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Sample records for ocimum sanctum linn

  1. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shankar; Mirdha, Bijay R; Mahapatra, Sushil C

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies.

  2. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    PubMed

    Kelm, M A; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M; DeWitt, D L

    2000-03-01

    Anti-oxidant bioassay-directed extraction of the fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum and purification of the extract yielded the following compounds; cirsilineol [1], cirsimaritin [2], isothymusin [3], isothymonin [4], apigenin [5], rosmarinic acid [6], and appreciable quantities of eugenol. The structures of compounds 1-6 were established using spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 5 were isolated previously from O. sanctum whereas compounds 2 and 3 are here identified for the first time from O. sanctum. Eugenol, a major component of the volatile oil, and compounds 1, 3, 4, and 6 demonstrated good antioxidant activity at 10-microM concentrations. Anti-inflammatory activity or cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of these compounds were observed. Eugenol demonstrated 97% cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory activity when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. Compounds 1, 2, and 4-6 displayed 37, 50, 37, 65, and 58% cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory activity, respectively, when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. Eugenol and compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 demonstrated cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity at slightly higher levels when assayed at 1000-microM concentrations. The activities of compounds 1-6 were comparable to ibuprofen, naproxen, and aspirin at 10-, 10-, and 1000-microM concentrations, respectively. These results support traditional uses of O. sanctum and identify the compounds responsible.

  3. Ocimum sanctum Linn. stimulate the expression of choline acetyltransferase on the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kusindarta, Dwi Liliek; Wihadmadyatami, Hevi; Haryanto, Aris

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This research was conducted to identify the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) and to clarify the capability of Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract to stimulate the presence of ChAT in the aging HCMECs. Materials and Methods: In this study, we perform an in vitro analysis some in the presence of an ethanolic extract of O. sanctum Linn. as a stimulator for the ChAT expression. HCMECs are divided become two groups, the first is in low passage cells as a model of young aged and the second is in a high passage as a model of aging. Furthermore to analysis the expression of ChAT without and with extract treatments, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis were performed. In addition, ChAT sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is developed to detect the increasing activity of the ChAT under normal, and aging HCMECs on the condition treated and untreated cells. Results: In our in vitro models using HCMECs, we found that ChAT is expressed throughout intracytoplasmic areas. On the status of aging, the ethanolic extract from O. sanctum Linn. is capable to stimulate and restore the expression of ChAT. The increasing of ChAT expression is in line with the increasing activity of this enzyme on the aging treated HCMECs. Conclusions: Our observation indicates that HCMECs is one of the noncholinergic cells which is produced ChAT. The administrated of O. sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract may stimulate and restore the expression of ChAT on the deteriorating cells of HCMECs, thus its may give nerve protection and help the production of acetylcholine. PMID:28096604

  4. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Pattanayak, Priyabrata; Behera, Pritishova; Das, Debajyoti; Panda, Sangram K.

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn. have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, eye diseases, insect bites and so on. The O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess anti-fertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituents present in O. sanctum L. have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials. The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of O. sanctum L. The results of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances. PMID:22228948

  5. Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-02-01

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Certain drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a nootropic and anti-amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O. sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). Objective: To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. Materials and Methods: OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. Results: We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50–500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16–84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. SUMMARY OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; RT-PCR: Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. PMID:27563220

  7. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  8. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  9. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  10. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  11. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  12. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic

  13. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India’s Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in

  14. Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-07-01

    Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Yield and Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum sanctum L. Grown at Four Locations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) are the most widely grown basil species in the world, either for the fresh market or for essential oil production. Both species are considered as promising essential oil crops in the Southeastern US, however, research on oil produ...

  16. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract induces drought stress tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, M.W.; Tula, Suresh; Sahoo, R.K.; Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, J.; Tuteja, Narendra; Shukla, Alok

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ocimum leaves are highly enriched in antioxidant components. Thus, its leaf extract, if applied in plants, is believed to efficiently scavenge ROS, thereby preventing oxidative damage under drought stress. Thus, the present study was performed in kharif 2013 and rabi 2014 season to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum against drought stress in 2 rice genotype under glass house conditions. Here we show that various morpho- physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf rolling score, leaf tip burn, number of senesced leaves and total dry matter) and biochemical parameters (proline, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase content) were amended by Ocimum treatment in both the seasons. Application of Ocimum extract increased expression of dehydrin genes, while reducing expression of aquaporin genes in drought stressed rice plant. Thus, application of Ocimum leaf extract under drought stress can be suggested as a promising strategy to mitigate drought stress in economical, accessible and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26890603

  17. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  18. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  19. Endophytic bacteria from Ocimum sanctum and their yield enhancing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Rashmi; Kalra, Alok; Darokar, M P; Chandra, Mahesh; Aggarwal, Nitin; Singh, A K; Khanuja, S P S

    2010-03-01

    Endophytes are beneficial microbes that reside intercellularly inside the plants. Interaction of endophytes with the host plants and their function within their host are important to address ecological relevance of endophyte. Four endophytic bacteria OS-9, OS-10, OS-11, and OS-12 were isolated from healthy leaves of Ocimum sanctum. These isolated microbes were screened in dual culture against various phytopathogenic fungi viz. Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium solani, Alternaria solani, and Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Of these, strain OS-9 was found to be antagonistic to R. solani, A. solani, F. solani, and C. lindemuthianum while OS-11 was found antagonistic against A. solani only. The growth-promoting benefits of the endophytes were initially evaluated in the glasshouse by inoculated seeds of O. sanctum. Treatment with endophytes OS-10 and OS-11 resulted in significant enhancement of growth as revealed by increase in fresh as well as dry weight. Further, field trials involving two genotypes OS Purple and CIM-Angana were conducted with strains OS-10 and OS-11. The growth-promoting effect was visible on both the genotypes tested as the endophytes significantly enhanced fresh herbage yield (t/ha). Interestingly, these endophytes increased the content of essential oil particularly in cultivar OS Purple and thereby increasing the total oil yields. Molecular characterization of strain OS-11 indicated the strain to be highly related to the type strain of Bacillus subtilis.

  20. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections.

  1. Effect of Ocimum sanctum on Oral Cancer Cell Line: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Shivpuje, Prachi; Ammanangi, Renuka; Bhat, Kishore; Katti, Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Cancer till today remains the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Plants have been beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative activity of extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on oral cancer cell line. To evaluate the antiproliferative effect and to analyze dose dependent cytotoxic activity of aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves on KB mouth cell line. To compare the effectiveness among different variety of O. sanctum. KB cells (Mouth Epidermal Carcinoma Cells) were used for the present study. Aqueous and dry extract of O. sanctum with both dark (Krishna Tulsi) and light (Rama Tulsi) leaves were prepared in the institution. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on KB cell line was evaluated by MTT assay. Statistical analysis with Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon matched pairs test was carried out. The aqueous extract of O. sanctum of both the leaves exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against oral cancer cell line. Aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves was effective as an antiproliferative agent which caused apoptosis in oral cancer cell line. Ocimum sanctum herb which is abundantly grown in India can be used for its anticancer properties for treating oral cancer. This will not only be cost-effective but will also have less or no side effects.

  2. Enhancing antidiabetic and antimicrobial performance of Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum sanctum (L.) using silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Malapermal, Veshara; Botha, Izel; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu; Mbatha, Joyce Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-01

    The role of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) is an attractive proposition for advancing modern diabetes therapies and applied science. Stable AgNps with a size range of 3-25 nm were synthesized using aqueous leaf extracts from Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sanctum, and in combination. The concentration of the extracts facilitated the reduction of silver nitrate that led to the rapid formation of AgNps at room temperature, indicating a higher reaction rate as opposed to harsh chemical methods, and high conversion energy usually involved in the synthesis. The size, shape and elemental analysis were carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential whilst, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) supported by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to identify the type of capping agents. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes retards the rate of carbohydrate digestion, thereby provides an alternative and a less evasive strategy of reducing postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients. The AgNps derived from O. sanctum and O. basilicum, respectively displayed an inhibitory effect at 89.31 ± 5.32%, and 79.74 ± 9.51%, respectively, against Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase enzyme model, indicating an enhanced biocatalytic potential compared to their respective crude extracts and the control. Furthermore, the emerging rate of infections in diabetic patients validates the need for the discovery of dual diabetes therapies. As a result, the bioderived AgNps displayed antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella species.

  3. Exploring the potential effect of Ocimum sanctum in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Peripheral neuropathy was induced in rats by administration of vincristine sulfate (50 μg/kg i.p.) for 10 consecutive days. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Vincristine administration was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia. Furthermore, vincristine administration was also associated with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated vincristine-induced neuropathic pain along with decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating chemotherapy induced-painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. Furthermore, saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum may be responsible for its noted beneficial effect in neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:20181005

  4. Ameliorative Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on Meloxicam Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahaprabhu, R.; Bhandarkar, A. G.; Jangir, Babu Lal; Rahangadale, S. P.; Kurkure, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    An ameliorating effect of Ocimum sanctum on the toxic effect of meloxicam, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was studied by evaluating haemato-biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, gross and histopathological changes in various organs of Wistar rats. A total of thirty-six male rats were divided in six experimental groups each comprising of six rats and numbered from G1 to G6. Meloxicam toxicity was induced by oral feeding of meloxicam at 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4 mg/kg body weight in G2 and G3 respectively for 28 days. Group G4 and G5 were fed with 1.2-mg/kg body weight and 2.4-mg/kg body weight of meloxicam along with 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum. Group G1 serve as control while group G6 was kept as treatment control and fed only aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum at 200 mg/kg body weight. Clinical finding showed mild diarrhea from 23rd day onwards in-group treated with 2.4-mg/kg body of meloxicam. Significant reduction of hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in both the group treated with 1.2 mg/kg and 2.4-mg/kg body wt. of meloxicam. Ocimum sanctum could restore the hemoglobin and PCV value in-group treated with meloxicam at low dose level. Serum alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and total bilirubin were found elevated in meloxicam treated groups and indicated hepatotoxic activity of meloxicam. Ocimum sanctum could reduce hepatotoxic activity of meloxicam in group G4 receiving meloxicam at lower dose rate along with Ocimum sanctum failed to regulate creatinine level in meloxicam treated groups. In meloxicam toxicity elevated Lipid peroxidation values was noticed in liver and kidneys, while superoxide dismutase and glutathione did not revealed any change. Stomach and intestine revealed hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and ulcers. Perivascular necrosis with infiltration with inflammatory cells was evident in liver. Interstitial nephritis, myocardial

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of 2% Ocimum sanctum gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosadurga, Rajesh Ramesh; Rao, Sudarshan Narayan; Edavanputhalath, Rejeesh; Jose, Jobin; Rompicharla, Narayana Charyulu; Shakil, Moidin; Raju, Shashidhara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the options for the treatment of periodontitis is local drug delivery systems (LDD). Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), a traditional herb, has many uses in medicine. It could be a suitable agent as LDD for the treatment of periodontitis. Aim: The aim was to formulate, evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity; assess duration of the action and the efficacy of 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis in Wistar Albino rat model. Settings and Design: Thirty six Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Periodontitis was induced using ligature model. Group 1-control; Group 2-Plain gel and Group 3-2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel. Materials and Methods: 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity and duration of action were assessed. Silk ligature 5-0 was used to induce periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) and probing pocket depth were measured. Treatment was done. The rats were sacrificed. Morphometric analysis was done using Stereomicroscope and ImageJ software. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test, Wilcoxon's test for intergroup comparison, Mann-Whitney test for P value computation was used. The observations are mean ± standard deviation and standard error of the mean. P < 0.01 as compared to control was considered as statistically significant. Results: 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel showed 33.66% inhibition of edema and peak activity was noted at 24 h. There was statistically significant change in the GI and probing pocket depth. Morphometric analysis did not show any significant difference between groups. No toxic effects were seen on oral administration of 2000 mg/kg of Tulsi extract. Conclusions: 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel was effective in the treatment of experimental periodontitis. PMID:25599031

  6. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum.

    PubMed

    Bharavi, K; Reddy, A Gopala; Rao, G S; Reddy, A Rajasekhara; Rao, S V Rama

    2010-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roots and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder administration at the rate of 0.1% through feed reversed the antioxidant enzyme of RBC, i.e., CAT and SOD, nonenzymatic antioxidants GSH and lipid peroxidation marker TBARS of liver and kidney. Liver and kidney tissue repair and normal function was assessed by alanine aminotransaminase for liver and creatinine and blood urea nitrogen for kidney. In conclusion, oral administration of Withania somnifera root and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder prevented cadmium-induced peroxidation of tissues.

  7. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum

    PubMed Central

    Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G. S.; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara; Rao, S. V. Rama

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roots and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder administration at the rate of 0.1% through feed reversed the antioxidant enzyme of RBC, i.e., CAT and SOD, nonenzymatic antioxidants GSH and lipid peroxidation marker TBARS of liver and kidney. Liver and kidney tissue repair and normal function was assessed by alanine aminotransaminase for liver and creatinine and blood urea nitrogen for kidney. In conclusion, oral administration of Withania somnifera root and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder prevented cadmium-induced peroxidation of tissues. PMID:21170246

  8. Anthelmintic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in India.

    PubMed

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of Ocimum sanctum have been traditionally used for various ethno-veterinary practices as well as medicinal purpose. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal potential of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the bulb of O. sanctum was investigated. Alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and tannins were identified in phytochemical analyses. The various blood parameters coupled marker enzymes and antioxidant status were also evaluated during in vivo trial. Aqueous extract showed better EC50 and EC99 values in comparison with methanolic extract in egg hatch assay and larval development test, respectively. However, in the larval paralysis test, both aqueous and methanolic extracts showed almost similar efficacy. A 77.64% reduction in fecal egg output was observed on day 14. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the hematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep.

  9. Effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on cauda epididymal spermatozoa of rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ahamed, R. Nazeer; H Aladakatti, Ravindranath; G Ghodesawar, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaves induces the ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis, its subsequent recovery in the seminiferous epithelium and fertility of male albino rats. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effect of benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves on the cauda epididymal sperm parameters, morphology and their organelles at the ultrastructural level in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=20) were allocated into two groups of control (n=10) and test group (n=10). The test group received benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves (250mg/kg/day) for 48 consequence days. Five animals from each group were used for fertility test. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rest of the control (n=5) and treated (n=5) animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and then the cauda epididymal plasma was used for sperm analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. Results: Sperm analysis of test group exhibited significant (p≤0.001) decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and increase in sperm anomalies when compare to control group. SEM and TEM observation in treated animals indicated the morphological changes in plasma membrane as well as in the acrosomal membrane of spermatozoa, formation of a balloon-like cytoplasmic droplet in the mid-region of abnormal tail and disorganization or degeneration of mitochondria of sperm mitochondrial sheaths. Conclusion: The effects observed in this study may have resulted from a general alteration in the cauda epididymal milieu, probably due to androgen deficiency consequent to the anti-androgenic property of O.sanctum leaves. PMID:26396561

  10. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum with valproate.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Dipesh; Kumar, Ritesh; Kaleekal, Thomas; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2017-10-01

    For effective control of seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are administered at higher dose which is associated with several adverse effects. This study envisaged antiepileptic and neuroprotective potential of Tulsi, a commonly used herb for its immunomodulatory property. The optimal dose of Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extract (OSHE) was determined using maximal electroshock seizure (MES)- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure models in Wistar rats (200-250g) after administering OSHE (200-1000mg/kg) orally for 14days. For interaction study, OSHE optimal dose in combination with maximum and submaximal therapeutic doses of valproate was administered for 14days. Serum levels of valproate were estimated using HPLC for pharmacokinetic study. For pharmacodynamic interaction, antiepileptic effect on above seizure models, neurobehavioral effect using Morris water maze, passive avoidance and elevated plus maze tests, and antioxidant capacity were assessed. Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extract 1000mg/kg was found to be optimal providing 50% protection against both MES- and PTZ-induced seizures. Combination of OSHE with valproate did not alter antiepileptic efficacy of valproate significantly. However, the combination showed better memory retention potential in neurobehavioral tests and protection against oxidative stress compared with valproate-alone-treated groups. Pharmacokinetic parameters did not reveal any significant change in combination group compared with valproate alone. Ocimum, although having per se antiepileptic action, did not affect antiepileptic action of valproate in combination. However, combination treatment has an edge over valproate alone-better neurobehavioral function and reduced oxidative stress-predicting adjuvant potential of Ocimum in epilepsy treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical Compositions and Antimicrobial Activities of Ocimum sanctum L. Essential Oils at Different Harvest Stages

    PubMed Central

    Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Kamyab, Amir Alam; Kazerani, Narges Khatoon; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Essential Oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and represent a natural source to treat infections and prevent food spoilage. Their chemical composition might be affected by the environmental condition and the developmental growth stages of the plant. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the variations in chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the EOs of Ocimum sanctum L. at different stages of harvesting. Materials and Methods: The oils constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effects of three different harvest stages of O. sanctum EOs against most common causes of food-borne were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: The analysis of the EOs indicated that eugenol was the major compound of the EOs at all developmental stages which reached its maximum level at the second stage. The results showed that the tested EOs exhibited antimicrobial activities against all of the examined pathogens at concentrations of 0.125-32 µL/mL, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was only inhibited by high concentrations of the floral budding and full flowering EOs. EO distilled from the second developmental growth stage (floral budding) of O. sanctum exhibited the strongest antibacterial activities against the food borne bacteria. Conclusions: Considering the wide range of antimicrobial activities of the examined EOs, they might have the potential to be used to manage infectious diseases or extend the shelf life of food products. PMID:25763132

  12. Inhibition of breast tumor growth and angiogenesis by a medicinal herb: Ocimum sanctum

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Tait, Larry; Hogan, Victor; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum (OS) is a traditionally used medicinal herb, which shows anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, radio-protective and free radical scavenging properties. So far no detailed studies have been reported on its effects on human cancers. Thus, we analyzed its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves of Ocimum sanctum cultivated devoid of pesticides. Tumor progression and angiogenesis related processes like chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis, 3-dimensional growth and morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth were studied in the presence or absence of the extract and in some experiments a comparison was made with purified commercially available eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid. Aqueous OS leaf extract inhibits proliferation, migration, anchorage independent growth, three dimensional growth and morphogenesis, and induction of COX-2 protein in breast cancer cells. A comparative analysis with eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid showed that the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis and three dimensional morphogenesis of breast cancer cells were specific to OS extract. In addition, OS extracts also reduced tumor size and neoangiogenesis in a MCF10 DCIS.com xenograft model of human DCIS. This is the first detailed report showing that OS leaf extract may be of value as a breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent and might be considered as additional additive in the arsenal of components aiming at combating breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:17437270

  13. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Karim, Bushra; Jain, Ankita; Singh, Rajeshwar; Karim, Wahaja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo). Materials and Methods: A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1) Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36); (2) Chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 36); (3) normal saline (negative control) (n = 36). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine. PMID:24948862

  14. Biotransformation of finasteride by Ocimum sanctum L., and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of transformed metabolites: experimental and computational insights.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Nisar, Muhammad; Iriti, Marcello; Shah, Mohammad Raza; Mahmud, Maqsood; Ali, Ihsan; Khan, Inamullah

    2014-12-01

    Transformation of Finasteride (I) by cell suspension cultures of Ocimum sanctum L. was investigated. Fermentation of compound (I) with O. sanctum afforded three oxidized derivatives, 16β-hydroxyfinasteride (II), 11α-hydroxyfinasteride (III) and 15β-hydroxyfinasteride (IV). Among these metabolites, compound (II) was a new metabolite. Compound (I) and its derivatives were studied for their tyrosinase inhibition assay. All test compounds exhibited significant activity compared to standard drug kojic acid, with compound IV being the most potent member with an IC50 of 1.87μM. Molecular docking revealed significant molecular interactions behind the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the tested compounds.

  15. Antimetastatic and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Essential Oil from Edible Ocimum sanctum Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Gogul

    2014-01-01

    Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO) have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and above showed a significant (*P < 0.05) decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250 μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer. PMID:25431779

  16. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy; Unni, C.

    2011-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf is used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. These methods allow the synthesis of hexagonal gold nanoparticles having size ∼30 nm showing two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands by changing the relative concentration of HAuCl 4 and the extract. Broadening of SPR is observed at larger quantities of the extract possibly due to biosorption of gold ions. Silver nanoparticles with size in the range 10-20 nm having symmetric SPR band centered around 409 nm are obtained for the colloid synthesized at room temperature at a pH of 8. Crystallinity of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the XRD pattern. Biomolecules responsible for capping are different in gold and silver nanoparticles as evidenced by the FTIR spectra.

  17. Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (EO) and its major component, eugenol against the fungi causing biodeterioration of food stuffs during storage. O. sanctum EO and eugenol were found efficacious in checking growth of Aspergillus flavus NKDHV8; and, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded as 0.3 and 0.2 microl ml(-1), respectively. The O. sanctum EO and eugenol also inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production completely at 0.2 and 0.1 microl ml(-1), respectively. Both of these were found superior over some prevalent synthetic antifungals and exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against 12 commonly occurring fungi. The LD50 value of O. sanctum EO on mice was found to be 4571.43 microl kg(-1) suggesting its non-mammalian toxic nature. The findings of present study reveals the possible exploitation of O. sanctum EO and eugenol as plant based safe preservatives against fungal spoilage of food stuffs during storage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of Ocimum sanctum root extracts for its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anant; Agarwal, Karishma; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Bushra, Umme; Tandon, Sudeep; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases risk of having a range of gastrointestinal problems. Therefore, new anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic drugs having lesser side effects are being searched all overthe world as alternatives to NSAIDs. Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic profile of Ocimum sanctum root extracts. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory profile of hexane (STH), chloroform (STC), ethyl acetate (STE), butanol (STB) and water (STW) extracts of OS was carried out by using carrageenan induced paw edema. STE a most active extract was further validated in dose dependent manner for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity as well as oral toxicity profile in small laboratory animals. Identification of bioactives flux and chemical signature of most active fraction STE was developed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting. Results: An ethyl acetate fraction (STE) exhibit most potent anti-inflammatory activity followed by STB, STW, STC and STH. Dose response study of STE showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic potential in dose-dependent manner without any toxic effect at dose 2000 mg/kg. Chemical fingerprint revealed the presence of flavanoids. Conclusions: The present research revealed that STE possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. However, future research is advocated to evaluate the pharmacological properties of isolated bioactive compounds. PMID:26109769

  19. Rapid biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum for water electrolysis applications.

    PubMed

    Soundarrajan, C; Sankari, A; Dhandapani, P; Maruthamuthu, S; Ravichandran, S; Sozhan, G; Palaniswamy, N

    2012-06-01

    The leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles from an aqueous chloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)·6H(2)O). A greater conversion of platinum ions to nanoparticles was achieved by employing a tulsi leaf broth with a reaction temperature of 100 °C. Energy-dispersive absorption X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the platinum particles as major constituent in the reduction process. It is evident from scanning electron microscopy that the reduced platinum particles were found as aggregates with irregular shape. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, terpenoids, certain proteins and amino acids act as reducing agents for platinum ions reduction. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy suggested the associated forms of platinum with other molecules and the average particle size of platinum nanoparticle was 23 nm, calculated using Scherer equation. The reduced platinum showed similar hydrogen evolution potential and catalytic activity like pure platinum using linear scan voltammetry. This environmentally friendly method of biological platinum nanoparticles production increases the rates of synthesis faster which can potentially be used in water electrolysis applications.

  20. Chemical composition of Ocimum sanctum by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and its protective effects against smoke induced lung and neuronal tissue damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Venuprasad, M P; Kandikattu, Hemanth Kumar; Razack, Sakina; Amruta, Narayanappa; Khanum, Farhath

    2017-07-01

    Smoke induced oxidative stress is known to cause various cancers and associated health problems including lung cancer. Herbal extracts have been reported as antioxidant supplements which attenuate free radical induced oxidative damage of tissues, among which Ocimum sanctum has been reported as the elixir of life due to its innumerable health benefits. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of O. sanctum against cracker smoke induced lung and brain tissue damage. The results of the study demonstrate that O. sanctum regulates the hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as RBC, WBC, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine kinase. O. sanctum supplementation inhibited oxidative stress as analyzed by SOD, CAT enzyme levels and i-NOS, HSP-70 protein expression. O. sanctum administration also regulated neurotransmitter levels, such as serotonin, dopamine, and regulated acetylcholine esterase levels which play a vital role in neuronal function. Further O. sanctum treatment also preserved the morphology of lung and brain tissues of smoke stress induced rats as observed by histopathology and transmission electron microscope analysis. The biodistribution of O. sanctum was showed its accumulation in key tissues such as kidney, liver, lungs and heart. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of O. sanctum showed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids and fatty acids which might be responsible for the observed anti-stress effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, and Psidium guajava on hepatic and intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devendra; Trivedi, Neerja; Dixit, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Background: This study was to investigated the synergistic effect of polyherbal formulations (PHF) of Allium sativum L., Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn., and Psidium guajava L. in the inhibition/induction of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and Phase-II conjugated drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Consumption of these herbal remedy has been extensively documented for diabetes treatment in Ayurveda. Methodology: PHF of these five herbs was prepared, and different doses were orally administered to Sprague–Dawley rats of different groups except control group. Expression of mRNA and activity of DMEs were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and high performance liquid chromatography in isolated liver and intestine microsomes in PHF pretreated rats. Results: The activities of hepatic and intestinal Phase-II enzyme levels increased along with mRNA levels except CYP3A mRNA level. PHF administration increases the activity of hepatic and intestinal UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase in response to dose and time; however, the activity of hepatic sulfotransferase increased at higher doses. Conclusions: CYPs and Phase-II conjugated enzymes levels can be modulated in dose and time dependent manner. Observations suggest that polyherbal formulation might be a possible cause of herb-drug interaction, due to changes in pharmacokinetic of crucial CYPs and Phase-II substrate drug. PMID:27757267

  2. Biological activities of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil--an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surender; Taneja, Manish; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2007-05-01

    Seeds of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae; popularly known as 'Tulsi' in Hindi and 'Holy Basil' in English) contain a pale yellow colored fixed oil. The oil possesses antiinflammatory activity due to dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism supplemented by antihistaminic activity. The antiinflammatory activity is not dependent on the pituitary adrenal axis. The oil possesses antipyretic activity due to prostaglandin inhibition and peripherally acting analgesic activity. The oil has been found to be effective against formaldehyde or adjuvant induced arthritis and turpentine oil induced joint edema in animals. Lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory activities of the oil contribute towards antiulcer activity. The oil can inhibit enhancement of vascular capillary permeability and leucocyte migration following inflammatory stimulus. The LD50 of the oil is 42.5 ml/kg and long-term use of oil at 3 ml/kg dose does not produce any untoward effects in rats. The oil contains a-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, which on metabolism produces eicosapentaenoic acid and the same appears to be responsible for the biological activity. The oil has hypotensive, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory activities. Antioxidant property of the oil renders metabolic inhibition, chemoprevention and hypolipidaemic activity. Presence of linolenic acid in the oil imparts antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The oil alone or in combination with cloxacillin, a beta-lactamase resistant penicillin, has been found to be beneficial in bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disorder resulting from staphylococcal infection. Existence of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities in single entity i.e. fixed oil appears to be unique.

  3. Effect of maternal fluoride exposure on developing CNS of rats: protective role of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, N; Basha, P Mahaboob; Rai, Puja; Ahmed, Fiyaz; Prasad, G Ravi

    2010-08-01

    Fluoride is toxic to neuronal development and its excessive intake during pregnancy cause adverse effects on neonatal development. The present study examined the presence of oxidative stress during maternal exposure of fluoride and the therapeutic strategy of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum extracts in functional prevention of fluoride led oxidative stress. The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 100 ppm fluoride in drinking water and pups born to them were supplemented with phytoextracts daily. On 21st postpartum day, the pups were sacrificed to analyse fluoride and oxidative stress markers. Fluoride exposure significantly increased its accumulation, lipid peroxidation and decreased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of pups indicating oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant defense. The results implied the vulnerability of developing CNS to fluoride toxicity. On phytoextract supplementation, the oxidant devastation was suppressed by regaining antioxidant homeostasis near normal level proving efficacy and therapeutic strategy. Among the phytoextracts supplemented the Ocimum sanctum is found to be more effective.

