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Sample records for oceanography

  1. Applied oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book combines oceanography principles and applications such as marine pollution, resources, and transportation. It is divided into two main parts treating the basic principles of physical oceanography, and presenting a unique systems framework showing how physical oceanography, marine ecology, economics, and government policy may be combined to define the newly developing field of applied oceanography.

  2. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  3. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  4. Careers in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Charles D., Ed.

    This booklet was prepared by practicing oceanographers to help college students in their search for professional direction. The booklet: (1) points out some frontiers of current research; (2) describes five major subfields of oceanography (marine geology and geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and…

  5. High School Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falmouth Public Schools, MA.

    This book is a compilation of a series of papers designed to aid high school teachers in organizing a course in oceanography for high school students. It consists of twelve papers, with references, covering each of the following: (1) Introduction to Oceanography, (2) Geology of the Ocean, (3) The Continental Shelves, (4) Physical Properties of Sea…

  6. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  7. Physics in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnock, H.

    1980-01-01

    Described is physical oceanography as analyzed by seven dependent variables, (three components of velocity, the pressure, density, temperature and salinity) as a function of three space variables and time. Topics discussed include the heat balance of the earth, current patterns in the ocean, heat transport, the air-sea interaction, and prospects…

  8. Films on Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzon du Rest, R. P.

    This film list compiled by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office is separated into six categories: general oceanography, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, and physics. An index of films is followed by addresses of Naval Districts and lists of distribution centers. Each film listed is described as to content, running time, type of film,…

  9. A Source Book for Teaching Chemical Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Theodore C.; Glibert, Patricia M.

    Chemical oceanography or marine chemistry are taught in many colleges and universities. This publication provides sources for instructors of such courses. The first section of this report is a detailed composite outline of a course in chemical oceanography. It includes fundamental topics taught in many chemical oceanography classes. The outline…

  10. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  11. Developing Online Oceanography at UCSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Dodson, H.

    2001-12-01

    Oceanography at UCSB is an introductory general education science course taken by up to 200 students per quarter. The emphasis is on learning science process by engaging in authentic science activities that use real earth data. Recently, to increase student motivation, the course has been modified to include an Earth Summit framework. The online support being developed for this course is the first step in the creation of a completely online oceanography class. Foundation software was first tested in the class during Spring 2001. Online activities that are supported are writing and instructor feedback, online threaded discussion with live chat and graphics, automatically graded homeworks and games, auto graded quizzes with questions randomly selected from a database, and thought problems graded by the instructor(s). Future plans include integration with commercial course management software. To allow choice of assignments, all course activities totaled110%. Since grades were based on A=90-100, B=80-90, C= 70-80, etc, it was possible to get a better than A grade. Students see the effect (on their grade) of each assignment by calculating their current course grade. Course activities included (most of which are automatically graded): weekly lab homeworks, weekly mini-quizzes (10 multiple choice questions selected at random from a topic database), weekly thought questions (graded by the TA), 3 written assignments, and "Question of the Day" from lecture (credit given for handing it in), The online writing software allowed students to enter their writing, edit and link to graphic images, print the paper, and electronically hand it in. This has the enormous advantage of allowing the instructor and TA's convenient access to all student papers. At the end of the course, students were asked how effective each of the course activities were in learning the course material. On a five point scale, ranging from highest contribution to lowest, the percentage of students giving

  12. LABORATORY EXERCISES IN OCEANOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    DESCRIBED ARE LABORATORY EXERCISES IN OCEANOGRAPHY DEVELOPED FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOLS BY THE SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE 1967 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) SUMMER INSTITUTE IN OCEANOGRAPHY AT FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY. INCLUDED ARE SUCH ACTIVITIES AS (1) THE MEASUREMENT OF TEMPERATURE, WATER VAPOR, PRESSURE, SALINITY, DENSITY, AND OTHERS,…

  13. Estuarine Oceanography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, F. F.

    Estuarine Oceanography is one in a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate and earth science courses. Designed for those interested in coastal oceanography or limnology, the module is structured as a laboratory supplement for undergraduate college classes but should be useful at all levels. The module has two…

  14. Physical oceanography of continental shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.S.; Beardlsey, R.C.; Blanton, J.O.; Boicourt, W.C.; Butman, B.; Coachman, L.K.; Huyer, A.; Kinder, T.H.; Royer, T.C.; Schumacher, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    Knowledge of the physical oceanography of continental shelves has increased tremendously in recent years, primarily as a result of new current and hydrographic measurements made in locations where no comparable measurements existed previously. In general, observations from geographically distinct continental shelves have shown that the nature of the flow may vary considerably from region to region. Although some characteristics, such as the response of currents to wind forcing, are common to many shelves, the relative importance of various physical processes in influencing the shelf flow field frequently is different. In the last several years, the scientific literature on shelf studies has expanded rapidly, with that for separate regions, to some extent, developing independently because of the variable role played by different physical effects. Consequently, it seems that a simultaneous review of progress in physical oceanographic research in different shelf regions would be especially useful at this time in order to help assess the overall progress in the field. This multi-author report has been compiled as a result. Included are sections on the physical oceanography of continental shelves, in or off of, the eastern Bering Sea, northern Gulf of Alaska, Pacific Northwest, southern California, west Florida, southeastern US, Middle Atlantic Bight, Georges Bank and Peru. These discussions clearly point to the diverse nature of the dominant physics in several of the regions, as well as to some of the dynamical features they share in common. 390 references, 23 figures.

  15. Oceanography Information System of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles

    2016-04-01

    Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All

  16. Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John

    The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

  17. Summary of Research 2000: Department of Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    New South Wales , 1992 Master of Science in Physical Oceanography-September 2000 Advisors: Robert H. Bourke, Emeritus Professor of Oceanography James H...Bottlenose Dolphin and Beluga Whale) sonar signals and digitally store them to a PC hard drive. The device had the capability of capturing sonar signals by...different toothed whales, a normal Bottlenose Dolphin, a Bottlenose Dolphin with a hearing impairment and a Beluga Whale, was analyzed. It was observed

  18. The Oceans and the Teaching of Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming, the authors of \\textit{The Oceans}, were both ahead of their time, and behind their time. \\textit{The Oceans} built on earlier texts, such as Kummel's \\textit{Handbuch der Ozeanographie} (1907), that summarized our knowledge of the oceans. It differed principally in its depth and breadth, showing the need for specialized courses of study in biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography. Thus, the curriculum at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography was built on this foundation. As a result, no other comparable field of earth science was as well integrated as oceanography. For example, agriculture, which depends in some fundamental ways on weather, climate, and climate change did not include meteorology within its bounds, although it was nearly as broad as oceanography, including the study of soils, chemistry, and biology. The strengths of The Oceans were also its weakness. By emphasizing the strengths of the separate sub-disciplines of biological, chemical, geological, and physical oceanography the book drew oceanography away from problem-based studies such as those carried out by Bigelow in the Gulf of Maine. Case studies were not part of the basic curriculum. Thus, in 1964, 15 years after the start of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation, the most wide-ranging oceanographic study ever attempted, Scripps did not offer a course on the California fisheries. In contrast, other messy sciences, such as medicine, were often based on case studies. Now, at the start of the 21st century, the circle is nearly complete. Sub-disciplines such as physical oceanography are so broad they cannot be spanned in a single course. And students don't want to learn about important problems until late in their graduate career. To meet their interests, we have begun to offer courses in such topics as global warming or fisheries, bringing in ideas from biological, chemical, and physical oceanography only as needed.

  19. The Oceanography Concept Inventory: A Semicustomizable Assessment for Measuring Student Understanding of Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthurs, Leilani; Hsia, Jennifer F.; Schweinle, William

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated an Oceanography Concept Inventory (OCI), which used a mixed-methods approach to test student achievement of 11 learning goals for an introductory-level oceanography course. The OCI was designed with expert input, grounded in research on student (mis)conceptions, written with minimal jargon, tested on 464 students, and…

  20. In Pursuit of Oceanography and a Better Life for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of and activities in marine geology/geophysics, oceanographic engineering, physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, and biological oceanography. This information, which includes comments on major employment positions (academic, government, industry, consulting), is provided to help students select possible careers in…

  1. Oceanography. Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX.

    Presented are various activities and projects intended to help Boy Scouts earn a merit badge in oceanography. Each project and/or activity is related to a requirement (objective) found in a list at the beginning of the booklet. Topic areas and/or related activities and projects include: (1) nature of oceanography (naming oceanography branches,…

  2. Oceanography for Landlocked Classrooms. Monograph V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr., Ed.; Hounshell, Paul B., Ed.

    This monograph attempts to show the importance of bringing marine biology into science classrooms, discusses what makes the ocean so important and explains why oceanography should be included in the science curriculum regardless of where students live. Section I, "Getting Started," includes discussions on the following: (1) "Why Marine Biology?";…

  3. From marine ecology to biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Eric L.

    1995-03-01

    Looking back from the 1990s it seems natural to view the work done in the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland by Friedrich Heincke and his colleagues, beginning in 1892, as marine ecology or marine biology, and that done in Kiel, under Victor Hensen and Karl Brandt, as biological oceanography. But historical analysis shows this view to be untenable. Biological oceanography, as a research category and a profession, does not appear until at least the 1950's. In the German tradition of marine research, “Ozeanographie”, originating in 19th century physical geography, did not include the biological sciences. The categories “Meereskunde” and “Meeresforschung” covered all aspects of marine research in Germany from the 1890's to the present day. “Meeresbiologie” like that of Brandt, Heincke, and other German marine scientists, fitted comfortably into these. But in North America no such satisfactory professional or definitional structure existed before the late 1950's. G. A. Riley, one of the first biological oceanographers, fought against descriptive, nonquantitative American ecology. In 1951 he described biological oceanography as the “ecology of marine populations”, linking it with quantitative population ecology in the U.S.A. By the end of the 1960's the U.S. National Science Foundation had recognized biological oceanography as a research area supported separately from marine biology. There was no need for the category “biological oceanography” in German marine science because its subject matter lay under the umbrella of “Meereskunde” or “Meeresforschung”. But in North America, biological oceanography — a fundamental fusion of physics and chemistry with marine biology — was created to give this marine science a status higher than that of the conceptually overloaded ecological sciences. The sociologists Durkheim and Mauss claimed in 1903 that, “the classification of things reproduces the classification of men”; similarly, in science, the

  4. Remote sensing for oceanography: Past, present, future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgoldrick, L. F.

    1984-01-01

    Oceanic dynamics was traditionally investigated by sampling from instruments in situ, yielding quantitative measurements that are intermittent in both space and time; the ocean is undersampled. The need to obtain proper sampling of the averaged quantities treated in analytical and numerical models is at present the most significant limitation on advances in physical oceanography. Within the past decade, many electromagnetic techniques for the study of the Earth and planets were applied to the study of the ocean. Now satellites promise nearly total coverage of the world's oceans using only a few days to a few weeks of observations. Both a review of the early and present techniques applied to satellite oceanography and a description of some future systems to be launched into orbit during the remainder of this century are presented. Both scientific and technologic capabilities are discussed.

  5. Ocean Electric Field for Oceanography and Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    learn about ONR concerns and provide feedback on issues, such as opportunities and priorities for Arctic Ocean research. I will continue to...University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory 1013 NE 40th Street Box 355640 Seattle, WA 98105-6698 Final Report Ocean Electric...I supervised. Both were awarded MS degrees by the UW School of Oceanography and are currently employed in ocean studies at APL-JHU and NOAA

  6. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  7. OCEANOGRAPHY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Gulf of Mexico which has been carried on during the past year. Included are reviews of work in physical oceanography, geophysics, geology, geo-chemistry, chemistry, instrumentation, and biofouling. Attention is called to the fact that several special reports have been issued by individual investigators that discuss specific research activities in greater detail. The field work carried out aboard the R/V ALAMINOS is summarized, and publications, papers, and reports resulting from the work are presented.

  8. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  9. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  10. Oceanography in the next decade: Building new partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The field of oceanography has existed as a major scientific discipline in the United States since World War 2, largely funded by the federal government. In this report, the Ocean Studies Board documents the state of the field of oceanography and assesses the health of the partnership between the federal government and the academic oceanography community. The objectives are to document and discuss important trends in the human, physical, and fiscal resources available to oceanographers, especially academic oceanographers, over the last decade; to present the Ocean Studies Board's best assessment of scientific opportunities in physical oceanography, marine geochemistry, marine geology and geophysics, biological oceanography, and coastal oceanography during the upcoming decade; and to provide a blueprint for more productive partnerships between academic oceanographers and federal agencies.

  11. Contributions from the Department of Oceanography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    effects of denitrification on the budget of combined nitrogen in the ocean. Lamer (Bulletin de la Societd franco-japonaise d’Oceanographie) 9(i) :68-77...C.R.B. 1971. Tectonic movement in the Chile Trench. Science 173(3998): 719-722. 612. Dugdale, R.C., J.C. Kelley, and T. Becacos-Kontos 1972. Effects ...R.A. Evans 1973. Long-term variability in the structure of subtidal benthic communities in Puget Sound, Washington. Marine Biology 21: 122-126. 646

  12. Applying "-omics" Data in Marine Microbial Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrman, Jed; Follows, Mick; Forde, Samantha

    2013-07-01

    Due to biotechnological advances and the ever-decreasing cost of sequencing in recent years, there has been a major shift in microbial oceanography to include data on the sequences of genes, gene transcripts, and proteins from environmentally relevant organisms and naturally occurring mixed communities in studies of marine ecosystems. This research area is collectively called "-omics," referring to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics of individual organisms and metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics of mixed communities. These data provide information about how organisms interact with their environment.

  13. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Spanish version is being issued simultaneously by al ititclo lOi : 2re in the % estern Alboran that nearly the Instituto Espa ol de Oceanografia in...Gregorio Parrilla Instituto Espan- ol de Oceanografia Madrid, Spain ToThomas H. Kinder Oceanography Division Ocean Science Directorate Approved for public...in t he w estern .Alboran. ;i it:plcd at 540-rn depth from V1 eerlgclefcso h lk 6I ’,el 0 tC ai ’ oL ! 4 47’ N. ihese instruments I. eto loia efeton h

  14. OCEANOGRAPHY AND METEOROLOGY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Seismic refraction studies Environmental studies off Panama City, Florida Geological Oceanography Chemical oceanography and geochemistry Radiocarbon ... dating of sea water Lipids in sea water Distribution of Mg, Ca, Ba, and Sr, i water Currents and water masses in the Gulf of Mexico Sampling organic

  15. What Oceanography Concepts are Taught in Ohio's Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ray, Jr.; Martin, Ralph E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A survey listing 21 major oceanographic concepts and several sub-concepts was mailed to all Ohio earth science teachers. Respondents indicated that most of the oceanography topics taught were geologically-oriented. Oceanography concepts relating to ecology, chemical, physical or life science are considered less important. (DH)

  16. A Study of Enlisted Training and Education in Applied Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriner, Karl Leonard

    The study concludes that the primary reason for present programs of enlisted training and education in oceanography is to support Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). There is a significant lack of courses, schools, and self-study material available to enlisted personnel on the subject of oceanography. Through more extensive training the aviation ASW…

  17. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2013-07-01

    The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near real time high resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. In the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near real time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential to the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many colleagues and

  18. From satellite altimetry to Argo and operational oceanography: three revolutions in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2013-10-01

    The launch of the French/US mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large-scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near-real-time high-resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. At the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near-real-time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential for the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many colleagues and

  19. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  20. Oceanography of the Southeastern Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This volume, the second in the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences series, provides a synthesis of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The results presented derive from a decade-long multidisciplinary investigation of the SAB continental shelf regime.The SAB extends from West Palm Beach, Fla., where the narrow south Florida shelf begins to broaden, to Cape Hatteras, N.C., where the shelf again narrows. This broad and shallow area is distinguished by the proximity of the Gulf Stream to the shelf break. Large contrasts in the distribution of properties, the strength of oceanic and atmospheric forces, and the high frequency (4-12 days) at which these forces vary have created a unique natural laboratory in which a variety of oceanic processes may be studied.

  1. From satellite altimetry to operational oceanography and Argo: three revolutions in oceanography (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Traon, P. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. Topex/Poseidon revolutionized our vision and understanding of the ocean. It provided new views of the large scale seasonal and interannual sea level and ocean circulation variations. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. The ERS-1/2 orbit was well adapted for mesoscale circulation sampling but the orbit determination and altimeter performance were much less precise than for T/P. We demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. This was an essential first step for the merging of T/P and ERS-1/2. The second step required the development of a global optimal interpolation method. Near real time high resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 years. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near real time at high resolution was essential to the development of global ocean forecasting, a second revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) (1998-2008) was phased with the T/P and ERS-1/2 successors (Jason-1 and ENVISAT) and was instrumental in the development of global operational oceanography capabilities. Europe played a leading role in GODAE. In 1998, the global in-situ observing system was inadequate for the global scope of GODAE. This led to the development of Argo, an

  2. Titan - a New Laboratory for Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2001-12-01

    Saturn's giant moon Titan has a thick (1.5 bar) nitrogen atmosphere, and quite probably large expanses of liquid hydrocarbons on its surface. The physical processes in these lakes and seas will open new vistas on oceanography and limnology. Although the Voyager-era paradigm of a deep, global ocean is ruled out by radar and infrared data showing that at least part of Titan's surface is icy, the photochemical arguments that originally led to the proposal of hydrocarbon oceans still apply. Even if the methane in the atmosphere is being resupplied by delivery from the interior, the ethane produced by photolysis would still accumulate to form large deposits on the surface. The near-infrared maps of Titan's surface from the Hubble Space Telescope and groundbased adaptive optics consistently show a number of dark (in fact, pitch-black!) regions that are strong candidates for hydrocarbon seas. These could be up to some 500km in extent. Titan promises to be a new laboratory for oceanography. Like in meteorology, many ocean processes are better parameterized than they are understood, and thus the different physical circumstances on Titan may shed new light on them. Titan has a lower gravity and its ocean fluids are of lower density, perhaps of lower viscosity (depending on solutes and suspended material) and probably rather more likely to cavitate. The ratio of atmospheric density to ocean density is much larger on Titan than on Earth, suggesting that liquid motions will be well-coupled to surface winds (although the distance from the sun is such that the energy in such winds is likely to be low.) Titan is also subject to strong tidal forces (the equilibrium tide due to Saturn's gravity is some 400x larger than that of the moon on Earth.) Although the 100m tidal bulge stays almost fixed because Titan rotates synchronously, the eccentricity of Titan's orbit leads to significant libration and variation in the tidal strength. The 500km seas allowed by the IR data may yet have a

  3. Developing Operational Oceanography for Marine Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthnance, John M.

    2013-04-01

    Oceanography for assessments necessarily depends on the purposes of the assessments and on the ocean characteristics or variables required for the various purposes. Objectives and variables all have their own inherent time- and space-scales. For variables, these may be determined by sources, transport and/or dynamics, and evolution. Socio-economic interests determine the scales inherent in objectives; these scales are liable to range from a coastal locality to global, and from hours or days to decades. Measurements are limited by available technology and funding, and cannot be expected to resolve the smaller inherent scales as well as giving the coverage sought. Hence an emphasis is placed on (i) making the most of opportunities for concurrent measurements of variables with compatible intrinsic scales, (ii) data management to exploit measurements fully, (iii) development, testing and use of models with data assimilation, to interpolate measurements, to optimise measurements' effectiveness (measurement array design) and perhaps to infer earlier conditions when measurements were scarcer, (iv) models as a means of synthesising varied information to provide assessment "products", (v) feedback from users of these products to raise the quality of (i-iv). Whilst objectives determine the variables of interest, the inherent scales of variables are emphasised as the appropriate control on the density of measurements. This may foster efficiency in operational measurements and their application through models, after further research.

  4. Coastal Operational Oceanography: understanding user needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J.; Lopez, J.; Jerez, F.; Hermosilla, F.; Espino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the 7th Framework European project FIELD_AC, SIMO and the LIM/UPC have undertaken a study about the operational oceanography requirements of a selected group of specific end-users in four different European coastal regions, namely Hamburg, Liverpool, Barcelona and Venice. The activities of all the target organisations are related to coastal issues, varying from aquaculture to marinas and port management, Water Framework Directive implementation, renewable energies and flooding alerts. Information has been compiled using a specific questionnaire that has been distributed to all potential users, in addition to workshops held in the four mentioned regions. A total number of 25 questionnaires have been collected in all the locations from a variety of users. Results have been analysed depending on the location but also considering the type of organisation. Information about the spatial and temporal resolution requirements, variables needed, locations to be considered, frequency of data delivery and formats requirements have been gathered. This input from the end-users is being used both in the FIELD_AC modelling set up and also in the development of an application to visualise the results. Regarding the latter, all the modelling results and observational data will be handled using a THREDDS catalogue linked to a web-based GIS application.

  5. Reflections on international cooperation in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Gotthilf

    1999-01-01

    These reflections on past and present trends in international cooperation in marine sciences are dedicated to Gerold Siedler, the former President of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). Over the years Gerold Siedler promoted international cooperation on various scales. Inter alia he was in charge of the bilateral Brazilian-German Programme in Marine Science in the 1970s, and he was deeply involved in the planning of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment WOCE and in its execution, particularly in the South-western Atlantic (Siedler et al., 1996) as well as in the formation of the marine science sector of the Framework Programmes of the European Union. Apart from his leading role in international committees he has countless personal links over the oceans and across political borders. There are always foreign students around him in Kiel, and more than once he has made good-will tours to coastal states bordering the South Atlantic in order to pave the way for Meteor cruises in their EEZs and to encourage their local scientists to join those cruises. Gerold Siedler is one of the leading oceanographers devoted to the idea of the global community of oceanographers. He puts much effort in establishing new and maintaining old contacts between scientists in various parts of the World and he pushes for joining forces in cooperative programmes wherever individual research vessels and institutes cannot solve problems of the understanding, prediction and sustainable exploitation of the oceans and their coastal seas. My contribution to this Festschrift is heavily biassed towards biological oceanography in the Atlantic and to the European and German part in international cooperation. The biological inclination originates from my personal background, the geographical bias pays tribute to the fact that Gerold Siedler is a global minded German European who has mainly worked in the Atlantic. I will concentrate on some historical reflections, on the growing

  6. Graduate students in oceanography: Recruitment, success, and career prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, Arthur R. M.; Hollister, Charles D.

    Graduate education, student quality, stipend support, and subsequent employment form a triad of concern to many oceanographers. While the number of graduate degree programs in oceanography in the U.S. exceeds 50, remarkably few data are available on numbers of student applications, student survival rates, the quality of the applicants and accepted students, and their subsequent employment.Consequently, most discussions within an institution are based on data from a single school, while most statements made to federal government program managers by scientists are based on personal perceptions and feelings. With the emerging global initiatives, which are very labor intensive, it appears appropriate to ask, “Is there an impending crisis in graduate education in oceanography?” Widespread concern about availability of new talent, the quality of incoming students, and the overall national crisis in science and engineering student recruitment has led many scientists to state that oceanography has widespread problems in terms of student numbers and, more importantly, quality. Often, when a scientist does not find a student in the spring application rites, the scientist declares there is a national shortage of well-qualified students. Moreover, in certain subdisciplines of the field (e.g., physical oceanography) the crisis is perceived as severe and immediate, though as we shall see, physical oceanography is in an improving mode and is also experiencing an interesting increase in the numbers of well-qualified women applicants.

  7. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  8. Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography (DIALOG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The DIALOG Program was founded by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), in order to reduce the historical, institutional and philosophical barriers that limit the exchange of information between limnologists and oceanographers, and to foster interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research. This was achieved by targeting a recent cohort of Ph.D. recipients whose work included a biological component of limnology or oceanography. The program included: (1) publication of the submitted Ph.D. dissertation abstracts; (2) a symposium to facilitate exchange across institutions and disciplines; and (3) establishment of a centralized data base for applicant characterization and tracking.

  9. Connecting Middle School, Oceanography, and the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan W.; Hansen, Terri M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity that features 16 oceanography work stations and integrates other disciplines. Assigns students different oceanic life forms and requires students to work in stations. Explains seven of 16 stations which cover oil spills, the periodic table, ocean floor, currents, and classification of oceanic organisms. (YDS)

  10. A Bibliography of the Physical Oceanography of Straits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Kelley (eds.), Univer- description of currents in the Glebinka Strait in Puck sity of Alaska, Fairbanks, pp. 3-37. Bay (Poland). Oceanografia , Gdansk 5...3742. Archivio di Oceanografia E Limnologia 19:65-82. Whitworth, T. and R. G. Peterson (1985). Volume Waldichuk, M. (1957). Physical oceanography of

  11. Oceanography: An Environmental Approach to Marine Science. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Alan; And Others

    Materials for a full-year course in oceanography are contained in this comprehensive teacher's guide. It provides an environmental approach emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of the study of aquatic science. Further, it allows for pupil interaction as well as independent study via investigations and experiments in the classroom, laboratory,…

  12. A Resource Guide for Oceanography and Coastal Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharon H., Ed.; Damon-Randall, Kimberly, Ed.; Walters, Howard D., Ed.

    This resource guide was developed for elementary, middle, and high school teachers to teach about oceanography and coastal processes. This guide contains information on the program's history and names and contact information for all Operation Pathfinder participants since 1993. The body is divided into 6 topics. Topic 1 is on Physical Parameters,…

  13. An Earth Summit in a Large General Education Oceanography Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, H.; Prothero, W. A.

    2001-12-01

    An Earth Summit approach in UCSB's undergraduate physical oceanography course has raised student interest level while it also supports the course goals of increased learner awareness of the process of science, and critical analysis of scientific claims. At the beginning of the quarter, each group of students chooses a country to represent in the Earth Summit. During the course of the quarter, these groups relate each of the class themes to their chosen country. Themes include 1) ocean basins and plate tectonics, 2) atmospheres, oceans and climate, and 3) fisheries. Students acquire and utilize Earth data to support their positions. Earth data sources include the "Our Dynamic Planet" CDROM (http://oceanography.geol.ucsb.edu/ODP_Advert/odp_onepage.htm), NOAA's ocean and climate database (http://ferret.wrc.noaa.gov/las/), WorldWatcher CD (http://www.worldwatcher.northwestern.edu/) and JPL's Seawinds web site (http://haifung.jpl.nasa.gov/index.html). During the atmospheres, oceans and climate theme, students choose from 12 mini-studies that use various kinds of on-line Earth data related to important global or regional phenomena relevant to the course. The Earth datasets that the students access for their analysis include: winds; atmospheric pressure; ocean chemistry; sea surface temperature; solar radiation; precipitation, etc. The first group of 6 mini-studies focus on atmosphere and ocean, and are: 1) global winds and surface currents, 2) atmosphere and ocean interactions, 3) stratospheric ozone depletion, 4) El Nino, 5) Indian monsoon, and 6) deep ocean circulation. The second group focus on the Earth's heat budget and climate and are: 1) influence of man's activities on the climate, 2) the greenhouse effect, 3) seasonal variation and the Earth's heat budget, 4) global warming, 5) paleoclimate, and 6) volcanoes and climate. The students use what they have learned in these mini-studies to address atmospheric and climatic issues pertinent to their specific Earth

  14. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  15. Support for Oceanography Magazine Volume 19, Number 1: Advances in Computational Oceanography Volume 19, Number 3: The Japan/East Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Ramarui The Oceanography Society P.O. Box 1931 Rockville, MD 20849-1931 phone: 301-251-7708, fax: 301-251-7709, email: info@tos.org Award...ADDRESS(ES) The Oceanography Society,PO Box 1931,Rockville, MD ,20849-1931 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  16. New developments in satellite oceanography and current measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Principal satellite remote sensing techniques and instruments are described and attention is given to the application of such techniques to ocean current measurement. The use of radiometers, satellite tracking drifters, and altimeters for current measurement is examined. Consideration is also given to other applications of satellite remote sensing in physical oceanography, including measurements of surface wind stress, sea state, tides, ice, sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean color, and oceanic leveling.

  17. Current Research Activities of the Department of Oceanography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    cores indicate that concentrations of both chemical The goal of this continuing classes have increased by up to a research is to assemble a unified...ofOeaorah 0 EvhmtL .. - CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES / OF THE DEPARTMENT OF OCEANOGRAPHY University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195 Reference: A81-3...Production control mechanisms of the subarctic Pacific Oceano.............7 Subarctic Pacific ecosystem research : a planning project

  18. Private Collection of Geochemistry and Oceanography Articles Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheim, Frank T.

    2014-05-01

    It's time! I'm disposing of a 37-year career's worth of books and other scientific materials in geochemistry and oceanography. Ordinarily, reprints of articles have little value. However, in the course of my research, I assembled what may be the world's most comprehensive private collection of articles on marine ferromanganese deposits up to the late 1980s. It includes foreign language materials, especially Russian language articles. Soviet researchers played an active role in this field (I cooperated with them and was a guest of the Soviet Academy).

  19. Development of an Introductory Oceanography Concept Inventory Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthurs, L.; Marchitto, T.

    2008-12-01

    Concept inventories are one type of assessment that can be used to evaluate whether a student has an accurate and working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. Although such assessment tools have been developed in astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, fluid mechanics, geology, and physics, none has been available. Our development of an Introductory Oceanography Concept Inventory Survey (IO-CIS) serves to fill this gap. Much of the development of the IO-CIS utilized students enrolled in the Spring 2008 Introduction to Oceanography course taught at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The first step in the development of IO-CIS involved the identification and selection of the critical concepts to be addressed in the course and the survey. Next, learning goals were defined for each critical concept. These learning goals then provided the basis for framing open-ended questions that were administered to students in pre-module in-class Concept Inventory Exercises (CIEs). These open-ended questions each underwent validation and revision with expert and novice input prior to being administered in a CIE. Each CIE comprised 4-5 open-ended questions, which each contained 1-4 parts. During the semester, 4 different CIEs were administered, with the number of respondents for each CIE ranging from 57-134. Student responses were then binned according to misconceptions and alternate conceptions, tallied, and "distractors" were written based on the most popular bins using the same language employed by students in their responses. Student responses were also used as part of the validation process to ensure that the questions were interpreted by students in the manner intended. Student responses were also used as a basis to discard particular questions from inclusion in the overall IO-CIS. After the initial IO-CIS questions and distractors had been designed as described above, 23 one-on-one student interviews were conducted as part of the validation process. As a result of

  20. Curriculum Outline for a General Oceanography Field Laboratory (Review Cycle-Annual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    A curriculum guide, in outline form, for oceanography field laboratories is presented. Designed to complement and expand upon an oceanography lecture course, it provides a list of objectives related to student experiences in three areas: (1) operating oceanographic equipment; (2) gathering, manipulating, and evaluating data; and (3) writing formal…

  1. Effective, Active Learning Strategies for the Oceanography Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.

    2014-12-01

    A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.

  2. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    One of the earliest ocean-related flights was that of Amundsen to be first across the North Pole and Arctic from Svalbard to Alaska in the airship Norge in 1926. Twenty five years later Cox & Munk flew a B-17G "Flying Fortress" bomber over Hawaiian waters measuring sea surface slope statistics from photographs of sun glitter and wind speed from a yacht. The value of Cox & Munk's "airborne oceanography" became apparent another twenty five years later with the short-lived Seasat microwave remote-sensing mission, since interpretation of the Seasat data in geophysical variables required scattering theories that relied on their data. The universal acceptance of remote sensing in oceanography began in 1992 with the launch of, and successful analysis of sea surface height data from, the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter. With that and the development of more realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean models it became apparent that our understanding of weather and climate variability in both the atmosphere and the ocean depends crucially on our ability to measure processes in boundary layers spanning the interface. Ten years ago UNOLS formed the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR) "...to improve access to research aircraft facilities for ocean sciences"; an attempt to make access to aircraft as easy as access to research vessels. SCOAR emphasized then that "Aircraft are ideal for both fast-response investigations and routine, long-term measurements, and they naturally combine atmospheric measurements with oceanographic measurements on similar temporal and spatial scales." Since then developments in GPS positioning and miniaturization have made scientific measurements possible from smaller and smaller platforms, including the transition from manned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, ship-launched and recovered UAVs have demonstrated how they can enhance the capabilities and reach of the research vessels, "projecting" research and science

  3. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map

  4. Problems inherent in using aircraft for radio oceanography studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the disadvantages relating to altitude stability and proximity to the ocean are described for radio oceanography studies using aircraft. The random oscillatory motion introduced by the autopilot in maintaining aircraft altitude requires a more sophisticated range tracker for a radar altimeter than would be required in a satellite application. One-dimensional simulations of the sea surface (long-crested waves) are performed using both the JONSWAP spectrum and the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum. The results of the simulation indicate that care must be taken in trying to experimentally verify instrument measurement accuracy. Because of the relatively few wavelengths examined from an aircraft due to proximity to the ocean and low velocity compared to a satellite, the random variation in the sea surface parameters being measured can far exceed an instrument's ability to measure them.

  5. The role of ocean climate data in operational Naval oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesbrough, Radm G.

    1992-01-01

    Local application of global-scale models describes the U.S. Navy's basic philosophy for operational oceanography in support of fleet operations. Real-time data, climatologies, coupled air/ocean models, and large scale computers are the essential components of the Navy's system for providing the war fighters with the performance predictions and tactical decision aids they need to operate safely and efficiently. In peacetime, these oceanographic predictions are important for safety of navigation and flight. The paucity and uneven distribution of real-time data mean we have to fall back on climatology to provide the basic data to operate our models. The Navy is both a producer and user of climatologies; it provides observations to the national archives and in turn employs data from these archives to establish data bases. Suggestions for future improvements to ocean climate data are offered.

  6. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data

  7. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  8. A new look at the oceanography of the Bay of Biscay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Soto, Carlos; Pingree, Robin D.

    2014-08-01

    Some results of the Bay of Biscay regional oceanography presented at ISOBAY are summarized including contributions to physical oceanography, chemical and biological oceanography, marine geology, deep water ecology, marine pollution, fisheries research and cetacean studies. A long-term analysis of the spring bloom of phytoplankton in the area during the last 17 years (1997-2014) is presented as an example of Bay of Biscay climate research. The Spring Bloom presents cycles of 4-6 years reflecting probably the availability of nutrients from the previous winter and has increased in peak intensity during the last decades.

  9. Introductory Oceanography Taught as a Laboratory Science--An Experiment That Worked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Franz E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a college level introductory oceanography course that incorporates a hands-on laboratory component. The activities include the determination of density and buoyancy, light transmission in sea water, and wave refraction. (MA)

  10. IIth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velden, Christopher; Digirolamo, Larry; Glackin, Mary; Hawkins, Jeffrey; Jedlovec, Gary; Lee, Thomas; Petty, Grant; Plante, Robert; Reale, Anthony; Zapotocny, John

    2002-11-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its 11th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin, during 15-18 October 2001. The purpose of the conference, typically held every 18 months, is to promote a forum for AMS membership, international scientists, and student members to present and discuss the latest advances in satellite remote sensing for meteorological and oceanographical applications. This year, surrounded by inspirational designs by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the meeting focused on several broad topics related to remote sensing from space, including environmental applications of land and oceanic remote sensing, climatology and long-term satellite data studies, operational applications, radiances and retrievals, and new technology and methods. A vision of an increasing convergence of satellite systems emerged that included operational and research satellite programs and interdisciplinary user groups.The conference also hosted NASA's Electronic Theater, which was presented to groups of middle and high school students totaling over 5500. It was truly a successful public outreach event. The conference banquet was held on the final evening, where a short tribute to satellite pioneer Verner Suomi was given by Joanne Simpson. Suomi was responsible for establishing the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.

  11. Oceanography promotes self-recruitment in a planktonic larval disperser

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Peter R.; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; van Sebille, Erik; Waters, Jonathan; Beheregaray, Luciano B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of high-resolution genetic data has revealed that oceanographic connectivity in marine species with planktonic larvae can be surprisingly limited, even in the absence of major barriers to dispersal. Australia’s southern coast represents a particularly interesting system for studying planktonic larval dispersal, as the hydrodynamic regime of the wide continental shelf has potential to facilitate onshore retention of larvae. We used a seascape genetics approach (the joint analysis of genetic data and oceanographic connectivity simulations) to assess population genetic structure and self-recruitment in a broadcast-spawning marine gastropod that exists as a single meta-population throughout its temperate Australian range. Levels of self-recruitment were surprisingly high, and oceanographic connectivity simulations indicated that this was a result of low-velocity nearshore currents promoting the retention of planktonic larvae in the vicinity of natal sites. Even though the model applied here is comparatively simple and assumes that the dispersal of planktonic larvae is passive, we find that oceanography alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic structure and self-recruitment. Our study contributes to growing evidence that sophisticated larval behaviour is not a prerequisite for larval retention in the nearshore region in planktonic-developing species. PMID:27687507

  12. Creating Education and Outreach Opportunities in Microbial Oceanography through Partnerships between Scientists and Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilles, K.; Weersing, K.; Walker, G.; Bruno, B. C.

    2008-05-01

    C-MORE is an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center. Headquartered at the Univ of Hawaii at Manoa, C- MORE has five partner institutions: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Oregon State Univ, Univ of California at Santa Cruz and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Research and education activities occur at all six institutions. C-MORE's goals include educating and training a diverse population of teachers and students in microbial oceanography, providing professional development and training opportunities for scientists and educators, and improving public awareness of microbial oceanography. To date, C-MORE has focused on K-12 teacher-training, which include shipboard experiences, professional development workshops and mini-grants to incorporate microbial oceanography into K-12 curriculum. C-MORE's education and outreach activities are joint efforts between scientists and educators. Scientists have the microbial oceanography content knowledge and research skills, while educators can translate this information into everyday language and develop curriculum aligned with state and national standards. Some examples of upcoming events are given below. During Spring 2008, C-MORE will offer a six-week teacher workshop in microbial oceanography in Hawaii for local teachers. Emphasis is on research methods and laboratory skills. In mid-June, a two-day education cruise will engage teachers in scientific research in microbial oceanography. Working closely with microbial oceanographers, teachers will participate in sampling and analysis. In July, C-MORE will co-sponsor a nationwide teacher workshop on microbial oceanography in Oregon with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), as part of the Education and Research: Testing Hypotheses (EARTH) workshop series (www.mbari.org/earth). For more info: kate.achilles@soest.hawaii.edu or barb@hawaii.edu

  13. TerraSAR-X for Oceanography- Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, S.; Horstmann, J.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Roth, A.; Eineder, M.

    2004-06-01

    TerraSAR-X is a new generation, high resolution radar satellite to be launched at the end of 2005. The objective of the mission is the setup of an operational spaceborne X-Band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in order to produce remote sensing products for commercial and scientific use. TerraSAR-X is the scientific and technological continuation of the highly successful Space Shuttle missions Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X- SAR) in 1994 (Evans and Plaut, 1996) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000 (Werner, 2000). After an in-orbit commissioning period of approximately 5 month, in which the instrument will be calibrated and the system performance will be verified, TerraSAR-X will be fully operational for an active lifetime of 5 years.The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the ASTRIUM GmbH have agreed on an innovative co- operation scheme for the implementation of Earth observation satellites by realizing Germany's first Earth observation space project based on public-private partnership with considerable contributions from industry.The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main objectives:• to provide the scientific community with high-quality, multi-mode X-band SAR-data forscientific research and applications• to support the establishment of a commercial EO-market; and• to develop a sustainable EO-service business inEurope, based on TerraSAR-X derivedinformation products.The broad spectrum of scientific applications, include: Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental- and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography. The scientific potential of TerraSAR-X is based on a combination of unprecedented features of the SAR instrument, which have never before been operational in space (Roth et al., 2002, Suess et al., 2002, Mittermayer et al., 2003). • High geometric and radiometric resolution with an experimental very high resolution ( 1 m) in 300 MHz mode• Single-, Dual- and Full

  14. A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C.; Allison, D.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs is being modified to support the larger scope of the BCO-DMO effort, which includes ultimately providing a way to exchange data with other data systems. The open access system is based on a philosophy of data stewardship, support for existing and evolving data standards, and use of public domain software. The DMO staff work closely with originating PIs to manage data gathered as part of their individual programs. In the new BCO-DMO data system, project and data set metadata records designed to support re-use of the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL) and the data are stored in or made accessible by the JGOFS/GLOBEC object- oriented, relational, data management system. Data access will be provided via any standard Web browser client user interface through a GIS application (Open Source, OGC-compliant MapServer), a directory listing from the data holdings catalog, or a custom search engine that facilitates data discovery. In an effort to maximize data system interoperability, data will also be available via Web Services; and data set descriptions will be generated to comply with a variety of metadata content standards. The office is located at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and web access is via http://www.bco-dmo.org.

