots, images and movies that are too big for other systems, and then export smaller size end-products to more commonly used computer systems. Since early 2002, we have explored various ways to provide informal education and outreach focusing on current research presented directly by the researchers doing the work. The Center currently provides a centerpiece for instruction on southern California seismology for K-12 students and teachers for various Scripps education endeavors. Future plans are in place to use the Visualization Center at Scripps for extended K-12 and college educational programs. In particular, we will be identifying K-12 curriculum needs, assisting with teacher education, developing assessments of our programs and products, producing web-accessible teaching modules and facilitating the development of appropriate teaching tools to be

  18. An Introduction to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO- DMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C.; Glover, D.; Groman, R.; Wiebe, P.

    2007-12-01

    The BCO-DMO (http://www.bco-dmo.org) was created to serve PIs funded by the NSF Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a facility where marine biogeochemical and ecological data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be disseminated, protected, and stored on short and intermediate time-frames. The Data Management Office also strives to provide research scientists and others with the tools and systems necessary to work with marine biogeochemical and ecological data from heterogeneous sources with increased efficacy. To accomplish this, two data management offices (former- U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC) have been united and enhanced to provide a venue for contribution of electronic data/metadata and other information for open distribution via the World Wide Web. The JGOFS/GLOBEC Client/Server distributed data management system software is used to serve data and information to every investigator, regardless of computing platform. In addition, Web services are provided for data discovery, and development has begun on a machine-to-machine application programming interface (API) to allow interoperability between Web-based data systems. The BCO-DMO will manage existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators, collaborative groups of investigators, and data management offices of larger multi-institutional projects via any standard Web browser. The office will work with principal investigators on data quality control; maintain an inventory and program thesaurus of strictly defined field names; generate metadata (e.g. Directory Interchange Format (DIF) ) records required by Federal agencies; ensure submission of data to national data centers; support and encourage data synthesis by providing new, online, Web-based display tools; facilitate interoperability among different data portals; and facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange.

  19. Oceanography of the Eastern Pacific—an introduction to volume III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber-Lorda, Jaime

    2004-03-01

    In 1998, the Centro de Investigación Cientı´fica y de Educación Superior (CICESE) celebrated its 25th anniversary, which was the occasion to start the series of colloquia that take place every 2 years, the Coloquio Sobre la Oceanografı´a del Pacifico Oriental, in Ensenada. Two volumes were published in 2000 (Färber-Lorda, 2000) and in 2002 (Färber-Lorda, 2002), with some of the papers presented during the events. CICESE supported the edition of the first two volumes, as well as the meetings. The papers of this present volume were presented during the III Coloquio Sobre la Oceanografı´a del Pacifico Oriental. A special volume concerning different aspects of the consequences in México of the 1997-1998 El Niño/La Niña 1998-1999, was recently published in México (Badan et al., 2003); however, it is not restricted to the Pacific nor only to oceanography. The Eastern Pacific encompasses a very wide range of different biotic and abiotic conditions. Papers on topics from Alaska, to the Chilean Fjords of southern Chile, and from the Gulf of California to the 180° meridian, around the equator, are presented (see Fig. 1). Even if unity in the subjects is impossible to achieve, the information is important to assess the research performed in the area. Here, we give a brief description of the papers presented. Some general discussion is possible and some common features of phenomena like El Niño and La Niña, and the 1998/1999 regime-shift of the North Pacific, are exposed. For the first time a special volume is dedicated to this area, instead of a particular topic.

  20. Towards an operational coastal oceanography system in the Basque Country (southeastern Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, A.; Mader, J.; Ferrer, L.; Fontán, A.; Esnaola, G.; Sagarminaga, Y.; Caballero, A.; Aranda, J. A.; Morais, A.; Uriarte, Ad.

    2009-04-01

    Recent efforts have allowed laying the foundations of an operational coastal oceanography system in the Basque Country region (southeastern Bay of Biscay). This strategy brings together climatological, oceanographic and meteorological institutions, in order to improve the way in which these services are working presently and merge the products to a unique operational system looking towards 2010. At the present time, along the 170 km coastline of the Basque Country, the marine observation system keeps 6 coastal stations measuring oceanographic (temperatures, currents, tides and waves) and meteorological parameters, 2 deep sea buoys (located over the slope between 450 and 550 m depth) measuring oceanographic (temperature, salinity and currents from surface to 200m and waves) and meteorological parameters, a HF Radar array (200 km range, 6 km horizontal resolution) and a near-real time satellite data service (SST, SSH, ocean colour). The modelling system consists of two configurations of ROMS, covering a regional and a sub-regional domain (6 and 2 km horizontal resolution, respectively) and using real-time high resolution atmospheric forcing. Model outputs are being validated with real data. The future system will provide hindcast, nowcast, and forecast of oceanographic and meteorological conditions at several time-scales, together with systematic and long-term routine measurements of the sea and atmosphere. Preliminary results of the operational system show the suitability of numerical models to explore the physics of ocean and atmosphere in this region. Model-data comparisons show a reasonable agreement in terms of surface dynamics. The vertical profiles obtained from the deep sea buoys provide worthy information on the local water column dynamics and the variability of the intermediate layers. Such variability is related to slope dynamics, seasonal variations of ENACW properties and tidal forcing. The profiles provide some interesting guidelines for the incoming

  1. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting

  2. Oceanography in Second Life: Use of a Virtual Reality to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Marine Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villareal, T. A.; Jarmon, L.; Triggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    Shipboard research is a fundamental part of oceanography, but has numerous legal and practical constraints virtually eliminate it as a regular part of large-enrollment programs in marine science. The cost of a properly equipped research vessel alone can prevent student access. While much can be learned by active exploration of archived data by students, the limitations placed on real oceanographic programs by distance, vessel speed, and time are difficult to reproduce in exercises. Pre-cruise planning and collaboration between investigators are likewise a challenge to incorporate. We have used design students in the College of Liberal Arts to construct a oceanographic expedition in Second Life for use in a marine science course (Fall 2009). Second Life is a highly collaborative environment with a variety of tools that allow users to create their own environment and interact with it. Second LIfe is free, highly portable, and inherently amenable to distance or remote teaching. In our application, the research vessel exists as an moving platform with sampling abilities. Software code queries an external MySQL database that contains information from the World Ocean Atlas for the entire ocean, and returns strings of data from standard depths. Students must plan the cruise track to test hypothesis about the ocean, collaborate with other teams to develop the big picture and use standard oceanographic software (Ocean Data Viewer; ODV) to analyze the data. Access to the entire database in ODV then allows comparison to the actual properties and distributions. The effectiveness of this approach is being evaluated by a pre- and post-class surveys and post semester focus group interviews. Similar surveys of the design students that created the environment noted that use of Second Life created a learning experience that was both more immersive and process oriented than traditional college courses. Initial impressions in the marine science class indicate that the strong social

  3. SWOT: A high-resolution wide-swath altimetry mission for oceanography and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    A new satellite mission called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) has been developed jointly by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Based on the success of nadir-looking altimetry missions in the past, SWOT will use the technique of radar interferometry to make wide-swath altimetric measurements of the elevation of surface water on land and the ocean's surface topography. The new measurements will provide information on the changing ocean currents that are key to the prediction of climate change, as well as the shifting fresh water resources resulting from climate change. Conventional satellite altimetry has revolutionized oceanography by providing nearly two decades' worth of global measurements of ocean surface topography. However, the noise level of radar altimeters limits the along-track spatial resolution to 50-100 km over the oceans. The large spacing between the satellite ground tracks limits the resolution of 2D gridded data to 200 km. Yet most of the kinetic energy of ocean circulation takes place at the scales unresolved by conventional altimetry. About 50% of the vertical transfer of heat and chemical properties of the ocean (e.g., dissolved CO2 and nutrients) is also accomplished by processes at these scales. SWOT observations will provide the critical new information at these scales for developing and testing ocean models that are designed for predicting future climate change. SWOT measurements will be in Ka band (~35 GHZ), chosen for the radar to achieve high precision with a much shorter inteferometry baseline of 10 m. Small look angles (~ 4 degrees) are required to minimize elevation errors, which limits the swath width to 120 km. An orbit with inclination of 78 degrees and 22 day repeat period was chosen for gapless coverage and good tidal aliasing properties. With this configuration, SWOT is expected to achieve 1 cm precision at 1 km x 1 km pixels over the ocean and 10 cm

  4. Designing and Implementing Service Learning Projects in an Introductory Oceanography Course Using the ``8-Block Model''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, E. P.; Field, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Campus Compact for New Hampshire (Gordon, 2003) introduced a practical model for designing service-learning exercises or components for new or existing courses. They divided the design and implementation process into eight concrete areas, the “8-Block Model”. Their goal was to demystify the design process of service learning courses by breaking it down into interconnected components. These components include: project design, community partner relations, the problem statement, building community in the classroom, building student capacity, project management, assessment of learning, and reflection and connections. The project design component of the “8-Block Model” asks that the service performed be consistent with the learning goals of the course. For science courses students carry out their work as a way of learning science and the process of science, not solely for the sake of service. Their work supports the goals of a community partner and the community partner poses research problems for the class in a letter on their letterhead. Linking student work to important problems in the community effectively engages students and encourages them to work at more sophisticated levels than usually seen in introductory science classes. Using team-building techniques, the classroom becomes a safe, secure learning environment that encourages sharing and experimentation. Targeted lectures, labs, and demonstrations build the capacity of students to do their research. Behind the scenes project management ensures student success. Learning is assessed using a variety of tools, including graded classroom presentations, poster sessions, and presentations and reports to community partners. Finally, students reflect upon their work and make connections between their research and its importance to the well being of the community. Over the past 10 years, we have used this approach to design and continually modify an introductory oceanography course for majors and non

  5. Extracting physical parameters from marine seismic data: New methods in seismic oceanography and velocity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.

    The utility and meaning of a geophysical dataset is dependent on good interpretation informed by high-quality data, processing, and attribute examination via technical methodologies. Active source marine seismic reflection data contains a great deal of information in the location, phase, and amplitude of both pre- and post-stack seismic reflections. Using pre- and post-stack data, this work has extracted useful information from marine reflection seismic data in novel ways in both the oceanic water column and the sub-seafloor geology. In chapter 1 we develop a new method for estimating oceanic turbulence from a seismic image. This method is tested on synthetic seismic data to show the method's ability to accurately recover both distribution and levels of turbulent diffusivity. Then we apply the method to real data offshore Costa Rica where we observe lee waves. Our results find elevated diffusivities near the seafloor as well as above the lee waves five times greater than surrounding waters and 50 times greater than open ocean diffusivities. Chapter 2 investigates subsurface geology in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and outlines a workflow for using pre-stack waveform inversion to produce highly detailed velocity models and seismic images. Using a newly developed inversion code, we achieve better imaging results as compared to the product of a standard, user-intensive method for building a velocity model. Our results image the subduction interface ~30 km farther landward than previous work and better images faults and sedimentary structures above the oceanic plate as well as in the accretionary prism. The resultant velocity model is highly detailed, inverted every 6.25 m with ~20 m vertical resolution, and will be used to examine the role of fluids in the subduction system. These results help us to better understand the natural hazards risks associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Chapter 3 returns to seismic oceanography and examines the dynamics of nonlinear

  6. Using Geophysical Data in the Texas High School Course, Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K.; Olson, H.; Pulliam, J.; Schott, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Science educators working directly with scientists to develop inquiry-based instructional materials in Earth science yield some of the best results. The TEXTEAMS (Texas Teachers Empowered for Achievement in Mathematics and Science) Leadership Training for the Texas high school science course, Geology, Meteorology and Oceanography (GMO) is one example of a successful program that provides high-quality training to master teachers using geophysical data collected by scientists at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). TEXTEAMS is a certification program of professional development and leadership training sponsored by the National Science Foundation that is part of the Texas Statewide Systemic Initiative. UTIG scientists teamed with science educators at the Charles A. Dana Center for Mathematics and Science Education at UT and the Texas Education Agency to develop inquiry-based instructional materials for eight GMO modules. Our learning activities help students and teachers understand how Earth scientists interpret the natural world and test their hypotheses, and provide opportunities for the use of technology in classroom science learning; they are aligned with national and state teaching standards. Examples of TEXTEAMS GMO learning activities that use geophysical data. 1. Neotectonics: radiocarbon dates and elevation above current sea level of raised coral reefs in the New Georgia Islands are used to calculate rates of tectonic uplift and as a basis for the development of a conceptual model to explain the pattern of uplift that emerges from the data. 2. Large Igneous Provinces:geophysical logging data collected on ODP Leg 183 (Kerguelen Plateau) are analyzed to identify the transition from sediment to basement rock. 3. The Search for Black Gold: petroleum exploration requires the integration of geology, geophysics, petrophysics and geochemistry. Knowledge gained in previous GMO modules is combined with fundamental knowledge about economics to

  7. Fisheries Oceanography in the Virgin Islands: Preliminary Results from a Collaborative Research Endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. H.; Gerard, T. L.; Johns, E. M.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2008-05-01

    economically important species were recovered at the near-shore sites, south of St. Thomas, St. John, and British Virgin Islands and not on the reef /shelf-break sites as expected. Concurrent Lagrangian drifter trajectories and shipboard ADCP measurements showed a high degree of variability in regional surface water flow. Possible transport pathways as related to the spatial distribution of the larvae collected and the physical oceanography observed will be discussed.

  8. From Scientist to Educator: Oceanography in the Formal and Informal Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. H.; Jasnow, M.; Srinivasan, M. S.; Rosmorduc, V.; Blanc, F.

    2002-12-01

    the role of the ocean in sustaining life on Earth. Activities on the back of the poster can be used as supplemental material in a middle school Earth science curriculum, and are suitable for individual instruction and for classroom or group exercises. This poster will be published in both English and French. Educational research indicates that an inquiry-based method of student engagement is an appropriate and effective teaching tool. These posters offer a fun and instructive environment to promote student interest in Earth Science in general and particularly in oceanography.

  9. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  10. The social oceanography of top oceanic predators and the decline of sharks: A call for a new field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Peter J.

    2010-07-01

    The decline of top oceanic predators (TOPs), such as great sharks, and worldwide erosion of the marine food web is among the most important functional changes in marine systems. Yet, even though human pressures on sharks are one of the most important factors in the collapse of TOPs, the social science of shark fishing has not kept pace with the biophysical science. Such a gap highlights the need for a marine social science, and this paper uses the case of sharks to illustrate some advances that a coherent marine social science community could bring to science and sustainability, and calls for the development of this new field. Social oceanography is proposed as a “discursive space” that will allow multiple social science and humanities disciplines to holistically study and bring insight to a diverse but essential community. Such a community will not provide answers for the physical sciences, but it will add a new understanding of the contingencies that riddle social behavior that ultimately interact with marine systems. Such a field should reflect the broad and diverse approaches, epistemologies, philosophies of science and foci that are in the human disciplines themselves. Social oceanography would complete the triumvirate of biological and physical oceanography where human systems profoundly impact these other areas. This paper tests the theory that institutional rules are contingent on social priorities and paradigms. I used content analysis of all available (1995-2006) State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) reports from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) to measure the symbolic behavior-i.e., what they say-as an indication of the value of sharks in world fisheries. Similar tests were also performed for marine journals and the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals to corroborate these findings. Then, I present an institutional analysis of all international capacity building and regulatory institutions as they

  11. An Assessment of Student Learning in an Online Oceanography Course: Five Years After Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The results of assessing student learning in an online oceanography class offered over the past five years are compiled to reveal several general trends. In order to understand the context of these trends, it is important to first note that SJSU has a two-tiered general education program consisting of a category of core courses for frosh and sophomores and an advanced category for juniors and seniors, most of whom are community college transfers. The course described in this study is in the latter category and therefore composed largely of seniors. Enrollments in the course have exploded from 6 students in a pilot section offered during the 1998 fall semester to over 170 students in the summer semester of 2002. The course is now offered in both semesters of the academic year with four sections offered during 2002 summer session as part of a system-wide conversion to year-round operation. No other course, be it classroom, hybrid or online, in the general education category has experienced the level of student demand as this online course. All sections of the online course reach enrollment limits in the first days of registration with an equal or greater number of students turned away each semester. More female, students of color, returning students and K-12 in-service teachers enroll in the online sections than in the equivalent classroom sections of the course. Students enroll in the online section for the convenience of self-paced learning since attending a classroom section is not a viable option. Enrollments in concurrent classroom sections have not been negatively impacted by the addition of online sections. Enrollment attrition is higher in the first few days of the online course, but similar to that experienced in the classroom sections, once the class is underway. However, student requests for incompletes tend to be somewhat higher in the online course, especially during the summer offerings. Learning outcomes are reviewed at the beginning of the course and

  12. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  13. Smooth 2-D ocean sound speed from Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion of seismic oceanography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacic, Tanya M.; Jun, Hyunggu; Rosado, Hayley; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    In seismic oceanography, processed images highlight small temperature changes, but inversion is needed to obtain absolute temperatures. Local search-based full waveform inversion has a lower computational cost than global search but requires accurate starting models. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data have little associated hydrographic data and the band-limited nature of seismic data makes extracting the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data inherently challenging. Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (LDI) can use rudimentary starting models without prior information about the medium. Data are transformed to the Laplace domain, and a smooth sound speed model is extracted by examining the zero and low frequency components of the damped wavefield. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on oceanographic features and recovered smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of LDI for creating starting models suitable for more detailed inversions.

  14. The MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography and Applied Ocean Science and Engineering: An Ongoing Experiment in Graduate Education and the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming Influence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    On May 8, 1968 Paul M. Fye, President of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Howard W. Johnson, President of Massachusetts Institute of Oceanography, signed a Memorandum of Agreement of one and one-half pages in which both partner institutions "have each approved the creation of a Joint Graduate Program in Oceanography for which there will be established appropriate graduate degrees to be conferred jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution." The partnership brought together the MIT experience with formal graduate education in sciences and engineering involving classroom instruction and more traditional academic advising with the less formal one to one "apprenticeship" or European tutorial style of education at WHOI. During the first year the graduate program involved only the physical sciences with the MIT home being in the Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Department. Ocean Engineering was added the following year with the MIT home being the Ocean Engineering Department. Biological Oceanography was added in 1970 with the MIT home being the Biology Department. The existing graduate curricula of the home departments at MIT, the inclusion of ocean engineering, and the fact that several of the early program instructors and advisers at WHOI entered oceanography after formal graduate training in more traditional disciplines such as chemistry, geology, physics, biology and mathematics was not conducive to an automatic adoption of the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm of core courses that predominated in other leading graduate programs in oceanography. Despite this caveat, the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm has influenced the learning environment in the Joint Program. Taking into account lessons learned in the process, some suggestions for the future of graduate education in ocean sciences and ocean engineering will be presented.

  15. Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography: Nippon Foundation and POGO Supported Programme at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, F. G.; Sathyendranath, S.; Frouin, R.; Knap, T.

    2008-05-01

    Building on previous experience in capacity building for ocean observations, the Nippon Foundation (NF) and the Partnership for Observations of the Global Oceans (POGO) have announced a new Centre of Excellence (C of E) at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The goals of the C of E are to expand the world-wide capacity and expertise to observe the oceans and to expand capacity-building projects and promote international collaboration and networking in ocean sciences. Over the past 104 years, BIOS has built a global reputation in blue-water oceanography, coral reef ecology, and the relationships between ocean health and human health coupled with high quality education programmes that provide direct, hands-on experience with BIOS-based research. The C of E at BIOS will build upon this model to establish a new, graduate-level education and training programme in operational oceanography. The 10 month Programme will offer course modules in ocean disciplines with a focus on observatory sciences complemented by hands-on training in observational methods and techniques based on the multi-disciplinary expertise of BIOS and BIOS-affiliated scientists who direct ongoing, ocean observational programmes such as: - Hydrostation S, since 1954; - Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, since 1988; - Oceanic Flux Program sediment trap time-series, since 1978; - Bermuda Test-Bed and Science Mooring, since 1994; - Bermuda Microbial Observatory, since 1997; - Bermuda Bio-Optics Program, since 1992; - Atmospheric chemistry and air-sea fluxes, since 1990 Additional areas of BIOS research expertise will be incorporated in the C of E to broaden the scope of education and training. These include the nearshore observational network of the BIOS Marine Environmental Program and the environmental air-water chemistry network of the Bermuda Environmental Quality Program. A key resource of the C of E is the newly acquired 168 ft. research vessel, the RV Atlantic Explorer, which was

  16. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  17. Distribution and Support of Aquarius/SAC-D Data through the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Vazquez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Center (PO.DAAC) serves as the designated NASA repository and distribution node for all Aquarius/SAC-D data products in close collaboration with the project. Here we report on the status of Aquarius data holdings at PO.DAAC, observed patterns of usage of these datasets, and the range of data services and access tools that we provide in support of this mission. These currently include dataset discovery and access via the PO.DAAC web-portal, an interactive L3-browser tool for online visualization, and user services that span help-desk support, Aquarius user guide documentation, and reader software development. In anticipation of the release of the Aquarius science quality dataset by the end of 2012 and as the project transitions out of the current calibration/evaluation phase, additional PO.DAAC tools and services that will be leveraged for Aquarius are described. These range from OPeNDAP and THREDDS data access services, web-based visualization via PO.DAAC's SOTO tool and LAS, to our advanced L2 subsetting tool called HITIDE.

  18. Online teaching and learning in oceanography: A look back at 15 years of undergraduate general education (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D.

    2013-12-01

    Online courses in higher education have garnered a growing presence in the popular media, yet misperceptions abound. Consequently, a retrospective examination of the evolution of an online oceanography class, first offered to undergraduates at the San Jose State University in the fall semester of 1998, may be especially relevant to the development of future efforts in this field. Since that initial offering, the development of the course, involving the creation of virtual field experiences whereby students take on the role of practicing research oceanographers, has been supported through several awards from the National Science Foundation, principally the Division of Undergraduate Education and the Geoscience Directorate. The online material, organized into expeditions, which focus on the nature of scientific discovery, has evolved over time from a static graphics and text-based format to include video, largely available through YouTube, and animations that take advantage of social media, all to highlight contemporary ocean research. To sustain the project beyond NSF funding, the course has been offered throughout the academic year, and in winter and summer special sessions, to more the 4000 students over the 15 year period since its initial offering. The materials have always been openly available through the course website (http://oceansjsu.com) to institutions throughout the world, long in advance of current MOOC movement. Just as the course format, and available content, have evolved, so have the students enrolled in the class, which now more closely mirror the university student body as a whole. Future efforts in course development should span multi-campus university systems to take advantage of the collective scientific expertise available and to leverage the effort across a larger number of courses and disciplines.

  19. High precision finite-differences time-domain direct modelling of wave equation for seismic oceanography experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, V.; Kormann, J.; Cobo, P.; Biescas, B.; Carbonell, R.

    2007-05-01

    Holbrook et al. (2003) demonstrated recently the possibility of visualizing fine structures in the water column, like thermohaline intrusion or internal waves, through seismic exploration experiments. Seismic exploration is becoming a popular technique for providing high-lateral resolution images of the explored area, in contrast with the classical oceanography probes, like XBT or XCDT. In this work we present a wave propagation model based upon a high order finite-differences time-domain (FDTD) scheme which includes special absorbing conditions in the boundaries. FDTD algorithms are known for presenting problems with reflections on the computational edges. Classical boundary conditions, like those of Engquist, provide reflection coefficients or the order of 10-2. However, reflection coefficients of fine structures in the water we are trying to model are about 10-4. Thus, the key point of the algorithm we present is in the implementation of Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) boundary conditions. These consist in zones with high absorption (therefore, very low reflection coefficient). The PML implemented in this scheme consists in a second order algorithm in the time domain, to take advantage of its stability and convergence properties. In this work we specify the propagation algorithm, and compare it results with the with Engquist and PML absorbing boundaries conditions. The PML condition affords reflection coefficients in the numerical edges lower than 10-4. Holbrook, W.S., Paramo, P., Pearse, S. and Schmitt, R.W., 2003. Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling. Science, 301, 821-824.

  20. New Horizons in Global Trace Metal Oceanography: the Global Distribution of Pb, Pb Isotope, Fe, and Fe Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, E. A.; Reuer, M. K.

    2001-12-01

    During the most recent epoch of inorganic and isotopic exploration of the global ocean (GEOSECS), trace element oceanography was in its infancy: GEOSECS obtained a global database for Ba, but apart from the analysis of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn in some samples from the project, the ocean was left largely unexplored for its trace element secrets. In subsequent decades, trace metal capabilities have advanced enormously, yet no global scale efforts to understand trace metals in the ocean have been mounted. The field has been the purview of small single investigator and limited process-oriented project science. This paucity of global scale trace metal investigation has occurred despite global scale oceanographic surveys (WOCE) and despite increasing recognition of the role of elements such as iron in regulating the global oceanic metabolism. It has also occurred despite increasingly sophisticated analytical and sampling technology progress, where many trace elements can be analyzed shipboard or on very small samples (10 ml or less) with sampling methods that collect large numbers of samples in an economical fashion. We argue that the time is ripe for new global-scale surveys of the trace metal composition of the ocean. It is scandalous that we are forced to model the oceanic behavior of an essential element such as iron lacking an even rudimentary description of its global distribution. The addition of a single profile in the Antarctic or near Hawaii can set the whole field on its head. As examples, we will present data on the distribution of Pb, Pb isotopes ratios, Fe, and Fe colloid distributions obtained in the past few years by plasma mass spectrometry. The utility of Pb as a measure of anthropogenic influence on ocean chemistry and as a tracer of ocean ventilation will be demonstrated, and the prospect for a global Fe database illuminated.

  1. The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological

  2. Deep Thermal Front (southeastern Brazilian coast) see through acoustics: a preliminary study from an operational oceanography perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsoni, L.; Hermand, J.-P.; da Silveira, I. C. A.

    2012-04-01

    éia region (state of São Paulo) is presented. Theorical temperature and salinity fields with differents conditions of DTF position are used for the calculations. Notable variations in the transmission loss field, rays propagations and time arrivals are found when the DTF is moving. These results support the idea that acoustics can be an interesting tool in monitoring and tracking of DTF movement, especially in the context of an intregrated program of observational oceanography and numerical ocean modeling.