  4. Posological Considerations of Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi) as per Ayurvedic Science and Pharmaceutical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, D.B.A.; Manohar, R.; Mahapatra, Anita; Sujithra, R. M.; Aramya, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    A study in 2010 reported that administration of 2 g of O. sanctum leaves for 30 days to laboratory male albino rabbits showed adverse effect on sperm count and male hormones. The dose and duration at which this testing was reported was commented upon as being high. It is learnt that basis this publication a few European regulators have imposed restrictions on usage of O. sanctum. Recognizing the need for evaluation, a review has been made of the posological considerations related to decision on dose of a drug in pharmaceuticals (drug development stages) and in Ayurvedic science as part of history of use and current usage. Specifically, we report the dose range as per documented tradition, marketed products containing O. sanctum as an ingredient and current clinical practice. Greater consultation is suggested before deciding the studies on Ayurvedic herbs. Regulatory action of banning use of O. sanctum needs a review and may need to be replaced with an advisory. PMID:25035537

  5. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum, Ocimum sanctum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Duhan, J; Tewari, S; Sangwan, P; Yadav, A; Singh, G; Juneja, R; Saini, H

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis in planktonic suspension and biofilm phenotypes. The antibacterial efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous ethanolic extracts of O. sanctum, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum against E. faecalis at various time intervals was assessed using the agar well diffusion test, microdilution test and biofilm susceptibility assay (BSA) on cellulose nitrate membrane as well as in a tooth model. NaOCl was used as the positive control. Distilled water was used as negative control for agar diffusion and microdilution tests and phosphate-buffered saline for the BSA. The results of the agar diffusion test were analysed statistically using anova and Tukey's tests. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum exhibited minimum bactericidal concentration at 10%, 10% and 40%, respectively. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum, O. sanctum and NaOCl showed complete bacterial inhibition in planktonic form after exposure of 30, 15, 35 and 1 min, respectively. In BSA on cellulose nitrate membrane, NaOCl was associated with complete bacterial inhibition after contact of 2 min, whilst 10% C. zeylanicum, 10% S. aromaticum and 40% O. sanctum showed cessation of growth after 12, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results of BSA on tooth model were similar except for O. sanctum, which was not included in the model. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum demonstrated antimicrobial activity against planktonic and biofilm forms of E. faecalis with C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum having better antimicrobial efficacy than O. sanctum. NaOCl had superior antimicrobial efficacy amongst all the groups. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the potential effect of Allium sativum, Momordica charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Ocimum sanctum, and Psidium guajava on intestinal p-glycoprotein in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devendra; Trivedi, Neerja; Dixit, Rakesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Background: This study was evaluated synergistic effect of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) of Allium sativum L., Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn., and Psidium guajava L. on p-glycoprotein (Pgp) of intestine. These five herbs were traditionally used for diabetes. These herbs are commonly present in Ayurvedic product as antidiabetics in India. Materials and Methods: PHF was prepared by five indigenous herbs. Different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) of were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats of different groups for multiple weeks except control groups. Alteration in Pgp expression was evaluated by real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting while modulation in activity of Pgp was evaluated using rhodamine 123 (Rh123) as transport substrate by in-situ absorption and everted gut sac method. Results: In PHF, pretreated group received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days, mRNA level decreased by 1.75, 2.45 and 2.37-fold, respectively, as compared to control. Similarly, when PHF at dose of 100 mg/kg/day was given consequently for 4 weeks, maximum decrease in Pgp expression level was observed only after 1 week and further increase in the treatment duration did not produce significant decrease compared to the 1st week treatment. Pgp mediated transport of Rh123 was significantly decreased with everted gut sac prepared from PHF pretreated rats (1 week) compared to those prepared from vehicle treated rats. Conclusions: We report that PHF pretreatment downregulated the expression of intestinal Pgp and this downregulated intestinal Pgp would result in decreased functional activity. In addition, this downregulated Pgp expression might affect the bioavailability of antidiabetic Pgp substrate drugs. PMID:28163963

  7. Ocimum sanctum L (Holy Basil or Tulsi) and its phytochemicals in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Jimmy, Rosmy; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Sunitha, Venkatesh; Bhat, Neeta Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Rao, Suresh; Rao, Pratima; Arora, Rajesh; Palatty, Princy L

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. or Ocimum tenuiflorum L, commonly known as the Holy Basil in English or Tulsi in the various Indian languages, is a important medicinal plant in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia. Scientific studies have shown it to possess antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antistress, and immunomodulatory activities. Preclinical studies have also shown that Tulsi and some of its phytochemicals eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, myretenal, luteolin, β-sitosterol, and carnosic acid prevented chemical-induced skin, liver, oral, and lung cancers and to mediate these effects by increasing the antioxidant activity, altering the gene expressions, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. The aqueous extract of Tulsi and its flavanoids, orintin, and vicenin are shown to protect mice against γ-radiation-induced sickness and mortality and to selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. The other important phytochemicals like eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and carnosic acid are also shown to prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. This review summarizes the results related to the chemopreventive and radioprotective properties of Tulsi and also emphasizes aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility in cancer prevention and treatment.

  8. Inhibition by an extract of Ocimum sanctum of DNA-binding activity of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Prashar, R; Kumar, A; Hewer, A; Cole, K J; Davis, W; Phillips, D H

    1998-06-19

    Ocimum sanctum is a traditional medicinal plant. Previous studies have shown that extracts of O. sanctum inhibit the induction of skin papillomas in mice by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). In the present study, primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were treated with 0-500 microg of O. sanctum extract for 24 h and then with DMBA (10 or 50 microg) for 18 h. Cells were then harvested and their DNA was isolated and analyzed by 32P-postlabelling. A significant reduction in the levels of DMBA-DNA adducts was observed in all cultures pretreated with O. sanctum extract. This effect was more pronounced at the lower dose of DMBA (10 microg). Hepatocytes which were treated with the highest dose of extract (500 microg) showed a maximum reduction of 93% in the mean values of DMBA-DNA adducts. The viability of the cells was not adversely affected by pretreatment with extract. Our findings suggest that O. sanctum leaf extract blocks or suppresses the events associated with chemical carcinogenesis by inhibiting metabolic activation of the carcinogen.

  9. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

    PubMed Central

    Kalagatur, Naveen K.; Mudili, Venkataramana; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Gupta, Vijai K.; Natarajan, Gopalan; Sreepathi, Murali H.; Vardhan, Batra H.; Putcha, Venkata L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO) on growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. GC–MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%). DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of OSEO was determined to be 8.5 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 and 1800 μg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 μg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 μg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13) revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250–1500 μg/mL) significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers. PMID:26388846

  10. In vitro antifungal activity of different components of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils and their synergism against oral pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    H Gopalkrishna, Aparna; M, Seshagiri; Muddaiah, Sunil; R, Shashidara

    2016-01-01

    Background. Opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are common in the oral cavity. In recent years Candida species have shown resistance against a number of synthetic drugs. This study assessed the antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils against six common pathogenic Candida strains. Synergistic activity of the major oil components was also studied. Methods. Antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils were tested against six oral fungal pathogens, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida krusei 6258, Candida tropicalis 13803, Candida parapsilosis22019, Candida glabrata 90030 and Candida dubliniensis MYA 646, by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus from seeds subjected to columnchromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) and major components were separated and quantified. Results. All the six Candida strains showed growth inhibition to a variable degree when tested with both seed oils. Both seed oils showed antifungal activity. For Centratherum anthelminticum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was recorded at 75.7 mm for Candida albicans ATCC 90028, and the least DIZ was 45.7 mm for Candida dubliniensis MYA 646. For Ocimum sanctum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was 61.0 mm for Candida krusei ATCC 6258 and the least DIZ was 46.7 mm for Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. The mixtures of phospholipids and unsaponifiable matter exhibitedMIC values at 1.25 μL for both oils, whereas neutral lipids fraction and unsaponifiable matter exhibited similar MIC at 2.5 μL against Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Conclusion.Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctumseed oils exhibited strong antifungal activity against six different species of Candida and this may be attributed to various active components in the oil and their

  11. Modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by Ocimum sanctum and its role in protection against radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Devi, P U; Ganasoundari, A

    1999-03-01

    Aqueous extract (OE) of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, the Indian holy basil, has been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. Therefore a study was conducted to see if OE protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in radioprotection by OE. Adult Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg of OE for 5 consecutive days and exposed to 4.5 Gy of gamma radiation 30 min after the last injection. Glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), reductase (GSRx), peroxidase (GSPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as lipid peroxide (LPx) activity were estimated in the liver at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hr post-treatment. LPx was also studied after treatment with a single dose of 50 mg/kg of OE with/without irradiation. OE itself increased the GSH and enzymes significantly above normal levels whereas radiation significantly reduced all the values. The maximum decline was at 30-60 min for GSH and related enzymes and at 2 hr for SOD. Pretreatment with the extract checked the radiation induced depletion of GSH and all the enzymes and maintained their levels within or above the control range. Radiation significantly increased the lipid peroxidation rate, reaching a maximum value at 2 hr after exposure (approximately 3.5 times that of control). OE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the lipid peroxidation and accelerated recovery to normal levels. The results indicate that Ocimum extract protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation and that GSH and the antioxidant enzymes appear to have an important role in the protection.

  12. Antigenotoxic effect of green-synthesised silver nanoparticles from Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes—in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya, P. P.; Rekha, B.; Mathew, Anu Thersa; Syed Ali, M.; Yogananth, N.; Anuradha, V.; Kalitha Parveen, P.

    2014-04-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the antigenotoxic effect of bio-synthesised silver nanoparticles (SNP) of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against cyclophosphamide (CP). We tested the antigenotoxic effect of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles of O. sanctum leaf extract on human lymphocytes against CP by using chromosomal aberration assay (CAA). Silver nanoparticles was first synthesized from fresh leaf extract of O. sanctum and characterised. Their quality was checked by XRD technique and morphology by SEM. Three different doses of the bio-synthesised SNPs namely, 50, 100 and 200 μl/ml were selected and CP (100 μg/ml) was used as a positive control for CAA. CP administration to human lymphocytes culture caused reduction in mitotic index (MI) and increase in chromosomal damages. The three doses (50, 100 and 200 μl/ml) significantly ( P < 0.005) reduced the chromosomal damages by CP and there was increase in MI. The biological way of synthesising SNPs has advantages like cost effectiveness and eco-friendly. Also the bio-synthesised SNPs of O. sanctum leaf extract was found to be an powerful genoprotectant. Furthermore works are to be carried out in future to find the extract mechanism of its genoprotective nature.

  13. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

    PubMed

    Gowrishankar, Ramadurai; Kumar, Manish; Menon, Vinay; Divi, Sai Mangala; Saravanan, M; Magudapathy, P; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M; Venkataramaniah, K

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

  14. Consumption of Ocimum sanctum L. and Citrus paradisi infusions modulates lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia; Salgado, Luis M; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2014-05-01

    A high saturated fat and fructose diet leads to metabolic disorders through dysregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Consumption of plant infusions reduces these obesity alterations, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect and the possible mechanism of Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) and Citrus paradisi (CP) infusions in diet-induced obese rats. CP and OS infusions suppressed hepatic tissue fat accumulation, and significantly down-regulated the mRNA levels of two hepatic lipogenesis genes: sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) compared with the obese control. Treatment with these infusions up-regulated the hepatic expression of mRNA related to mitochondrial fatty acid uptake: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1a (CPT1a). Both infusions improved insulin resistance, with OS showing the major effect. Consumption of these infusions reduces the damage caused by free radicals, protecting hepatic lipids and proteins. Additionally, plant infusions increase activity of hepatic enzymes: glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). Our results suggest that the effects of CP and OS infusions on lipid metabolism are related to the down-regulation of genes involved in lipogenesis, particularly for OS, and to the increase in lipid β-oxidation, especially for CP infusion. In conclusion, the consumption of these plant infusions is a feasible adjuvant therapy for metabolic changes induced by obesity.

  15. Thrombolytic potential of Ocimum sanctum L., Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica L. and Anacardium occidentale L.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Habib, Md. Razibul; Rahman, Md. Mominur; Mannan, Adnan; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Hawlader, Sourav

    2011-01-01

    Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, A. occidentale along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. The percentage (%) clot lysis was statistically significant (p<0.0001) when compared with vehicle control. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica & A. occidentale showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01 ± 6.168%, 32.94 ± 3.663%, 27.47 ± 6.943%, 33.79 ± 2.926% respectively) whereas standard streptokinase showed 86.2 ± 10.7 % clot lysis effect. From our study we found that all the herbs showed reasonable % of clot lysis. These herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of these extracts for clot lysis are yet to be discovered PMID:24826011

  16. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad O.; Raut, Sanket B.; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os) on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100–150 g) were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe), and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os). The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb–Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone. PMID:25624694

  17. Restraint stress-induced central monoaminergic & oxidative changes in rats & their prevention by novel Ocimum sanctum compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Rasheed, Naila; Chand, Kailash; Maurya, Rakesh; Banu, Naheed; Palit, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We have earlier isolated and characterized three OS compounds; Ocimarin, Ocimumoside A and Ocimumoside B. However, their role in modulating stress-induced central changes is unexplored. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of these OS compounds on restraint stress (RS)-induced changes in the monoaminergic and antioxidant systems in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of rats. Methods: RS was produced by immobilizing (restraining) the Sprague Dawley rats for a period of 2.5 h inside cylindrical steel tubes. The monoamine levels and the in vivo antioxidant status in brain regions were evaluated by HPLC-EC and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Results: RS significantly increased the dopamine levels in the frontal cortex and decreased in the striatum and hippocampus, and accompanied with selective increase of dopamine metabolites compared to the NS control group. The serotonin and its metabolite levels were significantly increased, while noradrenaline levels were decreased by RS in the three brain regions studied. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the frontal cortex and striatum were significantly increased by RS with decreased glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. Pre-treatment with Ocimumoside A and B (40 mg/kg po) for a period of 3 days prevented the RS-induced changes with an efficacy similar to that of standard anti-stress (Panax quinquefolium; 100 mg/kg po) and antioxidant (Melatonin; 20 mg/kg ip) drugs, while, Ocimarin failed to modulate these changes. OS compounds per se had no effect on these parameters. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed the anti-stress potential of Ocimumoside A and B in relation to their simultaneous modulatory effects on the central monoaminergic and antioxidant systems implicating their therapeutic importance in stress

  18. Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Ipseeta; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Background In the present investigation, the effect of Curcuma longa (Cl) and Ocimum sanctum (Os) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in an ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) model of myocardial injury. Methods Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups and orally fed saline once daily (sham, control IR) or Cl (100 mg/kg; Cl-IR) or Os (75 mg/kg; Os-IR) respectively for 1 month. On the 31st day, in the rats of the control IR, Cl-IR and Os-IR groups LAD occlusion was undertaken for 45 min, and reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. The hemodynamic parameters{mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular peak positive (+) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure development) and negative (-) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure decline)} were monitored at pre-set points throughout the experimental duration and subsequently, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistopathological (Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression & TUNEL positivity) and histopathological studies. Results Chronic treatment with Cl significantly reduced TUNEL positivity (p < 0.05), Bax protein (p < 0.001) and upregulated Bcl-2 (p < 0.001) expression in comparison to control IR group. In addition, Cl demonstrated mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced hemodynamic {(+)LVdP/dt, (-) LVdP/dt & LVEDP} and histopathological perturbations. Chronic Os treatment resulted in modest modulation of the hemodynamic alterations (MAP, LVEDP) but failed to demonstrate any significant antiapoptotic effects and prevent the histopathological alterations as compared to control IR group. Conclusion In the present study, significant cardioprotection and functional recovery demonstrated by Cl may be attributed to its anti-apoptotic property. In contrast to Os, Cl may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the impairment of cardiac performance. PMID:16504000

  19. Restraint stress-induced central monoaminergic & oxidative changes in rats & their prevention by novel Ocimum sanctum compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Rasheed, Naila; Chand, Kailash; Maurya, Rakesh; Banu, Naheed; Palit, Gautam

    2012-04-01

    Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We have earlier isolated and characterized three OS compounds; Ocimarin, Ocimumoside A and Ocimumoside B. However, their role in modulating stress-induced central changes is unexplored. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of these OS compounds on restraint stress (RS)-induced changes in the monoaminergic and antioxidant systems in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of rats. RS was produced by immobilizing (restraining) the Sprague Dawley rats for a period of 2.5 h inside cylindrical steel tubes. The monoamine levels and the in vivo antioxidant status in brain regions were evaluated by HPLC-EC and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. RS significantly increased the dopamine levels in the frontal cortex and decreased in the striatum and hippocampus, and accompanied with selective increase of dopamine metabolites compared to the NS control group. The serotonin and its metabolite levels were significantly increased, while noradrenaline levels were decreased by RS in the three brain regions studied. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the frontal cortex and striatum were significantly increased by RS with decreased glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. Pre-treatment with Ocimumoside A and B (40 mg/kg po) for a period of 3 days prevented the RS-induced changes with an efficacy similar to that of standard anti-stress (Panax quinquefolium; 100 mg/kg po) and antioxidant (Melatonin; 20 mg/kg ip) drugs, while, Ocimarin failed to modulate these changes. OS compounds per se had no effect on these parameters. The present findings showed the anti-stress potential of Ocimumoside A and B in relation to their simultaneous modulatory effects on the central monoaminergic and antioxidant systems implicating their therapeutic importance in stress-related disorders. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of action

  20. Anti-hyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Boonnak, Theewara; Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn Devakul; Thirawarapan, Suwan

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum (OS) has a lipid-lowering action in both normal and diabetic animals. Because OS leaves are rich in oil, the present study was conducted to explain the anti-hyperlipidemic and organ-protective effect of OS fixed oil in rats fed with a high fat (HF) diet. OS fixed oil was extracted by hexane and the fatty acids composition identified by GC-MS. Four groups of male Wistar rats included a normal control group, a high fat fed-diet (HF) group, a HF group treated with OS fixed oil, and a HF group treated with a reference drug simvastatin. The results show that OS fixed oil contains five kinds of fatty acids, of which alpha-linolenic acid was the major fatty acid. OS fixed oil depressed high serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and AI, whereas no significant effect on HDL-C was observed. OS fixed oil also suppressed high levels of liver cholesterol and triglyceride with no significant effect on both lipids in feces. In addition, OS fixed oil normalized the high serum levels of LDH and CK-MB but no significant effect on high serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP was obtained. We conclude that treatment with OS fixed oil during the last three weeks of HF diet feeding decreased the high serum lipid profile and expressed antiartherogenic and cardioprotective actions against hyperlipidemia. The anti-hyperlipidemic action of OS fixed oil was mainly resulted from the suppression of liver lipid synthesis. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid contained in OS fixed oil were possibly responsible for both lipid-lowering and cardiac protective action against hyperlipidemia.

  1. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kunjal S.; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Mimusops elelngi (Bakul), Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on common endodontic pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the Methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with CHX. Six different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post- hoc tests. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) values were also recorded. Results: All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected endodontic pathogens. At 3mg. concentration, O.sanctum was the most effective against S. mutans, M. elengi showed highest zone of inhibition against E.faecalis, whereas CHX was the most effective agent against S.aureus. CHX was also the most consistent of all the medicaments testes, showing inhibitory effect against all the tree pathogens at all the selected concentrations. Conclusions: The Methanolic extract of A.Indica, O.sanctum, M. Elengi, T.cardifolia and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, E. faecalis and S. aureus. PMID:24966766

  2. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    SUANARUNSAWAT, THAMOLWAN; ANANTASOMBOON, GUN; PIEWBANG, CHUTCHAI

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves have been shown to exert diverse potential benefits in a variety of stress conditions. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the fixed oil extracted from OS leaves on the blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of OS leaves to protect various organs including the liver, kidney and heart was investigated. The fixed oil of the OS leaves was extracted using hexane, and the various fatty acid contents of the oil were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups (n=7 per group): Normal control rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats fed daily with the fixed oil for three weeks. The results showed that α-linolenic acid was the primary fatty acid contained in the fixed oil of OS. After 3 weeks of diabetic induction, the rats exhibited increased blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile, in addition to elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB subunit (CK-MB), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The fixed oil significantly decreased the elevated levels of blood glucose, the serum lipid profile and the levels of serum creatinine and BUN (P<0.001), without exerting significant effects on the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, LDH and CK-MB. Furthermore, the fixed oil increased the diabetically-reduced levels of serum insulin and decreased the rat kidney weight. Fixed oil suppressed the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and increased the activity of various antioxidative enzymes in the rat renal tissue. By contrast, the fixed oil had no effect on the elevated TBARS level and the inhibited activity of the antioxidative enzymes in the rat liver and cardiac tissues. Histopathological results indicated that the fixed oil preserved the renal tissue

  3. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Anantasomboon, Gun; Piewbang, Chutchai

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves have been shown to exert diverse potential benefits in a variety of stress conditions. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the fixed oil extracted from OS leaves on the blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of OS leaves to protect various organs including the liver, kidney and heart was investigated. The fixed oil of the OS leaves was extracted using hexane, and the various fatty acid contents of the oil were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups (n=7 per group): Normal control rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats fed daily with the fixed oil for three weeks. The results showed that α-linolenic acid was the primary fatty acid contained in the fixed oil of OS. After 3 weeks of diabetic induction, the rats exhibited increased blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile, in addition to elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB subunit (CK-MB), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The fixed oil significantly decreased the elevated levels of blood glucose, the serum lipid profile and the levels of serum creatinine and BUN (P<0.001), without exerting significant effects on the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, LDH and CK-MB. Furthermore, the fixed oil increased the diabetically-reduced levels of serum insulin and decreased the rat kidney weight. Fixed oil suppressed the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and increased the activity of various antioxidative enzymes in the rat renal tissue. By contrast, the fixed oil had no effect on the elevated TBARS level and the inhibited activity of the antioxidative enzymes in the rat liver and cardiac tissues. Histopathological results indicated that the fixed oil preserved the renal tissue

  4. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and aflatoxin B1 induced skin tumorigenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Shipra; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Paul, Bhola N.; Chowdhuri, D. Kar; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2007-11-01

    A study on the protective effect of alcoholic extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum on 3-mthylcholanthrene (MCA), 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) induced skin tumorigenesis in a mouse model has been investigated. The study involved pretreatment of mice with the leaf extract prior to either MCA application or tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) treatment in a two-stage tumor protocol viz a viz, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA. The results of the present study indicate that the pretreatment with alcoholic extract of the leaves of O. sanctum decreased the number of tumors in MCA, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treated mice. The skin tumor induced animals pretreated with alcoholic extract led to a decrease in the expression of cutaneous {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and glutathione-S-transferase-P (GST-P) protein. The histopathological examination of skin tumors treated with leaf extract showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear, mononuclear and lymphocytic cells, decreased ornithine decarboxylase activity with concomitant enhancement of interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) in the serum, implying the in vivo antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity of leaf extract. The decrease in cutaneous phase I enzymes and elevation of phase II enzymes in response to topical application of leaf extract prior to MCA, AFB1, DMBA/TPA and AFB1/TPA treatment indicate the possibility of impairment in reactive metabolite(s) formation and thereby reducing skin carcinogenicity. Furthermore, pretreatment of leaf extract in the carcinogen induced animals resulted in elevation of glutathione levels and decrease in lipid peroxidation along with heat shock protein expression, indicating a scavenging or antioxidant potential of the extract during chemical carcinogenesis. Thus it can be concluded that leaf extract of O. sanctum provides protection against chemical carcinogenesis in one or more of the

  5. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.

    PubMed

    Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-09-01

    Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipid-Lowering and Antioxidative Activities of Aqueous Extracts of Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Devakul Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn; Songsak, Thanapat; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Poungshompoo, Somlak

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaf extracts in liver and heart of rats fed with high-cholesterol (HC) diet for seven weeks. The results shows that OS suppressed the high levels of serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid content without significant effects on fecal lipid excretion. Fecal bile acids excretion was increased in HC rats treated with OS. The high serum levels of TBARS as well as AST, ALT, AP, LDH, CK-MB significantly decreased in HC rats treated with OS. OS suppressed the high level of TABARS and raised the low activities of GPx and CAT without any impact on SOD in the liver. As for the cardiac tissues, OS lowered the high level of TABARS, and raised the activities of GPx, CAT, and SOD. Histopathological results show that OS preserved the liver and myocardial tissues. It can be concluded that OS leaf extracts decreased hepatic and serum lipid profile, and provided the liver and cardiac tissues with protection from hypercholesterolemia. The lipid-lowering effect is probably due to the rise of bile acids synthesis using cholesterol as precursor, and antioxidative activity to protect liver from hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21949899

  7. Antileishmanial and immunomodulatory potential of Ocimumsanctum Linn. and Cocosnucifera Linn. in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Gaurav; Kaur, Sukhbir; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Rupinder; Raina, Puneet

    2017-03-01

    The role of immunomodulation in the therapeutic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis has gained eminence in view of moderate to severe drawbacks of the currently available drugs like toxicity, drug resistance and prohibitive costs. The potential for modulation of the immune system of many herbal plants can be tapped to address these problems. We conducted the present research study to investigate the antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cocos nucifera Linn. during the progression of visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mouse model. The IC50 values of the ethanolic leaf extract of O. sanctum and that of the aqueous husk-fibre extract of C. nucifera against the sodium stibogluconate (SSG) susceptible strain (MHOM/IN/80/Dd8) were found to be 73.3 and 62 µg/ml respectively. On treatment of infected BALB/c mice with the extracts, we observed a reduction in hepatic parasite load by 43.63 % (O. sanctum), 65.42 % (C. nucifera) and 75.61 % (O. sanctum + C. nucifera) at 1st post treatment day (p.t.d.), while at 15th p.t.d., the reduction was 73.61 % (O. sanctum), 76.59 % (C. nucifera) and 94.12 % (O. sanctum + C. nucifera). This was accompanied by an up-scaling of the DTH response, skewing of the humoral response towards Th1 type and hepatoprotection in the form of normalization of liver function tests. Overall, administration of the extracts of these two plants in combination as compared to their administration alone rescued the affected mice from the disease greatly, which can be attributed to their antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities.

  8. Nutrigenomic evaluation of garlic (Allium sativum) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and immune characteristics in broilers

    PubMed Central

    Sheoran, N.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.; Batra, K.; Sihag, S.; Maan, S.; Maan, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In this study, a planned research work was conducted to investigate the nutrigenomic aspects of supplementation of Allium sativum (garlic) and Ocimum sanctum (holy basil) leaf powder on the growth performance and immune characteristics of broilers. Materials and Methods: A 6 weeks feeding trial was conducted with 280-day-old Ven Cobb broilers, distributed randomly into seven experimental groups. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet formulated as per BIS standards. The broilers of treatment groups T2 and T3 were fed basal diet supplemented with the commercially available garlic powder (GP) at levels of 0.5% and 1.0% of the feed, respectively, while broilers in T4 and T5 were fed basal diet supplemented with commercial grade holy basil leaf powder (HBLP) at levels 0.5% and 1.0% of the feed, respectively. Birds in the T6 were fed with 0.5% GP and 0.5% HBLP, whereas T7 was fed with 1.0% GP and 1.0% HBLP. At the end of the feeding trial (6th week), blood samples were collected and analyzed for relative mRNA expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, TLR 4 and TLR 7 using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The mean body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were improved (p<0.05) in broilers fed the GP and HBLP incorporated diets compared with the control group. The relative mRNA expression levels of TLR 2, TLR 4 and TLR 7 in the peripheral blood of the broilers were found to be increased (p<0.05) in the birds supplemented with graded levels of the GP and HBLP as compared to the untreated group. Conclusion: The present work concludes that the inclusion of GP and HBLP could enhance the production performance and immune status of birds by augmenting the T-cell mediated immune response and thereby protects them from disease without decreasing growth traits as a possible substitution to conventional antimicrobials. PMID:28246456

  9. In vitro assessment of antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of extracts from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn).

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Uzunuigbe, Edwina O; Igbinosa, Isoken H; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E; Igiehon, Nicholas O; Emuedo, Oke A

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn) were investigated to evaluate the therapeutic and nutritional potential of the leaves of this plant. The antioxidant of the plant extracts were assessed against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. The extracts exhibited DPPH and ABTS(·+) radical scavenging activities, which was comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponin, steroids, cardiacglycoside, flavonoid, terpenoids and phenol. The proximate analysis confirms that the leaves contain appreciable amount of ash, crude protein, lipids, fibre and carbohydrates. The macro and micro elements and constituents revealed that the leaves contain significant amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, copper, nitrogen, and manganese. This study shows that the leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent and justifies its application in folkloric medicine.

  10. The main chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity of the essential oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Wen; Li, Sheng-Kun; Wu, Wen-Jun

    2009-01-08

    The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%), (Z)-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%), cyclohexene (4.41%), alpha- cadinol (3.99%), 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%), 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%), beta-cubebene (1.97%), guaia-1(10),11-diene (1.58%), cadinene (1.41%) (E)-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36%) and beta-guaiene (1.30%). The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  11. Essential oil yield and quality of methyl eugenol rich Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f. (syn. O. sanctum L.) grown in south India as influenced by method of harvest.

    PubMed

    Kothari, S K; Bhattacharya, A K; Ramesh, S

    2004-10-29

    A field experiment carried out during 2001--2002 under semi-arid conditions of Hyderabad, India investigated the effect of three different methods of harvesting at full bloom stage, on essential oil yield and quality of methyl eugenol rich sacred/holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum L.f.; Lamiaceae). The harvest methods were: harvesting of primary branches, secondary branches and shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground level. Four harvests at 102, 192, 287 and 360 days after transplanting of the crop were taken in 1 year in each method of harvest. Harvesting of secondary branches led to maximum plant height and number of secondary branches per plant compared to harvesting of primary branches or shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground during second, third and fourth harvests. On the contrary, secondary branch harvest gave least biomass yield in all the four harvests. But due to higher essential oil content, secondary branch harvest gave 25.2 and 15.4% higher total (sum total of all four harvests) essential oil yield (kg/ha per year) over primary branches and shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground methods of harvesting, respectively. A similar treatment difference was observed in respect of oil composition studied in the first harvest. Harvesting shoot biomass at 30 cm above ground produced oil containing highest amount of methyl eugenol. The content of methyl eugenol decreased in the order of shoot biomass cut at 30 cm above ground > primary branch > secondary branch treatments. A reverse trend was observed, however, in respect of (E)-cinnamyl acetate, eugenol and beta-elemene constituents of the oil. Little variability was, however, observed among the treatments in respect of 24 other constituents of the oils.

  12. In vitro antitrypanosomal and antiplasmodial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum Linn from Benin and influence of vegetative stage.