  15. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  16. PROJECT BLUE: An Operational Oceanography program in the Southeastern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves dos Santos, Francisco; da Rocha Fragoso, Maurício; Maturo Marques da Cruz, Leonardo; de Castro Pellegrini, Julio Augusto; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Landau, Luiz; Adissi, Flávia

    2013-04-01

    The beginning of 2013 will mark the start for the Project BLUE, one of the greatest efforts in operational oceanography ever proposed in Brazil. The region of interest is located in the continental shelf break between Cabo Frio (23°S) and Floriananópolis Island (28°S). The region is dominated by the Brazil Current system, formed by the Brazil Current, carrying Tropical Water southward from surface down to 400-500 meters and the Intermediate Counter Current, flowing northward in the interface of the South Atlantic Central Water and the Antarctic Intermediate Water. In situ data and operational forecasts efforts in this oil rich region are still few and disperse. Nevertheless, the constant increase of offshore operations is followed by the necessity of both a baseline study and a systematic data collection. All project structure is aimed at optimizing real-time data collection and displaying. Project BLUE is formed by 4 modules: (1) In situ data collection will be performed by 5 gliders, 108 surface drifters and 36 subsurface profiling floats. (2) Remote Sensing module count on a local receiving antenna to provide operational information of Sea Surface Temperature, Height and Ocean Color. (3) Numerical Modelling module aims, initially, to implement a regional grid for long climatological runs, followed by an operational run, with assimilation of the data generated by the first module. One of the great concerns of the Project BLUE is to turn public all collected data, allowing for a greater number of researchers to access the data and, consequently, improving the knowledge on the region. For that purpose, there is an specific module (4) Data displaying focused on easing the access to the data via web services. It is expected, by the end of the first three years, to have a systematic data collection system, a well adapted assimilation scheme and an operational forecast model for the Santos Basin, providing reliable information for offshore operations and emergency

  17. Using Earth Data in an Introductory Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.

    2002-12-01

    Activities that engage students in the use and interpretation of real earth data provide an effective way of promoting an understanding of the science process. In UCSB's introductory Oceanography course, major goals are to improve student understanding of how science works and how to interpret science claims in the popular media. Activities are modeled after those of practicing scientists. These include: a) posing a solvable problem, b) choosing and acquiring relevant data, c) describing the data, d) interpreting the data, e) giving talks to peers, and f) publishing and reviewing findings. Each of these activities poses pedagogical challenges that must be addressed in carefully sequenced course assignments that build upon each other, and respond to a variety of learning styles. The use of earth data in education also presents significant challenges in creating effective data acquisition and display tools. However, only item b, above, is pertinent to these tools. The other items present similar challenges. During the course, learners must acquire enough subject knowledge to successfully interpret the data. They must understand the theory or model they are testing, how the relevant data can be used to test the model, and how to illustrate and present their findings orally and in writing. Some of the assignments that support this are: online homework, online subject area mini-quizzes (randomly created from a database of questions), "questions of the day" in lecture, online short answer thought questions, lab section guided mini-investigations, lab section group presentations, short writing exercises, and 2 longer writing assignments. Students rate the writing assignments as the most effective course component that contributes to their learning. The writing assignments focus student effort and also produce a product that we can study in an attempt to measure student learning. Prof. Gregory Kelly and Prof. Charles Bazerman (UCSB Graduate School of Education) are

  18. Strategies for Assessing Learning Outcomes in an Online Oceanography Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    All general education courses at the San Jose State University, including those in the sciences, must present a detailed assessment plan of student learning, prior to certification for offering. The assessment plan must state a clear methodology for acquiring data on student achievement of the learning outcomes for the specific course category, as well as demonstrate how students fulfill a strong writing requirement. For example, an online course in oceanography falls into the Area R category, the Earth and Environment, through which a student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation; distinguish science from pseudo-science; and apply a scientific approach to answer questions about the Earth and environment. The desired learning outcomes are shared with students at the beginning of the course and subsequent assessments on achieving each outcome are embedded in the graded assignments, which include a critical thinking essay, mid-term exam, poster presentation in a symposium-style format, portfolio of web-based work, weekly discussions on an electronic bulletin board, and a take-home final exam, consisting of an original research grant proposal. The diverse nature of the graded assignments assures a comprehensive assessment of student learning from a variety of perspectives, such as quantitative, qualitative, and analytical. Formative assessment is also leveraged into learning opportunities, which students use to identify the acquisition of knowledge. For example, pre-tests are used to highlight preconceptions at the beginning of specific field studies and post-testing encourages students to present the results of small research projects. On a broader scale, the assessment results contradict common misperceptions of online and hybrid courses. Student demand for online courses is very high due to the self-paced nature of learning. Rates of enrollment attrition match those of classroom sections, if students

  19. A Retrospective Self-Assessment of the SURFO Summer Internship Program in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Donohue, K. A.; Fliegler, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships in Oceanography (SURFO) program at the Graduate School of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island is an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates site program with a programmatic research niche focused on quantitative aspects of Oceanography. Each summer-cohort includes 9-12 participants (rising seniors) who are paired with a primary research advisor and often with a graduate student mentor. The primary components of the 10-week program include a 4-week introductory phase and a 6-week core research phase. A retrospective self-assessment instrument gauged the confidence, attitude and comfort level of participants with; 1) core math and science subjects, 2) oceanography-related subjects, 3) research skills, and 4) SURFO and GSO staff. SURFO participants evaluated themselves at the start of the program, after the introductory phase, and at the end of the program. Participants were also asked to reassess their initial evaluations and provide an updated score. The pre-assessment results indicate that the program recruits students from the target group (e.g., strong physics and math backgrounds, but with limited exposure to oceanography). The results also indicate that the students are initially comfortable with their advising team, but not so comfortable with their research topic and research skills. The post-introductory phase results indicate large increases in comfort level with the advising team and the local research community yet little or no change is indicated for research skills. The final assessments show large changes in oceanography-content knowledge, research topic, and research skills. The retrospective reassessment indicates an initial overconfidence in most categories. Overall, the largest changes occurred during the core research portion of the program. These results reinforce the importance/effectiveness of authentic, hands-on, inquiry-based research for higher learning and training the next

  20. A FORMAL COURSE IN OCEANOGRAPHY AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL THROUGH INDEPENDENT STUDY, SUMMARY REPORT AND FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAMIE, RICHARD G.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF INTRODUCING A COURSE IN OCEANOGRAPHY AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE (1) TO ORGANIZE, EXAMINE, AND REVISE EXISTING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SUITABLE FOR USE IN AN INDEPENDENT STUDY COURSE IN OCEANOGRAPHY, (2) TO DEVELOP NEW INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND EXPERIENCES, (3) TO…

  1. Bringing the Ocean into the Social Studies Classroom: What Can Oceanography Do for Sixth through Twelfth Grade Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Paul B.; Earl, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors show how oceanography can enlighten and energize the teaching of middle- and high-school social studies on a grade-by-grade basis, and they describe "hooks" from oceanography that will heighten students' interest in various social studies topics. They base the article on their own experiences--as a…

  2. Shedding Light on the Sea: André Morel's Legacy to Optical Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, David; Babin, Marcel; Berthon, Jean-François; Bricaud, Annick; Gentili, Bernard; Loisel, Hubert; Maritorena, Stéphane; Stramski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    André Morel (1933-2012) was a prominent pioneer of modern optical oceanography, enabling significant advances in this field. Through his forward thinking and research over more than 40 years, he made key contributions that this field needed to grow and to reach its current status. This article first summarizes his career and then successively covers different aspects of optical oceanography where he made significant contributions, from fundamental work on optical properties of water and particles to global oceanographic applications using satellite ocean color observations. At the end, we share our views on André's legacy to our research field and scientific community.

  3. High Resolution Satellite Observations of Mesoscale Oceanography in the Tasman Sea 1978-79.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    AD-A128 225 HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS OF MESOSCALE /OCEANOGRAPHY IN THE TASMAN SEA 1978-79(U) ROYALAUSTRALIAN NAVY RESEARCH LAB...THE TASMAN SEA 1978-79 FINAL REPORT PROJECT HCM4I1 LA DTI unwa , 17 10 1 l CS. NILso8N, J.C. ADREWS, M. HORNIBROOK, A.R. LATHAM, G. SPERCHLEY A P...MESOSCALE OCEANOGRAPHY IN THE TASMAN SEA 1978-79 ---. ss___F_ Accesson Forr FINAL REPORT PROJECT HCM-051 NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB3 C.S. NILSSON, J.C. ANDREWS , M

  4. Operational Oceanography In A Coastal Zone: The Gulf of Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viezzoli, D.; Deponte, D.; Ursella, L.

    The gulf of Trieste, the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea, is characterized by an horizontal dimension of 25 km and a maximum bottom depth of 25 m. Here very highly variable forcings are observed: strong NNE wind events, large seasonal varia- tions of heat flux which cause complete vertical mixing in winter and a marked strat- ification in summer; also fluvial and ground water runoff renders the gulf a ROFI. Furthermore, the highest tidal range in the Mediterannean Sea is observed here, and recurrent severe SE and SW sea storms induce seiches and waves able to erode the sandy beaches of the northern coast. Among the aspects of physical oceanography in the gulf to be addressed: the complex circulation due to the wind regime and the presence of 3 layers in the warm season, the formation of dense water in the cold one, and the small scale dynamics (plumes dynamics, horizontal and vertical shear). To ob- serve and study so many processes in their wide spectrum of time scales, a traditional experimental approach is not sufficient: systematic, long-term routine measurements of the basic meteo-oceanographic variables, are needed. In 1998, the OGS developed a meteo-oceanographic buoy, named MAMBO, equipped with a profiling multipara- metric probe flanked by a sea-bottom ADCP-300kHz, and deployed it at a site 1 km distant from the coast. The buoy data are sampled every 3 hours. From March 2001 wave motion data are being collected by a Datawell Directional Waverider (DWR) just outside the gulf. From June 2001, an ADCP-600kHz remotely controlled by means of an original device is flanking the MAMBO buoy. The configuration of the ADCP can be remotely changed to resolve the effects of the stratification on the vertical structure of the tidal and the wind induced currents or, occasionally, to record shoaling wave data that can be compared with the DWR ones. The systematic monitoring provides a better understating of the transport and of the vertical mixing in the coastal

  5. Syllabus for an Associate Degree Program in Applied Marine Biology and Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Tapan

    Included is a detailed outline of the content of each course required or offered as an elective in the associate degree program. With an 18 or 19 unit load each semester the program requires two years, and includes 64 hours at sea every semester. In addition to chemistry, physics, biology, and oceanography courses, there is a required course in…

  6. A Semester at Sea: Students Learn Nautical Science, Oceanography, and which Line Lowers the Topsail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1989-01-01

    Students in the Sea Semester, a program sponsored by the Sea Education Association, spend six weeks in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, studying oceanography, nautical science, and maritime history and then they board the brigantine "Cramer" and continue another six weeks of study on the water. (MLW)

  7. Digital image enhancement techniques used in some ERTS application problems. [geology, geomorphology, and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Billingsley, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    Enhancements discussed include contrast stretching, multiratio color displays, Fourier plane operations to remove striping and boosting MTF response to enhance high spatial frequency content. The use of each technique in a specific application in the fields of geology, geomorphology and oceanography is demonstrated.

  8. Research and Teaching: Implementation of Interactive Engagement Teaching Methods in a Physical Oceanography Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiner, Louis E.; Gilman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This study measures the effects of increased faculty-student engagement on student learning, success rates, and perceptions in a Physical Oceanography course. The study separately implemented two teaching methods that had been shown to be successful in a different discipline, introductory physics. These methods were the use of interactive…

  9. Skills Conversion Project: Chapter 10, Ocean Engineering and Oceanography. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    In order to determine the potential utilization of displaced aerospace and defense technical professionals in oceanography and ocean engineering, a study of ocean-oriented industry in Florida and Southern California was conducted by The National Society of Professional Engineers for the U.S. Department of Labor. After recent consolidation, this…

  10. Officer Education and Training in Oceanography for ASW and Other Naval Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, Larry Wayne

    The study into the knowledge and experience required for optimum performance by officers assigned to operational, R & D, and managerial duties in Anti-submarine Warfare concludes that oceanography should receive the major emphasis on an interdisciplinary graduate level program of the contributing disciplines in ASW. In planning education and…

  11. Short Training Course in Oceanography. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course in oceanography intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates in physics, mathematics, chemistry, zoology, botany or geology to give them the minimum qualifications required to work in any of the marine science stations. This 14-week course, organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and…

  12. Beyond the Golden Gate; oceanography, geology, biology, and environmental issues in the Gulf of the Farallones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Chin, John L.; Ueber, Edward; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored a multidisciplinary, multiagency investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones, which lies offshore of the San Francisco Bay region. This book discussess the results of the endeavor, covering the topics of oceanography and geology, biology and ecological niches, and issues of environmental management.

  13. Let's Talk About You and Sharks, American Oceanography Special Educational Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas L.; Miloy, Leatha

    1971-01-01

    This special educational newsletter of the American Society for Oceanography presents information on marine oriented subjects, primarily for reading by junior high and secondary school students. Major articles consider the habits and stinging effects of sharks, jelly fish, and sting rays, and what one should do if stung by these fish while…

  14. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  15. Developing European operational oceanography for Blue Growth, climate change adaptation and mitigation, and ecosystem-based management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jun; Allen, Icarus; Buch, Erik; Crise, Alessandro; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Lips, Urmas; Nolan, Glenn; Pinardi, Nadia; Reißmann, Jan H.; Siddorn, John; Stanev, Emil; Wehde, Henning

    2016-07-01

    Operational approaches have been more and more widely developed and used for providing marine data and information services for different socio-economic sectors of the Blue Growth and to advance knowledge about the marine environment. The objective of operational oceanographic research is to develop and improve the efficiency, timeliness, robustness and product quality of this approach. This white paper aims to address key scientific challenges and research priorities for the development of operational oceanography in Europe for the next 5-10 years. Knowledge gaps and deficiencies are identified in relation to common scientific challenges in four EuroGOOS knowledge areas: European Ocean Observations, Modelling and Forecasting Technology, Coastal Operational Oceanography and Operational Ecology. The areas "European Ocean Observations" and "Modelling and Forecasting Technology" focus on the further advancement of the basic instruments and capacities for European operational oceanography, while "Coastal Operational Oceanography" and "Operational Ecology" aim at developing new operational approaches for the corresponding knowledge areas.

  16. The epistemological framing of a discipline: Writing science in university oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Chen, Catherine; Prothero, William

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how instruction in scientific writing in a university oceanography course communicated epistemological positions of this discipline. Drawing from sociological and anthropological studies of scientific communities, this study uses an ethnographic perspective to explore how teachers and students came to define particular views of disciplinary knowledge through the everyday practices associated with teaching and learning oceanography. Writing in a scientific genre was supported by interactive CD-ROM which allowed students to access data representations from geological databases. In our analysis of the spoken and written discourse of the members of this course, we identified epistemological issues such as uses of evidence, role of expertise, relevance of point of view, and limits to the authority of disciplinary inquiry. Implications for college science teaching are drawn.

  17. The Walter Munk Award for Distinguished Research in Oceanography Related to Sound and the Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    scientific publications, websites and e-mail lists. Nominations are solicited from the international oceanographic community. WORK COMPLETED...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The Oceanography Society,PO Box 1931,Rockville,MD,20849-1931 8...naval operations. OBJECTIVES To recognize a deserving scientist working in the field of ocean acoustics and to demonstrate the Navy’s strong

  18. ASW Reach-Back Cell Oceanography Analysis System (ARCOAS) Version 3 User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-24

    http://arcobjectsonline.esri.com ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.), 2004b. Geodatabase Object Model. ESRI . Homepage http...3 User’s Guide February 24, 2012 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. James D. Dykes Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT ASW Reach-back Cell Oceanography Analysis System (ARCOAS) Version 3 User’s Guide James

  19. Transition Support of Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC) Technology to the Naval Oceanographic Office Warfare Support Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    methodology for assimilation and adaptive sampling of in-situ data, collected from gliders (oceanographic) and mobile acoustic sources (acoustics), with...by the fleet and extend its application to AUVs and gliders which are suited to adaptive sampling of dynamical oceanography. OBJECTIVES The...submarine, and iv) improve adaptive sampling tools and strategies that reduce uncertainty in ocean and acoustic models. APPROACH In fall 2005

  20. Tracking Bottom Waters in the Southern Adriatic Sea Applying Seismic Oceanography Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-05

    profile so the weak thermohaline reflections can be visualized 3. The Adriatic context The general circulation of the Adriatic Sea is characterized by...Reflectivity Thermohaline structures Southern Adriatic Sea ABSTRACT We present the first results from the seismic oceanography (SO) cruise ADRIASE1SMIC...where we successfully imaged thermohaline fine structures in the shallow water environment (50-150 m) of the southern Adriatic Sea during March

  1. Bringing together an ocean of information: An extensible data integration framework for biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocks, Karen I.; Condit, Chris; Qian, Xufei; Brewin, Paul E.; Gupta, Amarnath

    2009-09-01

    As increasing volumes and varieties of data are becoming available online, the challenges of accessing and using heterogeneous data resources are growing. We have developed a mediator-based data integration system called Cartel for biological oceanography data. A mediation approach is appropriate in cases where a single central warehouse is not desirable, such as when the needed data sources change frequently through time, or when there are advantages for holding heterogeneous data in their native formats. Through Cartel, data sources of a variety of types can be registered to the system, and users can query against simplified virtual schemas, without needing to know the underlying schema and computational capabilities of each data source. The system can operate on a variety of relational and geospatial data formats, and can perform joins between formats. We tested the performance of the Cartel mediator in two biological oceanography application areas, and found that the system was able to support the variety of data types needed in a typical ecology study, but that the response times were unacceptably slow when very large databases (i.e. Ocean Biogeographic Information System and the World Ocean Atlas) were used. Indexing and caching are currently being added to the system to improve response times. The mediator is an open-source product, and was developed to be a generic, extensible component available to projects developing oceanography data systems.

  2. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: Seagoing Oceanography for Middle School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Foley, S.; Knox, R. A.; Mauricio, P.

    2007-12-01

    Now in its fourth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with National Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Office of Naval Research (ONR), National Science Foundation (NSF), San Diego County Office of Education (SDCOE), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum encourages active inquiry with intellectually stimulating problem-solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as role- models. Recent science test scores with IFRR students have shown significant increases in classes where this curriculum has been implemented as compared to other classes where the traditional curriculum has been used. IFRR has provided students in the San Diego area with a unique opportunity for learning about oceanographic research, which could inspire students to become oceanographers or at least scientifically literate citizens - a benefit for a country that depends

  3. JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) data availability, version 1-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) includes satellite data sets for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Parameters include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, and integrated water vapor. The JPL PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) and is the United States distribution site for Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  4. NCAR CSM ocean model by the NCAR oceanography section. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This technical note documents the ocean component of the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM). The ocean code has been developed from the Modular Ocean Model (version 1.1) which was developed and maintained at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in Princeton. As a tribute to Mike Cox, and because the material is still relevant, the first four sections of this technical note are a straight reproduction from the GFDL Technical Report that Mike wrote in 1984. The remaining sections document how the NCAR Oceanography Section members have developed the MOM 1.1 code, and how it is forced, in order to produce the NCAR CSM Ocean Model.

  5. Study of the marine environment of the northern Gulf of California. [seasonal variations in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrickson, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of studies of the oceanography of the northern Gulf of California (Mexico) are reported. A remote, instrumented buoy measuring and telemetering oceanographic data by ERTS-1 satellite was designed, constructed, deployed, and tested. Regular cruises by a research ship on a pattern of 47 oceanographic stations collected data which are analyzed and referenced to analysis of ERTS-1 satellite imagery. A thermal dynamic model of current patterns in the northern Gulf of California is proposed. Findings are examined in relation to the model.

  6. Increasing Climate Literacy in Introductory Oceanography Classes Using Ocean Observation Data from Project Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hams, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    This session will present educational activities developed for an introductory Oceanography lecture and laboratory class by NOAA Teacher-at-Sea Jacquelyn Hams following participation in Leg 3 of Project DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) in November-December 2011. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an important tropical weather phenomenon with origins in the Indian Ocean that impacts many other global climate patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Northern Hemisphere monsoons, tropical storm development, and pineapple express events. The educational activities presented include a series of lessons based on the observational data collected during Project DYNAMO which include atmospheric conditions, wind speeds and direction, surface energy flux, and upper ocean turbulence and mixing. The lessons can be incorporated into any introductory Oceanography class discussion on ocean properties such as conductivity, temperature, and density, ocean circulation, and layers of the atmosphere. A variety of hands-on lessons will be presented ranging from short activities used to complement a lecture to complete laboratory exercises.

  7. Further Enhancements of the Geospatial Interface to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groman, R. C.; Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Gegg, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a location where marine biogeochemical, ecological and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be stored, disseminated, and protected, on short and intermediate time-frames. Our main objective is to support the scientific community through improved accessibility to ocean science data. The BCO-DMO manages existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators and collaborative groups of investigators, and makes these available via any standard Web browser. This presentation addresses the current status of our implementation of the University of Minnesota’s OGC-compliant MapServer interface to these data. Recently added features or changes include additional mapping and display options, metadata search options, and support for KML (Google Earth) output files. We have made additions to the metadata database to support these and other changes and to enhance our interoperability features. Development of the MapServer interface to the BCO-DMO data collection provides a geospatial context in which to discover data sets that are of potential interest.

  8. A Geographic Focus of the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Gegg, S. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (www.BCO-DMO.org) was created to serve scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation's Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a location where marine biogeochemical, ecological, and physical oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be stored, disseminated, and protected, on short and intermediate time-frames. Our main objective is to support the scientific community through improved accessibility to ocean science data. The BCO-DMO manages existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators and collaborative groups of investigators through use of open-source software, and makes these available via any standard Web browser. This presentation focuses on the current status of the University of Minnesota's OGC-compliant MapServer interface to these data including the ability to view the entire data collection in the map view, and multiple ways to select data i.e., by Program, Cruise, Principal Investigator, Project, Sensor/data type, etc. The presentation also reviews the additional metadata necessary to support several different data display options. The system's interface provides for simple and advanced data searches and several interoperability features. Using the MapServer interface to the BCO-DMO data system provides a geospatial context in which to discover the availability of data sets that are of potential interest.

  9. Data-computing technologies: A new stage in the development of operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, G. I.; Paton, B. E.; Korotaev, G. K.; Zalesny, V. B.

    2013-11-01

    An analysis is given of the methods of operational oceanography based on measurements derived from satellite data, observations acquired by drifters and passing vessels, and modern simulations of marine and oceanic circulations. In addition, a historical review is conducted of the previous and current research in this field carried out in the Soviet Union, Ukraine, and Russia. A discussion is given of the principles underlying the design of an effective data-computing system (DCS) for solving the problems of operational oceanography and the implementation of the prototype system for the Black Sea within the joint research project of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU) "The Black Sea as an Ocean Simulation Model." The effectiveness of applying the multicomponent splitting method in the construction of sea circulation models and specialized DCSs with integrated algorithms of variational assimilation of observational data is estimated. The concept of using the Black Sea as a testing site for innovations is developed. The underlying idea of the concept is the similarity of the Black Sea dynamics with processes in the oceans. The numerical Black Sea circulation models used in the project are described, their development areas are discussed, and the requirements to a Black Sea observing system are defined.

  10. The Indigo V Indian Ocean Expedition: a prototype for citizen microbial oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, Federico; Senstius, Jacob; Cullen, Jay; Lauro, Rachelle; Neches, Russell; Grzymski, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Microbial Oceanography has long been an extremely expensive discipline, requiring ship time for sample collection and thereby economically constraining the number of samples collected. This is especially true for under-sampled water bodies such as the Indian Ocean. Specialised scientific equipment only adds to the costs. Moreover, long term monitoring of microbial communities and large scale modelling of global biogeochemical cycles requires the collection of high-density data both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. Thousands of private ocean-going vessels are cruising around the world's oceans every day. We believe that a combination of new technologies, appropriate laboratory protocols and strategic operational partnerships will allow researchers to broaden the scope of participation in basic oceanographic research. This will be achieved by equipping sailing vessels with small, satcom-equipped sampling devices, user-friendly collection techniques and a 'pre-addressed-stamped-envelope' to send in the samples for analysis. We aim to prove that 'bigger' is not necessarily 'better' and the key to greater understanding of the world's oceans is to forge the way to easier and cheaper sample acquisition. The ultimate goal of the Indigo V Expedition is to create a working blue-print for 'citizen microbial oceanography'. We will present the preliminary outcomes of the first Indigo V expedition, from Capetown to Singapore, highlighting the challenges and opportunities of such endeavours.

  11. Epistemic levels in argument: An analysis of university oceanography students' use of evidence in writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.; Takao, Allison

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine university oceanography students' use of evidence in writing. Drawing from rhetorical studies of science writing and studies of argumentation in science education, a model for assessing students' arguments is proposed that considers the relative epistemic status of propositions comprising students' written texts. The study was conducted in an introductory university oceanography course in a large public university that utilized an interactive CD-ROM that provided geological data sets for student exploration of scientific questions. Student arguments were analyzed through a process of sorting propositions by epistemic level and identifying the explicit links within and across levels. These epistemic levels were defined by discipline-specific geological constructs from descriptions of data, to identification of features, to relational aspects of features, to theoretically formulated assertions. This form of argumentation analysis allowed for assessment of each student's writing on normative grounds and for comparisons across students' papers. Results show promise for the argumentation model as a methodological tool. The examination of epistemic status of knowledge claims provided ways of distinguishing the extent to which students adhered to the genre conventions specified by the task, i.e., providing evidentiary support for their argument concerning the theory of plate tectonics with real earth data. We draw on the findings to discuss ways argumentation theory can contribute to reform in science education.

  12. Geophysics, Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of decade-long time series of global surface wind measurements for studies ofseasonal-to-interannual climate variability presents unique challenges for space- borne instrumentationbecause of the necessity to combine data sets of 3- to 5-year lifetimes. Before the first Special SensorMicrowave Imager (SSMI), which was launched on the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F8 spacecraft in July 1987, stopped recording wind speed in December 1991, another SSMIwas launched on DMSP F10 in December 1991. Interpretation of the 1987 - 1993 composite timeseries is dependent upon the space and time characteristics of the differences between concurrent F8and F10 SSMI measurements. This paper emphasizes large geographical regions and 1-month timescale. The F8-F10 area-weighted difference between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees S during 305 daysof 1991 (-0.12 m s^(-1)) was comparable to the year-to-year wind speed variations during 1988-1991. The 10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 difference was negative (positive) forwind speeds less (greater) than 7.9 m s^(-1), reaching - 0.43(0.32) m s^(-1) at 5(10) m s^(-1). The10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 bias had considerable variations throughout the yearand between 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, with the largest temporal variation (1.4 m s^(-1)) in the 50degrees - 60 degrees N region from February to April. The 1991 average value of the monthly meanroot-mean-square (rms) difference between F8 and F10 daily wind speeds in 10 degree-longitudinalbands was 2.0 m s^(-1) over 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, the amplitude of the annual cycle of therms difference was largest in the northern hemisphere middle latitudes, and the rms difference wasrelated to the wind speed (e.g., at 6 and 10 m s^(-1), the rms difference was 1.7 and 2.7 m s^(-1),respectively). The relationship between monthly mean 1/3 degrees x 1/3 degrees F8-F10 SSMI windspeed differences and integrated water vapor and liquid water content in the atmosphere is discussed.

  13. Oceanography survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Richard C.

    The following report highlights data on age, sex, race, education, expertise, employment activities, and career histories of more than 4000 U.S. marine scientists obtained from a 1980 questionnaire sent to all of the oceanographic laboratories in the United States in order to procure information for the 1982 U.S. Directory of Marine Scientists (available from National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., $12.25). Of those responding, 93% were male, 95% were U.S. citizens, 93% were white, and their median age was 40.

  14. The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…

  15. Autonomous profiling buoy system: a new powerful tool for research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aracri, Simona; Borghini, Mireno; Canesso, Devis; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Durante, Sara; Griffa, Annalisa; Schroeder, Katrin; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Vetrano, Anna; Kitawaza, Yuji; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    Oceanography is nowadays a fast-changing field. The scientific community is orienting towards the implementation of a growing array of satellite-borne or mobile and moored high-tech devices and sensors, while sending fewer scientists at sea to collect measurements, minimizing the expensive ship-time costs. In other words, oceanography is now moving from a platform-centric sensing system to a net-centric distributed sensing system. Integration with operational ocean models, providing the best estimate of the ocean state by means of data assimilation, is the step forward, with nowadays mature initiatives at global scale and at regional scale in the Mediterranean Sea. While the ocean still remains a complex system, largely undersampled, multiplatform-integration, improvements in tools capabilities and assimilation in models represents one way to reduce uncertainties in marine areas. In this context, and differently from mobile platforms (e.g, gliders, argos), fixed-point moorings nicely provide long term point wise time-series, but limited by a low vertical resolution. Technology is fast evolving towards the implementation of automatic profilers, which partially overcome this limitation. In June 2013 the Institute of Marine Sciences of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ISMAR) started the test phase of one of the very few Mediterranean autonomous profiling systems installed in a open-sea mooring, transmitting, daily, hydrological vertical profiles in real time through satellite communication. The selected site was the Corsica Channel, a narrow passage between Corsica and Capraia islands, connecting the two main regions of the western Mediterranean: the Tyrrhenian and the Liguro-Provençal basins. The Corsica Channel represents a 'choke point' for the study of the dynamics and evolution of the western Mediterranean Sea. Previous studies in this passage indicate an annual and seasonal cycle with northward winter fluxes representing about the 60% of the total

  16. The ARMADA Project: Bringing Oceanography and the Arctic to the Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazol, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is

  17. Seasonal oceanography from physics to micronekton in the south-west Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menkes, C. E.; Allain, V.; Rodier, M.; Gallois, F.; Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Smeti, H.; Pagano, M.; Josse, E.; Daroux, A.; Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Kestenare, E.; Lorrain, A.; Nicol, S.

    2015-03-01

    Tuna catches represent a major economic and food source in the Pacific Ocean, yet are highly variable. This variability in tuna catches remains poorly explained. The relationships between the distributions of tuna and their forage (micronekton) have been mostly derived from model estimates. Observations of micronekton and other mid-trophic level organisms, and their link to regional oceanography, however are scarce and constitute an important gap in our knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of pelagic ecosystems. To fill this gap, we conducted two multidisciplinary cruises (Nectalis1 and Nectalis2) in the New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) at the southeastern edge the Coral Sea, in 2011 to characterize the oceanography of the region during the cool (August) and the hot (December) seasons. The physical and biological environments were described by hydrology, nutrients and phytoplankton size structure and biomass. Zooplankton biomass was estimated from net sampling and acoustics and micronecton was estimated from net sampling, the SEAPODYM ecosystem model, a dedicated echosounder and non-dedicated acoustics. Results demonstrated that New Caledonia is located in an oligotrophic area characterized by low nutrient and low primary production which is dominated by a high percentage of picoplankton cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus (>90%). The area exhibits a large-scale north-south temperature and salinity gradient. The northern area is influenced by the equatorial Warm Pool and the South Pacific Convergence Zone and is characterized by higher temperature, lower salinity, lower primary production and micronekton biomass. The southern area is influenced by the Tasman Sea and is characterized by cooler temperature, higher salinity, higher primary production and micronekton biomass. The dynamic oceanography and the complex topography create a myriad of mesoscale features including eddies, inducing patchy structures in the ecosystem. During the cool season, a

  18. What Is Physical Oceanography? A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 217. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    This unit is concerned with an overview of physical oceanography - the study of currents, tides, waves, and particle movements. The activities are designed for use by junior high school age students. Included in the unit are activities related to properties of sea water, physical phenomena of the ocean, and physical features of the ocean.…

  19. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  20. Learning about Oceanography. Superific Science Book VII. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Based upon the recognition that the sea has great potential as a future source of energy, minerals, and water, this document was developed to provide students with learning experiences in oceanography. It contains background information about ocean tides, waves, chemistry, depths, and plant and animal life. The book provides the teacher with…

  1. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-09-01

    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  2. Data catalog for JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan

    1995-01-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) archive at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory contains satellite data sets and ancillary in-situ data for the ocean sciences and global-change research to facilitate multidisciplinary use of satellite ocean data. Geophysical parameters available from the archive include sea-surface height, surface-wind vector, surface-wind speed, surface-wind stress vector, sea-surface temperature, atmospheric liquid water, integrated water vapor, phytoplankton pigment concentration, heat flux, and in-situ data. PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System and is the United States distribution site for TOPEX/POSEIDON data and metadata.

  3. The EOSDIS Version 0 Distributed Active Archive Center for physical oceanography and air-sea interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Collins, Donald J.; Nichols, David A.

    1991-01-01

    The Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will support scientists specializing in physical oceanography and air-sea interaction. As part of the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System Version 0 the DAAC will build on existing capabilities to provide services for data product generation, archiving, distribution and management of information about data. To meet scientist's immediate needs for data, existing data sets from missions such as Seasat, Geosat, the NOAA series of satellites and the Global Positioning Satellite system will be distributed to investigators upon request. In 1992, ocean topography, wave and surface roughness data from the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter mission will be archived and distributed. New data products will be derived from Topex/Poseidon and other sensor systems based on recommendations of the science community. In 1995, ocean wind field measurements from the NASA Scatterometer will be supported by the DAAC.

  4. Virophages to viromes: a report from the frontier of viral oceanography.

    PubMed

    Culley, Alexander I

    2011-07-01

    The investigation of marine viruses has advanced our understanding of ecology, evolution, microbiology, oceanography and virology. Significant findings discussed in this review include the discovery of giant viruses that have genome sizes and metabolic capabilities that distort the line between virus and cell, viruses that participate in photosynthesis and apoptosis, the detection of communities of viruses of all genomic compositions and the preeminence of viruses in the evolution of marine microbes. Although we have made great progress, we have yet to synthesize the rich archive of viral genomic data with oceanographic processes. The development of cutting edge methods such as single virus genomics now provide a toolset to better integrate viruses into the ecology of the ocean.

  5. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  6. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program as a model for effective professional development experience in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the

  7. North American Paleozoic Oceanography: Overview of Progress Toward a Modern Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1987-04-01

    Three fundamental questions have confronted paleoceanographers from the beginning of their North American explorations. What was the size and timing of ancient epicontinental seas: large and long-lasting or small and brief? What characterized the distribution of biotas and sediments at any one point in time: a multitude of complex facies patterns or a more spacially homogeneous cover? What promoted continental foundering: eustatic changes in sea level or relative changes in sea level brought about by regional tectonics? These questions have been debated by North Americans since the middle 1800s in response to various new insights, usually coming from abroad but often elaborated into substantial contributions of equal standing. Contemporary facies zones in Mediterranean biota found by the Englishman E. Forbes attracted the notice of geologists as early as 1844. C. Whittlesey was among the first to apply the bathymetric scheme of Forbes to the interpretation of American Paleozoic strata in 1851. The outstanding "native" innovation of the period was J. Hall's geosyncline concept, which is reflected in the earliest map of Paleozoic North America made by T. C. Chamberlin in 1881. Another wave of influence spread from the late 19th century work on stratigraphic facies patterns by the German J. Walther. A. W. Grabau is best remembered as Walther's foremost American champion against the formidable layer-caker E. O. Ulrich in the first decades of the 20th century, but he also made pioneering contributions of his own on Paleozoic sea level studies and global paleogeographic reconstructions. Charles Schuchert was the consummate paleogeographer of this period. Meanwhile, the term "cyclothem" was coined by J. Marvin Weller in 1930 for recurrent Carboniferous strata in Illinois. Controversy fast erupted over a glacial as opposed to tectonic mode of origin for these cycles. In 1964, A. B. Shaw restimulated interest in Paleozoic oceanography through his reformulation of Walther

  8. Assessment of Superflux relative to marine science and oceanography. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    A general assessment of the Superflux project is made in relation to marine science and oceanography. It is commented that the program clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of state-of-the-art technology required to study highly dynamic estuarine plumes, and the necessity of a broadly interdisciplinary, interactive remote sensing and shipboard program required to significantly advance the understanding of transport processes and impacts of estuarine outflows.

  9. Exploring the Shelf-slope Dynamics in the Adriatic Sea Using Numerical Models and Seismic Oceanography (SO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-02

    dynamics in the Adriatic Sea using numerical models and seismic oceanography (SO) Andrea Bergamasco, Francesco M. Falcieri, Jeffrey W. Book, Sandro...sandro.carniel@ismar.cnr.it Dense shelf waters are formed and spread in the Adriatic Sea during winter periods, which dynamics are usually...high-resolution numerical model (ROMS) results was performed in two restricted areas of the Adriatic Sea : off the Gargano promontory and off the Bari

  10. International Congress on the History of Oceanography (5th) Held in La Jolla, California on July 7-14, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-26

    EASTERN EUROPE Chair: Walter Lenz, Germany Marine Biology Conference Room "T1HE PIONEERS OF OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH IN ROMIIA" Gheorghe Serpoianu, Romania...the progress of Soviet oceanography - from studies of Far Eastern marginal seas to the global expeditions; - development and maturing of oceanographic...discoveries attributable to submersibles are the spreading centers of the mid-Atlantic ridge, and the hydrothermal vent systems of the eastern Pacific. Beyond

  11. The R/V EL PUMA and JUSTO SIERRA impact on the development of oceanography in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, A.

    2007-05-01

    The acquisition of the two research vessels (R/V EL PUMA AND R/V JUSTO SIERRA) of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México represented a milestone for the development of oceanography and capacity building in Mexico. These boats were designed to conduct multi and interdisciplinary research in the Economic Exclusive Zone of Mexico in the main areas of oceanography (Physics, Geology, Chemistry and Biology). Its use, by different institutions, resulted in a substantial advancement of the knowledge of Marine ecosystems of Mexico. About 460 oceanographic campaigns, with more than 8700 participants, have been conducted since the boats arrived. These covered a wide array of topics of the marine ecosystem from the inner shelf to deep sea. Extensive research was done on current patterns, primary productivity and pollution monitoring of the Mexican Pacific, Sea of Cortez, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean sea. Marine biodiversity studies were also carried which discovered more than 180 new species in Mexican seas. Ecological characterization and paleo-oceanographic research from continental shelf to deep sea also registered a substantial advance. The vessels are now renewed with hi-tech equipment for sea bottom, water column and navigation that increased their research capacity, representing again a new milestone in the history of oceanography in Mexico. This improved capacity is very promising and opens new and sound opportunities for carrying modern oceanographic in order to improve knowledge of the Mexican Economic Exclusive Zone.