  3. Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE) Initiatives Toward Promoting Diversity in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2007-05-01

    The ocean sciences suffer from a lack of diversity, particularly among indigenous peoples, despite the fact that indigenous peoples often have deep, cultural knowledge about the marine environment. Nowhere is this inequity more glaring than in Hawaii. Traditional knowledge in marine science enabled Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) to become world leaders in transpacific canoe voyaging, aquaculture, and fisheries. Yet today, NHPI are severely underrepresented in the ocean sciences (and in STEM fields in general) at all levels of education and employment. When compared to other ethnic and racial groups in Hawaii, NHPI students as a group have among the poorest educational performance, indicated in part by underrepresentation in college enrolment and pre-college gifted and talented programs, as well as overrepresentation in eligibility for special education and free and reduced lunch programs. The Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE), a NSF-funded, multi-institutional Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawai (UH), is determined to address this inequity. C- MORE is committed to increasing diversity in the ocean sciences, particularly among NHPI, at all levels of education and research. Our approach is to work with existing programs with a track record of increasing diversity among NHPI. We are currently developing culturally relevant materials including educational games for K-12 students, mentorships for high school and community college students, and laboratory and shipboard experiences for teachers and undergraduates in partnership with minority-serving organizations. Some of our main partners are EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research), Ka `Imi `Ike (an NSF- funded program to recruit and retain NHPI undergraduates in geosciences), Upward Bound (an enrichment program for economically disadvantaged high school students which includes intensive summer courses), the UH Center on

  4. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stop is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of mar (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of An contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (1) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (approx. 4.55 b.y.); (2) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (3) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle.

  5. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot and, perhaps, mostly molten. The Giant Impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon offers a tremendous input of thermal energy and the same could be true for core formation. And current solar system models favor the formation of a limited number of large (about 1000 km) planetesimals that, upon accreting to Earth, would cause great heating, being lesser versions of the Giant Impact. Several lines of geochemical evidence do not favor this hot early Earth scenario. (i) Terrestrial man-tle xenoliths are sometimes nearly chondritic in their major element compositions, suggesting that these rocks have never been much molten. Large degrees of partial melting probably promote differentiation rather than homogenization. (ii) Unlike the case of Mars, the continental crust probably did not form as a highly fractionated residual liquid from a magma ocean (about 99% crystallization), but, rather, formed in multiple steps. [The simplest model for the formation of continental crust is complicated: (a) about 10% melting of a primitive mantle, making basalt; (b) hydrothermal alteration of that basalt, converting it to greenstone; and (c) 10% partial melting of that greenstone, producing tonalite.] This model is reinforced by the recent observation from old (about 4.1 b.y.) zircons that the early crust formed from an undepleted mantle having a chondritic Lu/Hf ratio. (iii) If the mantle were once differentiated by a magma ocean, the mantle xenolith suite requires that it subsequently be homogenized. The Os isotopic compositions of fertile spinel lherzolites place constraints on the timing of that homogenization. The Os isotopic composition of spinel lherzolites approaches that of chondrites and correlates with elements such as Lu and Al. As Lu and Al concentrations approach those of the primitive mantle, Os isotopic compositions approach chondritic. The Re and Os in these xenoliths were probably added as a late veneer. Thus, the mantle that received the late veneer must have been nearly chondritic in terms of its major elements (excluding Fe). If the mantle that the veneer was mixed into was not al-ready homogenized, then Os isotopes should not correlate with incompatible elements such as Al. Consequently, either early differentiation of the mantle did not occur or the homogenization of this differentiation must have occurred before the late veneer was added. The timing of the late veneer is itself uncertain but presumably postdated core formation at about 4.45 b.y. and did not postdate the 3.8-3.9 b.y. late bombardment of the Moon. This timing based on siderophile elements is consistent with the Hf isotopic evidence cited above. If the Earth, Moon and Mars had magma oceans, the Earth subsequently rehomogenized whereas the Moon and Mars did not. The simplest solution to this observation is that homogenization of igneous differentiates was never necessary on Earth, either because the hypothetical magma ocean never occurred or because this event did not produce mantle differentiation.

  6. Capturing Excitement: Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert E.; Butts, David P.

    1971-01-01

    Describes four elementary school earth science activities. Each student experience is designed to help children answer questions about the ocean floor, continental drift, volcanism and mountain chains. Includes a bibliography of related articles, books, and maps. (JM)

  7. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up

  8. Soviet books and publications on geological and chemical oceanography, hydrology, and other subjects acquired during the second international oceanographic congress, Moscow, June 1966: titles and some translated contents and notes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1966-01-01

    The listed publications represent a selection, by no means complete, of recent Soviet work in geological and chemical oceanography. Some works on hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the continents, as well as a few publications on other subjects, such as geology, geophysics, and biology, also are included.

  9. Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM): A Research Programme. Reports of the Organizing Committee Meeting (Paris, August 1984), and the Scientific Workshop (Lucerne, October 1984). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The ultimate goal of the Program for the Exploration of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) is to reach a comprehensive knowledge of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean. Such knowledge is an essential basis for environmental management, resource exploration, and marine operations. The overall scientific…

  10. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  11. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kupferman, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Computational physical oceanography -- A comprehensive approach based on generalized CFD/grid techniques for planetary scale simulations of oceanic flows. Final report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Beddhu, M.; Jiang, M.Y.; Whitfield, D.L.; Taylor, L.K.; Arabshahi, A.

    1997-02-20

    The original intention for this work was to impart the technology that was developed in the field of computational aeronautics to the field of computational physical oceanography. This technology transfer involved grid generation techniques and solution procedures to solve the governing equations over the grids thus generated. Specifically, boundary fitting non-orthogonal grids would be generated over a sphere taking into account the topography of the ocean floor and the topography of the continents. The solution methodology to be employed involved the application of an upwind, finite volume discretization procedure that uses higher order numerical fluxes at the cell faces to discretize the governing equations and an implicit Newton relaxation technique to solve the discretized equations. This report summarizes the efforts put forth during the past three years to achieve these goals and indicates the future direction of this work as it is still an ongoing effort.

  13. Real-Time Access to Altimetry and Operational Oceanography Products via OPeNDAP/LAS Technologies : the Example of Aviso, Mercator and Mersea Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudel, S.; Blanc, F.; Jolibois, T.; Rosmorduc, V.

    2004-12-01

    The Products and Services (P&S) department in the Space Oceanography Division at CLS is in charge of diffusing and promoting altimetry and operational oceanography data. P&S is so involved in Aviso satellite altimetry project, in Mercator ocean operational forecasting system, and in the European Godae /Mersea ocean portal. Aiming to a standardisation and a common vision and management of all these ocean data, these projects led to the implementation of several OPeNDAP/LAS Internet servers. OPeNDAP allows the user to extract via a client software (like IDL, Matlab or Ferret) the data he is interested in and only this data, avoiding him to download full information files. OPeNDAP allows to extract a geographic area, a period time, an oceanic variable, and an output format. LAS is an OPeNDAP data access web server whose special feature consists in the facility for unify in a single vision the access to multiple types of data from distributed data sources. The LAS can make requests to different remote OPeNDAP servers. This enables to make comparisons or statistics upon several different data types. Aviso is the CNES/CLS service which distributes altimetry products since 1993. The Aviso LAS distributes several Ssalto/Duacs altimetry products such as delayed and near-real time mean sea level anomaly, absolute dynamic topography, absolute geostrophic velocities, gridded significant wave height and gridded wind speed modulus. Mercator-Ocean is a French operational oceanography centre which distributes its products by several means among them LAS/OPeNDAP servers as part of Mercator Mersea-strand1 contribution. 3D ocean description (temperature, salinity, current and other oceanic variables) of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean are real-time available and weekly updated. LAS special feature consisting in the possibility of making requests to several remote data centres with same OPeNDAP configurations particularly fitted to Mersea strand-1 problematics. This European

  14. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  15. Educational Experiences in Oceanography through Hands-On Involvement with Surface Drifters: an Introduction to Ocean Currents, Engineering, Data Collection, and Computer Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program is providing education opportunities for students of all ages. Using GPS-tracked ocean drifters, various educational institutions can provide students with hands-on experience in physical oceanography, engineering, and computer science. In building drifters many high school and undergraduate students may focus on drifter construction, sometimes designing their own drifter or attempting to improve current NEFSC models. While learning basic oceanography younger students can build drifters with the help of an educator and directions available on the studentdrifters.org website. Once drifters are deployed, often by a local mariner or oceanographic partner, drifter tracks can be visualised on maps provided at http://nefsc.noaa.gov/drifter. With the lesson plans available for those interested in computer science, students may download, process, and plot the drifter position data with basic Python code provided. Drifter tracks help students to visualize ocean currents, and also allow them to understand real particle tracking applications such as in search and rescue, oil spill dispersion, larval transport, and the movement of injured sea animals. Additionally, ocean circulation modelers can use student drifter paths to validate their models. The Student Drifters Program has worked with over 100 schools, several of them having deployed drifters on the West Coast. Funding for the program often comes from individual schools and small grants but in the future will preferably come from larger government grants. NSF, Sea-Grant, NOAA, and EPA are all possible sources of funding, especially with the support of multiple schools and large marine education associations. The Student Drifters Program is a unique resource for educators, students, and scientists alike.

  16. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  17. Phylogeography and historical demography of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii in relation to geological history and oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Kokita, Tomoyuki; Nohara, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Phylogeographical patterns of marine and diadromous organisms are often influenced by dynamic ocean histories. For example, the marine realm around the Japanese Archipelago is an interesting area for phylogeographical research because of the wide variation in the environments driven by repeated shifts in sea level in the Quaternary. We analysed mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear myh6 gene sequences for individuals collected from throughout the range of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii to assess the lineage divergence, phylogeographical pattern and historical demography in relation to geological history and oceanographic features around the archipelago. Leucopsarion petersii has two major lineages (the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages), which diverged during the late-early to middle Pleistocene. Geographical distributions of the two lineages were closely related to the pathways of the two warm currents, the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio Current, that flow past the archipelago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization between these lineages was found at two secondary contact zones. Demographic tests suggested that the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages carried the genetic signal of different historical demographic processes, and these signals are probably associated with differences in habitat stability during recent glacial periods. The Japan Sea lineage has a larger body-size and more vertebrae, probably in relation to severe habitat conditions through Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Thus, the two lineages have long independent evolutionary histories, and the phylogeographical structure and demography of this species have been influenced both by historical events and the present-day oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.

  18. Saharan-dust events characterization as example of Operational Oceanography product from a multidisciplinary real-time monitoring network in the Macaronesian region (Red ACOMAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, C.; Gelado, M. D.; Rueda, M. J.; Moran, R.; Llerandi, C.; Cardona, L.; Llinas, O.

    2009-04-01

    To detect and predict changes in coastal and open-ocean ecosystems is a huge requirement monitoring in detail and real-time their baseline physical, geological and chemical properties. In these regards and following the trends and general objectives established by GOOS (Global Ocean Observing System) through its coastal ecosystems module COOP (Coastal Ocean Observations Panel), the present paper describes the design, first development stages and some derived results of a monitoring network, named Red ACOMAR Canarias (Red de Alerta, Control y Observación MARina de Canarias, in English: Network for Marine Surveillance, Control and Observation in the Canaries) developed in the Macaronesia region.Since 1999, the Red ACOMAR is based in a core project supported throughout several proposals at the same time, developed in the coastal and open-ocean areas around the Canary Islands archipelago. The network integrates a wide group of devices and monitoring systems (moored and drifting buoys, gliders, remote sensing, turtles, land based meteorological stations, research vessels,…) working in real-time. The network has a control centre that manages communications and data processing, and provides real-time information in a functional form to end-users from socio-economic important sectors, which make an exhaustive use of the coastal area in the region. The access to the information by the users is done through a web site. The Red ACOMAR is nowadays directly linked with other similar proposals existing in the area, mainly from scientist groups in Azores and Madeira archipelagos, as well as from other European countries, working all together with the aim to bring out a regional contribution in Operational Oceanography to the end-users requirements.

  19. 129I from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at Sellafield (U.K.) and La Hague (France); potential as an oceanographie tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raisbeck, G. M.; Yiou, F.; Zhou, Z. Q.; Kilius, L. R.

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of measurements made on archived seaweed samples, together with available release data, we tentatively estimate that the input of 129I (half-life 16 m.y.) to the oceans from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities at La Hague, France and Sellafield, Great Britain, during the past 25 years has been ~ 5 X 10 27 atoms, or ~ 1.2 ton of 129I. This is an order of magnitude larger than the total estimated 129I in the pre-nuclear era ocean, approximately 25 times the input due to nuclear weapons testing, and several hundred times that released by Chernobyl. Most of this 129I is transported up the West European coastline and into the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is capable of measuring 10 6 atoms of 129I, thus offering an extremely sensitive method of tracing this isotope in the oceans. We show, for example, that one can detect the reprocessing signal in 11 seawater samples from virtually anywhere in the North Atlantic. It thus should be possible to monitor not only surface circulation but also deep water formation in this latter area, which is believed to have considerable climatic influence. Given its high sensitivity for detection, and the well defined temporal and spatial distribution of its source function, 129I is a potentially attractive addition to the available suite of oceanographie tracers. We also discuss the potential of using this isotope to trace other possible intentional or accidental releases of fission products in the oceans.

  20. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  1. A 3 Permil Change in Carbon Isotope Fractionation Between Carbonates and Organic Matter: the Oxfordian Turning Point in Climate and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis-Schmid, B.; Rais, P.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Weissert, H.

    2005-12-01

    %. If this hypothesis will be confirmed by C-isotope measurements on individual organic compounds, other processes such as increased volcanic activity need to be included into the history of the Oxfordian. Thus, the mid-Oxfordian positive excursion in C-isotopes marks one of the major turning points in Mesozoic oceanography and climate.

  2. TOPEX watershed coming in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleven, G. C.; Neilson, R. A.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) will use precision radar altimetry to determine topographic features of the global oceans from which currents may be deduced. TOPEX will coincide with the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), which will be conducted at the end of this decade and shall involve ships, fixed and drifting buoys, aircraft observations, and satellite remote sensing, to resolve fundamental questions about the flow of water in the global ocean. TOPEX will contribute to WOCE the measurement of satellite height above the sea surface, and the precise radial position above a reference ellipsoid for the earth. The combination of these two measurements with the marine geoid yields the topographic data sought. Three years of topographic data, together with conventional oceanographic data and theoretical ocean models, will be needed to derive the mean and variable components of ocean circulation.

  3. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  4. Questions about Careers in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Aubrey L.

    Knowing the relationship of the ocean to man, the weather and climate, availability of resources from the ocean, use of the ocean in transporation, waste disposal, and defense, and developing an understanding of the impact on the oceans of human activity are all goals of oceanographers. The goal of this brochure is to provide concise informative…

  5. Physical oceanography of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of petroleum products and crude oil from ship accidents and damaged platforms into the ocean remains a significant problem. Weather systems of nearly all sizes and time scales may have strong effects on oil slick movement and dispersal. Thunderstorms, local weather systems, mid-latitude high- and low-pressure systems, tropical cyclones, and the trade winds and prevailing westerlies of the planetary wind system are all potentially important agents in the movement and dispersal of oil slicks. Currents driven by these wind systems are influenced by the rotation of the earth, which causes them to veer to the right of the wind in the northern hemisphere. Wind shifts or sudden decreases in wind stress induce circular or inertial oscillations whose period varies with latitude. Near the shore these effects are severely damped by the blocking action of the coast, causing the flow to run more or less parallel to the coastal boundary. All these effects will in turn exert significant control over the movement of entrained oil slicks. In the near-field region of an oil spill tidal currents can also be of considerable importance. Rotary currents, characteristic of open-shelf waters and effective dispersal agents of oil, arise from the influence of the rotation of the earth on the tidal current. Another such interaction between rotation of the earth and the tide produces Kelvin waves, which result in unusually high tidal ranges along the coast to the right of the tidal wave propagation. Both effects have been important in recent oil spills. All these oceanographic processes, reviewed in this talk, have played key roles in major spills over the last 15 years from the Torrey Canyon to the Mega-Borg.

  6. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  7. Climatology of the oceanography in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters: Observations from satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Wong, G. T.; Tai, J.; Ho, T.

    2013-12-01

    By using the observations from multiple satellite sensors, the climatology of the oceanography, including the surface wind vector, sea surface temperature (SST), surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl_a), and vertically integrated net primary production (PPeu), in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters is evaluated. Regional and sub-regional mechanisms in driving the coastal processes, which influence the spatial and temporal distributional patterns in water component, are assessed. Seasonal vertical convective mixing by wind and surface heating/cooling is the primary force in driving the annual changes in SST and Chl_a in the open South China Sea (SCS), in which highly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and moderately positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind speed are found. Together, the seasonal variations in SST and wind speed account for about 80% of the seasonal variation in Chl_a. In the NoSoCS as a whole, however, the contribution is reduced to about 40%, primarily due to the effect of the Pearl River plume. A tongue of water extending eastward from the mouth of the River into the middle shelf with positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and around zero or slightly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind is the most striking feature in the NoSoCS. The westward and eastward propagations of the Pearl River plume are both very small during the northeast monsoonal season, driven primarily by the Coriolis effect. The abrupt increase in the areal coverage of the River plume, which is much more pronounced in the eastward propagation, between June and August can be attributed to the prevailing southwest monsoon as well as the annual peak of the river flow. Coastal upwelling is another sub-regional phenomenon in the NoSoCS. The upwelling at the shelf edge off the Taiwan Bank may be characterized by its elevated Chl_a. Its areal coverage and average Chl_a do not vary

  8. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: A STEM Partnership Between Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Office of Naval Research and Middle School Science Students Bringing Next Generation Science Standards into the Classroom through Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Appelgate, B., Jr.; Mauricio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Now in its tenth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with Next Generation Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO Ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of Biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum models the Next Generation Science Standards encouraging active inquiry and critical thinking with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as

  9. Chemical oceanography: The ocean's pressure cooker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaupré, Steven R.

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that destroy the oldest organic molecules found in seawater. Field and laboratory observations suggest that these molecules are destroyed by the heat and pressure of deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  10. Microbial oceanography in a sea of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Chris; Karl, David M; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-05-14

    Plankton use solar energy to drive the nutrient cycles that make the planet habitable for larger organisms. We can now explore the diversity and functions of plankton using genomics, revealing the gene repertoires associated with survival in the oceans. Such studies will help us to appreciate the sensitivity of ocean systems and of the ocean's response to climate change, improving the predictive power of climate models.

  11. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F; Letelier, Ricardo M; Stewart, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) gases. Anaerobic microbial processes, including the two pathways of N(2) production, denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, are oxygen-sensitive, with some occurring only under strictly anoxic conditions. The detection limit of the usual method (Winkler titrations) for measuring dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous monitoring platforms also reveal previously unrecognized episodic intrusions of oxygen into the AMZ core, which could periodically support aerobic metabolisms in a typically anoxic environment. Although nitrogen cycling is considered to dominate the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of AMZs, recent environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future.

  12. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, D J; Suginohara, N

    2001-01-01

    The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of vertical mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought.

  13. Spreading oceanography knowledge through youth education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Staerke, D.; Canceill, P.

    2003-04-01

    To deal with the growing youth aversion for scientific studies in industrialized conutries monitored since the mid 90s, it has been shown that science and scientists need a new image and teaching science requires more experimental and people oriented methods This paper shows how ARGONAUTICA, an educational project leads by CNES Education and Youth Department, aimed to help young people and their teachers get to know more about oceans and the role played by ocean observation satellites. ARGONAUTICA is a multidisciplinary project able to illustrate a wide variety of subjects and to stimulate oral and written expression. It can be used as a support for subjects ranging from history, geography, physics, Earth and Life sciences to information and communication technology... It has been designed for both primary and secondary school pupils. It is also shown how this project also enables young people to try their hand at scientific experiments, to meet scientists...

  14. Oceanography: The trouble with the bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Angelicque E.

    2012-08-01

    Past studies have suggested that the ocean's nitrogen budget has a deficit of fixed nitrogen. This view may now change, thanks to upward revisions of the rate of nitrogen input through biological activity. See Letter p.361

  15. Active Inquiry, Web-based Oceanography Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckels-Martin, Ellen E.; Howell, Paul D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using web sites to develop active inquiry lessons that mimic some of the tasks and thought processes scientists use everyday. The exercises available at the web sites are designed to develop science process skills and convey basic course content. Exercises stress the interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. (Author/SAH)

  16. Microbial oceanography: Viral strategies at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    The finding that marine environments with high levels of host microbes have fewer viruses per host than when host abundance is low challenges a theory on the relative roles of lysogenic and lytic viral-survival strategies. See Article p.466

  17. On small satellites for oceanography: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, André G. C.; Francisco, Frederico; Villate, Jaime; Aguado Agelet, Fernando; Bertolami, Orfeu; Rajan, Kanna

    2016-10-01

    The recent explosive growth of small satellite operations driven primarily from an academic or pedagogical need, has demonstrated the viability of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies in space. They have also leveraged and shown the need for development of compatible sensors primarily aimed for Earth observation tasks including monitoring terrestrial domains, communications and engineering tests. However, one domain that these platforms have not yet made substantial inroads into, is in the ocean sciences. Remote sensing has long been within the repertoire of tools for oceanographers to study dynamic large scale physical phenomena, such as gyres and fronts, bio-geochemical process transport, primary productivity and process studies in the coastal ocean. We argue that the time has come for micro and nano-satellites (with mass smaller than 100 kg and 2-3 year development times) designed, built, tested and flown by academic departments, for coordinated observations with robotic assets in situ. We do so primarily by surveying SmallSat missions oriented towards ocean observations in the recent past, and in doing so, we update the current knowledge about what is feasible in the rapidly evolving field of platforms and sensors for this domain. We conclude by proposing a set of candidate ocean observing missions with an emphasis on radar-based observations, with a focus on Synthetic Aperture Radar.

  18. Data management in Oceanography at SOCIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquin, Tintoré; March, David; Lora, Sebastian; Sebastian, Kristian; Frontera, Biel; Gómara, Sonia; Pau Beltran, Joan

    2014-05-01

    SOCIB, the Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System (http://www.socib.es), is a Marine Research Infrastructure, a multiplatform distributed and integrated system, a facility of facilities that extends from the nearshore to the open sea and provides free, open and quality control data. SOCIB is a facility o facilities and has three major infrastructure components: (1) a distributed multiplatform observing system, (2) a numerical forecasting system, and (3) a data management and visualization system. We present the spatial data infrastructure and applications developed at SOCIB. One of the major goals of the SOCIB Data Centre is to provide users with a system to locate and download the data of interest (near real-time and delayed mode) and to visualize and manage the information. Following SOCIB principles, data need to be (1) discoverable and accessible, (2) freely available, and (3) interoperable and standardized. In consequence, SOCIB Data Centre Facility is implementing a general data management system to guarantee international standards, quality assurance and interoperability. The combination of different sources and types of information requires appropriate methods to ingest, catalogue, display, and distribute this information. SOCIB Data Centre is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions. In other words, the data life cycle relies in the following stages: • Acquisition: The data managed by SOCIB mostly come from its own observation platforms, numerical models or information generated from the activities in the SIAS Division. • Processing: Applications developed at SOCIB to deal with all collected platform data performing data calibration, derivation, quality control and standardization. • Archival: Storage in netCDF and spatial databases. • Distribution: Data web services using Thredds, Geoserver and RESTful own services. • Catalogue: Metadata is provided through the ncISO plugin in Thredds and Geonetwork. • Visualization: web and mobile applications to present SOCIB data to different user profiles. SOCIB data services and applications have been developed to provide response to science and society needs (eg. European initiatives such as Emodnet or Copernicus), by targeting different user profiles (eg. researchers, technicians, policy and decision makers, educators, students, and society in general). For example, SOCIB has developed applications to: 1) allow researchers and technicians to access oceanographic information; 2) provide decision support for oil spills response; 3) disseminate information about the coastal state for tourists and recreational users; 4) present coastal research in educational programs; and 5) offer easy and fast access to marine information through mobile devices. In conclusion, the organizational and conceptual structure of SOCIB's Data Centre and the components developed provide an example of marine information systems within the framework of new ocean observatories and/or marine research infrastructures.

  19. How To...Activities in Physical Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly oceanology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) comparison of water hardness; (2) preparation of fresh water from sea water; (3) determination of water pressure; (4)…

  20. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, D J; Suginohara, N

    2001-01-01

    The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of vertical mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought. PMID:11343103

  1. Applications of adenine nucleotide measurements in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm-Hansen, O.; Hodson, R.; Azam, F.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology involved in nucleotide measurements is outlined, along with data to support the premise that ATP concentrations in microbial cells can be extrapolated to biomass parameters. ATP concentrations in microorganisms and nucleotide analyses are studied.

  2. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  3. Mentoring Program for Women in Physical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozier, M. Susan

    2006-03-01

    Efforts over the past several decades toward increasing the number of women entering science and engineering fields have largely been successful, with undergraduate and graduate school enrollments averaging between 30 and 50 percent women (see Nelson Diversity Survey, http://cheminfo.chem.ou.edu/faculty/djn/diversity/ top50.html). Ph.D. attainments show similar progress. However, the percentage of women occupying tenure-track positions has not risen commensurably. Across the board, women in science and engineering fill on average only 15 to 25 percent of academic positions. Since the number of women in graduate school has been sufficiently large for at least a decade, it is difficult to ascribe the lower percentage of women in faculty positions to a small pool of potential candidates. As reported in the Chronicle of Higher Education (3 December 2004), the disparity between the number of women trained in a field and the number of women occupying positions in that field is instead attributed by some to subtle biases that keep women out of research or academic positions; others, according to the report, argue that women are simply staying away of their own accord from these positions.

  4. Tools of Oceanography. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Florence

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. The Oceanography and Ecology of the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Ainley, David G.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Dinniman, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L-1. Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.

  6. The oceanography and ecology of the Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Smith, Walker O; Ainley, David G; Arrigo, Kevin R; Dinniman, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L(-1). Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.

  7. Microbial oceanography and the Hawaii Ocean Time-series programme.

    PubMed

    Karl, David M; Church, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    The Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programme has been tracking microbial and biogeochemical processes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre since October 1988. The near-monthly time series observations have revealed previously undocumented phenomena within a temporally dynamic ecosystem that is vulnerable to climate change. Novel microorganisms, genes and unexpected metabolic pathways have been discovered and are being integrated into our evolving ecological paradigms. Continued research, including higher-frequency observations and at-sea experimentation, will help to provide a comprehensive scientific understanding of microbial processes in the largest biome on Earth.