    PubMed

    Kpadonou Kpoviessi, Bénédicta G H; Kpoviessi, Salomé D S; Yayi Ladekan, Eléonore; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Frédérich, Michel; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Accrombessi, Georges C; Bero, Joanne

    2014-09-29

    Different parts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn are largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases, some of which related to parasitical infections as fevers and headaches. In order to validate their use and to clarify the plant part which possesses the best antiparasitic properties, we decided to evaluate the in vitro antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activities of essential oils and crude extracts from leaves, stems and seeds of Ocimum gratissimum as well as their cytotoxicity. The essential oils and ethanol crude extracts of leaves and stems of Ocimum gratissimum from Benin, were obtained in pre and full flowering stages. Seeds obtained only in full flowering stage, were also extracted. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. Extracts and essential oils were tested in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in vitro against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and the human non cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through MTT assay to evaluate the selectivity and toxicity was assessed against Artemia salina Leach. The essential oils and non-volatile crude extracts of Ocimum gratissimum were more active on Trypanosoma brucei brucei than on Plasmodium falciparum (3D7). This activity varies according to the vegetative stage (pre and full flowering) and the plant part (seeds, stems and leaves) extracted. The best growth inhibition of Trypanosoma brucei brucei was observed with ethanol crude extracts of leaves (IC50=1.66 ± 0.48 μg/mL) and seeds (IC50=1.29 ± 0.42 μg/mL) in full flowering stage with good selectivity (SI>10). The chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts (47 compounds), characterized by the presence as main constituents of p-cymene, thymol, γ-terpinene, β-myrcene and α-thujene, depends on the vegetative stage. The oil contained some minor compounds such as myrcene (IC50=2.24 ± 0.27μg/mL), citronellal (IC50=2.76 ± 1.55

  13. Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil delivery to swine gastrointestinal tract using gelatin microcapsules coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose and beeswax.

    PubMed

    Chitprasert, Pakamon; Sutaphanit, Polin

    2014-12-31

    Holy basil essential oil (HBEO) can be applied as a feed additive; however, its benefits depend on the available amount in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the physicochemical properties, including the release properties of three different microcapsules, HBEO-loaded gelatin microcapsules (UC), UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose (CC), and UC coated with aluminum carboxymethyl cellulose-beeswax composite (CB), were compared. The encapsulation efficiency, HBEO content, and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity for the microcapsules were 95.4 ± 0.17%, 66.7-67.7%, and 94.3-96.5%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed nonuniform HBEO distributions in honeycomb-like networks in the microcapsules. An X-ray diffraction analysis determined that UC and CC microcapsules were amorphous, but CB microcapsules were semicrystalline. UV-vis spectrophotometer and CLSM analyses results determined that HBEO was released from CC and CB microcapsules in greater amounts than from UC microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid. Therefore, the HBEO amount reaching the intestine can be controlled using the optimal encapsulation system.

  14. Effects of Ocimum basilicum Linn essential oil and sodium hexametaphosphate on the shelf life of fresh chicken sausage.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Albano, Mariana; Castilho, Ivana Giovannetti; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Athayde, Natália Bortoleto; Delbem, Nara Laiane Casagrande; Roça, Roberto de Oliveira; Fernandes, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Although consumers and the food industry have an interest in reducing the use of synthetic additives, the consumption of processed meat in Brazil has been increasing because of the easy preparation and low cost. Owing to the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EO), it has potential applications in food products. Polyphosphates are already used in meat processing with the goal of improving the quality of the products. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and O. basilicum EO, when added separately or together, on physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during the shelf life of chicken sausage. We also performed sensory analysis of the product prepared in this manner. Six different treatments were produced in which the substances were tested together or separately, and the content of EO was 0.3 or 0.03%. The samples were analyzed after 1, 7, and 15 days of storage at 4°C. An increase in pH on days 7 and 15 in samples that contained SHMP was observed. In the samples that contained either 0.3 or 0.03% EO, coliforms were inhibited throughout the study period (P < 0.05), which was not observed in samples with EO plus SHMP, thus demonstrating that the stabilizer blocked the antibacterial action of EO. There was a reduction in the cook loss and increased compressive force in the samples with 0.5% SHMP, contributing to greater juiciness of the product. The EO had substantial impact on acceptability of samples, but it did not influence the activities already described of polyphosphate.

  15. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  16. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) Based Flavonoid Orientin and its Analogue for Cytotoxic Activity in Liver Cancer Cell Line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pooja; Prakash, Om; Shukla, Aparna; Rajpurohit, Chetan Singh; Vasudev, Prema G; Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Khan, Feroz

    2016-01-01

    O. sanctum L. (O. tenuiflorum) is an important sacred medicinal plant of India known as Holy Basil or Tulsi. The chemical composition of volatile oil is highly complex and comprises high ratio of phenylpropanoids and terpenes, and some phenolic compound or flavonoids such as orientin and vicenin. These minor flavonoids are known to be antioxidant and anticancer in nature. Orientin reported as potential anticancer agent due to anti-proliferative activity on human liver cancer cell line HepG2, but its mechanism of action is not fully explored. In the present work an in-silico structure-activity relationship study on orientin was performed and built a pharmacophore mapping and QSAR model to screen out the potential structurally similar analogues from chemical database of Discovery Studio (DSv3.5, Accelrys, USA) as potential anticancer agent. Analogue fenofibryl glucuronide was selected for in vitro cytotoxic/anticancer activity evaluation through MTT assay. Binding affinity and mode of action of orientin and its analogue were explored through molecular docking studies on quinone oxidoreductase, a potential target of flavonoids. Contrary to the assumption, in vitro results showed only 41% cell death at 202.389 μM concentration (at 96 hrs). Therefore, we concluded that the selected orientin analogue fenofibryl glucuronide was non-cytotoxic/non-anti-carcinogenic up to 100 μg/ml (202.389 μM) concentrations for a long term exposure i.e., till 96 hrs in human cancer cells of HepG2. We concluded that orientin and its analogue fenofibryl glucuronide as pure compound showed no activity or less cytotoxicity activity on liver cancer cell line HepG2.

  17. Characterization of the volatile pattern and antioxidant capacity of essential oils from different species of the genus Ocimum.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Vasconcelos Silva, Maria Goretti; Pfundstein, Beate; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Owen, Robert Wyn

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of essential oils obtained by steam hydrodistillation from five species of the genus Ocimum, namely Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum micranthum, and Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum), were evaluated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and the DPPH assays. The yield of oils from the leaves of the five species was variable with the greater amount obtained from Ocimum gratissimum (3.5%) and the least from Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (0.5%). In the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, strong antioxidant capacity was evident in all the oils but the greater was shown by that obtained from Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) (IC50 = 0.46 microL/mL) compared to Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (IC50 = 1.84 microL/mL). Antioxidant capacity was positively correlated (r = 0.92, p < 0.05) with a high proportion of compounds possessing a phenolic ring such as eugenol, while a strong negative correlation (r = -0.77, p > 0.1) with other major volatiles was observed. These correlations were confirmed to a large extent in the DPPH assay. The results of a 24 h experiment with Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) shows that the antioxidant capacity factor (amount of essential oil obtained x free radical scavenging capacity; mg x %/100) reaches a threshold between 10 and 12.00 h, corresponding to maximum sunlight intensity in Brasil and furthermore exhibits a clear diurnal variation. The data generated with Ocimum species indicates that essential oils obtained from various herbs and spices may have an important role to play in cancer chemoprevention, functional foods, and in the preservation of pharmacologic products.

  18. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.

    PubMed

    Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.

  19. Comparative volatile oil composition of four Ocimum species from northern India.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S

    2011-03-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya', Ocimum sanctum L. cvs. 'Green' (CIM-Ayu) and 'Purple', Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke have been studied by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phenylpropanoids (65.2-77.6%) constituted the major proportion of the essential oil compositions of O. sanctum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes (72.7%) constituted the major proportion of the oil composition of O. kilimandscharicum. The essential oil compositions of cvs. 'Green' and 'Purple' of O. sanctum were almost the same, and both cultivars were dominated by eugenol (67.4% and 72.8%), β-elemene (11.0% and 10.9%), β-caryophyllene (7.3% and 8.4%) and germacrene D (2.4% and 2.2%), whilst the major components in O. basilicum cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya' were methyl chavicol (68.0% and 64.9%) and linalool (21.9% and 25.6%), along with bicyclogermacrene (2.0% and 0.7%) and α-terpineol (1.2% and 0.1%). Eugenol (77.2%), 1,8-cineole (7.6%), germacrene D (2.7%) and β-caryophyllene (1.7%) were identified as the major constituents of O. gratissimum. On the contrary, the essential oil from O. kilimandscharicum was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (95.8%), represented by camphor (64.9%), limonene (8.7%), camphene (6.4%) and (E)-β-ocimene (3.0%).

  20. Production of anti-cancer triterpene (betulinic acid) from callus cultures of different Ocimum species and its elicitation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Harshita; Pandey, Pallavi; Singh, Sailendra; Gupta, Ruby; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is gaining unmatched attention owing to its unique anti-cancer activity with selective melanoma growth inhibition without damaging normal cells. It is also well-known for its multifaceted pharmacokinetics, entailing antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-HIV and antioxidant merits. Considering the escalating demand with diminishing bioresource of this molecule, the present study was undertaken that revealed the untapped potentials of Ocimum calli, contrasting to that in the in vitro derived leaves, as effective production alternative of BA in three out of four tested species (i.e. Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Ocimum sanctum excluding Ocimum grattisimum). Callus inductions were obtained in all the four species with different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) concentrations with kinetin. Notably, 2,4-D favoured maximum callus growth in all whereas NAA proved beneficial for the highest metabolite yield in the calli of each BA-producing species. The O. basilicum calli demonstrated the maximum growth (growth index (GI) 678.7 ± 24.47) and BA yield (2.59 ± 0.55 % dry weight [DW]), whereas those in O. kilimandscharicum (GI 533.33 ± 15.87; BA 1.87 ± 0.6 % DW) and O. sanctum (GI 448 ± 16.07; BA 0.39 ± 0.12 % DW) followed a descending order. The O. gratissimum calli revealed minimum growth (GI 159 ± 13.25) with no BA accumulation. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at 200-μM concentration after 48-h exposure doubled the BA yield (5.10 ± 0.18 % DW) in NAA-grown O. basilicum calli compared to that in the untreated counterpart (2.61 ± 0.19 % DW), which further enthused its future application.

  1. In-vivo study for anti-hyperglycemic potential of aqueous extract of Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum Linn) and its influence on biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes and haematological indices.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sachin; Semwal, Amit; Kumar, Hitesh; Verma, Harish Chandra; Kumar, Amit

    2016-12-01

    The study introduced anti-hyperglycemic influence of aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum seeds (AEOBS) in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats and estimating its potential to ameliorate altered level of biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes level and haematological indices along with its effect on body weight of treated rats. The albino rats were selected to observe oral glucose tolerance test by oral intake of aq. glucose solution (4g/kg, body weight) in normal rats and estimation of blood glucose level after administration of AEOBS at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and standard drug glibenclamide at 0.6mg/kg, body weight. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated in chronic study models by STZ induced diabetes in rats followed by blood glucose estimation. Chronic study model was selected to carry out further studies to evaluate the effect of AEOBS at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and standard drug on body weight, alterations in biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and total protein, alterations in serum electrolytes like Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), HCO3(-) along with estimation of haematological indices like red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. AEOBS significantly reduced the blood glucose level of diabetic rats at both doses. Body weight was also improved significantly. Similarly, the levels of biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes, and haematological indices were significantly ameliorated at both doses of AEOBS. The histopathological results revealed reconstitution of pancreatic islets towards normal cellular architecture in rats treated with AEOBS. The results illustrated that AEOBS have eminent antidiabetic potential in STZ effectuated diabetes in rats and can be extensively used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus-II and its associated complications including anaemia, diabetic nephropathy, liver dysfunction, and immunosuppression.

  2. Chemical and biological diversity in fourteen selections of four Ocimum species.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Kotharia, Sushil K; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Darokar, Mahendra P

    2011-11-01

    Biomass, essential oil yield, essential oil composition diversity, and antibacterial and antifungal activities of 14 selections of 4 Ocimum species [Ocimum basilicum L. (selections: T1-T10), O. gratissimum L. (selections: T11-T12), O. tenuiflorum L.f., syn. O. sanctum L. (selection: T13) and O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex. Guerke (selection: T14)] were investigated. O. basilicum selections T9 (methyl chavicol: 87.0%) and T10 {(Z)- and (E)-methyl cinnamate: 69.1%} produced higher biomass (67.8 and 56.7 t/ha) and oil (203.4 and 141.7 kg/ha) yields relative to 8 (T1-T8) linalool (up to 58.9%), or methyl chavicol (up to 61.8%) rich selections. O. gratissimum selection T12 (eugenol: 84.1%, 254.6 kg/ha oil yield) was significantly superior to T11 (62.1% eugenol and 18.4% camphor). O. tenuiflorum (T13, methyl eugenol: 72.5%) and O. kilimandscharicum (T14, camphor: 51.7%) produced 171.7 and 96.2 kg/ha essential oil, respectively. The essential oils exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial (against 5 Gram-positive and 7 Gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal (against 10 fungi) activities. The bacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungal species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, and Sporothrix schenckii were more sensitive to the essential oils.

  3. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  4. Genetic diversity in the endangered tropical tree, Guaiacum sanctum (Zygophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Eric J; Hamrick, James L

    2010-01-01

    Fragmentation of tropical forests has changed continuous tropical landscapes into a network of poorly connected fragments, reducing population sizes and potentially increasing genetic isolation. This study quantifies genetic diversity within and among the 7 extant populations of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum in Costa Rica. We describe how genetic diversity differs between populations representing continuous and fragmented habitats. Allozyme analyses were conducted on adult samples from populations representing 2 geographic regions in northwestern Costa Rica. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the species (H(es) = 0.329) and significant but relatively small differences in allele frequencies among populations (G(ST) = 0.101) and between regions (G(ST) = 0.053). We found no differences in genetic diversity between fragmented and continuous populations. Evidence for significant isolation-by-distance (IBD) was seen only when all populations were analyzed. If populations within the 2 regions were analyzed separately, IBD ceased to be significant. Our results suggest that the patterns of genetic diversity observed for G. sanctum may be caused by the ancient separation of populations into 2 disjunct geographic regions with extensive historical rates of gene flow among populations within each region. Recent forest fragmentation has not yet affected patterns of genetic diversity in this species.

  5. Potential mosquito repellent compounds of Ocimum species against 3N7H and 3Q8I of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Gaddaguti, Venugopal; Venkateswara Rao, Talluri; Prasada Rao, Allu

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes are exceptionally efficient in detecting their hosts for blood meal using odorant binding proteins, viz. 3N7H and 3Q8I and spread several dreadful diseases. DEET is a synthetic mosquito repellent widely used all over world for protection against mosquito bite. Reports reveal that, synthetic mosquito repellents may pose health problems in considerably large population. In view of the above fact, we made an attempt to discover efficient and novel natural mosquito repellent compounds with least impact on human health. Methanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (willd.)-Benth and Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-AYU were subjected to GC-MS analysis and obtained 35 phytochemical constituents. Repellent potentiality of the Ocimum compounds was assessed against 3Q8I and 3N7H of Anopheles gambiae. PDB structures of mosquito odorant binding proteins were downloaded, processed and docking studies were performed along with reference ligand DEET using Schrodinger MAESTRO 9.2 software. Molecular docking results reveal that phenol, 2-methoxy-3-(2-propenyl)-, licopersin, gamma sitosterol and benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- from O. tenuiflorum var. CIM-AYU are strongly bound with 3N7H. Whereas, 4h-1-benzopyran-4-one, 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, catechol and monoacetin from O. basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (willd.)-Benth. show high binding affinity with odorant binding protein 3Q8I. All natural compounds tested in the present study display better docking scores than DEET. The results further substantiate that the 12 out of 35 compounds of the two Ocimum species found to be ideal candidates for design and development of potential mosquito repellents. ADME properties of the tested compounds further confirm that bioactive compounds of Ocimum species were found to be in acceptable range. Synchronized application of at least two different natural compounds (with best docking scores) which target 3N7H and 3Q8I (Odorant Binding Proteins

  6. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  7. Role of Ocimum basilicum L. in prevention of ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice brain.

    PubMed

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Arora, Shruti; Shri, Richa

    2011-10-11

    The genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae) has a long history of use as culinary and medicinal herbs. Many species are used for their antioxidant and neuroprotective activity in various parts of the world. Ocimum basilicum Linn. has been used traditionally for the treatment of anxiety, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, headaches, nerve pain, as anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory, and used in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum leaves on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was determined by colorimetric assay. Short-term memory was evaluated using elevated plus-maze. Inclined beam walking was employed to assess motor coordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced significant increase in cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and reduced GSH content, and impaired short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with standardized ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation, restored GSH content, and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. The results of the study suggest that Ocimum basilicum could be useful clinically in the prevention of stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on Ocimum gratissimum seed mucilage: evaluation of binding properties.

    PubMed

    Anroop, B; Ghosh, B; Parcha, V; Vasanti, S

    2006-11-15

    Mucilage extracted from Ocimum gratissimum seeds, inertness and safety parameters established by a previous study was subjected to preformulation trial to assess its suitability as a pharmaceutical binder. Properties of the granules prepared with calcium carbonate using different concentrations of ocimum and compared with acacia (5%, w/w), as standard. Ocimum at 2.3% (w/w) level was found to be comparable with 5% (w/w) of acacia. Effect on drug release studied with paracetamol indicated that ocimum mucilage could be an alternative to acacia.

  9. Mosquito repellent activities of ocimum volatile oils.

    PubMed

    Chokechaijaroenporn, O; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Kongchuensin, S

    1994-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from Ocimum americanum, O. basilicum, O. basilicum fa. citratum, O. gratissimum and O. tenuiflorum, were tested for mosquito repellent and larvicidal activities. All the oils exhibited both activities. O. basilicum showed the strongest larvicidal activity (EC(50) = 81, EC(90) = 113 ppm), while O. gratissimum exhibited the longest duration of action for mosquito repellent activity (more than two hours). Gas chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of camphor, caryophyllene oxide, cineole, methyleugenol, limonene, myrcene, and thymol, all known insect repellents.

  10. Identification of the chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fatope, Majekodunmi O; Marwah, Ruchi G; Al Hadhrami, Nabil M; Onifade, Anthony K; Williams, John R

    2008-11-01

    The chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. growing wild in Oman have been established by (13)C-NMR analyses of the vegetative and floral oils of the plants. The chemotypes, estragole for O. forskolei and linalool for O. basilicum, suggested by (13)C-NMR fingerprinting were also confirmed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil of O. forskolei demonstrated better activities against bacteria and dermatophytes. The significance of the presence of estragole and linalool in the volatile oils of plants whose fragrances are traditionally inhaled, added to food, or rubbed on the skin are discussed.

  11. Spatial distribution of Guaiacum sanctum (Zygophyllaceae) seedlings and saplings relative to canopy cover in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Eric J; Robles, Tatiana; Hamrick, James L

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of individuals is a fundamental property of most species and constitutes essential information for the development of restoration and conservation strategies, especially for endangered plant species. In this paper we describe the spatial distribution of different size classes of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum and the effect of canopy cover on spatial aggregation. Adult G. sanctum were located and mapped in a 50 ha plot in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica. Seedlings, saplings and juveniles were mapped to the nearest centimetre and permanently marked in three 50 x 50 m subplots. Within each subplot spatial aggregation was assessed using Ripley's K statistic and canopy opening readings were performed every 5 m using a densitometer. Kriging spatial interpolation and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if average canopy cover differed among size classes. Individuals of G. sanctum were spatially aggregated at all size classes with seedlings being the most frequent size class in all subplots. Seedlings were found predominantly in areas with significantly higher canopy cover. In contrast, juveniles were more likely found in areas with higher light availability. The high number of seedlings, saplings, and juveniles relative to adults suggests that populations of G. sanctum in PVNP are expanding. Light availability and canopy structure are important factors shaping the spatial distribution of this species. The contemporary demographic structure of G. sanctum is dependent on forest gap dynamics and changes in human disturbance during the past 25 years.

  12. Mechanism of action of antiinflammatory effect of fixed oil of Ocimum basilicum Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, S

    1999-03-01

    Fixed oil of O. basilicum was found to possess significant antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan and different other mediator-induced paw edema in rats. Significant inhibitory effect was also observed in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats. It also inhibited arachidonic acid- and leukotriene-induced paw edema. The results of antiinflammatory activity of O. basilicum support the dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism as indicated by its activity in inflammation models that are insensitive to selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors. On the basis of these findings, it possible to conclude that O. basilicum may be a useful antiinflammatory agent which block both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism.

  13. Spatial genetic structure within size classes of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum (Zygophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Eric J; Hamrick, James L

    2010-07-01

    Patterns of spatial genetic structure (SGS) were analyzed within a population of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum located in northwestern Costa Rica. Documentation of these patterns provides insights into the gene dispersal mechanisms that play a central role in the maintenance and structure of genetic diversity within plant populations. • Allozyme analyses were used to examine SGS in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica. The SGS was compared among three plots and different age classes. • High levels of genetic diversity were found overall with a pooled genetic diversity of H(e) = 0.302 (±0.02). Selfing was proposed as the proximate cause for significant levels of heterozygote deficiency observed across size classes and plots. An unexpected lack of SGS (r(j) < 0.02) was observed for all size classes, suggesting the mixing of seeds from several adults. A parent-pair parentage analysis indicated that at least 48% of the smaller individuals within a plot were produced by parents located at distances of at least 150 m. • Populations of G. sanctum are established and maintained by bird-mediated, moderate- to long-distance seed dispersal, which results in a mixture of seeds from unrelated maternal individuals, effectively eliminating SGS. Proximity between individuals is, therefore, a poor predictor of family structure in this species. Long-distance seed dispersal, coupled with estimates of high genetic diversity, suggests that this endangered species has the potential for natural regeneration and restoration given the availability of suitable habitats.

  14. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach

    PubMed Central

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-01-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

  15. Antigiardial activity of Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Igor; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Vieira, Danielle Pereira; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C S; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Giardia lamblia and on the modulation of the interaction of these parasites by peritoneal mouse macrophage. The essential oil (2 mg/ml) and its purified substances demonstrated antigiardial activity. Linalool (300 microg/ml), however, was able to kill 100% parasites after 1 h of incubation, which demonstrates its high antigiardial potential. Pretreatment of peritoneal mouse macrophages with 2 mg/ml essential oil dilution reduced in 79% the association index between these macrophages and G. lamblia, with a concomitant increase by 153% on nitric oxide production by the G. lamblia-ingested macrophages. The protein profiles and proteolitic activity of these parasite trophozoites, previously treated or not with 2 mg/ml essential oil or with the purified fractions, were also determined. After 1 and 2 h of incubation, proteins of lysates and culture supernatants revealed significant differences in bands patterns when compared to controls. Besides, the proteolitic activity, mainly of cysteine proteases, was clearly inhibited by the essential oil (2 mg/ml) and the purified linalool (300 microg/ml). These results suggest that, with G. lamblia, the essential oil from O. basilicum and its purified compounds, specially linalool, have a potent antimicrobial activity.

  16. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  17. 140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis.

  19. Can Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in vitro culture be a potential source of secondary metabolites?

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, Karuppiah; Gokulanathan, Ananda; Jayanthi, Malayandi; Govindasamy, Vaithiyanathan; Milella, Luigi; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok Chun; Girija, Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    In this study Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (OT) in vitro culture standardisation for increasing eugenol distribution, in comparison to their respective field grown parts was carried out. Eugenol was quantified using an optimised HPLC method and its relation with the total phenolic content (TPC) was measured. In vitro grown leaves and somatic embryos, of both OB and OT were found to contain similar quantities of eugenol (85μg/g approximately), higher than OB and OT field-grown leaves (30.2μg/g and 25.1μg/g respectively). It was also determined that in vitro grown leaves were richer in TPC than the field-grown intact organs. Results demonstrated the prominence of in vitro cultures for eugenol extraction. This study underlines that important food flavouring metabolites (e.g. vanillin, vanillic acids) might be produced, via the eugenol pathway, in Ocimum species that may be a good potential source of eugenol.

  20. STUDIES ON MELOTHRIA MADERASAPATANA (LINN). COGN

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, B.N; Thanigavelan, J.; Basu, S.P; Sukumar, E.

    1996-01-01

    This communication is a report of some preliminary studies followed by chemical investigations done on the aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana (Linn) Cogn., a plant drug used in traditional system of medicine in India against a variety of diseases. PMID:22556749

  1. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  2. Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products.

    PubMed

    Aruna, K; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

    1992-11-01

    The anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. The effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of Swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) and on the induction of hepatomas in Wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB) were investigated. Among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn) and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) significantly decreased the incidence of both B[a]P-induced neoplasia and 3'MeDAB-induced hepatomas. Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum Linn) significantly inhibited B[a]P-induced neoplasia alone, while the other plant products, asafoetida, kandathipili, turmeric, drumstick leaves, solanum leaves and alternanthera leaves were ineffective. These results suggest that cumin seeds, basil leaves and to a lesser extent poppy seeds, which are all widely used in Indian cooking, may prove to be valuable anticarcinogenic agents.

  3. Evaluation of gastric anti-ulcer activity of fixed oil of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Singh, S

    1999-03-01

    Fixed oil of O. basilicum was found to possess significant antiulcer activity against aspirin, indomethacin, alcohol, histamine, reserpine, serotonin and stress-induced ulceration in experimental animal models. Significant inhibition was also observed in aspirin-induced gastric ulceration and secretion in pylorus ligated rats. The lipoxygenase inhibiting, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory effects of the oil could probably contribute towards antiulcer activity. O. basilicum fixed oil may be considered to be a drug of natural origin which possesses both antiinflammatory and anti-ulcer activity.

  4. Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ram Chandra; Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Parveen; Negi, Mahendra P. Singh; Saxena, Vinod S.; Geetharani, Periasamy; Allan, Joseph Joshua; Venkateshwarlu, Kudiganti

    2012-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of OciBest, an extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. in symptomatic control of general stress. The participants received either placebo (n = 79) or OciBest (n = 71; 1200 mg of actives per day) for six weeks. The severity of stress-related symptoms was self-evaluated by patients at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the trial period using a symptom rating scale. After six weeks of intervention, scores of symptoms such as forgetfulness, sexual problems of recent origin, frequent feeling of exhaustion, and frequent sleep problems of recent origin decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in OciBest group as compared with placebo group. Also, the total symptom scores of OciBest group revealed significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) as compared to placebo group. The overall improvement in OciBest group was found to be 1.6 times or 39% more in the control of general stress symptoms with respect to placebo. No adverse events were reported during the study. The findings revealed that OciBest was found to be effective and well tolerated by all the patients over the six weeks of study period. PMID:21977056

  5. Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ram Chandra; Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Parveen; Negi, Mahendra P Singh; Saxena, Vinod S; Geetharani, Periasamy; Allan, Joseph Joshua; Venkateshwarlu, Kudiganti

    2012-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of OciBest, an extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. in symptomatic control of general stress. The participants received either placebo (n = 79) or OciBest (n = 71; 1200 mg of actives per day) for six weeks. The severity of stress-related symptoms was self-evaluated by patients at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the trial period using a symptom rating scale. After six weeks of intervention, scores of symptoms such as forgetfulness, sexual problems of recent origin, frequent feeling of exhaustion, and frequent sleep problems of recent origin decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in OciBest group as compared with placebo group. Also, the total symptom scores of OciBest group revealed significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) as compared to placebo group. The overall improvement in OciBest group was found to be 1.6 times or 39% more in the control of general stress symptoms with respect to placebo. No adverse events were reported during the study. The findings revealed that OciBest was found to be effective and well tolerated by all the patients over the six weeks of study period.

  6. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

    2003-09-01

    In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan.

  7. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species.

  8. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  9. Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, J D; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M

    2008-07-01

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are widely used for their medicinal properties, and as food flavours and perfumes. Recently in a study in West Africa, these oils have been recommended to combat Fusarium verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin contamination in stored maize, but their toxicological profile was not investigated. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity as well as on gastric tolerance of these oils in rat. For this purpose, the oils were given by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for their general behaviour and survival, and their visceral organs such as stomach and liver were taken after sacrifice for histological analyses. A dose-dependent effect of the tested oils was observed during the study. Applied at doses generally higher than 1500 mg/kg body weight, the oils caused significant functional damages to stomach and liver of rat. Unlike the other oils, administration of O. gratissimum oil did not result in adverse effects in rat liver at the tested doses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the tested oils has been established. The three tested oils can be considered as safe to human when applied on stored maize at recommended concentrations.