  12. Galveston Symposium: Physical Oceanography of the Louisiana/Texas Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Thomas M.; Brown, Murray

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS), Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region sponsored a symposium on the Physical Oceanography of the Louisiana/Texas (LA/TX) Shelf in Galveston, Texas, on May 24-26, 1988. The symposium brought together a number of physical oceanographers, meteorologists, and ecologists to discuss the state of knowledge and to begin the planning process for a long-term study of shelf circulation covering the region from the mouth of the Mississippi River to approximately 24° latitude along the Mexican coast and from the shore out to a depth of approximately 500 m. The proposed study, to be a component of the ongoing MMS Environmental Studies Program, is expected to take place during the period 1989-1991. It is anticipated that the work will be done principally through contracts after a competitive procurement process. Specific charges to the participants were as follows:to assess the current state of knowledge concerning the circulation on the LA/TX shelfto identify significant gaps in that knowledgeto recommend a field measurement program to address these gapsto recommend a circulation modeling program for the LA/TX shelf that will improve MMS' oil spill risk assessmentsto identify and initiate coordination mechanisms and data-sharing arrangements with other proposed research efforts

  13. The Prestige crisis: operational oceanography applied to oil recovery, by the Basque fishing fleet.

    PubMed

    González, Manuel; Uriarte, Adolfo; Pozo, Rogelio; Collins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    On 19th November 2002, the oil tanker Prestige (containing 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel no. 2 (M100)) sank in 3500 m of water, off the coast of northwestern Spain. Intermittent discharge of oil from the stricken tanker, combined with large-scale sea surface dispersion, created a tracking and recovery problem. Initially, conventional oil recovery approaches were adopted, close to the wreck. With time and distance from the source, the oil dispersed dramatically and became less viscous. Consequently, a unique monitoring, prediction and data dissemination system was established, based upon the principles of 'operational oceanography'; this utilised in situ tracked buoys and numerical (spill trajectory) modelling outputs, in combination with remote sensing (satellite sensors and visual observation). Overall, wind effects on the surface waters were found to be the most important mechanism controlling the smaller oil slick movements. The recovery operation involved up to 180 fishing boats, 9-30 m in length. Such labour-intensive recovery of the oil (21,000 tonnes, representing an unprecedented ratio of 6.6 tonnes at sea, per tonne recovered on land) continued over a 10 month period. The overall recovery at sea, by the fishing vessels, represented 63% of the total oil recovered at sea; this compares to only 37% recovered by specialised 'counter- pollution' vessels.

  14. The plume of the Yukon River in relation to the oceanography of the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Kenneson G.; Mcroy, C. Peter; Ahlnas, Kristina; Springer, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The ecosystem of the northern Bering-Sea shelf was studied using data from the NOAA Very High Resolution Radiometer and AVHRR and the Landsat MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) in conjunction with shipboard measurements. Emphasis was placed on the influence of the Yukon River on this inner shelf environment and on the evaluation of the utility of the new Landsat TM data for oceanography. It was found that the patterns of water mass distribution obtained from satellite images agreed reasonably well with the areal patterns of temperature, salinity, and phytoplankton distributions. The AVHRR, MSS, and TM data show that the Yukon-River discharge is warmer and more turbid than the surrounding coastal water that originates to the south; thus, the Yukon water contributes to the higher temperatures and lower transmissivity of the coastal water. The high resolution of the TM thermal IR band made it possible to observe complex patterns and structures in the surface water that could not be resolved on previous data sets.

  15. Seabird, fish, marine mammal, and oceanography coordinated investigations (SMMOCI) in Sitka Sound, Alaska, July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, John F.; Dragoo, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys for seabirds and marine mammals were conducted in and near Sitka Sound, Alaska (Fig. 1) from the M/V Tiĝlax̂ during 12-16 July 2000 (Table 1, Fig. 1). The objective was to characterize the marine environment in the vicinity of St. Lazaria Island, one of ten seabird colonies monitored annually by the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (See Dragoo et al. 2003). In addition to censusing seabirds and mammals encountered on line transects, local oceanography was characterized by measuring water temperature and salinity continuously at the sea surface, and by taking profiles of the water column on a series of CTD transects. The relative abundance of zooplankton and fish biomass was measured using a dual -frequency echosounder. Significant acoustic targets were sampled with a m id-water trawl net. Long-lines were se t twice to catch and characterize diets of large demersal fish species.Rosenthal et al. (1981 and 1982) studied the bottomfish component of the nearshore habitats in southeastern Alaska including the Sitka Sound area during the summers of 1980 and 1981, allowing comparisons of our findings to those from the earlier works. There are no previous surveys for seabirds or marine mammals in this area with which we can compare our surveys.

  16. Earth Remote Sensing Center of Excellence at Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    We developed advanced communications and networking capability and satellite reception systems for Earth science to improve the ability of scientists at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) to conduct interdisciplinary research. With matching funds from the SIO Director's office we implemented a "virtual center" utilizing modern networking hardware and software to enhance access for researchers and students to unique satellite and in situ data sets. The center provides facilities and data access to graduate students as well as research scientists at SIO, and outside SIO. Our private sector partners installed and testes and advanced X-band data acquisition system for satellite data capture relevant for Earth science research and applications. Some of the commercial applications of these partners have been developed (or are under development) with NASA SBIR resources. The X-band system collected RADARSAT, ERS-2 and MODIS imagery. Perhaps most importantly, this COE brought together - for the first time - an interdisciplinary team of SIO scientists with interests in Earth remote sensing. The collaboration extended beyond our infrastructure and research accomplishments leading to a dialog that resulted in a report with strong recommendations to the SIO community for enhancing satellite remote sensing at SIO.

  17. Zooplankton and the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Álamo, María Ana; Färber-Lorda, Jaime

    2006-05-01

    trophic relations emphasize the difference in the productivity cycle in the eastern tropical Pacific compared to temperate or polar ecosystems, with no particular peaks in the stocks of either zooplankton or phytoplankton. Productivity is more dependent on local events like coastal upwelling or water circulation, especially in the equatorial countercurrent and around the equatorial cool-tongue. Micrograzers are very important in the tropics as are predatory mesozooplankton. Up to 70% of the daily primary productivity is consumed by microzooplankton, which thus regulates the phytoplankton stocks. Micrograzers are an important link between primary producers, including bacteria, and mesozooplankton, constituting up to 80% of mesozooplankton food. Oceanography affects zooplankton trophic relationships through spatial-temporal effects on primary productivity and on the distributions of metabolic factors, food organisms, and predators. This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific.

  18. An Introduction to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO- DMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C.; Glover, D.; Groman, R.; Wiebe, P.

    2007-12-01

    The BCO-DMO (http://www.bco-dmo.org) was created to serve PIs funded by the NSF Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a facility where marine biogeochemical and ecological data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be disseminated, protected, and stored on short and intermediate time-frames. The Data Management Office also strives to provide research scientists and others with the tools and systems necessary to work with marine biogeochemical and ecological data from heterogeneous sources with increased efficacy. To accomplish this, two data management offices (former- U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC) have been united and enhanced to provide a venue for contribution of electronic data/metadata and other information for open distribution via the World Wide Web. The JGOFS/GLOBEC Client/Server distributed data management system software is used to serve data and information to every investigator, regardless of computing platform. In addition, Web services are provided for data discovery, and development has begun on a machine-to-machine application programming interface (API) to allow interoperability between Web-based data systems. The BCO-DMO will manage existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators, collaborative groups of investigators, and data management offices of larger multi-institutional projects via any standard Web browser. The office will work with principal investigators on data quality control; maintain an inventory and program thesaurus of strictly defined field names; generate metadata (e.g. Directory Interchange Format (DIF) ) records required by Federal agencies; ensure submission of data to national data centers; support and encourage data synthesis by providing new, online, Web-based display tools; facilitate interoperability among different data portals; and facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange.

  19. Oceanography of the Eastern Pacific—an introduction to volume III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber-Lorda, Jaime

    2004-03-01

    In 1998, the Centro de Investigación Cientı´fica y de Educación Superior (CICESE) celebrated its 25th anniversary, which was the occasion to start the series of colloquia that take place every 2 years, the Coloquio Sobre la Oceanografı´a del Pacifico Oriental, in Ensenada. Two volumes were published in 2000 (Färber-Lorda, 2000) and in 2002 (Färber-Lorda, 2002), with some of the papers presented during the events. CICESE supported the edition of the first two volumes, as well as the meetings. The papers of this present volume were presented during the III Coloquio Sobre la Oceanografı´a del Pacifico Oriental. A special volume concerning different aspects of the consequences in México of the 1997-1998 El Niño/La Niña 1998-1999, was recently published in México (Badan et al., 2003); however, it is not restricted to the Pacific nor only to oceanography. The Eastern Pacific encompasses a very wide range of different biotic and abiotic conditions. Papers on topics from Alaska, to the Chilean Fjords of southern Chile, and from the Gulf of California to the 180° meridian, around the equator, are presented (see Fig. 1). Even if unity in the subjects is impossible to achieve, the information is important to assess the research performed in the area. Here, we give a brief description of the papers presented. Some general discussion is possible and some common features of phenomena like El Niño and La Niña, and the 1998/1999 regime-shift of the North Pacific, are exposed. For the first time a special volume is dedicated to this area, instead of a particular topic.

  20. Development of 3D interactive visual objects using the Scripps Institution of Oceanography's Visualization Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D.; Reif, C.; Peach, C.; Keen, C. S.; Smith, B.; Mellors, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Within the last year scientists and educators at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), the Birch Aquarium at Scripps and San Diego State University have collaborated with education specialists to develop 3D interactive graphic teaching modules for use in the classroom and in teacher workshops at the SIO Visualization center (http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu). The unique aspect of the SIO Visualization center is that the center is designed around a 120 degree curved Panoram floor-to-ceiling screen (8'6" by 28'4") that immerses viewers in a virtual environment. The center is powered by an SGI 3400 Onyx computer that is more powerful, by an order of magnitude in both speed and memory, than typical base systems currently used for education and outreach presentations. This technology allows us to display multiple 3D data layers (e.g., seismicity, high resolution topography, seismic reflectivity, draped interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, etc.) simultaneously, render them in 3D stereo, and take a virtual flight through the data as dictated on the spot by the user. This system can also render snapshots, images and movies that are too big for other systems, and then export smaller size end-products to more commonly used computer systems. Since early 2002, we have explored various ways to provide informal education and outreach focusing on current research presented directly by the researchers doing the work. The Center currently provides a centerpiece for instruction on southern California seismology for K-12 students and teachers for various Scripps education endeavors. Future plans are in place to use the Visualization Center at Scripps for extended K-12 and college educational programs. In particular, we will be identifying K-12 curriculum needs, assisting with teacher education, developing assessments of our programs and products, producing web-accessible teaching modules and facilitating the development of appropriate teaching tools to be

  1. SWOT: A high-resolution wide-swath altimetry mission for oceanography and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    A new satellite mission called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) has been developed jointly by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Based on the success of nadir-looking altimetry missions in the past, SWOT will use the technique of radar interferometry to make wide-swath altimetric measurements of the elevation of surface water on land and the ocean's surface topography. The new measurements will provide information on the changing ocean currents that are key to the prediction of climate change, as well as the shifting fresh water resources resulting from climate change. Conventional satellite altimetry has revolutionized oceanography by providing nearly two decades' worth of global measurements of ocean surface topography. However, the noise level of radar altimeters limits the along-track spatial resolution to 50-100 km over the oceans. The large spacing between the satellite ground tracks limits the resolution of 2D gridded data to 200 km. Yet most of the kinetic energy of ocean circulation takes place at the scales unresolved by conventional altimetry. About 50% of the vertical transfer of heat and chemical properties of the ocean (e.g., dissolved CO2 and nutrients) is also accomplished by processes at these scales. SWOT observations will provide the critical new information at these scales for developing and testing ocean models that are designed for predicting future climate change. SWOT measurements will be in Ka band (~35 GHZ), chosen for the radar to achieve high precision with a much shorter inteferometry baseline of 10 m. Small look angles (~ 4 degrees) are required to minimize elevation errors, which limits the swath width to 120 km. An orbit with inclination of 78 degrees and 22 day repeat period was chosen for gapless coverage and good tidal aliasing properties. With this configuration, SWOT is expected to achieve 1 cm precision at 1 km x 1 km pixels over the ocean and 10 cm

  2. Fisheries Oceanography in the Virgin Islands: Preliminary Results from a Collaborative Research Endeavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. H.; Gerard, T. L.; Johns, E. M.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2008-05-01

    economically important species were recovered at the near-shore sites, south of St. Thomas, St. John, and British Virgin Islands and not on the reef /shelf-break sites as expected. Concurrent Lagrangian drifter trajectories and shipboard ADCP measurements showed a high degree of variability in regional surface water flow. Possible transport pathways as related to the spatial distribution of the larvae collected and the physical oceanography observed will be discussed.

  3. From Scientist to Educator: Oceanography in the Formal and Informal Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. H.; Jasnow, M.; Srinivasan, M. S.; Rosmorduc, V.; Blanc, F.

    2002-12-01

    the role of the ocean in sustaining life on Earth. Activities on the back of the poster can be used as supplemental material in a middle school Earth science curriculum, and are suitable for individual instruction and for classroom or group exercises. This poster will be published in both English and French. Educational research indicates that an inquiry-based method of student engagement is an appropriate and effective teaching tool. These posters offer a fun and instructive environment to promote student interest in Earth Science in general and particularly in oceanography.

  4. Designing and Implementing Service Learning Projects in an Introductory Oceanography Course Using the ``8-Block Model''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, E. P.; Field, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Campus Compact for New Hampshire (Gordon, 2003) introduced a practical model for designing service-learning exercises or components for new or existing courses. They divided the design and implementation process into eight concrete areas, the “8-Block Model”. Their goal was to demystify the design process of service learning courses by breaking it down into interconnected components. These components include: project design, community partner relations, the problem statement, building community in the classroom, building student capacity, project management, assessment of learning, and reflection and connections. The project design component of the “8-Block Model” asks that the service performed be consistent with the learning goals of the course. For science courses students carry out their work as a way of learning science and the process of science, not solely for the sake of service. Their work supports the goals of a community partner and the community partner poses research problems for the class in a letter on their letterhead. Linking student work to important problems in the community effectively engages students and encourages them to work at more sophisticated levels than usually seen in introductory science classes. Using team-building techniques, the classroom becomes a safe, secure learning environment that encourages sharing and experimentation. Targeted lectures, labs, and demonstrations build the capacity of students to do their research. Behind the scenes project management ensures student success. Learning is assessed using a variety of tools, including graded classroom presentations, poster sessions, and presentations and reports to community partners. Finally, students reflect upon their work and make connections between their research and its importance to the well being of the community. Over the past 10 years, we have used this approach to design and continually modify an introductory oceanography course for majors and non

  5. The ESA SMOS+SOS Project: Oceanography using SMOS for innovative air-sea exchange studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Martin, Matthew; Ash, Ellis; Reverdin, Gilles; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    We report on the work plan of the SMOS+Surface Ocean Salinity and Synergy (SMOS+SOS) project. SMOS+SOS is funded through the Support to Science Element (STSE) component of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Observation Envelope Programme. The SMOS+SOS consortium consists of four organisations namely the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the LOCEAN/IFREMER/CATDS research team (France), the Met Office (UK) and Satellite Oceanographic Consultants Ltd (UK). The end of the SMOS+SOS project will be marked by a final open workshop most likely hosted by the UK Met Office in September/October 2014. The project is concerned with demonstrating the performance and scientific value of SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) products through a number of well-defined case studies. The case studies include: Amazon/Orinoco plumes (freshwater outflow); Agulhas and Gulf Stream (strong water mass boundary); Tropical Pacific/Atlantic (strong precipitation regime); sub-tropical North Atlantic (ie SPURS; strong evaporative regime); and Equatorial Pacific (equatorial upwelling). With SMOS measuring the SSS in the top cm of the ocean, validating SMOS against in situ salinity data taken typically at a few meters depth introduces assumptions about the vertical structure of salinity in the upper ocean. To address these issues, the project will examine and quantify discrepancies between SMOS and in situ surface salinity data at various depths in different regions characterised by strong precipitation or evaporation regimes. Equally, data editing and spatio-temporal averaging play a central role in determining the quality, errors and correlations in SMOS SSS data. The project will explore various processing and spatio-temporal averaging choices to define the SMOS SSS products that best address the needs of the oceanographic and data assimilation user community. One key aspect of this project is to determine how one can achieve useful accuracy/uncertainty in SSS without jeopardising SMOS's ability

  6. Oceanography in Second Life: Use of a Virtual Reality to Enhance Undergraduate Education in Marine Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villareal, T. A.; Jarmon, L.; Triggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    Shipboard research is a fundamental part of oceanography, but has numerous legal and practical constraints virtually eliminate it as a regular part of large-enrollment programs in marine science. The cost of a properly equipped research vessel alone can prevent student access. While much can be learned by active exploration of archived data by students, the limitations placed on real oceanographic programs by distance, vessel speed, and time are difficult to reproduce in exercises. Pre-cruise planning and collaboration between investigators are likewise a challenge to incorporate. We have used design students in the College of Liberal Arts to construct a oceanographic expedition in Second Life for use in a marine science course (Fall 2009). Second Life is a highly collaborative environment with a variety of tools that allow users to create their own environment and interact with it. Second LIfe is free, highly portable, and inherently amenable to distance or remote teaching. In our application, the research vessel exists as an moving platform with sampling abilities. Software code queries an external MySQL database that contains information from the World Ocean Atlas for the entire ocean, and returns strings of data from standard depths. Students must plan the cruise track to test hypothesis about the ocean, collaborate with other teams to develop the big picture and use standard oceanographic software (Ocean Data Viewer; ODV) to analyze the data. Access to the entire database in ODV then allows comparison to the actual properties and distributions. The effectiveness of this approach is being evaluated by a pre- and post-class surveys and post semester focus group interviews. Similar surveys of the design students that created the environment noted that use of Second Life created a learning experience that was both more immersive and process oriented than traditional college courses. Initial impressions in the marine science class indicate that the strong social

  7. Using Geophysical Data in the Texas High School Course, Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K.; Olson, H.; Pulliam, J.; Schott, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Science educators working directly with scientists to develop inquiry-based instructional materials in Earth science yield some of the best results. The TEXTEAMS (Texas Teachers Empowered for Achievement in Mathematics and Science) Leadership Training for the Texas high school science course, Geology, Meteorology and Oceanography (GMO) is one example of a successful program that provides high-quality training to master teachers using geophysical data collected by scientists at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). TEXTEAMS is a certification program of professional development and leadership training sponsored by the National Science Foundation that is part of the Texas Statewide Systemic Initiative. UTIG scientists teamed with science educators at the Charles A. Dana Center for Mathematics and Science Education at UT and the Texas Education Agency to develop inquiry-based instructional materials for eight GMO modules. Our learning activities help students and teachers understand how Earth scientists interpret the natural world and test their hypotheses, and provide opportunities for the use of technology in classroom science learning; they are aligned with national and state teaching standards. Examples of TEXTEAMS GMO learning activities that use geophysical data. 1. Neotectonics: radiocarbon dates and elevation above current sea level of raised coral reefs in the New Georgia Islands are used to calculate rates of tectonic uplift and as a basis for the development of a conceptual model to explain the pattern of uplift that emerges from the data. 2. Large Igneous Provinces:geophysical logging data collected on ODP Leg 183 (Kerguelen Plateau) are analyzed to identify the transition from sediment to basement rock. 3. The Search for Black Gold: petroleum exploration requires the integration of geology, geophysics, petrophysics and geochemistry. Knowledge gained in previous GMO modules is combined with fundamental knowledge about economics to

  8. Extracting physical parameters from marine seismic data: New methods in seismic oceanography and velocity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Will F. J.

    The utility and meaning of a geophysical dataset is dependent on good interpretation informed by high-quality data, processing, and attribute examination via technical methodologies. Active source marine seismic reflection data contains a great deal of information in the location, phase, and amplitude of both pre- and post-stack seismic reflections. Using pre- and post-stack data, this work has extracted useful information from marine reflection seismic data in novel ways in both the oceanic water column and the sub-seafloor geology. In chapter 1 we develop a new method for estimating oceanic turbulence from a seismic image. This method is tested on synthetic seismic data to show the method's ability to accurately recover both distribution and levels of turbulent diffusivity. Then we apply the method to real data offshore Costa Rica where we observe lee waves. Our results find elevated diffusivities near the seafloor as well as above the lee waves five times greater than surrounding waters and 50 times greater than open ocean diffusivities. Chapter 2 investigates subsurface geology in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and outlines a workflow for using pre-stack waveform inversion to produce highly detailed velocity models and seismic images. Using a newly developed inversion code, we achieve better imaging results as compared to the product of a standard, user-intensive method for building a velocity model. Our results image the subduction interface ~30 km farther landward than previous work and better images faults and sedimentary structures above the oceanic plate as well as in the accretionary prism. The resultant velocity model is highly detailed, inverted every 6.25 m with ~20 m vertical resolution, and will be used to examine the role of fluids in the subduction system. These results help us to better understand the natural hazards risks associated with the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Chapter 3 returns to seismic oceanography and examines the dynamics of nonlinear

  9. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting

  10. Coastal ocean research in sub-Saharan Africa: towards operational oceanography using satellites, in situ measurements and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, Frank

    Sub-Saharan Africa is greatly influenced by major western boundary currents of the Indian Ocean, Agulhas Current and the Somali Current (for six months of the year), and the major eastern boundary upwelling current systems of the Atlantic Ocean, with their concomitant nu-trient rich upwelling ecosystems which support large fisheries: the Benguela Upwelling System and the Canary Upwelling System. The location of the tip of placecountry-regionSouth Africa is unique in the world oceans, since it is such the only place where a warm western boundary current can interact with a cold upwelling ecosystem. In addition, the Agulhas Current is unique in that it retroflects 80% of its large volume flux back into the placeIndian Ocean. The interocean transport of warm thermocline water from the Indian to the placeAtlantic ocean is of global importance. Satellite observations of temperature, chlorophyll, sea surface height, and wind and waves have elucidated many of these first order processes. Numerical ocean models forced and constrained by satellite measurements are being increasingly used to place operational oceanography on a sound footing. Partnerships with African and northern hemisphere collaborators (e.g. the new Norwegian Nansen-Tutu Centre for Marine Research, PlaceNamePrinceton PlaceTypeUniversity) will enhance operational oceanography around placeAfrica to the benefit of all its inhabitants. All of the above aspects will be discussed, with specific examples of local innovative space borne techniques.

  11. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  12. The social oceanography of top oceanic predators and the decline of sharks: A call for a new field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Peter J.

    2010-07-01

    The decline of top oceanic predators (TOPs), such as great sharks, and worldwide erosion of the marine food web is among the most important functional changes in marine systems. Yet, even though human pressures on sharks are one of the most important factors in the collapse of TOPs, the social science of shark fishing has not kept pace with the biophysical science. Such a gap highlights the need for a marine social science, and this paper uses the case of sharks to illustrate some advances that a coherent marine social science community could bring to science and sustainability, and calls for the development of this new field. Social oceanography is proposed as a “discursive space” that will allow multiple social science and humanities disciplines to holistically study and bring insight to a diverse but essential community. Such a community will not provide answers for the physical sciences, but it will add a new understanding of the contingencies that riddle social behavior that ultimately interact with marine systems. Such a field should reflect the broad and diverse approaches, epistemologies, philosophies of science and foci that are in the human disciplines themselves. Social oceanography would complete the triumvirate of biological and physical oceanography where human systems profoundly impact these other areas. This paper tests the theory that institutional rules are contingent on social priorities and paradigms. I used content analysis of all available (1995-2006) State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) reports from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) to measure the symbolic behavior-i.e., what they say-as an indication of the value of sharks in world fisheries. Similar tests were also performed for marine journals and the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals to corroborate these findings. Then, I present an institutional analysis of all international capacity building and regulatory institutions as they

  13. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  14. An Assessment of Student Learning in an Online Oceanography Course: Five Years After Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    The results of assessing student learning in an online oceanography class offered over the past five years are compiled to reveal several general trends. In order to understand the context of these trends, it is important to first note that SJSU has a two-tiered general education program consisting of a category of core courses for frosh and sophomores and an advanced category for juniors and seniors, most of whom are community college transfers. The course described in this study is in the latter category and therefore composed largely of seniors. Enrollments in the course have exploded from 6 students in a pilot section offered during the 1998 fall semester to over 170 students in the summer semester of 2002. The course is now offered in both semesters of the academic year with four sections offered during 2002 summer session as part of a system-wide conversion to year-round operation. No other course, be it classroom, hybrid or online, in the general education category has experienced the level of student demand as this online course. All sections of the online course reach enrollment limits in the first days of registration with an equal or greater number of students turned away each semester. More female, students of color, returning students and K-12 in-service teachers enroll in the online sections than in the equivalent classroom sections of the course. Students enroll in the online section for the convenience of self-paced learning since attending a classroom section is not a viable option. Enrollments in concurrent classroom sections have not been negatively impacted by the addition of online sections. Enrollment attrition is higher in the first few days of the online course, but similar to that experienced in the classroom sections, once the class is underway. However, student requests for incompletes tend to be somewhat higher in the online course, especially during the summer offerings. Learning outcomes are reviewed at the beginning of the course and

  15. Centre of Excellence in Observational Oceanography: Nippon Foundation and POGO Supported Programme at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, F. G.; Sathyendranath, S.; Frouin, R.; Knap, T.

    2008-05-01

    Building on previous experience in capacity building for ocean observations, the Nippon Foundation (NF) and the Partnership for Observations of the Global Oceans (POGO) have announced a new Centre of Excellence (C of E) at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). The goals of the C of E are to expand the world-wide capacity and expertise to observe the oceans and to expand capacity-building projects and promote international collaboration and networking in ocean sciences. Over the past 104 years, BIOS has built a global reputation in blue-water oceanography, coral reef ecology, and the relationships between ocean health and human health coupled with high quality education programmes that provide direct, hands-on experience with BIOS-based research. The C of E at BIOS will build upon this model to establish a new, graduate-level education and training programme in operational oceanography. The 10 month Programme will offer course modules in ocean disciplines with a focus on observatory sciences complemented by hands-on training in observational methods and techniques based on the multi-disciplinary expertise of BIOS and BIOS-affiliated scientists who direct ongoing, ocean observational programmes such as: - Hydrostation S, since 1954; - Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study, since 1988; - Oceanic Flux Program sediment trap time-series, since 1978; - Bermuda Test-Bed and Science Mooring, since 1994; - Bermuda Microbial Observatory, since 1997; - Bermuda Bio-Optics Program, since 1992; - Atmospheric chemistry and air-sea fluxes, since 1990 Additional areas of BIOS research expertise will be incorporated in the C of E to broaden the scope of education and training. These include the nearshore observational network of the BIOS Marine Environmental Program and the environmental air-water chemistry network of the Bermuda Environmental Quality Program. A key resource of the C of E is the newly acquired 168 ft. research vessel, the RV Atlantic Explorer, which was

  16. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  17. Statistical Methods in Physical Oceanography: Proceedings of ’Aha Huliko’a Hawaiian Winter Workshop Held in Manoa, Hawaii on January 12-15, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    the articles that follow. Barbara Jones and May Izumi provided skillful production assistance. Peter Muller Department of Oceanography Diane Henderson...41N and 4VS. The surprising result that the ear- lier downwelling Kelvin wave did not reflect as a Rossby wave is explained by the authors from a...reflected downwelling Rossby wave, but enhances the reflected upwelling Rossby wave. Owing to the short 1- year record length, the authors are not able to

  18. Oceanography at coastal scales: Introduction to the special issue on results from the EU FP7 FIELD_AC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Wolf, Judith; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2014-09-01

    The high-resolution and coupled forecasting of wind, waves and currents, in restricted coastal domains, offer a number of important challenges; these limit the quality of predictions, in the present state-of-the-art. This paper presents the main results obtained for such coastal domains, with reference to a variety of modelling suites and observing networks for: a) Liverpool Bay; b) German Bight; c) Gulf of Venice; and d) the Catalan coast. All of these areas are restricted domains, where boundary effects play a significant role in the resulting inner dynamics. This contribution addresses also the themes of the other papers in this Special Issue, ranging from observations to simulations. Emphasis is placed upon the physics controlling such restricted areas. The text deals also with the transfer to end-users and other interested parties, since the requirements on resolution, accuracy and robustness must be linked to their applications. Finally, some remarks are included on the way forward for coastal oceanography and the synergetic combination of in-situ and remote measurements, with high-resolution 3D simulations.

  19. Tracking cold bottom water in the Gargano Peninsula and Bari Canyon regions of the Adriatic using seismic oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren; Book, Jeffrey; Carniel, Sandro; Lindwall, Dennis; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Tracking cold, dense bottom water from conventional ship sampling is difficult - equipment safety concerns result in incomplete sampling near the seafloor, and lateral variability can be significant. Mooring time series are poor at mapping dense water vein spatial extents and can even completely miss sampling narrow veins. The relatively new technique of seismic oceanography (SO) could potentially provide a new way of identifying and characterizing these bottom waters that is not as subject to the constraints and difficulties of present methods. Furthermore, combining SO with conventional sampling is particularly appealing for better characterization of the quick and small scales of dense water cascades and bottom trapped phenomenon.. There is a relationship between oceanic temperatures and the seismic data such that seismic images can be made to represent a quantitative measure of vertical temperature gradient through much of the water column and even very near the seafloor. The SO technique involves towing a low frequency, broadband (20-250 Hz) sound source (such as an air gun array) and a long, 600-1200 m, array of hydrophones. SO uses much lower frequencies than conventional Acoustical Oceanography (AO) techniques, and is affected by the acoustic impedance (product of sound speed and density) directly, not via proxy such as impurities or biota in the water. The sound pulses reflect off the (mostly temperature) contrasts in the water, and are recorded on the hydrophone array, creating an image of temperature gradient. Because the reflection coefficients are small, signal-enhancing techniques such as synthetic aperture (common midpoint binning) processing is required. The images generated using SO allow for the tracking of very thin (less than 10 m thick) bottom currents provided that the temperature contrast between the bottom, and overlying water is strong enough (0.3 to 1.2 degrees C, depending on acoustic noise levels) and abrupt enough (10-15 meters). The

  20. Online teaching and learning in oceanography: A look back at 15 years of undergraduate general education (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D.

    2013-12-01

    Online courses in higher education have garnered a growing presence in the popular media, yet misperceptions abound. Consequently, a retrospective examination of the evolution of an online oceanography class, first offered to undergraduates at the San Jose State University in the fall semester of 1998, may be especially relevant to the development of future efforts in this field. Since that initial offering, the development of the course, involving the creation of virtual field experiences whereby students take on the role of practicing research oceanographers, has been supported through several awards from the National Science Foundation, principally the Division of Undergraduate Education and the Geoscience Directorate. The online material, organized into expeditions, which focus on the nature of scientific discovery, has evolved over time from a static graphics and text-based format to include video, largely available through YouTube, and animations that take advantage of social media, all to highlight contemporary ocean research. To sustain the project beyond NSF funding, the course has been offered throughout the academic year, and in winter and summer special sessions, to more the 4000 students over the 15 year period since its initial offering. The materials have always been openly available through the course website (http://oceansjsu.com) to institutions throughout the world, long in advance of current MOOC movement. Just as the course format, and available content, have evolved, so have the students enrolled in the class, which now more closely mirror the university student body as a whole. Future efforts in course development should span multi-campus university systems to take advantage of the collective scientific expertise available and to leverage the effort across a larger number of courses and disciplines.

  1. Deep Thermal Front (southeastern Brazilian coast) see through acoustics: a preliminary study from an operational oceanography perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsoni, L.; Hermand, J.-P.; da Silveira, I. C. A.

    2012-04-01

    éia region (state of São Paulo) is presented. Theorical temperature and salinity fields with differents conditions of DTF position are used for the calculations. Notable variations in the transmission loss field, rays propagations and time arrivals are found when the DTF is moving. These results support the idea that acoustics can be an interesting tool in monitoring and tracking of DTF movement, especially in the context of an intregrated program of observational oceanography and numerical ocean modeling.

  2. Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE) Initiatives Toward Promoting Diversity in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.

    2007-05-01

    The ocean sciences suffer from a lack of diversity, particularly among indigenous peoples, despite the fact that indigenous peoples often have deep, cultural knowledge about the marine environment. Nowhere is this inequity more glaring than in Hawaii. Traditional knowledge in marine science enabled Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) to become world leaders in transpacific canoe voyaging, aquaculture, and fisheries. Yet today, NHPI are severely underrepresented in the ocean sciences (and in STEM fields in general) at all levels of education and employment. When compared to other ethnic and racial groups in Hawaii, NHPI students as a group have among the poorest educational performance, indicated in part by underrepresentation in college enrolment and pre-college gifted and talented programs, as well as overrepresentation in eligibility for special education and free and reduced lunch programs. The Center of Microbial Oceanography Research and Education (C-MORE), a NSF-funded, multi-institutional Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawai (UH), is determined to address this inequity. C- MORE is committed to increasing diversity in the ocean sciences, particularly among NHPI, at all levels of education and research. Our approach is to work with existing programs with a track record of increasing diversity among NHPI. We are currently developing culturally relevant materials including educational games for K-12 students, mentorships for high school and community college students, and laboratory and shipboard experiences for teachers and undergraduates in partnership with minority-serving organizations. Some of our main partners are EPSCoR (Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research), Ka `Imi `Ike (an NSF- funded program to recruit and retain NHPI undergraduates in geosciences), Upward Bound (an enrichment program for economically disadvantaged high school students which includes intensive summer courses), the UH Center on

  3. Late winter oceanography off the Sabrina and BANZARE coast (117-128°E), East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.; Meijers, A. J. S.; Poole, A.; Mathiot, P.; Tamura, T.; Klocker, A.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the late winter oceanography observed beneath the Antarctic sea ice offshore from the Sabrina and BANZARE coast of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica (117-128°E) in September-October 2007 during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystem eXperiment (SIPEX). A pilot program using specifically designed 'through-ice' conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) and acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) systems was conducted to opportunistically measure water mass properties and ocean currents at major ice stations. Additional water mass properties across the survey region were collected from Ice-Argo floats deployed during the voyage north of the 3000 m isobath. The mean drift of the floats was along the slope to the west with the Antarctic Slope Current. Vertical profiles of the potential temperature reveal the deepest (˜350-400m) winter mixed layer (WML) in the western sector of the survey northwest of the Dalton Iceberg Tongue polynya. The meridional structure of the Antarctic Slope Front, i.e. the monotonic shoaling of the WML across the upper continental slope, is found to be similar to the previous observations in summer. A strong bottom-intensified intrusion of modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) as warm as 0 °C was detected beneath the fast ice south of the continental shelf break at 118°E. An mCDW intrusion of similar strength was detected near this location in the austral summer of 1996. We hypothesise that there is a persistent supply of mCDW and associated ocean heat flux to this region of the continental shelf that is capable of migrating to the grounding lines of the nearby Totten Glacier and Moscow University Ice Shelf. There was no detection of locally formed dense shelf water capable of forming Antarctic Bottom Water at the shelf break locations sampled despite the number of minor polynyas across this region. Ocean current measurements, limited to a maximum period of 24 h and 50-100 m depth by the relative scarcity of backscatter, found increased

  4. Satellite observations of the ice cover of the Kuril Basin region of the Okhotsk Sea and its relation to the regional oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakatsuchi, Masaaki; Martin, Seelye

    1990-01-01

    For the period 1978-1982, this paper examines the nature of the sea ice which forms over the Kuril Basin of the Okhotsk Sea and describes the impact of this ice on the regional oceanography. The oceanographic behavior during the heavy ice season associated with the cold 1979 winter is compared with the behavior during the lighter ice years of 1980 and 1982. Examination of the oceanography in the Okhotsk and the adjacent Pacific shows that the early summer water column structure depends on the heat loss from the Okhotsk during the preceding ice season, the total amount of Okhotsk ice formation, and, specifically, the amount of the ice formation in the Kuril Basin. Following the 1979 ice season, the upper 200-300 m of the Kuril Basin waters were cooler, less saline, and richer in oxygen than for the other years. This modification appears to be a process local to the Kuril Basin, driven by eddy-induced mixing, local cooling, and ice melting.

  5. Atlantic Oceanography. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Gibbs transform fault. 4124 CLAUDE FRANKIGNOUL and TERRENCE M. JOYCE. Internal wave variability during the Internal Wave Experiment (IWEX). 4126 P.L...tions of interaction between the internal wave field and low frequency flows in the North Atlantic. 4124 CLAUDE FRANKIGNOUL and TERRENCE M. JOYCE...tertiary marine benthic gastropods. In Historical Biogeography , Plate Tectonics and the Changing Environment, A. J. Boucot and J. Gray [eds

  6. Oceanography of East Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface fluorescence and dissolved oxygen showed non homogenous patterns.

  7. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  8. Arctic Physical Oceanography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    approval to proceed, Polar Science Center, in Fridtjof Nansen , who allowed his especially constructed the fall of 1978, started the detailed planning... Nansen and his negotiating contracts for aircraft and personnel support men conducted a remarkable and wide-ranging services. program of scientific...in the Amerasia the Arctic Midoceanic Ridge, across the Nansen Frac- Basin of the Arctic Ocean. These stations were sup- ture Zone, and up the

  9. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  10. Comparative Magma Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether the Earth ever passed through a magma ocean stage is of considerable interest. Geochemical evidence strongly suggests that the Moon had a magma ocean and the evidence is mounting that the same was true for Mars. Analyses of martian (SNC) meteorites have yielded insights into the differentiation history of Mars, and consequently, it is interesting to compare that planet to the Earth. Three primary features of Mars contrast strongly to those of the Earth: (i) the extremely ancient ages of the martian core, mantle, and crust (about 4.55 b.y.); (ii) the highly depleted nature of the martian mantle; and (iii) the extreme ranges of Nd isotopic compositions that arise within the crust and depleted mantle. The easiest way to explain the ages and diverse isotopic compositions of martian basalts is to postulate that Mars had an early magma ocean. Cumulates of this magma ocean were later remelted to form the SNC meteorite suite and some of these melts assimilated crustal materials enriched in incompatible elements. The REE pattern of the crust assimilated by these SNC magmas was LREE enriched. If this pattern is typical of the crust as a whole, the martian crust is probably similar in composition to melts generated by small degrees of partial melting (about 5%) of a primitive source. Higher degrees of partial melting would cause the crustal LREE pattern to be essentially flat. In the context of a magma ocean model, where large degrees of partial melting presumably prevailed, the crust would have to be dominated by late-stage, LREE-enriched residual liquids. Regardless of the exact physical setting, Nd and W isotopic evidence indicates that martian geochemical reservoirs must have formed early and that they have not been efficiently remixed since. The important point is that in both the Moon and Mars we see evidence of a magma ocean phase and that we recognize it as such. Several lines of theoretical inference point to an early Earth that was also hot and, perhaps, mostly molten. The Giant Impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon offers a tremendous input of thermal energy and the same could be true for core formation. And current solar system models favor the formation of a limited number of large (about 1000 km) planetesimals that, upon accreting to Earth, would cause great heating, being lesser versions of the Giant Impact. Several lines of geochemical evidence do not favor this hot early Earth scenario. (i) Terrestrial man-tle xenoliths are sometimes nearly chondritic in their major element compositions, suggesting that these rocks have never been much molten. Large degrees of partial melting probably promote differentiation rather than homogenization. (ii) Unlike the case of Mars, the continental crust probably did not form as a highly fractionated residual liquid from a magma ocean (about 99% crystallization), but, rather, formed in multiple steps. [The simplest model for the formation of continental crust is complicated: (a) about 10% melting of a primitive mantle, making basalt; (b) hydrothermal alteration of that basalt, converting it to greenstone; and (c) 10% partial melting of that greenstone, producing tonalite.] This model is reinforced by the recent observation from old (about 4.1 b.y.) zircons that the early crust formed from an undepleted mantle having a chondritic Lu/Hf ratio. (iii) If the mantle were once differentiated by a magma ocean, the mantle xenolith suite requires that it subsequently be homogenized. The Os isotopic compositions of fertile spinel lherzolites place constraints on the timing of that homogenization. The Os isotopic composition of spinel lherzolites approaches that of chondrites and correlates with elements such as Lu and Al. As Lu and Al concentrations approach those of the primitive mantle, Os isotopic compositions approach chondritic. The Re and Os in these xenoliths were probably added as a late veneer. Thus, the mantle that received the late veneer must have been nearly chondritic in terms of its major elements (excluding Fe). If the mantle that the veneer was mixed into was not al-ready homogenized, then Os isotopes should not correlate with incompatible elements such as Al. Consequently, either early differentiation of the mantle did not occur or the homogenization of this differentiation must have occurred before the late veneer was added. The timing of the late veneer is itself uncertain but presumably postdated core formation at about 4.45 b.y. and did not postdate the 3.8-3.9 b.y. late bombardment of the Moon. This timing based on siderophile elements is consistent with the Hf isotopic evidence cited above. If the Earth, Moon and Mars had magma oceans, the Earth subsequently rehomogenized whereas the Moon and Mars did not. The simplest solution to this observation is that homogenization of igneous differentiates was never necessary on Earth, either because the hypothetical magma ocean never occurred or because this event did not produce mantle differentiation.