  8. Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Menge, B A; Lubchenco, J; Bracken, M E S; Chan, F; Foley, M M; Freidenburg, T L; Gaines, S D; Hudson, G; Krenz, C; Leslie, H; Menge, D N L; Russell, R; Webster, M S

    2003-10-14

    The structure of ecological communities reflects a tension among forces that alter populations. Marine ecologists previously emphasized control by locally operating forces (predation, competition, and disturbance), but newer studies suggest that inputs from large-scale oceanographically modulated subsidies (nutrients, particulates, and propagules) can strongly influence community structure and dynamics. On New Zealand rocky shores, the magnitude of such subsidies differs profoundly between contrasting oceanographic regimes. Community structure, and particularly the pace of community dynamics, differ dramatically between intermittent upwelling regimes compared with relatively persistent down-welling regimes. We suggest that subsidy rates are a key determinant of the intensity of species interactions, and thus of structure in marine systems, and perhaps also nonmarine communities.

  9. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited.

  10. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 2: Examples from the Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Collier, R.; Cowles, S.

    2004-12-01

    We will share experiences and specific examples from an ongoing Ocean Science and Math Collaborative Project between OSU faculty and Community College instructors from the Oregon system of adult education and workforce development. The participants represent such diverse instructional programs as workforce training, workplace education (cannery workers), adult basic education, adult secondary education (GED preparation), English to Speakers of Other Languages, Family Literacy, and Tribal Education (Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians). This collaborative project is designed to integrate ocean sciences into the science, math, and critical thinking curriculum through the professional development activities of adult educators. Our strategy is to tailor new and existing ocean science resources to the needs of adult education instructors. This project provides a wide range of opportunities in time and effort for scientist involvement. Some scientists have chosen to participate in short interviews or conversations with adult educators, which give added value through real-world connections in the context of the larger project. Other participating scientists have made larger time investments, which include presentations at workshops, hosting teacher-at-sea opportunities and leading project planning and implementation efforts. This project serves as an efficient model for scientists to address the broader impact goals of their research. It takes advantage of a variety of established educational outreach resources funded through NSF (e.g. the national COSEE network and GeoEducation grants), NOAA (e.g. SeaGrant education and Ocean Explorer) as well as State and Federal adult education programs (e.g. The National Institute for Literacy Science and Numeracy Special Collection). We recognize the value and creativity inherent in these resources, and we are developing a model to "tune" their presentation, as well as their connection to new oceanographic research, in a manner that fits the needs of the adult education community.

  11. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited. PMID:25430767

  12. Oceanography for Divers: Hazardous Marine Life. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    Most people find that the life of the marine environment is beautiful and fascinating. Of the thousands of marine animals and plants, relatively few constitute a real hazard to the diver. Although some species are dangerous and may, in some instances, inflict serious wounds, with a few exceptions marine animals are not aggressive. Most…

  13. Oceanography for Divers: Waves, Tides, and Currents. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    To dive safely, it is suggested that the diver have a working knowledge of waves, tides, currents, and water quality. Lack of understanding and respect for ocean currents and surf can be of serious consequence to the diver. This paper on the diving environment is designed to provide the diver with a general understanding of the physical…

  14. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  15. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  16. Under Pressure: A Study of Issues in Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The world's greatest cities and centers of civilization arose near or along major waterways providing access to the sea. Many people, no matter where they live, find the ocean and the life associated with it a fascinating topic. Although the ocean is characterized by high taxonomic diversity (over 90% of the animal phyla are represented in the…

  17. Arctic paleo-oceanography in late cenozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, Y.

    1970-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Arctic Ocean yield significant faunal and lithologic evidence of alternating cold and milder periods for the last 6 million years. Although high-latitude continental glaciation commenced prior to 6 million years ago, the Arctic Ocean remained free of permanent pack ice up to approximately 0.7 million years ago, after which successive ice-covered and ice-free conditions existed.

  18. The use of remotely sensed data for operational fisheries oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiuza, Armando F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are used under two contexts in fisheries: as a tool for fisheries research and as a means to provide operational support to fishing activities. Fishing operations need synoptic data provided timely; fisheries research needs that type of data and, also, good short-term climatologies. A description is given of several experiences conducted around the world which have employed or are using satellite data for operational fisheries problems. An overview is included of the Portuguese program for fisheries support using remotely sensed data provided by satellites and in situ observations conducted by fishermen. Environmental products useful for fisheries necessarily combine satellite and in situ data. The role of fishermen as a source of good, near-real-time in situ environmental data is stressed; so far, this role seems to have been largely overlooked.

  19. Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1974-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

  20. Baseline data on the oceanography of Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatto, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Regional relationships between river hydrology, sediment transport, circulation and coastal processes were analyzed utilizing aircraft, ERTS-1 and N.O.A.A. -2 and -3 imagery and corroborative ground truth data. The use of satellite and aircraft imagery provides a means of acquiring synoptic information for analyzing the dynamic processes of Cook Inlet in a fashion not previously possible.

  1. Magma oceanography. I - Thermal evolution. [of lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Longhi, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fractional crystallization and flotation of cumulate plagioclase in a cooling 'magma ocean' provides the simplest explanation for early emplacement of a thick feldspar-rich lunar crust. The complementary mafic cumulates resulting from the differentiation of such a magma ocean have been identified as the ultimate source of mare basalt liquids on the basis or rare-earth abundance patterns and experimental petrology studies. A study is conducted concerning the thermal evolution of the early differentiation processes. A range of models of increasing sophistication are considered. The models developed contain the essence of the energetics and the time scale for magma ocean differentiation. Attention is given to constraints on a magma ocean, modeling procedures, single-component magma oceans, fractionating magma oceans, and evolving magma oceans.

  2. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  3. Interpretation of remotely sensed data and its applications in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Tanaka, K.; Inostroza, H. M.; Verdesio, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology of interpretation of remote sensing data and its oceanographic applications are described. The elements of image interpretation for different types of sensors are discussed. The sensors utilized are the multispectral scanner of LANDSAT, and the thermal infrared of NOAA and geostationary satellites. Visual and automatic data interpretation in studies of pollution, the Brazil current system, and upwelling along the southeastern Brazilian coast are compared.

  4. Microbial oceanography and the Hawaii Ocean Time-series programme.

    PubMed

    Karl, David M; Church, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    The Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programme has been tracking microbial and biogeochemical processes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre since October 1988. The near-monthly time series observations have revealed previously undocumented phenomena within a temporally dynamic ecosystem that is vulnerable to climate change. Novel microorganisms, genes and unexpected metabolic pathways have been discovered and are being integrated into our evolving ecological paradigms. Continued research, including higher-frequency observations and at-sea experimentation, will help to provide a comprehensive scientific understanding of microbial processes in the largest biome on Earth. PMID:25157695

  5. European initiatives to develop information systems in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Grand, P.

    2009-04-01

    Various initiatives are currently in preparation or ongoing at the European level to improve information systems in Earth Sciences and oceanographic systems are at the forefront of these efforts. Europe is playing a leading role in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) that aims to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The GEO Architecture and Data Committee, oversees the development of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) which consists of a web-based portal, a clearinghouse for searching data, information and services, registries containing information about GEOSS components and associated standards and best practices. This development is detailed in the various tasks of the GEO Work Plan . Several European projects in the marine domain funded under the research framework program participate in the development of the GEOSS. EMODNET is another initiative to develop a system that will allow a better identification and access to marine data that are being collected, that will permit the identification of data gaps and that will shape a data collection and monitoring infrastructure directly suited to multiple applications. A number of measures have already been taken at EU level - the INSPIRE Directive obliges Member States to facilitate discovery of data holdings, the Environmental Information Directive requires them to release the data when asked, the Public Sector Information Directive facilitates the re-use of public data and the revised Data Collection Regulation has improved the availability of fisheries data. Moreover, prototype marine data catalogues and quality procedures for measurement laboratories have been developed through successive EU research programmes. EMODNET is complementary to other EU initiatives in the marine domain. Parameters made available through EMODNET will facilitate the GMES marine core service which aims to deliver both short term and seasonal forecasts, hindcasts, nowcasts, and time series and climate change scenario simulations. EMODNET will provide the access to raw and processed data necessary to calculate the indicators that Member States are obliged to provide through WISE-Marine to meet the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Moving to the definitive EMODNET will require significant funding. Given that EMODNET is very much focused on a sea-basin scale and given the impetus accorded to territorial cohesion by the EU maritime policy, discussions will begin to determine whether cohesion funding could support the initiative. At the same time moves will begin to integrate EMODNET with initiatives under the EU's research infrastructure programmes and the Common Fisheries Policy Data Collection Regulation. The objective is to achieve by 2014 an operational and sustainable EMODNET with earmarked funding and an agreed governance structure.

  6. On Antenna-Architectures for Sensitive Radiometry to Support Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Klooster, Cornelis; Cappellin, Cecilia; Pontoppidan, Knud; Heighwood Nielsen, Per; Skou, Niels; Ivashina, Marianna; Iupikov, Oleg; Ihle, Alexander

    The presentation discusses different antenna architectures supporting radiometric tasks for oceanographic observations. With Aquarius and SMOS in orbit with their associated resolution and revisit capability in L-band, further enhancements are of interest. Following studies into desirable resolution and frequency band interests for oceanographic applications (ref: Microwat - an ESA study, see also https://www.ghrsst.org/ ), breaking through and desirable requirements have been derived. Investigations into potential antenna architectural realisations have been initiated. Included are radiometer sensor (read:antenna) scenarios, based on conical scanning, interferometric 1D and pushbroom coverage. A wide coverage is available from the first two architectures, and a very good sensitivity is available with the pushbroom scenario. There are a couple of interesting aspects, related to polarimetry capabilities, resolution, sensitivity, etc. The pushbroom architecture, at cost of some complexity offers a very good sensitivity with interesting antenna architecture solutions to offer breaking through capabilities, in particular concerning the sensitivity requirements, in combination with polarimetric capabilities. Coverage comes with some infrastructural antenna complexity, with the needs and creativity for a deployable antenna configuration. Following initial considerations for all three antenna configurations at overview level, the push-broom scenario is presented with more details. Interesting aspects include ongoing technology developments in other related fields with refined results to come would enable to consider antenna architectures are used in which focal plane arrays find a combination with shaped reflector assemblies. With processing capabilities further enhanced - with ongoing developments underway in other sectors as radio astronomers can confirm - one would be able to further improve and refine sensitivity aspects in combination with polarimetric capabilities and resolution enhancement. Instrument sensors (read: antennas) have to be absolutely accurate, where in comparison telecommunication scenarios require a link budget to be fulfilled. The developments and availability of RF front-end and Analogue to Digital circuitry are an important aspect here, enabling the use of focal plane arrays with several hundreds of elements, as already ongoing within the radio-astronomy studies for the square kilometer arrays. Terrestrial applications in low power circuitries are ongoing in various domains, be it for local networks, sensor networks or other (various, IMEC, Fraunhofer, etc.). Further spin-in is expected. One could consider the resulting microwave push-broom antenna architecture in fact as a sensitive multi-frequency microwave camera, operating in frequency bands of interest. We are investigating currently the pushbroom scenario for 2, possibly 3 bands, from C-band up to Ku-band.

  7. Fishing and the oceanography of a stratified shelf sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharples, Jonathan; Ellis, Jim R.; Nolan, Glenn; Scott, Beth E.

    2013-10-01

    Fishing vessel position data from the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) were used to investigate fishing activity in the Celtic Sea, a seasonally-stratifying, temperate region on the shelf of northwest Europe. The spatial pattern of fishing showed that three main areas are targeted: (1) the Celtic Deep (an area of deeper water with fine sediments), (2) the shelf edge, and (3) an area covering several large seabed banks in the central Celtic Sea. Data from each of these regions were analysed to examine the contrasting seasonality of fishing activity, and to highlight where the spring-neap tidal cycle appears to be important to fishing. The oceanographic characteristics of the Celtic Sea were considered alongside the distribution and timing of fishing, illustrating likely contrasts in the underlying environmental drivers of the different fished regions. In the central Celtic Sea, fishing mainly occurred during the stratified period between April and August. Based on evidence provided in other papers of this Special Issue, we suggest that the fishing in this area is supported by (1) a broad increase in primary production caused by lee-waves generated by seabed banks around spring tides driving large supplies of nutrients into the photic zone, and (2) greater concentrations of zooplankton within the region influenced by the seabed banks and elevated primary production. In contrast, while the shelf edge is a site of elevated surface chlorophyll, previous work has suggested that the periodic mixing generated by an internal tide at the shelf edge alters the size-structure of the phytoplankton community which fish larvae from the spawning stocks along the shelf edge are able to exploit. The fishery for Nephrops norvegicus in the Celtic Deep was the only one to show a significant spring-neap cycle, possibly linked to Nephrops foraging outside their burrows less during spring tides. More tentatively, the fishery for Nephrops correlated most strongly with a localised shift in the tidal current polarisation, suggesting that the muddy seabed required by Nephrops is controlled by rotational constraints on the extent of the bottom boundary layer.

  8. Review of the physical oceanography of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, L.; Zimmerman, J. T. F.; Furnes, G. K.; Mork, M.; Saetre, R.; Becker, G.

    After a general consideration of the physical factors that are of special interest to ecology, the typical character of the North Sea is discussed. The emphasis is on the processes that are responsible for the physical environment. The dominant feature is the tidal motion. This is not only a mechanism for vertical and horizontal mixing. The tidal residuals also contribute to a basic circulation pattern that together with the long-term net effects of the wind-driven circulation and the baroclinic effects results in an overall transport that determines the major features of the distribution of the water properties. Superimposed on this there are variations (mainly wind-induced) and regional differences in a wide range of time- and length-scales. Some typical features of both the southern and northern part of the North Sea are discussed. The review is concluded with a discussion on the long-term variations in the physical conditions of the North Sea. These are mainly to changes in temperature, salinity and sea-level.

  9. Oceanography Field Practicum, Spring Half-Term, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Edward C.; And Others

    A description of the course and the facilities for the course are given. The Course Log which lists the lectures, cruises, and other activities available to students is also given. The abstract or the paper of each students' individual research project has also been printed. The subjects of these projects range through all fields of earth science…

  10. OCEANOGRAPHY: Missing Mixing Found in the Deep Sea.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-06-16

    In their simulations of how the sea's ponderous flows of water and heat affect climate, including future greenhouse warming, climate modelers assumed that something evenly stirred the world ocean from top to bottom around the globe. But oceanographers gauging the tides of the world's seas from a satellite perch have found intense patches of tidally driven mixing deep within the open ocean. Once modelers include these patches, they should see some changes in model predictions of global warming. PMID:17835102

  11. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  12. A Science Teacher's Wisdom of Practice in Teaching Inquiry-Based Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Tamara Holmlund

    Inquiry-based research is recommended as a method for helping more students understand the nature of science as well as learn the substance of scientific knowledge, yet there is much to learn about how teachers might adapt inquiry for science teaching and what teachers need to know in order to do this. This case study of an exemplary teacher's…

  13. Oceanography and life history predict contrasting genetic population structure in two Antarctic fish species.

    PubMed

    Young, Emma F; Belchier, Mark; Hauser, Lorenz; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Pascoal, Sonia; Rock, Jennifer; Tysklind, Niklas; Carvalho, Gary R

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the key drivers of population connectivity in the marine environment is essential for the effective management of natural resources. Although several different approaches to evaluating connectivity have been used, they are rarely integrated quantitatively. Here, we use a 'seascape genetics' approach, by combining oceanographic modelling and microsatellite analyses, to understand the dominant influences on the population genetic structure of two Antarctic fishes with contrasting life histories, Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. The close accord between the model projections and empirical genetic structure demonstrated that passive dispersal during the planktonic early life stages is the dominant influence on patterns and extent of genetic structuring in both species. The shorter planktonic phase of C. gunnari restricts direct transport of larvae between distant populations, leading to stronger regional differentiation. By contrast, geographic distance did not affect differentiation in N. rossii, whose longer larval period promotes long-distance dispersal. Interannual variability in oceanographic flows strongly influenced the projected genetic structure, suggesting that shifts in circulation patterns due to climate change are likely to impact future genetic connectivity and opportunities for local adaptation, resilience and recovery from perturbations. Further development of realistic climate models is required to fully assess such potential impacts.

  14. Matching genetics with oceanography: directional gene flow in a Mediterranean fish species.

    PubMed

    Schunter, C; Carreras-Carbonell, J; Macpherson, E; Tintoré, J; Vidal-Vijande, E; Pascual, A; Guidetti, P; Pascual, M

    2011-12-01

    Genetic connectivity and geographic fragmentation are two opposing mechanisms determining the population structure of species. While the first homogenizes the genetic background across populations the second one allows their differentiation. Therefore, knowledge of processes affecting dispersal of marine organisms is crucial to understand their genetic distribution patterns and for the effective management of their populations. In this study, we use genetic analyses of eleven microsatellites in combination with oceanographic satellite and dispersal simulation data to determine distribution patterns for Serranus cabrilla, a ubiquitous demersal broadcast spawner, in the Mediterranean Sea. Pairwise population F(ST) values ranged between -0.003 and 0.135. Two genetically distinct clusters were identified, with a clear division located between the oceanographic discontinuities at the Ibiza Channel (IC) and the Almeria-Oran Front (AOF), revealing an admixed population in between. The Balearic Front (BF) also appeared to dictate population structure. Directional gene flow on the Spanish coast was observed as S. cabrilla dispersed from west to east over the AOF, from north to south on the IC and from south of the IC towards the Balearic Islands. Correlations between genetic and oceanographic data were highly significant. Seasonal changes in current patterns and the relationship between ocean circulation patterns and spawning season may also play an important role in population structure around oceanographic fronts.

  15. EGO: Towards a global glider infrastructure for the benefit of marine research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the oceans with gliders. A major impact of this Action was the elaboration of the EU Collaborative Project GROOM, Gliders for Research, Ocean Observation and Management for the FP7 call "Capacities - Research Infrastructures", which addresses the topic "design studies for research infrastructures in all S&T fields" (see http://www.groom-fp.eu).

  16. Evaluation of SIR-B imagery for geologic and geomorphic mapping, hydrology, and oceanography in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Simpson, C. J.; Huntington, J.; Horwitz, R.; Byrne, G.; Nilsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of a study to evaluate the potential of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) imagery for various applications are outlined. Specific goals include: the development of techniques for registration multiple acquisition, varied illumination, and incidence-angle SIR-B imagery, and a model for estimation of the relative contributions to the backscattered radiation of topography, surface roughness, and dielectric and conductivity components; (2) the evaluation of SIR-B imagery for delineation of agricultural lands affected by secondary salinity in the southwest and southeast agricultural regions of Australia; (3) the development of techniques for application of SIR-B imagery for geologic, geomorphologic and soils mapping and mineral exploration; and (4) the evaluation of the use of SIR-B imagery in determining ocean currents, current shear patterns, internal waves and bottom features for specific locations off the Australian coast.

  17. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  18. Clipperton Atoll (eastern Pacific): oceanography, geomorphology, reef-building coral ecology and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. W.; Veron, J. E. N.; Wellington, G. M.

    1996-06-01

    Coral reef geomorphology and community composition were investigated in the tropical northeastern Pacific during April 1994. Three areas were surveyed in the Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico), and an intensive study was conducted on Clipperton Atoll (1,300 km SW of Acapulco), including macro-scale surface circulation, sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, geomorphology, coral community structure, zonation, and biogeography. Satellite-tracked drifter buoys from 1979 1993 demonstrated complex patterns of surface circulation with dominantly easterly flow (North Equatorial Counter Current, NECC), but also westerly currents (South Equatorial Current, SEC) that could transport propagules to Clipperton from both central and eastern Pacific regions. The northernmost latitude reached by the NECC is not influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but easterly flow velocity evidently is accelerated at such times. Maximum NECC flow rates indicate that the eastern Pacific barrier can be bridged in 60 to 120 days. SST anomalies at Clipperton occur during ENSO events and were greater at Clipperton in 1987 than during 1982 1983. Shallow (15 18 m)and deep (50 58 m) terraces are present around most of Clipperton, probably representing Modern and late Pleistocene sea level stands. Although Clipperton is a well developed atoll with high coral cover, the reef-building fauna is depauperate, consisting of only 7 species of scleractinian corals belonging to the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, and 1 species of hydrocoral in the genus Millepora. The identities of the one Pocilpopora species and one of the two Porites species are still unknown. Two of the remaining scleractinians ( Pavona minuta, Leptoseris scabra) and the hydrocoral ( Millepora exaesa), all formerly known from central and western Pacific localities, represent new eastern Pacific records. Scleractinian corals predominate (10 100% cover) over insular shelf depths of 8 to 60m, and crustose coralline algae are dominant (5 40% cover) from 0.5 to 7m. Spur and groove features, constructed of alternating frameworks of Pocillopora and Porites, and veneered with crustose coralline algae, are generally well developed around most atoll exposures. Although crustose coralline algae predominate in the breaker zone (with up to 100% cover), a prominent algal ridge is absent with only a slight buildup (ca. 10 cm) to seaward. Frequent grazing by the pufferfish Arothron meleagris results in the removal of large amounts of live tissue and skeleton from Porites lobata. Acanthaster planci is present, but rare. The grazing of large diadematid sea urchins, (2 species each of Diadema and Echinothrix) on dead corals cause extensive erosion in some areas. Large numbers of corals on the 15 18 m terrace had recently suffered partial ( P. lobata, 60 70% maximum of all colonies sampled) or total ( Pocillopora sp., 80% maximum) mortality. The lengths of regenerating knobs and the rates of linear skeletal growth in P. lobata, determined by sclerochronologic analysis, indicated a period of stress during 1987. Massive skeletal growth is significantly higher at intermediate (16 17 m) than shallow (6 8 m) depths with mean extension rates of 1.5 mm yr-1 in P. lobata and 1.4 mm yr-1 in P. minuta at intermediate depths. Skeletal growth in P. lobata was depressed during the 1987 El Nifio event at Clipperton. The branching coral Pocillopora sp. demonstrated high and similar skeletal growth rates at both shallow (25.4 mm yr-1) and intermediate (26.5 mm yr-1) depths. The presence of widely distributed Indo-Pacific zooxanthellate corals at Clipperton and the Revillagigedo Islands indicates that these NE Pacific Islands probably serve as a stepping stone for dispersal into the far eastern Pacific region.

  19. Oceanography. Centennial changes in North Pacific anoxia linked to tropical trade winds.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Curtis; Berelson, William; Thunell, Robert; Weber, Thomas; Tems, Caitlin; McManus, James; Crusius, John; Ito, Taka; Baumgartner, Timothy; Ferreira, Vicente; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    Climate warming is expected to reduce oxygen (O2) supply to the ocean and expand its oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We reconstructed variations in the extent of North Pacific anoxia since 1850 using a geochemical proxy for denitrification (δ(15)N) from multiple sediment cores. Increasing δ(15)N since ~1990 records an expansion of anoxia, consistent with observed O2 trends. However, this was preceded by a longer declining δ(15)N trend that implies that the anoxic zone was shrinking for most of the 20th century. Both periods can be explained by changes in winds over the tropical Pacific that drive upwelling, biological productivity, and O2 demand within the OMZ. If equatorial Pacific winds resume their predicted weakening trend, the ocean's largest anoxic zone will contract despite a global O2 decline.

  20. Pleistocene oceanographie changes indicated by deep sea benthic foraminifera in the northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Ajai K.; Srinivasan, M. S.

    1994-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the Pleistocene bottom water history in response to the paleoclimatic changes in the northern Indian Ocean employing quantitative analyses of deep sea benthic foraminifera at the DSDP sites 219 and 238. Among the 150 benthic foraminifera recorded a few species show dominance with changing percent frequencies during most of the sequence. The dominant benthic foraminiferal assemblages suggest that most of the Pleistocene bottom waters at site 219 and Early Pleistocene bottom waters at site 238 are of North Indian Deep Water (NIDW) origin. However, Late Pleistocene assemblage at site 238 appears to be closely associated with a water mass intermediate between North Indian Deep Water (NIDW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Uvigerina proboscidea is the most dominant benthic foraminiferal species present during the Pleistocene at both the sites. A marked increase in the relative abundance of U. proboscidea along with less diverse and equitable fauna during Early Pleistocene suggests a relative cooling, an intensified oceanic circulation and upwelling of nutrient rich bottom waters resulting in high surface productivity. At the same time, low sediment accumulation rate during Early Pleistocene reveals increased winnowing of the sediments possibly due to more corrosive and cold bottom waters. The Late Pleistocene in general, is marked by relatively warm and stable bottom waters as reflected by low abundance of U. proboscidea and more diverse and equitable benthic fauna. The lower depth range for the occurrence of Bulimina aculeate in the Indian Ocean is around 2300 m, similar to that of many other areas. B. aculeata also shows marked increase in its abundance near the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary while a sudden decrease in the relative abundance of Stilostomella lepidula occurs close to the Early/Late Pleistocene boundary.

  1. High resolution satellite observations of mesoscale oceanography in the Tasman Sea, 1978 - 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Hornibrook, M.; Latham, A. R.; Speechley, G. C.; Scully-Power, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Of the Nearly 1000 standard infrared photographic images received, 273 images were on computer compatible tape. It proved necessary to digitally enhance the scene contrast to cover only a select few degrees K over the photographic grey scale appropriate to the scene-specific range of sea surface temperature (SST). Some 178 images were so enhanced. Comparison with sea truth show that SST, as seen by satellite, provides a good guide to the ocean currents and eddies off East Australia, both in summer and winter. This is in contrast, particularly in summer, to SST mapped by surface survey, which usually lacks the necessary spatial resolution.