  10. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

  11. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES ON WATTAKAKA VOLUBILIS (Linn.f.)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Moni; Hepsibah, P.T.A.; Prasad, N.B.R.; Kumar, P. Sanjeev

    1996-01-01

    Morphological, anatomical and clinical studies of the leaves of Wattakaka volubilis (Linn.f) were carried out. The taila of this leaf was found to be effective in pyoderma, tinea pedis scabies cuts and wounds and plantar psoriasis. PMID:22556756

  12. Comparative functional characterization of eugenol synthase from four different Ocimum species: Implications on eugenol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Atul; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Beedkar, Supriya D; Singh, Priyanka A; Joshi, Rakesh S; Mulani, Fayaj A; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Punekar, Sachin A; Gade, Wasudeo N; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-11-01

    Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids are the major secondary metabolite constituents in Ocimum genus. Though enzymes from phenylpropanoid pathway have been characterized from few plants, limited information exists on how they modulate levels of secondary metabolites. Here, we performed phenylpropanoid profiling in different tissues from five Ocimum species, which revealed significant variations in secondary metabolites including eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, estragole and methyl cinnamate levels. Expression analysis of eugenol synthase (EGS) gene showed higher transcript levels especially in young leaves and inflorescence; and were positively correlated with eugenol contents. Additionally, transcript levels of coniferyl alcohol acyl transferase, a key enzyme diverting pool of substrate to phenylpropanoids, were in accordance with their abundance in respective species. In particular, eugenol methyl transferase expression positively correlated with higher levels of eugenol methyl ether in Ocimum tenuiflorum. Further, EGSs were functionally characterized from four Ocimum species varying in their eugenol contents. Kinetic and expression analyses indicated, higher enzyme turnover and transcripts levels, in species accumulating more eugenol. Moreover, biochemical and bioinformatics studies demonstrated that coniferyl acetate was the preferred substrate over coumaryl acetate when used, individually or together, in the enzyme assay. Overall, this study revealed the preliminary evidence for varied accumulation of eugenol and its abundance over chavicol in these Ocimum species. Current findings could potentially provide novel insights for metabolic modulations in medicinal and aromatic plants.

  13. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  14. Variation of ursolic acid content in eight Ocimum species from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, M Goretti V; Vieira, Icaro G P; Mendes, Francisca N P; Albuquerque, Irineu L; dos Santos, Rogério N; Silva, Fábio O; Morais, Selene M

    2008-10-14

    Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA) content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%). This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  15. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  16. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

  17. Anthocyanin inheritance and instability in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Phippen, W B; Simon, J E

    2000-01-01

    The instability of the purple pigments (anthocyanins) in purple basil varieties (Ocimum basilicum L.) limits their use as ornamental plants and as a potential anthocyanin source. Several self-pollinated generations of all purple plants were unsuccessful in stabilizing anthocyanin expression. In this study we investigated the inheritance and stability patterns of leaf traits using the Purple Ruffles variety. The results from the complete diallele crosses indicated anthocyanin expression in vegetative tissue is controlled by two dominant genes and ruffled leaf texture is controlled by a single recessive gene. Genes controlling leaf margin and leaf base structures were tightly linked to leaf texture. Essential oil production and oil constituents in leaves did not change as a result of the reversion in color. Color stability in cuttings was affected by the environment and the location where cuttings were taken. An accumulation of secondary metabolites (apigenin, genistein, and kaempferol) in green-reverted sectors on purple leaves was detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis; this suggested a potential block in the anthocyanin pathway. We hypothesize the reversion mutation is occurring in an anthocyanin regulatory gene.

  18. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-α-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. Conclusions The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts. PMID:21936953

  19. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species.

  20. Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop.

    PubMed

    Al-Maskri, Ahmed Yahya; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Masoud Yahya; Abraham, Alfie Susan; Al-sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Mantheri, Omar

    2011-10-01

    The focus of the present study was on the influence of season on yield, chemical composition, antioxidant and antifungal activities of Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil. The present study involved only one of the eight Omani basil varieties. The hydro-distilled essential oil yields were computed to be 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.1% in the winter, spring and summer seasons, respectively. The major components identified were L- linalool (26.5-56.3%), geraniol (12.1-16.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.5-15.1%), p-allylanisole (0.2-13.8%) and DL-limonene (0.2-10.4%). A noteworthy extra component was beta- farnesene, which was exclusively detected in the oil extracted during winter and spring at 6.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The essential oil composition over the different seasons was quite idiosyncratic, in which the principal components of one season were either trivial or totally absent in another. The essential oil extracted in spring exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (except DPPH scavenging ability) in comparison with the oils from other seasons. The basil oil was tested against pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus stolonifer using a disc diffusion method, and by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Surprisingly high antifungal values were found highlighting the potential of Omani basil as a preservative in the food and medical industries.

  1. Removal of chromium by mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Melo, J S; D'Souza, S F

    2004-04-01

    Polysaccharides bound to bacteria or in isolated form have been shown to bind heavy metals. A limitation of this technology can be overcome by immobilization. In view of this Ocimum basilicum seeds which swell upon wetting could serve as natural immobilized source of agriculturally-based polysaccharides. The seeds consist of an inner hard core and a pectinous fibrillar outer layer. Pretreating the seeds with acid, alkali, periodate or boiling in water was found to alter the metal binding capacity. Of the various treatments given, seeds boiled in water were found to be superior in terms of mechanical stability and exhibited fairly optimal Cr(VI) uptake kinetics. The maximum adsorption capacity as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 205 mg Cr/g dry seeds. Biosorption of Cr(VI) was found to be pH dependent with maximum uptake at pH 1.5 wherein sorption was not affected by the presence of other metal ions such as Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and Na(+). Seeds were used in a packed bed reactor for the continuous removal of Cr(VI). Thus O. basilicum seeds may have application as a potential bioresource in tropical countries such as India where they are widely available.

  2. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Teun; Ignell, Rickard; Ghebru, Maedot; Glinwood, Robert; Hopkins, Richard

    2011-09-22

    Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-α-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts.

  3. Phytopharmacological Profile of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae).

    PubMed

    Arun, Mittal; Satish, Sardana; Anima, Pandey

    2016-04-01

    Plants are the real basis towards animal life and are also central to people's livelihood. The contributions of the plants in performing varied religious celebrations and in other multiple beneficiaries like medicine, human happiness as well as in treating deadly diseases can never be neglected. In treating diseases, the plants and their constituents are better choice than any other synthetic chemical. The nature has been kind enough to provide the human beings with various types of medicinal plants and in the real sense these form the storehouse of curing almost all the ailments. Consequently, most of the drugs which are being used in preparing formulations have their origin and roots in the plants which form the chief natural source of medicines. Even in modern era, the plant-derived drugs are being extensively used, either in their original or semi-synthetic form. It is because their natural phytoconstituents are highly innocuous posing relatively fewer or no side effects. Based upon their observations, analysis and experience, our ancestors used many plants for medicinal purposes and thus their efforts need to be supported by scientific evidence. Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. is one of such important plants. It has been extensively used by the tribes all over India to treat different diseases which mainly include body pains, toothache, stomach ache, ulcers, and sexual impotency. Chemistry of the plant revealed the presence of mainly secoiridoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Not much scientific support was given to the folklore claims for this plant but some of its traditional uses were investigated like spasmolytic, wound healing, antimicrobial, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, antiulcer and antioxidant activities. This article is the review of research works done on the plant Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. to date. As a part of it the local names, morphology, traditional claims, chemistry and pharmacological activities have been discussed.

  4. Randomized controlled trial of Cassia alata Linn. for constipation.

    PubMed

    Thamlikitkul, V; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Dechatiwongse, T; Theerapong, S; Chantrakul, C; Thanaveerasuwan, T; Nimitnon, S; Boonroj, P; Punkrut, W; Gingsungneon, V

    1990-04-01

    Cassia alata Linn. is a medical plant. Its leaves have been claimed to be effective as a laxative. The studies done so far have shown no toxicity as a result of consuming Cassia alata Linn. leaves. The plant has been found to contain anthraquinones, presumed to be the active ingredient causing the laxative effect. The objective of the study was to test efficacy of Cassia alata Linn. leaves for treatment of constipation compared with a placebo and mist. alba in a multicenter randomized controlled trial carried out in one provincial and 5 community hospitals. Eighty adult patients admitted to 5 community hospitals and one provincial hospital with at least 72 hours of constipation were included in the study. Twenty-eight patients were in the placebo group, 28 in the mist. alba group, and 24 in Cassia alata Linn. group. Each patient was given 120 ml of fluid with caramel color, mist. alba, or Cassia alata Linn. infusion at bed time. Evaluation was performed after 24 hours whether the patient defecated or not. The characteristics of the patients among the three groups were not different. Eighteen per cent of patients in the placebo group passed stools within 24 hours, whereas, 86 and 83 per cent of patients in mist. alba and Cassia alata Linn. groups respectively, passed stools. The differences observed between placebo and mist. alba, placebo and Cassia alata Linn. were statistically highly significant, P less than 0.001 and clinically important. Minimal self-limited side effects, i.e., nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain and diarrhea were noted in 16-25 per cent of the patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotypes of essential oil of species Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum campechianum Mill. from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pino Benitez, Nayive; Meléndez León, Erika M; Stashenko, Elena E

    2009-10-01

    Essential oils chemical constituents of leaves of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum of the Lamiaceae family, collected in Chocó of northwest Colombian, were obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 33 and 37 compounds were identified in the essential oil of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum, respectively. O. gratissimum's main essential oils were eugenol (43.2%), 1,8-cineole (12.8%) and beta-selinene (9.0%); in the O. campechianum essential oil, the main components were methyl eugenol (12.0%), germacrene D (10.1%), and eugenol (9.0%). Main distribution of compounds in these essential oils are 25.0% monoterpenes hydrocarbons, 15.0% monoterpenes oxygenated, 35.0% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, 7.5% other oxygenated components for O. gratissimum, 33.9% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, and 10.7% their respective oxygenated derivates; for O. campechianum, the distribution was 10.7% monoterpenes hydrocarbons and 7.1% their respective oxygenated derivates and 3.6% phenylpropanes. According to the essential oils chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum and O. campechianum, they are classified as eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotype, respectively.

  6. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  7. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  8. Organic versus conventional fertilization effects on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth in a greenhouse system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an essential oil producing crop used in culinary and fragrance applications. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effects of organic and conventional fertilization, (applied at two nitrogen rates, 150 and 250 kg N/ha), on plant g...

  9. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  10. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  11. Yield and Oil Composition of Thirty-Eight Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has been grown as an essential oil crop in many countries; however, the herbage yield, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of basil grown in Mississippi and other Southern U.S. states has not been explored. The hypothesis of this study was that certain basil ...

  12. Antifungal activity, yield, and composition of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mohr, F B M; Lermen, C; Gazim, Z C; Gonçalves, J E; Alberton, O

    2017-03-16

    Ocimum gratissimum L. or clove basil, belongs to the Lamiaceae family, has various desirable uses and applications. Beyond its aromatic, seasoning, and medicinal applications, this plant also has antimicrobial activity. This study was aimed at assessing the antifungal activity, yield, and composition of the essential oil (EO) of O. gratissimum. The species was cultivated in garden beds with dystrophic red latosol soil type containing high organic-matter content. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation of dried leaves in a modified Clevenger apparatus, followed by determination of its content. Chemical characterization was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Microbial activity was assessed using the broth microdilution method, by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), in order to compare the antimicrobial effect of EO in 10 isolates-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tracheiphilum (CMM-0033), F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense (CMM-0813 and CMM-2819), F. oxysporum f. sp lycopersici (CMM-1104), F. solani (CMM-3828), Rhizoctonia solani (CMM-3274), and Macrophomina phaseolina (CMM-2715, CMM-3875, CMM-3615, and CMM-3650). The EO was a highly effective inhibitor of the studied phytopathogenic fungi, with MICs varying from 31.25 to 125 µg/mL. F. oxysporum f. sp lycopersici and R. solani were the most sensitive; both were inhibited at an MIC of 31.25 µg/mL. The EO content in the plant extract was 0.18%. Thirty chemical compounds were detected via GC-MS, with linalool (32.9%) being the major compound followed by 1,8-cineole (21.9%), both oxygenated monoterpenes. It can be concluded that clove basil EO is a highly effective antifungal agent, and therefore, a potential alternative for the control of plant pathogenic diseases.

  13. Purification and characterization of Ocimum basilicum L. polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serap; Turan, Pinar; Dogan, Mehmet; Arslan, Oktay; Alkan, Mahir

    2005-12-28

    A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in Ocimum basilicum L. is described. PPO in O. basilicum L. was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid affinity column. The samples obtained from (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis were used for the characterization of PPO. At the end of purification by affinity chromatography, 11.5-fold purification was achived. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be approximately 54 kDa. The contents of total phenolic and protein of O. basilicum L. extracts were determined. The total phenolic content of O. basilicum L. was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and was found to be 280 mg 100 g(-1) on a fresh weight basis. The protein content was determined according to the Bradford method. The enzyme showed activity to 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol substrates, but not to tyrosine. Therefore, of these three substrates, 4-methylcatecol was the best substrate due to the highest V(max)/K(m) value, followed by pyrogallol and catechol. The optimum pH was at 6, 8, and 9 for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol, respectively. The enzyme had an optimum temperature of 20, 40, and 50 degrees C for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol, respectively. It was found that optimum temperature and pH were dependent on the substrates studied. The enzyme activity with increasing temperature and inactivation time for 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol substrates decreased due to heat denaturation of the enzyme.

  14. Vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation effects of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Gadi, Dounia; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Aziz, Mohammed; Martin-Nizard, Françoise; Bosca, Lisardo

    2009-08-17

    In this work the endothelium-dependant vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation activities of an aqueous extract from Ocimum basilicum were studied. The vasorelaxant effect was undertaken in thoracic aorta from three experimental groups of rats: one of them (NCG) fed with standard diet, the second (HCG) with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) and the third (BTG) with hypercholesterolemic diet together with an intragastric administration of Ocimum basilicum extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for a period of 10 weeks. The in vitro anti-platelet aggregation of Ocimum basilicum extract was studied using thrombin (0.5 U/ml) and ADP (5 microM) as agonists. The results show that the HCD statistically decreases vascular relaxation in HCG compared to NCG (p<0.001) and increases the vascular responses to phenylephrine (p<0.02). Ocimum basilicum extract exerts a significant vasorelaxant effect at 10(-5) M (p<0.01) and 10(-4) M carbachol (p=0.001). The plant extract also tends to suppress the elevated contractions induced by HCD (p=0.05). The extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 13%, 28.2%, 30.5%, 44.7% and 53% at a dose of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/l, respectively. Thrombin-induced platelet activation was also reduced by 15%, 23%, 40%, 38.4%, and 42% at the same doses of extract described above. The use of Ocimum basilicum as medicinal plant could be beneficial for cardiovascular system.

  15. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mosha, Franklin W; Lowassa, Asanterabi; Mahande, Aneth M; Mahande, Michael J; Massenga, Charles P; Tenu, Filemoni; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Temu, Emmanuel A

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd) and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke) materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton), An. gambiae ss (Giles) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET), a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. Results In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence). Conclusion This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting while the burning of

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mosha, Franklin W; Lowassa, Asanterabi; Mahande, Aneth M; Mahande, Michael J; Massenga, Charles P; Tenu, Filemoni; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Temu, Emmanuel A

    2008-10-22

    The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd) and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke) materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton), An. gambiae ss (Giles) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET), a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence). This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting while the burning of plants reduces significantly the

  17. Immunostimulant effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ghule, B V; Murugananthan, G; Nakhat, P D; Yeole, P G

    2006-11-24

    The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Pre-treatment of water extract (300 mg/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation of humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells by ethanolic and water extracts (150-300 mg/kg) is evidenced by increase in antibody titres in mice. A dose-related increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was observed. Oral administration of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica leaves, at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in mice, dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Immunomodulatory activity was also assessed by serological and haematological tests. Capparis zeylanica extracts prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with cyclophosphamide drug. The study comprised the acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol and water extracts.

  18. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Renu; Kumar, Tarun; Gupta, Ankit

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2–3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2–8 cm) long, (1.5–5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569825

  19. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2017-04-01

    Sensitive plant ( Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10\\overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ \\bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }}. The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  20. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2016-12-01

    Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }} . The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  1. Ocimum basilicum L.: phenolic profile and antioxidant-related activity.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. leaf material was extracted by maceration with (80:20:1 v/v/v) methanol: water: acetic acid to produce a crude extract (CE), which was further fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to isolate light petroleum (PE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH) and H2O-soluble sub-fractions. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the resulting samples were estimated using colorimetric-based methods, and their iron(III) reductive and free radical scavenging activities were determined in a battery of in vitro assays. The CE and sub-fractions contained phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The samples, except for PE, gave a positive result for the presence of flavones and flavonols; however, flavanones only appeared to be present in the CE. In iron(III) reduction, CE and n-BuOH were the most potent followed by EtOAc and H2O (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05). However, in the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, H2O was the most potent followed by CE and EtOAc (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) and n-BuOH and PE. In 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, all the samples, except PE, were effective against this reactive nitrogen species, with CE, EtOAc and n-BuOH being the most potent (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05). In alkylperoxyl scavenging, all the samples, except for PE, were effective against this reactive oxygen species (ROS). In superoxide anion scavenging, all the samples were capable of scavenging this ROS with CE being the most effective, followed by n-BuOH and H2O (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) and EtOAc and PE. Similarly, in hydroxyl scavenging, all the samples were capable of scavenging this ROS with CE and n-BuOH being the most effective (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) followed by EtOAc and H2O (statistically indistinguishable, p > 0.05) and PE.

  2. Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill

    PubMed Central

    Datta, T K; Basu, P S

    1981-01-01

    A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property. PMID:7325983

  3. Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill].

    PubMed

    Datta, T K; Basu, P S

    1981-09-01

    A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property.

  4. Strategic Planning for Linn-Benton Community College: President's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Thomas; Keyser, John

    This collection of papers explores various aspects of strategic planning at Linn-Benton Community College (LBCC). First, an overview is presented, clarifying what strategic planning is not and describing the strategic planning at LBCC and its objectives (i.e., to develop a plan utilizing community and internal assessments that can be developed…

  5. Studies on antibacterial activity of Ficus racemosa Linn. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S C; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    2000-06-01

    Extracts of Ficus racemosa Linn. leaves were tested for antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Basillus pumilis ATCC 14884, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 25619 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737. The effects produced by the extracts were significant and were compared with chloramphenicol. The petroleum ether extract was the most effective against the tested organisms.

  6. 138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and underneath of the viaduct. Shape of the piers was designed to provide aesthetic sense of light and shadow. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACT OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER Linn

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Suresh; Perumal, P.; Suresh, B.

    2004-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn was investigated for its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM – 2079), Escherichia coli (NCIM-2067), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM-2063), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM-2036), Proteus vulgaris (NCIM-2027) at 100 μg/disc by using disc diffusion method. The extract showed significant anti bacterial activity and were compared to chloramphenicol (30 μg/disc). PMID:22557125

  8. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  9. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  10. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  11. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application.

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  13. Stereoselective oxidation of racemic 1-arylethanols by basil cultured cells of Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Kaoru; Utsukihara, Takamitsu; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, C Akira

    2008-05-01

    The biotransformation of racemic 1-phenylethanol (30 mg) with plant cultured cells of basil (Ocimum basilicum cv. Purpurascens, 5 g wet wt) by shaking 120 rpm at 25 degrees C for 7 days in the dark gave (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol and acetophenone in 34 and 24% yields, respectively. The biotransformation can be applied to other 1-arylethanols and basil cells oxidized the (S)-alcohols to the corresponding ketones remaining the (R)-alcohols in excellent ee.

  14. Structure prediction and functional characterization of secondary metabolite proteins of Ocimum

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sudeep; Maheshwari, Nidhi; Chauhan, Rashi; Sen, Naresh Kumar; Sharma, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Various species of Ocimum have acquired special attention due to their medicinal properties. Different parts of the plant (root, stem, flower, leaves) are used in the treatment of a wide range of disorders from centuries. Experimental structures (X-ray and NMR) of proteins from different Ocimum species, are not yet available in the Protein Databank (PDB). These proteins play a key role in various metabolic pathways in Ocimum. 3D structures of the proteins are essential to determine most of their functions. Homology modeling approach was employed in order to derive structures for these proteins. A program meant for comparative modeling- Modeller 9v7 was utilized for the purpose. The modeled proteins were further validated by Prochek and Verify-3d and Errat servers. Amino acid composition and polarity of these proteins was determined by CLC-Protein Workbench tool. Expasy's Prot-param server and Cys_rec tool were used for physico-chemical and functional characterization of these proteins. Studies of secondary structure of these proteins were carried out by computational program, Profunc. Swiss-pdb viewer was used to visualize and analyze these homology derived structures. The structures are finally submitted in Protein Model Database, PMDB so that they become accessible to other users for further studies. PMID:21769194

  15. The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarahroodi, Shadi; Esmaeili, Somayyeh; Mikaili, Peyman; Hemmati, Zahra; Saberi, Yousof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retention. The best response was achieved with 400 mg/Kg of the extract. Also, results showed that sweet basil extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retrieval and the best result was achieved with 400 mg/Kg too. It can be concluded that memory enhancing effects of green Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids. PMID:23661866

  16. Phytoremediatory effect and growth of two species of Ocimum in endosulfan polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sandoval, M; Melchor-Partida, G N; Muñiz-Hernández, S; Girón-Pérez, M I; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Díaz, I M; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Velázquez-Fernández, J B

    2011-08-15

    Endosulfan is a hazardous organochlorine pesticide banned or restricted in several countries. However, it has been found in the environment and in animal samples. To study a potential way to bioremediate soils contaminated with this pesticide, two plant species of the genus Ocimum were studied: Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum minimum L., since they are economically feasible and well adapted to the climatic conditions of the Nayarit zone (Mexican pacific coast). Young plants were transplanted into soil experimentally polluted with endosulfan. Growth of both species was not affected by endosulfan, the plants grew, flourished, and produced seeds; 30 days later, endosulfan concentration was lower in the soil with O. basilicum than in the soil without plants. On day 90, no differences in endosulfan concentrations were found between soil with or without O. minimum. At day 1, plants in the polluted soil showed lipoperoxidation, as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS). Interestingly, a higher TBARS value was observed at day 3 in transplanted plants as compared to non-transplanted plants. In conclusion, both species can endure endosulfan pollution (as high as 1 g kg(-1)) in soils. O. basilicum seems to be an adequate candidate for bioremediation of soils polluted with endosulfan.

  17. The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarahroodi, Shadi; Esmaeili, Somayyeh; Mikaili, Peyman; Hemmati, Zahra; Saberi, Yousof

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retention. The best response was achieved with 400 mg/Kg of the extract. Also, results showed that sweet basil extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retrieval and the best result was achieved with 400 mg/Kg too. It can be concluded that memory enhancing effects of green Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids.

  18. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. Materials and Methods: The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods. Results: O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercitrin, and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). “Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner”. O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 µg/mL) and ACE (IC50: 29.44 µg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 µg/mL and IC50: 64.99 µg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ more than O. basilicum. Conclusion: O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum. PMID:27757270

  19. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro.

    PubMed

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS*(+) scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods. O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercitrin, and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). "Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner". O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 µg/mL) and ACE (IC50: 29.44 µg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 µg/mL and IC50: 64.99 µg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*(+) more than O. basilicum. O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum.

  20. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed Central

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. PMID:24995776

  1. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity.

  2. 136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOTS OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS, LINN.

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sourabh; Lavhale, Manish; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    The roots of Cocculus hirsutus (Linn) Diels was analyzed for preliminary phytochemical studies including physical constant (total ash, acid soluble and insoluble ash and moisture content), extractive values in different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water), and phytochemical tests. The plant is well reputed in traditional system of medicine, present studies will help in further validation and standardization of the plant. PMID:22557132

  4. Khadira (Acasia Catechu Linn.) - A medico-historical review.

    PubMed

    Narayana, A

    1996-01-01

    Indigenous Medical wisdom in India known as Ayurveda goes back to a hoary past. We find references in Vedas not only to medical science but to various drugs also. The medico-historical review of Khadira (Acasia Catechu linn.) including the historical perspectives, identity, varieties, formulae and therapeutic usage etc. is presented here, based on the classical treatises, medical lexicons, commentaries and other compilations, covering the from Vedic period to present times.

  5. Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicone (9-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,10-anthracenedione, 1) and morinthone (4-methoxy-3-heptadecylxanthone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3) and 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  6. New anthraquinones from the stem of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2006-10-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stem of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicinone (=2-hydroxy-1,8-dimethoxy-7-methoxymethylanthraquinone, 1) and morindicininone (=4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 2-hydroxyanthraquinone (3) and 2-methoxyanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D-NMR techniques.

  7. 256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Marcia C. Linn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Susan M.; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Susan M. Fulgham and Michael F. Shaughnessy, Contributing Editors for this journal, present their interview with Marcia C. Linn, Professor of Development and Cognition, specializing in education in mathematics, science, and technology, in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley. Linn is currently investigating…

  9. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Marcia C. Linn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Susan M.; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Susan M. Fulgham and Michael F. Shaughnessy, Contributing Editors for this journal, present their interview with Marcia C. Linn, Professor of Development and Cognition, specializing in education in mathematics, science, and technology, in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley. Linn is currently investigating…

  10. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-07-01

    To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp).

  11. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp). PMID:25183269

  12. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. Objectives The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. Materials and Methods This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. Results HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. Conclusions The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug. PMID:27651944

  13. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug.

  14. Ocimum basilicum: Antibacterial activity and association study with antibiotics against bacteria of clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Araújo Silva, Viviane; Pereira da Sousa, Janiere; de Luna Freire Pessôa, Hilzeth; Fernanda Ramos de Freitas, Andrea; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Beuttenmuller Nogueira Alves, Larissa; Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as basil, is part of a group of medicinal plants widely used in cooking and known for its beneficial health properties, possessing significant antioxidant effects, antinociceptive, and others. The objective of this study is to determine the pharmacological effects produced on the bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when standard antibiotics and O. basilicum essential oil are combined. The extraction of O. basilicum (leaves) components was done by steam distillation. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated using microdilution technique, where the oil concentrations varied from 2 to 1024 μg/mL. The combinations of O. basilicum oil with ciprofloxacin or imipenem were analyzed by the checkerboard method where fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated. Ocimum basilicum essential oil, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin showed respective MIC antibacterial activities of 1024, 4, and 2 μg/mL, against S. aureus. In S. aureus, the oil with imipenem association showed synergistic effect (FIC = 0.0625), while the oil with ciprofloxacin showed antagonism (FIC value = 4.25). In P. aeruginosa, the imipenem/oil association showed additive effect for ATCC strains, and synergism for the clinical strain (FIC values = 0.75 and 0.0625). The association of O. basilicum essential oil with ciprofloxacin showed synergism for clinical strains (FIC value = 0.09). Ocimum basilicum essential oil associated with existing standard antibiotics may increase their antibacterial activity, resulting in a synergistic activity against bacterial strains of clinical importance. The antibacterial activity of O. basilicum essential oil may be associated with linalool.

  15. Can Ocimum basilicum relieve chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression in mice?

    PubMed

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Firgany, Alaa El-Din L; El-Mansy, Ahmed A; Ali, Soad

    2017-08-18

    Depression is one of the important world-wide health problems. This study aimed to assess the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil on the behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes resulted from exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). It also aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism in an animal model of depression. Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (n=10): control, CUMS (exposed to CUMS for 4weeks), CUMS plus fluoxetine, and CUMS plus OB. At the end of the experiment, behavioral changes, serum corticosterone level, protein and gene expressions of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the hippocampus was all assessed. Immunoexpression of surface makers of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, Caspase-3, BDNF and GR in the hippocampus were estimated. Data were analyzed by using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). OB alleviated both behavioral and biochemical changes recorded in mice after exposure to CUMS. It also reduced neuronal atrophy observed in the hippocampal region III cornu ammonis (CA3) and dentate gyrus and restored back astrocyte number. OB decreased apoptosis in both neurons and glial cells and increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a pattern comparable to that of fluoxetine. Increased BDNF and GR gene and protein expressions seems to be behind the antidepressant-like effect of OB. Ocimum basilicum ameliorates the changes induced after exposure to the chronic stress. Assessing Ocimum basilicum efficacy on human as antidepressant is recommended in further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Oviposition Deterrence Induced by Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum suave Extracts to Gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) in Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Mwang’onde, Beda J; Mahande, Aneth M

    2010-01-01

    Background: In most of the past decades, mosquito control has been done by the use of indoor residual spray and insecticides-treated bed nets. The control of mosquitoes by targeting the breeding sites (larval habitat) has not been given priority. Disrupting the oviposition sensory detection of mosquitoes by introducing deterrents of plant origin, which are cheap resources, might be add value to integrated vector control. Such knowledge is required in order to successfully manipulate the behavior of mosquitoes for monitoring or control. Materials and Methods: Twenty gravid mosquitoes were placed in a cage measuring 30 × 30 × 30 cm for oviposition. The oviposition media were made of different materials. Experiments were set up at 6:00 pm, and eggs were collected for counting at 7:30 am. Mosquitoes were observed until they died. The comparisons of the number of eggs were made between the different treatments. Results: There was significant difference in the number of eggs found in control cups when compared with the number of eggs found in water treated with Ocimum kilimandscharicum (OK) (P=0.02) or Ocimum suave (OS) (P=0.000) and that found in water with debris treated with OK (P=0.011) or OS (P=0.002). There was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid in treated water and the number of eggs laid in water with debris treated either with OK (P=0.105) or OS (P=0.176). Oviposition activity index for both OS and OK experiments lay in a negative side and ranged from -0.19% to -1%. The results show that OS and OK deter oviposition in An.gambiae s.s. Conclusions: Further research needs to be done on the effect of secondary metabolites of these plant extracts as they decompose in the breeding sites. In the event of favorable results, the potential of these plant extracts can be harnessed on a larger scale. PMID:20927285

  17. Antibacterial properties of the Vietnamese cajeput oil and ocimum oil in combination with antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Jedlicková, Z; Mottl, O; Serý, V

    1992-01-01

    Main antibacterially active agents obtained from plants-Cajeput essential oil--1,8 cineol, linalool, alpha-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, for example from Melalleuce leucadendron (Myrtaceae) as well as essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum (Labiatae) were combined in tests in vitro with selected antibiotics. Above mentioned plant products were found to be effective medicaments for local application in modern medical practice. Combinations with antibiotics potentiated their therapeutical action. On the basis of tests in vitro the synergistic action of these two kinds of medicaments, i.e., preparations traditionally used for a few last decades--antibiotics--might be well applied for therapeutical needs.