  11. Atlantic Oceanography. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    fouling organisms. When the culture methods for serpulids are well in hand, we propose next to begin work with encrusting bryozoa . B-14 (2) To conduct...certain bryozoa larvae for particular preferred species of intertidal thallus algae. The types of experi- ments to be performed by us have been identified

  12. Dynamical Systems and Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-25

    8217SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 7 JREOC1AD-A282 635APIr---- 1 Form Ap! ve Ia. REPORT SECURITY ELSIFC AD A 8 635 . 0 of 2SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...mathematical approach should prove ideal for analyzing transport and mixing processes associated with the large scale , organized motions observed in

  13. Capturing Excitement: Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert E.; Butts, David P.

    1971-01-01

    Describes four elementary school earth science activities. Each student experience is designed to help children answer questions about the ocean floor, continental drift, volcanism and mountain chains. Includes a bibliography of related articles, books, and maps. (JM)

  14. Satellite oceanography update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The TOPEX (Ocean Topography Experiment) spacecraft, originally scheduled for a 1989 launch, has now been rescheduled for launch in October 1990. Budgetary pressures are cited as the primary reason for the 20-month launch delay. The new launch date hinges on the administration giving the mission the green light in the Fiscal Year (FY) 1986 budget, which is expected to be released in early February.

  15. Statistics and Physical Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    POLLOCK , University of Michigan DARYL PREGIBON, AT&T Bell Laboratories Staff JOHN R. TUCKER, Senior Program Officer nli BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL...Reynolds numbers associated with the onset of turbulence. The Reynolds number is a measure of the relative importance of inertial forces in the fluid as...in energy dissipation on the shape of turbulent characteristics in the inertial interval. Sov. Phys. Dok/l (EngL TransL) 2:26-30. Zakharov, V. E. 1984

  16. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up

  17. Soviet books and publications on geological and chemical oceanography, hydrology, and other subjects acquired during the second international oceanographic congress, Moscow, June 1966: titles and some translated contents and notes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1966-01-01

    The listed publications represent a selection, by no means complete, of recent Soviet work in geological and chemical oceanography. Some works on hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the continents, as well as a few publications on other subjects, such as geology, geophysics, and biology, also are included.

  18. Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM): A Research Programme. Reports of the Organizing Committee Meeting (Paris, August 1984), and the Scientific Workshop (Lucerne, October 1984). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The ultimate goal of the Program for the Exploration of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) is to reach a comprehensive knowledge of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean. Such knowledge is an essential basis for environmental management, resource exploration, and marine operations. The overall scientific…

  19. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kupferman, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Computational physical oceanography -- A comprehensive approach based on generalized CFD/grid techniques for planetary scale simulations of oceanic flows. Final report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Beddhu, M.; Jiang, M.Y.; Whitfield, D.L.; Taylor, L.K.; Arabshahi, A.

    1997-02-20

    The original intention for this work was to impart the technology that was developed in the field of computational aeronautics to the field of computational physical oceanography. This technology transfer involved grid generation techniques and solution procedures to solve the governing equations over the grids thus generated. Specifically, boundary fitting non-orthogonal grids would be generated over a sphere taking into account the topography of the ocean floor and the topography of the continents. The solution methodology to be employed involved the application of an upwind, finite volume discretization procedure that uses higher order numerical fluxes at the cell faces to discretize the governing equations and an implicit Newton relaxation technique to solve the discretized equations. This report summarizes the efforts put forth during the past three years to achieve these goals and indicates the future direction of this work as it is still an ongoing effort.

  1. Real-Time Access to Altimetry and Operational Oceanography Products via OPeNDAP/LAS Technologies : the Example of Aviso, Mercator and Mersea Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudel, S.; Blanc, F.; Jolibois, T.; Rosmorduc, V.

    2004-12-01

    The Products and Services (P&S) department in the Space Oceanography Division at CLS is in charge of diffusing and promoting altimetry and operational oceanography data. P&S is so involved in Aviso satellite altimetry project, in Mercator ocean operational forecasting system, and in the European Godae /Mersea ocean portal. Aiming to a standardisation and a common vision and management of all these ocean data, these projects led to the implementation of several OPeNDAP/LAS Internet servers. OPeNDAP allows the user to extract via a client software (like IDL, Matlab or Ferret) the data he is interested in and only this data, avoiding him to download full information files. OPeNDAP allows to extract a geographic area, a period time, an oceanic variable, and an output format. LAS is an OPeNDAP data access web server whose special feature consists in the facility for unify in a single vision the access to multiple types of data from distributed data sources. The LAS can make requests to different remote OPeNDAP servers. This enables to make comparisons or statistics upon several different data types. Aviso is the CNES/CLS service which distributes altimetry products since 1993. The Aviso LAS distributes several Ssalto/Duacs altimetry products such as delayed and near-real time mean sea level anomaly, absolute dynamic topography, absolute geostrophic velocities, gridded significant wave height and gridded wind speed modulus. Mercator-Ocean is a French operational oceanography centre which distributes its products by several means among them LAS/OPeNDAP servers as part of Mercator Mersea-strand1 contribution. 3D ocean description (temperature, salinity, current and other oceanic variables) of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean are real-time available and weekly updated. LAS special feature consisting in the possibility of making requests to several remote data centres with same OPeNDAP configurations particularly fitted to Mersea strand-1 problematics. This European

  2. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  3. Educational Experiences in Oceanography through Hands-On Involvement with Surface Drifters: an Introduction to Ocean Currents, Engineering, Data Collection, and Computer Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program is providing education opportunities for students of all ages. Using GPS-tracked ocean drifters, various educational institutions can provide students with hands-on experience in physical oceanography, engineering, and computer science. In building drifters many high school and undergraduate students may focus on drifter construction, sometimes designing their own drifter or attempting to improve current NEFSC models. While learning basic oceanography younger students can build drifters with the help of an educator and directions available on the studentdrifters.org website. Once drifters are deployed, often by a local mariner or oceanographic partner, drifter tracks can be visualised on maps provided at http://nefsc.noaa.gov/drifter. With the lesson plans available for those interested in computer science, students may download, process, and plot the drifter position data with basic Python code provided. Drifter tracks help students to visualize ocean currents, and also allow them to understand real particle tracking applications such as in search and rescue, oil spill dispersion, larval transport, and the movement of injured sea animals. Additionally, ocean circulation modelers can use student drifter paths to validate their models. The Student Drifters Program has worked with over 100 schools, several of them having deployed drifters on the West Coast. Funding for the program often comes from individual schools and small grants but in the future will preferably come from larger government grants. NSF, Sea-Grant, NOAA, and EPA are all possible sources of funding, especially with the support of multiple schools and large marine education associations. The Student Drifters Program is a unique resource for educators, students, and scientists alike.

  4. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  5. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight: Progress report, June 1, 1987 to May 31, 1988. [FLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    This study of continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) is part of the interdisciplinary DOE-sponsored South Atlantic Bight Program. Our part of the program involves hydrographic and nutrient characteristics of the region. Current research efforts in the SAB Program are being focused on the inner shelf region where effects of bottom friction, local wind forcing, river and estuarine discharge, and tides, which are all small scale processes, are important. Our major accomplishment during the past year was the completion of the FLEX (Fall Experiment) field study. Since most of our data collection is computerized, preliminary hydrographic data analysis was done on board ship during the cruise and preliminary results are available. These results will be presented in this report. We are just beginning our standard data processing and data analysis procedures. We continued the processing and analysis of SPREX data collected during April 1985. Work has also continued on the older GABEX I and II data sets. 8 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Phylogeography and historical demography of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii in relation to geological history and oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Kokita, Tomoyuki; Nohara, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Phylogeographical patterns of marine and diadromous organisms are often influenced by dynamic ocean histories. For example, the marine realm around the Japanese Archipelago is an interesting area for phylogeographical research because of the wide variation in the environments driven by repeated shifts in sea level in the Quaternary. We analysed mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear myh6 gene sequences for individuals collected from throughout the range of the anadromous fish Leucopsarion petersii to assess the lineage divergence, phylogeographical pattern and historical demography in relation to geological history and oceanographic features around the archipelago. Leucopsarion petersii has two major lineages (the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages), which diverged during the late-early to middle Pleistocene. Geographical distributions of the two lineages were closely related to the pathways of the two warm currents, the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio Current, that flow past the archipelago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization between these lineages was found at two secondary contact zones. Demographic tests suggested that the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean lineages carried the genetic signal of different historical demographic processes, and these signals are probably associated with differences in habitat stability during recent glacial periods. The Japan Sea lineage has a larger body-size and more vertebrae, probably in relation to severe habitat conditions through Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Thus, the two lineages have long independent evolutionary histories, and the phylogeographical structure and demography of this species have been influenced both by historical events and the present-day oceanography around the Japanese Archipelago.

  7. National Weather Service, Emergency Medical Services, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD and California EPA Collaboration on Heat Health Impact and Public Notification for San Diego County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts in the form of either a heat advisory or excessive heat warning product to the public and core partners for many years. This information has traditionally been developed through the use of triggers for heat indices which combine humidity and temperature. The criteria typically used numeric thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality or population acclimation. In 2013, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego in collaboration with the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, of the California Environmental Protection Agency and the NWS completed a study of heat health impact in California, while the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria towards departure from climatological normal with much less dependence on humidity or heat index. The NWS changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system which documents heat health impacts. Results from the UCSD study were finalized and published in 2014; they supported the need for significant modification of the traditional criteria. In order to better understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch, which is charged by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily from June through September. The data were combined with UCSD research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, practices and procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services. The end result of the

  8. Physical Oceanography Program Science Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    and turbulence . Present work in preparation for the OCEAN STORMS experiment ..- includes modelling of ocean reponse to realistic wind fields measured by...the Seasat scatterometer and modelling upper ocean turbulence and internal waves. 4 The principal investigator is also serving as coordinator for...and temperature variance are dissipated. We have been testing the applicability to oceanic turbulence of theoretical models , and rules derived from

  9. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  10. Titan Oceanography from the Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    While the Cassini-Huygens mission was formulated against the speculative backdrop of a hydrocarbon ocean on Titan, the reality exposed by its measurements a quarter century later has proven more interesting. Instead of a global ocean, Titan has three modest seas, with dozens of small lakes, clustered around its north pole. The south is almost entirely bereft of surface liquids, the probable result of astronomically-forced climate cycles on Titan which are pumping ethane and methane vapor northwards across the equatorial deserts to accumulate in the long rainy season each boreal summer in the present epoch. Cassini’s RADAR instrument mapped the second-largest (~350km) sea, Ligiea Mare, while it was still in winter darkness, and has now covered the sprawling (~1000km) Kraken Mare, revealing shorelines indicating rising sea levels. The mapping allows the construction of numerical models of ocean circulation driven by winds and tides. Radar observations have placed tight limits (mm) on wave heights so far: near-infrared sunglint observations provide separate constraints on surface roughness. We will review latest observations and future plans: it is expected that winds will freshen as we move towards the culmination of the Cassini Solstice Mission in northern midsummer. The Ku-band (2.2cm) radar signals from Cassini penetrate a few meters into the possibly muddy dregs of Ontario Lacus in the south, yet remarkably allowed detection of a bottom echo at Ligeia Mare in a nadir-pointed altimetry observation in summer 2013. This not only allowed a depth estimation of ~170m, but also points to a very ‘clean’ composition, quite possibly rich in methane. This contrasts with near-infrared measurements at Ontario Lacus in the south, which show ethane and possibly an optically-muddy appearance. The stage is now set for detailed modeling of wind-driven and tidal circulations, mixing, stratification, sedimentation and shoreline processes on Titan. Beyond their insights into this environment, Cassini’s observations set the stage for future missions, which might include vehicles that float on, fly over, or even swim in, Titan’s exotic seas.

  11. Satellite Altimetry for Naval Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    mesoscale map. H. Beresford and E. McNutt assisted with analses of An added capability of the SSH residual is the ability herod ad.uttaSs alyesofd to...wave energy. It should be gnd) Gulf of Mexico vmidoon. tal Da, 1536. ihi Day 0󈧴. lei Da. noted that a more sophisticated technioue for determiring...the 1560. (d) Day 1572. lei Day 1602 For contour interval. ee Figure A KINDLF SAMPLING STRArEGiIUS AND Mot As iSMitt IioN of A L risit IRI( D.I A _ (a

  12. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  13. Questions about Careers in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Aubrey L.

    Knowing the relationship of the ocean to man, the weather and climate, availability of resources from the ocean, use of the ocean in transporation, waste disposal, and defense, and developing an understanding of the impact on the oceans of human activity are all goals of oceanographers. The goal of this brochure is to provide concise informative…

  14. Oceanography, Volume 5, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Julian P. McCreary , Robert L. Molinari, Phillip L. Richardson and Claus Rooth RECENTLY, a group of researchers from the U.S. tropical Atlantic...and Bining, scribe the annual cycle in the large-scale structure transport of water and 1991; Thompson, McCreary , personal commu- of the velocity and... McCreary . P. Kundu. P. Lu the seasonal variability in the current and property NOARL Modeling-D. Thompson. J. Kindle. H. Hurihun O((.AN(XiRAP111.VI. S. No

  15. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: A STEM Partnership Between Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Office of Naval Research and Middle School Science Students Bringing Next Generation Science Standards into the Classroom through Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, D.; Appelgate, B., Jr.; Mauricio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Now in its tenth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with Next Generation Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO Ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of Biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum models the Next Generation Science Standards encouraging active inquiry and critical thinking with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as

  16. Data management in Oceanography at SOCIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquin, Tintoré; March, David; Lora, Sebastian; Sebastian, Kristian; Frontera, Biel; Gómara, Sonia; Pau Beltran, Joan

    2014-05-01

    SOCIB, the Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System (http://www.socib.es), is a Marine Research Infrastructure, a multiplatform distributed and integrated system, a facility of facilities that extends from the nearshore to the open sea and provides free, open and quality control data. SOCIB is a facility o facilities and has three major infrastructure components: (1) a distributed multiplatform observing system, (2) a numerical forecasting system, and (3) a data management and visualization system. We present the spatial data infrastructure and applications developed at SOCIB. One of the major goals of the SOCIB Data Centre is to provide users with a system to locate and download the data of interest (near real-time and delayed mode) and to visualize and manage the information. Following SOCIB principles, data need to be (1) discoverable and accessible, (2) freely available, and (3) interoperable and standardized. In consequence, SOCIB Data Centre Facility is implementing a general data management system to guarantee international standards, quality assurance and interoperability. The combination of different sources and types of information requires appropriate methods to ingest, catalogue, display, and distribute this information. SOCIB Data Centre is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions. In other words, the data life cycle relies in the following stages: • Acquisition: The data managed by SOCIB mostly come from its own observation platforms, numerical models or information generated from the activities in the SIAS Division. • Processing: Applications developed at SOCIB to deal with all collected platform data performing data calibration, derivation, quality control and standardization. • Archival: Storage in netCDF and spatial databases. • Distribution: Data web services using Thredds, Geoserver and RESTful own services. • Catalogue: Metadata is provided through the ncISO plugin in Thredds and Geonetwork. • Visualization: web and mobile applications to present SOCIB data to different user profiles. SOCIB data services and applications have been developed to provide response to science and society needs (eg. European initiatives such as Emodnet or Copernicus), by targeting different user profiles (eg. researchers, technicians, policy and decision makers, educators, students, and society in general). For example, SOCIB has developed applications to: 1) allow researchers and technicians to access oceanographic information; 2) provide decision support for oil spills response; 3) disseminate information about the coastal state for tourists and recreational users; 4) present coastal research in educational programs; and 5) offer easy and fast access to marine information through mobile devices. In conclusion, the organizational and conceptual structure of SOCIB's Data Centre and the components developed provide an example of marine information systems within the framework of new ocean observatories and/or marine research infrastructures.

  17. Summary of Research 1997 Department of Oceanography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Environmental Quality KEYWORDS: P-Vector, Geostrophic Velocity, Beta- Spiral , Inverse Method, Primitive Equation Model , Turbulence Clo- sure 28 PROJECT...Shelfbreak Primer) Field Study 22 Mixed Layer Turbulence Measurements During the Anzone Winter Flux Experiment: Anzflux 55 Modeling the Long-Term... Turbulent Circulation of the Arctic Ocean and the Sea Ice 43 Modeling the Response of Monterey Bay to Diurnal Wind and Tidal Forcing 40,48 Monitoring

  18. Secretary of the Navy, Processor of Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    mixing may be a significant cause of the 40,000 year climate (ice age) variability, which has been attributed entirely to change in solar radiation...Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Workshop Invited Speaker: Scattering from the mixed layer base into the sound shadow La Casa del Zorro, Borrego

  19. On small satellites for oceanography: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, André G. C.; Francisco, Frederico; Villate, Jaime; Aguado Agelet, Fernando; Bertolami, Orfeu; Rajan, Kanna

    2016-10-01

    The recent explosive growth of small satellite operations driven primarily from an academic or pedagogical need, has demonstrated the viability of commercial-off-the-shelf technologies in space. They have also leveraged and shown the need for development of compatible sensors primarily aimed for Earth observation tasks including monitoring terrestrial domains, communications and engineering tests. However, one domain that these platforms have not yet made substantial inroads into, is in the ocean sciences. Remote sensing has long been within the repertoire of tools for oceanographers to study dynamic large scale physical phenomena, such as gyres and fronts, bio-geochemical process transport, primary productivity and process studies in the coastal ocean. We argue that the time has come for micro and nano-satellites (with mass smaller than 100 kg and 2-3 year development times) designed, built, tested and flown by academic departments, for coordinated observations with robotic assets in situ. We do so primarily by surveying SmallSat missions oriented towards ocean observations in the recent past, and in doing so, we update the current knowledge about what is feasible in the rapidly evolving field of platforms and sensors for this domain. We conclude by proposing a set of candidate ocean observing missions with an emphasis on radar-based observations, with a focus on Synthetic Aperture Radar.

  20. How To...Activities in Physical Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly oceanology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) comparison of water hardness; (2) preparation of fresh water from sea water; (3) determination of water pressure; (4)…

  1. Secretary of the Navy Professor of Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Year Colloquium, In Honour of Fridtjof Nansens 150 Year Anniversary; Bergen, Norway; 18 November 2011 • Invited Talk: Waves, long and short...be useful in the more difficult polar environment. An attractive feature is the continued collaboration with the Nansen Institute in Bergen. I...with sound, paper presented at XXV IUGG General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, 28 June – 7 July 2011. Munk, W. (2011) Nansen Center 1986-2011: A

  2. Secretary of the Navy Professor of Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-18

    Center 1986-2011: A View from LaJolla, Nansen Center 25 Year Colloquium, In Honour of Fridtjof Nansens 150 Year Anniversary; Bergen, Norway; 18 November...cavity with sound, paper presented at XXV IUGG General Assembly, Melbourne, Australia, 28 June - 7 July 2011. Munk, W. (2011) Nansen Center 1986-2011...A View from La Jolla. Presentations from the Nansen Center’s 25 Years Colloquium, http://www.nersc.no/news/presentations- nansen - center%C2%B4s-25

  3. A Position Paper: Mesoscale Oceanography from GEOSAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    proposed TOPEX mission. 3 Table 1. True sea surface typography consists of three components: SOURCE AMPLITUDE SPATIAL SCALE GRAVITATIONAL EQUIPOTENTIAL...seamounts (though the survey design -attempts to accommodate seamounts). A critical limitation associated with these "geoids" is that purely geodetic...upper left end of the curve). Attempts to synoptically map meso- scale typographies could be made from orbits lying along the shoulder of the curve

  4. Applications of adenine nucleotide measurements in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm-Hansen, O.; Hodson, R.; Azam, F.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology involved in nucleotide measurements is outlined, along with data to support the premise that ATP concentrations in microbial cells can be extrapolated to biomass parameters. ATP concentrations in microorganisms and nucleotide analyses are studied.

  5. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  6. University Curricula in Oceanography and Related Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    program was purse seine. A net loft is also used at Bellingham harbor started in the summer of 1970. Narragansett Bay was for net work. the perfect place...used for purse Marine Biology. In the mid-1079’s a B.A. degree was seining, otter trawling, gillnetting, reef-netting, trolling made available, and...unloading techniques 3 8. Types of Fishing Gear 2. Ph.D. in Biology, specializing in marine biology, a) Purse seine requiring successful completion of eight

  7. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Webb, D J; Suginohara, N

    2001-01-04

    The thermohaline circulation of the ocean results primarily from downwelling at sites in the Nordic and Labrador Seas and upwelling throughout the rest of the ocean. The latter is often described as being due to breaking internal waves. Here we reconcile the difference between theoretical and observed estimates of vertical mixing in the deep ocean by presenting a revised view of the thermohaline circulation, which allows for additional upwelling in the Southern Ocean and the separation of the North Atlantic Deep Water cell from the Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The changes also mean that much less wind and tidal energy needs to be dissipated in the deep ocean than was originally thought.

  8. Chemical oceanography: The ocean's pressure cooker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaupré, Steven R.

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms that destroy the oldest organic molecules found in seawater. Field and laboratory observations suggest that these molecules are destroyed by the heat and pressure of deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  9. Chemical oceanography of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Dyrssen, D.

    Measurements of basic hydrographic properties, nutrient elements, alkalinity and total carbon dioxide were made in the Persian Gulf in February and March 1977, on R.V. Atlantis II Cruise 93. The results show clearly the penetration into the Gulf of surface Indian Ocean water, initially of 36.5% salinity which is carried northwards along the Iranian Coast, gradually increasing in salinity to more than 40%. The inflowing surface water is high in phosphate (1.0-0.5 μmoles kg -1) due to upwelling induced by the north-east monsoon. However, nitrate levels are at, or below, the detection limit and nitrogenous nutrients appear to be limiting. The seawater carbonate system is greatly perturbed by the precipitation of large quantities of calcium carbonate. The alkalinity-salinity relationship shows that the greatest carbonate loss occurs in the shallow waters of the Trucial Coast, where up to 125 μmoles kg -1 of CaCO 3 have been lost from the water. Dense, saline low specific alkalinity water formed in the shallows appears to migrate down slope to augment the outflowing waters in the deeper part of the Gulf. The outflow of the Tigris, Euphrates and Karun rivers to the north provides an intense, but low capacity signal, of low salinity, high specific alkalinity, waters. Large amounts of CO 2 are also fixed by photosynthetic processes. The classical Mediterranean type of circulation is plainly revealed. The residence time of water within the Persian Gulf is approximately 2.5 yr.

  10. Oceanography in the formal and informal classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A.; Jasnow, M.; Srinivasan, M.; Rosmorduc, V.; Blanc, F.

    2002-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 ocean altimeter missions offer the educator in the middle school or informal education venue a unique opportunity for reinforcing ocean science studies. An educational poster from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales provide teachers and students a tool to examine topics such as the dynamics of ocean circulation, ocean research, and the oceans' role in climate.

  11. Commencement Bay Study. Volume VI. Physical Oceanography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    x C4 N miAnA a)Naaaa a ON .41 0 -N n NCa4aa a U - - 0 MO ~ S M -Mis a a If Ni ŕ 3 iin 0 09 CaI l 1 1 1 ?1 0 ’-NMM.eC% rN waa 0a%0 ; N N inN 0;C inW M ...Birds I.KEY WORDS (Cmnimman m reverse Bdse If .toreewy and Ident’ by Nock number) SloisWetlands Noise Aesthetics Marine Fish Sediments Land and Water...Use Washington Phsialoeaogapy Air Quality and City of Tacoma Baseline WtrQaiyClimate Commencement Bay Studies 2& AISTRCT’ Coniaw M "W SMN R04Aeeee 1011

  12. OCEANOGRAPHY IN THE GULF OF MEXICO.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report gives a summary of oceanographic research in the Gulf of Mexico supported by the Office of Naval Research during the period 1 May 1961...15 December 1969. This research involved theoretical studies in ocean dynamics; currents in the Gulf of Mexico , Cayman Sea, western tropical Atlantic

  13. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    geostrophic adjustment in sea de Alboran. Revista Las Ciencias XXV(4):765-779. straits and wide estuaries: theory and laboratory experi- Stevenson, R. E. (1977... Comunicaciones 3, Zaragoza: Whitehead, J. A. and A. R. Miller (1979). Labora- 1151-1166. tory simulation of the gyre in the Alboran Sea. Jour- Parrilla, G

  14. Tools of Oceanography. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Florence

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Advances in Chemical Oceanography Made With Microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, C. E.

    2009-05-01

    Many of the remarkable biogeochemical processes that regulate the transfer of mass and energy between the atmosphere, ocean waters, the benthos and the Earth's crust take place at small spatial scales, e.g., within single cells, pores of sediments and rocks, aggregates, microbial mats, or biofilms. Over the past two decades, with advances in electroanalytical chemistry and microelectronics technology, it has become progressively possible to probe marine microenvironments and interfaces, and to discover how marine chemistry and life interact. Some of this exploration has been in the laboratory, but a significant portion has been possible because of in situ techniques designed for extreme or dynamic environments (e.g., euxinic seas, the seafloor, hydrothermal vents). This presentation will review past and present roles of microelectrodes in providing fundamental information about the chemical reactions which structure the marine environment.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Oceanography Atlas available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The second full-color volume of the Atlas Oceanogáfico del Golfo de México has recently been published by the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas of México (GEO-IIE) (see Eos, Feb. 20, 1990, for announcement of volume 1). This second of an eight-volume series describes the hydrography, baroclinic flows and transports, water masses distributions, and the kinematic properties of anticyclonic-cyclonic ring pairs (modons) of the central and western Gulf of Mexico (26°-20°40‧N, 97°40‧-93°W). The data presented and analyzed in this volume were collected during the Argos 86-1 oceanographic cruise conducted by the GEO-IIE aboard the R/V Justo Sierra during October and November 1986. Authors of the volume are Víctor M. V. Vidal, Francisco V. Vidal, and Abel Hernández. It has 16 chapters in 715 pages, including 248 full-page color plates and 35 tables.

  17. Oceanography: Leading the hiatus research surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The recent slowdown in global warming challenged our understanding of climate dynamics and anthropogenic forcing. An early study gave insight to the mechanisms behind the warming slowdown and highlighted the ocean's role in regulating global temperature.

  18. Bridging the gap between observational oceanography and users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschenbach, Christiane A.

    2017-02-01

    In order to ensure relevance and societal impact of research and to meet the various requirements of different target groups, the Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) developed and pursued a broad range of activities for knowledge transfer and stakeholder interaction. Potential user groups of data and data products include (but are not limited to) science, administration, renewable energies, engineering, tourism, and nature conservation. COSYNA data and data products are publicly accessible and available free of charge via the Internet (data portal; www.cosyna.de). The stakeholder interaction is integrated into the COSYNA product life cycle outlined here and the steps undertaken are exemplified for the product Surface Current Fields in the German Bight. Initial surveys revealed COSYNA's potential relevance in the national and international context. After the technological and mathematical realization of high-quality parameter fields, external experts evaluated the scientific value, informational value, innovative leap, cost/benefit aspects, operability, etc., of the data products. In order to improve products and their usability and to pave the way for future co-operation, interviews and workshops with potential users from the offshore wind energy industry were conducted. The stakeholder interaction process was successful, revealing relevant insights into user demands and usability of (possible) products. Analysis of data download provided some evidence for impact beyond academia. Other criteria for the increasingly demanded evaluation of the impact of coastal research are discussed. By sharing first-hand experiences, this study contributes to the emerging knowledge on integration of science and end users.

  19. Arctic paleo-oceanography in late cenozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, Y.

    1970-01-01

    Sediment cores from the Arctic Ocean yield significant faunal and lithologic evidence of alternating cold and milder periods for the last 6 million years. Although high-latitude continental glaciation commenced prior to 6 million years ago, the Arctic Ocean remained free of permanent pack ice up to approximately 0.7 million years ago, after which successive ice-covered and ice-free conditions existed.

  20. On the use of a single blue band in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1970-01-01

    The selection of a single blue band to quantitatively measure ocean chlorophyll is dependent upon the altitude and spectral bandwidth of the filter. These relationships are discussed, and the conclusion made that a blue band from 0.44 to 0.50 microns would best serve this oceanographic application.

  1. Contributions to the Oceanography of the Western Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Biological and nutrient concentrations also had a complicated and variable I. structure. Phosphate concentrations were...d’Histoire Naturelle , Paris. Haltiner, G.J. and F.L. Martin, 1957. Dynamical and Physical Meteorology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 470pp. Hurlburt, H.E. and J.D

  2. The use of remotely sensed data for operational fisheries oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiuza, Armando F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are used under two contexts in fisheries: as a tool for fisheries research and as a means to provide operational support to fishing activities. Fishing operations need synoptic data provided timely; fisheries research needs that type of data and, also, good short-term climatologies. A description is given of several experiences conducted around the world which have employed or are using satellite data for operational fisheries problems. An overview is included of the Portuguese program for fisheries support using remotely sensed data provided by satellites and in situ observations conducted by fishermen. Environmental products useful for fisheries necessarily combine satellite and in situ data. The role of fishermen as a source of good, near-real-time in situ environmental data is stressed; so far, this role seems to have been largely overlooked.

  3. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited.

  4. Physical Oceanography of the Caribbean Sea: Some Recent Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D.; Johns, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    Recent oceanographic observations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (the Intra-Americas Sea) have contributed to our understanding of IAS circulation, the dynamics forcing the circulation, and the role of the IAS in hemispheric ocean processes. Specifically, recent results from several programs will be presented and discussed: The Windward Islands Passages Program, designed to measure upper ocean transport and water mass properties of the exchange between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, is entering its tenth year of observations. Mean transport estimates based on 10 to 20 sections now exist for the major passages between Trinidad and the Virgin Islands. Approximately 19 of the estimated 32 Sv in the Florida Straits enter through these passages, of which approximately 12 enter south of Dominica, 6 in the Grenada Passage. The Caribbean Inflow Variability Experiment is designed to continuously monitor the transport through the Grenada Passage. Plans are in place to monitor a submarine telephone cable between Grenada and Trinidad to estimate transport; at present several shipboard velocity sections and year-long pressure gauge records are available as part of the program. Dominant low-frequency signals in the cross-passage pressure difference are 30 - 60 days. The NOPP Year of the Ocean Drifting Buoy Program placed over 150 WOCE-style surface drifting buoys in the IAS during 1998 - 2000. Analysis of drifter tracks shows the best picture to date of IAS surface currents, including well-resolved gyres in the SW Caribbean (Panama-Colombia) region. Monitoring of Florida Straits transport via submarine cable is once again active, complemented by quarterly CD and transport cruises. Analyses of historical transport data (Baringer & Larson, 2001) have shown correlations between low frequency transport variability and climate indices (e. g., NAO). Additionally, full-depth velocity profiles across the straits are available weekly from the 38 kHz ADCP mounted on the Explorer of the Seas cruise ship. Availability of these and other observational resources, its semi-enclosed and well-bounded geography, and its significance to downstream North American oceanic and atmospheric conditions make the IAS an excellent region for model development and validation.

  5. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  6. Thin laser light sheet microscope for microbial oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Eran; Jaffe, Jules S.; Long, Richard A.; Azam, Farooq

    2002-01-01

    Despite a growing need, oceanographers are limited by existing technological constrains and are unable to observe aquatic microbes in their natural setting. In order to provide a simple and easy to implement solution for such studies, a new Thin Light Sheet Microscope (TLSM) has been developed. The TLSM utilizes a well-defined sheet of laser light, which has a narrow (23 micron) axial dimension over a 1 mm x 1 mm field of view. This light sheet is positioned precisely within the depth of field of the microscope’s objective lens. The technique thus utilizes conventional microscope optics but replaces the illumination system. The advantages of the TLSM are two-fold: First, it concentrates light only where excitation is needed, thus maximizing the efficiency of the illumination source. Secondly, the TLSM maximizes image sharpness while at the same time minimizing the level of background noise. Particles that are not located within the objective's depth of field are not illuminated and therefore do not contribute to an out-of-focus image. Images from a prototype system that used SYBR Green I fluorescence stain in order to localize single bacteria are reported. The bacteria were in a relatively large and undisturbed volume of 4ml, which contained natural seawater. The TLSM can be used for fresh water studies of bacteria with no modification. The microscope permits the observation of interactions at the microscale and has potential to yield insights into how microbes structure pelagic ecosystems.

  7. Oceanography for Divers: Waves, Tides, and Currents. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    To dive safely, it is suggested that the diver have a working knowledge of waves, tides, currents, and water quality. Lack of understanding and respect for ocean currents and surf can be of serious consequence to the diver. This paper on the diving environment is designed to provide the diver with a general understanding of the physical…

  8. On Antenna-Architectures for Sensitive Radiometry to Support Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Klooster, Cornelis; Cappellin, Cecilia; Pontoppidan, Knud; Heighwood Nielsen, Per; Skou, Niels; Ivashina, Marianna; Iupikov, Oleg; Ihle, Alexander

    The presentation discusses different antenna architectures supporting radiometric tasks for oceanographic observations. With Aquarius and SMOS in orbit with their associated resolution and revisit capability in L-band, further enhancements are of interest. Following studies into desirable resolution and frequency band interests for oceanographic applications (ref: Microwat - an ESA study, see also https://www.ghrsst.org/ ), breaking through and desirable requirements have been derived. Investigations into potential antenna architectural realisations have been initiated. Included are radiometer sensor (read:antenna) scenarios, based on conical scanning, interferometric 1D and pushbroom coverage. A wide coverage is available from the first two architectures, and a very good sensitivity is available with the pushbroom scenario. There are a couple of interesting aspects, related to polarimetry capabilities, resolution, sensitivity, etc. The pushbroom architecture, at cost of some complexity offers a very good sensitivity with interesting antenna architecture solutions to offer breaking through capabilities, in particular concerning the sensitivity requirements, in combination with polarimetric capabilities. Coverage comes with some infrastructural antenna complexity, with the needs and creativity for a deployable antenna configuration. Following initial considerations for all three antenna configurations at overview level, the push-broom scenario is presented with more details. Interesting aspects include ongoing technology developments in other related fields with refined results to come would enable to consider antenna architectures are used in which focal plane arrays find a combination with shaped reflector assemblies. With processing capabilities further enhanced - with ongoing developments underway in other sectors as radio astronomers can confirm - one would be able to further improve and refine sensitivity aspects in combination with polarimetric capabilities and resolution enhancement. Instrument sensors (read: antennas) have to be absolutely accurate, where in comparison telecommunication scenarios require a link budget to be fulfilled. The developments and availability of RF front-end and Analogue to Digital circuitry are an important aspect here, enabling the use of focal plane arrays with several hundreds of elements, as already ongoing within the radio-astronomy studies for the square kilometer arrays. Terrestrial applications in low power circuitries are ongoing in various domains, be it for local networks, sensor networks or other (various, IMEC, Fraunhofer, etc.). Further spin-in is expected. One could consider the resulting microwave push-broom antenna architecture in fact as a sensitive multi-frequency microwave camera, operating in frequency bands of interest. We are investigating currently the pushbroom scenario for 2, possibly 3 bands, from C-band up to Ku-band.

  9. Changing Coastal oceanography of the Black Sea. I: Northwestern Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmazin, D.

    This article describes the hydrography of the Northwestern Shelf (NWS), of the Black Sea emphasizing the changes induced by water management in the Dniejer and Dniester river basins. The existing literature and previously unpublished data have been reviewed and synthesized to describe water property fields and transport mechanisms of the NWS and the Dnieper and Dniester estuaries before the early 1960s, or the so-called precontrol period, when the effect of artificial river flow control upon the coastal waters was insignificant. After the hydroenergy complexes and water withdrawal and disposal systems on rivers became fully operational in the early 1970s (the so-called postcontrol period), the annual river discharge from the Dnieper and Dniester had noticeably decreased and seasonal river flow patterns had been artificially modified. Instead of a powerful and short early spring flood, typical for the natural conditions in the Dnieper river, the hydrographs in the postcontrol period exhibit two smaller peaks of river discharge of much longer period. One of them (winter-early spring) is caused by intense hydroenergy generation and weir discharges through the cascade of storage reservoirs. Another is associated with spring flood, modified by intense water consumption and storage in this period. High average river discharge in late May-early June strengthened the summer pycnocline which inhibits vertical mixing in the estuaries and coastal waters. Owing to a slow summer circulation, the rate of natural purification of the entire coastal system has been reduced. This coupled with the increased nutrient, organic and pollutant transport, decreased the dissolved-oxygen concentration and led to anoxic events and mass mortalities of marine organisms in the previously productive regions. These effects have primarily plagued the benthic communities along the entire western coast of the NWS since 1973. Winter convective overturn in the Black Sea reaches its maximum depth at the southern boundary of the NWS. Thus, the NWS waters descend beneath the seasonal and main thermoclines in the open sea and are spread by the prevailing currents across the entire sea in the cold intermediate layer (CIL). By this dynamic mechanism the projected man-made modifications in the riverine-estuarine systems of the NWS will affect and change the large-scale thermohaline structure and marine life of the Black Sea.

  10. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 2: Examples from the Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Collier, R.; Cowles, S.

    2004-12-01

    We will share experiences and specific examples from an ongoing Ocean Science and Math Collaborative Project between OSU faculty and Community College instructors from the Oregon system of adult education and workforce development. The participants represent such diverse instructional programs as workforce training, workplace education (cannery workers), adult basic education, adult secondary education (GED preparation), English to Speakers of Other Languages, Family Literacy, and Tribal Education (Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians). This collaborative project is designed to integrate ocean sciences into the science, math, and critical thinking curriculum through the professional development activities of adult educators. Our strategy is to tailor new and existing ocean science resources to the needs of adult education instructors. This project provides a wide range of opportunities in time and effort for scientist involvement. Some scientists have chosen to participate in short interviews or conversations with adult educators, which give added value through real-world connections in the context of the larger project. Other participating scientists have made larger time investments, which include presentations at workshops, hosting teacher-at-sea opportunities and leading project planning and implementation efforts. This project serves as an efficient model for scientists to address the broader impact goals of their research. It takes advantage of a variety of established educational outreach resources funded through NSF (e.g. the national COSEE network and GeoEducation grants), NOAA (e.g. SeaGrant education and Ocean Explorer) as well as State and Federal adult education programs (e.g. The National Institute for Literacy Science and Numeracy Special Collection). We recognize the value and creativity inherent in these resources, and we are developing a model to "tune" their presentation, as well as their connection to new oceanographic research, in a manner that fits the needs of the adult education community.

  11. Environmental Oceanography of the Arctic Ocean and Its Marginal Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the understanding of biogeochemical cycles in the high Arctic Ocean. The first Russian, US naval joint cruise failed to survey the Northern Sea of... Okhotsk , however, assisted by SakhNIRO, Salhaline, Russia, we have been able to continue the vital investigation of this fascinating ocean. Our...publication focused on the productivity, eddy formation in the Arctic Basin and the Okhotsk Sea’s dichothermal layer.