  2. Paleoceanographic insights on recent oxygen minimum zone expansion: lessons for modern oceanography.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Moffitt, Russell A; Sauthoff, Wilson; Davis, Catherine V; Hewett, Kathryn; Hill, Tessa M

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) expansions in the geologic record provide an opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal scales of OMZ change. Here we investigate OMZ expansion through the global-scale warming event of the most recent deglaciation (18-11 ka), an event with clear relevance to understanding modern anthropogenic climate change. Deglacial marine sediment records were compiled to quantify the vertical extent, intensity, surface area and volume impingements of hypoxic waters upon continental margins. By integrating sediment records (183-2,309 meters below sea level; mbsl) containing one or more geochemical, sedimentary or microfossil oxygenation proxies integrated with analyses of eustatic sea level rise, we reconstruct the timing, depth and intensity of seafloor hypoxia. The maximum vertical OMZ extent during the deglaciation was variable by region: Subarctic Pacific (~600-2,900 mbsl), California Current (~330-1,500 mbsl), Mexico Margin (~330-830 mbsl), and the Humboldt Current and Equatorial Pacific (~110-3,100 mbsl). The timing of OMZ expansion is regionally coherent but not globally synchronous. Subarctic Pacific and California Current continental margins exhibit tight correlation to the oscillations of Northern Hemisphere deglacial events (Termination IA, Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas and Termination IB). Southern regions (Mexico Margin and the Equatorial Pacific and Humboldt Current) exhibit hypoxia expansion prior to Termination IA (~14.7 ka), and no regional oxygenation oscillations. Our analyses provide new evidence for the geographically and vertically extensive expansion of OMZs, and the extreme compression of upper-ocean oxygenated ecosystems during the geologically recent deglaciation. PMID:25629508

  3. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  4. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, G.C.; Figueiras, F.G.; Hickey, B.M.; Moita, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world’s oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs. PMID:22053120

  5. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  6. Physical oceanography and acoustic propagation during LADC experiment in the Gulf of Mexico in 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergey; Caruthers, Jerald W.; Rayborn, Grayson H.; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.; Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Rypina, Irina I.; Newcomb, Joal J.; Fisher, Robert A.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three environmental and acoustic moorings in a downslope line just off the Mississippi River Delta in the northern Gulf of Mexico in an area of a large concentration of sperm whales in July 2001. The measurement of whale vocalizations and, more generally, ambient noise, were the objectives of the experiment. Each mooring had a single hydrophone autonomously recording Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) obtained from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office and modified to recorded signals up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days. Also, self-recording, environmental sensors were attached to the moorings to obtain profiles of time series data of temperature and salinity. Satellite imagery and NOAA mooring data were gathered for an analysis of eddy formations and movement in the Gulf. This paper will discuss the possible environmental impact of two events that occurred during the experiment: the passage of Tropical Storm Barry and the movement of the remnants of an eddy in the area. Discussed also will be the expected effects of these events on acoustic propagation based on modeling, which are carried out for long range and low frequency (300 km and 500 Hz) using the normal-mode acoustic model SWAMP (Shallow Water Acoustic Modal Propagation by M. F. Werby and N. A. Sidorovskaia) and for short range and high frequency (10 km and 5000 Hz) using the parabolic-equation acoustic model RAM (Range-dependent Acoustic model by M. Collins). [Work supported by ONR.

  7. Oil Spill!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Oceanography Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or general science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  8. Oil Spill! An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Oceanography Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  9. Atmospheric Pressure Corrections in Geodesy and Oceanography: a Strategy for Handling Air Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponte, Rui M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Global pressure data are often needed for processing or interpreting modern geodetic and oceanographic measurements. The most common source of these data is the analysis or reanalysis products of various meteorological centers. Tidal signals in these products can be problematic for several reasons, including potentially aliased sampling of the semidiurnal solar tide as well as the presence of various modeling or timing errors. Building on the work of Van den Dool and colleagues, we lay out a strategy for handling atmospheric tides in (re)analysis data. The procedure also offers a method to account for ocean loading corrections in satellite altimeter data that are consistent with standard ocean-tide corrections. The proposed strategy has immediate application to the on-going Jason-1 and GRACE satellite missions.

  10. Survival of high latitude fringing corals in extreme temperatures: Red Sea oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, M. Z.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, Z. D.; Moustafa, S. E.

    2014-04-01

    This multi-year study set out to establish a comprehensive knowledgebase for a fringing coral reef in the Gulf of Suez, while also investigating the link between coral reef survivability and the extreme environmental conditions present in the region. The Gulf of Suez is a narrow branch of the northern Red Sea for which all forms of environmental and scientific data are severely lacking. Monitoring oceanographic and meteorological data provides evidence of both seasonal variability and interannual variability in this region, and may reveal correlations between reef health and prevailing climate conditions. Specifically, this research sought to document the environmental conditions under which Zaki's Reef, a small fringing coral reef (29.5°N and 32.4°E) that lies at the northernmost limit of tropical reefs worldwide, is able to survive, in order to determine how extreme the conditions are. Results of observed seawater temperature revealed that coral species at Zaki's Reef regularly experience 2-4 °C and 10-15 °C daily and seasonal temperature variations, respectively. Seawater temperature monthly means reached a minimum of 14 °C in February and a maximum of 33 °C in August. Monthly mean sea surface temperature climatology obtained from satellite measurements was comparable to observed seawater temperatures, while annual air and seawater temperature means were identical at 22 °C. Observed seawater temperatures exceeded established coral bleaching thresholds for extended periods of time, suggesting that coral species at this location may have developed a mechanism to cope with such extreme temperatures. Further scrutiny of these species and the mechanisms by which they are able to thrive is recommended.

  11. Paleoceanographic insights on recent oxygen minimum zone expansion: lessons for modern oceanography.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Moffitt, Russell A; Sauthoff, Wilson; Davis, Catherine V; Hewett, Kathryn; Hill, Tessa M

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) expansions in the geologic record provide an opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal scales of OMZ change. Here we investigate OMZ expansion through the global-scale warming event of the most recent deglaciation (18-11 ka), an event with clear relevance to understanding modern anthropogenic climate change. Deglacial marine sediment records were compiled to quantify the vertical extent, intensity, surface area and volume impingements of hypoxic waters upon continental margins. By integrating sediment records (183-2,309 meters below sea level; mbsl) containing one or more geochemical, sedimentary or microfossil oxygenation proxies integrated with analyses of eustatic sea level rise, we reconstruct the timing, depth and intensity of seafloor hypoxia. The maximum vertical OMZ extent during the deglaciation was variable by region: Subarctic Pacific (~600-2,900 mbsl), California Current (~330-1,500 mbsl), Mexico Margin (~330-830 mbsl), and the Humboldt Current and Equatorial Pacific (~110-3,100 mbsl). The timing of OMZ expansion is regionally coherent but not globally synchronous. Subarctic Pacific and California Current continental margins exhibit tight correlation to the oscillations of Northern Hemisphere deglacial events (Termination IA, Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas and Termination IB). Southern regions (Mexico Margin and the Equatorial Pacific and Humboldt Current) exhibit hypoxia expansion prior to Termination IA (~14.7 ka), and no regional oxygenation oscillations. Our analyses provide new evidence for the geographically and vertically extensive expansion of OMZs, and the extreme compression of upper-ocean oxygenated ecosystems during the geologically recent deglaciation.

  12. Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

    This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

  13. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  14. Gene flow in Antarctic fishes: the role of oceanography and life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Emma; Rock, Jenny; Carvalho, Gary; Murphy, Eugene; Meredith, Michael; Hutchinson, Bill

    2010-05-01

    Marine organisms with pelagic larvae are generally assumed to experience high gene flow and low levels of population differentiation. However, variability in life history and environmental characteristics, in particular oceanographic flow fields, can significantly influence dispersal, and their relative effects are frequently unclear. Our research examines the influence of oceanographic and life history variability on gene flow in two species of Antarctic fish: Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. These species are broadly sympatric in their distribution, but differ in aspects of life history that are expected to strongly affect their dispersal capabilities. Our research has used two complementary techniques. Genetic analyses, specifically mtDNA and microsatellite markers, have been used to examine historic and contemporary gene flow and thus describe patterns of population differentiation at the circumpolar scale. These analyses have been compared with predicted larval transport from a global oceanographic model (OCCAM) combined with individual based particle tracking models. In using these complementary techniques, the relative influences of early life history and oceanographic variability can be elucidated. Here we present the key findings of our research, including evidence for inter-specific variation in mitochondrial gene flow at the circumpolar level and a limited degree of genetic structuring within the Scotia Sea.

  15. Learning Oceanography from a Computer Simulation Compared with Direct Experience at Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Stahr, Frederick; Sarason, Christian; Fruland, Ruth; Oppenheimer, Peter; Lee, Yen-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from "traditional" classes. Little research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from direct experience in the real environment on which the simulations are based. This study compared two…

  16. Oceanography of the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW-Atlantic Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelbert, J. H.; Acha, M.; Berasategui, A.; Bersano, J. G.; Braga, E. S.; Eichler, P.; Garcia, V. M.; Gomez-Erache, M.; Guerrero, R.; Mianzan, H.; Reta, R.; Ramirez, F.

    2005-05-01

    Only physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) have been described for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. The main goal of this paper is to present results of an integrated physical, chemical and biological study at the STSF conducted during the winter of 2003 and summer of 2004. A cross section was established at the historical determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled during the winter cruise and 7 stations during summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations fitted with dissolved oxygen and turbidity sensors. Selected water samples were filtered and frozen at -20oC for nutrient determination. Samples for chlorophyll were concentrated on filters and these were stored frozen for later processing. Plankton net tows were carried out above and below pycnocline. Surface benthic foraminifera were collected with a bottom snapper. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner shelf salinity front and the STSF located in the mid-shelf. Inner salinity showed the strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (71.98 μM), phosphate (2.70 μM), nitrate (1.01 μM), Total Dissolved Nitrogen (22.98 μM) and suspended matter (44.80 mg/L). With distance from the coast and reduction of terrestrial input, subsurface high values of nutrients were associated with SACW upwelling. As a result, chlorophyll a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 3.0 mg.m3 are registered, to offshore waters. Zooplankton abundance and biomass, and ichthyoplankton abundance follows the same trend. Zoo and ichthyoplankton abundance revealed the presence of 3 groups associated to the inner, mid and offshore shelf region. Benthic foraminifera composition suggested that shallow stations are dominated by few large freshwater species, while offshore stations presented smaller forms and higher species diversity. During summer, the halocline extended over the shelf and joined the STSF in the upper layer. The concentration of inorganic nutrients is reduced in the shallow waters in relation to the winter period, but high values are observed between 40 and 60 m depth and offshore deep waters. Zooplankton biomass was not as high as during winter, and largest values are observed around the STSF. Zoo and ichthyoplankton presented 3 groups, separated by the presence of the STSF. Despite less influence of freshwater during this season, benthic foraminifera were still marked by the presence of freshwater species. The results from this study suggest that during winter, freshwater influence is strong and physical-chemical-biological interactions develop in the front along its plume. However, during summer, when the presence of freshwater is less intense, these interactions seem to take place at the STSF.

  17. Oceanography of Glacier Bay, Alaska: Implications for biological patterns in a glacial fjord estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Hooge, P.N.; Hooge, E.R.; Hill, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska, U.S.A, is one of the few remaining locations in the world that has fjords that contain temperate idewater glaciers. Studying such estuarine systems provides vital information on how deglaciation affects oceanographic onditions of fjords and surrounding coastal waters. The oceanographic system of Glacier Bay, Alaska, is of particular interest ue to the rapid deglaciation of the Bay and the resulting changes in the estuarine environment, the relatively high oncentrations of marine mammals, seabirds, fishes, and invertebrates, and the Bay’s status as a national park, where ommercial fisheries are being phased out. We describe the first comprehensive broad-scale analysis of physical and iological oceanographic conditions within Glacier Bay based on CTD measurements at 24 stations from 1993 to 2002. easonal patterns of near-surface salinity, temperature, stratification, turbidity, and euphotic depth suggest that freshwater nput was highest in summer, emphasizing the critical role of glacier and snowmelt to this system. Strong and persistent tratification of surface waters driven by freshwater input occurred from spring through fall. After accounting for seasonal nd spatial variation, several of the external physical factors (i.e., air temperature, precipitation, day length) explained a large mount of variation in the physical properties of the surface waters. Spatial patterns of phytoplankton biomass varied hroughout the year and were related to stratification levels, euphotic depth, and day length. We observed hydrographic atterns indicative of strong competing forces influencing water column stability within Glacier Bay: high levels of freshwater ischarge promoted stratification in the upper fjord, while strong tidal currents over the Bay’s shallow entrance sill enhanced ertical mixing. Where these two processes met in the central deep basins there were optimal conditions of intermediate tratification, higher light levels, and potential nutrient renewal. These conditions were associated with high and sustained hlorophylla levels observed from spring through fall in these zones of the Bay and provide a framework for understanding he abundance patterns of higher trophic levels within this estuarine system.

  18. Oceanography and life history predict contrasting genetic population structure in two Antarctic fish species

    PubMed Central

    Young, Emma F; Belchier, Mark; Hauser, Lorenz; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Pascoal, Sonia; Rock, Jennifer; Tysklind, Niklas; Carvalho, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the key drivers of population connectivity in the marine environment is essential for the effective management of natural resources. Although several different approaches to evaluating connectivity have been used, they are rarely integrated quantitatively. Here, we use a ‘seascape genetics’ approach, by combining oceanographic modelling and microsatellite analyses, to understand the dominant influences on the population genetic structure of two Antarctic fishes with contrasting life histories, Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. The close accord between the model projections and empirical genetic structure demonstrated that passive dispersal during the planktonic early life stages is the dominant influence on patterns and extent of genetic structuring in both species. The shorter planktonic phase of C. gunnari restricts direct transport of larvae between distant populations, leading to stronger regional differentiation. By contrast, geographic distance did not affect differentiation in N. rossii, whose longer larval period promotes long-distance dispersal. Interannual variability in oceanographic flows strongly influenced the projected genetic structure, suggesting that shifts in circulation patterns due to climate change are likely to impact future genetic connectivity and opportunities for local adaptation, resilience and recovery from perturbations. Further development of realistic climate models is required to fully assess such potential impacts. PMID:26029262

  19. OCEANOGRAPHY. Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO₂ emissions scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, J-P; Magnan, A; Billé, R; Cheung, W W L; Howes, E L; Joos, F; Allemand, D; Bopp, L; Cooley, S R; Eakin, C M; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Kelly, R P; Pörtner, H-O; Rogers, A D; Baxter, J M; Laffoley, D; Osborn, D; Rankovic, A; Rochette, J; Sumaila, U R; Treyer, S; Turley, C

    2015-07-01

    The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems—and the goods and services they provide—for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The current emissions trajectory would rapidly and significantly alter many ecosystems and the associated services on which humans heavily depend. A reduced emissions scenario—consistent with the Copenhagen Accord's goal of a global temperature increase of less than 2°C—is much more favorable to the ocean but still substantially alters important marine ecosystems and associated goods and services. The management options to address ocean impacts narrow as the ocean warms and acidifies. Consequently, any new climate regime that fails to minimize ocean impacts would be incomplete and inadequate. PMID:26138982

  20. Modeling loggerhead turtle movement in the Mediterranean: importance of body size and oceanography.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Scott A; Moore, Jeffrey E; Dunn, Daniel C; van Buiten, Ricardo Sagarminaga; Eckert, Karen L; Halpin, Patrick N

    2008-03-01

    Adapting state-space models (SSMs) to telemetry data has been helpful for dealing with location error and for modeling animal movements. We used a combination of two hierarchical Bayesian SSMs to estimate movement pathways from Argos satellite-tag data for 15 juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the western Mediterranean Sea, and to probabilistically assign locations to one of two behavioral movement types and relate those behaviors to environmental features. A Monte Carlo procedure helped propagate location uncertainty from the first SSM into the estimation of behavioral states and environment--behavior relationships in the second SSM. Turtles using oceanic habitats of the Balearic Sea (n = 9 turtles) within the western Mediterranean were more likely to exhibit "intensive search" behavior as might occur during foraging, but only larger turtles responded to variations in sea-surface height. This suggests that they were better able than smaller turtles to cue on environmental features that concentrate prey resources or were more dependent on high-quality feeding areas. These findings stress the importance of individual heterogeneity in the analysis of movement behavior and, taken in concert with descriptive studies of Pacific loggerheads, suggest that directed movements toward patchy ephemeral resources may be a general property of larger juvenile loggerheads in different populations. We discovered size-based variation in loggerhead distribution and documented use of the western Mediterranean Sea by turtles larger than previously thought to occur there. With one exception, only individuals > 57 cm curved carapace length used the most westerly basin in the Mediterranean (western Alborán Sea). These observations shed new light on loggerhead migration phenology.

  1. Global carbon cycle, oceanography, climate, and evolution of calcareous plankton in the Middle and Late Mesozoic

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric pCO/sub 2/ was increased by a factor of four or more resulting in generally warm equable climates during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Major sources of CO/sub 2/ were increased volcanism associated with rapid sea floor spreading and continental collisions. Decreased albedo due to flooding of continents, also linked to tectonic processes, and largely circumequatorial rather than meridonal ocean circulations further contributed to climatic warming. Cyclic changes in warm saline bottom water production in tropical marginal seas and on shallow plateaus and freshening of surface waters due to increased precipitation and runoff. Biologic productivity was low during OAEs due to reduced ocean mixing. Cyclic pulses of evolution among calcareous nanno- and microplankton, due to cropping during times of low surface water fertility during OAEs having periods of about 15 ma, are superimposed on evolutionary megacycles that have a period of about 80 ma and are positively correlated with sea level. Migration of calcareous nannoplankton form shelf seas to the open ocean in the latest Jurassic marks a major global shift in carbonate deposition from shallow platforms to the deep-sea. High productions of calcareous nannoplankton in epicontinental seas during the late Cretaceous precedes the final collapse of the planktonic food chain (terminal Cretaceous event). Climatic optima in the Jurassic and Cretaceous were times of major carbonate accumulation. Accumulation of marine and terrestrial organic carbon during OAEs provided a negative feedback mechanism in the oceanic and atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. The ultimate control of long term climatic change and plankton evolution are mantle processes that affect the configuration of ocean basins, ocean circulation, sea level and the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere.

  2. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 2: Coastal zone oceanography program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The approaches used to develop the coastal zone oceanic research program are outlined, and activities in the areas of satellite application, estuaries, continental shelf and environmental modeling are briefly described.

  3. The physical oceanography of Jones Bank: A mixing hotspot in the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Matthew R.; Inall, Mark E.; Sharples, Jonathan

    2013-10-01

    New measurements are presented of the currents and hydrography at Jones Bank in the Celtic Sea. These measurements, collected during the summer of 2008, identify a highly energetic internal wavefield generated by the local interaction of seasonally stratified flow with topography. Observations close to the bank crest reveal internal waves of up to 40 m amplitude; approaching 50% of the local water depth. These waves occur during spring periods and are predominantly associated with off-bank tidal flow. We provide evidence that these waves are the result of hydraulic control of the tidal currents which result in supercritical flow in the bottom mixed layer (bml) on the upper slopes of the bank. The waning tide produces a transition from super to subcritical flow, identifiable as a regular hydraulic jump on the bank slope. Microstructure measurements identify a turbulent 'bore' associated with such jumps that increases bml turbulence by several orders of magnitude and produces a regular burst of enhanced mixing at the base of the ever-present thermocline. Additional mixing in the surface mixed layer is provided during gale force conditions during the first of the two spring tides observed, occurring at the start of our three-week measurement period. The average thermocline mixing rate during stormy spring tide conditions is 1.9 (±1.0, 95%) × 10-3 m2 s-1, driven by both surface mixing and hydraulic jumps. During the later calm spring period the average thermocline mixing rate is 3.3 (±1.7) × 10-4 m2 s-1, dominated by jump associated events. By comparison, the intervening neap tide period produces no hydraulic jumps and is characterised by relatively calm weather. A strong shear layer is however maintained during this 'quiet' period sufficient to enhance thermocline turbulence by a factor 1000 above background levels. A short lived peak in thermocline turbulence during the neap period produces diapycnal mixing as high as 1.6 × 10-2 m2 s-1 however a more representative 'background' thermocline mixing rate is 2.8 (±0.6) × 10-5 m2 s-1.

  4. Paleoceanographic Insights on Recent Oxygen Minimum Zone Expansion: Lessons for Modern Oceanography

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Moffitt, Russell A.; Sauthoff, Wilson; Davis, Catherine V.; Hewett, Kathryn; Hill, Tessa M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) expansions in the geologic record provide an opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal scales of OMZ change. Here we investigate OMZ expansion through the global-scale warming event of the most recent deglaciation (18-11 ka), an event with clear relevance to understanding modern anthropogenic climate change. Deglacial marine sediment records were compiled to quantify the vertical extent, intensity, surface area and volume impingements of hypoxic waters upon continental margins. By integrating sediment records (183-2,309 meters below sea level; mbsl) containing one or more geochemical, sedimentary or microfossil oxygenation proxies integrated with analyses of eustatic sea level rise, we reconstruct the timing, depth and intensity of seafloor hypoxia. The maximum vertical OMZ extent during the deglaciation was variable by region: Subarctic Pacific (~600-2,900 mbsl), California Current (~330-1,500 mbsl), Mexico Margin (~330-830 mbsl), and the Humboldt Current and Equatorial Pacific (~110-3,100 mbsl). The timing of OMZ expansion is regionally coherent but not globally synchronous. Subarctic Pacific and California Current continental margins exhibit tight correlation to the oscillations of Northern Hemisphere deglacial events (Termination IA, Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas and Termination IB). Southern regions (Mexico Margin and the Equatorial Pacific and Humboldt Current) exhibit hypoxia expansion prior to Termination IA (~14.7 ka), and no regional oxygenation oscillations. Our analyses provide new evidence for the geographically and vertically extensive expansion of OMZs, and the extreme compression of upper-ocean oxygenated ecosystems during the geologically recent deglaciation. PMID:25629508

  5. Skidaway Institute of Oceanography Library and University of Georgia Marine Institute Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Tom A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes two special libraries which operate as branch libraries of the University of Georgia and which deal entirely with marine sciences. Topics include historical background; meeting the information needs of researchers and educators; responsibilities of the librarians; networked resources and library automation; access via the Internet; and…

  6. Gutenberg Lecture: Bridging the gap Between Seismology and Oceanography: New Phenomena in the Background Seismic Wavefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, B. A.

    2004-12-01

    It has long been known (e.g. Longuet-Higgins, 1950) that the source of the microseismic noise peak, which pervades seismic records in the period range 1-10 sec, is generated by complex non-linear interactions between ocean waves and the seafloor. A less obvious signal, discovered six years ago by Japanese scientists deep in the longer period noise of land-based seismic stations (>150 sec), is that of Earth's continually excited free oscillations. This "hum" now appears to also be generated through a non-linear coupling mechanism involving the atmosphere (winds), the ocean (infragravity waves) and the solid earth. The realization that a large portion of the earth's seismic noise, over a wide frequency band, is made of Rayleigh waves has opened up new horizons for the study of earth's crust and upper mantle 3D structure, as well as other non-tectonic phenomena such as the motions of glaciers. I will also argue that the deployment of arrays of ocean observatories comprising sensors recording motions from the seafloor through the entire water column is a necessary next step, complementing land and space-based observations, to further our understanding of this wide class of intriguing atmosphere/ocean/solid earth interactions.

  7. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, G C; Figueiras, F G; Hickey, B M; Moita, M T

    2010-04-01

    The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world's oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs.

  8. The effect of Marmara (Izmit) Earthquake on the chemical oceanography of Izmit Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Balkis, Nuray

    2003-07-01

    After the Marmara (Izmit) Earthquake (magnitude 7.4) on 17 August 1999, chemical oceanographical characteristics of Izmit Bay were investigated in order to examine the possible effects of the refinery fire and uncontrolled entrance of domestic wastes to the surface waters. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the water column in August 1999 was the lowest value of all the measurement periods. It was found to be lower than the detection limit of the method (0.03 mgl(-1)) in the lower layer of eastern and central basins of the Bay, whereas the dissolved hydrogen sulfide (DHS) values were high, varying between 0.14 and 1.28 mgl(-1). The deficiency of DO and in turn formation of DHS were caused by the spreading petroleum from the refinery fire onto the sea surface and waste loads from the damaged municipal waste effluent system. The increasing organic/inorganic loads into the Bay stimulated the phytoplankton blooms which cause locally saturated DO concentrations in the eastern basin during autumn 1999. DO concentrations increased in lower layer waters during winter, whilst DHS formation disappeared when water originating from the Marmara Sea replenish the water column of Izmit Bay. However, DHS formation established again in August 2000.

  9. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part I: Cross Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Gap-wind events flowing from Cross Sound in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) were examined using QuikSCAT wind data. The average duration of an event is 3.6 days with the longest event recorded in the QuikSCAT dataset being 12 days. Daily offshore directed winds with speeds >10 m s-1 are more common during the winter months (October-March), averaging 20.0 days per year, and less common during the summer (April - September), averaging 2.8 days per year. Interannual variability in the frequency of gap-wind events is correlated with El Niño. During gap-wind events, the spatial scales of high off-shore directed winds (>10 m s-1) reach almost 200 km off-shore and 225 km along the shelf break, suggesting that the winds directly influence both the shelf (20-65 km wide) and the off-shore waters. A model experiment suggests that a gap-wind event can result in eddy formation and changes in circulation and water properties. Increased entrainment of water from below the mixed layer due to the gap-wind event implies that mixed-layer nitrate concentrations could increase on the order of 5-10 μmole/l, potentially enhancing primary production in the region. An accompanying paper discusses part II of our study (Ladd et al., 2016) focusing on gap-wind events in the western GOA around Kodiak Island.

  10. Evaluating Student Success and Outcomes in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography REU Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranes, J. L.; Kohne, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF foundation-wide REU program exists to help attract and retain a diverse pool of talented undergraduate students in STEM fields. These goals are particularly relevant in earth and marine sciences because relatively few minority students traditionally seek careers in these fields and only account for an extremely small percentage of Ph.D. degrees earned. The Scripps Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) REU program is a 10-week summer program currently in its third year of funding. The SURF program invites 10-15 undergraduate students from across the country to Scripps to participate in high quality collaborative research with Scripps faculty and researchers. Program components also include research seminars, career and graduate school preparation, GRE-prep courses, field trips and social activities. The project's goal, broadly, is to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in marine science and related disciplines at a national level. Our program includes a comprehensive evaluation and assessment plan to help us understand the impact of this REU experience on the student participant. Our assessment consists of paired pre- and post-survey questions to estimate student growth in the following areas as related to earth and marine sciences: (1) increased knowledge and skills (2) increased confidence in ability to conduct research (3) improved attitudes and interest in the field and (4) more ambitious career goals. Assessment results from the last two cohorts have helped refine our recruitment and selection strategies. In the first year of our program, we focused almost exclusively on recruiting underrepresented minority students; over of the participants represented ethic groups considered to be underrepresented in STEM fields. However, participants did not demonstrate overall significant pre/post gains in any of the goal areas, mostly because pre-survey scores indicated that the students were already very strong in all goal areas. In years 2 and 3 our recruitment has continued to target underrepresented minorities, but our selection criteria now includes the following factors in order to better identify students who would most greatly benefit from the program: (1) students who have not had significant research experience (2) students who have not yet had significant exposure to the field (3) first-generation college students and (4) students who may not be as high achieving as other applicants, but who might have more opportunity for growth in the program. This modified selection and recruitment strategy has been successful, our 2012 cohort recorded higher demonstrated and perceived impacts in all goal areas. Our experience has demonstrated that, in order to have the most significant impact, REU Sites must be active in recruiting and involving students who are not already well positioned for success in STEM careers.