  18. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been recently detected in tomato, pepper, hoya and vinca in Florida. Observations of additional crops in 2016 and 2017 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Florida: sweet basil (Ocimum basilicu...

  19. Evaluation of diuretic activity of different extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn.

    PubMed

    Baghel, A; Rathore, D S; Gupta, V

    2013-10-15

    In that study, Mimosa pudica linn was tested for diuretic activity using the lipschitz test. The ethanolic and aqoues extract of Mimosa pudica Linn. was studied at two dose level 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. Furosemide (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) was used as standard drug in a 0.9% saline solution. Urine volumes were measured for all the groups up to 5 h. The ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica linn was exhibited significant diuretic activity at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. by increasing total urine volume and ion concentration of Na+ k+ and Cl-.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids

  1. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P V; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-05-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity.

  2. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  3. Ocimum gratissmum aqueous extract reduces plasma lipid in hypercholesterol-fed hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pei-Yu; Lin, James A.; Ting, Wei-Jen; Lee, Hsueh-Hui; Hsieh, Kuanghui; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lai, Te-Jen; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Liu, Je-rYuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperlipidemia is a significant risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and related diseases which are major health problem in many developed and developing countries that can lead to fatality due to the changes in lifestyle and dietary habits in this modern age. Methods: In the present study, the Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract (OGE) was tested for the lowering effect on the serum lipid level of male hamsters on a high-fat (12%) and high-cholesterol (0.2%) diet (HFCD). Results: The results showed that the levels of serum high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerols (TG) were increased in the HFCD group (113±11, 259±87, 629±175 and 625±262, respectively), as compared to the control normal diet group (51±8, 19±5, 77±16 and 101±44, respectively). When co-treated with various doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of the OGE or rosuvastatin, the rats exhibited the restoration of normal serum LDL-C, TC, and TG levels. Conclusion: Therefore, we suggest that the Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract may have the potential function of lowering serum lipid in rats. PMID:27877073

  4. Insecticidal Potential of Defense Metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.; Giri, Ashok P.

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity. PMID:25098951

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Ocimum tenuiflorum as MPO Inhibitor with Implications for Atherosclerosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Vardhan, Sangamithra

    2015-05-01

    Current experimental studies show that Ocimum tenuiflorum (commonly known as basil or Tulsi) possesses many health benefits. Ocimum is suggested to be antioxidative and anti-inflammatory. Eugenol, an orthomethoxyphenol, and ursolic acid have been identified as important components of basil. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an oxidative enzyme, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MPO-dependent oxidation of lipoproteins has been implicated in foam cell formation, dysfunctional HDL, and abnormalities in reverse cholesterol transport. Whole leaf extract of O. tenuiflorum and its major components, eugenol and ursolic acid, inhibit the oxidation of lipoproteins by myeloperoxidase/copper as measured by conjugated diene formation as well as by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Whole basil leaf extract is able to attenuate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells compared with its components. In addition, whole basil leaf extract and eugenol inhibited MPO enzyme activity against synthetic substrates. Based on these results, we conclude that basil extract could act as an inhibitor of MPO and may serve as a nonpharmacological therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.

  6. Clinical effect of a mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum on plaque and gingivitis control.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Oliveira, José Weslley Gonçalves; Angelo, Keyles Karla Sá Vieira; da Costa, Angela Maria Alves; Costa, Flávio

    2011-09-01

    The effect of Ocimum gratissimum (Og) on the reduction of dental plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the control group (n=10)-mouth rinse with no antiseptic agents; CLX group (n=10)-mouth rinse containing chlorhexidine digluconate or Og group (n=10)-mouth rinse containing Ocimum gratissimum. Plaque (PLI) and bleeding (BI) indexes were assessed at days 0 and after 3 months. Subjects were asked to brush their teeth with a fluoridated dentifrice, three times a day, during a 90-day period. After each brushing they rinsed with one of the three mouth rinses during 1 minute. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in tests groups (p < 0.05), but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p > 0.05). Mouth rinse containing Og was effective as antiplaque and antigingivitis agent, in a similar manner that chlorhexidine digluconate. Research in treatment of chronic oral diseases using natural agents must be encouraged to verify which would be a useful addition to the current range of chemotherapeutic treatment options.

  7. Effects of seasonal variation on the central nervous system activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Cristiana M Murbach; Marques, Márcia Ortiz M; Costa, Mirtes

    2006-04-21

    Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) and other species of the same genus are used as medicines to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, commonly encountered in warm regions of the world. The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil varies according to their chemotypes: timol, eugenol or geraniol. In this study, the essential oil type eugenol was extracted by hydrodistillation in each of the four seasons of the year. Activity upon CNS was evaluated in the open-field and rota-rod tests; sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (PBS, 40 mg/kg, intra-peritoneally, i.p.) and anticonvulsant activity against seizures induced by both pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg, s.c.) and maximal electroshock (MES, 50 mA, 0.11 s) were determined. Essential oils obtained in each season were effective in increasing the sleeping duration and a preparation obtained in Spring was able to protect animals against tonic seizures induced by electroshock. In each season, eugenol and 1,8-cineole were the most abundant compounds, and in Spring the essential oil presented the greatest relative percentage of sesquiterpenes, suggesting that these compounds could explain the differences observed in the biological activity in essential oils obtained in different seasons of the year.

  8. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of edible spices, Ocimum canum and Xylopia aethiopica.

    PubMed

    Vyry Wouatsa, N A; Misra, Laxminarain; Venkatesh Kumar, R

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils of 2 Cameroonian spices, namely, Xylopia aethiopica and Ocimum canum, were chemically investigated and screened for their antibacterial activity. The essential oils were analyzed by means of GC, GC/MS, and NMR. X. aethiopica oil contained myrtenol (12%), a monoterpenoid in highest concentration. The essential oil of O. canum belonged to the known linalool (44%) rich chemotype. The results of the antibacterial screening against the food spoiling bacteria revealed a significant and broad spectrum of activity for these essential oils. The present material of X. aethiopica, which is having myrtenol in relatively higher concentration, has shown moderate antibacterial activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of Ocimum canum oil through flash chromatography showed that minor compounds, namely, α-terpineol, chavicol, chavibetol, and trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-ol, significantly contributed for the overall activity observed. Hence, these results evidenced the possible potential of the essential oil of O. canum as a suitable antibacterial for controlling food-borne pathogens whereas the X. aethiopica oil has moderate possibility. There is a strong global demand for the microbe-free, safe, and healthy foods. In this study, we showed that the essential oil of O. canum (wild basil) can be used as antibacterial for food items. Also, we showed that a value addition in the antibacterial potential of O. canum oil can be done by processing the essential oil through flash chromatographic separations. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2008-09-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Phytochemical studies on the seed extract of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Munawwer; Afshan, Farhana; Tariq, Rajput M; Siddiqui, Bina S; Gulzar, Tahsin; Mahmood, Azhar; Begum, Sabira; Khan, Bushra

    2005-10-01

    The petroleum ether extract of dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum Linn. and some column fractions of this extract were subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of fourteen compounds (1-14) by using NIST Mass spectral search program 1998 and the Kovat's retention indices. Ten of the compounds (1, 2, 4-12) are reported for the first time from this plant. All the fractions showed insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston, determined by the WHO method.

  11. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

    2010-01-01

    Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

  12. A review on pharmacology and toxicology of Elephantopus scaber Linn.

    PubMed

    Hiradeve, Sachin M; Rangari, Vinod D

    2014-01-01

    Elephantopus scaber Linn., family Asteraceae, is a small herb found in the Neotropics, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The parts of this plant have been used traditionally for the treatment of number of diseases in many countries. The plant has been extensively screened for anticancer activity. Sesquiterpene lactones such as deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin and isoscabertopin. have been found to be prominent anticancer constituents. Many other biological activities such as antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiasthamatic, antiplatelet and wound healing ability have been reported in various research articles. This review has been envisaged with an intention to provide the scientific information about the pharmacological and toxicological profile of E. scaber.

  13. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  14. CYCLEA PELTATA DIELS – A POSSIBLE SUBSTITUTE FOR CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA LINN

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, N.B.R.; Devi, R.S Girija; Hepsibah, P.T.A

    1995-01-01

    Chromatographic studies have been carried out on cyclea peltata Diels and Cissampelos pareira Linn. The results substantiate that cyclea peltata Diels can be substituted for cissampelos pareira in ayurvedic formulations PMID:22556735

  15. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: LINN Operating, Inc. - Section 22 Compressor Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains documents relevant to the synthetic minor NSR permi for the LINN Operating, Inc. Section 22 Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  16. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: LINN Operating, Inc. - Section 23 Compressor Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains documents related to the synthetic minor NSR permit for the LINN Operating, Inc. Section 23 Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  17. Morinda citrifolia Linn. for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Prapaitrakool, Sunisa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    To be a preliminary, prospective, randomized double blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of Morinda citrifolia Linn or noni for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients considered high risk for PONV after various types of surgery. The plant extract was prepared by boiling of dried noni fruit (maturity stage 3-4) then evaporated under standard procedure and processed into capsules. The doses were 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg which are equivalent to 5, 10 and 20 g of dried noni fruit, respectively. One hundred patients of ASA physical status I or II, aged 18-65 years, and considered at risk for PONV, were randomized to receive 150, 300, 600 mg of noni extract or a placebo orally 1 hours before surgery. Standard general anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia were employed. Significantly fewer patients who had received the 600 mg noni extract experienced nausea during the first 6 hours compared to the placebo group (48% for the 600 mg noni group and 80% for the placebo group, p-value = 0.04). The incidence of PONV in other time periods was not statistically different for all three noni doses compared to the placebo group. No side effects were reported in all groups. Morinda citrifolia Linn. has an antiemetic property and prophylactic noni extract at 600 mg (equivalent to 20g of dried noni fruit or scopoletin 8.712 microg) effectively reduces the incidence of early postoperative nausea (0-6 hours).

  18. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

  19. Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical investigation of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f.

    PubMed Central

    Chilakwad, Sneha R.; Manjunath, K P; Akki, Kusum S; Savadi, R V; Deshpande, Netravati

    2008-01-01

    Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f. (Syn: Pandanus fascicularis Lamk) belongs to the family Pandanacea, is a palm like small tree or shrub, which usually grow in old world tropics and few warm temperate regions. Mostly all parts are medicinally used. In the present study, histological, physical, powdered characteristics and preliminary phytochemical investigations were carried out on the leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f. PMID:22557302

  20. Anti-cataract activity of Pterocarpus marsupium bark and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract in alloxan diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Vats, V; Yadav, S P; Biswas, N R; Grover, J K

    2004-08-01

    Long-term complications are frequently encountered in diabetes mellitus and are difficult to treat. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of three antidiabetic plants on the development of cataract in rats. An aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM, Hindi name: Vijaysar) (1 g kg(-1) day(-1)), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS, Hindi name, Tulsi) (200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn seeds (FG, Hindi name, Methi) (2 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were given to alloxan (120 mg kg(-1)) diabetic rats until the development of cataract. Serum glucose and body weight were monitored at regular intervals while cataract was examined through naked eye as well as slit lamp at 75, 100 and 115 days after alloxan administration. Administration of all the three plant extracts exerted a favorable effect on body weight and blood glucose, the effects were best with PM followed by FG and OS. On the course of cataract development, PM followed by FG exerted anti-cataract effect evident from decreased opacity index while OS failed to produce any anti-cataract effect in spite of significant antihyperglycemic activity.

  1. Antispasmodic effect of Ocimum selloi essential oil on the guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Souza, Sylvia D F; Franca, Carolina S L; Niculau, Edenilson S; Costa, Larissa C B; Pinto, José E B; Alves, Péricles B; Marçal, Rosilene M

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum selloi is an herbal species popularly used in Brazil as antispasmodic. Herein, we report the antispasmodic effect of O. selloi essential oil (OS) in segments of guinea-pig ileum. OS did not reduce the tonus of the ileum. In contrast, OS reduced the contraction induced by carbachol (100 μM), BaCl2 (0.03 M) and low- and high-K(+) concentrations (25 and 60 mM, respectively). OS shifted the concentration-response curve for calcium to the right in a parallel manner. GC/MS analysis showed that OS consists mostly of methyl chavicol (97.57%). These results suggest that OS antispasmodic effect is mediated through calcium channel blockade. In addition, OS effect and mode of action could be accounted for methyl chavicol.

  2. Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rupali S.; Kokate, Mangesh R.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ˜450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming).

  3. Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rupali S; Kokate, Mangesh R; Kolekar, Sanjay S

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming).

  4. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities.

  5. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  6. Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic evaluation of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, a culinary herb

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, C. O.; Ezike, A. C.; Agwagah, O. C.; Akah, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities of leaf extracts and fraction of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) were studied using seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol and open-field tests in mice. The results showed that the extracts and fraction increased the latency of tonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death and elicited 50% protection against mortality. In the open-field test, the extracts and fraction decreased the frequency of line crossing, center square entries, rearing against a wall and grooming, whereas grooming duration and freezing frequency and duration were increased. Acute toxicity test in mice gave an oral LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg for the methanol extract. These findings suggest that extracts of this plant possess anticonvulsant and anxiolytic-like properties. PMID:21808537

  7. Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Nagai, Alice; Duarte, Ligia M L; Santos, Déborah Y A C

    2011-08-01

    Ocimum basilicum L., popularly known as sweet basil, is a Lamiaceae species whose essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids. The contents of these compounds can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors such as infections caused by viruses. The main goal of this research was an investigation of the effects of viral infection on the essential oil profile of common basil. Seeds of O. basilicum L. cv. Genovese were sowed and kept in a greenhouse. Plants presenting two pairs of leaves above the cotyledons were inoculated with an unidentified virus isolated from a field plant showing chlorotic yellow spots and foliar deformation. Essential oils of healthy and infected plants were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS. Changes in essential oil composition due to viral infection were observed. Methyleugenol and p-cresol,2,6-di-tert-butyl were the main constituents. However, methyleugenol contents were significantly decreased in infected plants.

  8. Immobilization of invertase through its carbohydrate moiety on Ocimum basilicum seed.

    PubMed

    Melo, J S; D'Souza, S F

    1992-01-01

    Yeast invertase, a glycoprotein, was covalently coupled to Ocimum basilicum seeds either through its protein or carbohydrate moiety. Of the various methods investigated, binding of the enzyme through its carbohydrate moiety resulted in the retention of considerably higher amounts of enzyme activity. Immobilized invertase showed a shift in the pH optimum toward the alkaline side without appreciable change in temperature optimum. However, the immobilized preparation was more thermostable than the free enzyme. Invertase bound to the seeds could be used repeatedly for the hydrolysis of sucrose syrups in a batch process without appreciable loss in activity. The seeds could serve as an inexpensive, ready-to-use, natural pellicular polysaccharide support for immobilizing enzymes.

  9. Evaluation of the antimycobacterium activity of the constituents from Ocimum basilicum against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Bhatti, Huma A; Begum, Sabira; Perwaiz, Sobiya

    2012-10-31

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to the genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae). Many species of this genus including O. basilicum have been traditionally used for the treatment of a variety of diseases including respiratory diseases and symptoms of tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of pure constituents of O. basilicum, a plant used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases including symptoms of tuberculosis, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The crude methanolic extract from the aerial parts (leaves, fruits and flowers) of the plant was separated into EtOAc and water subextracts and the EtOAc subextract was further divided into acidic and neutral fractions. Each of these was subjected to fractionation through column chromatography followed by prep. TLC. Several pure compounds were thus isolated and their activity was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv using MABA assay. Nine compounds were assayed for antituberculosis activity which exhibited upto 49% inhibition of M. tuberculosis H37Rv at 6.25 μg/mL. These include one new compound bacilicin, the structure of which was elucidated based on 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY) and Ms spectral analysis. The known compounds were identified on the basis of comparison of their spectral data with those reported earlier. Inhibition of M. tuberculosis by pure compounds from O. basilicum supports the use of this plant in ethnomedicine as a remedy for symptoms of tuberculosis. The results also suggest that the activity of the plant may be due to a synergistic effect of active compounds including those investigated in the present studies, and hence this plant is a potential candidate for obtaining further new antituberculosis natural products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical characterization of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) found in local accessions and used in traditional medicines in Iran.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Jamal; Khalighi, A; Kashi, A; Bais, H P; Vivanco, J M

    2002-10-09

    Ocimum species are used in traditional Iranian medicine, as a culinary herb, and as a well-known source of flavoring principles. Horticultural characteristics, including quantitative and qualitative traits along with the chemical variation of phenolic acids, of 23 accessions of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Iran were studied. Morphological studies of accessions showed a high level of variability in recorded traits. Quantification of phenolic acids was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and showed drastic variations between accessions. Chemical studies revealed that rosmarinic acid is the predominant phenolic acid present in both flower and leaf tissues. Unusual basil accessions were identified that can serve as genetic sources of phenolic acids for crop improvement.

  11. Standardisation and Quality Evaluation of Centella asiatica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, G.V.R.; Chaturvedi, Sachin; Deokule, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Centella asiatica Linn. Is a well-known medicinal herb used in various types of diseases, it was noticed that the herb is being heavily adulterated with the cheaper substances. A critical stud of the authentic and maker samples (available in powder for) s carried out to study current status of the drug in the local market. Powder analysis of the market samples shoes fragments of sclerenchymatous net, which is a characteristic feature of some umbelliferous fruits. Occurrence of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and large number of starch grains shows that the powdered materials are heavily adulterated with some cheaper substances. Fluorescence analysis of authentic and market samples exhibits 23.28% and 12.34% -18.13% respectively and there is a difference in curde fibre content also. Moreover there is remarkable difference in the quantitative value of Asiatic acid (3.25% - 0.12%) which is one of the chief constituents of C. asiatica. PMID:22557022

  12. Floods in the Big Creek basin, Linn County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1977-01-01

    Flood information for the Big Creek basin in Linn County, Iowa, should be of use to those concerned with the design of bridges and other structures on the flood plains of the streams. Water-surface profiles for the flood of May 1974 are given for Big Creek and its major tributaries, East Big, Crabapple, Elbow, and Abbe Creeks. The May 1974 flood was at least a 50-year flood on East Big Creek and along certain reaches of Big and Abbe Creeks. Also included for Big Creek are a profile of the December 1971 medium-stage flow and a partial profile for the minor flood of July 1971. Profiles for the low-water condition of October 26, 1972, are shown for all reaches. Water-surface profiles for the 25- and 50-year floods are estimated in relation to the May 1974 flood.

  13. Standardisation and Quality Evaluation of Centella asiatica Linn.

    PubMed

    Joseph, G V; Chaturvedi, S; Deokule, S S

    2001-04-01

    Centella asiatica Linn. Is a well-known medicinal herb used in various types of diseases, it was noticed that the herb is being heavily adulterated with the cheaper substances. A critical stud of the authentic and maker samples (available in powder for) s carried out to study current status of the drug in the local market. Powder analysis of the market samples shoes fragments of sclerenchymatous net, which is a characteristic feature of some umbelliferous fruits. Occurrence of prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and large number of starch grains shows that the powdered materials are heavily adulterated with some cheaper substances. Fluorescence analysis of authentic and market samples exhibits 23.28% and 12.34% -18.13% respectively and there is a difference in curde fibre content also. Moreover there is remarkable difference in the quantitative value of Asiatic acid (3.25% - 0.12%) which is one of the chief constituents of C. asiatica.

  14. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rajesh S; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

  15. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

    2010-10-01

    Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  16. Antispasmodic activity of the fruits of Helicteres isora Linn.

    PubMed

    Pohocha, N; Grampurohit, N D

    2001-02-01

    Fruits of Helicteres isora Linn., commonly called Murudsheng in India, are usually prescribed in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, especially in Ayurveda, for a variety of intestinal complaints. The antispasmodic activity was checked in vitro on guinea-pig ileum against three spasmogens, acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride. The IC(50) for each was determined. The activity was compared with standard antispasmodic agents, atropine and diphenhydramine hydrochloride. The activity was also studied in vivo by observing the gastrointestinal motility in mice using the marker technique and the ED(50) was calculated. Acute toxicity studies were conducted on mice using the method of Weil and the LD(50) was determined. The results indicated that the fruits possess very good antispasmodic activity.

  17. Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

  18. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

    2010-01-01

    Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads. PMID:22247882

  19. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypolipidaemic activity of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in acute hyperlipidaemia induced by triton WR-1339 in rats and its antioxidant property.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Bouanani, Nour El Houda; Aziz, Mohammed; Caid, Hana Serghini; Manfredini, Stefano; Besco, Elena; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena

    2006-12-01

    Hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerosis and related diseases are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Ocimum basilicum is one of the medicinal plants widely used in Morocco to reduce plasma cholesterol and to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the reported hypolipidaemic effect of this plant have not been investigated. This study evaluates the lipid lowering effect of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Hyperlipidaemia was developed in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg). After injection of Triton the animals were divided into three treatment groups: hyperlipidaemic, hyperlipidaemic plus herb extract and hyperlipidaemic plus fenofibrate treated rats. At 7 h after the Triton injection, levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol in rats treated also with the Ocimum basilicum extract (0.5 g/100 g body weight) were, respectively, 50%, 83% and 79% lower than Triton-treated rats and HDL-cholesterol was 129% higher than in rats given Triton alone. At 24 h following Ocimum basilicum administration, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased by 56%, 63% and 68%, respectively, in comparison with the Triton treated group and HDL-cholesterol was not increased significantly. The hypolipidaemic effect exerted by Ocimum basilicum extract was markedly stronger than the effect induced by fenofibrate treatments. Further it was demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum aqueous extract displayed a very high antioxidant power. These results indicate that Ocimum basilicum extract may contain hypolipidaemic and antioxidant substances and its use as a therapeutic tool in hyperlipidaemic subjects may be of benefit and encourage further investigation in this field.

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  2. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.

  3. Development and anti-microbial potential of topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn.

    PubMed

    Sheshala, Ravi; Ying, Ling Teck; Hui, Ling Shiau; Barua, Ankur; Dua, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve better treatment for local wounds and bacterial infections, topical formulations containing Cocos nucifera Linn. were developed. These formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and antimicrobial efficacy against various strains of microorganisms. Semisolid formulations containing 5% w/w of Cocos nucifera Linn. were prepared by employing different dermatological bases and were evaluated for their physical appearance, pH, rheological properties, FTIR-spectroscopic analysis, thermodynamic stability and stability studies. The antimicrobial activity of each prepared formulation was determined using disk-diffusion method against various strains of microorganisms. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable and exhibited suitable physicochemical characteristics including pH, viscosity and spreadability which are necessary for an ideal topical preparation, in addition to strong antimicrobial activity. Carbopol gel base was found to be the most suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. in comparsion to other bases. Cocos nucifera Linn. formulations showed great potential for wounds and local bacterial infections. Moreover, carbopol gel base with its aesthetic appeal was found to be a suitable dermatological base for Cocos nucifera Linn. semisolid formulation as it had demonstrated significant physicochemical properties and greater diffusion when assessed using disk- diffusion method.

  4. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Chhetri, Bhuwan K.; Dosoky, Noura S.; Shari, Khola; Al-Fahad, Ahmed J. A.; Wessjohann, Ludger; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Methods: The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Ocimum forskolei Benth. (EOOF) and two different populations of Teucrium yemense Deflers., one collected from Dhamar province (EOTY-d), and another collected from Taiz (EOTY-t) were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were evaluated against several microorganisms with the disc diffusion test or the broth microdilution test. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. EOOF and EOTY-d were screened for free-radical-inhibitory activity using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: Sixty-four compounds were identified in (EOOF) representing 100% of the oil content with endo-fenchol (31.1%), fenchone (12.2%), τ-cadinol (12.2%), and methyl (E)-cinnamate (5.1%) as the major compounds. In EOTY-d, 67 compounds were identified, which made up 91% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were (E)-caryophyllene (11.2%), α-humulene (4.0.%), γ-selinene (5.5%), 7-epi-α-selinene (20.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (20.1%), while the major compounds in EOTY-t were α-pinene (6.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.1%) α-humulene (6.4%), δ-cadinene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (4.3%), α-cadinol (9.5%), and shyobunol (4.6%). The most sensitive microorganisms for EOOF were B. subtilis, S. aureus, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 34, 16, and 24 mm and MIC values of, 4.3 mg/mL, 4.3 mg/mL, and 8.6 mg/mL, respectively. EOTY-t showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, A. niger, and B. cinerea with MIC values of 0.156, 0.156, 0.313 and 0.313 mg/mL, respectively. Neither essential oil showed remarkable radical inhibition (IC50 = 31.55 and 31.41 μL/mL). EOTY-d was active against HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines with IC50 = 43.7

  5. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    PubMed

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and γ-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin

  6. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome of Ocimum americanum var. pilosum under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiangqiang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Jian Kang; Lang, Zhaobo

    2016-03-09

    Ocimum americanum var. pilosum is a chilling-sensitive, widely distributed plant that is consumed as a vegetable in central and southern China. To increase our understanding of cold stress responses in this species, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for O. americanum var. pilosum and compared the transcriptomes of plants grown under normal and low temperatures. A total of 115,022,842 high quality, clean reads were obtained from four libraries (two replicates of control samples and two replicates of chilling-treated samples) and were used to perform de novo transcriptome assembly. After isoforms were considered, 42,816 unigenes were generated, 30,748 of which were similar to known proteins as determined by a BLASTx search (E-value < =1.0E-05) against NCBI non-redundant, Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology, KEGG, and Cluster of COG databases. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes revealed that 5179 unigenes were differentially expressed (with at least 2-fold changes, FDR < 0.01) in chilling-treated samples, and that 2344 and 2835 unigenes were up- and down-regulated by chilling stress, respectively. Expression of the 10 most up-regulated and the five most down-regulated unigenes was validated by qRT-PCR. To increase our understanding of these differentially expressed unigenes, we performed Gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. The CBF-mediated transcriptional cascade, a well-known cold tolerance pathway, was reconstructed using our de novo assembled transcriptome. Our study has generated a genome-wide transcript profile of O. americanum var. pilosum and a de novo assembled transcriptome, which can be used to characterize genes related to diverse biological processes. This is the first study to assess the cold-responsive transcriptome in an Ocimum species. Our results suggest that cold temperature significantly affects genes related to protein translation and cellular metabolism in this chilling sensitive species. Although most of the CBF

  7. Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and analgesic potential of cocos nucifera linn.: a review.

    PubMed

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Ling, Teck Ying; Hui Ling, Shiau; Gorajana, Adinarayana

    2013-01-01

    At present, approximately 25%of drugs in modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plant sources (phytomedicines) that can be developed for the treatment of diseases and disorders. Many other drugs are synthetic analogues built on the prototype compounds isolated from plants. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae), which is commonly known as coconut, is a plant possessing a lot of potential as an ingredient in traditional medicines for the treatment of metabolic disorders and particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic agent. This review emphasizes on the recent literature and research findings that highlight the significant biological activities of C. nucifera Linn. such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. This review can help researchers keen on exploiting the therapeutic potential of C. nucifera Linn. which may motivate them to further explore their commercial viability.

  8. [Comparison of Chemical Components of Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum Extracted by Supercritical CO2 Fluid and Steam Distillation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-yu; Zheng, Jia-huan; Shi, Sheng-ying; Luo, Zhi-xiong; Ni, Shun-yu; Lin, Jing-ming

    2015-11-01

    To compare the chemical components of essential oil prepared by steam distillation extraction (SD) and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2) from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum whole plant. The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum were extracted by SD and SFE-CO2. The chemical components of essential oil were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). Their relative contents were determined by normalization of peak area. 40 and 42 compounds were detected in the essential oil prepared by SD and SFE-CO2 respectively. 25 compounds were common. Thereare significant differences of the chemical components between the Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum essential oil prepared by SD and thatby SFE-CO2. Different methods showed different extraction efficiency with a special compound. It might be a good idea to unite several methods in the modern traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  9. Content, Composition and Bioactivity of the Essential Oils of Three Basil Genotypes as a Function of Harvesting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A replicated field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of cut on biomass productivity, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of Ocimum basilicum L. (cvs. German and Mesten) and Ocimum sanctum L. (cv. Local). Basil grew well under Mississippi conditions, without any major pests or di...

  10. In vitro H(+) -K(+) ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Priyanka; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to study in vitro H(+) -K(+) ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. MATERIALS AND MATHODS: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract was quantified and H(+) -K(+) ATPase inhibition assay was performed in presence of different concentrations of standard (omeprazole) and methanol extract. Extract showed significant (*P < 0.05) proton pump inhibitory activity in the goat gastric mucosal homogenate which was comparable to standard. These findings showed that methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis Linn. is potent inhibitor of proton pump.