  12. Microbial oceanography and the Hawaii Ocean Time-series programme.

    PubMed

    Karl, David M; Church, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    The Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) programme has been tracking microbial and biogeochemical processes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre since October 1988. The near-monthly time series observations have revealed previously undocumented phenomena within a temporally dynamic ecosystem that is vulnerable to climate change. Novel microorganisms, genes and unexpected metabolic pathways have been discovered and are being integrated into our evolving ecological paradigms. Continued research, including higher-frequency observations and at-sea experimentation, will help to provide a comprehensive scientific understanding of microbial processes in the largest biome on Earth.

  13. Autofluorescence And Other Optical Properties As Tools In Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, John J.; Yentsch, Clarice M.; Cucci, Terry L.; MacIntyre, Hugh L.

    1988-08-01

    Bulk fluorescence measurements have been popular in algal culture studies and in oceanographic and limnological applications. Usually, fluorescence is interpreted as an indicator of chlorophyll concentration or phytoplankton biomass, but sometimes measurements of fluorescence can be related to physiological properties of phytoplankton, such as responses to light. Now that in situ fluorometers are being deployed routinely with optical packages, there is active interest in interpreting the relationships between fluorescence, beam transmission, diffuse attenuation, and the physiological characteristics of phytoplankton. Flow cytometry offers the potential to extend these interpretations to the scale of individual cells. It may be difficult to compare measurements of fluorescence, however, because instruments differ greatly in excitation irradiance and time scale of measurement. With this in mind, we examined the short-term responses of a marine diatom to bright light, comparing different instruments (SeaTech in situ fluorometer, Turner Designs fluorometer, EPICS flow cytometer, FACS Analyzer, SeaTech beam transmissometer) while making concurrent measurements of photosynthesis vs irradiance and absorption spectra. Each fluorometer yielded somewhat different information, yet all showed a similar pattern of inhibition after exposure. One instrument, the in situ pulsed fluorometer, could show rapid changes of fluorescence immediately after large shifts of irradiance. Beam attenuation did not decline with the bright light treatment, nor did the specific absorption of chlorophyll. Photosynthetic efficiency was reduced after exposure to bright light, but the capacity for photosynthesis in high irradiance increased at the same time. These results are preliminary: nonetheless they support some interpretations of fluorescence/beam attenuation ratios, clarify some aspects of photosynthetic response to bright light, and suggest that flow cytometry may be useful for assessing physiological heterogeneity in phytoplankton assemblages.

  14. Baseline data on the oceanography of Cook Inlet, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatto, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    Regional relationships between river hydrology, sediment transport, circulation and coastal processes were analyzed utilizing aircraft, ERTS-1 and N.O.A.A. -2 and -3 imagery and corroborative ground truth data. The use of satellite and aircraft imagery provides a means of acquiring synoptic information for analyzing the dynamic processes of Cook Inlet in a fashion not previously possible.

  15. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on physical factors influencing life in the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the ocean floor; (2) tides; (3) ocean waves; (4) ocean currents; (5)…

  16. European initiatives to develop information systems in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Grand, P.

    2009-04-01

    Various initiatives are currently in preparation or ongoing at the European level to improve information systems in Earth Sciences and oceanographic systems are at the forefront of these efforts. Europe is playing a leading role in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) that aims to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The GEO Architecture and Data Committee, oversees the development of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) which consists of a web-based portal, a clearinghouse for searching data, information and services, registries containing information about GEOSS components and associated standards and best practices. This development is detailed in the various tasks of the GEO Work Plan . Several European projects in the marine domain funded under the research framework program participate in the development of the GEOSS. EMODNET is another initiative to develop a system that will allow a better identification and access to marine data that are being collected, that will permit the identification of data gaps and that will shape a data collection and monitoring infrastructure directly suited to multiple applications. A number of measures have already been taken at EU level - the INSPIRE Directive obliges Member States to facilitate discovery of data holdings, the Environmental Information Directive requires them to release the data when asked, the Public Sector Information Directive facilitates the re-use of public data and the revised Data Collection Regulation has improved the availability of fisheries data. Moreover, prototype marine data catalogues and quality procedures for measurement laboratories have been developed through successive EU research programmes. EMODNET is complementary to other EU initiatives in the marine domain. Parameters made available through EMODNET will facilitate the GMES marine core service which aims to deliver both short term and seasonal forecasts, hindcasts, nowcasts, and time series and climate change scenario simulations. EMODNET will provide the access to raw and processed data necessary to calculate the indicators that Member States are obliged to provide through WISE-Marine to meet the requirements of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Moving to the definitive EMODNET will require significant funding. Given that EMODNET is very much focused on a sea-basin scale and given the impetus accorded to territorial cohesion by the EU maritime policy, discussions will begin to determine whether cohesion funding could support the initiative. At the same time moves will begin to integrate EMODNET with initiatives under the EU's research infrastructure programmes and the Common Fisheries Policy Data Collection Regulation. The objective is to achieve by 2014 an operational and sustainable EMODNET with earmarked funding and an agreed governance structure.

  17. Sequential estimation and satellite data assimilation in meteorology and oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    The central theme of this review article is the role that dynamics plays in estimating the state of the atmosphere and of the ocean from incomplete and noisy data. Objective analysis and inverse methods represent an attempt at relying mostly on the data and minimizing the role of dynamics in the estimation. Four-dimensional data assimilation tries to balance properly the roles of dynamical and observational information. Sequential estimation is presented as the proper framework for understanding this balance, and the Kalman filter as the ideal, optimal procedure for data assimilation. The optimal filter computes forecast error covariances of a given atmospheric or oceanic model exactly, and hence data assimilation should be closely connected with predictability studies. This connection is described, and consequences drawn for currently active areas of the atmospheric and oceanic sciences, namely, mesoscale meteorology, medium and long-range forecasting, and upper-ocean dynamics.

  18. The Oceanography and Ecology of the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Ainley, David G.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Dinniman, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 μmol L-1. Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.

  19. Interpretation of remotely sensed data and its applications in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Tanaka, K.; Inostroza, H. M.; Verdesio, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology of interpretation of remote sensing data and its oceanographic applications are described. The elements of image interpretation for different types of sensors are discussed. The sensors utilized are the multispectral scanner of LANDSAT, and the thermal infrared of NOAA and geostationary satellites. Visual and automatic data interpretation in studies of pollution, the Brazil current system, and upwelling along the southeastern Brazilian coast are compared.

  20. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Seven and Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 7 and 8. The unit, focusing on life in the sea and the physical factors which influence that life, is divided into sections dealing with: (1) the theory of plate tectonics; (2) ocean floor…

  1. Coastal Oceanography in the Beaufort Sea, Summer 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    shortage of time. Because of deteriorating weather conditions (40-knot winds , snow, and rain), depar- ture of the scientific party from the ship was...ice is evident, which helps to open up large areas west of Pt. Barrow and west of the Mackenzie River. The winds reported by the ship (Section III...presence of river water. This warm water would be expected to cause deterioration in the ice. At times, easterly winds move the ice eastward from Banks

  2. Effects on Acoustics Caused by Ocean Solitons. Part A: Oceanography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    nonhydrostatic numerical solution of Lamb [3] and the weakly nonlinear Dnoidal solution of KdV equation of Apel [4]. The Dnoidal solution consisted of a mixture...parameters tor a two-layer analogue configuration. This analogue is applied to predicted numerical solutions with the lull nonlinear nonhydrostatic Lamb...scaling parameters for a two-layer analogue configuration. This analogue is applied to predicted numerical solutions with the full nonlinear

  3. Under Pressure: A Study of Issues in Oceanography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The world's greatest cities and centers of civilization arose near or along major waterways providing access to the sea. Many people, no matter where they live, find the ocean and the life associated with it a fascinating topic. Although the ocean is characterized by high taxonomic diversity (over 90% of the animal phyla are represented in the…

  4. Deep-Sea Mining: Integrating Geology, Oceanography, and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. Michael; Halbach, Peter E.; Martens, Peer N.; Hein, James R.; Scott, Steve

    2008-09-01

    Shaping the Future: Deep-Sea Minerals and Mining Congress; Aachen, Germany, 9-13 March 2008; A strong increase in the global demand for metallic raw materials, coupled with rising market prices, has heightened interest in marine seabed mineral deposits and the feasibility of their extraction for many marine scientists, engineers, and mining companies. This interest focuses not only on base and precious metals but also on strategically important elements needed for high-technology applications, such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, gallium, selenium, telurium, indium, and the rare earth elements.

  5. Seismic Oceanography Imaging of Thermal Intrusions in Strong Frontal Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-02

    column reflectivity. The bottom interference zone is blanked in black. The blue dashed line gives the position of the XBT measurement and the solid...colder and fresher sub-polar waters located in-between the eddy and the main current, suggesting that these waters are being subducted under the eddy

  6. Oceanography for Divers: Hazardous Marine Life. Diver Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Lee H.

    Most people find that the life of the marine environment is beautiful and fascinating. Of the thousands of marine animals and plants, relatively few constitute a real hazard to the diver. Although some species are dangerous and may, in some instances, inflict serious wounds, with a few exceptions marine animals are not aggressive. Most…

  7. Climatic Publications Prepared for the Commander, Naval Oceanography Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    MozambiqueChannel NW, SW 26-32 Lourenco Marques, Tulear, Mozambique Channel SENE, 5 AD 780 670 Diego Garcia, Gan, Minicoy Is. SOUTHWEST ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS...24 S Gulf of Oman, SE-NE-NW Persian Gulf 6 AD 737 909 SOUTHEAST ASIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1-4 Tonkin Gulf, Da Nang, Nha Trang, Saigon 1 AD 733...8 Princess Charlotte Bay, Cairns, Cumberland 1 AD-A044518 Islands, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Coffs Harbour, Sydney, Cape Howe NE Set No.(5) 9-15

  8. Answering Questions from Oceanography Texts: Learner, Task and Text Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-15

    Branch Information Center ’Atn. T. C.) Towson State University Naval Research Lab. Cameron Station, Bldg. 5 Towson , MD 21204 Washington, DC 20375-5000... Towson State University Brooks AFB University of Oregon Towson , MD 21204 San Antonio, TX 78235 Eugene. OR 97403-’ Chair. Deot of Psych Dr. Yee-Yeen...34 ~ ~ " -i;4 .. % I~ 1777 5 Dr. Michael Friendly Dr. Wayne Gray Professor John R. Hayes * Psych Dept. York University Army Research Institute Carnegie

  9. Oceanography Field Practicum, Spring Half-Term, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Edward C.; And Others

    A description of the course and the facilities for the course are given. The Course Log which lists the lectures, cruises, and other activities available to students is also given. The abstract or the paper of each students' individual research project has also been printed. The subjects of these projects range through all fields of earth science…

  10. From the Hensen net toward four-dimensional biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Benfield, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    The development of quantitative zooplankton collecting systems began with Hensen (1887 Berichte der Kommssion wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der deutschen Meere in Kiel5, 1-107; 1895 Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humbolt-Stiftung. Kiel and Leipzig: Lipsius and Tischer ). Non-opening closing nets, opening closing nets (mostly messenger based), high-speed samplers, and planktobenthos net systems all had their start in his era - the late 1800s and early 1900s. This was also an era in which many of the fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the plankton in the worlds oceans were first posed. Fewer new systems were introduced between 1912 and 1950 apparently due in part to the two World Wars. The continuous plankton recorder stands out as a truly innovative device developed during this period ( Hardy 1926b Nature, London118, 630 ). Resurgence in development of mechanically-based instruments occurred during the 1950s and 1960s. A new lineage of high-speed samplers, the Gulf series, began in the 1950s and a number of variants were developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Net systems specifically designed to collect neuston first appeared in the late 1950s. During the 1960s, many focused field and experimental tank experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamics of nets, and much of our knowledge concerning net design and construction criteria was developed. The advent of reliable electrical conducting cables and electrically-based control systems during this same period gave rise first to a variety of cod-end samplers and then to the precursors of the acoustically and electronically-controlled multi-net systems and environmental sensors, which appeared in the 1970s. The decade of the 1970s saw a succession of multi-net systems based both on the Bé multiple plankton sampler and on the Tucker trawl. The advent of the micro-computer stimulated and enabled the development of sophisticated control and data logging electronics for these systems in the 1980s. In the 1990s, acoustic and optical technologies gave rise to sensor systems that either complement multiple net systems or are deployed without nets. Multi-sensor systems with high data telemetry rates through electro-optical cable are now being deployed in towed bodies and on remotely operated vehicles. In the offing are new molecular technologies to identify species in situ, and realtime data analysis, image processing, and 3D/4D display. In the near future, it is likely that the use of multi-sensor systems deployed on autonomous vehicles will yield world wide coverage of the distribution and abundance of zooplankton.

  11. Oil Spill! An Event-Based Science Module. Student Edition. Oceanography Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school students to learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event-based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork, independent research, hands-on investigations, and…

  12. Oil Spill!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Oceanography Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or general science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  13. The Peru Margin as an Authigenic Mineral Factory, Evidence From Surface Sediments and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, W. E.; Arthur, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    Characteristics of sediments deposited within an intense oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ) on the Peru continental margin were mapped by submersible, and studied in samples collected in deck-deployed box cores and submersible push cores on two east-west transects over water depths of 75 to 1000 m at 12 degrees and 13.5 degrees S. On the basis of sampling of the top 1-2 cm of available cores, three main belts of sediments were identified in each transect with increasing depth: 1) organic-carbon (OC)-rich muds; 2) authigenic phosphatic mineral crusts; and 3) glaucony facies. These facies patterns are primarily controlled by redox conditions and strength of bottom currents. OC-rich sediments on the 12-degree transect were mainly located on the outer shelf and upper slope (150-350 m), but they occurred in much shallower water (ca. 100 m) on the 13.5-degree transect. The organic matter is almost entirely marine, resulting from very high primary productivity. The OC concentrations are highest (up to 18%) in sediments where intermediate water masses with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 5 micromoles/kg) impinge on the slope at water depths between 75 and 450 m. The region between 175 and 350 m depth is characterized by bedforms stabilized by bacterial mats, extensive authigenic mineral crusts, and (or) thick organic flocs. Currents as high as 30 cm/sec were measured over that depth interval. Current-resuspension of surficial organic matter, activity of organisms, and transport to and from more oxygenated zones contribute to greater oxidation and poorer preservation of organic matter than occur under oxygen-deficient conditions. Phosphate-rich sediments occurred at depths of about 300 to 550 m on both transects. Nodular crusts cemented by carbonate-fluorapatite (CFA; phosphorite) or dolomite form within the OMZ. The crusts start by cementation of sediment near the sediment-water interface forming stiff but friable phosphatizes claystone "protocrusts". The protocrusts evolve into dense, dark phosphorite crusts, cemented breccias, and pavements. The degree of phosphatization and thickness of the phosphorite crusts depends on rates of sediment supply and strength and frequency of currents that re-expose crusts on the seafloor. Glaucony-rich surficial sediments, relatively undiluted by other components, mainly were found in deeper water on the 13.5 degree transect (750 m to at least 1067 m). These sediments consist almost entirely of sand-size glaucony pellets (aggregates of clay minerals with pelletoid shapes). These widespread glaucony sands possibly formed in situ and were then concentrated and reworked by strong currents that winnowed away the fine-grained matrix. Overall, sedimentation rate must be slow in order for the glaucony minerals to remain in contact with seawater, which is the source of cations during growth. The close association of glaucony and phosphorite indicates that there is a delicate balance between slightly oxidizing and slightly reducing conditions at the base of the OMZ- slightly reducing to mobilize iron and phosphate, and slightly oxidizing to form glaucony.

  14. Oceanography of the Grand Banks Region of Newfoundland, March 1974 - October 1974.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    USE I 16503115 1020.0 SEA linko-OA DURATION 00.4b 3 SQUARE 66 LONG 047 05.0w HOUR 00.6 AREA 03 CLOIJO VIA CL/Ta WEATHdER X0 0601 oil 1m I SUARE 11...ORIG all 544 A SUARE 64 CASTNUITIME LVLTVP DEPTH TEMP SAL SIGMA-I OVNDPTH $NO VEL OVG P04 TOT P N02 NO) S103 PH 51D 00000 01.21 33.43 26.79 00.000...00.ON DAY 01 DATA ... 1 I1AaOETR 1016.1 SEA WINO-FOR CUATIOk 00.1 a SUARE 66ONG 0 4 4 0w HOUR 23.2 ARE& OS CLOUW T/& CL/T0 WEATHER1 X2 CRIS Oil 947

  15. Learning Oceanography from a Computer Simulation Compared with Direct Experience at Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Stahr, Frederick; Sarason, Christian; Fruland, Ruth; Oppenheimer, Peter; Lee, Yen-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from "traditional" classes. Little research has compared how students learn science from computer simulations with how they learn from direct experience in the real environment on which the simulations are based. This study compared two…

  16. An introduction to the physical oceanography of six seamounts in the southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Jane; Pollard, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Exploratory surveys of six seamounts in the Southwest Indian Ocean provide a description of physical processes induced by seamounts along the Southwest Indian Ridge. Mean currents (15-25 cm s-1) in the vicinity of each seamount were dominated by mesoscale eddies. The dominant seamount-driven process was the generation of internal tides by the barotropic tide interacting with the seamount crests. This led to enhanced shear in the vicinity of the crests resulting in mixing where stratification was weak, for example in the core of an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy or where there had been a winter mixed layer. Tidally driven up- and downwelling was observed at the seabed with associated variability in bottom temperature of up to 3 °C over a tidal cycle. Vertical displacement of isopycnals by internal tidal waves reached 200 m peak to trough. Fluorescence in the surface (eutrophic) layer could thus extend down to the seamount crest on each tidal cycle. Apparently spatial variations in short conductivity/temperature/depth sections across each seamount were probably aliased temporal variations from the strong tidal signal. Evidence for Taylor caps or other potential trapped circulations at the seamount crest was weak, most likely because currents associated with mesoscale eddies were too strong to allow their formation.

  17. Transition Support of Meteorology and Oceanography (METOC) Technology to the Mission Support Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    developed and advanced data assimilation methods will be applied. The NPS portion of this effort is focused on development of algorithms, methodology...fleet ocean surveys, and iii) develop adaptive sampling tools and strategies based on data assimilation methods to reduce uncertainty in fleet ocean and acoustic models.

  18. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  19. Oceanography. Centennial changes in North Pacific anoxia linked to tropical trade winds.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Curtis; Berelson, William; Thunell, Robert; Weber, Thomas; Tems, Caitlin; McManus, James; Crusius, John; Ito, Taka; Baumgartner, Timothy; Ferreira, Vicente; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-08-08

    Climate warming is expected to reduce oxygen (O2) supply to the ocean and expand its oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We reconstructed variations in the extent of North Pacific anoxia since 1850 using a geochemical proxy for denitrification (δ(15)N) from multiple sediment cores. Increasing δ(15)N since ~1990 records an expansion of anoxia, consistent with observed O2 trends. However, this was preceded by a longer declining δ(15)N trend that implies that the anoxic zone was shrinking for most of the 20th century. Both periods can be explained by changes in winds over the tropical Pacific that drive upwelling, biological productivity, and O2 demand within the OMZ. If equatorial Pacific winds resume their predicted weakening trend, the ocean's largest anoxic zone will contract despite a global O2 decline.

  20. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  1. Oceanography of the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW-Atlantic Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelbert, J. H.; Acha, M.; Berasategui, A.; Bersano, J. G.; Braga, E. S.; Eichler, P.; Garcia, V. M.; Gomez-Erache, M.; Guerrero, R.; Mianzan, H.; Reta, R.; Ramirez, F.

    2005-05-01

    Only physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) have been described for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. The main goal of this paper is to present results of an integrated physical, chemical and biological study at the STSF conducted during the winter of 2003 and summer of 2004. A cross section was established at the historical determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled during the winter cruise and 7 stations during summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations fitted with dissolved oxygen and turbidity sensors. Selected water samples were filtered and frozen at -20oC for nutrient determination. Samples for chlorophyll were concentrated on filters and these were stored frozen for later processing. Plankton net tows were carried out above and below pycnocline. Surface benthic foraminifera were collected with a bottom snapper. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner shelf salinity front and the STSF located in the mid-shelf. Inner salinity showed the strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (71.98 μM), phosphate (2.70 μM), nitrate (1.01 μM), Total Dissolved Nitrogen (22.98 μM) and suspended matter (44.80 mg/L). With distance from the coast and reduction of terrestrial input, subsurface high values of nutrients were associated with SACW upwelling. As a result, chlorophyll a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 3.0 mg.m3 are registered, to offshore waters. Zooplankton abundance and biomass, and ichthyoplankton abundance follows the same trend. Zoo and ichthyoplankton abundance revealed the presence of 3 groups associated to the inner, mid and offshore shelf region. Benthic foraminifera composition suggested that shallow stations are dominated by few large freshwater species, while offshore stations presented smaller forms and higher species diversity. During summer, the halocline extended over the shelf and joined the STSF in the upper layer. The concentration of inorganic nutrients is reduced in the shallow waters in relation to the winter period, but high values are observed between 40 and 60 m depth and offshore deep waters. Zooplankton biomass was not as high as during winter, and largest values are observed around the STSF. Zoo and ichthyoplankton presented 3 groups, separated by the presence of the STSF. Despite less influence of freshwater during this season, benthic foraminifera were still marked by the presence of freshwater species. The results from this study suggest that during winter, freshwater influence is strong and physical-chemical-biological interactions develop in the front along its plume. However, during summer, when the presence of freshwater is less intense, these interactions seem to take place at the STSF.

  2. Oceanography: 1998 Paris Meeting Abstracts: Coastal and Marginal Seas. Volume 11, Number 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    makes them citable references which is extremely important to authors and increases their ong-term value to the scientific community. This meeting...accom- plished there. It was nonetheless an important occur- ance, and worth a bit of closer consideration. The National Ocean Conference was...political effect was likely substantial). Instead, what was really important about the meeting was simply the good feelings, and the fact that for

  3. Coastal Environment, Bathymetry and Physical Oceanography along the Beaufort, Chukchi and Bering Seas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Porn --tlobl o- 1350 32ao, 33Geot"anAc 3 3 234 Enrll. o. Nort 1964 le trsrro n rktdo et S Mloot Aol lo ’,lole t,l O’elo P.wel ROW . 19 M~t’~ldte...rahkit and 7,Pder Porn p1 i ko A’ter perproslle Irneen el,. AmsA-- Vsbrecak jnea AV o Inc tlSIsl, Cenossla noilheltin Alakn Alaska. uS. Gedlogsal Ssrot...Snowsee. National Reaegrcb Council. 00. 76 712. Front Eftects Laboratory. Sono. Tedisewal Rapes 2. no Anrti G eesmee Proems. U S. Geological Stingy. Reid. B

  4. The physical oceanography of upwelling systems and the development of harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, G.C.; Figueiras, F.G.; Hickey, B.M.; Moita, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The upwelling systems of the eastern boundaries of the world’s oceans are susceptible to harmful algal blooms (HABs) because they are highly productive, nutrient-rich environments, prone to high-biomass blooms. This review identifies those aspects of the physical environment important in the development of HABs in upwelling systems through description and comparison of bloom events in the Benguela, California and Iberia systems. HAB development is dictated by the influence of wind stress on the surface boundary layer through a combination of its influence on surface mixed-layer characteristics and shelf circulation patterns. The timing of HABs is controlled by windstress fluctuations and buoyancy inputs at the seasonal, event and interannual scales. Within this temporal framework, various mesoscale features that interrupt typical upwelling circulation patterns, determine the spatial distribution of HABs. The inner shelf in particular provides a mosaic of shifting habitats, some of which favour HABs. Changes in coastline configuration and orientation, and bottom topography are important in determining the distribution of HABs through their influence on water stratification and retention. A spectrum of coastline configurations, including headlands, capes, peninsulas, Rías, bays and estuaries, representing systems of increasing isolation from the open coast and consequent increasing retention times, are assessed in terms of their vulnerability to HABs. PMID:22053120

  5. The Physical Oceanography of the Northern Baffin Bay-Nares Strait Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Three instruments, numbered 422, 433 and 467, respectively, were utilized during the cruise. CTD #433 is the property of the Naval Postgraduate School...most apparent in vertical property profiles (Figures 3.5 and 3.6). The maximum salinity of WGCPW is approximately 34.2. while ABPW reaches 34.8. The...34 20 40 60 Soun .00 r-o lr ’,’,73൷ 2’N 74*23 5’Nl o" 1108? 󈧨 5’W 08 1 ൯ 2𔃻 ,.0 20 40 60 ,,,Fipurv 3. 15 A TIS transect across the mouth of

  6. A Plan for Optical Oceanography R&D to Support MC&G.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    difference which cannot be measured from a laboratory sample. Other effects, including horizontal stratification of biological and physical properties ...satellite measurement of ocean optical properties , instrumentation issues in marine bio- luminescence, and coastal ocean optics atlas, as well as this...This is due to the difficulty of obtaining optical sounding data in conjunction with ground truth measurements uf *" the optical properties of the

  7. Oceanography and life history predict contrasting genetic population structure in two Antarctic fish species

    PubMed Central

    Young, Emma F; Belchier, Mark; Hauser, Lorenz; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Pascoal, Sonia; Rock, Jennifer; Tysklind, Niklas; Carvalho, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the key drivers of population connectivity in the marine environment is essential for the effective management of natural resources. Although several different approaches to evaluating connectivity have been used, they are rarely integrated quantitatively. Here, we use a ‘seascape genetics’ approach, by combining oceanographic modelling and microsatellite analyses, to understand the dominant influences on the population genetic structure of two Antarctic fishes with contrasting life histories, Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. The close accord between the model projections and empirical genetic structure demonstrated that passive dispersal during the planktonic early life stages is the dominant influence on patterns and extent of genetic structuring in both species. The shorter planktonic phase of C. gunnari restricts direct transport of larvae between distant populations, leading to stronger regional differentiation. By contrast, geographic distance did not affect differentiation in N. rossii, whose longer larval period promotes long-distance dispersal. Interannual variability in oceanographic flows strongly influenced the projected genetic structure, suggesting that shifts in circulation patterns due to climate change are likely to impact future genetic connectivity and opportunities for local adaptation, resilience and recovery from perturbations. Further development of realistic climate models is required to fully assess such potential impacts. PMID:26029262

  8. Continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, L.P.

    1990-02-01

    During the past year research activities have focused on analysis and synthesis of existing data from the GALE, FLEX and SPREX experiments and preparation for the WINTER-90 field experiment. The author has also spent some time assisting DOE in planning for the restructuring of the marine program. 8 refs.

  9. HF Surface Wave Radar for Oceanography -- A Review of Activities in Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-14

    Atmospheric Administration, USA In a Newfou shop o Ground present used “ (FMIC array o to the range o measur provide WEllen to brin a proto WERA As w stingui...125 kHz. er, due to time multiplexing ranges and antennas (cf. ) the effective sampling rate for a specific range cell enna is much less: 488.3 Hz in...directions superpose. If the number of superposed directions is limited and the signal-to-noise ratio is high, MUSIC can help to solve this case. D

  10. The Copernicus Sentinel-3 Mission and Oceanography: Overview and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donlon, Craig; Berruti, Bruno; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Nieke, Jens; Rebhan, Helge; Mavrocordatos, Constantin; Seitz, Bernd; Frerick, Johannes; Klein, Ulf; Goryl, Phillippe; Femenias, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and European Space Agency (ESA), which aims at achieving an autonomous and operational Earth observation capacity. GMES marks the transition from R&D oriented efforts in earth observation towards operational services. The development of the space infrastructure i.e. the Copernicus "space component" for the provision of Earth remote sensing data, is led by ESA. The atmosphere and ocean Sentinel Missions are being prepared in cooperation with EUMETSAT. Sentinel-3 is an operational mission in high-inclination, low earth orbit for the provision of observational data to marine and land monitoring services. These services include the generation of sea, ice and land surface altimetry products, land and ocean colour products, sea and land surface temperature products, and vegetation products. The operational character of the mission implies a high level of availability of the data products and fast delivery time, which have been important design drivers for the mission. The Sentinel-3 spacecraft accommodates two large optical instruments - the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with 21 spectral channels from 0.4 to 1.0_m, and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer instrument (SLSTR) with 9 spectral channels from 0.5m to 13m in nadir and oblique view directions, and a topography payload consisting of a SAR Radar Altimeter (SRAL) and a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) plus a suite of instruments for precise orbit determination (POD). These instruments will ensure the continuation of important data streams established with ESA's ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Full performance will be achieved with a constellation of two identical satellites, separated by 180 degrees in the same orbital plane. Two Sentinel-3 satellites are in development with the second satellite launch expected approximately 18 months after the first. The overall service duration is planned to be 20 years and is expected to be fulfilled by a series of several satellites. Currently, the launch of the first Sentinel-3 satellite is planned in late 2014. This paper describes the Sentinel-3 Mission, provides an overview of core user products and reports the current mission status.

  11. Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

    This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Corrections in Geodesy and Oceanography: a Strategy for Handling Air Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponte, Rui M.; Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    Global pressure data are often needed for processing or interpreting modern geodetic and oceanographic measurements. The most common source of these data is the analysis or reanalysis products of various meteorological centers. Tidal signals in these products can be problematic for several reasons, including potentially aliased sampling of the semidiurnal solar tide as well as the presence of various modeling or timing errors. Building on the work of Van den Dool and colleagues, we lay out a strategy for handling atmospheric tides in (re)analysis data. The procedure also offers a method to account for ocean loading corrections in satellite altimeter data that are consistent with standard ocean-tide corrections. The proposed strategy has immediate application to the on-going Jason-1 and GRACE satellite missions.

  13. Waves and operational oceanography: Toward a coherent description of the upper ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Jenkins, Alastair D.; Hauser, Daniéle; Reniers, Ad; Chapron, Bertrand

    The availability of new operational services for ocean circulation modeling presents a unique opportunity to rethink the operational forecasting of ocean waves and how circulation and waves may be combined to provide a better understanding of the upper ocean and enhanced services to society. The largescale oil spill caused by the wreck of the tanker Prestige off the Spanish coast in November 2002, and uncertainties on the fate of that pollution, illustrated the gaps in means of observations and knowledge of relevant processes.The idea of a coupled atmosphere-wavesocean model was proposed by Klaus Hasselmann [Hasselmann, 1991], in the context of climate modeling. As waves are the “gearbox” between the atmosphere and the ocean, a detailed understanding of waves can significantly improve the parameterization of air-sea fluxes and surface processes. Besides, Earth observation systems rely extensively on satellite remote sensing techniques for surface winds, temperature, sea level, ocean color, and sea ice, all affected by surface waves. Hasselmann viewed the future of wave modeling as the development of this central gearbox of a general Earth observation and monitoring system, providing fluxes between ocean and atmosphere in a way consistent with satellite observations. This vision, though slow to materialize, is highly relevant for short-term forecasting in the coastal ocean.

  14. EGO: Towards a global glider infrastructure for the benefit of marine research and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testor, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the oceans with gliders. A major impact of this Action was the elaboration of the EU Collaborative Project GROOM, Gliders for Research, Ocean Observation and Management for the FP7 call "Capacities - Research Infrastructures", which addresses the topic "design studies for research infrastructures in all S&T fields" (see http://www.groom-fp.eu).

  15. Survival of high latitude fringing corals in extreme temperatures: Red Sea oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, M. Z.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, Z. D.; Moustafa, S. E.

    2014-04-01

    This multi-year study set out to establish a comprehensive knowledgebase for a fringing coral reef in the Gulf of Suez, while also investigating the link between coral reef survivability and the extreme environmental conditions present in the region. The Gulf of Suez is a narrow branch of the northern Red Sea for which all forms of environmental and scientific data are severely lacking. Monitoring oceanographic and meteorological data provides evidence of both seasonal variability and interannual variability in this region, and may reveal correlations between reef health and prevailing climate conditions. Specifically, this research sought to document the environmental conditions under which Zaki's Reef, a small fringing coral reef (29.5°N and 32.4°E) that lies at the northernmost limit of tropical reefs worldwide, is able to survive, in order to determine how extreme the conditions are. Results of observed seawater temperature revealed that coral species at Zaki's Reef regularly experience 2-4 °C and 10-15 °C daily and seasonal temperature variations, respectively. Seawater temperature monthly means reached a minimum of 14 °C in February and a maximum of 33 °C in August. Monthly mean sea surface temperature climatology obtained from satellite measurements was comparable to observed seawater temperatures, while annual air and seawater temperature means were identical at 22 °C. Observed seawater temperatures exceeded established coral bleaching thresholds for extended periods of time, suggesting that coral species at this location may have developed a mechanism to cope with such extreme temperatures. Further scrutiny of these species and the mechanisms by which they are able to thrive is recommended.

  16. Supplementary Activities for Enriching the Teaching of Earth Science: Astronomy, Geology, Meteorology, Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exline, Joseph D., Ed.

    This publication is intended to be an aid for secondary school science teachers in providing some additional student-oriented activities to enrich the earth science program. These activities have been classroom tested by teachers and have been considered by these teachers to be educationally successful. This publication is a product of the Earth…

  17. Gene flow in Antarctic fishes: the role of oceanography and life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Emma; Rock, Jenny; Carvalho, Gary; Murphy, Eugene; Meredith, Michael; Hutchinson, Bill

    2010-05-01

    Marine organisms with pelagic larvae are generally assumed to experience high gene flow and low levels of population differentiation. However, variability in life history and environmental characteristics, in particular oceanographic flow fields, can significantly influence dispersal, and their relative effects are frequently unclear. Our research examines the influence of oceanographic and life history variability on gene flow in two species of Antarctic fish: Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii. These species are broadly sympatric in their distribution, but differ in aspects of life history that are expected to strongly affect their dispersal capabilities. Our research has used two complementary techniques. Genetic analyses, specifically mtDNA and microsatellite markers, have been used to examine historic and contemporary gene flow and thus describe patterns of population differentiation at the circumpolar scale. These analyses have been compared with predicted larval transport from a global oceanographic model (OCCAM) combined with individual based particle tracking models. In using these complementary techniques, the relative influences of early life history and oceanographic variability can be elucidated. Here we present the key findings of our research, including evidence for inter-specific variation in mitochondrial gene flow at the circumpolar level and a limited degree of genetic structuring within the Scotia Sea.

  18. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  19. OCEANOGRAPHY. Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO₂ emissions scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, J-P; Magnan, A; Billé, R; Cheung, W W L; Howes, E L; Joos, F; Allemand, D; Bopp, L; Cooley, S R; Eakin, C M; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Kelly, R P; Pörtner, H-O; Rogers, A D; Baxter, J M; Laffoley, D; Osborn, D; Rankovic, A; Rochette, J; Sumaila, U R; Treyer, S; Turley, C

    2015-07-03

    The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems—and the goods and services they provide—for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The current emissions trajectory would rapidly and significantly alter many ecosystems and the associated services on which humans heavily depend. A reduced emissions scenario—consistent with the Copenhagen Accord's goal of a global temperature increase of less than 2°C—is much more favorable to the ocean but still substantially alters important marine ecosystems and associated goods and services. The management options to address ocean impacts narrow as the ocean warms and acidifies. Consequently, any new climate regime that fails to minimize ocean impacts would be incomplete and inadequate.

  20. AUV Reveals Deep-Water Coral Mound Distribution, Morphology and Oceanography in the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmueck, M.; Eberli, G. P.; Viggiano, D. A.; Correa, T.; Rathwell, G.; Luo, J.

    2006-12-01

    Since the 1960's dredge sampling and submersible dives have discovered numerous mound-forming deep- water corals in water depths of 400-800 m in the Straits of Florida. This extensive collection of samples and observations however can not be put into a geomorphologic context as existing bathymetric charts do not resolve coral mounds. To make progress in understanding the distribution and genesis of coral mounds, maps of morphology and oceanographic conditions resolving features at the 1-10 m scale are needed. On 11-18 December 2005 the C-Surveyor II(TM) mapped five sites ranging from 14-48 km2 in 590-875 m water acquiring 1-3 m resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter together with subbottom profiles, current vectors, salinity, and temperature. The areas mapped with the AUV contain hundreds of coral mounds with heights of 1-120 m. Mound distribution, morphology and currents are different for each survey site. Coral mounds develop on off-bank transported sediment ridges and slump features at the toe-of-slope of Great Bahama bank, while chevron pattern ridges and sinusoidal ridges are found further east in the Straits. Currents range from 0.1-0.5 m/s. At two sites currents reversed every 6 hours indicating tidal control. The AUV surveys and subsequent ground truthing with a drop camera and a submersible revealed a surprising abundance and diversity of deep-water coral habitats. The boundaries between mound fields and the barren muddy or sandy seafloor are sharp. Hull- mounted multi-beam reconnaissance mapping helped us select the most promising coral mound areas to optimize the use of valuable AUV time. Such combined use of hull-mounted and AUV-based mapping enables efficient environmental characterization of large deep-water regions such as the Florida Straits. The synoptic high-resolution datasets acquired by the multiple sensors on board the AUV enable for the first time a comprehensive assessment of deep-water coral mound ecosystems. Utilization of such state-of-the-art deepwater exploration tools is essential to understand and protect these slow growing and fragile oases which are resources for seafood, new medicines and long-term climate records. The AUV data will guide future sampling and monitoring to critical locations and provide the geospatial framework for making inventories of mound resources and designing research and management plans.

  1. "Oceanography" - High Frequency Radar and ocean Thin Layers, Volume 11, No 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plankton layer near 7m depth in West Sound in the San Juan Islands, Wash- ington. Fluorescent* (TOBs) - VPR B - South Rank - June 12, »995 - 1351-2106 h...Station, TX 77843 USA (409) 845-5105 Gregg J. Brunskill Australian Institute of Marine Science PMB No. 3, Townsville, M.C. Queensland 4810, Australia...absorp- tion and spectral fluorescence properties between nearby small-scale features. For example, a series of vertical profiles from East Sound

  2. Oceanography - High Frequency Radar and Ocean Thin Layers, Volume 10, No. 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-11

    followed by a west to east pass (leg 2) and a north to south pass (leg 3), and concluded by an east to west pass (leg 4). The influence of the northerly...Atlantic water to the north and recirculation of cold and less salty Arctic water carried by the East Greenland Current to the south . Eddies at 10...MBARI) and P. Braccio (NPS). BACK COVER Surface vector current map from the OSCR HF radar in the South Florida Keys for 0000 UTC 25 May 1994 show

  3. Oceanography of Glacier Bay, Alaska: Implications for biological patterns in a glacial fjord estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Hooge, P.N.; Hooge, E.R.; Hill, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska, U.S.A, is one of the few remaining locations in the world that has fjords that contain temperate idewater glaciers. Studying such estuarine systems provides vital information on how deglaciation affects oceanographic onditions of fjords and surrounding coastal waters. The oceanographic system of Glacier Bay, Alaska, is of particular interest ue to the rapid deglaciation of the Bay and the resulting changes in the estuarine environment, the relatively high oncentrations of marine mammals, seabirds, fishes, and invertebrates, and the Bay’s status as a national park, where ommercial fisheries are being phased out. We describe the first comprehensive broad-scale analysis of physical and iological oceanographic conditions within Glacier Bay based on CTD measurements at 24 stations from 1993 to 2002. easonal patterns of near-surface salinity, temperature, stratification, turbidity, and euphotic depth suggest that freshwater nput was highest in summer, emphasizing the critical role of glacier and snowmelt to this system. Strong and persistent tratification of surface waters driven by freshwater input occurred from spring through fall. After accounting for seasonal nd spatial variation, several of the external physical factors (i.e., air temperature, precipitation, day length) explained a large mount of variation in the physical properties of the surface waters. Spatial patterns of phytoplankton biomass varied hroughout the year and were related to stratification levels, euphotic depth, and day length. We observed hydrographic atterns indicative of strong competing forces influencing water column stability within Glacier Bay: high levels of freshwater ischarge promoted stratification in the upper fjord, while strong tidal currents over the Bay’s shallow entrance sill enhanced ertical mixing. Where these two processes met in the central deep basins there were optimal conditions of intermediate tratification, higher light levels, and potential nutrient renewal. These conditions were associated with high and sustained hlorophylla levels observed from spring through fall in these zones of the Bay and provide a framework for understanding he abundance patterns of higher trophic levels within this estuarine system.