  11. The effect of Marmara (Izmit) Earthquake on the chemical oceanography of Izmit Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Balkis, Nuray

    2003-07-01

    After the Marmara (Izmit) Earthquake (magnitude 7.4) on 17 August 1999, chemical oceanographical characteristics of Izmit Bay were investigated in order to examine the possible effects of the refinery fire and uncontrolled entrance of domestic wastes to the surface waters. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the water column in August 1999 was the lowest value of all the measurement periods. It was found to be lower than the detection limit of the method (0.03 mgl(-1)) in the lower layer of eastern and central basins of the Bay, whereas the dissolved hydrogen sulfide (DHS) values were high, varying between 0.14 and 1.28 mgl(-1). The deficiency of DO and in turn formation of DHS were caused by the spreading petroleum from the refinery fire onto the sea surface and waste loads from the damaged municipal waste effluent system. The increasing organic/inorganic loads into the Bay stimulated the phytoplankton blooms which cause locally saturated DO concentrations in the eastern basin during autumn 1999. DO concentrations increased in lower layer waters during winter, whilst DHS formation disappeared when water originating from the Marmara Sea replenish the water column of Izmit Bay. However, DHS formation established again in August 2000. PMID:12837305

  12. Oceanography and Yacht Racing - A Handful of Competitors, Millions of Spectators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.; Cresswell, G.; Badcock, K.; Cahill, M.; Rathbone, C.; Turner, P.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimeter measurements of sea level have proven to be far more accurate, and useful, than was hope for when the missions were designed, especially when data from several instruments are combines. In the regard, the experimental missions (ERS1 and 2, Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and GFO) have all been a resounding success. Why then, are there not plans already in place to continue and improve on the recent missions? One reason is surely that end-user uptake of the mission products has not yet convincingly justified the costs of future missions. At CSIRO we sought to maximise the awareness, amongst all marine sectors, that mapping ocean currents with sufficient accuracy and detail for operational use is indeed possible, so that the societal benefits of the system would become clear as quickly as possible. We did this using a well know marketing too - sport.

  13. Offshore Wind Guidance Document: Oceanography and Sediment Stability (Version 1) Development of a Conceptual Site Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-06-01

    This guidance document provide s the reader with an overview of the key environmental considerations for a typical offshore wind coastal location and the tools to help guide the reader through a thoro ugh planning process. It will enable readers to identify the key coastal processes relevant to their offshore wind site and perform pertinent analysis to guide siting and layout design, with the goal of minimizing costs associated with planning, permitting , and long - ter m maintenance. The document highlight s site characterization and assessment techniques for evaluating spatial patterns of sediment dynamics in the vicinity of a wind farm under typical, extreme, and storm conditions. Finally, the document des cribe s the assimilation of all of this information into the conceptual site model (CSM) to aid the decision - making processes.

  14. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing learning activities that link ocean sciences with real-life issues relevant to employment, environment and economic concerns.

  15. OCEANOGRAPHY. Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO₂ emissions scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, J-P; Magnan, A; Billé, R; Cheung, W W L; Howes, E L; Joos, F; Allemand, D; Bopp, L; Cooley, S R; Eakin, C M; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Kelly, R P; Pörtner, H-O; Rogers, A D; Baxter, J M; Laffoley, D; Osborn, D; Rankovic, A; Rochette, J; Sumaila, U R; Treyer, S; Turley, C

    2015-07-01

    The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems—and the goods and services they provide—for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The current emissions trajectory would rapidly and significantly alter many ecosystems and the associated services on which humans heavily depend. A reduced emissions scenario—consistent with the Copenhagen Accord's goal of a global temperature increase of less than 2°C—is much more favorable to the ocean but still substantially alters important marine ecosystems and associated goods and services. The management options to address ocean impacts narrow as the ocean warms and acidifies. Consequently, any new climate regime that fails to minimize ocean impacts would be incomplete and inadequate.

  16. From R&D to end users applications in operational oceanography: The navy's "SOAP" case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud Saint-Albin, S.; Jourdan, D.

    2003-04-01

    For the last ten years, the CMO/BRESM has conducted an operational program for Ocean Analysis and Prediction SOAP, whose goal has been to support sea activities with high resolution mesoscale ocean nowcast products. Successive prototypes have been generated, operated and improved in tandem with a continuous re-evaluation of Navy Needs. This strategy played a key-role in defining the concept of “real-time integrated oceanography” which relies on remote and in situ ocean observations, (a hierarchy of) ocean models and data assimilation methods. The paper focuses on the results of the latter feasability study for next SOAP prototype: the military motivation for developing new prototypes is to extend the application domain of SOAP operational products from the operative (~ a description of the synoptic scale) to the tactical ( ~ a tailored product to strategic needs) relevance. Current SOAP P2 system is as a transition system pulled by end-user’s requirements and designed by research oceanographers from existing tools and models. The development of SOAP P3 has just started and will benefit from the emergence of an increasing offer of ocean modelling results, pushed by the GODAE initiative. It will be based on MERCATOR high resolution prototypes. From that starting point future developments will have to address both issues of defense specific requirements for high resolution ocean modeling and computation of relevant acoustical products for military applications. Especially, the crucial needs for assessing the end-users’ products reliability should be explored.

  17. 76 FR 61117 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... follows: Permit Application: 2012-010 1. Applicant: Mahlon C. Kennicutt, II, Professor of Oceanography, Department of Oceanography, Eller Oceanography & Meteorology Bldg., Rm. 608, 3146 TAMU, College Station,...

  18. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  19. Synoptic oceanography of San Jorge Gulf (Argentina): A template for Patagonian red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) spatial dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glembocki, Nora Gabriela; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Góngora, María Eva; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Orensanz, José María (Lobo)

    2015-01-01

    An extensive series of high-resolution satellite images from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWIFS) was used in a synoptic oceanographic characterization of San Jorge Gulf (SJG, Argentine Patagonia), an area of great significance for marine conservation and commercial fishing. Remotely sensed information was combined with on-board observer's data and published information to investigate the role of distinctive oceanographic features in relation to the life cycle of the Patagonian red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri), main target of the industrial fleet in SJG. Three frontal systems-North, South and Outer SJG-are characterized. The North and South SJG fronts are associated with shrimp reproductive aggregations during late spring and summer. While both function as spawning/nursery grounds, they differ from each other in many respects. The thermohaline South SJG front has its maximum expression during the winter, reflecting the influence of the low-salinity Magellanic Plume, while the thermal North SJG front develops during spring and summer as the water column becomes stratified in the central basin of the gulf. Wind-related down-welling inshore of the front prevails in the North SJG, and upwelling in the South SJG frontal area. Chlorophyll a is concentrated near the thermocline on the stratified side of the North SJG, and for that reason, it is not detected by remote sensors during the spring bloom and the summer but becomes apparent offshore from the location of the front when the thermocline deepens during the fall (May). In the South SJG front, Chl-a concentration is apparent inshore from the front all year-round, related in part to upwelling-mediated resuspension. The northern end of the outer front coincides in time and space with a recurrent non-reproductive aggregation of red shrimp between November and January and is presumably related to foraging. It is argued that keeping the North and South SJG frontal systems off-limits to fishing is a central precautionary requisite for the sustainability of the shrimp fishery.

  20. Hadean Oceanography: Experimental Constraints on the Development of the Terrestrial Hydrosphere and the Origin of Life on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J

    2003-02-06

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of the world's oldest mineral grains, zircon, have recently been used to infer the compositions of the rocks from which they crystallized. The results appear to require a source that had once experienced isotopic fractionation between clay minerals and liquid water, thereby implying the presence of liquid water at the Earth's surface prior to 4.4 billion years ago, less than 2 million years after accretion. This observation has important implications for the development of the Earth's continental crust. The inferred composition of the zircon source rock is directly dependent upon the oxygen isotopic fractionation between zircon and melt, and zircon and water. These fractionation factors have not been determined experimentally, however, constituting the weak link in this argument. A series of experiments to measure these fractionation factors has been conducted. The experiments consist of finely powdered quartz, a polished single crystal of zircon and isotopically-enriched or isotopically normal water to provide a range of isotopic compositions. The experiments will be run until quartz is in isotopic equilibrium with water. Zircon was expected to partially equilibrate producing an oxygen isotopic diffusion profile perpendicular to the surface. Ion probe spot analysis of quartz and depth profiling of zircon will determine the bulk and surface isotopic compositions of the phases, respectively. The well-known quartz-water isotopic fractionation factors can be used to calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of the fluid, and with the zircon surface composition, the zircon-water fractionation factor. Run at temperatures up to 1000 C for as long as 500 hours have not produced diffusion profiles longer than 50 nm. The steep isotopic gradient at the samples surface precludes use of the diffusion profile for estimation on the surface isotopic composition. The short profiles may be the result of surface dissolution, although such dissolution cannot be resolved in SEM images. The sluggish nature of diffusion in zircon may require that fractionation factors be determined by direct hydrothermal synthesis of zircon rather than by mineral-fluid exchange.

  1. A New Concept for an Ocean Bottom Pressure Meter for Precision Long-Term Monitoring in Marine Geodesy and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villinger, H. W.; Gennerich, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term vertical seafloor displacements and geostrophic changes in the water column height could be easily monitored if pressure meters were less susceptible to drift. Currently, these signals, which have typical amplitudes from decimeters to less than 1 mm/yr, cannot be differentiated from instrumental drift. In this paper, we introduce and outline a new constructional concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter that aims for unequivocal detection and monitoring of long-term trends. The concept is based on a differential pressure sensor that measures the pressure difference between the environment and a reference pressure within a sealed volume. This sealed volume conserves the instantaneous pressure at the moment of its closure at the monitoring location in a temperature-compensated manner. Furthermore, the approach enables easy in situ calibration of the differential pressure gauge by simply opening the reference pressure chamber to the environment and checking the zero point offset.

  2. The relationship among oceanography, prey fields, and beaked whale foraging habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Elliott L; Nowacek, Douglas P; St Laurent, Louis; Halpin, Patrick N; Moretti, David J

    2011-04-27

    Beaked whales, specifically Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), are known to feed in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. These whales can be reliably detected and often localized within the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) acoustic sensor system. The AUTEC range is a regularly spaced bottom mounted hydrophone array covering >350 nm(2) providing a valuable network to record anthropogenic noise and marine mammal vocalizations. Assessments of the potential risks of noise exposure to beaked whales have historically occurred in the absence of information about the physical and biological environments in which these animals are distributed. In the fall of 2008, we used a downward looking 38 kHz SIMRAD EK60 echosounder to measure prey scattering layers concurrent with fine scale turbulence measurements from an autonomous turbulence profiler. Using an 8 km, 4-leaf clover sampling pattern, we completed a total of 7.5 repeat surveys with concurrently measured physical and biological oceanographic parameters, so as to examine the spatiotemporal scales and relationships among turbulence levels, biological scattering layers, and beaked whale foraging activity. We found a strong correlation among increased prey density and ocean vertical structure relative to increased click densities. Understanding the habitats of these whales and their utilization patterns will improve future models of beaked whale habitat as well as allowing more comprehensive assessments of exposure risk to anthropogenic sound.

  3. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-11-07

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.

  4. Influence of habitat discontinuity, geographical distance, and oceanography on fine-scale population genetic structure of copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, M L; Banks, M A; Glunt, K D; Hassel-Finnegan, H M; Buonaccorsi, V P

    2008-07-01

    The copper rockfish is a benthic, nonmigratory, temperate rocky reef marine species with pelagic larvae and juveniles. A previous range-wide study of the population-genetic structure of copper rockfish revealed a pattern consistent with isolation-by-distance. This could arise from an intrinsically limited dispersal capability in the species or from regularly-spaced extrinsic barriers that restrict gene flow (offshore jets that advect larvae offshore and/or habitat patchiness). Tissue samples were collected along the West Coast of the contiguous USA between Neah Bay, WA and San Diego, CA, with dense sampling along Oregon. At the whole-coast scale (approximately 2200 km), significant population subdivision (F(ST) = 0.0042), and a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distance were observed based on 11 microsatellite DNA loci. Population divergence was also significant among Oregon collections (approximately 450 km, F(ST) = 0.001). Hierarchical amova identified a weak but significant 130-km habitat break as a possible barrier to gene flow within Oregon, across which we estimated that dispersal (N(e)m) is half that of the coast-wide average. However, individual-based Bayesian analyses failed to identify more than a single population along the Oregon coast. In addition, no correlation between pairwise population genetic and geographical distances was detected at this scale. The offshore jet at Cape Blanco was not a significant barrier to gene flow in this species. These findings are consistent with low larval dispersal distances calculated in previous studies on this species, support a mesoscale dispersal model, and highlight the importance of continuity of habitat and adult population size in maintaining gene flow.

  5. Biologging, remotely-sensed oceanography and the continuous plankton recorder reveal the environmental determinants of a seabird wintering hotspot.

    PubMed

    Fort, Jérôme; Beaugrand, Grégory; Grémillet, David; Phillips, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Marine environments are greatly affected by climate change, and understanding how this perturbation affects marine vertebrates is a major issue. In this context, it is essential to identify the environmental drivers of animal distribution. Here, we focused on the little auk (Alle alle), one of the world's most numerous seabirds and a major component in Arctic food webs. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we show how little auks adopt specific migratory strategies and balance environmental constraints to optimize their energy budgets. Miniature electronic loggers indicate that after breeding, birds from East Greenland migrate >2000 km to overwinter in a restricted area off Newfoundland. Synoptic data available from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) indicate that this region harbours some of the highest densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus found in the North Atlantic during winter. Examination of large-scale climatic and oceanographic data suggests that little auks favour patches of high copepod abundance in areas where air temperature ranges from 0°C to 5°C. These results greatly advance our understanding of animal responses to extreme environmental constraints, and highlight that information on habitat preference is key to identifying critical areas for marine conservation.

  6. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  7. The effects of changing winds and temperatures on the oceanography of the Ross Sea in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.

    2014-03-01

    The Ross Sea is critically important in regulating Antarctic sea ice and is biologically productive, which makes changes in the region's physical environment of global concern. We examined the effects of projected changes in atmospheric temperatures and winds on aspects of the ocean circulation likely important to primary production using a high-resolution sea ice-ocean-ice shelf model of the Ross Sea. The modeled summer sea-ice concentrations decreased by 56% by 2050 and 78% by 2100. The duration of shallow mixed layers over the continental shelf increased by 8.5 and 19.2 days in 2050 and 2100, and the mean summer mixed layer depths decreased by 12 and 44%. These results suggest that the annual phytoplankton production in the future will increase and become more diatomaceous. Other components of the Ross Sea food web will likely be severely disrupted, creating significant but unpredictable impacts on the ocean's most pristine ecosystem.

  8. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.

  9. Effective Use of the Sea, Report of the Panel on Oceanography of the President's Science Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report is concerned with the marine activities of the nation and how these activities contribute to the national well-being. Opportunities for the future are identified and discussed. The report centered around four main objectives: (1) to assess current and planned ocean programs for technical soundness, adequacy of scope, balance of…

  10. A Scalable, Interoperable Network of Digital Libraries for Earth System Science with Examples from Oceanography and Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helly, J.; Miller, S.; Sutton, D.; Clark, D.; Houghton, T.; Chase, A.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report on the construction of a network of digital libraries for the hydrology community as part of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) based on an architecture developed for the publication of oceanographic data acquired by oceanographic research vessels. Our results show that this architecture and implementation are appropriate for a broad range of scientific disciplines and that the approach scales from the desk of the individual investigator to that of a major research institution and to the interoperation of institutions. We are able to run the entire digital library from a laptop computer as well as from supercomputer-center-size resources. The underlying architecture and prototype set of tools have been developed as a part of the SIOExplorer project (http://SIOExplorer.ucsd.edu), funded by National Science Digital Library (NSDL), Information Technology Research (ITR) and Ocean Science (OCE) awards over the last three years. With funding from the NSF Geosciences Directorate, this approach has been adapted to hydrology and is operating in a multi-site configuration representing a network of hydrological observatories and oceanographic archives. The system is integrated with the GEONgrid (http://geongrid.org) and includes automatic methods of harvesting data and metadata from existing web-sites (e.g., USGS and NASA) as well as real-time and near-real-time sensors through other data systems such as Unidata OpenDAP and Local Data Manager.

  11. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE. PMID:26506023

  12. Matching oceanography and genetics at the basin scale. Seascape connectivity of the Mediterranean shore crab in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Marino, I A M; Zane, L; Melià, P

    2014-11-01

    Investigating the interactions between the physical environment and early life history is crucial to understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of marine populations. Here, we assessed the genetic differentiation in a species with larval dispersal, the Mediterranean shore crab (Carcinus aestuarii) in the Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean), and we investigated the role of oceanic circulation in shaping population structure. To this end, we screened 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 431 individuals collected at eight different sites. We found a weak, yet significant, genetic structure into three major clusters: a northern Adriatic group, a central Adriatic group and one group including samples from southern Adriatic and Ionian seas. Genetic analyses were compared, under a seascape genetics approach, with estimates of potential larval connectivity obtained with a coupled physical-biological model that integrates a water circulation model and a description of biological traits affecting dispersal. The cross-validation of the results of the two approaches supported the view that genetic differentiation reflects an oceanographic subdivision of the Adriatic Sea into three subbasins, with circulation patterns allowing the exchange of larvae through permanent connections linking north Adriatic sites and ephemeral connections like those linking the central Adriatic with northern and southern locations.

  13. Second international conference on air-sea interaction and on meteorology and oceanography of the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held September 22--27, 1994 in Lisbon, Portugal. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on air-sea interactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  14. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report, 1 June 1979-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, L P

    1980-02-29

    The papers included in this progress report summarize some significant developments in understanding the South Atlantic Bight. Some of the results are summarized as follows: Onslow Bay flushing rates can be determined using a model based on an exponential dilution model; eddy induced nitrate flux accounts for most input of new nitrogen into shelf waters; and tarballs in the Gulf Stream are not transported to the nearshore because of an apparent inner shelf density front.

  15. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  16. Linking basin-scale connectivity, oceanography and population dynamics for the management of marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Vincent; Dubois, Mélodie; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in marine ecology is to describe properly larval dispersal and marine connectivity since they structure marine populations and are thus crucial criteria to design Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents in the entire Mediterranean Sea, I present a new approach coupling Lagrangian modeling and Network Theory tools to characterize broad-scale connectivity of marine populations. The Mediterranean basin is subdivided into an ensemble of sub-regions that are interconnected through oceanic transport. Passive larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are advected in a simulated surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. First, the global analysis of the transport network using a community detection algorithm enables the extraction of hydrodynamical provinces which are delimited by frontiers matching multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. We also analyze novel connectivity metrics for the existing marine reserves and we discussed our results in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design. Secondly, we studied the local properties of the network with the computation of proxies commonly used in population ecology to measure local retention, self-recruitment and larval sources/sinks. Our results confirmed that retention processes are favored along certain coastlines due to specific oceanographic conditions while they are weak in the open ocean. Moreover, we found that divergent (convergent) oceanic zones resulting from Ekman theory are systematically characterized by larval sources (sinks). Finally, although these proxies are often studied separately in the literature, we suggest they are inter-related under certain conditions. Their integrated interpretation leads to a better understanding of population dynamics and persistence, informing both genetic and demographic connectivities. Our basin-scale results have also managerial implications, especially considering the growing interests for offshore MPAs, as they are useful to evaluate existing MPAs and to implement futures ones.

  17. Middle pleistocene mollusks from St. Lawrence Island and their significance for the paleo-oceanography of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Patton, W.W.

    1972-01-01

    Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression. A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait. ?? 1972.

  18. Three Decades of Precision Orbit Determination Progress, Achievements, Future Challenges and its Vital Contribution to Oceanography and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Although satellite altimetry has been around for thirty years, the last fifteen beginning with the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon (TP) have yielded an abundance of significant results including: monitoring of ENS0 events, detection of internal tides, determination of accurate global tides, unambiguous delineation of Rossby waves and their propagation characteristics, accurate determination of geostrophic currents, and a multi-decadal time series of mean sea level trend and dynamic ocean topography variability. While the high level of accuracy being achieved is a result of both instrument maturity and the quality of models and correction algorithms applied to the data, improving the quality of the Climate Data Records produced from altimetry is highly dependent on concurrent progress being made in fields such as orbit determination. The precision orbits form the reference frame from which the radar altimeter observations are made. Therefore, the accuracy of the altimetric mapping is limited to a great extent by the accuracy to which a satellite orbit can be computed. The TP mission represents the first time that the radial component of an altimeter orbit was routinely computed with an accuracy of 2-cm. Recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to compute the radial component of Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm. Additionally, still further improvements in TP orbits are being achieved with new techniques and algorithms largely developed from combined Jason and TP data analysis. While these recent POD achievements are impressive, the new accuracies are now revealing subtle systematic orbit error that manifest as both intra and inter annual ocean topography errors. Additionally the construction of inter-decadal time series of climate data records requires the removal of systematic differences across multiple missions. Current and future efforts must focus on the understanding and reduction of these errors in order to generate a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits across multiple missions and decades required for the most stringent climate-related research. This presentation discusses the POD progress and achievements made over nearly three decades, and presents the future challenges, goals and their impact on altimetric derived ocean sciences.

  19. A Downscaling Analysis of the Urban Influence on Rainfall: TRMM Satellite Component AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Burian, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    A recent publication by Shepherd et al. (2002) demonstrated the feasibility of using TRMM precipitation radar (PR) estimates to identify precipitation anomalies caused by urbanization. The approach is particularly useful for investigating this global process because TRMM data span large portions of the globe and comprise an extended temporal dataset. Recent literature suggests that urbanized regions of Houston, Texas may be influencing lightning and precipitation formation over and downwind of the city. Possible mechanisms include: (1) enhanced convergence through interactions between the sea breeze, Galveston bay breeze, and urban heat island circulations, (2) enhanced convergence due to increased surface roughness over the city and/or destabilization of the boundary layer by the UHI, or (3) enhanced cloud condensation nuclei due to urban and industrial aerosol sources. In this study, a downscaling analysis of spatial and temporal trends in rainfall around the Houston Area is being conducted. The downscaling analysis concept involves identifying and quantifying urban rainfall anomalies at progressively smaller spatial and temporal scales using the TRMM satellite, ground-based radar, and a dense network of rain gauges. The goal is to test the hypothesis that the Houston urban district and regions in the climatological downwind region of the city exhibit enhanced rainfall amounts relative to the climatological upwind regions. TRMM was launched in 1997 and currently operates in a low-inclination (35 deg), non-sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 402 km (350 km prior to August 2001). The satellite analysis follows the methodologies described in Shepherd et al. (2002). Nearly five years of TRMM PR-derived mean monthly rainfall estimates are utilized to produce annual and warm season isohyetal analyses around Houston. Early results indicate that rainfall rates (mm/h) for the entire period are largest within 100 km northeast and east of Houston (e.g. the "hypothesized downwind region"). The mean rainfall rate over the Houston urban center is 30.5% larger than the upwind control region. The mean rainfall rate in the downwind region is 34.4% larger than the upwind region. An analysis of a parameter called the urban rainfall ratio (URR) illustrates that 65% (88%) of the satellite-derived rainfall rates in the downwind (upwind control) region are greater (less) than the mean background rainfall rate of the entire study region. When the data is stratified by summer months from 1998 to 2001 (June-August), even greater influence over and downwind of the urban area is observed in the statistics. This result is consistent with published reports of urban-generated rainfall being more prevalent in the warm season. The research demonstrates that the evolving TRMM satellite climatology is a credible way to detect mesoscale precipitation signatures that may be linked to urbanization. Early results also corroborate recent findings on Houston-induced convection/drainfall anomalies. Burian and Shepherd will report on other aspects of the downscaling analysis in future forums, but early rain gauge results are consistent with the satellite-based observations.

  20. Customer Support Operations In Support Of The NASA/JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S. L.; Chen, Y. M.

    2004-12-01

    PO.DAAC is responsible for the ingest, archive and distribution of data relevant to the physical state of the ocean. The PO.DAAC provides a level of service for customer support for core Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) missions such as TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason, SeaWinds on QuikSCAT, SeaWinds on ADEOS-II, NOAA AVHRR and MODIS. PO.DAAC's level of support has broadened recently to include missions outside of the EOSDIS including, WindSat, GHRSST, Naval Oceanographic, Monterey Bay Aquarium, AirSAR and GOES. Customer support operations is managed and conducted in partnership between Raytheon ITSS and JPL and includes a full complement of services to accommodate the various PO.DAAC and Earth Observing System user communities. Customer support activities are ubiquitous to service industries from banking to shopping and this presentation will detail how two operational applications have been adopted for use in Earth Science data communities. Customer Response Management Operations System Integrated system that combines PO.DAAC's communications channels including web, email, phone and personal interactions into one intelligent knowledge base. The knowledge is shared with customers and the entire team to deliver consistent and timely information. The system allows 24 x 7 customer support service via extensive on-line searchable knowledge base. PO.DAAC has customized the system to fully integrate with PO.DAAC's existing legacy database and order tracking system. Website Communication Channel The newly redesigned PO.DAAC website (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov) is the central gateway to all of the Data, Tools and Services offered at the data center. The consistent look and feel was developed to enhance the ease of searching and ordering earth science data in particular. Data is accessible within a few clicks using the improved dynamic data catalog interface. New data products and information are delivered quickly to customers via the dynamic system and templates.

  1. An interdisciplinary study of the estaurine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.; Hollman, R.; Alexander, J.; Nuzzi, R.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 photographic data products have been analyzed using additive color viewing and electronic image analysis techniques. Satellite data were compared to water sample data collected simultaneously with the data of ERTS-1 coverage in New York Bight. Prediction of the absolute value of total suspended particles can be made using composites of positives of MSS bands 5 and 6 which have been precisely made using the step wedge supplied on the imagery. Predictions of the relative value of the extinction coefficient can be made using bands 4 and 5. Thematic charts of total suspended particles (particles per litre) and extinction coefficient provide scientists conducting state and federal water sampling programs in New York Bight with data which improves the performance of these programs.