  11. Corchorus Olitorius Linn: A Rich Source of Ω3-Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, AS; Thao, N; Mario, A

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of Corchorus olitorius Linn were identified as their methyl esters using accurate mass gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GCQTOF) in chemical ionization (CI) and electron ionization (EI) modes. The leaves which are the edible part of the plant were found to be very rich in ω3-octadecatriene fatty acid reaching up to more than 49 % of the total fatty acids contents. This is the first report to unequivocally detect ω-3 fatty acid in Corchorus olitorius Linn with a much higher concentration than any other reported vegetable and further investigation into its health effects are clearly warranted. PMID:27722021

  12. In vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Priyanka; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to study in vitro H+ -K+ ATPase inhibitory potential of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Materials and Mathods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract was quantified and H+ -K+ ATPase inhibition assay was performed in presence of different concentrations of standard (omeprazole) and methanol extract. Results: Extract showed significant (*P < 0.05) proton pump inhibitory activity in the goat gastric mucosal homogenate which was comparable to standard. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis Linn. is potent inhibitor of proton pump. PMID:22518085

  13. Antinociceptive and antispasmodic effects of the essential oil of Ocimum micranthum: potential anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Pinho, João Paulo de; Silva, Andressa Santa; Pinheiro, Bruno Gonçalves; Sombra, Igor; Bayma, Joaquim de Carvalho; Lahlou, Saad; Sousa, Pergentino José da Cunha; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge

    2012-05-01

    The antinociceptive and antispasmodic properties of the essential oil of OCIMUM micranthum (EOOM) were characterized. In mice, EOOM (15-100 mg · kg (-1), p. o.) reduced both the writhing responses induced by acetic acid and the licking-time induced by formalin, being inert on the hot plate test. In rat trachea, EOOM relaxed sustained contractions induced by KCl or carbachol (CCh). Its constituents, ( E)- [( E)-MC] and ( Z)-methyl cinnamate [( Z)-MC], reproduced several effects of EOOM. Inhaled as aerosol, EOOM prevented tracheal hyperresponsiveness to KCl or CCh in ovalbumin-sensitized animals after antigen challenge. Thus, EOOM exerts peripheral analgesia in nociception of inflammatory origin and has antispasmodic actions on rat airways under an inflammatory environment. Its effects are mainly due to ( E)-MC, which makes this substance potentially interesting for studies involving conjunctly smooth muscle cells, nociception, and inflammation. Other EOOM constituents also appear to be involved in its pharmacological actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Chloroplast DNA Phylogeography of Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil “Tulsi”, is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10−4. However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km2 encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting. PMID:24523650

  15. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; Rani, Pooja; Meena, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil "Tulsi", is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10(-4). However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km(2) encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting.

  16. Arsenite and arsenate impact the oxidative status and antioxidant responses in Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fauzia; Tandon, P K; Srivastava, Sudhakar

    2015-07-01

    Biochemical responses of Ocimum tenuiflorum plants were studied upon exposure to arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) for 1 to 10 d. Plants accumulated significant amounts of As in leaves (662 μg g(-1) dry weight; DW and 412 μg g(-1) DW in response to 100 μM AsIII and AsV exposure, respectively after 10 d). Consequently, fresh weight and growth of plants declined in a concentration dependent manner. Further, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents also declined while oxidative stress markers increased, particularly on longer durations. Various antioxidant enzymes and thiols (cysteine and glutathione; GSH) showed significant and variable increases upon exposure to AsV and AsIII with the response being comparatively better in response to AsV. Proline increased significantly upon exposure to both AsIII and AsV. Plants thus tolerated high As concentrations through induced antioxidant machinery.

  17. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Mukhopadhyay, M K; Ghosh, P D; Nath, D

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P < 0.05). The present study indicates that the secondary metabolites of O. basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice.

  18. Evaluation of bioactivity of linalool-rich essential oils from Ocimum basilucum and Coriandrum sativum varieties.

    PubMed

    Duman, Ahmet D; Telci, Isa; Dayisoylu, Kenan S; Digrak, Metin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Alma, Mehmet H

    2010-06-01

    Essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. and Coriandrum sativum L. varieties originating from Turkey were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effects of the oil varieties were evaluated by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against eight bacteria and three fungi. The compositions of the essential oils were analyzed and identified by GC and GC-MS. O. basilicum, C. sativum var. macrocarpum and var. microcarpum oils revealed the presence of linalool (54.4%), eugenol (9.6%), methyl eugenol (7.6%); linalool (78.8%), gamma-terpinene (6.0%), nerol acetate (3.5%); and linalool (90.6%), and nerol acetate (3.3%) as the major components, respectively. The oils exhibited antibacterial activity ranging from 1.25 to 10 microL disc(-1) against the test organisms with inhibition zones of 9.5-39.0 mm and minimal inhibitory concentrations values in the range 0.5- > or =1 microL/L. Linalool, eugenol, and methyl eugenol at 1.25 microL disc(-1) had antimicrobial effects on all microorganisms, giving inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 19 mm.

  19. Infraspecific taxonomy and essential oil chemotypes in sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Grayer, R J; Kite, G C; Goldstone, F J; Bryan, S E; Paton, A; Putievsky, E

    1996-11-01

    Essential oil compositions of fresh and freeze-dried leaves were determined for 16 accessions of Ocimum basilicum belonging to different varieties to see whether they could be used as infraspecific taxonomic characters. One accession of O. x citriodorum was also studied. Some 30 monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and phenylpropanoids were identified, the major components (more than 20% of the total essential oil composition in one or more accessions) being geranial and neral in O. x citriodorum, and linalool, methyl chavicol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and geraniol in O. basilicum. Based on a combination of the latter compounds, five major essential oil profiles could be distinguished in the accessions studied for O. basilicum. These profiles were largely the same for fresh and freeze-dried material of the same plant, although in the dried leaves, methyl chavicol and eugenol concentrations had generally declined in comparison to those of linalool. There appeared to be little correlation between essential oil patterns and varietal classification within O. basilicum. In view of the chemical heterogeneity of O. basilicum and its use as an essential oil-producing crop, culinary herb, medicinal plant and insect-controlling agent, in all of which chemicals play an important role, the infraspecific classification of this taxon should take chemical characters into consideration. A system for the classification of essential oil chemotypes in O. basilicum is proposed.

  20. Ocimum basilicum ethanolic extract decreases cholesterol synthesis and lipid accumulation in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Elena; Amrani, Souliman; Aziz, Mohammed; Harnafi, Hicham; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2008-12-01

    Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. basilicum on lipid accumulation in human macrophages. As modification of LDL increase atherogenicity of the particles we evaluated the effects of the extract on LDL oxidation. The extract caused a dose-related increase of LDL-resistance to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation. Furthermore, at the dose of 60 microg/ml, significantly decreases the accumulation of macrophage lipid droplets induced by modified LDL evaluated as by red-oil staining. Cholesterol esterification and triacylglycerol synthesis in the cells were not affected. Macrophage treatment with 60 microg/ml, but not 20 microg/ml, of the extract reduced newly synthesized unesterified cholesterol by about 60% and decreased scavenger receptors activity by about 20-30%, evaluated by the internalization of cholesterol carried by [(3)H]CE-aggregated-LDL. The results suggest that O. basilicum ethanolic extract has the capability to reduce foam cell formation through the reduction of cholesterol synthesis and the modulation of the activity of surface scavenger receptors.

  1. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf callus of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    Gopi, C; Ponmurugan, P

    2006-11-01

    A effective protocol for complete plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis has been developed for Ocimum basilicum L. Callus was initiated from leaf explant of young plant on supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1.0 mg l(-1), 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The calli showed differentiation of globular structure embryos when transferred to MS medium containing 2,4-D 0.5 mg l(-1) and BAP 1.0 mg l(-1). The maximum globular structure embryos were further enlarged and produced somatic embryos in MS basal medium supplemented with BAP 1.0 mg l(-1)+NAA 1.0 mg l(-1) + KN 0.5 mg l(-1). Continued formation of globular embryo and germination of embryos occurred in this medium. Complete plantlets were transferred onto specially made plastic cup containing soilrite followed by their transfer to the garden soil. Survival rate of the plantlets under ex vitro condition was 80%.

  2. Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oil and Its Isolated Compounds (Eugenol and Myrcene) Reduce Neuropathic Pain in Mice.

    PubMed

    Paula-Freire, Lyvia Izaura Gomes; Molska, Graziella Rigueira; Andersen, Monica Levy; Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz de Araújo

    2016-02-01

    Ocimum gratissimum is used in popular medicine to treat painful diseases. The antihypernociceptive properties of O. gratissimum essential oil and two of its active components (eugenol and myrcene) were tested in a model of neuropathic pain induced by a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. In tests to determine chronic antinociception, adult male C57BL/6 J mice were treated orally with corn oil (control group), O. gratissimum essential oil at doses of 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg or eugenol or myrcene at doses of 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg for 14 days after surgery. Pregabalin (20 mg/kg) was used as a standard in this study. The treatment with 20 and 40 mg/kg of O. gratissimum essential oil and at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg of the active components were able to promote antihypernociception in both mechanical (von Frey) and thermal (hot plate) tests. The treatment with the essential oil of the plant or eugenol was effective in reducing the levels of interleukin-1β in the sciatic nerve. Our findings demonstrate that O. gratissimum essential oil and its isolated active components possess antihypernociceptive activity in neuropathic pain models. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid “Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita” exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita,” such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon”; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  4. Comparative essential oil composition of flowers, leavesand stems of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) used as herb.

    PubMed

    Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2008-09-15

    The chemical composition of flower, leaves and stems from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) have been examined by GC and GC-MS. The identified components constituting 99.03%, 95.04% and 97.66% of the flower, leaves and stem oils, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil of flower, leaves and stem oils, respectively, were estragole (58.26%, 52.60% and 15.91%) and limonene (19.41%, 13.64% and 2.40%) and p-cymene (0.38%, 2.32% and 2.40%). Dill apiole (50.07%) was identified as the highest main constituent for stem. Estragole (15.91%), apiole (9.48) and exo-fenchyle acetate (6.14%) followed in order to decreasing them. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to different parts of O. basilicum. It was reported that the chemical composition of different parts oils of basil are very variable. It is known that specific estragole chemotypes are also known.

  5. Fungitoxicity of organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum on growth and morphogenesis of Bipolaris species (teleomorph Cochliobolus).

    PubMed

    Elsherbiny, E A; Safwat, N A; Elaasser, M M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of various organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum against some species of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. The ethyl acetate extract consisted of methyl cinnamate as the most abundant component, while butylated hydroxytoluene was the major component in the methanol extract. Pyrogallol and chlorogenic acid were major phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Complete growth inhibition of all fungi except Cochliobolus australiensis was observed by ethyl acetate extract, and on Bipolaris hawaiensis, Bipolaris spicifera and Cochliobolus cynodontis by methanol extract. Spore germination was completely inhibited for Bipolaris hawaiensis by ethyl acetate extract. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the organic extracts cause considerable morphological changes of the fungal hyphae such as mycelial asymmetry, hyphal swelling, sunken, curling, distorted and broken hyphae. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of O. basilicum can result in an effective suppression of mycelial growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species. The organic extracts of O. basilicum are potential and promising natural tools for controlling Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species, economically important plant and human fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  7. Essential-Oil Variability in a Collection of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Antonella; Roscigno, Graziana; Bruno, Maurizio; De Falco, Enrica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant of great tradition in the Mediterranean area. Its economic importance is growing up determining an expansion of cultivation. This paper evaluated the morphological traits, the chemical profiles, and antibacterial activity of 21 cultivars of basil belonging to 'Genovese', 'Napoletano', and 'Purple basil' types. The cultivars were characterized by different growth rate and morphological traits. The chemical composition of the oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS analysis, supported by the PCA analysis, underlined the strong influence of chemotype. It is noteworthy that estragole, never present in Genovese and purple basil types, occurred in Napoletano type. The high presence of eugenol, methyl eugenol, and linalool in the majority of cultivars, belonging both to Genovese and to Napoletano types was registered. Of great interest resulted the composition of the purple basil 'Opal'. All the samples tested exhibited similar antibiotic profiles with moderate antibacterial activity. The results enhanced the importance of determination of essential-oil profile in the selection of cultivars characterized by diverse morphological traits and are useful for different purposes.

  8. Effect of chitosan on the biological properties of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2005-05-04

    The effect of the treatment of chitosan at various concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) upon sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) before seeding and transplanting was investigated in aspects of the amount of phenolic and terpenic compounds, antioxidant activity, and growth of the basil, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The total amount of the phenolic and terpenic compounds increased after the chitosan treatment. Especially, the amounts of rosmarinic acid (RA) and eugenol increased 2.5 times and 2 times, respectively, by 0.1% and 0.5% chitosan treatment. Due to the significant induction of phenolic compounds, especially RA, the corresponding antioxidant activity assayed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging test increased at least 3.5-fold. Also, the activity of PAL, a key regulatory enzyme for the phenylpropanoid pathway, increased 32 times by 0.5% chitosan solution. Moreover, after the elicitor chitosan treatment, the growth in terms of the weight and height of the sweet basil significantly increased about 17% and 12%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that an elicitor such as chitosan can effectively induce phytochemicals in plants, which might be another alternative and effective means instead of genetic modification.

  9. In-silico identification of miRNAs and their regulating target functions in Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Noopur; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    microRNA is known to play an important role in growth and development of the plants and also in environmental stress. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a well known herb for its medicinal properties. In this study, we used in-silico approaches to identify miRNAs and their targets regulating different functions in O. basilicum using EST approach. Additionally, functional annotation, gene ontology and pathway analysis of identified target transcripts were also done. Seven miRNA families were identified. Meaningful regulations of target transcript by identified miRNAs were computationally evaluated. Four miRNA families have been reported by us for the first time from the Lamiaceae. Our results further confirmed that uracil was the predominant base in the first positions of identified mature miRNA sequence, while adenine and uracil were predominant in pre-miRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the relation between O. basilicum and other plant pre-miRNAs. Thirteen potential targets were evaluated for 4 miRNA families. Majority of the identified target transcripts regulated by miRNAs showed response to stress. miRNA 5021 was also indicated for playing an important role in the amino acid metabolism and co-factor metabolism in this plant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first in silico study describing miRNAs and their regulation in different metabolic pathways of O. basilicum.

  10. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  11. Yield and oil composition of 38 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions grown in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Callahan, Amber; Cantrell, Charles L

    2008-01-09

    A field experiment was conducted to assess yield, oil content, and composition of 38 genotypes of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Overall, biomass yields were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. However, basil genotypes differed significantly with respect to oil content and composition. Oil content of the tested accessions varied from 0.07% to 1.92% in dry herbage. On the basis of the oil composition, basil accessions were divided into seven groups: (1) high-linalool chemotype [19-73% (-)-linalool], (2) linalool-eugenol chemotype [six chemotypes with 28-66% (-)-linalool and 5-29% eugenol], (3) methyl chavicol chemotype [six accessions with 20-72% methyl chavicol and no (-)-linalool], (4) methyl chavicol-linalool chemotype [six accessions with 8-29% methyl chavicol and 8-53% (-)-linalool], (5) methyl eugenol-linalool chemotype [two accessions with 37% and 91% methyl eugenol and 60% and 15% (-)-linalool], (6) methyl cinnamate-linalool chemotype [one accession with 9.7% methyl cinnamate and 31% (-)-linalool], and (7) bergamotene chemotype [one accession with bergamotene as major constituent, 5% eucalyptol, and <1% (-)-linalool]. Our results demonstrated that basil could be a viable essential oil crop in Mississippi. The availability of various chemotypes offers the opportunity for production of basil to meet the market requirements of specific basil oils or individual compounds such as (-)-linalool, eugenol, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, or methyl eugenol.

  12. In vitro evaluation of anti-diabetic activity and cytotoxicity of chemically analysed Ocimum basilicum extracts.

    PubMed

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the anti-diabetic effects of methanol, hexane and dichloromethane extracts of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (OB) and to analyze their phytochemical composition. Phytochemical analysis of the three extracts by GC/MS using the silylation derivatization technique revealed 53 compounds, 17 of them were found for the first time in OB. Cytotoxic and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts were evaluated using L6-GLUT4myc muscle cells stably expressing myc epitope at the exofacial loop (GLUT4). No cytotoxic effects were observed in treated cells up to 0.25 mg/ml extract as measured with MTT and LDH-leakage assays. GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane was elevated by 3.5 and 7 folds (-/+ insulin) after treatment with OB extracts for 20 h. Our findings suggest that the observed anti-diabetic properties of OB extracts are possibly mediated in part through one or more of the 17 new identified compound.

  13. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2008-09-24

    Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p < 0.001) and Genovese ( p < 0.001) basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities.

  14. Specificity of Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase modified by its expression in different heterologous systems.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc J C; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Perrin, Mireille; Ginglinger, Jean François; Gertz, Claude; Masson, Jean E; Werck-Reinhardt, Danièle; Hugueney, Philippe; Karst, Francis

    2013-01-10

    Numerous aromatic plant species produce high levels of monoterpenols, using geranyl diphosphate (GPP) as a precursor. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) geraniol synthase (GES) was used to evaluate the monoterpenol profiles arising from heterologous expressions in various plant models. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) calli were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefasciens and the plants were regenerated. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was transformed using the floral dip method. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves were agro-infiltrated for transient expression. Although, as expected, geraniol was the main product detected in the leaves, different minor products were observed in these plants (V. vinifera: citronellol and nerol; N. benthamiana: linalool and nerol; A. thaliana: none). O. basilicum GES expression was also carried out with microbial system yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the functional properties of a monoterpenol synthase depend not only on the enzyme's amino-acidic sequence, but also on the cellular background. They also suggest that some plant species or microbial expression systems could induce the simultaneous formation of several carbocations, and could thus have a natural tendency to produce a wider spectrum of monoterpenols.

  15. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations.

  16. Effect of methyl jasmonate on secondary metabolites of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2006-03-22

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in terms of its induction of inherent bioactive chemicals in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was evaluated after MeJA was sprayed on healthy basil plants. The total phenolic content of the sweet basil significantly increased after 0.1 and 0.5 mM MeJA treatments compared with the control not subjected to MeJA. Two phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid (CA), were identified as strong antioxidant constituents of the sweet basil. Their amounts also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, eugenol and linalool increased 56 and 43%, respectively, by the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. Due to the accumulation of RA, CA, and eugenol, which possess strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging activities, the antioxidant activity of the sweet basil extract was 2.3-fold greater than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment. In the DPPH* assay, the EC50 values of RA, CA, and eugenol were determined as 23, 46, and 59 microM, respectively, which indicated they were 6-, 3-, and 2.4-fold more efficient than BHT (140 microM). Besides, an unidentified HPLC peak in the methanolic extract of the sweet basil was 4.3-fold higher than that of the control after the 0.5 mM MeJA treatment.

  17. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  18. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sofia D.; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Abrahan, Carolina E.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv “Ceasar”) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production. PMID:27635127

  19. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Trivic, Svetlana

    2011-08-30

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O₂•⁻ and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe²⁺/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H₂O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O₂•⁻ radicals and the neutralization of H₂O₂. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  1. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (-)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(-)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (-)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (-)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (-)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (-)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (-)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (-)-LIN in the essential oil.

  2. Phenolics composition and antioxidant activity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chamila; Gotoh, Naohiro; Aoki, Tomoko; Wada, Shun

    2003-07-16

    The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) was examined using different in vitro assay model systems. The crude extract was fractionated on a Sephadex LH-20 column, and six fractions were identified. The DPPH scavenging assay system and the oxidation of the soy phosphotidylcholin liposome model system were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of each fraction. Fraction IV showed the strongest activity followed by fractions V and VI. Phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidative activity of the fractions were characterized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major antioxidant compound in fraction IV was confirmed as rosmarinic acid by (1)H NMR and characteristic fragmentations in the mass spectrum. Moreover, the native of antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid in the liposome system was examined. The results showed that one rosmarinic acid can capture 1.52 radicals, and furthermore, the existence of a synergistic effect between alpha-tocopherol and rosmarinic acid was revealed.

  3. The antidepressant-like effect of Ocimum basilicum in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Ali, S S; Abd El Wahab, M G; Ayuob, N N; Suliaman, M

    2017-08-11

    We investigated the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oils for treating depression related behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes caused by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice and to explore the mechanism underlying the pathology. Male albino mice were divided into four groups: controls; CUMS; CUMS plus fluoxetine, the antidepressant administered for pharmacological validation of OB; and CUMS plus OB. Behavioral tests included the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT); these tests were performed at the end of the experiment. We assessed serum corticosterone level, protein, gene and immunoexpression of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) as well as immunoexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3 in the hippocampus. CUMS caused depression in the mice as evidenced by prolonged immobility in the FST, prolonged time spent in the open arms during the EPM test and reduction of open field activity in the OFT. OB ameliorated the CUMS induced depressive status. OB significantly reduced the corticosterone level and up-regulated protein and gene expressions of BDNF and GR. OB reduced CUMS induced hippocampal neuron atrophy and apoptosis, and increased the number of the astrocytes and new nerve cells. OB significantly increased GFAP-positive cells as well as BDNF and GR immunoexpression in the hippocampus.

  4. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P < 0.05). The present study indicates that the secondary metabolites of O. basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  5. Anticonvulsant activity and acute neurotoxic profile of Achyranthes aspera Linn.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Dinesh Y; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry; Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Poroikov, Vladimir; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-04-18

    Root powder of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (A. aspera) belongs to family Amaranthaceae is used in Indian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy and its efficacy is widely acclaimed among the different rural communities. The present study was aimed to establish the possible anticonvulsant effect of A. aspera methanolic root extract using acute anticonvulsant models and to evaluate the acute toxicity and neurotoxic potential A. aspera extract. A. aspera methanolic extract was standardized with respect to betaine using HPTLC. The maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), picrotoxin and bicuculline induced seizure models were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant potential of standardized A. aspera root extract. The GABA content in cortex and hippocampus of extract treated mice was evaluated using HPLC. Moreover, the animals were also evaluated for acute toxicity study and neurotoxicity test. A significant enhancement in the seizure threshold was observed by A. aspera extract (5 and 10mg/kg) treated mice in PTZ, picrotoxin and bicuculline models as compared to saline treated mice respectively, whereas the extract failed to show protection in MES induced seizures. Moreover, A. aspera treatment (5 and 10mg/kg) significantly enhances the GABA levels in hippocampus and cortex as compared to saline treated group. A. aspera root extract was devoid of any sign of acute toxicity as well as neurotoxicity. A. aspera root extract exhibits significant anticonvulsant effect by facilitation of GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn).

    PubMed

    Mulla, W A; Salunkhe, V R; Kuchekar, S B; Qureshi, M N

    2009-05-01

    The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 mug/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.

  7. Pharmacological study of antispasmodic activity of Mirabilis jalapa Linn flowers.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazuko; Cortés, Alma Rosa; Ramírez, María Del Carmen; Gómez-Hernández, Martín; López-Muñoz, Francisco J

    2008-02-28

    Mirabilis jalapa Linn is a well-studied plant. The indigenous people of Mexico use Mirabilis jalapa to cure many infirmities including dysentery, diarrhea, muscular pain and abdominal colic. In the present investigation, we have further characterized some pharmacological properties of an extract of Mirabilis jalapa flowers; therefore, we intend to contribute to understand the pharmacological effects and clarify the complex use of this medicinal plant. The extract of Mirabilis jalapa (1-1000 mug/mL) exhibits an inhibitory effect (IC(50)=18+/-0.7 micorg/mL) on gut smooth muscle contractility whereas it stimulates the contraction of rabbit aortic muscle (EC(50)=11.60+/-0.26 micorg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were not due to either ACh or HIS receptors blockage, IP(3), cAMP, cGMP, Ca(2+) release from intracellular storage, or protein kinase mediated contraction-relaxation mechanisms. The effects inducted by the Mirabilis jalapa extract may involve a serotoninergic mechanism, which, in turn, interacts with other adrenergic systems. Further studies are necessary to identify the active compounds within the extract and to elucidate the mechanism of action.

  8. Pedalium murex Linn.: an overview of its phytopharmacological aspects.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, Siva

    2011-09-01

    Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far.

  9. A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

  10. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area.

  11. Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control) and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control) respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process. PMID:21835039

  12. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  13. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, W. A.; Salunkhe, V. R.; Kuchekar, S. B.; Qureshi, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 μg/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:20490298

  14. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Bigoniya, P; Raj, V; Patel, K K

    2011-07-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl(4) intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds.

  15. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  16. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  17. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Habbal, O; Hasson, S S; El-Hag, A H; Al-Mahrooqi, Z; Al-Hashmi, N; Al-Bimani, Z; Al-Balushi, M S; Al-Jabri, A A

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 °C in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman.

  18. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    PubMed

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited the gastric lesions induced by ASP (70.5%), PL (65.07%) and EtoH (70.4%) respectively and the potency was found to be equivalent as compared to the standard drug, omeprazole. Reduction in the gastric secretory volume, acid secretion and increased gastric pH were the factors observed in treated rats. The presence of volatile oil, flavonoids and saponins present in the extracts of P. guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  19. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    PubMed

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  20. Effect of volatile substances released from Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum on the rhizosphere and phyllosphere fungi of Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Afifi, A F

    1978-01-01

    Differences were found in the counts and occurrence of fungi in the phyllosphere and thizosphere of two representatives of the Lamiacea family, Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum, and in the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing separately or in coenosis with O. majorana or O. basilicum. Both the volatile substances released from ground leaves of the two latter plant species and the root exudates affected considerably spore germination of isolated phylospheric and rhizospheric fungi. The results indicated a possible role of root exudates and volatile substances released from leaves in colonization of rhizosphere and/or phyllosphere by fungi, especially in associations of various plants.

  1. A pharmacognostical report on the rhizome of Alpinia galanga Linn. (Willd)

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, M.; Thoppil, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Alpinia galanga Linn. (Willd) is an important raw drug used in large quantities in various indigenous formulations. In this paper the major diagnostic characters and the qualitative chemical and physical tests responsible for the pharmacognostic identity of the rhizomes have been reported. PMID:22557281

  2. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed.

  3. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 78 FR 65040 - Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Linn County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Linn County, Iowa Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company (CCP) \\1\\ has filed a verified notice of..., 29 N. Wacker Dr., Suite 920, Chicago, IL 60606. If the verified notice contains false or misleading...

  5. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  6. Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmad, Fayaz; Begum, Sabira

    2007-08-01

    The fruits of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45, HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

  7. A new antifungal eudesmanolide glycoside isolated from Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Family Compositae).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Bhuwan B; Kishore, Navneet; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2016-03-08

    A new antifungal eudesmanolide glycoside 11,13-dihydro-3-O-(β-digitoxopyranose)-7α-hydroxy eudasman-6,12-olide (2) in addition to known compounds 1 and 3, has been isolated from Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Its structure was determined by spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrum).

  8. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    PubMed

    Qamar, F; Begum, S; Raza, S M; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

    2005-09-01

    Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration.

  9. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  10. Activity of tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae) attacking the reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn.) (Alligatoridae) and Eunectes murinus (Linn.) (Boidae), in the central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Henriques, Augusto L; Rafael, José A

    2002-01-01

    Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2), situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02 degrees 45'33"S; 59 degrees 51'03"W). Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn.), and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn.), in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber) and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented.

  11. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  12. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm−1 (–OH), 1660 cm−1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm−1 (–COO–), 1414 cm−1 (–COO–), and 1219 cm−1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  13. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm(-1) (-OH), 1660 cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414 cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219 cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.

  14. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.

    PubMed

    Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2011-03-01

    Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000 mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice.

  15. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

    1999-02-01

    The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.

  16. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Habbal, O; Hasson, SS; El-Hag, AH; Al-Mahrooqi, Z; Al-Hashmi, N; Al-Bimani, Z; Al-Balushi, MS; Al-Jabri, AA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Methods Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 °C in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Results Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Conclusions Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman. PMID:23569753

  18. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  19. Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Ocimum gratissimum on hematological parameters in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ofem, OE; Ani, EJ; Eno, AE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to elucidate the effect of Ocimum gratissimum on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups of ten rats each. Group 1 was control, while groups 2 (LD) and 3 (HD) received 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of the extract orally once daily. Rats in all three groups received normal rat chow and drinking water ad libitum for 28 days. Complete blood count was done using an automatic counter. Results: The HD group had significantly (P<.05) higher red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), and platelet counts as compared with the control and LD groups. No significant changes were observed in the total white blood cell (WBC) count of the three groups, but significantly (P<.05) lower lymphocyte and higher neutrophil counts were observed in the HD group compared with the LD group. The mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet–large cell ratio (P–LCR), and platelet distribution width (PDW) were significantly (P<.05) reduced in the HD compared with the LD group. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and RBC distribution width–standard deviation were significantly (P<.05) lower in the HD group than in control. No significant changes were observed in levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and RBC distribution width–coefficient of variation among the groups. Conclusion: We conclude that oral administration of O gratissimum increases RBC, PCV, Hb, platelet count, and neutrophils and also leads to a decrease in platelet indices (i.e., MPV, P–LCR, and PDW). PMID:23776807

  20. Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum extracts on germination and seedling growth of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K M Mominul; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1) reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  1. Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, Arpi; Markosian, Anahit; Petrosyan, Margarit; Sahakyan, Naira; Babayan, Anush; Aloyan, Samvel; Trchounian, Armen

    2017-01-19

    The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.