  4. Eastern Bering Sea shelf: oceanography and resources. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, D.W.; Calder, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This collection presents in a single document what is now known about the natural science of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. It also provides a credible scientific document from which estimates of the effects of oil and gas development in the continental shelf region of the eastern Bering Sea can be made. Chapters have been entered individually into the data base.

  5. An On-Land Approach to Teaching the Realities of Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Instructional strategies used in teaching oceanographic data collection techniques are discussed. These include having students examine actual data, plan and organize a research cruise on a specific budget, and analyze incomplete data sets. Rationale for using these strategies is included. (JN)

  6. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 2: Coastal zone oceanography program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The approaches used to develop the coastal zone oceanic research program are outlined, and activities in the areas of satellite application, estuaries, continental shelf and environmental modeling are briefly described.

  7. Data Assembly and Processing for Operational Oceanography: 10 Years of Achievements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    detailed map of the very high velocities of the East Australian Current was a group rowing across the Tasman Sea from New Zealand in late 2007. Figure 16...the eddy field of the Tasman Sea , as exemplified by Figure 17. The subsurface temperature field is used operationally by the Australian Fisheries...GHRSST for SST. An overview of other data centers (wind and fluxes, ocean colour, sea ice) will also be given. Major progresses have been achieved

  8. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  9. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  10. Review: Rusticle Formation on the RMS Titanic and the Potential Influence of Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Maxsimo; Little, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Meter length iron-rich rusticles on the RMS Titanic contain bacteria that reportedly mobilize iron from the ship structure at a rate that will reduce the wreck to rust in decades. Other sunken ships, such as the World War II shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are also similarly covered. However, at the GOM sites, rusticles are only centimeters in length. Minimal differences in water temperature (a few °C) between the two sites and comparable exposure times from wreckage to discovery cannot rationalize the extreme differences in rusticle length. One possible explanation for the observed difference in rusticle size is the differing amounts of dissolved or colloidal iron at the two locations.

  11. Reply [to “Comment on ‘Operational oceanography: Shall we dance?’”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    Stan Wilson and Muriel Cole have provided an instructive comment on my original essay (It was interesting to learn that they are performing ballet and not opera, and doing the jitterbug and tango and not the waltz and foxtrot, as could have been feared.)For example, they revealed that at least 1,317 NOAA employees (i.e., approximately 10% of their total workforce) are “operational oceanographers.” ( I would like to assume that they individually recognize their professional or functional identity) When taken together with Richard Spinrad's declared estimate of 2,800 “operational oceanographers” working for the Navy the United States has (neglecting any that may work for other agencies or the private sector) a minimum of 4,000 “operational oceanographers, ”which I believe the research and academic oceanographers will find surprisingly yet interestingly large.

  12. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing learning activities that link ocean sciences with real-life issues relevant to employment, environment and economic concerns.

  13. Evaluating Student Success and Outcomes in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography REU Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranes, J. L.; Kohne, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF foundation-wide REU program exists to help attract and retain a diverse pool of talented undergraduate students in STEM fields. These goals are particularly relevant in earth and marine sciences because relatively few minority students traditionally seek careers in these fields and only account for an extremely small percentage of Ph.D. degrees earned. The Scripps Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) REU program is a 10-week summer program currently in its third year of funding. The SURF program invites 10-15 undergraduate students from across the country to Scripps to participate in high quality collaborative research with Scripps faculty and researchers. Program components also include research seminars, career and graduate school preparation, GRE-prep courses, field trips and social activities. The project's goal, broadly, is to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in marine science and related disciplines at a national level. Our program includes a comprehensive evaluation and assessment plan to help us understand the impact of this REU experience on the student participant. Our assessment consists of paired pre- and post-survey questions to estimate student growth in the following areas as related to earth and marine sciences: (1) increased knowledge and skills (2) increased confidence in ability to conduct research (3) improved attitudes and interest in the field and (4) more ambitious career goals. Assessment results from the last two cohorts have helped refine our recruitment and selection strategies. In the first year of our program, we focused almost exclusively on recruiting underrepresented minority students; over of the participants represented ethic groups considered to be underrepresented in STEM fields. However, participants did not demonstrate overall significant pre/post gains in any of the goal areas, mostly because pre-survey scores indicated that the students were already very strong in all goal areas. In years 2 and 3 our recruitment has continued to target underrepresented minorities, but our selection criteria now includes the following factors in order to better identify students who would most greatly benefit from the program: (1) students who have not had significant research experience (2) students who have not yet had significant exposure to the field (3) first-generation college students and (4) students who may not be as high achieving as other applicants, but who might have more opportunity for growth in the program. This modified selection and recruitment strategy has been successful, our 2012 cohort recorded higher demonstrated and perceived impacts in all goal areas. Our experience has demonstrated that, in order to have the most significant impact, REU Sites must be active in recruiting and involving students who are not already well positioned for success in STEM careers.

  14. Oceanography of the Grand Banks Region of Newfoundland, March 1974-October 1974.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    to0 STATION muUK 40 list? SOSI s IN4 8 sit IIl j1 SOS 6o* ii0s? too logo$ 31.0 LFT -o 40- 3 1 04.0 &_____ ’__ .0 goo 50& 14000 3.0.0 002. ISO * 10 00 44.0...2 29 June- 3 July CGC EVERGREEN Survey ........................ 2 Instrumentation and Methods ................................... 2 Anchored...Current Meter Station ................................ 2 Subsurface Current Meter Arrays ............................... 3 Personnel

  15. Symposium on Dissertations on Chemical Oceanography, March 5-9, 1984. Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-09

    from about 0.05 at 1,000 m to about 1.8 at 2,000 m. In the Farallon and Pescadero Basins, which are not hydrothermally active, the Mn/Al ratio...radiochemical and plate counting techniques were used to determine the effect of copper on heat production, respiration, carbon assimilation and the viable cell...times those at present, from geological and geophysical evidence on eustatic sea levels, sea-floor magnetic lineations, and plate configurations. Other

  16. Physical oceanography and acoustic propagation during LADC experiment in the Gulf of Mexico in 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergey; Caruthers, Jerald W.; Rayborn, Grayson H.; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.; Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Rypina, Irina I.; Newcomb, Joal J.; Fisher, Robert A.; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

    2003-04-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) deployed three environmental and acoustic moorings in a downslope line just off the Mississippi River Delta in the northern Gulf of Mexico in an area of a large concentration of sperm whales in July 2001. The measurement of whale vocalizations and, more generally, ambient noise, were the objectives of the experiment. Each mooring had a single hydrophone autonomously recording Environmental Acoustic Recording System (EARS) obtained from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office and modified to recorded signals up to 5859 Hz continuously for 36 days. Also, self-recording, environmental sensors were attached to the moorings to obtain profiles of time series data of temperature and salinity. Satellite imagery and NOAA mooring data were gathered for an analysis of eddy formations and movement in the Gulf. This paper will discuss the possible environmental impact of two events that occurred during the experiment: the passage of Tropical Storm Barry and the movement of the remnants of an eddy in the area. Discussed also will be the expected effects of these events on acoustic propagation based on modeling, which are carried out for long range and low frequency (300 km and 500 Hz) using the normal-mode acoustic model SWAMP (Shallow Water Acoustic Modal Propagation by M. F. Werby and N. A. Sidorovskaia) and for short range and high frequency (10 km and 5000 Hz) using the parabolic-equation acoustic model RAM (Range-dependent Acoustic model by M. Collins). [Work supported by ONR.

  17. The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool: critical to world oceanography and world climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool holds a unique place on the globe. It is a large area [>30 × 106 km2] that is characterised by permanent surface temperature >28 °C and is therefore called the `heat engine' of the globe. High convective clouds which can reach altitudes up to 15 km generate much latent heat in the process of convection and this area is therefore called the `steam engine' of the world. Seasonal and contrasting monsoonal activity over the region is the cause for a broad seasonal change of surface salinities, and since the area lies along the path of the Great Ocean Conveyor Belt, it is coined the `dilution' basin due to the high incidence of tropical rain and, away from the equator, tropical cyclones contribute to a significant drop in sea water salinity. Discussion about what may happen in the future of the Warm Pool under global warming is presented together with a description of the Warm Pool during the past, such as the Last Glacial Maximum when sea levels had dropped by ~125 m. A call for urgent monitoring of the IPWP area is justified on the grounds of the significance of this area for global oceanographic and climatological processes, but also because of the concerned threats to human population living there.

  18. Linking Shore with the Ocean Floor in Real Time in Archeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Robert D.

    2004-04-01

    In ocean exploration, physically transporting human beings in small numbers to remote regions of the world, and then taking them to the bottom of the ocean in very smaller numbers for short periods of time to explore short stretches of the sea floor, is clearly a costly and inefficient way to explore these vast regions of our planet.Recently, however, during an expedition to the Black Sea, Internet2 and a high-bandwidth satellite link made it possible for scientists to work on the ocean floor without ever having to leave the comfort of their university laboratory.

  19. High resolution satellite observations of mesoscale oceanography in the Tasman Sea, 1978 - 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Hornibrook, M.; Latham, A. R.; Speechley, G. C.; Scully-Power, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Of the Nearly 1000 standard infrared photographic images received, 273 images were on computer compatible tape. It proved necessary to digitally enhance the scene contrast to cover only a select few degrees K over the photographic grey scale appropriate to the scene-specific range of sea surface temperature (SST). Some 178 images were so enhanced. Comparison with sea truth show that SST, as seen by satellite, provides a good guide to the ocean currents and eddies off East Australia, both in summer and winter. This is in contrast, particularly in summer, to SST mapped by surface survey, which usually lacks the necessary spatial resolution.

  20. Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography: DIALOG III and IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    America. Of the participants who provided job information at the time they registered with DIALOG ( generally 0-21 months post degree), 44 held...reduce the historical, institutional and philosophical barriers that limit the exchange of information among aquatic scientists; and (3) expedite the...dissertation research for inclusion in the DIALOG Dissertation Registry. • Database: Demographic information is collected with the dissertation

  1. Physical Oceanography Report. Helicopter-Based STD Data from MIZEX 83 (Marginal Ice Zone Experiment).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    location. The ice margin in Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard may be characterized as "advective", dominated by ocean currents and wind, rather...than by heat budget. In this region, sea ice from the Arctic Ocean is carried far south into the Atlantic by the cold, low-salinity East Greenland ...year. The ocean in the Greenland Sea marginal ice zone is dominated by permanent and transient frontal systems, by eddies and by upwelling along the ice

  2. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part I: Cross Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Gap-wind events flowing from Cross Sound in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) were examined using QuikSCAT wind data. The average duration of an event is 3.6 days with the longest event recorded in the QuikSCAT dataset being 12 days. Daily offshore directed winds with speeds >10 m s-1 are more common during the winter months (October-March), averaging 20.0 days per year, and less common during the summer (April - September), averaging 2.8 days per year. Interannual variability in the frequency of gap-wind events is correlated with El Niño. During gap-wind events, the spatial scales of high off-shore directed winds (>10 m s-1) reach almost 200 km off-shore and 225 km along the shelf break, suggesting that the winds directly influence both the shelf (20-65 km wide) and the off-shore waters. A model experiment suggests that a gap-wind event can result in eddy formation and changes in circulation and water properties. Increased entrainment of water from below the mixed layer due to the gap-wind event implies that mixed-layer nitrate concentrations could increase on the order of 5-10 μmole/l, potentially enhancing primary production in the region. An accompanying paper discusses part II of our study (Ladd et al., 2016) focusing on gap-wind events in the western GOA around Kodiak Island.

  3. Operationele Oceanografie en Rapid Environmental Assessment (Operational Oceanography and Rapid Environmental Assessment)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    normal pav-oad IS ton* cadaead pariesd dig. Mgyggj m 0-4 feet 4-8 feet s-12 tear Figuur 29 Fien pagina uit de Joint Surf Manual, waarin...operationeel model voor oppervlaktedrift is het online model SeaTrack Web , dat is ontwikkeld is door het SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and

  4. Evaluation of SIR-B imagery for geologic and geomorphic mapping, hydrology, and oceanography in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Simpson, C. J.; Huntington, J.; Horwitz, R.; Byrne, G.; Nilsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of a study to evaluate the potential of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) imagery for various applications are outlined. Specific goals include: the development of techniques for registration multiple acquisition, varied illumination, and incidence-angle SIR-B imagery, and a model for estimation of the relative contributions to the backscattered radiation of topography, surface roughness, and dielectric and conductivity components; (2) the evaluation of SIR-B imagery for delineation of agricultural lands affected by secondary salinity in the southwest and southeast agricultural regions of Australia; (3) the development of techniques for application of SIR-B imagery for geologic, geomorphologic and soils mapping and mineral exploration; and (4) the evaluation of the use of SIR-B imagery in determining ocean currents, current shear patterns, internal waves and bottom features for specific locations off the Australian coast.

  5. Offshore Wind Guidance Document: Oceanography and Sediment Stability (Version 1) Development of a Conceptual Site Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones

    2014-06-01

    This guidance document provide s the reader with an overview of the key environmental considerations for a typical offshore wind coastal location and the tools to help guide the reader through a thoro ugh planning process. It will enable readers to identify the key coastal processes relevant to their offshore wind site and perform pertinent analysis to guide siting and layout design, with the goal of minimizing costs associated with planning, permitting , and long - ter m maintenance. The document highlight s site characterization and assessment techniques for evaluating spatial patterns of sediment dynamics in the vicinity of a wind farm under typical, extreme, and storm conditions. Finally, the document des cribe s the assimilation of all of this information into the conceptual site model (CSM) to aid the decision - making processes.

  6. Application of pre-anthropogenic 129-iodine in hydrogeology and chemical oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.E.; Fehn, U.

    1995-12-01

    Pre-bomb Pulse {sup 129}I/I ratios have been measured by AMS in samples from recent marine sediments and sedimentary basin brines. Results from spatially distributed coastal sediments point to an initial ratio of 1500 x 10{sup -15} for iodine that is recycled at the sediment/water interface. Lower ratios measured in cores influenced by a riverine flux of sediment suggest the application of this system for dating ancient organic material in the marine environment. {sup 129}I/I ratios measured in saline formation waters from the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin show evidence for large-scale upward flow, with source ages millions of years older than host formation ages. Ratios from several oilfields from Louisiana, Texas, and offshore, corrected for a potential fissiogenic component, fall in a narrow range, and suggest a source age of early Cenozoic for brines and associated hydrocarbons.

  7. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  8. Paleoceanographic Insights on Recent Oxygen Minimum Zone Expansion: Lessons for Modern Oceanography

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Moffitt, Russell A.; Sauthoff, Wilson; Davis, Catherine V.; Hewett, Kathryn; Hill, Tessa M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) expansions in the geologic record provide an opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal scales of OMZ change. Here we investigate OMZ expansion through the global-scale warming event of the most recent deglaciation (18-11 ka), an event with clear relevance to understanding modern anthropogenic climate change. Deglacial marine sediment records were compiled to quantify the vertical extent, intensity, surface area and volume impingements of hypoxic waters upon continental margins. By integrating sediment records (183-2,309 meters below sea level; mbsl) containing one or more geochemical, sedimentary or microfossil oxygenation proxies integrated with analyses of eustatic sea level rise, we reconstruct the timing, depth and intensity of seafloor hypoxia. The maximum vertical OMZ extent during the deglaciation was variable by region: Subarctic Pacific (~600-2,900 mbsl), California Current (~330-1,500 mbsl), Mexico Margin (~330-830 mbsl), and the Humboldt Current and Equatorial Pacific (~110-3,100 mbsl). The timing of OMZ expansion is regionally coherent but not globally synchronous. Subarctic Pacific and California Current continental margins exhibit tight correlation to the oscillations of Northern Hemisphere deglacial events (Termination IA, Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas and Termination IB). Southern regions (Mexico Margin and the Equatorial Pacific and Humboldt Current) exhibit hypoxia expansion prior to Termination IA (~14.7 ka), and no regional oxygenation oscillations. Our analyses provide new evidence for the geographically and vertically extensive expansion of OMZs, and the extreme compression of upper-ocean oxygenated ecosystems during the geologically recent deglaciation. PMID:25629508

  9. Paleoceanographic insights on recent oxygen minimum zone expansion: lessons for modern oceanography.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Moffitt, Russell A; Sauthoff, Wilson; Davis, Catherine V; Hewett, Kathryn; Hill, Tessa M

    2015-01-01

    Climate-driven Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) expansions in the geologic record provide an opportunity to characterize the spatial and temporal scales of OMZ change. Here we investigate OMZ expansion through the global-scale warming event of the most recent deglaciation (18-11 ka), an event with clear relevance to understanding modern anthropogenic climate change. Deglacial marine sediment records were compiled to quantify the vertical extent, intensity, surface area and volume impingements of hypoxic waters upon continental margins. By integrating sediment records (183-2,309 meters below sea level; mbsl) containing one or more geochemical, sedimentary or microfossil oxygenation proxies integrated with analyses of eustatic sea level rise, we reconstruct the timing, depth and intensity of seafloor hypoxia. The maximum vertical OMZ extent during the deglaciation was variable by region: Subarctic Pacific (~600-2,900 mbsl), California Current (~330-1,500 mbsl), Mexico Margin (~330-830 mbsl), and the Humboldt Current and Equatorial Pacific (~110-3,100 mbsl). The timing of OMZ expansion is regionally coherent but not globally synchronous. Subarctic Pacific and California Current continental margins exhibit tight correlation to the oscillations of Northern Hemisphere deglacial events (Termination IA, Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas and Termination IB). Southern regions (Mexico Margin and the Equatorial Pacific and Humboldt Current) exhibit hypoxia expansion prior to Termination IA (~14.7 ka), and no regional oxygenation oscillations. Our analyses provide new evidence for the geographically and vertically extensive expansion of OMZs, and the extreme compression of upper-ocean oxygenated ecosystems during the geologically recent deglaciation.

  10. From pole to pole: 33 years of physical oceanography onboard R/V Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Rohardt, Gerd; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Boetius, Antje; Budéus, Gereon; Cisewski, Boris; Engbrodt, Ralph; Gauger, Steffen; Geibert, Walter; Geprägs, Patrizia; Gerdes, Dieter; Gersonde, Rainer; Gordon, Arnold L.; Grobe, Hannes; Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Isla, Enrique; Jacobs, Stanley S.; Janout, Markus; Jokat, Wilfried; Klages, Michael; Kuhn, Gerhard; Meincke, Jens; Ober, Sven; Østerhus, Svein; Peterson, Ray G.; Rabe, Benjamin; Rudels, Bert; Schauer, Ursula; Schröder, Michael; Schumacher, Stefanie; Sieger, Rainer; Sildam, Jüri; Soltwedel, Thomas; Stangeew, Elena; Stein, Manfred; Strass, Volker H.; Thiede, Jörn; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Veth, Cornelis; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Weirig, Marie-France; Wisotzki, Andreas; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Kanzow, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    Measuring temperature and salinity profiles in the world's oceans is crucial to understanding ocean dynamics and its influence on the heat budget, the water cycle, the marine environment and on our climate. Since 1983 the German research vessel and icebreaker Polarstern has been the platform of numerous CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth instrument) deployments in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We report on a unique data collection spanning 33 years of polar CTD data. In total 131 data sets (1 data set per cruise leg) containing data from 10 063 CTD casts are now freely available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.860066. During this long period five CTD types with different characteristics and accuracies have been used. Therefore the instruments and processing procedures (sensor calibration, data validation, etc.) are described in detail. This compilation is special not only with regard to the quantity but also the quality of the data - the latter indicated for each data set using defined quality codes. The complete data collection includes a number of repeated sections for which the quality code can be used to investigate and evaluate long-term changes. Beginning with 2010, the salinity measurements presented here are of the highest quality possible in this field owing to the introduction of the OPTIMARE Precision Salinometer.

  11. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  12. A Downscaling Analysis of the Urban Influence on Rainfall: TRMM Satellite Component AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Burian, Steven J.

    2002-01-01

    A recent publication by Shepherd et al. (2002) demonstrated the feasibility of using TRMM precipitation radar (PR) estimates to identify precipitation anomalies caused by urbanization. The approach is particularly useful for investigating this global process because TRMM data span large portions of the globe and comprise an extended temporal dataset. Recent literature suggests that urbanized regions of Houston, Texas may be influencing lightning and precipitation formation over and downwind of the city. Possible mechanisms include: (1) enhanced convergence through interactions between the sea breeze, Galveston bay breeze, and urban heat island circulations, (2) enhanced convergence due to increased surface roughness over the city and/or destabilization of the boundary layer by the UHI, or (3) enhanced cloud condensation nuclei due to urban and industrial aerosol sources. In this study, a downscaling analysis of spatial and temporal trends in rainfall around the Houston Area is being conducted. The downscaling analysis concept involves identifying and quantifying urban rainfall anomalies at progressively smaller spatial and temporal scales using the TRMM satellite, ground-based radar, and a dense network of rain gauges. The goal is to test the hypothesis that the Houston urban district and regions in the climatological downwind region of the city exhibit enhanced rainfall amounts relative to the climatological upwind regions. TRMM was launched in 1997 and currently operates in a low-inclination (35 deg), non-sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 402 km (350 km prior to August 2001). The satellite analysis follows the methodologies described in Shepherd et al. (2002). Nearly five years of TRMM PR-derived mean monthly rainfall estimates are utilized to produce annual and warm season isohyetal analyses around Houston. Early results indicate that rainfall rates (mm/h) for the entire period are largest within 100 km northeast and east of Houston (e.g. the "hypothesized downwind region"). The mean rainfall rate over the Houston urban center is 30.5% larger than the upwind control region. The mean rainfall rate in the downwind region is 34.4% larger than the upwind region. An analysis of a parameter called the urban rainfall ratio (URR) illustrates that 65% (88%) of the satellite-derived rainfall rates in the downwind (upwind control) region are greater (less) than the mean background rainfall rate of the entire study region. When the data is stratified by summer months from 1998 to 2001 (June-August), even greater influence over and downwind of the urban area is observed in the statistics. This result is consistent with published reports of urban-generated rainfall being more prevalent in the warm season. The research demonstrates that the evolving TRMM satellite climatology is a credible way to detect mesoscale precipitation signatures that may be linked to urbanization. Early results also corroborate recent findings on Houston-induced convection/drainfall anomalies. Burian and Shepherd will report on other aspects of the downscaling analysis in future forums, but early rain gauge results are consistent with the satellite-based observations.

  13. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dyble, Julianne; Bienfang, Paul; Dusek, Eva; Hitchcock, Gary; Holland, Fred; Laws, Ed; Lerczak, James; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Minnett, Peter; Moore, Stephanie K; O'Kelly, Charles; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Wang, John D

    2008-01-01

    Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges. PMID:19025676

  14. The influence of extreme winds on coastal oceanography and its implications for coral population connectivity in the southern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Feary, David A; Burt, John A

    2016-04-30

    Using long-term oceanographic surveys and a 3-D hydrodynamic model we show that localized peak winds (known as shamals) cause fluctuation in water current speed and direction, and substantial oscillations in sea-bottom salinity and temperature in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf. Results also demonstrate that short-term shamal winds have substantial impacts on oceanographic processes along the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf coastline, resulting in formation of large-scale (52 km diameter) eddies extending from the coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to areas near the off-shore islands of Iran. Such eddies likely play an important role in transporting larvae from well-developed reefs of the off-shore islands to the degraded reef systems of the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf, potentially maintaining genetic and ecological connectivity of these geographically distant populations and enabling enhanced recovery of degraded coral communities in the UAE.

  15. Moving toward finer scales in oceanography: Predictive linear functional model of Chlorophyll a profile from light data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayle, Séverine; Monestiez, Pascal; Guinet, Christophe; Nerini, David

    2015-05-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a key role in ocean-atmosphere carbon dioxide fluxes. Estimation of carbon exchanges between ocean and atmosphere must rely on accurate estimations of primary productivity which require measurements of phytoplankton concentration within the water column. In this paper, we are interested in relationships between primary productivity and light in the Antarctic ocean. The originality of this work is twofold. Starting from physical hypothesis, a statistical model is constructed for the prediction of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) profiles where light profiles are used as a covariate. Taking into account of the functional nature of the data, solutions are proposed to estimate continuous vertical profiles from discrete data sampled by elephant seals equipped with a new generation of oceanographic tags. Bootstrapped prediction intervals show a good quality of prediction of Chl a profiles, giving access to the shape of the profiles along depth and to the submesoscale structure of phytoplankton within the euphotic layer of the Southern Ocean.

  16. Ocean Front Detection from MERIS and OLCI Ocean Colour Data Applied to Marine Conservation and Global Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Peter I.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean front detection and aggregation techniques were recently applied to 300m resolution Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite ocean colour data for the first time, to describe frequently occurring shelf-sea fronts near to the Scottish coast (Miller et al., in press). This resolution enabled the location of smaller frontal zones and those in close proximity to a convoluted coastline, and was used to identify zones of ecological importance that could assist the process of defining marine protected areas. Frequent front zones are associated with higher abundance of plankton, certain pelagic fish and megafauna. This paper anticipates the improved insights into submesoscale sediment and plankton dynamics that will result from application of these techniques to the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3a and 3b. Looking to the global scale, we show global chlorophyll-a fronts, eddies and other structures detected from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative daily 4 km resolution merged dataset derived from MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS data. This emphasises the importance of the Sentinel missions to improving study of both physical and biological ocean processes.

  17. Oceanography in northwestern Europe during the last interglacial from intrashell δ 18O ranges in Littorina littorea gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Johan; Påsse, Tore

    2008-07-01

    Coastal sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-surface salinity (SSS), including seasonality, in northwest (NW) Europe during the early phase of the Eemian interglacial ca. 125 ka ago were reconstructed from Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) gastropods. The results were based on intra-annual δ 18O analyses in recent and fossil shells, mainly originating from the sea of Kattegat (Sweden) and the English Channel (United Kingdom), and confined to intertidal settings. The Eemian L. littorea shells indicated annual SSTs in the range 8-18°C for the English Channel and 8-26°C for Kattegat. All specimens from the Eemian sites experienced summer SSTs of ca. 1-3°C above recent conditions. The estimated winter SST in the English Channel during the Eemian was comparable to modern measurements of ca. 8°C. However, the Kattegat region displayed Eemian winter SST approximately 8°C warmer than today, and similar to conditions in the western English Channel. The recent-fossil isotope analogue approach indicated high SSS above 35 practical salinity units (psu) for a channel south of England in full contact with the North Atlantic Ocean during the last interglacial. In addition, the Kattegat shells indicated a SSS of ca. 29 psu, which points out a North Sea affinity for this region during the Eemian.

  18. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  19. Second international conference on air-sea interaction and on meteorology and oceanography of the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held September 22--27, 1994 in Lisbon, Portugal. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on air-sea interactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  20. D. Carlos de Braganca, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap between Formal and Informal Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Claudia; Pereira, Goncalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Braganca, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary…

  1. Hadean Oceanography: Experimental Constraints on the Development of the Terrestrial Hydrosphere and the Origin of Life on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J

    2003-02-06

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of the world's oldest mineral grains, zircon, have recently been used to infer the compositions of the rocks from which they crystallized. The results appear to require a source that had once experienced isotopic fractionation between clay minerals and liquid water, thereby implying the presence of liquid water at the Earth's surface prior to 4.4 billion years ago, less than 2 million years after accretion. This observation has important implications for the development of the Earth's continental crust. The inferred composition of the zircon source rock is directly dependent upon the oxygen isotopic fractionation between zircon and melt, and zircon and water. These fractionation factors have not been determined experimentally, however, constituting the weak link in this argument. A series of experiments to measure these fractionation factors has been conducted. The experiments consist of finely powdered quartz, a polished single crystal of zircon and isotopically-enriched or isotopically normal water to provide a range of isotopic compositions. The experiments will be run until quartz is in isotopic equilibrium with water. Zircon was expected to partially equilibrate producing an oxygen isotopic diffusion profile perpendicular to the surface. Ion probe spot analysis of quartz and depth profiling of zircon will determine the bulk and surface isotopic compositions of the phases, respectively. The well-known quartz-water isotopic fractionation factors can be used to calculate the oxygen isotopic composition of the fluid, and with the zircon surface composition, the zircon-water fractionation factor. Run at temperatures up to 1000 C for as long as 500 hours have not produced diffusion profiles longer than 50 nm. The steep isotopic gradient at the samples surface precludes use of the diffusion profile for estimation on the surface isotopic composition. The short profiles may be the result of surface dissolution, although such dissolution cannot be resolved in SEM images. The sluggish nature of diffusion in zircon may require that fractionation factors be determined by direct hydrothermal synthesis of zircon rather than by mineral-fluid exchange.

  2. Reproductive success of kittiwakes and murres in sequential stages of the nesting period: Relationships with diet and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Heather M.; Drummond, Brie A.; Benson, Anna-Marie; Paredes, Rosana

    2014-11-01

    Reproductive success is one of the most easily-measured and widely studied demographic parameters of colonial nesting seabirds. Nevertheless, factors affecting the sequential stages (egg laying, incubation, chick-rearing) of reproductive success are less understood. We investigated the separate sequential stages of reproductive success in piscivorous black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) using a 36-year dataset (1975-2010) on the major Pribilof Islands (St. Paul and St. George), which have recently had contrasting population trajectories. Our objectives were to evaluate how the proportion of successful nests varied among stages, and to quantify factors influencing the probability of nest success at each stage in each island. We modeled the probability of nest success at each stage using General Linear Mixed Models incorporating broad-scale and local climate variables, and diet as covariates as well as other measures of reproduction such as timing of breeding and reproductive output in the previous year and previous stage. For both species we found: (1) Success in previous stages of the breeding cycle and success in the prior year better explained overall success than any environmental variables. Phenology was also an important predictor of laying success for kittiwakes. (2) Fledging success was lower when chick diets contained oceanic fish found farther from the colonies and small invertebrates, rather than coastal fish species. (3) Differences in reproductive variables at St. Paul and St. George islands did not correspond to population trends between the two islands. Our results highlight the potential importance of adult condition and annual survival to kittiwake and murre productivity and ultimately, populations. Adult condition carrying over from the previous year ultimately seems to drive annual breeding success in a cascade effect. Furthermore, condition and survival appear to be important contributors to population dynamics at each island. Therefore, adult condition and survival prior to breeding, and factors that influence these parameters such as foraging conditions in the non-breeding season, may be important datasets for understanding drivers of seabird demography at the Pribilof Islands.

  3. Investigating the influence of regional climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this region is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the regional offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord region. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the region that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also influence radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar regions of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones, especially fjords and other semi-restricted estuaries.

  4. Satellite data relay and platform locating in oceanography. Report of the In Situ Ocean Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R.; Cote, C.; Davis, R. E.; Dugan, J.; Frame, D. D.; Halpern, D.; Kerut, E.; Kirk, R.; Mcgoldrick, L.; Mcwilliams, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The present and future use of satellites to locate offshore platforms and relay data from in situ sensors to shore was examined. A system of the ARGOS type will satisfy the increasing demand for oceanographic information through data relay and platform location. The improved ship navigation provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) will allow direct observation of currents from underway ships. Ocean systems are described and demand estimates on satellite systems are determined. The capabilities of the ARGOS system is assessed, including anticipated demand in the next decade.

  5. Matching oceanography and genetics at the basin scale. Seascape connectivity of the Mediterranean shore crab in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Marino, I A M; Zane, L; Melià, P

    2014-11-01

    Investigating the interactions between the physical environment and early life history is crucial to understand the mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of marine populations. Here, we assessed the genetic differentiation in a species with larval dispersal, the Mediterranean shore crab (Carcinus aestuarii) in the Adriatic Sea (central Mediterranean), and we investigated the role of oceanic circulation in shaping population structure. To this end, we screened 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 431 individuals collected at eight different sites. We found a weak, yet significant, genetic structure into three major clusters: a northern Adriatic group, a central Adriatic group and one group including samples from southern Adriatic and Ionian seas. Genetic analyses were compared, under a seascape genetics approach, with estimates of potential larval connectivity obtained with a coupled physical-biological model that integrates a water circulation model and a description of biological traits affecting dispersal. The cross-validation of the results of the two approaches supported the view that genetic differentiation reflects an oceanographic subdivision of the Adriatic Sea into three subbasins, with circulation patterns allowing the exchange of larvae through permanent connections linking north Adriatic sites and ephemeral connections like those linking the central Adriatic with northern and southern locations.

  6. The Relationship among Oceanography, Prey Fields, and Beaked Whale Foraging Habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Elliott L.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; St. Laurent, Louis; Halpin, Patrick N.; Moretti, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales, specifically Blainville's (Mesoplodon densirostris) and Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris), are known to feed in the Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. These whales can be reliably detected and often localized within the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) acoustic sensor system. The AUTEC range is a regularly spaced bottom mounted hydrophone array covering >350 nm2 providing a valuable network to record anthropogenic noise and marine mammal vocalizations. Assessments of the potential risks of noise exposure to beaked whales have historically occurred in the absence of information about the physical and biological environments in which these animals are distributed. In the fall of 2008, we used a downward looking 38 kHz SIMRAD EK60 echosounder to measure prey scattering layers concurrent with fine scale turbulence measurements from an autonomous turbulence profiler. Using an 8 km, 4-leaf clover sampling pattern, we completed a total of 7.5 repeat surveys with concurrently measured physical and biological oceanographic parameters, so as to examine the spatiotemporal scales and relationships among turbulence levels, biological scattering layers, and beaked whale foraging activity. We found a strong correlation among increased prey density and ocean vertical structure relative to increased click densities. Understanding the habitats of these whales and their utilization patterns will improve future models of beaked whale habitat as well as allowing more comprehensive assessments of exposure risk to anthropogenic sound. PMID:21556355

  7. An introduction to wavelet analysis in oceanography and meteorology - With application to the dispersion of Yanai waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Steven D.; Kelly, B. G.; O'Brien, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Wavelet analysis is a relatively new technique that is an important addition to standard signal analysis methods. Unlike Fourier analysis that yields an average amplitude and phase for each harmonic in a dataset, the wavelet transform produces an instantaneous estimate or local value for the amplitude and phase of each harmonic. This allows detailed study of nonstationary spatial or time-dependent signal characteristics. The wavelet transform is discussed, examples are given, and some methods for preprocessing data for wavelet analysis are compared. By studying the dispersion of Yanai waves in a reduced gravity equatorial model, the usefulness of the transform is demonstrated. The group velocity is measured directly over a finite range of wavenumbers by examining the time evolution of the transform. The results agree well with linear theory at higher wavenumber but the measured group velocity is reduced at lower wavenumbers, possibly due to interaction with the basin boundaries.

  8. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  9. Effective Use of the Sea, Report of the Panel on Oceanography of the President's Science Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Science Advisory Committee, Washington, DC.

    This report is concerned with the marine activities of the nation and how these activities contribute to the national well-being. Opportunities for the future are identified and discussed. The report centered around four main objectives: (1) to assess current and planned ocean programs for technical soundness, adequacy of scope, balance of…

  10. The Relationship Among Oceanography, Prey Fields, and Beaked Whale Foraging Habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    broader Atlantic have been identified as primarily myctophids and pelagic crustaceans by weight with occasional catches of large cephalopods [48,49,50...relative density offers a valuable snapshot of potential beaked whale prey. Blainville’s beaked whales are known to feed primarily on cephalopods and...MR (1996) Cephalopods as Prey. III. Cetaceans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 351: 1053–1065

  11. The effects of changing winds and temperatures on the oceanography of the Ross Sea in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walker O.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.

    2014-03-01

    The Ross Sea is critically important in regulating Antarctic sea ice and is biologically productive, which makes changes in the region's physical environment of global concern. We examined the effects of projected changes in atmospheric temperatures and winds on aspects of the ocean circulation likely important to primary production using a high-resolution sea ice-ocean-ice shelf model of the Ross Sea. The modeled summer sea-ice concentrations decreased by 56% by 2050 and 78% by 2100. The duration of shallow mixed layers over the continental shelf increased by 8.5 and 19.2 days in 2050 and 2100, and the mean summer mixed layer depths decreased by 12 and 44%. These results suggest that the annual phytoplankton production in the future will increase and become more diatomaceous. Other components of the Ross Sea food web will likely be severely disrupted, creating significant but unpredictable impacts on the ocean's most pristine ecosystem.

  12. From Supernovae To Equatorial Ionosphere, Following a Tortuous Path Through Computer Sciences, Oceanography, and Much, Much More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Beaujardiere, O.

    2002-12-01

    From as early as I can remember, I always wanted to be a scientist. My interests were oriented towards cataclysmic and catastrophic events. I first wanted to study volcanoes, then earthquakes. As I ended my PhD, my interests had gone a little higher, towards supernovae and the Crab Nebula. This was in Paris. I then immigrated to the US. My first job in the US was in computer sciences. I joined a team who made one of the first computer movies. I then switched fields once more. I went into ionospheric physics, where I stayed for more than 2 decades. I then did two "tours of duty" at National Sciences Foundation. I was first in the Magnetospheric Program. Then I started a multidisciplinary program that covered all sciences related to the arctic - from the bottom o f the ocean to the confines of the magnetosphere, passing through biology, glaciology, etc. Presently, I lead a team of about 20 scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory. We work on basic and applied ionospheric sciences problems as they relate to communications and navigation. As a woman scientist, the hardest obstacle I had to overcome was probably the permanent guilt of not staying home with my children. I raised 3 boys, and, although they are happy, successful and well adjusted, I continue to feel guilt about not staying home for them, and working so long hours and with so much intensity. When they were small, society was not too accepting of working mothers. In one of my kids' first grade class, he was the only child whose mother was working. As a teenager I also had to overcome rejection from boys who "could not stand" girls who studied science. My own father was not too encouraging to continue studies, warning me that women who are too bright have a hard time finding husbands. One University professor told the class that women were wasting taxpayers' money since they would never put their degree to use. My greatest support was my husband, always there, sharing chores, and understanding my ups and downs. The saying that the difficult period in a woman's life is only between the ages of 7 and 70 gives me solace. I can't wait to be 70.

  13. Middle pleistocene mollusks from St. Lawrence Island and their significance for the paleo-oceanography of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Patton, W.W.

    1972-01-01

    Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression. A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait. ?? 1972.

  14. Three Decades of Precision Orbit Determination Progress, Achievements, Future Challenges and its Vital Contribution to Oceanography and Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, Scott; Rowlands, David; Lemoine, Frank; Zelensky, Nikita; Beckley, Brian; Klosko, Steve; Chinn, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Although satellite altimetry has been around for thirty years, the last fifteen beginning with the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon (TP) have yielded an abundance of significant results including: monitoring of ENS0 events, detection of internal tides, determination of accurate global tides, unambiguous delineation of Rossby waves and their propagation characteristics, accurate determination of geostrophic currents, and a multi-decadal time series of mean sea level trend and dynamic ocean topography variability. While the high level of accuracy being achieved is a result of both instrument maturity and the quality of models and correction algorithms applied to the data, improving the quality of the Climate Data Records produced from altimetry is highly dependent on concurrent progress being made in fields such as orbit determination. The precision orbits form the reference frame from which the radar altimeter observations are made. Therefore, the accuracy of the altimetric mapping is limited to a great extent by the accuracy to which a satellite orbit can be computed. The TP mission represents the first time that the radial component of an altimeter orbit was routinely computed with an accuracy of 2-cm. Recently it has been demonstrated that it is possible to compute the radial component of Jason orbits with an accuracy of better than 1-cm. Additionally, still further improvements in TP orbits are being achieved with new techniques and algorithms largely developed from combined Jason and TP data analysis. While these recent POD achievements are impressive, the new accuracies are now revealing subtle systematic orbit error that manifest as both intra and inter annual ocean topography errors. Additionally the construction of inter-decadal time series of climate data records requires the removal of systematic differences across multiple missions. Current and future efforts must focus on the understanding and reduction of these errors in order to generate a complete and consistent time series of improved orbits across multiple missions and decades required for the most stringent climate-related research. This presentation discusses the POD progress and achievements made over nearly three decades, and presents the future challenges, goals and their impact on altimetric derived ocean sciences.