  2. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-01-01

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges. PMID:19025676

  3. Reproductive success of kittiwakes and murres in sequential stages of the nesting period: Relationships with diet and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Heather M.; Drummond, Brie A.; Benson, Anna-Marie; Paredes, Rosana

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive success is one of the most easily-measured and widely studied demographic parameters of colonial nesting seabirds. Nevertheless, factors affecting the sequential stages (egg laying, incubation, chick-rearing) of reproductive success are less understood. We investigated the separate sequential stages of reproductive success in piscivorous black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) using a 36-year dataset (1975-2010) on the major Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George), which have recently had contrasting population trajectories. Our objectives were to evaluate how the proportion of successful nests varied among stages, and to quantify factors influencing the probability of nest success at each stage in each island. We modeled the probability of nest success at each stage using General Linear Mixed Models incorporating broad-scale and local climate variables, and diet as covariates as well as other measures of reproduction such as timing of breeding and reproductive output in the previous year and previous stage. For both species we found: (1) Success in previous stages of the breeding cycle and success in the prior year better explained overall success than any environmental variables. Phenology was also an important predictor of laying success for kittiwakes. (2) Fledging success was lower when chick diets contained oceanic fish found farther from the colonies and small invertebrates, rather than coastal fish species. (3) Differences in reproductive variables at St. Paul and St. George islands did not correspond to population trends between the two islands. Our results highlight the potential importance of adult condition and annual survival to kittiwake and murre productivity and ultimately, populations. Adult condition carrying over from the previous year ultimately seems to drive annual breeding success in a cascade effect. Furthermore, condition and survival appear to be important contributors to population dynamics at each island. Therefore, adult condition and survival prior to breeding, and factors that influence these parameters such as foraging conditions in the non-breeding season, may be important datasets for understanding drivers of seabird demography at the Pribilof Islands.

  4. Oceanography in northwestern Europe during the last interglacial from intrashell δ 18O ranges in Littorina littorea gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Johan; Påsse, Tore

    2008-07-01

    Coastal sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-surface salinity (SSS), including seasonality, in northwest (NW) Europe during the early phase of the Eemian interglacial ca. 125 ka ago were reconstructed from Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) gastropods. The results were based on intra-annual δ 18O analyses in recent and fossil shells, mainly originating from the sea of Kattegat (Sweden) and the English Channel (United Kingdom), and confined to intertidal settings. The Eemian L. littorea shells indicated annual SSTs in the range 8-18°C for the English Channel and 8-26°C for Kattegat. All specimens from the Eemian sites experienced summer SSTs of ca. 1-3°C above recent conditions. The estimated winter SST in the English Channel during the Eemian was comparable to modern measurements of ca. 8°C. However, the Kattegat region displayed Eemian winter SST approximately 8°C warmer than today, and similar to conditions in the western English Channel. The recent-fossil isotope analogue approach indicated high SSS above 35 practical salinity units (psu) for a channel south of England in full contact with the North Atlantic Ocean during the last interglacial. In addition, the Kattegat shells indicated a SSS of ca. 29 psu, which points out a North Sea affinity for this region during the Eemian.

  5. Middle and late quaternary oceanography and climatology of the Zaire-Congo fan and the adjacent Eastern Angola basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. H. F.; Van Weering, T. C. E.; Gieles, R.; Van Iperen, J.

    La stratigraphie quaternaire du delta profond du Zaïre est établie sur la base des variations verticales des teneurs en carbonate, de l'analyse micropalaéontologique et des datations 14C et 230Th de 33 carottes. La vitesse des accumulations carbonatées et non carbonatées considérée en même temps que la conservation des carbonates nous conduit à distinguer les trois principaux facteurs à l'origine des concentrations en carbonate: production, dissolution et dilution par les particules non carbonatées. Les plus fortes productions carbonatées interviennent pendant les optima climatiques des interglaciaires tandis que les plus petites teneurs en carbonates sont probablement aussi liées à une augmentation de l'accumulation calcaire. Les fluctuations sont amplifiées par les effects de la dissolution qui est intense pendant les glaciaires et par les changements du rythme de la sédimentation terrigène. Dans la partie centrale du delta profond, un lobe de forte production carbonatée est localisé en permanence, il n'est pas associé à une zone de forte production de phytoplancton. Ce lobe est la conséquence d'un fort développement du zooplancton qui, pendant l'Holocène et les périodes interglaciaires, se multiplie à partir de cette floraison côtière de phytoplancton. Pendant les glaciaires, l'intensification de la circulation océanique déplace la zone des courants ascendants vers la latitude du delta du Zaïre. Dans deux carottes voisines de la bordure externe du plateau, une forte production en carbonates est observée entre 27 000 et 15 400 ans BP, elle est liée aux courants ascendants provoqués par l'intensification du courant de Benguela, et à une diminution de la sédimentation non carbonatée de de l'enfouissement du carbone organique à ˜ 14 500 ans BP. Une forte accumulation carbonatée se prolonge jusqu'à ˜12 500 ans BP, ce qui résulte un pic de conservation carbonatée à 14 000 ans BP qui n'est pas lié à un phénomène océanique. Une bréve intensification du compensation des carbonates et de la lysocline interviennent à des profondeurs moins grandes (4400 m et 3800 m) pendant les périodes glaciaires que de nos jours (5600 m et 4800 m). Les deux profondeurs des phases interglaciaires sont plus proches des profondeurs des phases glaciaires que de l'Holocène en fonction des dissolutions post-sédimentaires qui sont intervenues pendant les épisodes glaciaires consécutifs. L'hydrographie du Bassin de l'Angola n'apporte pas de preuves quant à des fluctuations des eaux profondes antarctiques qui auraient provoqué des cycles de dissolution des carbonates du Quaternaire de ce Bassin.

  6. Moving toward finer scales in oceanography: Predictive linear functional model of Chlorophyll a profile from light data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayle, Séverine; Monestiez, Pascal; Guinet, Christophe; Nerini, David

    2015-05-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a key role in ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide fluxes. Estimation of carbon exchanges between ocean and atmosphere must rely on accurate estimations of primary productivity which require measurements of phytoplankton concentration within the water column. In this paper, we are interested in relationships between primary productivity and light in the Antarctic ocean. The originality of this work is twofold. Starting from physical hypothesis, a statistical model is constructed for the prediction of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) profiles where light profiles are used as a covariate. Taking into account of the functional nature of the data, solutions are proposed to estimate continuous vertical profiles from discrete data sampled by elephant seals equipped with a new generation of oceanographic tags. Bootstrapped prediction intervals show a good quality of prediction of Chl a profiles, giving access to the shape of the profiles along depth and to the submesoscale structure of phytoplankton within the euphotic layer of the Southern Ocean.

  7. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  8. Data Tools and Services at the NASA/JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumagaysay-Aouda, R.; Bingham, A. W.; Chen, R. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Raskin, R.

    2004-12-01

    The PO.DAAC is responsible for archiving and distributing data relevant to the physical state of the ocean. PO.DAAC products, largely derived from satellite missions such as TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason, GRACE, SeaWinds on QuikSCAT, SeaWinds on ADEOS-II, NOAA AVHRR, MODIS and GOES include ocean surface topography, ocean wind and sea surface temperature. To support users PO.DAAC provides various data tools and services that allow for subsetting by region and parameter, multiple output formats, global and regional quick-look of near-real-time data products, browse image and animation interfaces for selected data products, automated distribution of mission critical data, as well as use of a fast transport interface for downloading data. The following Data Tools and Services at the PO.DAAC will be highlighted: OCEANIDS (near-real-time data distribution), NEREIDS (near-real-time image distribution), POET (subsetting and vizualization interface), Selected Dataset Browse Image Tools, OPeNDAP (DODS) (remote data set access), VAP (scatterometry image and animation web server), EOS Data Gateway, Aspera Web Client Data Transfer Tool, and PO.DAAC's future release of a subscription interface for Seawinds on QuikSCAT data products.

  9. Ocean Front Detection from MERIS and OLCI Ocean Colour Data Applied to Marine Conservation and Global Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Peter I.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean front detection and aggregation techniques were recently applied to 300m resolution Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite ocean colour data for the first time, to describe frequently occurring shelf-sea fronts near to the Scottish coast (Miller et al., in press). This resolution enabled the location of smaller frontal zones and those in close proximity to a convoluted coastline, and was used to identify zones of ecological importance that could assist the process of defining marine protected areas. Frequent front zones are associated with higher abundance of plankton, certain pelagic fish and megafauna. This paper anticipates the improved insights into submesoscale sediment and plankton dynamics that will result from application of these techniques to the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3a and 3b. Looking to the global scale, we show global chlorophyll-a fronts, eddies and other structures detected from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative daily 4 km resolution merged dataset derived from MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS data. This emphasises the importance of the Sentinel missions to improving study of both physical and biological ocean processes.

  10. Satellite data relay and platform locating in oceanography. Report of the In Situ Ocean Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R.; Cote, C.; Davis, R. E.; Dugan, J.; Frame, D. D.; Halpern, D.; Kerut, E.; Kirk, R.; Mcgoldrick, L.; Mcwilliams, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The present and future use of satellites to locate offshore platforms and relay data from in situ sensors to shore was examined. A system of the ARGOS type will satisfy the increasing demand for oceanographic information through data relay and platform location. The improved ship navigation provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) will allow direct observation of currents from underway ships. Ocean systems are described and demand estimates on satellite systems are determined. The capabilities of the ARGOS system is assessed, including anticipated demand in the next decade.

  11. The Relationship among Oceanography, Prey Fields, and Beaked Whale Foraging Habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Elliott L.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; St. Laurent, Louis; Halpin, Patrick N.; Moretti, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales, specifically Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), are known to feed in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. These whales can be reliably detected and often localized within the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) acoustic sensor system. The AUTEC range is a regularly spaced bottom mounted hydrophone array covering >350 nm2 providing a valuable network to record anthropogenic noise and marine mammal vocalizations. Assessments of the potential risks of noise exposure to beaked whales have historically occurred in the absence of information about the physical and biological environments in which these animals are distributed. In the fall of 2008, we used a downward looking 38 kHz SIMRAD EK60 echosounder to measure prey scattering layers concurrent with fine scale turbulence measurements from an autonomous turbulence profiler. Using an 8 km, 4-leaf clover sampling pattern, we completed a total of 7.5 repeat surveys with concurrently measured physical and biological oceanographic parameters, so as to examine the spatiotemporal scales and relationships among turbulence levels, biological scattering layers, and beaked whale foraging activity. We found a strong correlation among increased prey density and ocean vertical structure relative to increased click densities. Understanding the habitats of these whales and their utilization patterns will improve future models of beaked whale habitat as well as allowing more comprehensive assessments of exposure risk to anthropogenic sound. PMID:21556355

  12. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator); Hollman, R.; Alexander, J.; Nuzzi, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo-optical additive color quantitative measurements were made of ERTS-1 reprocessed positives of New York Bight and Block Island Sound. Regression of these data on almost simultaneous ship sample data of water's physical, chemical, biological, and optical properties showed that ERTS bands 5 and 6 can be used to predict the absolute value of the total number of particles and bands 4 and 5 to predict the relative extinction coefficient in New York Bight. Water masses and mixing patterns in Block Island Sound heretofore considered transient were found to be persistent phenomena requiring revision of existing mathematical and hydraulic models.

  13. D. Carlos de Braganca, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap between Formal and Informal Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Claudia; Pereira, Goncalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Braganca, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary…

  14. Investigating the influence of regional climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this region is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the regional offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord region. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the region that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also influence radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar regions of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones, especially fjords and other semi-restricted estuaries.

  15. Surface oceanography of BROKE-West, along the Antarctic margin of the south-west Indian Ocean ( 30-80∘E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.; Nicol, S.; Aoki, S.; Meijers, A. J. S.; Bindoff, N. L.; Iijima, Y.; Marsland, S. J.; Klocker, A.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrographic CTD and ADCP data were collected during the BROKE-West research voyage (January-March 2006) in the south-west Indian Ocean sector of the Antarctic margin. These data describe the large-scale circulation, water masses, fronts and summertime stratification in the surface layer over the continental shelf, slope and rise region between 30 and 80∘E that forms CCAMLR Statistical Area 58.4.2. The surface circulation matched the full-depth circulation and consisted of the eastward flowing southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front to the north, and the westward flowing Antarctic Slope Current associated with the Antarctic Slope Front along the continental slope to the south. Two sub-polar gyres were detected south of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: the eastern Weddell Gyre in the Cosmonaut Sea ( 30-50∘E) and the greater Prydz Bay Gyre in the Cooperation Sea ( 60-80∘E). In the eastern Weddell Gyre, the seasonal mixed layer depths were shallower, warmer and fresher relative to the regions to the east which were deeper, cooler and more saline. This spatial variability is found to be strongly correlated to the large-scale pattern of sea ice melt/retreat in the months preceding the voyage and the accumulated wind stress thereafter. Areas of upwelling warm deep waters into the surface layer are presented from positive anomalies of potential temperature and nutrient concentrations (nitrate and silicate). These anomalies were strongest in the eastern Weddell Gyre in the vicinity of the Cosmonaut Polynya/Embayment, north of Cape Anne and near the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the eastern sector of the survey. The summertime stratification (seasonal mixed layer, seasonal pycnocline and Tmin layer) are discussed relative to the distributions of chl a and acoustically determined Antarctic Krill ( Euphausia superba) densities. Elevated chl a concentrations were found in the surface layer of the marginal ice zone and it is proposed that these are retained south of the fast, narrow jet of enhanced Antarctic Slope Current on the upper continental slope. There is qualitative evidence of these maxima being subducted and transported north in the seasonal pycnocline in response to Ekman convergence from the easterly winds in this region. The seasonal mixed layer within the sub-polar gyres had relatively low chl a concentrations with sub-surface maxima in the seasonal pycnocline and the top of the Tmin layer. Surface concentrations increased once again north of the Southern Boundary in the north-east of the survey. Krill and chl a concentrations were both co-located and decoupled at different locations across the survey. There was no clear oceanographic boundary influencing the distribution of the krill surveyed, though further work is necessary to properly synthesize this and other biological patterns with the oceanographic processes, given the varying time and length scales and intrinsic sampling limitations.

  16. A new concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter capable of precision long-term monitoring in marine geodesy and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennerich, Hans-Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vertical seafloor displacements and geostrophic changes in the water column height could be easily monitored if pressure meters were less susceptible to drift. Currently, these signals, which have typical amplitudes from decimeters to less than 1 mm/yr, cannot be differentiated from instrumental drift. In this paper, we introduce and outline a new constructional concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter that aims for unequivocal detection and monitoring of long-term trends. The concept is based on a differential pressure sensor that measures the pressure difference between the environment and a reference pressure within a sealed volume. This sealed volume conserves the instantaneous pressure at the moment of its closure at the monitoring location in a temperature-compensated manner. Furthermore, the approach enables easy in situ calibration of the differential pressure gauge by simply opening the reference pressure chamber to the environment and checking the zero point offset.

  17. Younger Dryas and Holocene oceanography of the western Labrador Sea region based on foraminifera and sediment proxies from Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Christina; Pearce, Christof; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Kuijpers, Antoon; Reynisson, Njáll F.; Zilmer Christensen, Eva; Juncker Hansen, Mette

    2014-05-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical analyses from three marine sediment cores from Placentia Bay on the southwest coast of Newfoundland captured the evolving surface and subsurface environment of the eastern Labrador Sea during the late glacial and Holocene. The area, which is today located in the boundary zone between the Arctic Labrador current and the warm Gulf Stream in the eastern margin of the Labrador Sea was during the early part of the Younger Dryas (13.0-12.3 cal. kyr BP) dominated by cold, Arctic conditions and heavy sea-ice cover linked to a strong Polar Water component of the Inner Labrador Current. In the later part of the Younger Dryas (12.3-11.5 kyr BP) the influence of the Labrador Current (LC) became less pronounced resulting in more unstable conditions with varying sea-ice cover and increased influence of Gulf Stream water, presumably linked to an increased strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The earliest Holocene (11.5-10.4 kyr BP) saw slightly warmer subsurface conditions in Placentia Bay and increased productivity, presumably caused by a decreased southward transport of Polar Water via the LC. The onset of a strong AMOC caused the northward movement of the frontal zone between the Subpolar Gyre and the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre in the western North Atlantic region to closer proximity to the southern coast of Newfoundland compared to previously. From ca. 10.4-9.65 kyr BP increased bottom-current speeds and the presence of species often found in connection to oceanic fronts, suggest a further strengthening of the AMOC causing inflow of Atlantic-source water into Placentia Bay. This tendency was further strengthened at 9.65-7.3 kyr BP, which saw a relatively strong inflow of Atlantic-source Gulf Stream water into Placentia Bay, evidenced by high frequencies of Cassidulina neoteretis. This inflow of Atlantic was however temporarily halted around 8.2 kyr BP, when a short-lived, extreme peak in Globobulimina auriculata arctica suggests reduced bottom-water stratification. This may have been caused by an increased freshwater release from the Canadian Arctic, linked to the well-known 8.2-kyr event. Around 7.3 kyr BP, the inflow of warmer subsurface waters decreased, when subsurface waters of Placentia Bay returned to relatively cold, subarctic conditions. An enhanced influx of lower-saline water is inferred both by the presence of Elphidium bartletti, indicating an increased flux of meltwater from the Arctic entering Placentia Bay. This fresher water was likely transported by the Labrador Current and strong northerly winds. This scenario was again interrupted around ca 4.4 kyr BP, when higher C. neoteretis again suggest increase influx of Gulf Stream water, a tendency that continued until today, although with possibly slightly better mixing of LC and GS water after ~2.7 kyr BP. This decrease in the strength of the LC, may be linked to a decreased southward flow of LC water due to decreased meltwater release from the Canadian Arctic or due to a shift to a generally more negative Northern Annular Mode.

  18. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment. A report prepared by the Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in the Marine Environment of the Committee on Oceanography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Goldberg, E.D.; Butler, P.; Meier, P.; Menzel, D.; Paulik, G.; Risebrough, R.; Stickel, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS : The oceans are an ultimate accumulation site for the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. As much as 25 percent of the DDT compounds produced to date may have been transferred to the sea. The amount of DDT compounds in the marine biota is estimated to be less than 0.1 percent of total production, yet this amount has produced a demonstrable impact upon the marine environment. Populations of fish-eating birds have experienced reproductive failure and decline. With continued accumulations of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine ecosystem, additional species will be threatened. Continued release of these pollutants to the environment can only accelerate the accumulation of unacceptable levels of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of marine food fish. Certain risks in the utilization of chlorinated hydrocarbons are especially hard to quantify, but they require serious consideration. The rate at which such substances degrade to harmless products in the marine system is unknown; the half-lives of some of the more persistent materials are certainly of the order of years, and perhaps even of decades or centuries. If most of the remaining 75 percent of the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons is now in reservoirs that will in time transfer their contents to the sea, we may expect an increased level of these substances in marine organisms, despite future improvements of manufacturing practices. In fact, if these compounds degrade with half-lives of decades or longer, there will be no opportunity to redress the consequences. The more the problems are studied, the more unexpected effects are identified. In view of the findings of the past decade, our prediction of the potential hazards of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment may be vastly underestimated. The Panel makes the following recommendations, which will be developed and expanded in the remainder of the report: ? A massive national effort should be made immediately to effect a drastic reduction of the escape of persistent toxicants into the environment, with the ultimate aim of achieving virtual cessation in the shortest possible time. ? Programs should be designed both to determine the rates of entry of each pollutant into the marine environment and to make base-line determinations of the distribution of the pollutants among the components of that environment, These should be followed by a program of monitoring long-term trends in order to record progress and to document possible disaster. ? The laws relating to the registration of chemical substances and the release of production figures by government should be examined and perhaps revised in light of evidence of environmental deterioration caused by some of these substances.

  19. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  20. Meeting summary - Coastal meteorology and oceanography: Report of the third prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and NSF

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotunno, R.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Allen, J.S.; Colman, B.R.; Dorman, C.M.; Kreitzberg, C.W.; Lord, S.J.; McPhee, M.G.; Mellor, G.L.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Niiler, P.P.; Pielke, R.A.; Powell, M.D.; Rogers, D.P.; Smith, J.D.; Xie, Lingtian; Carbone, R.

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP) prospectus development teams (PDTs) are small groups of scientists that are convened by the USWRP lead scientist on a one-time basis to discuss critical issues and to provide advice related to future directions of the program. PDTs are a principal source of information for the Science Advisory Committee, which is a standing committee charged with the duty of making recommendations to the Program Office based upon overall program objectives. PDT-1 focused on theoretical issues, and PDT-2 on observational issues; PDT-3 is the first of several to focus on more specialized topics. PDT-3 was convened to identify forecasting problems related to U.S. coastal weather and oceanic conditions, and to suggest likely solution strategies. There were several overriding themes that emerged from the discussion. First, the lack of data in and over critical regions of the ocean, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the upper-ocean mixed layer were identified as major impediments to coastal weather prediction. Strategies for data collection and dissemination, as well as new instrument implementation, were discussed. Second, fundamental knowledge of air-sea fluxes and boundary layer structure in situations where there is significant mesoscale variability in the atmosphere and ocean is needed. Companion field studies and numerical prediction experiments were discussed. Third, research prognostic models suggest that future operational forecast models pertaining to coastal weather will be high resolution and site specific, and will properly treat effects of local coastal geography, orography, and ocean state. The view was expressed that the exploration of coupled air-sea models of the coastal zone would be a particularly fruitful area of research. PDT-3 felt that forecasts of land-impacting tropical cyclones, Great Lakes-affected weather, and coastal cyclogenesis, in particular, would benefit from such coordinated modeling and field efforts. Fourth, forecasting for Arctic coastal zones is limited by our understanding of how sea ice forms. The importance of understanding air-sea fluxes and boundary layers in the presence of ice formation was discussed. Finally, coastal flash flood forecasting via hydrologic models is limited by the present accuracy of measured and predicted precipitation and storm surge events. Strategies for better ways to improve the latter were discussed.

  1. West Coast Physical Oceanography Program: Circulation and particle fluxes in the southern California Bight: (Annual technical progress report): A short report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Field programs consisting of 40 current meters distributed on 10-15 current meter moorings were executed during 1985 to 1988 in the Santa Monica/San Pedro shelf and basin region. The CROSS experiment was designed to investigate cross-shelf/slope/basin coherence scales and forcing mechanisms; the BASIN experiment was designed to investigate longshelf and longslope and round the basin coherence scales and forcing mechanisms; the SILL experiment was designed to ascertain the importance of water and property exchange between basins; the SHELF experiment was designed to study the spring transition period, with a special focus on circulation over the shelf. CTD surveys over the basin and shelf were taken upon deployment and retrieval of the moorings and usually on one cruise mid-way through the deployment. The CTD cruises, each with /approximately/80 stations that include transmission and oxygen data as well as temperature and conductivity, will number eight when the final six months of this grant begins. Several conclusions are possible. With few exceptions, flow the Santa Monica Basin is poleward throughout the year for monthly averages. The poleward flow occurs in long period pulses that have generally short (<20 km) coherence scales. The pulses are not driven by local wind and do not have the characteristics of coastal trapped waves. Pulses of equatorward flow can occur at times, particularly during spring in the surface layers. At this time, inflow from the Santa Barbara Channel occurs (e.g., May 86). The average below-sill depth circulation pattern is a counterclockwise gyre, with speeds /approximately/0.5 cm s/sup -1/.

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL WATERS SURROUNDING THE GULF OF MEXICO IAPSO INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY MEETING, LA PLATA, ARGENTINA, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Coastal Waters Surrounding the Gulf of Mexico (Abstract). To be presented at the Joint IAPSO/IABO Assembly: 2001 An Ocean Odyssey, 21-26 October 2001, Mar del Plata, Argentina. 1 p. (ERL,GB R844).

    The purpose of the Environmental ...

  3. Geological history and oceanography of the Indo-Malay Archipelago shape the genetic population structure in the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris).

    PubMed

    Timm, Janne; Kochzius, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Like many fishes on coral reefs, the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, has a life history with two different phases: adults are strongly site attached, whereas larvae are planktonic. Therefore, the larvae have the potential to disperse, but the degree of dispersal potential depends primarily on the period of the larval stage, which is only 8-12 days in A. ocellaris. In this study, we investigated the genetic population structure and gene flow in A. ocellaris across the Indo-Malay Archipelago by analysing a fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Population genetic analysis, using AMOVA, revealed a significant and high overall phi(ST)-value of 0.241 (P < 0.001), clearly showing limited gene flow. Haplotype network analysis detected eight distinct clades corresponding mainly to different geographical areas, which were most probably separated during sea level low stands in the Pleistocene. The distribution of the clades among the different populations indicated slow partial re-mixing mainly in the central region of the archipelago. Major surface currents seem to facilitate larval dispersal, indicated by higher connectivity along major surface currents in the region (e.g. Indonesian Throughflow). Four main groups were found by the hierarchical AMOVA within the archipelago. These different genetic lineages should be managed and protected as separate ornamental fishery stocks and resource contributing to the genetic diversity of the area. Regarding the high diversity and the differentiation among areas within the Indo-Malay Archipelago of A. ocellaris populations, the centre-of-origin theory is supported to be the main mechanism by which the high biodiversity evolved in this area.

  4. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or chemistry.…

  5. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... of field and laboratory studies in biology, chemistry, and physical oceanography, as well as studies... vacancies in the following disciplines: Biological oceanography/marine biology; social science;...

  6. Reading in Marine Science, A Partially Annotated Bibliography for Young Readers, Nonprofessionals, and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Oceanography.

    Included is a partially annotated bibliography of mostly non-technical books for non-professional readers, young readers, and teachers. There are about 300 entries grouped into these subjects: general references, historical and exploration, biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, geological oceanography, and physical oceanography. (PR)

  7. Remote sensing for oceanography, hydrology and agriculture; Proceedings of Symposia A5, A3 and A9 of the COSPAR 29th Plenary Meeting, Washington, Aug. 28-Sept. 5, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gower, J. F. R. (Editor); Salomonson, V. V. (Editor); Engman, E. T. (Editor); Ormsby, J. P. (Editor); Gupta, R. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    New results from satellite studies of the ocean and radar mapping of the earth are presented. Atttention is given to data from the ERS-1 satellite. Synthetic aperture radar mapping of land surface features and sea ice, radar backscatter measurements, and orbit altitude measurements are discussed. The use of remote sensing in hydrology, soil moisture determination, precipitation measurement, agricultural meteorology, and crop growth estimation is reviewed.