  2. In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ezz Eldin, Hayam Mohamed; Badawy, Abeer Fathy

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis; a cosmopolitan sexually transmitted disease. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for T. vaginalis infections. The increase in metronidazole resistant parasites and undesirable side effects of this drug makes the search for an alternative a priority for the management of trichomoniasis. Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum oil are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal effects. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil on T. vaginalis trophozoites. The effects of different concentrations of P. lentiscus mastic (15, 10 and 5 mg/ml) and different concentrations of O. basilicum oil (30, 20 and 10 μg/ml) on multiplication of trophozoites at different time points (after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) were determined, also morphological changes were reported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that both plants caused an inhibition of growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites. The minimal lethal concentration of P. lentiscus mastic was 15 mg/ml after 24 h incubation, 10 mg/ml after 48 h and 5 mg/ml after 96 h. The minimal lethal concentration of O. basilicum oil was 30 μg/ml after 24 h incubation, 20 μg/ml after 48 h and 10 μg/ml after 96 h. TEM study of trophozoites treated by P. lentiscus mastic or by O. basilicum oil showed considerable damage of the membrane system of the trophozoites, and extensive vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These results highly suggest that P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil may be promising phytotherapeutic agents for trichomoniasis treatment.

  3. Identification of new potent inhibitor of aldose reductase from Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Tehseen, Yildiz; Maryam, Kiran; Uroos, Maliha; Siddiqui, Bina S; Hameed, Abdul; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-09-05

    Recent efforts to develop cure for chronic diabetic complications have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors against aldose reductase (AKR1B1, EC 1.1.1.21) whose role in diabetes is well-evident. In the present work, two new natural products were isolated from the ariel part of Ocimum basilicum; 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-d-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and E-4-(6'-hydroxyhex-3'-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate (2) and confirmed their structures with different spectroscopic techniques including NMR spectroscopy etc. The isolated compounds (1, 2) were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1). The natural product (1) showed better inhibitory activity for AKR1B1 with IC50 value of 2.095±0.77µM compare to standard sorbinil (IC50=3.14±0.02µM). Moreover, the compound (1) also showed multifolds higher activity (IC50=0.783±0.07µM) against AKR1A1 as compared to standard valproic acid (IC50=57.4±0.89µM). However, the natural product (2) showed slightly lower activity for AKR1B1 (IC50=4.324±1.25µM). Moreover, the molecular docking studies of the potent inhibitors were also performed to identify the putative binding modes within the active site of aldose/aldehyde reductases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system

    PubMed Central

    Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Costescu, Corina I; David, Ioan; Gruia, Alexandra T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed–uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC–MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole) was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated. PMID:25550747

  5. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of the total flavonoid content in Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) leaves

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Layzon Antonio Lemos; Pezzini, Bianca Ramos; Soares, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The chemical characterization is essential to validate the pharmaceutical use of vegetable raw materials. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is an important technique to determine flavonoids, which are important active compounds from Ocimum basilicum. Objective: The objective of this work was to optimize a spectrophotometric method, based on flavonoid-aluminum chloride (AlCl3) complexation to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) in leaves of O. basilicum (herbal material), using response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: The effects of (1) the herbal material: Solvent ratio (0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.08 g/mL), (2) stock solution volume (0.8, 2.3, 4.4, 6.5, and 8.0 mL) and (3) AlCl3 volume (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mL) on the TFC were evaluated. The analytical performance parameters precision, linearity and robustness of the method were tested. Results: The herbal material: Solvent ratio and stock solution volume showed an important influence on the method response. After choosing the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a precision (RSD%) lower than 6% for repeatability (RSD%) and lower than 8% for intermediate precision (on the order of literature values for biotechnological methods), coefficient of correlation of 0.9984, and no important influence could be observed for variations of the time of complexation with AlCl3. However, the time and temperature of extraction were critical for TFC method and must be carefully controlled during the analysis. Conclusion: Thus, this study allowed the optimization of a simple, fast and precise method for the determination of the TFC in leaves of O. basilicum, which can be used to support the quality assessment of this herbal material. PMID:25709217

  7. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Rather, Irshad Ahmad; Awasthi, Praveen; Mahajan, Vidushi; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants and are grouped into 17 families (PR-1 to PR-17). PR-5 family includes proteins related to thaumatin and osmotin, with several members possessing antimicrobial properties. In this study, a PR-5 gene showing a high degree of homology with osmotin-like protein was isolated from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). A complete open reading frame consisting of 675 nucleotides, coding for a precursor protein, was obtained by PCR amplification. Based on sequence comparisons with tobacco osmotin and other osmotin-like proteins (OLPs), this protein was named ObOLP. The predicted mature protein is 225 amino acids in length and contains 16 cysteine residues that may potentially form eight disulfide bonds, a signature common to most PR-5 proteins. Among the various abiotic stress treatments tested, including high salt, mechanical wounding and exogenous phytohormone/elicitor treatments; methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and mechanical wounding significantly induced the expression of ObOLP gene. The coding sequence of ObOLP was cloned and expressed in a bacterial host resulting in a 25kDa recombinant-HIS tagged protein, displaying antifungal activity. The ObOLP protein sequence appears to contain an N-terminal signal peptide with signatures of secretory pathway. Further, our experimental data shows that ObOLP expression is regulated transcriptionally and in silico analysis suggests that it may be post-transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated through microRNAs and post-translational protein modifications, respectively. This study appears to be the first report of isolation and characterization of osmotin-like protein gene from O. basilicum.

  8. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    PubMed

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species.

  9. Antibacterial properties of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum occurring in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Amzad; Kabir, M J; Salehuddin, S M; Rahman, S M Mizanur; Das, A K; Singha, Sandip Kumar; Alam, Md Khorshed; Rahman, Atiqur

    2010-05-01

    The antibacterial potential of essential oils and methanol extracts of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) was evaluated for controlling the growth range of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves and stems were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-seven compounds representing 94.9 and 96.1% of the total leaf and stem oils, respectively, were identified, of which methyl chavicol (36.7 and 29.9%), gitoxigenin (9.3 and 10.2%), trimethoquinol (10.3 and 8.4%), beta-guaiene (3.7 and 4.1%), aciphyllene (3.4 and 3.0%), alizarin (3.2 and 4.4%), naphthaline (2.2 and 3.8%), (-)-caryophyllene (2.0 and 1.9%), and mequinol (1.6 and 1.8%) were the major compounds. The essential oils (10 microL/disc of 1:5, v/v dilution with methanol) and methanol extracts (300 microg/disc) of O. basilicum displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Bacillius cereus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, and Salmonella typhi with their respective zones of inhibition of 11.2-21.1 mm and MIC values of 62.5-500 microg/mL. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from O. basilicum may have potential use in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries as antimicrobial agents.

  10. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system.

    PubMed

    Hădărugă, Daniel I; Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Costescu, Corina I; David, Ioan; Gruia, Alexandra T

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed-uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC-MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole) was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated.

  11. Cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia and Ocimum basilicum against human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Khalil H; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Alkhalaf, Moussa

    2013-12-01

    Labiatae family is represented in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the present study was to go insight to investigate the anticancer activity and antioxidative potentials of methanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia L. (ML) and Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) that grown in Madina province, western region, Saudi Arabia. OB exhibited the greater phenolic contents as mg gallic acid equivalent/g weight (mg GAE/g) for a value of 105 +/- 5.5 mg GAE/g. On the other hand, ML produced 29 +/- 3.12 mg GAE/g. The standard antioxidant vitamin E used in this experiment elicited a value of total phenolic contents equal 22 +/- 2.2 mg GAE/g. The percentage scavenging activity of against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 850 and 160% for OB and ML extracts, respectively. Vitamin E elicited% scavenging activity of against DPPH equal to 198%. Brine shrimp cytotoxic assay clearly indicated the cytotoxic effects of either ML or OB extract. The brine shrimp survival is inversely proportional to the concentration of either ML or OB extract used with LD50 191.23 and 235.50 ppm, respectively. Toxic effects on brine shrimps indicated the anticancer potential of ML or OB extract. The ML or OB extract was unable to produce pbluescript (pBS) plasmid DNA damage, while the plasmid DNA treated with EcoRI produced a single band as a result of DNA damage. Also, both ML and OB extract exhibited marked cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells at various concentrations (20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 microg mL(-1)). The 160 and 320 microg mL(-1) showed more cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Based on results achieved, we can concluded that, OB and ML extracts have the potency to act as powerful antioxidants and protect against DNA damage and have cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line.

  12. Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Lien-Chai; Ng, Lean-Teik; Cheng, Pei-Win; Chiang, Win; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-10-01

    1. Ocimum basilicum (OB), also known as sweet basil, is a well known medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine preparations. In the present study, extracts and purified components of OB were used to identify possible antiviral activities against DNA viruses (herpes viruses (HSV), adenoviruses (ADV) and hepatitis B virus) and RNA viruses (coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and enterovirus 71 (EV71)). 2. The results show that crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of OB and selected purified components, namely apigenin, linalool and ursolic acid, exhibit a broad spectrum of antiviral activity. Of these compounds, ursolic acid showed the strongest activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 6.6 mg/L; selectivity index (SI) = 15.2), ADV-8 (EC50 = 4.2 mg/L; SI = 23.8), CVB1 (EC50 = 0.4 mg/L; SI = 251.3) and EV71 (EC50 = 0.5 mg/L; SI = 201), whereas apigenin showed the highest activity against HSV-2 (EC50 = 9.7 mg/L; SI = 6.2), ADV-3 (EC50 = 11.1 mg/L; SI = 5.4), hepatitis B surface antigen (EC50 = 7.1 mg/L; SI = 2.3) and hepatitis B e antigen (EC50 = 12.8 mg/L; SI = 1.3) and linalool showed strongest activity against AVD-II (EC50 = 16.9 mg/L; SI = 10.5). 3. No activity was noted for carvone, cineole, beta-caryophyllene, farnesol, fenchone, geraniol, beta-myrcene and alpha-thujone. 4. The action of ursolic acid against CVB1 and EV71 was found to occur during the infection process and the replication phase. 5. With SI values greater than 200, the potential use of ursolic acid for treating infection with CVB1 and EV71 merits further investigation.

  13. Safety Assessment of Ocimum Basilicum Hydroalcoholic Extract in Wistar Rats: Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Mehri, Soghra; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Aslani, Majid; Tanbakoosazan, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Ocimum basilicum L. is widely used in folk medicine of many countries including . Both O. basilicum and its oil extract have received considerable attention for their potential medicinal properties, but there are a few reports about possible toxicity of this plant. Therefore, in the present study, acute and subchronic toxicity of O. basilicum hydroalcohlic extract have been evaluated in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods For the acute toxicity assessment, five groups of 10 animals (5 male, 5 female) received four different single dose of extract orally, the animals were, then, kept under observation for 14 days. For subchronic toxicity, the animals were divided into four groups (5 male, 5 female) and were gavaged daily by 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg of extract. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during the study period. On the 45th day, animals were sacrificed and gross findings, weight of liver and left kidney and liver histological markers were assessed. Results The results of acute study indicated that LD50 of O. basilicum is higher than 5 mg/kg. In subchronic study, no adverse effects were observed on serum parameters in male and female rats. The hematological results showed a reduction in the hematocrit, platelets and RBC in both sexes. No abnormalities were observed in other parameters. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, present data suggest that hematologic system could serve as a target organ in oral toxicity of this plant. PMID:23493182

  14. Effect of Ocimum basilicum L. on cyclo-oxygenase isoforms and prostaglandins involved in thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Umar, Anwar; Zhou, Wenting; Abdusalam, Elzira; Tursun, Arzigul; Reyim, Nadira; Tohti, Ibadet; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-02-27

    Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL) is a plant used in traditional Uyghur medicine for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. In previous studies we had found an antihypertensive and antithrombotic effect suggestive of an effect on prostaglandins, which we attempt to document here. 6-keto-PGF1α, the metabolite of prostacyclin, and PGE2 were measured in the supernatant of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and basal or LPS-stimulated mouse coeliac macrophage cultures exposed to OBL ethanol (OBL-E) extracts and petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and butanol (PE, C, EA, B) fractions. In addition, 6-keto-PGF1α and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were measured in a rat model of thromboangiitis obliterans exposed or not to OBL. Short-term exposure to OBL-E dose-dependently increased 6-keto-PGF1α from HUVEC, and long-term (24h) exposure decreased it. OBL-C and OBL-B increased 6-keto-PGF1α, whereas the other fractions tended to decrease it after 24h exposure. The extract and all fractions decreased basal and stimulated PGE2 production, but only OBL-EA and OBL-B reduced PGE2 in stimulated cultures to concentrations below the unstimulated values (P<0.05). In vivo OBL increased 6-keto-PGF1α and decreased TXB2. OBL and its extracts increased 6-keto-PGF1α and reduced PGE2 and TXB2 production in a dose and time-related manner. This could indicate simultaneous inhibition of COX-2 and stimulation of endothelial COX-1. The butanol fraction seemed most promising in this respect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-09-15

    The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  16. Preliminary study on mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) grown in eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oparaocha, Evangeline T; Iwu, Iraneus; Ahanakuc, J E

    2010-03-01

    The study examined the mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the volatile oil of Ocimum gratissimum at three different locations (World Bank Estate, Ihitte and Umuekunne) in Imo State, eastern Nigeria, with the purpose of sourcing for mosquito repellent that is cheap, abundant, environment and user-friendly. Four different lotions; 20% (v/v) and 30% (v/v) concentrations each of the extracted volatile oil in two natural oil bases (olive and palm kernel) were made and six volunteered human baits were used to evaluate the mosquito repellent and mosquitocidal activities of the stock materials at the three different centres from September to November 2008. Topical application of each of the four different lotions significantly (p <0.05) reduced the biting rate of mosquitoes in all the three locations tested. The 30% (v/v) concentration in olive oil base exhibiting highest average percentage repellencies of 97.2, 95.7 and 96.3% at World Bank Estate, Ihitte and Umuekunne centres respectively while the 20% (v/v) concentration in palm kernel oil base had the least repellency of 36.3, 41.6 and 36.3%, respectively. The other two formulations had values ranging from 67.8 to 80% in the three locations. The 30% (v/v) concentration in both olive and palm kernel oil bases afforded all night protection against mosquito bites in all the centres, and demonstrated fast knockdown and paralyzing effect on few mosquitoes at the urban centre (World Bank Estate). The study confirms that O. gratissimum grown in eastern Nigeria has mosquito-repellent and mosquitocidal potentials and the formulations could be used to reduce human-mosquito contacts and hence mosquito-borne diseases and irritations caused by their bites.

  17. Ocimum basilicum extract exhibits antidiabetic effects via inhibition of hepatic glucose mobilization and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ezeani, Chinelo; Ezenyi, Ifeoma; Okoye, Theophine; Okoli, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Ocimum basilicum L (Lamiaceae) is used as a traditional remedy for different ailments, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of an extract of aerial parts of O. basilicum. Methods: Antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was determined by its effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, while antidiabetic properties were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated for 28 days with extract and compared to those treated with oral metformin (150 mg/kg). The study and analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015. Results: The treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fasting blood glucose concentration and slightly increased mean body weight in treated groups. Oral glucose tolerance was also significantly (P < 0.05, 0.001) improved in 100 and 400 mg/kg extract-treated groups. The extract caused a dose-dependent increase in liver glycogen content, while it decreased alanine transferase (18.9-30.56%) and aspartate transferase (6.48-34.3%) levels in a non-dose-dependent manner. A dose of 100 mg/kg also reduced serum cholesterol and triglycerides by 19.3 and 39.54%, compared to a 2.6% reduction of cholesterol seen in the metformin-treated group. The extract was observed to produce significant (P < 0.001) concentration-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase (35.71-100%) and also α-amylase (23.55-81.52%), with estimated inhibitory concentration values of 1.62 and 3.86 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The antidiabetic properties of the extract may be due to its ability to suppress endogenous glucose release, inhibit glycogenolysis and/or stimulate glycogenesis. PMID:28163956

  18. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum.

  19. Antihypertensive effects of Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL) on blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Umar, Anwar; Imam, Guzelnur; Yimin, Wuliya; Kerim, Parhat; Tohti, Ibadet; Berké, Bénédicte; Moore, Nicholas

    2010-07-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL), sweet basil, is a medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible antihypertensive effects of OBL extract in renovascular hypertensive rats. The two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt model of renovascular hypertension was used in Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into sham, untreated 2K1C, captopril- (30 mg kg(-1) per day orally) and OBL- (100, 200, 400 mg kg(-1) per day orally) (low (L)-, medium (M)-, high (H)-OBL) treated 2K1C groups (n=10-12 per group), followed up for 4 weeks. Blood pressure, heart weight/body weight, plasma angiotensin-II and endothelin (ET)-1 were studied. OBL reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by about 20 and 15 mm Hg, respectively, compared with 35 and 22 mm Hg for captopril, from the lowest dose tested with no dose dependency. Cardiac hypertrophy was reduced from 3.6+/-0.7 mg g(-1) for untreated 2K1C to 3.0+/-0.6, 2.9+/-0.6 and 2.4+/-0.4 mg g(-1) for L-, M- and H-OBL, respectively, compared with 2.6+/-0.5 for sham and 3.1+/-0.4 mg g(-1) for captopril (P<0.05). Renal function was improved with captopril. Angiotensin was reduced to a lesser extent than with captopril. ET was reduced to lower concentrations (78+/-15, 80+/-22, 82+/-15 pg ml(-1) for L-, M-, H-OBL, respectively) than in sham (116+/-31 pg ml(-1)), untreated 2K1C (174+/-72 pg ml(-1)) or captopril (117+/-72 pg ml(-1)) groups. The effects of OBL on blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy and ET, are consistent with an effect on ET-converting enzyme, and warrant further exploration.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production. PMID:27275253

  1. In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Tchoumbougnang, F; Zollo, P H; Dagne, E; Mekonnen, Y

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum growing in Cameroon were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil of Ocimum gratissimum were gamma-terpinene (21.9 %), beta-phellandrene (21.1 %), limonene (11.4 %) and thymol (11.2 %), while the oil of Cymbopogon citratus contained geranial (32.8 %), neral (29.0 %), myrcene (16.2 %) and beta-pinene (10.5 %). The effects of these oils on the growth of Plasmodium berghei were investigated. Both oils showed significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice. At concentrations of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg of mouse per day, the essential oil of C. citratus produced the highest activity with the respective percentages of suppression of parasitaemia: 62.1 %, 81.7 % and 86.6 %. The corresponding values for the oil of O. gratissimum at the same concentrations were 55.0 %, 75.2 % and 77.8 %, respectively. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg of mouse, positive control) had a suppressive activity of 100 %.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum americanum L. essential oil in experimental model of zymosan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Alciléia Nunes; Grespan, Renata; Yamada, Áureo Tatsumi; Silva, Expedito Leite; Silva-Filho, Saulo Euclides; Damião, Marcio José; de Oliveira Dalalio, Márcia Machado; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils are potential sources of novel components for medicinal use. The present study was performed to investigate the composition and anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum americanum L. essential oil (OEO) and its components in an experimental model of zymosan-induced arthritis and paw edema. The essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty-six components, representing 98.9% of the total oil, were characterized, with linalool (19.63%) and 1,8-cineole (17.27%) as the main components. The OEO and its two constituents inhibited leukocyte influx into the synovial space and reduced paw edema induced by zymosan. The OEO also inhibited interferon-γ levels but did not reduce transforming growth factor-β levels. Additionally, the OEO protected against leukocyte influx into the synovial membrane and cartilage destruction in knee joints in arthritic mice. These findings indicate that the essential oil of Ocimum americanum L. exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects, likely related to its main compounds.

  3. Chemotaxonomic analysis of the aroma compounds in essential oils of two different Ocimum basilicum L. varieties from Iran.

    PubMed

    Pirmoradi, Mohammad Reza; Moghaddam, Mohammad; Farhadi, Nasrin

    2013-07-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oils of 21 accessions of Ocimum basilicum L. belonging to two different varieties (var. purpurascens and var. dianatnejadii) from Iran were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil yield was found to be between 0.6 and 1.1% (v/w). In total, 49 compounds, accounting for 96.6-99.7% of the oil compositions, were identified. Aromatic compounds, represented mainly by methyl chavicol (33.6-49.1%), and oxygenated monoterpenes, represented by linalool (14.4-39.3%), were the main components in all essential oils. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present in the essential oils of all accessions of the purpurascens variety, whereas they were completely absent in those of the dianatnejadii variety, indicating that monoterpene hydrocarbons might be considered as marker constituents of the purpurascens variety. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil compositions was discussed according to the results of the cluster analysis (CA). The CA showed a clear separation of the O. basilicum var. purpurascens accessions and the O. basilicum var. dianatnejadii accessions, although the data showed no major chemotype variation between the studied varieties. Indeed, the CA revealed only one principal chemotype (methyl chavicol/linalool) for both varieties. In conclusion, GC/MS analyses in combination with CA showed to be a flexible and reliable method for the characterization of the chemical profiles of different varieties of Ocimum basilicum L.

  4. A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Cahill, David M; Conlan, Xavier A; Adholeya, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Plants are an important source for medicinal compounds. Chemical screening and selection is critical for identification of compounds of interest. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a rich source of polyphenolics and exhibits high diversity, therefore bioprospecting of a suitable cultivar is a necessity. This study reports on the development of a true to type novel "in vitro system" and its comparison with a conventional system for screening and selection of cultivars for high total phenolics, individual polyphenolics, and antioxidant content. We have shown for the first time using online acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence that extracts from Ocimum basilicum showed antioxidant potential. The current study identified the cultivar specific composition of polyphenolics and their antioxidant properties. Further, a distinct relationship between plant morphotype and polyphenolic content was also found. Of the 15 cultivars examined, "Holy Green", "Red Rubin", and "Basil Genovese" were identified as high polyphenolic producing cultivars while "Subja" was determined to be a low producer. The "in vitro system" enabled differentiation of the cultivars in their morphology, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activity and is a cheap and efficient method for bioprospecting studies.

  5. Heavy Metal Uptake by Herbs. V. Metal Accumulation and Physiological Effects Induced by Thiuram in Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk-Szabela, Dorota; Romanowska-Duda, Zdzisława; Lisowska, Katarzyna; Wolf, Wojciech M

    2017-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is extensively cultivated as either an important spice and food additive or a source of essential oil crucial for the production of natural phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. It is frequently attacked by fungal diseases. The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of thiuram contact time on the uptake of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead by Ocimum basilicum L. The relevant plant physiological parameters were also investigated. Two farmland soils typical for the Polish rural environment were used. Studies involved soil analyses, bioavailable, and total forms for all investigated metals, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine concentration of all elements. Analysis of variance proved hypothesis that thiuram treatment of basil significantly influences metal transfer from soil and their concentration in roots and aboveground parts. This effect is mostly visible on the 14th day after the fungicide administration. Thiuram modifies mycoflora in the rhizosphere zone and subsequently affects either metal uptake from the soil environment or their further migration within the basil plant. Notable, those changes are more evident for basil planted in mineral soil as compared to organic soil with higher buffering capacity.

  6. Antiasthmatic Role of "Pentapala -04" a Herbal Formulation Against Ova Albumin and Aluminium HydroxideInduced LungDamage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, D Srinivasa; Jayaraaj, Indira A; Jayaraaj, R

    2005-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by proximal dysphasia and wheeze due to increased resistance to the flow of air through the narrowed bronchi. Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in the world and epidemiological studies suggest that its prevalence, severity and mortality are rising at a time when mortality from other common treatable conditions is falling. The reasons for the above statistics are environmental factors such as increased exposure to allergens and atmospheric pollutants. Antiasthmatic treatment includes corticosteroids, which are very effective in the treatment of asthma. But corticosteroids are costly and if given systemically, have many severe adverse effects. Hence, the present research work involves the use of a herbal compound formulation Pentapala -04 prepared from five medicinal plants namely, Adhatoda vasica Need, Ocimum sanctum Linn, Coleus aromaticus Benth, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn and Alpiania galangal Sw.The effect of "Pentapala-04" on ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats was investigated. The rats were divided into three groups of four animals each. Group I, II and III serves as control, toxic and post treatment group respectively. Our results showed that their was increased level of lipid peroxidation and secreased level of antioxidants in toxic group animals. But the levels of antioxidant enzymes were restored in post-treated groups of animals, which might be due to the ability of "ability of "Pentapala-04 to scavenge the reactive oxygen species.

  7. Antiasthmatic Role of “Pentapala -04” a Herbal Formulation Against Ova Albumin and Aluminium HydroxideInduced LungDamage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rao, D. Srinivasa; Jayaraaj, Indira A.; Jayaraaj, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by proximal dysphasia and wheeze due to increased resistance to the flow of air through the narrowed bronchi. Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in the world and epidemiological studies suggest that its prevalence, severity and mortality are rising at a time when mortality from other common treatable conditions is falling. The reasons for the above statistics are environmental factors such as increased exposure to allergens and atmospheric pollutants. Antiasthmatic treatment includes corticosteroids, which are very effective in the treatment of asthma. But corticosteroids are costly and if given systemically, have many severe adverse effects. Hence, the present research work involves the use of a herbal compound formulation Pentapala -04 prepared from five medicinal plants namely, Adhatoda vasica Need, Ocimum sanctum Linn, Coleus aromaticus Benth, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn and Alpiania galangal Sw. The effect of “Pentapala-04” on ova albumin and aluminium hydroxide induced lung damage in albino wistar rats was investigated. The rats were divided into three groups of four animals each. Group I, II and III serves as control, toxic and post treatment group respectively. Our results showed that their was increased level of lipid peroxidation and secreased level of antioxidants in toxic group animals. But the levels of antioxidant enzymes were restored in post-treated groups of animals, which might be due to the ability of “ability of “Pentapala-04 to scavenge the reactive oxygen species. PMID:22557168

  8. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., α-mangostin, β-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) μg/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) μg/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) μg/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) μg/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) μg/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 10Be surface exposure ages on the late-Pleistocene and Holocene history of Linnébreen on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusche, Melissa; Winsor, Kelsey; Carlson, Anders E.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Rood, Dylan H.; Novak, Anthony; Roof, Steven; Retelle, Michael; Werner, Alan; Caffee, Marc; Clark, Peter U.

    2014-04-01

    Arctic glaciers were sensitive to past changes in high-latitude winter precipitation and summer temperature. Here we develop a late-Pleistocene to Holocene history for Linnébreen (Linné Glacier) in western Svalbard using 10Be surface exposure ages on isolated erratic and moraine boulders. We show that Linnébreen had separated from the larger ice sheet over Svalbard and was retreating up valley around the start of the Younger Dryas cold period. We attribute this retreat during a cold period on Svalbard to moisture starvation of Linnébreen from advanced sea ice and/or elevated shortwave boreal summer insolation that overwhelmed any reduction in sensible heat. After an ice-free period during the early to middle Holocene, Linnébreen reformed sometime after 4.6 ± 0.2 ka, and was at a position roughly equivalent to its Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent before it began to retreat at 1.6 ± 0.2 ka. Comparison with calibrated 14C dates from three other glaciers could suggest that this period of ice retreat at ˜1.6 ka could be regional in extent. Linnébreen occupied the pre-LIA moraine when there was an increased ratio of cold Arctic-sourced relative to warm Atlantic-sourced waters around Svalbard and advanced sea ice. The retreat of Linnébreen at ˜1.6 ka was concurrent with the increased presence of warm Atlantic waters around Svalbard and attendant sea-ice retreat. These coincident changes in ocean temperatures, sea-ice extent, and Linnébreen moraine age could imply a climatic forcing of the pre-LIA advance and retreat of Linnébreen. Summer temperatures, rather than changes in precipitation, would then be dominant in driving ice retreat, although the possibility of stochastic glacier-margin variability cannot be excluded. Our data therefore suggest that Linnébreen may have responded differently to past changes in sea-ice extent that could depend on the background climate state (deglacial climate vs. late-Holocene climate), which highlights the complexity in

  10. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem.

    PubMed

    Zalke, Ashish S; Duraiswamy, B; Gandagule, Upendra B; Singh, Nidhi

    2013-07-01

    Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures. Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed. Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy

  11. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem

    PubMed Central

    Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.; Singh, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed. Results: Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mohsen Taheri; Gholami, Hamid; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid; Tafsiry, Asad

    2014-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta (TM) essential oil (TMO) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil (OBO) were examined. The main components for TMO were dihydrotagetone (33.9%), E-ocimene (19.9%), tagetone (16.1%), cis-β-ocimene (7.9%), Z-ocimene (5.3%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The main components for OBO were methylchavicol (46.9%), geranial (19.1%), neral (15.15%), geraniol (3.0%), nerol (3.0%), caryophyllene (2.4%). Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging were 12–17 and 200–250 μg/mL of TMO and OBO, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Salmonella typhi,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 150 ± 8, 165 ± 9, 67 ± 8, 75 ± 7, 135 ± 15, and 115 ± 8 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. MIC for S. typhi,E. coli,S. aureus,B. subtilis,A. niger, and C. albicans were 145 ± 8, 160 ± 7, 45 ± 4, 40 ± 3, 80 ± 9, and 95 ± 7 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. IC50 for nasopharyngeal cancer cell line (KB) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were 75 ± 5 and 70 ± 4 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. IC50 for KB and HepG2 were 45 ± 4 and 40 ± 3 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. Thus, they could be used as an effective source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial additive to protect foods from oxidative damages and foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, they could be promising candidate for antitumor drug design. PMID:24804073

  13. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohsen Taheri; Gholami, Hamid; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid; Tafsiry, Asad

    2014-03-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta (TM) essential oil (TMO) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil (OBO) were examined. The main components for TMO were dihydrotagetone (33.9%), E-ocimene (19.9%), tagetone (16.1%), cis-β-ocimene (7.9%), Z-ocimene (5.3%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The main components for OBO were methylchavicol (46.9%), geranial (19.1%), neral (15.15%), geraniol (3.0%), nerol (3.0%), caryophyllene (2.4%). Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging were 12-17 and 200-250 μg/mL of TMO and OBO, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Salmonella typhi,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 150 ± 8, 165 ± 9, 67 ± 8, 75 ± 7, 135 ± 15, and 115 ± 8 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. MIC for S. typhi,E. coli,S. aureus,B. subtilis,A. niger, and C. albicans were 145 ± 8, 160 ± 7, 45 ± 4, 40 ± 3, 80 ± 9, and 95 ± 7 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. IC50 for nasopharyngeal cancer cell line (KB) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were 75 ± 5 and 70 ± 4 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. IC50 for KB and HepG2 were 45 ± 4 and 40 ± 3 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. Thus, they could be used as an effective source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial additive to protect foods from oxidative damages and foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, they could be promising candidate for antitumor drug design.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Physalis minima Linn.