  15. Workshop on Straits: Their Oceanography and Influence on Adjacent Seas Held at Copenhagen on 17-21 January 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Water mass was characterized by low scattering, and can be traced at inter- mediate levels. A deeper water mass, possible Greenland Deep Sea Water...in the area are a) the warm water (6 0 C) of the Irminger Current on the Eastern side of the Strait, b) Polar Water of the East Greenland cur- rent...bottom at 1000-1500 m depth farther south on the East Greenland slope (MONA 5, 6; Aagaard and Malmberg 1978) showed negative temperatures in the

  16. Middle and late quaternary oceanography and climatology of the Zaire-Congo fan and the adjacent Eastern Angola basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. H. F.; Van Weering, T. C. E.; Gieles, R.; Van Iperen, J.

    La stratigraphie quaternaire du delta profond du Zaïre est établie sur la base des variations verticales des teneurs en carbonate, de l'analyse micropalaéontologique et des datations 14C et 230Th de 33 carottes. La vitesse des accumulations carbonatées et non carbonatées considérée en même temps que la conservation des carbonates nous conduit à distinguer les trois principaux facteurs à l'origine des concentrations en carbonate: production, dissolution et dilution par les particules non carbonatées. Les plus fortes productions carbonatées interviennent pendant les optima climatiques des interglaciaires tandis que les plus petites teneurs en carbonates sont probablement aussi liées à une augmentation de l'accumulation calcaire. Les fluctuations sont amplifiées par les effects de la dissolution qui est intense pendant les glaciaires et par les changements du rythme de la sédimentation terrigène. Dans la partie centrale du delta profond, un lobe de forte production carbonatée est localisé en permanence, il n'est pas associé à une zone de forte production de phytoplancton. Ce lobe est la conséquence d'un fort développement du zooplancton qui, pendant l'Holocène et les périodes interglaciaires, se multiplie à partir de cette floraison côtière de phytoplancton. Pendant les glaciaires, l'intensification de la circulation océanique déplace la zone des courants ascendants vers la latitude du delta du Zaïre. Dans deux carottes voisines de la bordure externe du plateau, une forte production en carbonates est observée entre 27 000 et 15 400 ans BP, elle est liée aux courants ascendants provoqués par l'intensification du courant de Benguela, et à une diminution de la sédimentation non carbonatée de de l'enfouissement du carbone organique à ˜ 14 500 ans BP. Une forte accumulation carbonatée se prolonge jusqu'à ˜12 500 ans BP, ce qui résulte un pic de conservation carbonatée à 14 000 ans BP qui n'est pas lié à un phénomène océanique. Une bréve intensification du compensation des carbonates et de la lysocline interviennent à des profondeurs moins grandes (4400 m et 3800 m) pendant les périodes glaciaires que de nos jours (5600 m et 4800 m). Les deux profondeurs des phases interglaciaires sont plus proches des profondeurs des phases glaciaires que de l'Holocène en fonction des dissolutions post-sédimentaires qui sont intervenues pendant les épisodes glaciaires consécutifs. L'hydrographie du Bassin de l'Angola n'apporte pas de preuves quant à des fluctuations des eaux profondes antarctiques qui auraient provoqué des cycles de dissolution des carbonates du Quaternaire de ce Bassin.

  17. Customer Support Operations In Support Of The NASA/JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, S. L.; Chen, Y. M.

    2004-12-01

    PO.DAAC is responsible for the ingest, archive and distribution of data relevant to the physical state of the ocean. The PO.DAAC provides a level of service for customer support for core Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) missions such as TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason, SeaWinds on QuikSCAT, SeaWinds on ADEOS-II, NOAA AVHRR and MODIS. PO.DAAC's level of support has broadened recently to include missions outside of the EOSDIS including, WindSat, GHRSST, Naval Oceanographic, Monterey Bay Aquarium, AirSAR and GOES. Customer support operations is managed and conducted in partnership between Raytheon ITSS and JPL and includes a full complement of services to accommodate the various PO.DAAC and Earth Observing System user communities. Customer support activities are ubiquitous to service industries from banking to shopping and this presentation will detail how two operational applications have been adopted for use in Earth Science data communities. Customer Response Management Operations System Integrated system that combines PO.DAAC's communications channels including web, email, phone and personal interactions into one intelligent knowledge base. The knowledge is shared with customers and the entire team to deliver consistent and timely information. The system allows 24 x 7 customer support service via extensive on-line searchable knowledge base. PO.DAAC has customized the system to fully integrate with PO.DAAC's existing legacy database and order tracking system. Website Communication Channel The newly redesigned PO.DAAC website (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov) is the central gateway to all of the Data, Tools and Services offered at the data center. The consistent look and feel was developed to enhance the ease of searching and ordering earth science data in particular. Data is accessible within a few clicks using the improved dynamic data catalog interface. New data products and information are delivered quickly to customers via the dynamic system and templates.

  18. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator); Hollman, R.; Alexander, J.; Nuzzi, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo-optical additive color quantitative measurements were made of ERTS-1 reprocessed positives of New York Bight and Block Island Sound. Regression of these data on almost simultaneous ship sample data of water's physical, chemical, biological, and optical properties showed that ERTS bands 5 and 6 can be used to predict the absolute value of the total number of particles and bands 4 and 5 to predict the relative extinction coefficient in New York Bight. Water masses and mixing patterns in Block Island Sound heretofore considered transient were found to be persistent phenomena requiring revision of existing mathematical and hydraulic models.

  19. Physical Oceanography Report: Camp-Based and Helicopter-Based STD Data from the Drifting Ice Station FRAM III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    copters to C-130s (Heiberg and Hielscher , 1985). Once established, the differential forcing of wind (and, therefore, stress) on the fragile sea ice cover...401, 1983. Dyer, I., and A. Baggeroer, FRAM II in the eastern Arctic Ocean, Eos Trans. AGO, 61(4), 1980. Heiberg, A., and A. Hielscher , The deployment

  20. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.14: Ocean Resources. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on ocean resources and food from the…

  1. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  2. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... of field and laboratory studies in biology, chemistry, and physical oceanography, as well as studies... vacancies in the following disciplines: Biological oceanography/marine biology; social science;...

  3. Proceedings of the Arctic Oceanography Conference and Workshop Held at the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity, NSTL, MS on June 11-14, 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Prudhae Bay Region, in The Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Ecosystems and Environment, P114-135, 1984. Weinberg, H., Generic sonar model, NUSC TD 5971C, Naval...Connecticut, NUSC Td 6035, June. Preller, R. H., 1985. The NORDA/FNOC Polar Ice Prediction System (PIPS) - Arctic: A Technical Description. Naval...Conditions During itovember 1931 Flignts. -Figure 2. Two Different High Altitude Millimeter-Wave Images of a Diffuse Ice Euqe . MK^fKmfi.HSK

  4. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Big Bear. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    PROFILEF PFR HA~LF DlAY (AM/P2M GMAT ) TS PLOTEI .EACH pRFFILE RJ)F.tIJ WITH PE~pFCT TO LiEfT OIVISIYJ MAK (-1-9 11X3.C*) T E)VPERATL-E SCALE SHlIFTS...wD W. IV. to CO toN~ w d x 1 CA OJ D *0 NOORE TH ’,4 ONE PREILE PER H&YL DAY (AM/PM GMAT ) IS PLOTTED -FACH PROJFILE RLOTTED WITH RESPECT TO LEFT

  5. A new concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter capable of precision long-term monitoring in marine geodesy and oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennerich, Hans-Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Long-term vertical seafloor displacements and geostrophic changes in the water column height could be easily monitored if pressure meters were less susceptible to drift. Currently, these signals, which have typical amplitudes from decimeters to less than 1 mm/yr, cannot be differentiated from instrumental drift. In this paper, we introduce and outline a new constructional concept for an ocean bottom pressure meter that aims for unequivocal detection and monitoring of long-term trends. The concept is based on a differential pressure sensor that measures the pressure difference between the environment and a reference pressure within a sealed volume. This sealed volume conserves the instantaneous pressure at the moment of its closure at the monitoring location in a temperature-compensated manner. Furthermore, the approach enables easy in situ calibration of the differential pressure gauge by simply opening the reference pressure chamber to the environment and checking the zero point offset.

  6. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (AIDJEX) 1975-1976, Physical Oceanography Data Report Profiling Current Meter Data -- Camp Caribou. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    22 -1 -I -~ a0:a.W z Lii Li A K 0 LS j~L LiiLi . . n7 Ln? zc_-~~~ 50 7 52z Ln tz -n LI BIG~~ ~ ~ ~ -ER -- BA -A NA - - - 53o 70 ACKNOWLEDGEMIEN TS... Usl Is am. wN .. ......... n~.... .. .. .. . .. .. .......... i ll~ 0 N~ll O O........ ......0.. .. -. 0 ... .. . .. . 0 I

  7. Meeting on the Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits (2nd). Held in Villefanche-sur-Mer, France on 15-19 April 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-19

    shallow-water layer models such as streamtube models . How well do they reproduce the physics of hydraulically driven turbulent flows with continuous...usually turbulent . Thus, while the flow types derived from simple Flow of a homogeneous fluid along a curved models are useful in interpretating...philosophy in the numerical modeling was to .7:° use the turbulent diffusivity as an independent free M parameter - generated by an unspecified source

  8. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Caribou. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Franz -Joseph Land (approximately 33 ppt) neglecting near coastal areas. Temperatures in the - .... ...L .. ’s= "] ,,;- . . . . :. -..- - t... ,9 , mixed...CSZGHR-T) 2? 2~2p~2 2 CPPTJ 21 3p 3a 3 3 1 ! too- 200 300. CR3 400- 500 Boa 700 CB 563 -1 2- t -706 O s00 Q. 0 0 20000.2. v!)AM"- Ifrfr"m C 00 C-.-N...o.as .*a% a-N... ~ ~ ~ #M AD Oesams inm"ffihta WA a4nl~- O0e6e om.mmmM’"mWcc "W at boa a) .e c c-sss.trrree.wiww 444.Q.44444 asCp-T i ,K cwo e-EI-76

  9. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL WATERS SURROUNDING THE GULF OF MEXICO IAPSO INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY MEETING, LA PLATA, ARGENTINA, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of the Ecological Condition of Coastal Waters Surrounding the Gulf of Mexico (Abstract). To be presented at the Joint IAPSO/IABO Assembly: 2001 An Ocean Odyssey, 21-26 October 2001, Mar del Plata, Argentina. 1 p. (ERL,GB R844).

    The purpose of the Environmental ...

  10. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Physical Oceanography Component: Soundscapes Under Sea Ice: Can We Listen for Open Water?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Figure 2). This includes physical ice sounds , and the sounds of marine mammals associated with sea ice, especially bowhead whales , bearded seals...relatively few transient sounds were detected, mostly from humpback, fin and killer whales . But as the ice formed, bowhead whales , closely associated...high frequency sound levels of a solid ice sheet (solid ice soundscape). The sounds associated with the whales continue, mostly below 5 kHz. On

  11. D. Carlos de Bragança, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Cláudia; Pereira, Gonçalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-06-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Bragança, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary Biology curriculum (grade 10, ages 15, 16). The proposed activities include a pre-visit orientation task, two workshops performed in a science museum and a follow-up learning task. In class, students have to analyse original historical excerpts of the king's work, in order to discuss and reflect about the nature of science. In the museum, students actively participate in two workshops: biological classification and specimen drawing. All students considered the project relevant for science learning, stating that it was important not only for knowledge acquisition but also for the understanding of the nature of science. As a final remark we stress the importance of creating activities informed by the history of science as a foundation for improving motivation, sustaining effective science teaching and meaningful science learning, and as a vehicle to promote a closer partnership between schools and science museums.

  12. Flying Wing Autonomous Underwater Glider for Basic Research in Ocean Acoustics, Signal/Array Processing, Underwater Autonomous Vehicle Technology, Oceanography, Geophysics, and Marine Biological Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    limitless. REFERENCES Eriksen, C. C., T. J. Osse, T. Light, R. D. Wen, T. W. Lehmann, P. L. Sabin, J. W. Ballard, and A. M . Chiodi (2001...42. McMasters, J. H., R. H. Nordvic, M . L. Henderson, and J. H. Sandvic (1981). “Two Airfoil Sections Designed for Low Reynolds Number,” Technical

  13. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  14. Proceedings of the DARPA/AFWAL Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, held 14-18 July 1980, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    SSELASRCVDexist d in this wrought 304 stai less steel bar. ie This is an unavoidable consequence of any plastic 4••- fonning process. Rolling, wire drawing ...specimens were low carbon steel Fig. 2 Formation of the undercut wave, blocks, 50 x 50 x 180 mm. The slots were machined a) R-wave just before...rsleds VIE REF. 7 553p FIG. 13 Quenching Temperature°F 470 1650 830 2010 1380 1560 1740 1920 2100 60 Plain Corbon Steels , Water-Quenchled 1.75%0 40

  15. Anatomy of a climate impact study: The alarming case of the Colorado River System Tim P. Barnett* David W. Pierce* *Scripps Inst. Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, T. P.; Pierce, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    Studies over the past two decades, and especially the last 3-4 years, have shown that human-induced climate change is likely to reduce the amount of water in the Colorado River System (CRS) by 10 to 30%. The region has the fastest growing population in the United States, and supports a sprawling agricultural industry based primarily on irrigation using CRS water. If climate change reduces the available water as projected, this would have a profound impact on the economy and residents of the region. But how likely is such a dire forecast to be true? What are the uncertainties associated with this main conclusion? In this talk, we lead the audience through the step by step analyses that led to the prediction. Formal detection and attribution studies, including the first regionally downscaled multivariate analysis, have confirmed that hydrological trends in the western U.S. are a consequence of anthropogenic climate change. Different sets of global climate models can be selected for future projections, but the warming and drying signal is consistent among them. When applied to a statistical water balance model of the CRS that shows excellent agreement with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation’s full model, we find that currently projected water deliveries are simply not sustainable in the face of anthropogenic climate change. Throughout our analysis, we place special emphasis on items that could lead to uncertainties, e.g. verification of an existing anthropogenic signal in the hydrology of the west, downscaling, climate model differences associated with use of arbitrary ensembles of models, future climate prediction and statistical simulation of past, present and future river flows. We find that these uncertainties do not obviate the basic point that scheduled CRS water deliveries are unsustainable. The CRS of reservoirs, dams, and water conveyances has never fallen short of its promised water deliveries since it was constructed. The population and agricultural industry in this arid region have rightfully come to count on this water as a dependable supply that can support their lives and livelihoods. Yet the evidence shows that if climate change occurs as widely agreed upon by the models, reductions in water deliveries from the CRS are likely to start within the next two decades and become endemic. The coming crisis needs to be planned for now, not years from now when a water shortage is already upon us.

  16. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…

  17. Geological history and oceanography of the Indo-Malay Archipelago shape the genetic population structure in the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris).

    PubMed

    Timm, Janne; Kochzius, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Like many fishes on coral reefs, the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, has a life history with two different phases: adults are strongly site attached, whereas larvae are planktonic. Therefore, the larvae have the potential to disperse, but the degree of dispersal potential depends primarily on the period of the larval stage, which is only 8-12 days in A. ocellaris. In this study, we investigated the genetic population structure and gene flow in A. ocellaris across the Indo-Malay Archipelago by analysing a fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Population genetic analysis, using AMOVA, revealed a significant and high overall phi(ST)-value of 0.241 (P < 0.001), clearly showing limited gene flow. Haplotype network analysis detected eight distinct clades corresponding mainly to different geographical areas, which were most probably separated during sea level low stands in the Pleistocene. The distribution of the clades among the different populations indicated slow partial re-mixing mainly in the central region of the archipelago. Major surface currents seem to facilitate larval dispersal, indicated by higher connectivity along major surface currents in the region (e.g. Indonesian Throughflow). Four main groups were found by the hierarchical AMOVA within the archipelago. These different genetic lineages should be managed and protected as separate ornamental fishery stocks and resource contributing to the genetic diversity of the area. Regarding the high diversity and the differentiation among areas within the Indo-Malay Archipelago of A. ocellaris populations, the centre-of-origin theory is supported to be the main mechanism by which the high biodiversity evolved in this area.

  18. 1979 Summer Study Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Notes on Polar Oceanography. Volume II. Lectures of the Fellows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    difference across the layer. The advantage of the new calculations is to show that there is no uni- versal profile of temperature, nor of velocity, but...will tell us for which value of ?X the solution was found. Calculations were carried out for the value s = 0.1. The solution as well as the analytical...number based on an assumed "critical" boundary layer depth, i.e. R K Vii Howard’s preliminary calculations for convectively unstable growth rates

  19. Louisiana/Texas shelf physical oceanography program: Eddy circulation study. Annual report: Year 2. Final report, 1 May 1993-30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Report describes data collection and data quality control efforts during second field year of the program. This program uses airborne expendable temperature and current probes and ARGOS-tracked drifting buoys to monitor Loop Current eddies and smaller cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in water deeper than 200m in the north western Gulf of Mexico. Seven aerial surveys were conducted during year 2 in the study region. Representative data products for each survey are presented. Tables documenting the performance of expendable probes and drifting buoys are included.

  20. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment. A report prepared by the Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in the Marine Environment of the Committee on Oceanography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Goldberg, E.D.; Butler, P.; Meier, P.; Menzel, D.; Paulik, G.; Risebrough, R.; Stickel, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS : The oceans are an ultimate accumulation site for the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. As much as 25 percent of the DDT compounds produced to date may have been transferred to the sea. The amount of DDT compounds in the marine biota is estimated to be less than 0.1 percent of total production, yet this amount has produced a demonstrable impact upon the marine environment. Populations of fish-eating birds have experienced reproductive failure and decline. With continued accumulations of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine ecosystem, additional species will be threatened. Continued release of these pollutants to the environment can only accelerate the accumulation of unacceptable levels of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of marine food fish. Certain risks in the utilization of chlorinated hydrocarbons are especially hard to quantify, but they require serious consideration. The rate at which such substances degrade to harmless products in the marine system is unknown; the half-lives of some of the more persistent materials are certainly of the order of years, and perhaps even of decades or centuries. If most of the remaining 75 percent of the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons is now in reservoirs that will in time transfer their contents to the sea, we may expect an increased level of these substances in marine organisms, despite future improvements of manufacturing practices. In fact, if these compounds degrade with half-lives of decades or longer, there will be no opportunity to redress the consequences. The more the problems are studied, the more unexpected effects are identified. In view of the findings of the past decade, our prediction of the potential hazards of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment may be vastly underestimated. The Panel makes the following recommendations, which will be developed and expanded in the remainder of the report: ? A massive national effort should be made immediately to effect a drastic reduction of the escape of persistent toxicants into the environment, with the ultimate aim of achieving virtual cessation in the shortest possible time. ? Programs should be designed both to determine the rates of entry of each pollutant into the marine environment and to make base-line determinations of the distribution of the pollutants among the components of that environment, These should be followed by a program of monitoring long-term trends in order to record progress and to document possible disaster. ? The laws relating to the registration of chemical substances and the release of production figures by government should be examined and perhaps revised in light of evidence of environmental deterioration caused by some of these substances.

  1. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Blue Fox. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    LISTING PARAMETERS I DEPTH Depth in meters TEMP Temperature in degrees C PTEMP Potential temperature in degree C SALIN Salinity in parts per thousand SIG ...T Sigma-t density where: I density (p) - 1.0 + (( Sig T) *1000.0) SPVOL Specific volume anomaly (x 10-5 cm3/gm) DYNHT Dynamic height (dynamic meters...to LM b. a w ewe%- ww re mOOc 4" o 0.NWmotvviiOf wt 00 f4Crfl ft -wm o.e. &*1 NO P..w N N o%9 a in - - -da inN 4p m a - U . .......0...V N m

  2. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976, Physical Oceanography Data Report Profiling Current Meter Data. Volume 2. Camp Blue Fox.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    larger main camp. The radio call signs of the satellite camps were Caribou, Blue Fox, and Snowbird, the main camp being designated Big Bear. Profiles of...readings over fairly large blocks of time (10 to 20 days). The blocks were separated Into up and down- traces due to the presence of a hysteresis effect...because of the sensor being pulled through the current.. The opposite would be true for the downtace. Large data blocks were used in the calibration

  3. Meeting summary - Coastal meteorology and oceanography: Report of the third prospectus development team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and NSF

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotunno, R.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Allen, J.S.; Colman, B.R.; Dorman, C.M.; Kreitzberg, C.W.; Lord, S.J.; McPhee, M.G.; Mellor, G.L.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Niiler, P.P.; Pielke, R.A.; Powell, M.D.; Rogers, D.P.; Smith, J.D.; Xie, Lingtian; Carbone, R.

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP) prospectus development teams (PDTs) are small groups of scientists that are convened by the USWRP lead scientist on a one-time basis to discuss critical issues and to provide advice related to future directions of the program. PDTs are a principal source of information for the Science Advisory Committee, which is a standing committee charged with the duty of making recommendations to the Program Office based upon overall program objectives. PDT-1 focused on theoretical issues, and PDT-2 on observational issues; PDT-3 is the first of several to focus on more specialized topics. PDT-3 was convened to identify forecasting problems related to U.S. coastal weather and oceanic conditions, and to suggest likely solution strategies. There were several overriding themes that emerged from the discussion. First, the lack of data in and over critical regions of the ocean, particularly in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the upper-ocean mixed layer were identified as major impediments to coastal weather prediction. Strategies for data collection and dissemination, as well as new instrument implementation, were discussed. Second, fundamental knowledge of air-sea fluxes and boundary layer structure in situations where there is significant mesoscale variability in the atmosphere and ocean is needed. Companion field studies and numerical prediction experiments were discussed. Third, research prognostic models suggest that future operational forecast models pertaining to coastal weather will be high resolution and site specific, and will properly treat effects of local coastal geography, orography, and ocean state. The view was expressed that the exploration of coupled air-sea models of the coastal zone would be a particularly fruitful area of research. PDT-3 felt that forecasts of land-impacting tropical cyclones, Great Lakes-affected weather, and coastal cyclogenesis, in particular, would benefit from such coordinated modeling and field efforts. Fourth, forecasting for Arctic coastal zones is limited by our understanding of how sea ice forms. The importance of understanding air-sea fluxes and boundary layers in the presence of ice formation was discussed. Finally, coastal flash flood forecasting via hydrologic models is limited by the present accuracy of measured and predicted precipitation and storm surge events. Strategies for better ways to improve the latter were discussed.

  4. Data Assimilation in Ocean Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Meteorological Organization (WMO) International Symposium on Assimilation of Observations in Meteorology and Oceanography, Quebec City , Canada, see...WMO International Symposium on Assimilation of Observations in Meteorology and Oceanography, Quebec City , Canada. June 07 – 11, 1999. Proceedings to

  5. Barely Afloat, or Please Pass the Plankton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Leone

    1974-01-01

    Although oceanography is included in most elementary school curricula, there are few easily read oceanography books for the school library. An annotated list of 70 recommended titles is included. (PF)

  6. The Chemical Oceanographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses career opportunities in oceanography for chemists. These include opportunities related to food, physical oceanography, mining, drugs, and other areas. Educational background needed and degree program are considered. (JN)

  7. Hutchinson Award to Schindler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, W. John

    David William Schindler is the 1985 recipient of the Hutchinson Award, given annually by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. It is awarded to an active scientist in limnology and oceanography in recognition for outstanding research.

  8. Comment on: "Bachmann, R. W., M. V. Hoyer, and D. E. Canfield. 2013. The extent that natural lakes in the United States of America have been changed by cultural eutrophication. Limnology and Oceanography 58:945-950."

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a recent paper, Bachmann et al. (2013) conclude, based on paleolimnological reconstructions, that lakes in the conterminous U.S. have undergone very little cultural eutrophication. They go on to suggest that their results invalidate the efforts of the U.S. EPA to establish num...

  9. Oceanography, bathymetry and syndepositional tectonics of a Precambrian intracratonic basin: integrating sediments, storms, earthquakes and tsunamis in the Belt Supergroup (Helena Formation, ca. 1.45 Ga), western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian R.

    2001-06-01

    The carbonate-dominated Helena Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Supergroup of western North America provides an instructive example of how a range of regional depositional and environmental characteristics of an ancient sea can be deduced on the basis of micron- to metre-scale features. Particularly revealing is the window opened by the presence of abundant molar-tooth structure onto the paleoceanography, paleobathymetry, paleoclimate and tectonic regime of this intracratonic Precambrian basin. The facies hosting molar-tooth structure is composed dominantly of lime mud with substantial subangular quartz and feldspar silt and clay derived from the western and southwestern side of the basin. These are low-energy tempestites deposited on a remarkably flat sea bottom at the limit of storm-wave base, at about 50 m. Sporadic domical, stromatolite patch reefs confirm that the sea bottom was normally within the photic zone. The ubiquity of molar-tooth structure suggests frequent, near-field seismic activity during subsidence, which generated ground motion sufficient to liquefy granular lime mud and terrigenous silt. Sporadic tsunamis from major submarine faults far to the west pounded the shallow-water platform to the east. Tsunami off-surge swept ooids and rounded, coarse-grained, feldspathic quartz sand westward into deeper water, and created strongly erosive currents that left gutter casts composed of lags of preferentially cemented molar-tooth structure in otherwise relatively low-energy facies. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence, confirms that the Belt basin was marine. Organic matter was essentially fully oxidized in the water column. Original high-Mg composition and cementation of lime mud in molar-tooth structure indicate that calcite precipitated above the thermocline in supersaturated seawater under tropical conditions. Scattered bimineralic ooids in allochthonous grainstones indicate that shoals on the platform to the east were intermittently above a shallow aragonite compensation depth in warm water. Rare vestiges of halite and gypsum demonstrate occasional, temporary salinity stratification for periods of up to a few years. Unaltered feldspar and mica grains point to a generally arid climate, but the large volume of clay is suggestive of protracted weathering and transport.

  10. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Symposium Report on What Controls Phytoplankton Production in Nutrient-Rich Areas of the Open Sea Held at San Marcos, California on 22-24 February 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-25

    Patterns from CZCS Images [substituted for Gordon ]. Charles B. Miller and Thomas M. Powell: If Nutrient-Rich Systems are Iron Limited. They are...Larger-Scale Processes 10:20 - 12:00, Thomas M. Powell, Chair Contributing Panelists: Osmund Holm-Hansen Michael Pilson Thomas M. Powell Walker 0...Phytoplankton. Swift, Dorothy, W.G. Sunda & S.A. Huntsman: Oceanic Phytoplankton Need Less Iron. Thomas , William H: Anomalous Nutrient-Chlorophyll

  11. Accelerated Implementation of Harbor Processes Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    WATERSHEDS, *BIODEGRADATION, *SEDIMENTS, INDUSTRIES, STRATEGY, WATER, NAVY, SITES, SEASONAL VARIATIONS, SAMPLING, CONTAMINANTS, HARBORS, OCEAN BOTTOM, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY , TOXICOLOGY, OCEANOGRAPHY, ESTUARIES.

  12. A Partial Review of Marine Science in Western Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Oceanography Biological Oceanography Chemical Oceanography Marine Pollution ,20, ABSTRACT (Continue ,m reveree eld. If ne.-eeery d Ident~ity by blnk...Scotland. It has branched out into physical and chemical oceanography and is, to a large degree, marine - pollution oriented. The Plymouth laboratory R...mental Research, operates as a governmental laboratory. Its primary charter is to study marine pollution problems in estuaries and shallow coastal

  13. Seasonality and variability of coccolithophore fluxes in response to diverse oceanographic regimes in the Bay of Bengal: sediment trap results. M.V.S. Gupthaa & b, Lina P. Mergulhaoa,*, Daniela Ungerc and V.S.N. Murtyd a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India b 62, Sagar Society, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India c Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstrasse 6, D 28359 Bremen, Germany d National Institute of Oceanography, 176, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam - 530 017, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medimi, M.

    2011-12-01

    A study on coccolithophores both in shallow and deep sediment trap samples, collected over a period of one year (January 1992 - December 1992) from three trap locations in the Bay of Bengal were used to understand their production and export processes in relation to diverse oceanographic regimes associated with reversing monsoons. A total of 25 species of coccolithophores were identified, which includes some of the important species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Florisphaera profunda, Umbellosphaera irregularis, Emiliania huxleyi, Oolithotus antillarum, Umbellosphaera tenuis, Helicosphaera carteri and Calcidiscus leptoporus. The total coccolithophore fluxes increased from the northern to southern Bay of Bengal where G. oceanica, U. sibogae¬ and E. huxleyi were dominant species displaying seasonality with peak fluxes occurring during southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons reflecting their affinity for nutrient-rich waters brought in by river plumes, divergences and cyclonic eddies. U. irregularis, an indicator of oligotrophic/warm water, recorded peak abundance fluxes only during the spring intermonsoon period at all trap locations thus inferring its preference for oligotrophic conditions caused by increased Sea Surface Temperature (SST), stratification and lack of nutrient supply due to weak wind velocities. The deep dwelling species, F. profunda recorded high fluxes during the fall intermonsoon (October/November) in the northern and southern traps and during the spring intermonsoon. The peak fluxes during the spring intermonsoon (April/May) in the central and southern traps indicated the prevalence of a deep nutricline when oligotrophic conditions prevailed at the surface. Interestingly, dissolution was encountered throughout the year evidenced by the presence of corroded coccoliths.

  14. Hurricane Havens Handbook for the North Atlantic Ocean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    East Coast/Gulf Coast Only) FDl Oceanography Command (2) FD2 Oceanographic Office FD3 Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center FD4 Oceanography Center...issued via AUTODIN and Channel 8 of the Fleet Multi-Channel Broadcast. 1-8 GENE R Al. G II) ANCE l, o.0 1 A,. EE9PAM NT OF C13ESC MILITARY MARINE

  15. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    James Yoder, vice president for academic programs and dean at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., has been selected as a fellow of the Oceanography Society (TOS) “for his innovative and visionary application of satellite ocean color technologies to interdisciplinary oceanography and his extraordinary service to oceanography.” TOS also has three new councilors. Blanche Meeson of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., is TOS's education councilor; Janet Sprintall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., is TOS's councilor for physical biology; and Deborah Steinberg, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, Gloucester Point, is biological oceanography councilor.

  16. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    algorithms. Several of his LABORATOIRE D’OCEANOGRAPHIE papers are under review, including one in press for DYNAMIQUE ET CLIMATOLOGIE, the Journal of...d’Oceanographie Dynamique et Climatologie (LO- POUR L’EXPLOITATION DE LA MER, DYC) at the University of Paris VI is presently IFREMER (FRENCH INSTITUTE...useful forecasts of water quality. Universitie de Paris VI Laboratoire d’Oceanographie Dynamique et de REFERENCE Climat (LODYC) Dr. Michel Crepon 1. J.P

  17. A Report of the NRL Technical Metrics Workshop 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-09

    Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command (CNMOC), N8 and N9 ............... 3 2.2 Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO) Oceanography...Workshop 2008 3   2. TECHNICAL METRICS MOTIVATION 2.1 Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command (CNMOC), N8 and N9 Dr. Merrill Stevens, Naval...Department of Defense (DoD) Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES). The NMOC Technology Transition and Integration ( N9

  18. 75 FR 68603 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Office of Education Dr. Nancy Foster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... masters and doctoral degrees in the areas of marine biology, oceanography and maritime archaeology. The... support NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries program performance measures. Scholarship...

  19. 76 FR 36899 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... pursuing masters and doctoral degrees in the areas of marine biology, oceanography and maritime archaeology... results support NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries program performance measures....

  20. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  1. Evolution of particle size in turbid discharge plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Evolution of particle size in turbid discharge plumes Paul S. Hill Department of Oceanography Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, CANADA B3H...ES) Dalhousie University,Department of Oceanography,Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Canada, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  2. Education in Marine Science and Technology--Historical and Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Robert B.

    This review of marine science and technology education and related issues was presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27, 1967. Areas reviewed include manpower supply and demand, oceanography education history, oceanography and the social sciences, training of technicians, the ocean engineer, education for…

  3. High Frequency Acoustic Recording Package, Data Summary Report, PS09, February 26, 2010 - November 03, 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Oceanography Reviewed by: Released by: Peter Chu Jeffrey D. Paduan Chairman, Vice President and Department of Oceanography Dean of...71. 72. 73. 74. 75. Amy Smith Science Applications International Corporation McLean, VA Peter ... Antoinette M. Gorgone NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center Beaufort, NC 1 1

  4. The Paleoceanography of the Bering Sea During the Last Glacial Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    MIT/WHOI 2006-06 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program Ia , in Oceanography/ OFTEC Applied Ocean...MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY and the WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION February, 2006 ©MMVI Mea S. Cook All rights reserved. The author hereby...of Author ............................. Joint Program in Oceanography Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

  5. The Influence of Wind on HF Radar Surface Current Forecasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    9 1. Ekman , 1905 .........................................................................................9 2. McNally, Luther and...x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Ekman Spiral. – The angle between the wind and the surface current is 45º... Paul Jessen Terry Rago Superv. Gen. Eng. Robert Wyland I also appreciate the Oceanography and Meteorology/Oceanography students

  6. The Oceans and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Oceanography, Washington, DC.

    This Oceanographic Information Kit consists of seven booklets which discuss career opportunities and related information in oceanography as follows: a general overview of the nature of oceanography and the study necessary in preparing for a career in this field; oceanographic employment opportunities possible with the federal government described…

  7. Physical, Nutrient, and Biological Measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in March 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    with accession #0098772. 15. SUBJECT TERMS hydrography, physical oceanography, biological oceanography, nutrients, zooplankton , PaCOOS, CalCOFI 16...List of Tables List of Figures Introduction Standard Procedures CTD/Rosette Data Zooplankton Net Tows... Zooplankton volume displacements for Bongo net samples collected during the PaCOOS cruise of March 2012 along CalCOFI line 67. Contours of

  8. Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsky, Ronald B.; Schnitger, Ronald L.

    This guide provides teachers with copies of the materials given to students participating in the oceanography program of the Orange County Floating Laboratory Program and provides information concerning colleges and universities offering courses in oceanography and marine science, source of films, and sources of publications concerning the Navy's…

  9. Some Thoughts on Free Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The author publishes and freely distributes three online textbooks. "Introduction to Physical Oceanography" is available as a typeset book in Portable Document Format (PDF) or as web pages. "Our Ocean Planet: Oceanography in the 21st Century" and "Environmental Science in the 21st Century" are both available as web pages. All three books, which…

  10. Marine Science Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Report of an IOC Workshop on the Preparation of a Marine Science Syllabus for Secondary Schools. Unesco Reports in Marine Science, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Presented is a syllabus for introducing oceanography and the marine environment into the secondary school curricula of all IOC Member States, whether developed or developing. The main purpose of the syllabus is to promote an understanding of oceanography and the marine environment. The syllabus is action- and output-oriented, as well as…

  11. FISHING ECONOMY, 1960, VOL. 36, NO. 7: SELECTED TRANSLATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of Marine Fishing and Oceanography imeni N . M. Knipovich (PINRO), by Yu S. Pokrovskii Pacific Ocean Scientific Research Institute of Marine...Petelin Caspian Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fishing and Oceanography (Kasp NIRO), by I. A. Piskunov Azov-Black Sea Scientific

  12. Status on U.S. Marine Research. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oceanography of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on U.S. Marine Scientific Research Capabilities Oversight (September 26, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

    These hearings focused on the major problems and opportunities in marine research and on the role of both the government and the scientific community in responding to future needs. Included are statements by: James Baker; Donald Boesch; Robert Corell; Tudor Davies; M. Grant Gross; G. Ross Heath; Joel Pritchard; David Ross; J. R. Schubel; Gerry…

  13. The Association of Pre-storm Ground Wetness with Inland Penetration of Monsoon Depressions : A Study Using Self Organizing Maps (SOM) C.M. Kishtawal Meteorology and Oceanography Group, Space Applications Center, Ahmedabad, INDIA Dev Niyogi2 Department of Agronomy, and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishtawal, C. M.; Niyogi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Monsoon depressions (MDs)are probably the most important rain bearing systems that occur during the Indian summer monsoon season. The unique topography of Indian peninsula and Indo-china region favor the formation and development of MDs in the warm and moist air over the Bay of Bengal. After formation the MDs move in a north-northwest track along the monsoon trough to the warmer and drier heat low regions of Northwest India and Pakistan. The dynamic structure of MDs is largely maintained by convergence of atmospheric water vapor flux coupled with the lower tropospheric divergent circulation (Chen et al., 2005), and they weaken rapidly after landfall due to the lack of surface moisture fluxes (Dastoor and Krishnamurti, 1991). In the present study we explored the association between pre-storm wetness conditions and the post-landfall situation of MDs using 54-year long observations (1951-2004) of 183 MDs and daily surface rainfall. Our analysis suggests that the MD’s post-landfall behavior is most sensitive to mean inland rainfall between To-1 to To-8 days (the pre-storm rainfall), where To is the day of formation of MD in the Bay of Bengal. Further, pre-storm rainfall over a broad region along the monsoon trough is found to exhibit the maximum association with the MDs inland lifespan. We further carried out the unsupervised classification of pre-storm rainfall patterns using Self Organizing Map(SOM), a topology preserving map that maps data from higher dimensions onto a two dimensional grid(Kohenen, 1990). The SOM patterns of rainfall indicate that pre-storm wetness is strongly associated with the inland penetration length of MDs with wetter conditions supporting MDs to survive longer after the landfall. Although the pre-storm inland wetness has not been found to be associated with the formation of MDs and a number of MDs form during relatively dry inland conditions during the early (June) and late (September) phases of monsoon, the inland-penetration and post-landfall lifespan of these MDs was found significantly smaller compared to those formed under wetter inland conditions. Interestingly, the formation of a considerably larger number of MDs was associated with axially concentrated (around monsoon trough) patterns of pre-storm rainfall than the wide-spread patterns. The inland rainfall patterns are possibly the manifestation of the strength and orientation of Tropical Convergence Zone (TCZ) that also supports the genesis of MDs through the enhancement of barotropic instability. References Chen T.C., J.H. Yoon, and S.Y. Wang, 2005 : Westward propagation of the Indian monsoon depression. Tellus, 57A, 758-769. Dastoor A., and T.N. Krishnamurti, 1991: The landfall and structure of a tropical cyclone : The sensitivity of model predictions to soil moisture parameterizations. Boundary Layer Meteorol., 55, 345-380. Kohenen, T., 1990 : The self organizing map. Proc IEEE .78(9):1464-1480.

  14. AGU GIFT Appeal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    As the ocean sciences have grown in size and scope and matured intellectually and institutionally, scientific communications in many forms have become increasingly important. Fortunately, the AGU offers a broad program of scientific communications. In recent years the AGU has responded to the newly articulated communications needs of the burgeoning ocean sciences community. For example, it has initiated the monthly Oceanography Report in Eos; instituted a separate, alternating oceanography issue of the Green JGR; expanded greatly the time and space allocations of the oceanography sessions at national AGU meetings; supported the Chapman Conference on Ocean Fronts, the International Symposium on Coastal Upwelling, and the first Ocean Sciences Meeting (jointly with ASLO); fostered development of the oceanography luncheons, where timely topics for the community are aired; promoted development of the oceanography careers booklet (in advance preparation); and inaugurated the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences Monograph Series. I consider that not bad for starters!