  8. Comment on: "Bachmann, R. W., M. V. Hoyer, and D. E. Canfield. 2013. The extent that natural lakes in the United States of America have been changed by cultural eutrophication. Limnology and Oceanography 58:945-950."

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a recent paper, Bachmann et al. (2013) conclude, based on paleolimnological reconstructions, that lakes in the conterminous U.S. have undergone very little cultural eutrophication. They go on to suggest that their results invalidate the efforts of the U.S. EPA to establish num...

  9. Analysis of 236U and plutonium isotopes, 239,240Pu, on the 1 MV AMS system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, as a potential tool in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, Elena; López-Lora, Mercedes; Villa, María; Casacuberta, Núria; López-Gutiérrez, José María; Pham, Mai Khanh

    2015-10-01

    The performance of the 1 MV AMS system at the CNA (Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Seville, Spain) for 236U and 239,240Pu measurements has been extensively investigated. A very promising 236U/238U abundance sensitivity of about 3 × 10-11 has been recently achieved, and background figures for 239Pu of about 106 atoms were reported in the past. These promising results lead to the use of conventional low energy AMS systems for the analysis of 236U and 239Pu and its further application in environmental studies. First 236U results obtained on our AMS system for marine samples (sediments and water) are presented here. Results of two new IAEA reference materials (IAEA-410 and IAEA-412, marine sediments from Pacific Ocean) are reported. The obtained 236U/239Pu atom ratios, of 0.12 and 0.022, respectively, show a dependency with the contamination source (i.e. local fallout from the US tests performed at the Bikini Atoll and general fallout). The results obtained for a third IAEA reference material (IAEA-381, seawater from the Irish Sea), are also presented. In the following, the uranium and plutonium isotopic compositions obtained on a set of 5 intercomparison seawater samples from the Arctic Ocean provided by the ETH Zürich are discussed. By comparing them with the obtained results on the 600 kV AMS facility Tandy at the ETH Zürich, we demonstrate the solidity of the CNA technique for 236U/238U determinations at, at least, 7 × 10-10 level. Finally, these results are discussed in their environmental context.

  10. The Chemical Oceanographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses career opportunities in oceanography for chemists. These include opportunities related to food, physical oceanography, mining, drugs, and other areas. Educational background needed and degree program are considered. (JN)

  11. Amery Ice Shelf

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... funded by NASA and undertaken by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Australian Antarctic Division. The Multi-angle Imaging ... Laboratory), and Helen A. Fricker (Scripps Institution of Oceanography). Other formats available at JPL Oct 6, ...

  12. Barely Afloat, or Please Pass the Plankton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Leone

    1974-01-01

    Although oceanography is included in most elementary school curricula, there are few easily read oceanography books for the school library. An annotated list of 70 recommended titles is included. (PF)

  13. Seasonality and variability of coccolithophore fluxes in response to diverse oceanographic regimes in the Bay of Bengal: sediment trap results. M.V.S. Gupthaa & b, Lina P. Mergulhaoa,*, Daniela Ungerc and V.S.N. Murtyd a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India b 62, Sagar Society, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India c Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstrasse 6, D 28359 Bremen, Germany d National Institute of Oceanography, 176, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam - 530 017, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medimi, M.

    2011-12-01

    A study on coccolithophores both in shallow and deep sediment trap samples, collected over a period of one year (January 1992 - December 1992) from three trap locations in the Bay of Bengal were used to understand their production and export processes in relation to diverse oceanographic regimes associated with reversing monsoons. A total of 25 species of coccolithophores were identified, which includes some of the important species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Florisphaera profunda, Umbellosphaera irregularis, Emiliania huxleyi, Oolithotus antillarum, Umbellosphaera tenuis, Helicosphaera carteri and Calcidiscus leptoporus. The total coccolithophore fluxes increased from the northern to southern Bay of Bengal where G. oceanica, U. sibogae¬ and E. huxleyi were dominant species displaying seasonality with peak fluxes occurring during southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons reflecting their affinity for nutrient-rich waters brought in by river plumes, divergences and cyclonic eddies. U. irregularis, an indicator of oligotrophic/warm water, recorded peak abundance fluxes only during the spring intermonsoon period at all trap locations thus inferring its preference for oligotrophic conditions caused by increased Sea Surface Temperature (SST), stratification and lack of nutrient supply due to weak wind velocities. The deep dwelling species, F. profunda recorded high fluxes during the fall intermonsoon (October/November) in the northern and southern traps and during the spring intermonsoon. The peak fluxes during the spring intermonsoon (April/May) in the central and southern traps indicated the prevalence of a deep nutricline when oligotrophic conditions prevailed at the surface. Interestingly, dissolution was encountered throughout the year evidenced by the presence of corroded coccoliths.

  14. 78 FR 55754 - Second Call for Nominations: North Slope Science Initiative, Science Technical Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... disciplines: North Slope traditional and local knowledge, landscape ecology, petroleum engineering, civil engineering, geology, sociology, cultural anthropology, economics, ornithology, oceanography,...

  15. 46 CFR 169.107 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operation and the sea, including seamanship, navigation, oceanography, other nautical and marine sciences, and maritime history and literature. In conjunction with any of those subjects, “sailing...

  16. 75 FR 17155 - Preparation of an Environmental Assessment (EA) for Proposed Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... gas leasing, exploration, and development that might result from an Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil... been on ``environmental analysis'' of biologically sensitive habitats, physical oceanography,...

  17. 77 FR 40341 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Appointment in the NOAA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... professionals trained in engineering, earth sciences, oceanography, meteorology, fisheries science, and other..., and Information Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Ocean Service, National...

  18. 77 FR 74169 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... in engineering, earth sciences, oceanography, meteorology, fisheries science, and other related... Information Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Ocean Service, National Weather...

  19. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  20. 46 CFR 169.107 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulatory rules governing navigation of vessels. Sailing instruction means teaching, research, and practical... operation and the sea, including seamanship, navigation, oceanography, other nautical and marine...

  1. 76 FR 36899 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... pursuing masters and doctoral degrees in the areas of marine biology, oceanography and maritime archaeology... results support NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries program performance measures....

  2. 75 FR 68603 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Office of Education Dr. Nancy Foster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... masters and doctoral degrees in the areas of marine biology, oceanography and maritime archaeology. The... support NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries program performance measures. Scholarship...

  3. Final Report for Research Conducted at The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego from 2/2002 to 8/2003 for ''Aerosol and Cloud-Field Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific: Analyses and General Circulation Model Parameterizations''

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmann, A. M.

    2004-01-27

    OAK-B135 Final report from the University of California San Diego for an ongoing research project that was moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory where proposed work will be completed. The research uses measurements made by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to quantify the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth's energy balance in the climatically important Tropical Western Pacific.

  4. Status on U.S. Marine Research. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oceanography of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on U.S. Marine Scientific Research Capabilities Oversight (September 26, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    These hearings focused on the major problems and opportunities in marine research and on the role of both the government and the scientific community in responding to future needs. Included are statements by: James Baker; Donald Boesch; Robert Corell; Tudor Davies; M. Grant Gross; G. Ross Heath; Joel Pritchard; David Ross; J. R. Schubel; Gerry…

  5. The Association of Pre-storm Ground Wetness with Inland Penetration of Monsoon Depressions : A Study Using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) C.M. Kishtawal Meteorology and Oceanography Group, Space Applications Center, Ahmedabad, INDIA Dev Niyogi2 Department of Agronomy, and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishtawal, C. M.; Niyogi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Monsoon depressions (MDs)are probably the most important rain bearing systems that occur during the Indian summer monsoon season. The unique topography of Indian peninsula and Indo-china region favor the formation and development of MDs in the warm and moist air over the Bay of Bengal. After formation the MDs move in a north-northwest track along the monsoon trough to the warmer and drier heat low regions of Northwest India and Pakistan. The dynamic structure of MDs is largely maintained by convergence of atmospheric water vapor flux coupled with the lower tropospheric divergent circulation (Chen et al., 2005), and they weaken rapidly after landfall due to the lack of surface moisture fluxes (Dastoor and Krishnamurti, 1991). In the present study we explored the association between pre-storm wetness conditions and the post-landfall situation of MDs using 54-year long observations (1951-2004) of 183 MDs and daily surface rainfall. Our analysis suggests that the MD’s post-landfall behavior is most sensitive to mean inland rainfall between To-1 to To-8 days (the pre-storm rainfall), where To is the day of formation of MD in the Bay of Bengal. Further, pre-storm rainfall over a broad region along the monsoon trough is found to exhibit the maximum association with the MDs inland lifespan. We further carried out the unsupervised classification of pre-storm rainfall patterns using Self Organizing Map(SOM), a topology preserving map that maps data from higher dimensions onto a two dimensional grid(Kohenen, 1990). The SOM patterns of rainfall indicate that pre-storm wetness is strongly associated with the inland penetration length of MDs with wetter conditions supporting MDs to survive longer after the landfall. Although the pre-storm inland wetness has not been found to be associated with the formation of MDs and a number of MDs form during relatively dry inland conditions during the early (June) and late (September) phases of monsoon, the inland-penetration and post-landfall lifespan of these MDs was found significantly smaller compared to those formed under wetter inland conditions. Interestingly, the formation of a considerably larger number of MDs was associated with axially concentrated (around monsoon trough) patterns of pre-storm rainfall than the wide-spread patterns. The inland rainfall patterns are possibly the manifestation of the strength and orientation of Tropical Convergence Zone (TCZ) that also supports the genesis of MDs through the enhancement of barotropic instability. References Chen T.C., J.H. Yoon, and S.Y. Wang, 2005 : Westward propagation of the Indian monsoon depression. Tellus, 57A, 758-769. Dastoor A., and T.N. Krishnamurti, 1991: The landfall and structure of a tropical cyclone : The sensitivity of model predictions to soil moisture parameterizations. Boundary Layer Meteorol., 55, 345-380. Kohenen, T., 1990 : The self organizing map. Proc IEEE .78(9):1464-1480.

  6. Marine Science Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Report of an IOC Workshop on the Preparation of a Marine Science Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Unesco Reports in Marine Science, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Presented is a syllabus for introducing oceanography and the marine environment into the secondary school curricula of all IOC Member States, whether developed or developing. The main purpose of the syllabus is to promote an understanding of oceanography and the marine environment. The syllabus is action- and output-oriented, as well as…

  7. Oceanographic satellite remote sensing: Registration, rectification, and data integration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of data integration in oceanography is discussed. Recommendations are made for technique development and evaluation, understanding requirements, and packaging techniques for speed, efficiency and ease of use. The primary satellite sensors of interest to oceanography are summarized. It is concluded that imaging type sensors make image processing an important tool for oceanographic studies.

  8. Education in Marine Science and Technology--Historical and Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Robert B.

    This review of marine science and technology education and related issues was presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27, 1967. Areas reviewed include manpower supply and demand, oceanography education history, oceanography and the social sciences, training of technicians, the ocean engineer, education for…

  9. 32 CFR 770.31 - List of major naval installations in the State of Hawaii and cognizant commanders authorized to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860. Also see 32 CFR part 763. (2) Kaula. Contact: Commander Naval Base... 96860. (2) Naval Western Oceanography Center, Pearl Harbor. Contact: Commanding Officer, Naval Western Oceanography Center, Box 113, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860. (3) Naval Air Station, Barbers Point. Contact:...

  10. Marine and Environmental Studies Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This laboratory manual was developed for a field-oriented high school oceanology program. The organization of the units includes a selection of supplementary activities to allow students to explore ocean studies in more depth. Included are 19 units. The units include biological oceanography, physical oceanography, and some social science topics. A…

  11. EOSDIS Data for Oceans Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, S.; Collins, D.

    1995-01-01

    The JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is one of nine centers processing data for the Earth Observation System. As the physical oceanography data center, it archives, processes, and distributes data to researchers from various satellites. Data holdings can be searched through the Global Change Master Directory, and an advanced information management system is now in prototype.

  12. Some Thoughts on Free Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The author publishes and freely distributes three online textbooks. "Introduction to Physical Oceanography" is available as a typeset book in Portable Document Format (PDF) or as web pages. "Our Ocean Planet: Oceanography in the 21st Century" and "Environmental Science in the 21st Century" are both available as web pages. All three books, which…

  13. Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Ronald B.; Schnitger, Ronald L.

    This guide provides teachers with copies of the materials given to students participating in the oceanography program of the Orange County Floating Laboratory Program and provides information concerning colleges and universities offering courses in oceanography and marine science, source of films, and sources of publications concerning the Navy's…

  14. AGU GIFT Appeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    As the ocean sciences have grown in size and scope and matured intellectually and institutionally, scientific communications in many forms have become increasingly important. Fortunately, the AGU offers a broad program of scientific communications. In recent years the AGU has responded to the newly articulated communications needs of the burgeoning ocean sciences community. For example, it has initiated the monthly Oceanography Report in Eos; instituted a separate, alternating oceanography issue of the Green JGR; expanded greatly the time and space allocations of the oceanography sessions at national AGU meetings; supported the Chapman Conference on Ocean Fronts, the International Symposium on Coastal Upwelling, and the first Ocean Sciences Meeting (jointly with ASLO); fostered development of the oceanography luncheons, where timely topics for the community are aired; promoted development of the oceanography careers booklet (in advance preparation); and inaugurated the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences Monograph Series. I consider that not bad for starters!

  15. The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

  16. Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Listed are some new programs added in different institutions. Topics listed are oceanography, environmental education, interdisciplinary education, computer assisted instruction in chemistry laboratory, elementary education and FORTRAN IV for beginning students. (PS)

  17. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  18. Centering on Sea Life in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruendike, Janis L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an oceanography learning center for elementary/middle school students, focusing on use of games (review jeopardy), instructional tapes, flash cards, activity felt boards, picture puzzles, reading materials, science displays, and experiment stations. (JN)

  19. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront.

  20. Elective Program Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Christelle

    1976-01-01

    Outlined is an interdisciplinary program in Ecology and Oceanography for grades six through eight. Numerous student projects are suggested in the outline and the course requirements and the project system are explained. (MA)

  1. A Model for Teaching the Dynamical Theory of Tides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, L. Bruce

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical theory of tides is often neglected in teaching oceanography because students have difficulty in visualizing the movements of the tides across the glove. A schematic diagram portraying amphidromic systems as mechanical gears helps overcome these problems. (Author)

  2. Updating the Vision for Marine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to update the content, philosophical stance, and pedagogy of marine education to reflect recent advances in these areas. Cites some developments in oceanography and ocean engineering. Proposes ways teachers can learn about and utilize this knowledge. (RT)

  3. Mission Possible: The Sea Semester Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saveland, Robert N.; Stoner, Allan W.

    1985-01-01

    The "Research Vessel Westward" provides a sea-going research laboratory for students from various disciplines to learn oceanography concepts and research techniques while earning university credit. Descriptions of equipment, organizational structure, and student research responsibilities are presented. (DH)

  4. Early Adolescence: Active Science for Middle Schoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Michael; Griffin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Describes activities appropriate for involving middle school students as active participants in the learning process. Topics discussed include archaeology, bulletin boards, dramatizations, physics experiments using the human body, oceanography, and ecology. (CS)

  5. MAOS: An Innovative Way to Teach High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harray, Nancy; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an innovative high school program that uses oceanography, mathematics, and science as common threads in the instructional program. The program utilizes an innovative class structure, community involvement, and hands on activities. (DDR)

  6. Ten Days at Sea: For Grades K through 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Marian

    1977-01-01

    Outlines a 10-day unit in oceanography for the primary grades. Suggest stories, chalkboard work, topics for discussion, coloring projects, experiments, films, reference books, and topics for research projects. (CS)

  7. A Semester of Geology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestana, Harold R.

    1982-01-01

    Described is a nine-week undergraduate semester program (12 credit hours) conducted at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research which included three courses: introductory oceanography, sedimentology, and independent field study. Brief descriptions of sample student projects are included. (DC)

  8. New Species Found!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinemann, Deborah; Thomas, Jolie

    2003-01-01

    Explains a 4th grade lesson on oceans in which students create imaginary marine animals. Creatively assesses student understanding of habitat and adaptation. Overviews 14 lessons in the oceanography unit. (SOE)

  9. Building Websites for Science Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welborn, Victoria; Kanar, Bryn

    2000-01-01

    Suggests guidelines for evaluating and organizing Websites on scientific concepts that are developed from definitions of science literacy and science information literacy. Includes a sample webilography and a sample search strategy on the topic of acoustical oceanography. (Author/LRW)

  10. Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Kenneth Tyrone

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)

  11. Significant accomplishments in science and technology, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1974. [proceedings - NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Topics covered are: (1) earth resources (climatology, oceanography, soils, strip mines), and (2) astronomy (magnetic fields and atmospheres of the planets and the sun; galactic and interstellar gas; cosmic and X-ray radiation). Photographs of satellite observations are included.

  12. Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Environmental characteristics and human interaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1998-10-01

    This report is a multidisciplinary update of various topics concerning the Banks -- oceanography, meteorology, commercial fishing, recreation, military activities, hydrocarbon development, and potential environmental impacts. The area surrounding the Flower Garden Banks is increasingly active with oil and gas development.

  13. 30 CFR 585.646 - What information and certifications must I submit with my GAP to assist BOEM in complying with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CZMA: (1) 15 CFR part 930, subpart D, for noncompetitive leases; (2) 15 CFR part 930, subpart E, for...: Type of information: Including: (a) Hazard information Meteorology, oceanography, sediment...

  14. 30 CFR 585.646 - What information and certifications must I submit with my GAP to assist BOEM in complying with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) 15 CFR part 930, subpart D, if the GAP is submitted prior to lease or grant issuance; (B) 15 CFR part... information: Including: (1) Hazard information Meteorology, oceanography, sediment transport, geology,...

  15. 30 CFR 585.646 - What information and certifications must I submit with my GAP to assist BOEM in complying with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CZMA: (1) 15 CFR part 930, subpart D, for noncompetitive leases; (2) 15 CFR part 930, subpart E, for...: Type of information: Including: (a) Hazard information Meteorology, oceanography, sediment...

  16. Remote sensing applied to crop disease control, urban planning, and monitoring aquatic plants, oil spills, rangelands, and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to land management, urban planning, agriculture, oceanography, and environmental monitoring is discussed. The results of various projects are presented along with cost effective considerations.

  17. The gulf and peninsular province of the Californias

    SciTech Connect

    Dauphin, J.P.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Gulf and Peninsular Province of the Californias: Geological and geophysical maps; Regional geophysics and geology; Physical oceanography, primary productivity, and sedimentology, and Hydrothermal processes.

  18. Lesson 1: Wind, waves, and weather, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book acquaints rig crews with the environment they will encounter offshore; covers basic meteorology and oceanography, effects of the environment on offshore operations, and safety procedures to be followed in severe weather and sea conditions.

  19. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1980-01-31

    Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)

  20. Catalog of Computer Programs Used in Undergraduate Geological Education. Second Edition. Installment 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, H. Robert

    1984-01-01

    Describes 70 computer programs related to (1) structural geology; (2) sedimentology and stratigraphy; and (3) the environment, groundwater, glacial geology, and oceanography. Potential use(s), language, required hardware, and sources are included. (JM)

  1. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  2. Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.

  3. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  4. Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettner, David A.; Clark, William

    1997-01-01

    Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics departments and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, physics, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…

  5. Earth Observing System. Volume 1, Part 2: Science and Mission Requirements. Working Group Report Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Areas of global hydrologic cycles, global biogeochemical cycles geophysical processes are addressed including biological oceanography, inland aquatic resources, land biology, tropospheric chemistry, oceanic transport, polar glaciology, sea ice and atmospheric chemistry.

  6. John Murray / MABAHISS expedition versus the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) in retrospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, A. A.; Morcos, S. A.

    In addition to its scientific achievements, the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition was a unique experiment in technology transfer and it pioneered bilateral relations in the field of oceanography, at a time when the Law of the Sea was not even an embryonic concept. The Expedition will be remembered for its profound influence on the development of oceanography in Egypt, and subsequently in several Arab and African countries, as well as for its socio-economic impact in Egypt. The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was an elaborate exercise involving both the most sophisticated developments in oceanography of the day and the full complexity of international relations which necessitated the scientific, coordinating and supporting mechanisms of SCOR, IOC and Unesco combined. Each exercise separated by 25 years represented a significant event in the development of oceanography. Each was a natural product of the prevailing state of the art and the international climate. Oceanography had made a quantum jump in technology in the intervening quarter of a century, which had put the cost of deep sea oceanography quite beyond the financial capabilities of many developing countries, an important factor to bear in mind when comparing the impact of the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition on Egypt with that of the IIOE, on the Indian Ocean countries.

  7. Scripps museum receives NSF grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography has been awarded a $500,000 grant from the National Science Foundation for a 37,000-square-foot museum exhibition on ocean sciences entitled “Exploring the Blue Planet.” The exhibition will be installed in the Scripps Hall of Oceanography of the new Stephen Birch Aquarium-Museum. The facility is under construction at the University of California, San Diego, and is scheduled to open in fall 1992.NSF is providing approximately half of the funds required for “Exploring the Blue Planet,” which is designed to help visitors explore the many fields of oceanography. “This NSF grant will fund interactive exhibits and changing displays featuring the latest Scripps research that will allow children and adults to experience science as an approachable, creative process that can be used to understand the changing world,” said Luther Williams, NSF Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources.

  8. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1992 activities along with activities planned in 1993 is presented.

  9. Ocean Studies Board annual report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July, 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. The goals of the Ocean Studies Board are: to promote the advancement of scientific understanding of the ocean by overseeing the health of ocean sciences and stimulating their progress; to encourage the wise use of the ocean and its resources through the application of scientific knowledge; to lead in the formulation of national and international marine policy and to clarify scientific issues that affect this policy; and to promote international cooperation in oceanographic research and to improve scientific and technical assistance to developing countries. The Ocean Studies Board is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering, and marine policy. This report reviews existing projects and discusses the progress of ocean research programs.

  10. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1993 activities along with activities planned in 1994 is presented.

  11. Teaching marine science to the next generation: Innovative programs for 6th”8th Graders gain momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Coble, P. G.; Greely, T.

    Three educational outreach programs designed for middle school students (grades 6, 7, and 8) by faculty at the University of South Florida (USF) Department of Marine Science are turning kids onto science. The programs are bringing marine science research and its various technologies into the classroom, where students follow up with hands-on activities. Project Oceanography (PO) is an interactive broadcast that exposes students to the concepts and tools of current marine science research. The Oceanography Camp for Girls (OCG) boosts girls' curiosity and interest in science and nature. And teachers become better equipped to present current marine science topics and technology to their students at the Teachers Oceanography Workshop (TOW). All of the programs created by USF are provided at no cost to students or their institutions.

  12. Ocean Education for the 21st Century: When Should it Begin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, M.

    2002-12-01

    The publication of "The Oceans" by Sverdrup, Johnson, and Fleming provided an integrating approach to the field of oceanography that was widely adopted by graduate ocean science programs across the nation as the basis of a core curriculum. Most researchers today would agree that proper graduate-level training across the various sub-disciplines of oceanography is sound pedagogy. It is even more apparent today than it was 60 years ago that the ocean should be viewed as a coupled physical, chemical, biological, and geological system. What is far more controversial is the role of an oceanography curriculum at the undergraduate and high school levels. Some would argue that such courses are a poor substitute for comprehensive courses in the basic disciplines, and that they result in students broadly appreciative of the oceans but inadequately trained to further the frontiers in research. Others argue that the lack of exposure to oceanography at the high school and college level is one reason for the shortage domestic students pursuing graduate work in the ocean sciences. I believe that there is another solution that has not been properly exploited, and that is to teach basic high-school math, physics, chemistry, and biology using examples drawn from oceanography and other allied disciplines of the geosciences whenever feasible. If done properly, this approach would increase general public awareness of ocean issues without compromising the rigor of the curriculum. What is needed is a new generation of textbook writers who will use the oceans to teach math, physics, chemistry, or biology, rather than just teaching oceanography through math, physics, biology, and chemistry.

  13. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    S. Bradley Moran has taken a post as assistant director, ocean sciences, for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He will focus on implementing the U.S. Ocean Science Policy and assume responsibility for a broad range of ocean, coastal, and marine resource-related matters. Moran is on leave as a professor at the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography. He most recently served as program director in the chemical oceanography program at the National Science Foundation.

  14. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analysis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  15. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analsyis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  16. Highlights of the 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Jonathan; Briscoe, Melbourne; Itsweire, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting was the 17th biennial gathering since the inception of ocean sciences meetings in 1982. A joint venture of the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), The Oceanography Society (TOS), and the Ocean Sciences section of AGU, the meeting was by far the largest ever: More than 5600 attendees made this meeting more than 30% larger than any previous one. Forty percent of attendees live outside the United States, hailing from 55 countries, showing the importance of this meeting as an international gathering of ocean scientists.

  17. De Anza Summer College "By the Sea"; Evaluation Report, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Redwoods, Eureka, CA.

    This report describes an off-campus alternative to traditional summer school sponsored by De Anza College and College of the Redwoods (California). Three twelve-day, concentrated summer programs, called "Action Learning Modules", utilized an interdisciplinary approach. The first module combined oceanography, marine biology, and scuba diving. A…

  18. Maurycy Pius Rudzki and the birth of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackowski, Antoni; Krzemień, Kazimierz

    2016-02-01

    The article describes briefly the life and fundamental work of Rudzki in geology, geography, seismology, oceanography and meteorology. In 1895 he became head of the world's first department of geophysics and meteorology at the Jagiellonian University of Kraków, the second oldest university north of the Alps (Prague being the oldest).

  19. Reports to the Nation on our changing planet. Winter 1991 No. 1: The climate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This pamphlet is a semi-annual report for the period April 1992 through September 1992 dealing with the study of climatology. This introductory pamphlet treats in the simplest of terms such topics as climate change, the greenhouse effect, the global heat engine, hydrology, oceanography, computers and climatology, ice ages, and global warming. Informative charts are included.

  20. Remote Sensing of Earth and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertler, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses basic principles of remote sensing applications and five areas of the earth resources survey program: agriculture and forestry production; geography, cartography, cultural resources; geology and mineral resources; hydrology and water resources; and oceanography and marine resources. Indicates that information acquisition is the first…

  1. CAMS--A Think Tank for Global Ocean Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaharl, Victoria A.

    1985-01-01

    The Center for the Analysis of Marine Systems (CAMS) was created as an interdisciplinary "think tank" to meet needs of modern oceanography. The international research center's focus and success rests on theory, observation, and computer modeling. Projects involving lava flow and year-to-year variations in abundance of fish are described. (DH)

  2. US National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA

    1991-01-01

    An authoritative record of contributions of geophysical research in the U.S. during 1987-1990 is reported. Major areas of research include atmospheric sciences, geodesy, hydrology, planetology, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, volcanology, geochemistry, petrology, oceanography, seismology, tectonophysics, and solar-planetary relations.