  15. Practical utility of the blue spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some aspects of multispectral photography in the blue region are discussed briefly, and sample images are submitted to demonstrate the potential utility of the blue multispectral record for oceanography.

  16. Tilting Shear Layers in Coastal Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Department of Physical Oceanography, MS-21 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole , MA 02543 phone: (508)-289-2870 fax: (508)-457...denser, black - lighter). c) Near-surface vertical vorticity (colors) and velocity vectors

  17. The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

  18. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1980-01-31

    Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)

  19. Ten Days at Sea: For Grades K through 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Marian

    1977-01-01

    Outlines a 10-day unit in oceanography for the primary grades. Suggest stories, chalkboard work, topics for discussion, coloring projects, experiments, films, reference books, and topics for research projects. (CS)

  20. Significant accomplishments in science and technology, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1974. [proceedings - NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Topics covered are: (1) earth resources (climatology, oceanography, soils, strip mines), and (2) astronomy (magnetic fields and atmospheres of the planets and the sun; galactic and interstellar gas; cosmic and X-ray radiation). Photographs of satellite observations are included.

  1. Comparative Research Productivity Measures for Economic Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettner, David A.; Clark, William

    1997-01-01

    Develops a simple theoretical model to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in research productivity between economics departments and related subjects. Compares the research publishing statistics of economics, finance, psychology, geology, physics, oceanography, chemistry, and geophysics. Considers a number of factors including journal…

  2. [Book review] Aquatic Ecology: Scale, Pattern and Process, edited by Paul S. Giller, Alan G. Hildrew, and David G. Raffaelli

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Review of: Aquatic ecology : scale, pattern, and process. Paul S Giller; A G Hildrew; D G Raffaelli; British Ecological Society. Symposium; American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. Oxford ; Boston : Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994. xiii, 649 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.

  3. New Species Found!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinemann, Deborah; Thomas, Jolie

    2003-01-01

    Explains a 4th grade lesson on oceans in which students create imaginary marine animals. Creatively assesses student understanding of habitat and adaptation. Overviews 14 lessons in the oceanography unit. (SOE)

  4. Meeting summary housing and registration information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).Some of the most compelling problems in science and technology span two or more disciplines, and this is especially true of oceanography, which is an amalgamation of several sciences with technology. This meeting will cover topics that include physical and biological oceanography, atmospheric sciences, chemical and geological oceanography, underwater acoustics, and ocean technology.

  5. Propagation Limitations in Remote Sensing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Multi-sensors and systems in remote sensing ; Radar sensing systems over land; Remote sensing techniques in oceanography; Influence of...propagation media and background; Infrared techniques in remote sensing ; Photography in remote sensing ; Analytical studies in remote sensing .

  6. Observing earth from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Skylab technology and observations of earth resources are discussed. Special attention was given to application of Skylab data to mapmaking, geology/geodesy, water resources, oceanography, meteorology, and geography/ecology.

  7. 78 FR 60852 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16239 and 17312

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... issued to Dan Engelhaupt, Ph.D., HDR EOC, 5700 Lake Wright Drive, Norfolk, VA 23502- 1859, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography [Responsible Party: John Hildebrand, Ph.D.], University of California,...

  8. Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.

  9. General Loss Function Applied to Satellite Scheduling Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    fishing, agriculture, biodiversity conservation, forestry, landscape, geology, cartography, regional planning, education, intelligence, warfare, and...imagery are in the fields of meteorology, oceanography, fishing, agriculture, biodiversity conservation, forestry, landscape, geology, cartography

  10. Catalog of Computer Programs Used in Undergraduate Geological Education. Second Edition. Installment 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, H. Robert

    1984-01-01

    Describes 70 computer programs related to (1) structural geology; (2) sedimentology and stratigraphy; and (3) the environment, groundwater, glacial geology, and oceanography. Potential use(s), language, required hardware, and sources are included. (JM)

  11. A Semester of Geology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestana, Harold R.

    1982-01-01

    Described is a nine-week undergraduate semester program (12 credit hours) conducted at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research which included three courses: introductory oceanography, sedimentology, and independent field study. Brief descriptions of sample student projects are included. (DC)

  12. Updating the Vision for Marine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, E. Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to update the content, philosophical stance, and pedagogy of marine education to reflect recent advances in these areas. Cites some developments in oceanography and ocean engineering. Proposes ways teachers can learn about and utilize this knowledge. (RT)

  13. Earth Observing System. Volume 1, Part 2: Science and Mission Requirements. Working Group Report Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Areas of global hydrologic cycles, global biogeochemical cycles geophysical processes are addressed including biological oceanography, inland aquatic resources, land biology, tropospheric chemistry, oceanic transport, polar glaciology, sea ice and atmospheric chemistry.

  14. What is marine biology?: Defining a science in the United States in the mid 20th century.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Marine biology and biological oceanography are two disciplinary subfields that have long struggled with their definitions. Should marine biology simply be considered a part of biology that takes place in the marine environment or is it a distinct entity, with conceptual problems and methodological approaches all its own? Similarly, biological oceanography could be seen as a necessary adjunct to physical and chemical oceanography or it could be defined more as an extension of biology into the marine realm. In the United States, these issues were directly addressed from the mid 1950s through the mid 1960s in a series of events that shed light on how marine biologists came to a working definition of their field that provided a broad methodological tent for practitioners and, at the same time, allied the field to oceanography during a period in which exploration of uncharted areas drew considerable funding from the post-WWII federal agencies charged with keeping American science at the forefront.

  15. Mean Sea Surface and Variability of the Gulf of Mexico Using Geosat Altimetry Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-15

    Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) altimetric measurements of the sea surface height in the Gulf of Mexico are used to determine the mean sea surface... Gulf of Mexico . Keywords: Altimetry; Mesoscale oceanography; Ocean forecasting; Reprints.

  16. North Atlantic Deep Water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, T. (Editor); Broecker, W. S. (Editor); Hansen, J. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various studies concerning differing aspects of the North Atlantic are presented. The three major topics under which the works are classified include: (1) oceanography; (2) paleoclimate; and (3) ocean, ice and climate modeling.

  17. Centering on Sea Life in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruendike, Janis L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an oceanography learning center for elementary/middle school students, focusing on use of games (review jeopardy), instructional tapes, flash cards, activity felt boards, picture puzzles, reading materials, science displays, and experiment stations. (JN)

  18. Dispersant Effectiveness, In-Situ Droplet Size Distribution and Numerical Modeling to Assess Subsurface Dispersant Injection as a Deepwater Blowout Oil Spill Response Option and Evaluation of Oil Fluorescence Characteristics to Improve Forensic Response Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes two projects covered under an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Department of Fisheries and...

  19. Remote sensing applied to crop disease control, urban planning, and monitoring aquatic plants, oil spills, rangelands, and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to land management, urban planning, agriculture, oceanography, and environmental monitoring is discussed. The results of various projects are presented along with cost effective considerations.

  20. Information Domination: Dynamically Coupling METOC and INTEL for Improved Guidance for Piracy Interdiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    wave and surf physics, swell propagation, and tidal dynamics. Dr. Hsu was the lead PI in transitioning the Navy Standard...oceanography strongly modulate pirate activity. The NRL Oceanography Division constructed a re- analysis of the winds, waves , and currents in the region... wave height (panel a), wind speed (panel b), and shipping density (panel c). The red solid curves plot the predicted number of pirate

  1. Coastal and Continental Shelf Processes in Ghana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    George Wiafe Department of Oceanography and Fisheries University of Ghana P.O. Box LG 99, Legon, Ghana phone: (+233) 24-4657475 fax: (+233) 21...of Oceanography and Fisheries University of Ghana P.O. Box LG 99, Legon, Ghana 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...Estuary, Lagoon Deltas, Sand beaches, Mangroves Coastal Geology Pegmatite, biotite tonalite Amphibolite, gneiss, quartzite Limestone

  2. Characterization and Modeling of the Philippine Archipelago Dynamics Using the ROMS 4DVAR Data Assimilation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    assimilation (Moore et al., 2011a,b,c; Powell et al. 2008; Muccino et al., 2008; Di Lorenzo et al., 2007), ensemble prediction, adaptive sampling, circulation...ROMS adjoint and variational data assimilation) at Scripps Institute of Oceanography, E. Di Lorenzo (Southern California predictability) at Georgia...a Hindcast/Forecast Model for the Philippine Archipelago, oceanography, 20(1), 58-69, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2011.04. Di Lorenzo , E., A.M. Moore, H. G

  3. A Community Terrain-Following Ocean Modeling System (ROMS/TOMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    representer-based weak constraint 4DVar (Di Lorenzo et al., 2007; Muccino et al., 2008) driver (R4D-Var) and a weak constraint Physical Space Analysis...Institute of Oceanography, E. Di Lorenzo (Southern California predictability) at Georgia Institute of Oceanography, and J. Wilkin (Mid-Atlantic Bight...j.dynatmoce.2009.03.001. Courtier, P., 1997: Dual formulation of four-dimensional variational assimilation, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 2449-2461. Di Lorenzo

  4. Women oceanographers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The number of female physical oceanographers holding Ph.D's will grow by at least 15% this year when three female oceanography graduate students at Florida State University (FSU) receive their doctorates, according to James J. O'Brien, FSU professor of meteorology and oceanography and editor of the Oceans section of the Journal of Geophysical Research. The students (see Figure 1), Ruth Preller, Germana Peggion, and Sirpa Hakkinen, have all completed requirements for the doctorate degree.

  5. An Atlas of Bathy-Thermograph Temperature Cross-Sections for Coral and Tasman Sea Transects from 1960 to 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    range predictions, and for oceanographic and meteorological applications such as the detection of oceanic fronts and currents. Data bases of bathy...Oceanography, PO Box 20, North Beach WA 6020 Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences, 14 Parliament Place, Melbourne VIC 3002 Ocean Sciences Institute...RAN, Hydrographic Office RAN, PO Box 1332, North Sydney, NSW 2053 Director of Oceanography and Meteorology (DOM), Hydrographic Office RAN, PO Box 1332

  6. Chinese Oceanographic Research. Trends in Topical and Geographic Focus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    23 Mariana Trench 23 pratas islands 14 Sea of Okhotsk 6 huai river Delta/estuarine 3 gulf of Thailand 2 Tsushima/Korean Strait 1 Strait of Malacca 1...these institutes are located in coastal cities of China. The SOA is an administrative agency for the supervision and management of sea area uses and...First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), focusing on the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea ; the Second Institute of Oceanography (SIO), focusing on the East

  7. U.S. Strategies for Cooperation with the Soviets on Ocean Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-29

    SUMMARY 3 WORKING GROUP REPORTS 7 Physical Oceanography 8 Geology & Geophysics Accesion For 14 Biogeochemistry NTIS CRAM 31 Acoustics DTIC TAB 37 Space...basically consisted of seven thematic panels, each dealing with an area of mutual U.S. and Soviet interest: physical oceanography, geology and...academic institutions. 113 l_ I- 1 I l REPORT OF THE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS WORKING GROUP to The Workshop on U.S. Strategies for Cooperation with the

  8. Workshop on the Detection, Classification, Localization and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics - 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    and Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics - 2015 John A. Hildebrand Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD La Jolla...classification, localization and density estimation of marine mammals using passive acoustics , and by doing so advance the state of the art in this field...Passive Acoustics was organized and held at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in July 2015. The objective of ONR support for the

  9. U.S. Navy Hindcast Spectral Ocean Wave Model Climatic Atlas: North Atlantic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    for their technical w, Ms. Pamela J. Young, Ms. Elaine H. Mason, The development of a Spectral Ocean Wave Ms. Laura K. Metcalf for their data proces...Research and Development Center; Mr. She] which this atlas is based. Lazanoff previously of Fleet Numel Oceanography Center; Dr. Ledolph Baer of...Ship Ocean on Research and Development Center; Mr. Sheldon Lazanoff previously of Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center; Dr. Ledolph Baer of the National

  10. Ocean Prediction Research: Regional Forecasting, Process and Methodology. A Forecast Scheme for the Iceland-Faeroes Front in the GIUK Gap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Professor of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Division of Applied Sciences Harvard University This was a project for research on the phenomenology, kinematics and...Keflavik, Iceland, 15 May - 25 May 1987. Harvard Open Ocean Model Reports 24, Reports in Meteorology and Oceanography, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA. R...Reports 25, Reports in Meteorology and Oceanography, Harvard University , Cambridge, MA. R 3. Denbo, D.W., R.A. Schmalz and G.M. Gardner (1988) Harvard

  11. Chemical Variability in Ocean Frontal Areas: Results of a Workshop Conducted 19-22 September 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Paul GUINASSO, Norman LAVOIE, Dennis HALLOCK, Zack SAUNDERS, Kim David HAWKINS, Jeffrey . REMOTE SENSING OF FRONTS ARNONE, Robert REID, David HOLLIGAN...FAEROE OCEAN FRONT Zack 0. Hallock Physical Oceanography Branch, Oceanography Division, Naval Ocean Research and De- velopment Activity, NSTL, MS...University of Rhode Island Code 331 Kingston, RI 02881 NSTL, Mississippi 39529 Dr. Robert Byrne Mr. Jeffrey D. Hawkins Department of Marine Science Naval

  12. VOICE. A Spectrogram Computer Display Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Bioacoustics Laboratory of the Biology Department. Funding for the work has been from the Office of Naval Research under contracts N00014-88-K-0273...a 0; /einitializes at each exit from running display*/ which a Alevels Epuebkt]; which->pge a pagenow; which->incr - step; which->ofset M doff set...Collection Hancock Library of Biology & Texas A&M University Oceanography Dept. of Oceanography Alan Hancock Laboratory College Station, TX 77843 University of

  13. The Maury Project 2013 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    instructional resource materials to use in the 1- to 2-hour training sessions they conduct. (e) Promote the adaptation of instructional resource...materials on the physical foundations of oceanography for classroom use by the Maury teachers and those teachers they peer-train. (f) Provide...teachers who were peer-trained by Maury participants will then adapt their new found knowledge for in-class use of oceanography topics to enhance learning

  14. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Science In this issue, reports on... Computer Science Materials Environment Oceanography Special focus,.- High-Performance Computing in Europe - 471 93... Computer Science Dr. Lawrence J. Rosenblum 14 4413 Polymer Science Dr. Joseph H. Magill 15 4413 Physical Oceanography Dr. John P. Dugan 16 4260 Electronics...Perfornance (’omputing in Flurope ICOMPUTER SCIENCE I .......... .......... . 471 t. iMalek COMPUTER SCIENCE Revolution or Evolution in Computational Fluid I

  15. John Murray / MABAHISS expedition versus the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) in retrospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, A. A.; Morcos, S. A.

    In addition to its scientific achievements, the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition was a unique experiment in technology transfer and it pioneered bilateral relations in the field of oceanography, at a time when the Law of the Sea was not even an embryonic concept. The Expedition will be remembered for its profound influence on the development of oceanography in Egypt, and subsequently in several Arab and African countries, as well as for its socio-economic impact in Egypt. The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was an elaborate exercise involving both the most sophisticated developments in oceanography of the day and the full complexity of international relations which necessitated the scientific, coordinating and supporting mechanisms of SCOR, IOC and Unesco combined. Each exercise separated by 25 years represented a significant event in the development of oceanography. Each was a natural product of the prevailing state of the art and the international climate. Oceanography had made a quantum jump in technology in the intervening quarter of a century, which had put the cost of deep sea oceanography quite beyond the financial capabilities of many developing countries, an important factor to bear in mind when comparing the impact of the John Murray/Mabahiss Expedition on Egypt with that of the IIOE, on the Indian Ocean countries.

  16. Ocean Studies Board annual report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July, 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. The goals of the Ocean Studies Board are: to promote the advancement of scientific understanding of the ocean by overseeing the health of ocean sciences and stimulating their progress; to encourage the wise use of the ocean and its resources through the application of scientific knowledge; to lead in the formulation of national and international marine policy and to clarify scientific issues that affect this policy; and to promote international cooperation in oceanographic research and to improve scientific and technical assistance to developing countries. The Ocean Studies Board is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering, and marine policy. This report reviews existing projects and discusses the progress of ocean research programs.

  17. Willard J. Pierson Jr. (1922-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donelan, Mark A.; Cardone, Vincent J.

    Willard J. Pierson, Jr., retired professor of oceanography at New York University and City College of New York (CCNY), an AGU Fellow, and past president (1974-1977) of its Ocean Sciences Section, died on 7 June 2003. He had been an AGU member since 1948.His death marked the close of an important chapter in oceanography. Pierson was a true pioneer in many aspects of oceanography, especially wave dynamics and remote sensing. His immense contributions to these fields are complemented by his legacy of a generation of scientists who successfully completed their doctoral training under his guidance to go on to productive and distinguished careers themselves. Pierson was the consummate teacher, always willing to go to whatever lengths necessary to see the light of understanding appear in his students' eyes. He was an effective mentor to many students and younger colleagues; he led by inspiration and by example; he guided with firmness and kindness.

  18. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-10-01

    Scott Doney, senior scientist and director of the Ocean and Climate Change Institute at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, has been awarded the 2013 A. G. Huntsman Award for Excellence in Marine Science, which the Royal Society of Canada grants to an oceanographer "who has made significant contributions in the fields of marine geosciences, physical or chemical oceanography, or biological and fisheries oceanography." The citation notes that the award is "in recognition of his fundamental contributions to our understanding of the role of ocean biology in global biochemical cycles; for his analysis of the vulnerability of ocean biological processes to global change, particularly ocean acidification; for his leadership in bringing the community's intellectual assets to bear on some of the most pressing scientific problems of our time; and for his tireless efforts to educate both students of oceanography and the general public on complex issues related to changes in the global ocean."

  19. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1993 activities along with activities planned in 1994 is presented.

  20. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1992 activities along with activities planned in 1993 is presented.

  1. Remote sensing of atmosphere and oceans; Proceedings of Symposium 1 and of the Topical Meeting of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E. (Editor); Ghazi, A. (Editor); Gower, J. F. R. (Editor); Mccormick, P. (Editor); Gruber, A. (Editor); Hasler, A. F. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers are presented on the contribution of space remote sensing observations to the World Climate Research Program and the Global Change Program, covering topics such as space observations for global environmental monitoring, experiments related to land surface fluxes, studies of atmospheric composition, structure, motions, and precipitation, and remote sensing for oceanography, observational studies of the atmosphere, clouds, and the earth radiation budget. Also, papers are given on results from space observations for meteorology, oceanography, and mesoscale atmospheric and ocean processes. The topics include vertical atmospheric soundings, surface water temperature determination, sea level variability, data on the prehurricane atmosphere, linear and circular mesoscale convective systems, Karman vortex clouds, and temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance.

  2. Fall 1991 Ocean Sciences Student Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    Michele Okihiro received an Outstanding Student Paper Award for a paper she presented at the AGU Fall 1991 Meeting entitled “Infragravity Bound Waves in Shallow and Deep Water.” Okihiro received a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics from Pomona College in 1980, a Bachelor of Science degree in civil engineering from the University of Hawaii in 1988, and a Master of Science degree in oceanography from the University of California at San Diego in 1986. Okihiro is currently working toward her doctorate in oceanography at the University of California at San Diego. Her research at Scripps Institution concerns infragravity waves and their role in forcing resonant harbor oscillations.

  3. Oceanographic and climatological atlas of Bristol Bay. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Leslie, L.D.; Labelle, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    This is a reference document of oceanography, meteorology, sea ice, and climatology. It was prepared for use by the U.S. Coast Guard on-scene coordinator in the event of an oil spill in Bristol Bay at any time. The oceanography section contains information for bathymetry, circulation, water temperature and salinity, waves, tides, river discharge, and oil spill transport. The meteorology section includes seasonal weather and storm tracks, storm surges, superstructure icing, and wind chill. Climatology includes graphs and test on temperature, precipitation, wind, visibility, and cloudiness. Ice information includes seasonal formation and drift, concentration, thickness, nearshore ice, and freeze-up and breakup dates.

  4. Nonhydrostatic Numerical Investigations of Oscillating Flow Over Sills: Generation of Internal Tides and Solitary Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    M.-K. Hsu, and Y-J Yang (2006a) Reflection and diffraction of internal solitary waves by a circular island, Journal of Oceanography. [In press...refereed] 2 S.-Y. Chao, D.-S. Ko, R.-C. Lien and P.-T. Shaw (2006b) Assessing the west ridge of Luzon Strait as an internal wave mediator, Journal of Oceanography. [Submitted, refereed] 3 ...Nonhydrostatic Numerical Investigations of Oscillating Flow Over Sills: Generation of Internal Tides and Solitary Waves Shenn-Yu Chao Horn Point

  5. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analysis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  6. Closing Note: A Tribute to Fridtjof Nansen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Untersteiner, Norbert

    The purpose of the Nansen symposium and volume has been to report the results of scientific research, to celebrate the memory of Fridtjof Nansen, and to remind ourselves of his exemplary life as a scientist and humanitarian. In this context it seems appropriate for the international community to remember that the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean were the cradle of modern oceanography. Mohn, Knudsen, Helland-Hansen, Nansen, Ekman, Fjeldstad, Sverdrup, and many others from this part of the world did their work in the North and became the "founding fathers" of oceanography.

  7. Lindstrom Receives 2013 Ocean Sciences Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.

    2014-09-01

    Eric J. Lindstrom's record over the last 3 decades exemplifies both leadership and service to the ocean science community. Advancement of ocean science not only depends on innovative research but is enabled by support of government agencies. As NASA program scientist for physical oceanography for the last 15 years, Eric combined his proven scientific knowledge and skilled leadership abilities with understanding the inner workings of our government bureaucracy, for the betterment of all. He is a four-time NASA headquarters medalist for his achievements in developing a unified physical oceanography program that is well integrated with those of other federal agencies.

  8. Combining Ensemble and Variational Data Assimilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Cummings, M. Martin, F. Hernandez, 2012: GODAE inter- comparisons in the Tasman and Coral Seas . Journal of Operational Oceanography, 5, 11-24. [REFERREED...Denny Silver Gilt Medal – presented to the best paper published in the Journal of Operational Oceanography in a calendar year; for “GODAE inter-comparisons in the Tasman and Coral Seas ”. ...version of BODAS – that is used here is described by Oke et al. (2013a). We assimilate sea -level anomaly (SLA) from satellite altimetry, satellite sea

  9. Highlights of the 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Jonathan; Briscoe, Melbourne; Itsweire, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting was the 17th biennial gathering since the inception of ocean sciences meetings in 1982. A joint venture of the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), The Oceanography Society (TOS), and the Ocean Sciences section of AGU, the meeting was by far the largest ever: More than 5600 attendees made this meeting more than 30% larger than any previous one. Forty percent of attendees live outside the United States, hailing from 55 countries, showing the importance of this meeting as an international gathering of ocean scientists.

  10. Ray Curvature and Refraction of Wave Packets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    1!~~~~~ _ ‘ AD AOM 302 FLORIDA STATE UNIV TALLAHASSEE DEPT OF OCEANOGRAPHY FIG B/3 RAY CURVATURE AND REFRACTION OF WAVE PACKETS. (U) SEP 78 .J E...BREEDING N00014—77—C—0329 UNCLASSIFIED TR JE6 3 NL _ _ _ rwii__ _ ~iU ir!I I -~~ RAYOJR\\1L~[UREAND REFRACI ION OF WAVE F1~\\CKET~S ~y J. Ernest Breeding...01 29 014 -~ Technical Report No. JEB-3 Department of Oceanography • Florida State University RAY CURVATURE AND REFRACTION OF WAVE PACKETS b O G • J

  11. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    S. Bradley Moran has taken a post as assistant director, ocean sciences, for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He will focus on implementing the U.S. Ocean Science Policy and assume responsibility for a broad range of ocean, coastal, and marine resource-related matters. Moran is on leave as a professor at the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography. He most recently served as program director in the chemical oceanography program at the National Science Foundation.

  12. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Randall, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the environmental conditions found by the principal investigators during the predisposal study conducted from September 1977 through February 1980 prior to the start of brine discharge in March 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management. Volume 1 describes the results of the predisposal study, and it is divided into eight chapters entitled: Physical Oceanography, Analsyis of the Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Nekton, Benthos, Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, and Data Management. Volume 2 consists of appendices which contain additional supporting data in the form of figures and tables.

  13. Critical Review of the Navy Space Cadre

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    officer IGY international geophysical year IP Information Professional Community ISR intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance IW Information...Warfare Command, 2013), 8. 10 Ibid. 3 Meteorology/Oceanography (METOC), Information Warfare (IW), Information Professional ( IP ), Intelligence, and...Space Surveillance System (Space Fence) from 1958 to 1961. The Space Fence included three transmitter and six receiver stations along the 33.5-degree

  14. Literature and the Sea. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astro, Richard, Ed.

    This document is a collection of eight papers presented at a conference held at the Marine Science Center, Newport, Oregon, May 8, 1976. The conference concluded a course offered jointly by the School of Oceanography and the Department of English at Oregon State University. The conference had two purposes: (1) focus on the relationship between…

  15. Autonomous & Adaptive Oceanographic Feature Tracking on Board Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Underwater Vehicles MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography/ Applied Ocean Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Woods Hole ...Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole , Massachusetts 02543...Undersea Warfare Center and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Academic Programs Office. Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any

  16. Passive Wake Detection Using Seal Whisker-Inspired Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    in Oceanography/ Applied Ocean Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution MIT/WHOI 2015-03...02139 and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole , Massachusetts 02543 , February 2015 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION Funding was provided by the... HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION February 2015 ©2015 Heather Rachel Beem. All rights reserved. The author hereby grants to MIT and to WHOI

  17. Remote Sensing of Earth Resources: A literature survey with indexes (1970 - 1973 supplement). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system between March 1970 and December 1973 are presented in the following areas: agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, oceanography and marine resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution systems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  18. A Summary of the Foundation Research Program, Fiscal Year 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-12

    Luczak , "Composite Operational Amplifiers and Their Use in Improving Bandwidth, Speed and Accuracy in Active Networks,- Master’s Thesis, June 195. P...Interface ," Gordon Research Conference on Composites, Santa Barbara , CA, Jan. 13-17, 1986. 53 .. q p w DEPARTMENT OF OCEANOGRAPHY Title: The Tropical

  19. NRL Fact Book

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    applied work in radio wave propagation, oceanography, deep-sea instrumentation, submarine air purification, structural design theory, fracture mechanics...DIODE CIRCUIT PROGRAM SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE DELAY LINES FABRICATED ON SILICON WAFER WITH THE USE OF ZINC OXIDE LAYERS ARC PLASMA GROWTH ELECTRONICS...surface physics, micro- wave and antenna techniques, microelectronic devices research and fabrication, high power microwave generation, and basic

  20. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  1. Blood Oxygen Conservation in Diving Sea Lions: How Low Does Oxygen Really Go?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Does Oxygen Really Go ? Paul J. Ponganis Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine Scripps Institution of Oceanography 8655 Discovery Way...Does Oxygen Really Go ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  2. 78 FR 30894 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy Training in the Gulf of Alaska Temporary Maritime...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ..., which included passive acoustic monitoring utilizing high-frequency acoustic recording packages (HARPs... following: Passive Acoustic Monitoring Two high-frequency acoustic monitoring packages (HARP) have been deployed by Scripps Institute of Oceanography (SIO) within the GOA TMAA. Both HARPs were bottom-deployed...

  3. Blue Whale Behavioral Response Study and Field Testing of the New Bioacoustic Probe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Acoustic Recorders ( HARPs ) were deployed in and around the Santa Barbara Channel by Scripps Insitution of Oceanography with support from NOAA Fisheries...Acoustics Program. The HARPs have provided valuable data on the spectral and sound level properties of individual ships (see publications list

  4. Applied programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This document overviews the areas of current research at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Technology transfer and the user facilities are discussed. Current topics are presented in the areas of applied physics, chemical science, material science, energy efficiency and conservation, environmental health and mathematics, biosystems and process science, oceanography, and nuclear energy. (GHH)

  5. "Water and Environmental Systems": Achieving Student-Centered Learning Objectives with an Undergraduate Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Susanne M.; Foster, Ian D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes and evaluates an unusual and innovative assessment procedure used in an undergraduate hydrology and oceanography class. Working in teams, English students produce research articles published by an in-house, though refereed, academic journal. Professors and students agree that the process stimulates students to perform at their highest…

  6. De Anza Summer College "By the Sea"; Evaluation Report, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Redwoods, Eureka, CA.

    This report describes an off-campus alternative to traditional summer school sponsored by De Anza College and College of the Redwoods (California). Three twelve-day, concentrated summer programs, called "Action Learning Modules", utilized an interdisciplinary approach. The first module combined oceanography, marine biology, and scuba diving. A…

  7. Using a Laboratory Simulator in the Teaching and Study of Chemical Processes in Estuarine Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Luque, E.; Ortega, T.; Forja, J. M.; Gomez-Parra, A.

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of Chemical Oceanography in the Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences of the University of Cadiz (Spain) has been improved since 1994 by the employment of a device for the laboratory simulation of estuarine mixing processes and the characterisation of the chemical behaviour of many substances that pass through an estuary. The…

  8. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  9. Africa Partnership Station: Coastal Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    development of publications and discussing future project direction and needs. Additional interactions between UG and USGS included ongoing assessments... USGS ) and researchers in the Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of Ghana (UG), Accra, Ghana, including George Wiafe, Selorm Ababio...Kwasi Appeaning Addo, and Kwame Adu Agyekum. Prior to the site visit, Cheryl Hapke ( USGS ) assisted with the identification and acquisition of

  10. A Catalog of Curriculum Materials for Marine Environment Studies--Elementary and Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Marine Studies.

    This partially annotated bibliography on marine environment contains a list of learning experiences and curriculum units for elementary and secondary students. A majority of materials were published in the 1970s. Subjects include biological oceanography, which deals with general and specific aspects of marine biology such as plankton,…

  11. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  12. Evaluation of the NJROTC Multimedia Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devin, Phillip D.; Robyn, Abby E.

    The Navy Junior Reserve Officers Training Corps (NJROTC) provides high school students with academic training and military leadership experience. The academic portion of the program consists of a 4-year naval science curriculum that includes these subjects: naval history, sea power, maritime geography, navigation, citizenship, oceanography,…

  13. Introductory Physical and Earth Science 8AB. An Instructional Course Outline. Publication No. SC-864.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Office of Secondary Instruction.

    Introductory Physical and Earth Science 8AB, a required course in the Los Angeles Unified School District, covers skills and concepts related to matter, energy, space science, weather, and oceanography with particular emphasis on the investigative approach. This instructional outline contains teacher guidelines and course content information.…

  14. THE NEED TO ESTABLISH A MARINE SCIENCES TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM AT SHORELINE COMMUNITY COLLEGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TEEL, WARD; AND OTHERS

    DURING THE SUMMER OF 1966, FACULTY MEMBERS OF THE COLLEGE CONDUCTED AN INTERVIEW SURVEY TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A MARINE SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM. MANPOWER NEEDS OF 70 INDUSTRIES, INSTITUTIONS, AND GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH THE FIELDS OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE BIOLOGY WERE STUDIED IN TERMS OF JOBS PERFORMED BY…

  15. Physics in Europe--A Data File of Selected Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-18

    Energy and environmental research; solar energy; geothermal, wave, arid wind powers; pollution; HYDROD--Hydrodynamics, fluid mechanics, oceanography...circuits, optical bistability and logic, superconductors, nonlinear behavior; WETHER--Atmospheric, ionospheric, and solar physics; communication by...limited to the near-Earth studies of ionospheric and solar physics because phenomena in these fields can affect communications. Although a hard-copy

  16. Integrating Ocean Color Observations and Nowcast/Forecast of Bio-Optical Properties into the Naval Research Laboratory Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    Prieur, L., 1977. Analysis of variation in ocean color. Limnology and Oceanography, 22(4): 709-722. Mueller, J.L., 1988. Nimbus -7 CZCS: Electronic...overshoot due to cloud reflectance. Applied Optics, 27: 438 - 440. Nelson, N.B., Siegel, D.A. and Micheals, A.F., 1998. Seasonal dynamics of colored

  17. January Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Frank; White, Marjorie

    1976-01-01

    A transdisciplinary course in marine biology and oceanography is described. The course was conducted during an experimental educational venture in which the school calendar was organized into two shortened semesters and a one-month miniterm in January. The field experience involved activities in the Florida Keys during the miniterm. (EB)

  18. Sensational Studies in Marine Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, E. C., Jr.; Schroyer, Fred C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a description of a five-week summer course in marine biology and oceanography offered to college-bound, secondary students with varied physical handicaps. Summarizes insights gained after four summer sessions related to communication problems, physical arrangements for the wheelchair-bound, and handicap-proof maps; evaluates the course's…

  19. Core Journal Networks and Cocitation Maps in the Marine Sciences: Tools for Information Management in Interdisciplinary Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Katherine W.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the interrelationship between two traditionally separate literatures, i.e., marine biology and physical oceanography, and develops a joint core journal list. The use of journal intercitation data from "Journal Citation Reports" for "Science Citation Index" and from SCISEARCH on DIALOG to create a cocitation map is…

  20. From Presentation to Programming: Doing Something Different, Not the Same Thing Differently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galas, Cathleen

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the use of multimedia software and the need to apply constructivist theories so students become more involved with the software, progressing from simply watching presentations to creating simulations. A project-based learning environment that uses MicroWorlds software is described that focuses on marine biology and oceanography. (LRW)

  1. Marine Science Teaching at the University Level. Report of the Unesco Workshop on University Curricula. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    A group of marine science education educators from several countries were requested to provide guidelines for the education and training of marine scientists and formulate recommended curricula in the following disciplines: marine biology (including fisheries biology), physical oceanography, and marine geology. Included in the report are: (1)…

  2. Employment Outlook, Environmental Scientists, Geologists, Geophysicists, Meteorologists, Oceanographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Described is employment in four branches of earth science: geology, geophysics, meteorology, and oceanography. Considered for each employment area is the nature of the work, places of employment, type of training and qualifications for advancement, employment outlook, and earnings and working conditions. The demand for specialists in these four…

  3. CTD and Bottle Data from Leg 1: 20 December 1986 - 18 January 1987. Leg 2: 17 July - 15 August 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    650, Japan Biblioteca, Centro de Investigacion Cientifca y Educacion Superior de Prof. Hideo Kawai Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732 Kyoto University...Science Division of Meteorology and Physical Oceanography University of Miami TIC 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway f ELECTE Miami, Florida 33149 S SEP2Z 1989D and

  4. Science for Georgia Schools, Junior High Earth Science, Volume 3-B, Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Div. of Curriculum Development.

    This is a curriculum guide for the preliminary edition of Volume III-B of Science For Georgia Schools, Junior High Earth Science. The course of study is designed for the eighth grade and includes selected topics from astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, physical geography, and space travel. Topics are grouped under five units called (1)…

  5. Sciences: A Select List of U.S. Government Produced Audiovisual Materials - 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. National Audiovisual Center.

    This publication is a catalog that contains the National Audiovisual Center's materials on Science. There are twelve areas in this catalog: Aerospace Technology, Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Electronics and Electricity, Energy, Environmental Studies, Geology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Oceanography, Physics, and Weather/Meteorology. Each…

  6. Interdisciplinary Research Programs in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    scientific disciplines that deal with the dynamics of stratified fluids, rotating fluids, fluid with phase changes and non-Newtonian fluids. To formulate...clearing-house for the mathematical, experimental and computational techniques which serve astrophysics, climate science, geodynamics, meteorology and... Zika , Physical Oceanography, University of New South Wales, “The stability of cascading flows”. RESULTS The Principal Lectures and Fellows

  7. Skylab 3 preliminary reference Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) pass planning document. Volume 2: EREP sites and S190 swath study of selected revs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. N.

    1971-01-01

    The ground tracks and S190 swaths are presented of selected revolutions over areas containing earth resources experiment package (EREP) sites. The following eight EREP disciplines are shown: sensor performance evaluation, forestry, geology, hydrology, land use mapping, oceanography, pollution, and weather. Most of the data reported consists of passes over the continental United States.

  8. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  9. Technology transfer in the life sciences. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the life sciences. Topics include technology transfer in biogas energy production, biotechnology, pollution control, aquaculture, agriculture, oceanography, and forestry. Technology transfer to developing countries and to small businesses, as well as university-industry partnerships, is described. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Marine Science Careers. A Sea Grant Guide to Ocean Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono.

    This document, which is intended for high school students who are considering a marine science career, contains 38 profiles of individuals employed in one of the following occupations: marine biologist, environmental educator, fishery biologist, marine ecologist, aquaculture microbiologist, geological oceanography, environmental consultant, ocean…

  11. Technology transfer in the Life Sciences. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the life sciences. Topics include technology transfer in biogas energy production, biotechnology, pollution control, aquaculture, agriculture, oceanography, and forestry. Technology transfer to developing countries and to small businesses, as well as university-industry partnerships, is described. (Contains a minimum of 67 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Opportunities in Marine and Maritime Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Wm. Ray

    This book describes careers related to the sea. The following chapters are included: (1) "The World of Water"; (2) "Cruise Ship Careers"; (3) "Oceanography and the Marine Sciences"; (4) "Fishing"; (5) "Commerical Diving"; (6) "Maritime Transportation"; (7) "Shipbuilding"; (8) "Military Careers Afloat"; (9) "Miscellaneous Marine and Maritime…

  13. CAMS--A Think Tank for Global Ocean Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaharl, Victoria A.

    1985-01-01

    The Center for the Analysis of Marine Systems (CAMS) was created as an interdisciplinary "think tank" to meet needs of modern oceanography. The international research center's focus and success rests on theory, observation, and computer modeling. Projects involving lava flow and year-to-year variations in abundance of fish are described. (DH)

  14. Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, 1995 Catalog of Education Programs and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is an integrated, sustainable environmental education program that focuses on the concept of Earth system science which integrates fields like meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric science, geology, and biology. The program has the following objectives: training the next generation of scientists to use an…

  15. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  16. Oceanographic Effects on Maritime Threats: Mines and Oil Spills in the Strait of Hormuz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Thesis Advisor Steven D. Haeger Second Reader Mary L. Batteen Chairman, Department of Oceanography iv...The transformation of the vertical coordinate following Gal-Chen and Somerville (1975) is applied to map the lowest coordinate surface to an irregular...Professor Mary L. Batteen Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 8. Professor Peter C Chu Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California

  17. Toward Routine Autonomous Measurement and Interpretation of Optical Variability in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    with semi-analytical models, that relate optical signatures to ecological features of phytoplankton (Ciotti 1999). The semi-analytical model of ocean...Optics XIV, 10 pp. Report Cullen, J.J. (ed.) 1998. GEOHAB: global ecology and oceanography of harmful algal blooms. Report from a joint SCOR/IOC

  18. Only One Ocean: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig

    This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…

  19. Enhancing Undergraduate Participation in Oceanographic Research with a Focus on Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    of Puerto Rico, Geology Major, Graduated Senior, Advisor: Dr. Henry J. B. Dick, WHOI Geology and Geophysics Department, Project: Cayman Trough: An...Geophysical Union and American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, San Diego, California. WEB SITE: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution that describes the institution educational/ internship opportunities: http://www.whoi.edu.

  20. 32 CFR 770.31 - List of major naval installations in the State of Hawaii and cognizant commanders authorized to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Pearl Harbor complex, and the waters of Pearl Harbor). Contact: Commander, Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, HI... Oceanography Center, Box 113, Pearl Harbor, HI 96860. (3) Naval Air Station, Barbers Point. Contact: Commanding Officer, Naval Air Station, Barbers Point, HI 96862. (4) Naval Communication Area Master Station,...