  3. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  4. Ideas for a future earth observing system from geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, William E.; Hall, Forrest; Esaias, Wayne; Maxwell, Marvin; Suomi, Verner E.; Von Bun, Fritz

    1986-01-01

    Uses for the proposed geosynchronous platform are described. The geosynchronous satellite could provide good spatial and temporal resolution, a large field-of-view, easier calibration, stereography, and data relay. The limitations of the platform are discussed. The applications of the geosynchronous platform to meteorology, earth surveying, and oceanography are examined.

  5. The Touch of the Wild.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Ted

    2002-01-01

    A widower describes a week-long camping trip he and his two sons took at the Audubon Family Camp at Hog Island (Maine). Scientists and educators provided lectures, games, art projects, and field courses on subjects ranging from oceanography to forest ecology. Spending time in nature proved healing for the family as well. (TD)

  6. Partnering with Faculty To Interweave Internet Instruction into College Coursework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Topsy N.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how librarians can interact with faculty members to incorporate Internet instruction into college coursework. Active learning and creating Web pages are discussed, and a six-page appendix presents an example of a Web-based exercise for a basic oceanography course. (LRW)

  7. Sea Floor off San Diego, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Ocean-floor image generated from multibeam-bathymetry data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Fugro Pelagos. To learn more, visit http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2959/.

  8. Assessment of Evidence in University Students' Scientific Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takao, Allison Y.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Examines uses of evidence in university students' writing of scientific argument in an introductory-level oceanography course. Provides students with an interactive CD-ROM entitled 'Our Dynamic Planet' to write a scientific technical paper. Discusses ways of teaching students the construction of argument in scientific writing. (KHR)

  9. Racial Identification, Knowledge, and the Politics of Everyday Life in an Arizona Science Classroom: A Linguistic Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Brendan Harold

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a linguistic ethnography of a high school Astronomy/Oceanography classroom in southern Arizona, where an exceptionally promising, novice, white science teacher and mostly Mexican-American students confronted issues of identity and difference through interactions both related and unrelated to science learning. Through close…

  10. Technology transfer in the life sciences. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the life sciences. Topics include technology transfer in biogas energy production, biotechnology, pollution control, aquaculture, agriculture, oceanography, and forestry. Technology transfer to developing countries and to small businesses, as well as university-industry partnerships, is described. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Making Science Come Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Dennis J.; Eisman, Greg A.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Academy oceanography major is bucking the nationwide trend toward declining enrollments in science majors study tracks. Nontraditional approaches used include interdisciplinary and applied science, significant instructor experience in applying the major outside academia, hands-on laboratories in all classes, and an oceanography…

  12. Natural Resources Technologies: A Suggested Post High School Program Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soles, Robert L.

    This post high school program development guide considers the following natural resources technological areas: air pollution control, forest, rangeland, minerals and mineral fuels, geological, outdoor recreation, soil, urban-regional planning, landscape, water, wastewater, oceanography, wildlife, fish, and marine life. Within each area, the…

  13. Index to Ecology (Multimedia). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    This expanded catalog lists over 8,000 films, filmstrips, videotapes, transparencies, audiotapes, and records dealing with environmental and ecological topics. Subjects include: amphibians, botany, birth control, city planning, evolution, food chains, farming, oceanography, and sea life. Titles are listed alphabetically. Though entries are not…

  14. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  15. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  16. Newsletter Directory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.

    With the aim of compiling a short directory of newsletters in the marine sciences, I requested that information describing such newsletters be sent to The Oceanography Report (Eos, October 6, 1981, p. 692). The following list is the result. To make the newsletter directory more complete, information on other newsletters, especially about research laboratory and institute publications, would be greatly appreciated.

  17. Marine Sciences in CMEA Countries: Programme and Results of Co-operation. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksionov, A. A.

    In 1971, the 25th Session of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) adopted a Programme for the Development of Socialist Economic Integration. Later, part of this program became a program of cooperation in the field of oceanography, particularly the chemical, physical, and biological processes of certain important areas of the ocean. To…

  18. Only One Ocean: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig

    This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…

  19. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  20. Sciences: A Select List of U.S. Government Produced Audiovisual Materials - 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    This publication is a catalog that contains the National Audiovisual Center's materials on Science. There are twelve areas in this catalog: Aerospace Technology, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Electronics and Electricity, Energy, Environmental Studies, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Oceanography, Physics, and Weather/Meteorology. Each…

  1. Inside the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Yvonne S.; Cina, Anthony; Gimm, J. Aura

    2006-01-01

    Scientists often have to observe and study surfaces that are impossible or impractical to see directly, such as the ocean floor or the atomic surfaces of objects. Early in the history of oceanography scientists dropped weighted cables to the bottom of the ocean. By moving across the ocean at regular intervals and keeping track of how deep the…

  2. SSC marks anniversary of Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At the Hurricane Katrina observance held Aug. 29 in the StenniSphere auditorium, Stennis Space Center Deputy Director David Throckmorton (left) and RAdm. Timothy McGee, Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, unveil a plaque dedicated to SSC employees.

  3. "Water and Environmental Systems": Achieving Student-Centered Learning Objectives with an Undergraduate Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Susanne M.; Foster, Ian D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes and evaluates an unusual and innovative assessment procedure used in an undergraduate hydrology and oceanography class. Working in teams, English students produce research articles published by an in-house, though refereed, academic journal. Professors and students agree that the process stimulates students to perform at their highest…

  4. Literature and the Sea. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astro, Richard, Ed.

    This document is a collection of eight papers presented at a conference held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976. The conference concluded a course offered jointly by the School of Oceanography and the Department of English at Oregon State University. The conference had two purposes: (1) focus on the relationship between…

  5. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront. PMID:18822664

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-71 - Scientific personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific research, or in instructing, or receiving instruction, in oceanography or limnology, and shall not... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific personnel. 188.10-71 Section 188.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-71 - Scientific personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... scientific research, or in instructing, or receiving instruction, in oceanography or limnology, and shall not... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scientific personnel. 188.10-71 Section 188.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS...

  8. 15 CFR 950.4 - National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and disseminates oceanographic data; develops analytical and descriptive products to meet user requirements; and provides facilities for the World Data Center-A (Oceanography). It was the first NODC established and houses the world's largest usuable collection of marine data. (a) Oceanographic data...

  9. 15 CFR 950.4 - National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and disseminates oceanographic data; develops analytical and descriptive products to meet user requirements; and provides facilities for the World Data Center-A (Oceanography). It was the first NODC established and houses the world's largest usuable collection of marine data. (a) Oceanographic data...

  10. Teaching as Coaching: A Case Study of Awareness and Learning in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynnild, Vidar; Holstad, Anders; Myrhaug, Dag

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a number of case studies in Oceanography, an optional module in the third/fourth year of a Master of Science programme at Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The main objective was to gain more thorough insights into student learning by examining two sets of individual oral examinations. In addition, all students…

  11. 46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Meteorology and oceanography: Synoptic chart weather forecasting X X X X X X Characteristics of weather... X Stability and trim calculations X X X X X X Load line requirements X X X X X X X Operating manual... X X Operation of bilge system X X X X X X Leg loading calculations X X X Completion of variable...

  12. Project Marco Polo: Bridging the Gap between Natural and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bein, Frederick L.; Rea, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Describes Project Marco Polo in which students, teachers, and staff from "National Geographic" and the U.S. Navy traveled to Japan. Reports that they studied Japanese culture, oceanography, and natural science while on the trip. Includes excerpts from field journals kept by the participants, photographs of the trip, and a map. (DK)

  13. A Catalog of Curriculum Materials for Marine Environment Studies--Elementary and Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Marine Studies.

    This partially annotated bibliography on marine environment contains a list of learning experiences and curriculum units for elementary and secondary students. A majority of materials were published in the 1970s. Subjects include biological oceanography, which deals with general and specific aspects of marine biology such as plankton,…

  14. The Sea and Its Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    This publication is designed for use as part of a curriculum series developed by the Regional Marine Science Project. As an informative text for a three-week unit in marine science for grade eight, it presents a study of coastal processes and oceanography. An ecological approach to nature is emphasized, stressing the ties between culture, economy,…

  15. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  16. Science for Georgia Schools, Junior High Earth Science, Volume 3-B, Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This is a curriculum guide for the preliminary edition of Volume III-B of Science For Georgia Schools, Junior High Earth Science. The course of study is designed for the eighth grade and includes selected topics from astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, physical geography, and space travel. Topics are grouped under five units called (1)…

  17. Introductory Physical and Earth Science 8AB. An Instructional Course Outline. Publication No. SC-864.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Office of Secondary Instruction.

    Introductory Physical and Earth Science 8AB, a required course in the Los Angeles Unified School District, covers skills and concepts related to matter, energy, space science, weather, and oceanography with particular emphasis on the investigative approach. This instructional outline contains teacher guidelines and course content information.…

  18. Remote sensing and the pelagic fisheries environment off Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearcy, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Remote sensing oceanography at Oregon State University is part of a multidisciplinary research program: (1) to learn more about nearshore oceanographic processes and how they affect the production of marine life and the availability of albacore tuna; and (2) to provide fishermen with information in near real time that will be useful in scouting for albacore concentrations.

  19. A Review of Online Physical Sciences and Mathematics Databases. Part 3: Astronomy, Earth Sciences, and Materials Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.

    1985-01-01

    Last article in a series reviews online databases in fields of astronomy, earth sciences (geology, oceanography, other geosciences), and materials science (interdisciplinary subject encompassing ceramics, polymers, metals, glasses, etc.), noting coverage and search strategies. A table of 28 databases citing major subjects, producers, and starting…

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-71 - Scientific personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific research, or in instructing, or receiving instruction, in oceanography or limnology, and shall not... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific personnel. 188.10-71 Section 188.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS...

  1. Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

    This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

  2. A Comparative Model of Field Investigations: Aligning School Science Inquiry with the Practices of Contemporary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windschitl, Mark; Dvornich, Karen; Ryken, Amy E.; Tudor, Margaret; Koehler, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Field investigations are not characterized by randomized and manipulated control group experiments; however, most school science and high-stakes tests recognize only this paradigm of investigation. Scientists in astronomy, genetics, field biology, oceanography, geology, and meteorology routinely select naturally occurring events and conditions and…

  3. Mentor Master and the Game Show: It's Academic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Patricia D.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews an authoring system for courseware development (Applesoft Basic) consisting of a programed template allowing preparation of instructional units composed of text, questions, and graphics. A higher-priced version includes a game. Geology, oceanography, space science, meteorology, human/plant anatomy, and cells/genetics diagrams are available…

  4. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  5. 46 CFR 11.910 - Subjects for deck officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... X X X X X X X X X X X X Navigation Safety Regs. (33 CFR 164) X X X X X X X 6 6 6 Radar Equipment... Meteorology and Oceanography: Characteristics of Weather Systems X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X...

  6. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  7. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John

    2011-01-01

    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  8. 46 CFR 11.910 - Subjects for deck officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... X X X X X X X X X X X X Navigation Safety Regs. (33 CFR 164) X X X X X X X 6 6 6 Radar Equipment... Meteorology and Oceanography: Characteristics of Weather Systems X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X...

  9. U.S. Federal Agency Implementation Overviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Hi Tech, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Describes roles of eight federal agencies in the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) that will gather information concerning natural resources, agriculture and forestry, climate, earth science and geophysics, oceanography, defense issues, energy and atmospheric concerns, land management, environmental pollution, aeronautics and…

  10. 46 CFR 11.910 - Subjects for deck officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... X X X X X X X X X X X X Navigation Safety Regs. (33 CFR 164) X X X X X X X 6 6 6 Radar Equipment... Meteorology and Oceanography: Characteristics of Weather Systems X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X...

  11. 46 CFR 11.910 - Subjects for deck officer endorsements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... X X X X X X X X X X X X Navigation Safety Regs. (33 CFR 164) X X X X X X X 6 6 6 Radar Equipment... Meteorology and Oceanography: Characteristics of Weather Systems X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X...

  12. Beyond the Classroom--Students Taste Excitement and Frustrations of True Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowenhoven, Nick

    1980-01-01

    Reported is a program of undergraduate research in limnology and oceanography at the University of New Hampshire. The program, The Ocean Projects Course, involves students in all aspects of the research project, from drafting and defending a budget to summarizing and reporting their findings in a final report. (CO)

  13. Marine Education in a Land-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Hounshell, Paul B.

    1980-01-01

    Develops a rationale for integrating oceanography and marine education in land-oriented curriculum at the secondary level. Examples of topics with a multidisciplinary approach are described in the areas of acoustics and music, aquaria, archeology, art, astronomy, literature, careers, ecology, gastronomy, geology, and topics on various aquatic…

  14. Seafarers Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.

    This 60-item, multiple-choice Seafarers Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in marine vocational classes (grades 9-12) to measure a student's knowledge of information that "seafarers" should know. Items measure knowledge of various aspects of boating operation, weather, safety, winds, and oceanography. Steps in the construction of the…

  15. Topex: Observing the Oceans from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of global ocean topography by a radar altimeter aboard the TOPEX satellite is discussed. Technical aspects of satellite altimetry as they pertain to the measurement of ocean circulation are described. The TOPEX mission is explained and a general history of oceanography is included.

  16. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  17. Evaluation of the NJROTC Multimedia Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devin, Phillip D.; Robyn, Abby E.

    The Navy Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps (NJROTC) provides high school students with academic training and military leadership experience. The academic portion of the program consists of a 4-year naval science curriculum that includes these subjects: naval history, sea power, maritime geography, navigation, citizenship, oceanography,…

  18. Graduate Training Program in Ocean Engineering. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Henry R.

    Activities during the first three years of New York University's Ocean Engineering Program are described including the development of new courses and summaries of graduate research projects. This interdepartmental program at the master's level includes aeronautics, chemical engineering, metallurgy, and physical oceanography. Eleven courses were…

  19. Applied programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This document overviews the areas of current research at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Technology transfer and the user facilities are discussed. Current topics are presented in the areas of applied physics, chemical science, material science, energy efficiency and conservation, environmental health and mathematics, biosystems and process science, oceanography, and nuclear energy. (GHH)

  20. College Students Look at the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Maxwell H.

    Twenty-two extracts from the writings of authorities in a number of fields are included in this anthology intended for use in college courses concerned with the implications of trends in cybernetics, economics, resource use, transportation, communication, genetics, population, psychology, religion, oceanography, education, and space travel for…

  1. Ecosystem Effects of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multidecadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and its importance to the Earth’s climate system has been the subject of study in the physical oceanography field for decades. Only recently, however, has the importance of this variability, termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillati...

  2. Marine Program Annual Report 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

    This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and…

  3. Proceedings of the fifth annual NEA-seabed working group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    European Communities, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States on national policies and positions on seabed disposal are summarized. Task group reports on systems analysis, site assessment, canisters, waste forms, sediment and rocks, physical oceanography, and biology are presented. (DMC)

  4. Today's Youth in Tomorrow's Sea. Another Title in the Series "Marine Careers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold L.

    A discussion of many career possibilities related to the sea is presented. The false impressions many people have about the sea and about marine careers are dispelled. Among the career areas examined are offshore industry careers such as oil and gas drilling, careers in fishing, in seafaring, marine recreation, oceanography, aquaculture,…

  5. ERTS-B (Earth Resources Technology Satellite). [spacecraft design remote sensor description, and technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mission plans and objectives of the ERTS 2 Satellite are presented. ERTS 2 follow-on investigations in various scientific disciplines including agriculture, meteorology, land-use, geology, water resources, oceanography, and environment are discussed. Spacecraft design and its sensors are described along with the Delta launch vehicle and launch operations. Applications identified from ERTS 1 investigations are summarized.

  6. NASA oceanic processes program: Status report, fiscal year 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Goals, philosophy, and objectives of NASA's Oceanic Processes Program are presented as well as detailed information on flight projects, sensor developments, future prospects, individual investigator tasks, and recent publications. A special feature is a group of brief descriptions prepared by leaders in the oceanographic community of how remote sensing might impact various areas of oceanography during the coming decade.

  7. History of Science and Science Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Cláudia; Guilherme, Elsa; Gaspar, Raquel; Boaventura, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper, which are addressed to elementary school, are focused on the pioneering work of the Portuguese King Carlos I in oceanography and involve the exploration of the exhibits belonging to two different science museums, the Aquarium Vasco da Gama and the Maritime Museum. Students were asked to study fish…

  8. Using a Laboratory Simulator in the Teaching and Study of Chemical Processes in Estuarine Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Luque, E.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J. M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of Chemical Oceanography in the Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences of the University of Cadiz (Spain) has been improved since 1994 by the employment of a device for the laboratory simulation of estuarine mixing processes and the characterisation of the chemical behaviour of many substances that pass through an estuary. The…

  9. "What We Teach Is an Appreciation of the Sea."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    A "sea semester" space program offered by the Sea Education Association offers liberal arts students a 12-week intensive course in marine science and seamanship aboard a schooner on the North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea that provides adventure, oceanography, and hard work. (MSE)

  10. Underwater Web Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers search for ways to enhance oceanography units in the classroom. There are many online resources available to help one explore the mysteries of the deep. This article describes a collection of Web sites on this topic appropriate for middle level classrooms.

  11. The Chemistry of Seashells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinard, W. Frank

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of infrared and atomic absorption spectrometry in an introductory chemical oceanography course to introduce students to carbonate mineralogy by having them determine both the crystal structure and the magnesium content of seashells that they have collected. (Author/JN)

  12. Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, 1995 Catalog of Education Programs and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is an integrated, sustainable environmental education program that focuses on the concept of Earth system science which integrates fields like meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric science, geology, and biology. The program has the following objectives: training the next generation of scientists to use an…

  13. A Progress Report on an Individualized-Integrated Science Course for Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Eugene S.

    This is a progress report of an individualized three-year science course for use in the senior high school. The course integrates biology, chemistry, and physics with smaller amounts of astronomy, geology, meteorology, oceanography and space exploration. The course is currently in the second year of tryout in the Elk River, Minnesota, school…

  14. Skylab 3 preliminary reference Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) pass planning document. Volume 2: EREP sites and S190 swath study of selected revs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. N.

    1971-01-01

    The ground tracks and S190 swaths are presented of selected revolutions over areas containing earth resources experiment package (EREP) sites. The following eight EREP disciplines are shown: sensor performance evaluation, forestry, geology, hydrology, land use mapping, oceanography, pollution, and weather. Most of the data reported consists of passes over the continental United States.

  15. Marine Science Technician Second Class, 15-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed to provide the theory portion of the Marine Science Technician Program. It includes a review of basic subjects, marine biology, oceanography, as well as meteorologic observations and recording. The course consists of a lesson book…

  16. Marine Science Careers for the Junior High School Student. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Barbara G.

    Designed for junior high school students, this curriculum on marine science careers contains instructional materials on oceanography and related careers suitable for individualized study. The curriculum is organized into a study-direction book (see CE 020 395) and a separate answer-response book (included in this document). The answer-response…

  17. Marine Science Careers for the Junior High School Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Barbara G.

    Designed for junior high school students, this curriculum on marine science careers contains instructional materials on oceanography and related careers suitable for individualized study. The curriculum is organized into a study-direction book (included in this document) and a separate answer-response book (see CE 010 396). The text is divided…

  18. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  19. 46 CFR 169.107 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., oceanography, other nautical and marine sciences, and maritime history and literature. In conjunction with any... Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection determines to present special hazards due to weather or other...-most points on a vessel's waterline corresponding to the deepest operating draft. Marine...

  20. How I Spent My Summer Vacation: Amazing Opportunities for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2008-01-01

    From summer programs in archaeology or Russian to teaching abroad for a year or more, there are many opportunities available for teachers. This article describes unique programs in archeology, geology, astronomy, botany, and oceanography that are available as summer programs; master's programs in languages, administration, writing, and Teaching…

  1. 30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relating to drilling operations in 30 CFR part 250. (7) Revising an approved drilling plan. Before you... stratigraphic tests in compliance with 30 CFR part 250. If the tract on which you conducted a deep stratigraphic... information on the area: (A) Geology; (B) Physical oceanography; (C) Other uses of the area; (D) Flora...

  2. 30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... relating to drilling operations in 30 CFR part 250. (7) Revising an approved drilling plan. Before you... stratigraphic tests in compliance with 30 CFR part 250. If the tract on which you conducted a deep stratigraphic... information on the area: (A) Geology; (B) Physical oceanography; (C) Other uses of the area; (D) Flora...

  3. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  4. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  5. Employment Outlook, Environmental Scientists, Geologists, Geophysicists, Meteorologists, Oceanographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Described is employment in four branches of earth science: geology, geophysics, meteorology, and oceanography. Considered for each employment area is the nature of the work, places of employment, type of training and qualifications for advancement, employment outlook, and earnings and working conditions. The demand for specialists in these four…

  6. Geophysics: The Earth in Space. A Guide for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

    Geophysics is the application of physics, chemistry, and mathematics to the problems and processes of the earth, from its innermost core to its outermost environs in space. Fields within geophysics include the atmospheric sciences; geodesy; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; hydrology; oceanography; planetology; seismology; solar-planetary…

  7. Student Enrollment in Geoscience Departments. 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Geological Inst., Washington, DC.

    Presented in table format are student enrollment data for geoscience disciplines at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Subfields for both countries include: geology; geophysics; oceanography; marine science; geological engineering; geophysical engineering; geochemistry; hydrology; mineralogy; paleontology; soil science;…

  8. U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1987-1990; Proceedings of the IUGG General Assembly, 20th, Vienna, Austria, Aug. 11-24, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Margaret A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    An authoritative record of contributions of geophysical research in the U.S. during 1987-1990 is reported. Major areas of research include atmospheric sciences, geodesy, hydrology, planetology, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, volcanology, geochemistry, petrology, oceanography, seismology, tectonophysics, and solar-planetary relations.

  9. 46 CFR 188.10-71 - Scientific personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... scientific research, or in instructing, or receiving instruction, in oceanography or limnology, and shall not... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific personnel. 188.10-71 Section 188.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS...

  10. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources: A literature survey with indexes (1970 - 1973 supplement). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973 are presented in the following areas: agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  11. From Presentation to Programming: Doing Something Different, Not the Same Thing Differently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galas, Cathleen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of multimedia software and the need to apply constructivist theories so students become more involved with the software, progressing from simply watching presentations to creating simulations. A project-based learning environment that uses MicroWorlds software is described that focuses on marine biology and oceanography. (LRW)

  12. Core Journal Networks and Cocitation Maps in the Marine Sciences: Tools for Information Management in Interdisciplinary Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Katherine W.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the interrelationship between two traditionally separate literatures, i.e., marine biology and physical oceanography, and develops a joint core journal list. The use of journal intercitation data from "Journal Citation Reports" for "Science Citation Index" and from SCISEARCH on DIALOG to create a cocitation map is described. (15…

  13. Marine Science Teaching at the University Level. Report of the Unesco Workshop on University Curricula. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    A group of marine science education educators from several countries were requested to provide guidelines for the education and training of marine scientists and formulate recommended curricula in the following disciplines: marine biology (including fisheries biology), physical oceanography, and marine geology. Included in the report are: (1)…

  14. Sensational Studies in Marine Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, E. C., Jr.; Schroyer, Fred C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a description of a five-week summer course in marine biology and oceanography offered to college-bound, secondary students with varied physical handicaps. Summarizes insights gained after four summer sessions related to communication problems, physical arrangements for the wheelchair-bound, and handicap-proof maps; evaluates the course's…

  15. January Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Frank; White, Marjorie

    1976-01-01

    A transdisciplinary course in marine biology and oceanography is described. The course was conducted during an experimental educational venture in which the school calendar was organized into two shortened semesters and a one-month miniterm in January. The field experience involved activities in the Florida Keys during the miniterm. (EB)

  16. Marine Science Careers. A Sea Grant Guide to Ocean Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono.

    This document, which is intended for high school students who are considering a marine science career, contains 38 profiles of individuals employed in one of the following occupations: marine biologist, environmental educator, fishery biologist, marine ecologist, aquaculture microbiologist, geological oceanography, environmental consultant, ocean…

  17. National Collaboratories: Applying Information Technology for Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Computer Science and Telecommunications Board.

    The Committee on a National Collaboratory: Establishing the User-Developer Partnership was charged to study and report on the need for and potential of information technology to support collaboration in the conduct of scientific research. To do this, the committee focused on three discrete areas of scientific investigation: (1) oceanography, in…

  18. Technology transfer in the Life Sciences. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the life sciences. Topics include technology transfer in biogas energy production, biotechnology, pollution control, aquaculture, agriculture, oceanography, and forestry. Technology transfer to developing countries and to small businesses, as well as university-industry partnerships, is described. (Contains a minimum of 67 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. MERCATOR-Ocean monitoring and forecasting : a 4D vision of the global ocean. Data policy and applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumazou, V.; Nouel, L.; Sureau, J.; Greiner, E.; Landes, V.; Dombrowsky, E.; Charon, I.

    2003-12-01

    Mercator Ocean is a public interest grouping formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. Two thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The new high-resolution model that is now on line offers 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage will be implemented late 2003. Over the next four years, Mercator Ocean also plans to establish a European Operational Oceanography Centre in Toulouse. Objective 1. Develop an operational oceanography system using three-dimensional simulation and a high-resolution primitive-equation model capable of assimilating satellite data (from the Jason altimetry satellite in particular) and in-situ ocean observation data (particularly those gathered by the CORIOLIS centre). 2. Support applications for commercial shipping

  20. Mercator-Ocean monitoring and forecasting : a 4D vision of the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahurel, P.; Toumazou, V.

    Mercator Ocean is a public interest grouping formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. Two thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The new high-resolution model that is now on line offers 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage will be implemented in 2004. Over the next four years, Mercator Ocean also plans to establish a European Operational Oceanography Centre in Toulouse. Objective 1. Develop an operational oceanography system using three-dimensional simulation and a high-resolution primitive-equation model capable of assimilating satellite data (from the Jason altimetry satellite in particular) and in-situ ocean observation data (particularly those gathered by the CORIOLIS centre). 2. Support applications for commercial shipping and