    PubMed

    Khan, Murad Ali; Khan, Haroon; Khan, Sarwar; Mahmood, Tahira; Khan, Pir Mohammad; Jabar, Abdul

    2009-06-01

    In our present investigation, the crude methanol extract and chloroform fraction of the whole plant of Physalis minima Linn (Solanaceae) was investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in NMRI mice and Wistar rats of either sex at 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Various established in-vivo model's were used during the study. Both crude extract and chloroform fraction showed marked anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as compared to a control at tested doses. The antipyretic potential of the crude extract and chloroform were insignificant in the Brewer's yeast fever model. Therefore, the whole plant of Physalis minima Linn could be considered as a potential candidate for bioactivity-guided isolation of natural anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.

  15. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. from Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descallar, Angem L.; Nuñez, Maria Pamela S.; Cabrera, Maria Luisa N.; Martin, Tres Tinna B.; Obemio, Christine Dawn G.; Lañojan, Rhumer S.

    2017-01-01

    Lycopodium clavatum or locally known as "lumot" is one of the many plants used in the traditional system of medicine here in the Philippines. It has been known that this plant was used for body pains and "facial wipes" recognizing its anti-aging potential by the Obo community in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. Thus, this study is conducted to determine the secondary metabolites present and its antioxidant property of the decoction and ethanolic extracts of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. Free radical scavenging activity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. was determined by in vitro 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Antioxidant activities were observed which may be due to the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids in both decoction and ethanolic extracts.

  16. Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

    2014-09-01

    Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation.

  17. Protective Effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaf Extract on Gastric Lesions in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sini, Karanayil R.; Sinha, Barij N.; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica Linn on experimental animal models. The methanol extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves was investigated for anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. HCl-Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and indomethacin induced ulcer in rats at 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. A significant (p<0.01, p<0.001) anti-ulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. It also showed 88.5% ulcer inhibition in HCl-ethanol induced ulcer and 83.78% inhibition in indomethacin induced ulcer. PMID:23407576

  18. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts.

  19. Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Kaur, N; Bhutani, K K

    2001-01-01

    Four marker constituents, namely, onocer-7-ene-3 alpha, 21 beta-diol, delta-amyrin, delta-amyrone and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl of an Ayurvedic crude drug Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are defined for standardisation purposes. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrahydroxybiphenyl has been isolated for the first time from this drug. The contents of the marker constituents were quantitatively determined by HPTLC and HPLC methods in samples collected from five different geographic zones of India.

  20. Effect of volatile substances from Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum on spore respiration and germination of some soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Afifi, A F; Dowidar, A E

    1978-01-01

    Oxygen uptake by the spores of Fusarium moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. solani, Mucor racemosus and Trichoderma viride was increased in the presence of volatile substances extracted from Origanum majorana and Ocimum basilicum. This increase was greater in the presence of volatile substances from O. basilicum than O. majorana, except in the case of F. semitectum where the reverse was true. A drop in the RQ of all the germinating spores was observed in the presence of these substances. Volatile substances from O. majorana reduced the spore germination of M. racemosus whereas the spores of T. viride were stimulated to germinate. Volatile substances from O. basilicum stimulated the spore germination of M. racemosus whereas T. viride spores were not affected.

  1. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nooh, Hanna Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of traditional green and purple "Napoletano" basil cultivars (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Campania region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Izzo, Luana; Novellino, Ettore

    2016-12-27

    The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 'Napoletano' green and purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) varieties. The results obtained revealed that the basil sample extracts were characterised by a generally higher polyphenolic concentration than those reported elsewhere for other more conventional and geographically different basil varieties. Napoletano purple basil revealed higher radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing capacities than the green one probably due to its relevant anthocyanin content. As regards the antimicrobial properties, both basil varieties exhibited activity against a broad spectrum of food-borne and human pathogenic micro-organisms, revealing not only a moderate to high natural preserving capacity, but also potentially beneficial influence on human health. Results indicated Napoletano green and purple basils as a good source of antioxidants of potential nutraceutical interest.

  3. Acaricidal activity of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella against the ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachinida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Veeramani, V; Sakthivelkumar, S; Tamilarasan, K; Aisha, S O; Janarthanan, S

    2014-09-01

    The ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected at various cattle farms in and around Chennai was subjected to treatment of different crude solvent extracts of leaves of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella for acaricidal activity. Among various solvent extracts of leaves of O. basilicum and S. acmella used, chloroform extract of O. basilicum at concentrations between 6% and 10% exhibited 70% and 100% mortality of ticks when compared to control. The LC50 and LC90 values of the chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum treatment on the ticks after 24 h were observed as 5.46% and 7.69%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of α- and β- carboxylesterase enzymes in the whole gut homogenate of cattle tick, R. microplus treated with chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum revealed higher level of activities for the enzymes. This indicated that there was an induced response in the tick, R. microplus against the toxic effects of the extract of O. basilicum.

  4. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity.

  5. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  6. Of all foods bread is the most noble: Carl von Linné (Carl Linneaus) on bread1

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    Carl von Linné was interested in dietetics, which in his time covered all aspects of a healthy life. As a utilitarian he understood the importance of private economy and paid attention to bread in many of his publications. Two texts, Ceres noverca arctoum and De pane diaetetico, were wholly devoted to bread and bread-making. Linné classified different types of bread, and described their nutritional value and health-related aspects, as well as milling, baking and storing, in detail. While discussing the food habits of social classes Linné accepted as a fact that the peasants and the poor should eat less tasty bread than the rich. The less palatable bread had, however, many nutritional and health advantages. Linné paid much attention to substitutes for grain to be used in times of famine, an important topic in eighteenth century Sweden. He regarded flour made of pine bark or water arum roots as excellent famine food, was enthusiastic about the new plant, maize, but considered potato only as a poor substitute for grain. Linné and his followers praised bread not only as the core component of diet, but also for its versatile role both in health and in disease.

  7. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn.) upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R H; Rodrigues, D P; Gonçalves, F A; Menezes, F G; Aragão, J S; Sousa, O V

    2001-01-01

    Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil) and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil) and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn) showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn) displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC), while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.

  8. Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Sinam, Geetgovind; Behera, Sandip K; Mishra, Rohit K; Sinha, Sarita; Mallick, Shekhar; Khare, P B

    2012-08-01

    Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 microg g(-1) dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1 kg soil. In both the ferns, Cr accumulation increased with increase in metal concentration and maximum accumulation of 800.5 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1457.4 microg g(-1) (roots) in M. punctatum and 660.8 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1259.6 microg g(-1) (roots) in A. capillus-veneris was recorded. The increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in A. capillus-veneris was less pronounced than M. punctatum under Cr exposure as compared to their respective controls. In view of less decrease in chlorophyll content and antioxidants along with higher accumulation of Cr in the fronds M. punctatum, is indicative of its higher tolerance towards Cr. However, bioaccumulation factor (concentration of Cr in fronds/concentration of Cr in the soil) of both the ferns was recorded > 1 which qualifies the plants as potential Cr hyperaccumulator and suitable for phytoremediaton.

  9. Pterocarpus marsupium extract (Vijayasar) prevented the alteration in metabolic patterns induced in the normal rat by feeding an adequate diet containing fructose as sole carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Vats, V; Yadav, S S

    2005-07-01

    Insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is now recognized as a major contributor to the development of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. Sedentary lifestyle, consumption of energy-rich diet, obesity, longer lifespan, etc., are important reasons for this rise (J. R. Turtle, Int J Clin Prac 2000; 113: 23). Aqueous extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Linn bark (PM), Ocimum sanctum Linn leaves (OS) and Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn seeds (FG) have been shown to exert hypoglycaemic/antihyperglycaemic effect in experimental as well as clinical setting. As no work has been carried out so far to assess the effect of PM, OS and FG on fructose-induced hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, we undertook this study to assess whether these extracts attenuate the metabolic alteration induced by fructose-rich diet in rats. Five groups of rats (eight each) were fed chow diet, 66% fructose diet, 66% fructose diet + PM leaves extract (1 g/kg/day), 66% fructose diet + OS leaves extract (200 mg/kg/day) and 66% fructose diet + FG seeds extract (2 g/kg/day) for 30 days. Fructose feeding to normal rats for 30 days significantly increased serum glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels in comparison with control. Treatment with all the three plants extract for 30 days significantly lowered the serum glucose levels in comparison with control group. However, only PM extract substantially prevented hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, while OS and FG had no significant effect on these parameters. Results of this study, in addition to previous clinical benefits of PM seen in NIDDM subjects, are suggestive of usefulness of PM bark (Vijayasar) in insulin resistance, the associated disorder of type 2 diabetes; however, OS and FG may not be useful. Though several antidiabetic principles (-epicatechin, pterosupin, marsupin and pterostilbene) have been identified in the PM, yet future studies

  10. Evaluation of In vitro Antiviral Activity of Datura metel Linn. Against Rabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The soxhlet and cold extracts of Datura metel Linn. were evaluated for in vitro antirabies activity. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet and cold extraction method were used to extract Datura (fruit and seed) extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Based on the CC50 range, the in vitro antirabies activity of the extracts was screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. Results: The Datura (fruit and seed) extracts were not cytotoxic below 5 mg/ml (CC50). Titer of 10−4 rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS) (1 50% tissue culture infective dose [1 TCID50]) was obtained by RFFT method and the challenge dose of 10 TCID50 was used for antirabies assay. Datura fruit and seed (soxhlet and cold) extracts showed 50% inhibition of RV CVS at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]), respectively. The tested extracts showed selectivity index (CC50/IC50) ranging from 2 to 4. The viral RNA was extracted and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed which also revealed a 2-fold reduction of viral load at 1.25 mg/ml of the Datura seed (soxhlet methanolic and cold aqueous) extracts. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of in vitro antiviral activity of D. metel Linn. against rabies virus. Datura seed extracts have a potential in vitro antirabies activity and, in future, can be further screened for in vivo activity against rabies virus in murine model. SUMMARY In the present study, Datura metel. Linn showed and in-vitro anti rabies activity in Vero cell line which was determined by RFFIT method and PCR method PMID:27695266

  11. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Premna serratifolia Linn., Wood against Adjuvant Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Rekha; Krishnakumar, Ekambaram

    2010-01-01

    Adjuvant induced arthritis is a chronic crippling, skeleton-muscular disorder having nearest approximation to human rheumatoid arthritis for which there is currently no medicine available effecting a permanent cure. Even modern drugs used for the amelioration of the symptoms, offer only temporary relief and also produce severe side effects. In the indigenous system of medicine, wood of Premna serratifolia Linn., is reported to be useful in the treatment of arthritis. It is a large shrub, distributed throughout Asia, used against a wide variety of diseases. However, no systematic study has been reported regarding its anti-arthritic activity. This work was aimed at the scientific validation of the ethno-pharmacological claim about its anti-arthritic property. In the present study, anti-arthritic activity of ethanol extract of Premna serratifolia Linn., wood is done by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Loss in body weight during arthritis condition was corrected on treatment with ethanol extract and standard drug, indomethacin. Biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin content, total WBC, RBC, erythrocyte and sedimentation rate were also estimated. The ethanol extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg body weight inhibited the rat paw edema by 68.32% which is comparable with standard drug indomethacin 74.87% inhibition of rat paw edema after 21 days. The results of the current investigation concluded, ethanol extract of Premna serratifolia Linn., wood possess a significant anti-arthritic activity against adjuvant induced arthritis and justifying its therapeutic role in arthritic condition. The observed anti-arthritic activity may be due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as irridiod glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. PMID:23407688

  12. Anti-Arthritic Activity of Premna serratifolia Linn., Wood against Adjuvant Induced Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Rekha; Krishnakumar, Ekambaram

    2010-04-01

    Adjuvant induced arthritis is a chronic crippling, skeleton-muscular disorder having nearest approximation to human rheumatoid arthritis for which there is currently no medicine available effecting a permanent cure. Even modern drugs used for the amelioration of the symptoms, offer only temporary relief and also produce severe side effects. In the indigenous system of medicine, wood of Premna serratifolia Linn., is reported to be useful in the treatment of arthritis. It is a large shrub, distributed throughout Asia, used against a wide variety of diseases. However, no systematic study has been reported regarding its anti-arthritic activity. This work was aimed at the scientific validation of the ethno-pharmacological claim about its anti-arthritic property. In the present study, anti-arthritic activity of ethanol extract of Premna serratifolia Linn., wood is done by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Loss in body weight during arthritis condition was corrected on treatment with ethanol extract and standard drug, indomethacin. Biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin content, total WBC, RBC, erythrocyte and sedimentation rate were also estimated. The ethanol extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg body weight inhibited the rat paw edema by 68.32% which is comparable with standard drug indomethacin 74.87% inhibition of rat paw edema after 21 days. The results of the current investigation concluded, ethanol extract of Premna serratifolia Linn., wood possess a significant anti-arthritic activity against adjuvant induced arthritis and justifying its therapeutic role in arthritic condition. The observed anti-arthritic activity may be due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as irridiod glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

  13. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

    2012-03-01

    To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel flavonol glycoside from the Bauhinia variegata Linn.

    PubMed

    Yadava, R N; Reddy, V Madhu Sudhan

    2003-06-01

    Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Leguminosae) is commonly known as 'Kachnar' in Hindi. It is distributed almost throught India. Its powdered bark is traditionally used for tonic, astrain, ulcers. It is also useful in skin diseases. The roots are used as antidote to snake poison. The present article deals with the isolation and structural elucidation of a novel flavonol glycoside 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-O-beta-galactopyranoside (1) from the roots of Bauhinia Variegata and its structure was identified by spectral analysis and chemical degradations. The novel compound (1) showed anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Geologic map of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Deschutes, Lane, and Linn counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, E.M.; MacLeod, N.S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Walker, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of a geologic survey of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Deschutes and Willamette National Forests, Deschutes, Lane and Linn Counties, Oregon

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans PMID:24825986

  17. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, A B; Dikshit, V J; Damre, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2000-08-01

    The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea Linn. was studied for its in vitro effect on rat mast cell degranulation and erythrocyte membrane integrity in vitro. The extract in concentration of 25-200 microg/ml showed a dose-dependant inhibition of rat mast cell degranulation induded by compound 48/80 and egg albumin. T. purpurea extract was found to inhibit haemolysis of erythrocytes induced by hypotonic solution but accelerated haemolysis induced by heat at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea may inhibit degranulation of mast cells by a mechanism other than membrane stabilization.

  18. Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Saludes, Jonel P; Garson, Mary J; Franzblau, Scott G; Aguinaldo, Alicia M

    2002-11-01

    A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity.

  19. Isolation and structure determination of two new constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmad, Fayaz; Begum, Sabira

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morinaphthalene (=1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, (1); and morindafurone (=5-hydroxy-1,10b-dihydro-6H-anthra [1,9-bc] furan-6-one, (2); as well as two known constituents, 1,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-9-anthrone (3) and 2,4-dimethoxy-9-anthrone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  20. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacognostic Studies of Thuja Occidentalis Linn. – A Good remedy for warts & tumours, used in Homeopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rajatrashmi; Sarkar, Manisha; Vikramaditya

    1999-01-01

    Thuja occidentalis Linn. (Family cupressaceae), commonly known as American Arbore Vitae, is an evergreen tree and native of North America. Leaves & twigs, which contains essential oil, condylomatous growth, spongy tumours, warts, ill effects of vaccination etc. Twigs fan-shaped; leaves ovate, obtuse, having resin ducts & parenchymatous mesophyll; stem shows resins ducts in parenchymatous cortex and alternate bands of phloem parenchyma & phloem fibres. TLC of alcoholic extract in chloroform: Methanol (9:1) shows 8 spots under UV light, and UV absorbance shows peak at 260nm. PMID:22556920

  2. EMERGENCE OF MESUA FERREA LINN. LEAF EXTRACT AS A POTENT BACTERICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Rupa; Dastidar, Sujata G.; Basu, S.P.; Mazumder, Avijit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2003-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Mesua ferrea Linn. were tested for its antibacterial potentiality against 103 various strains of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spps. Klebsiella spps., Streptococus pneumoniae, Sarcina lutea, Lactobacilus arabinosus, Escherichia coli, shigellae, salmonellae, Proteus spps., Pseudomonas spps. and the vibrios. Significant antibacterial effects were produced by the extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sppa., lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, shigellae and salmonellae and the results were compared with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Further the extract was proved to be bacterial in its action. PMID:22557104

  3. Emergence of mesua ferrea linn. Leaf extract as a potent bactericide.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Rupa; Dastidar, Sujata G; Basu, S P; Mazumder, Avijit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2003-04-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Mesua ferrea Linn. were tested for its antibacterial potentiality against 103 various strains of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spps. Klebsiella spps., Streptococus pneumoniae, Sarcina lutea, Lactobacilus arabinosus, Escherichia coli, shigellae, salmonellae, Proteus spps., Pseudomonas spps. and the vibrios. Significant antibacterial effects were produced by the extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sppa., lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, shigellae and salmonellae and the results were compared with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Further the extract was proved to be bacterial in its action.

  4. Development and application of RAPD-SCAR marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN.

    PubMed

    Dnyaneshwar, Warude; Preeti, Chavan; Kalpana, Joshi; Bhushan, Patwardhan

    2006-11-01

    Correct genotype identification of medicinal plant material remains important for botanical drug industry. Limitations of chemical and morphological approaches for authentication have generated need for newer methods in quality control of botanicals. The present study was carried out to develop DNA based marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN. A putative marker (1.1 kb) specific for P. emblica was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was developed from the RAPD amplicon. The SCAR marker was found useful for identification of P. emblica in its commercial samples and Triphalachurna, a multi-component Ayurvedic formulation.

  5. A new labdane-type diterpene from the bark of Juniperus chinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-I; Chen, Wen-Ching; Shao, Yi-Yuan; Yeh, Guey-Ru; Yang, Ning-Sun; Chiang, Wenchang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    From the bark of Juniperus chinensis Linn., a new labdane-type diterpene, methyl 14,15-dihydroxy-8(17),12E-labdadien-19-oate (1a), together with nine known compounds, trans-communic acid, cis-communic acid, 15,16-bisnor-13-oxo-8(17),11E-labdadien-19-oic acid, sandaracopimaric acid, 7-oxosandaracopimaric acid, sugiol, 7-oxototarol, alpha-cedrol and beta-sitosteryl-1-O-beta-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structures of those compounds were elucidated based on spectral analysis and chemical evidences.

  6. In-vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Adiantum caudatum Linn. and Celosia argentea Linn. extracts and fractions

    PubMed Central

    Telagari, Madhusudhan; Hullatti, Kirankumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to provide an in-vitro evidence for the potential inhibitory activity of extracts and fractions of Adiantum caudatum Linn. and Celosia argentea Linn. on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts were prepared, first with cold maceration (70% v/v ethanol) and then by Soxhlation techniques (95% v/v ethanol). Subsequently, the combined extracts were subjected for fractionation. Different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg/ml) of extract and fractions were subjected to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using multiplate reader and the percentage of α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activity and IC50 values of extract and fractions were calculated. Results: Fraction 2 of A. caudatum and fraction 4 of C. argentea has shown highest α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 0.241, 0.211 and 0.294, 0.249 mg/ml, respectively, which was comparable with acarbose (0.125 and 0.93 mg/ml). Whereas, extracts and remaining fractions of both the plants have shown lesser activity. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that, fraction 2 of A. caudatum, rich in triterpenoids and phenolics and fraction 4 of C. argentea, rich in flavonoids, are effective α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitors, which may be helpful to reduce the postprandial glucose levels. Hence, further studies may throw light on the antidiabetic potential of A. caudatum and C. argentea, especially in the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26288477

  7. In-vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Adiantum caudatum Linn. and Celosia argentea Linn. extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Telagari, Madhusudhan; Hullatti, Kirankumar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide an in-vitro evidence for the potential inhibitory activity of extracts and fractions of Adiantum caudatum Linn. and Celosia argentea Linn. on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The plant extracts were prepared, first with cold maceration (70% v/v ethanol) and then by Soxhlation techniques (95% v/v ethanol). Subsequently, the combined extracts were subjected for fractionation. Different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg/ml) of extract and fractions were subjected to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using multiplate reader and the percentage of α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activity and IC₅₀ values of extract and fractions were calculated. Fraction 2 of A. caudatum and fraction 4 of C. argentea has shown highest α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential with IC₅₀ values of 0.241, 0.211 and 0.294, 0.249 mg/ml, respectively, which was comparable with acarbose (0.125 and 0.93 mg/ml). Whereas, extracts and remaining fractions of both the plants have shown lesser activity. The results of the present study indicate that, fraction 2 of A. caudatum, rich in triterpenoids and phenolics and fraction 4 of C. argentea, rich in flavonoids, are effective α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitors, which may be helpful to reduce the postprandial glucose levels. Hence, further studies may throw light on the antidiabetic potential of A. caudatum and C. argentea, especially in the management of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Identification of chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic agent from Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract in a biomonitoring in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Livia Marques; da Silva, Daniel; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Camargo, Luiza Maria de Magalhães; Celestrini, Deborah de Moura; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2014-03-01

    Ocimum gratissimum L. is popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic activity of this medicinal species has been confirmed by in vivo studies. The present study conducted a chemical investigation of a leaf decoction (10% p/v) of O. gratissimum monitored by in vivo hypoglycemic activity assays. Four phenolic substances were identified: L-caftaric acid (1), L-chicoric acid (2), eugenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and vicenin-2 (4). The acute hypoglycemic activity of the O. gratissimum decoction fractions Og1-S (300 mg/kg), Og1-A (240 mg/kg) and Og1-B (80 mg/kg) was evaluated intraperitoneally in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. They reduced glycemia by 63%, 76% and 60% (in 120 min), respectively, in the diabetic mice. Subfractions of Og1-A were also evaluated under the same conditions: Og1-AS (200 mg/kg) and Og1-AP (40 mg/kg) produced a decrease of only 37% and 39%, respectively. Among the major phenolic substances, only chicoric acid (2; 3 mg/kg) reduced significantly the glycemic levels of diabetic mice by 53%, 120 min after treatment. This is the first study describing the hypoglycemic activity of chicoric acid in an animal model of diabetes mellitus. In addition, we suggest that there may be other substances contributing to this activity. Thus, for the first time, a correlation is established between the hypoglycemic activity of O. gratissimum and its chemical composition.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Hanaa A.; Pang, Edwin C.; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Hanaa A; Pang, Edwin C; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  11. The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against acid-tolerant food microflora.

    PubMed

    Lachowicz, K J; Jones, G P; Briggs, D R; Bienvenu, F E; Wan, J; Wilcock, A; Coventry, M J

    1998-03-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from five different varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. plants (Anise, Bush, Cinnamon, Dark Opal and a commercial sample of dried basil) were examined for antimicrobial activity against a wide range of foodborne Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds by an agar well diffusion method. All five essential oils of basil showed antimicrobial activity against most of the organisms tested with the exception of Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Pseudomonas species. The inhibitory effect of Anise oil, in comparison with mixtures of the predominant components of pure linalool and methyl chavicol, against the acid-tolerant organisms, Lactobacillus curvatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was examined in broth by an indirect impedance method. Synergistic effects between Anise oil, low pH (pH 4.2) and salt (5% NaCl) were determined. The antimicrobial effect of Anise oil was also assessed in a tomato juice medium by direct viable count, showing that the growth of Lact. curvatus and S. cerevisiae was completely inhibited by 0.1% and 1% Anise oil, respectively. The results of the current study indicate the need for further investigations to understand the antimicrobial effects of basil oils in the presence of other food ingredients and preservation parameters.

  12. UV-B is required for normal development of oil glands in Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil).

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Daphne; Bonner, Lynda; Johnson, Christopher B

    2002-10-01

    Plants of Ocimum basilicum L. grown under glass were exposed to short treatments with supplementary UV-B. The effect of UV-B on volatile essential oil content was analysed and compared with morphological effects on the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In the absence of UV-B, both peltate and capitate glands were incompletely developed in both mature and developing leaves, the oil sacs being wrinkled and only partially filled. UV-B was found to have two main effects on the glandular trichomes. During the first 4 d of treatment, both peltate and capitate glands filled and their morphology reflected their 'normal' mature development as reported in the literature. During the following days there was a large increase in the number of broken oil sacs among the peltate glands as the mature glands broke open, releasing volatiles. Neither the number of glands nor the qualitative or quantitative composition of the volatiles was affected by UV-B. There seems to be a requirement for UV-B for the filling of the glandular trichomes of basil.

  13. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Mediates the Antifibrogenic Action of Ocimum bacilicum Essential Oil against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogaly, Hanan A; Eltablawy, Nadia A; El-Behairy, Adel M; El-Hindi, Hatim; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M

    2015-07-23

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the antifibrogenic potential of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OBE) and further to explore some of its underlying mechanisms. Three groups of rats were used: group I (control), group II (CCl4 model) and group III (OBE-treated) received CCl4 and OBE 2 weeks after the start of CCl4 administration. Oxidative damage was assessed by the measurement of MDA, NO, SOD, CAT, GSH and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Liver fibrosis was assessed histopathologically by Masson's trichrome staining and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunostaining. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and cytochrome P450 (CYP2EI isoform) was estimated using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. OBE successfully attenuated liver injury, as shown by histopathology, decreased serum transaminases and improved oxidative status of the liver. Reduced collagen deposition and α-SMA immuopositive cells indicated an abrogation of hepatic stellate cell activation by OBE. Furthermore, OBE was highly effective in stimulating HGF mRNA and protein expression and inhibiting CCl4-induced CYP2E1 down-regulation. The mechanism of antifibrogenic action of OBE is hypothesized to proceed via scavenging free radicals and activating liver regeneration by induction of HGF. These data suggest the use of OBE as a complementary treatment in liver fibrosis.

  14. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil and its isolated active principles in mice.

    PubMed

    Paula-Freire, L I G; Andersen, M L; Molska, G R; Köhn, D O; Carlini, E L A

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum gratissimum is used in popular medicine to treat painful diseases. The antinociceptive properties of O. gratissimum essential oil (OgEO) and two of its active principles (eugenol and myrcene) were tested in classic models of pain (hot plate test and formalin test). Adult male C57BL/6 J mice acutely received corn oil (control group, p.o.), morphine (positive control group, 5 mg/kg, i.p.), OgEO (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg, p.o.), eugenol or myrcene (both at 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg, p.o.). The highest doses of all tested drugs significantly increased the latency to lick the paw(s) in the hot plate test compared with the control group. OgEO at a dose of 40 mg/kg and eugenol and myrcene at a dose of 10 mg/kg were effective in minimizing animal pain in the first and second phases of the formalin test. The antinociceptive effect shown by all drugs tested in hot plate test was reverted by naloxone administration (1 mg/kg), indicating opiod system participation. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of OgEO and its active principles against neurogenic and inflammatory pain. Our findings demonstrate that OgEO and its isolated active principles exhibited antinociceptive activity in murine pain models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Aroma content of fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves is affected by light reflected from colored mulches.

    PubMed

    Loughrin, John H; Kasperbauer, Michael J

    2003-04-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb that is used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. Volatile compounds emitted from fully expanded fresh leaves grown in drip-irrigated plots that were covered with six colors of mulch were compared. The colors reflected a range of photosynthetic photon flux, far-red, red, and blue light from the soil surface to developing leaves. Our objective was to determine whether reflection from the different colors could influence concentrations of volatile compounds emitted from the fresh leaves. Volatile compounds were isolated by headspace sampling and quantified by gas chromatography. Twenty-six compounds were identified, of which the terpenoids linalool and 1,8-cineole comprised more than 50% of the total yield. Concentrations of volatile compounds from leaves that developed over green, blue, yellow, white, and red mulches followed the same patterns as they did for air-dried leaves of the same cultivar. However, the concentration of volatile compounds from fresh leaves was about 50-fold higher than those found in the previous study of air-dried leaves.

  16. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  17. Comparative Study on the Effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum Seeds on Anthropometric Measures in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Shahab-Aldin; Asgary, Sedigheh; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. Methods: All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They randomly assigned into four groups receiving (1) OB 10 g/day; (2) PP 10 g/day; (3) mix of OB and PP 10 g/day; and (4) control group without placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were assessed during study baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. The data were analyzed using paired sample t-test for within group and analysis of covariance for between groups. Results: In within group analysis, weight and body mass index show a significant reduction after 12 weeks intervention. In addition, soft lean mass and lean body mass were decreased in PP and mixed of PP and OB groups significantly; another group (OB) shows the same result for mass body fat. Although in intervention groups, we see considerable reduction, between group changes did not demonstrate the same consequences. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that administration of OB, PP, or mix of them for 12 weeks does not affect any of the anthropometric measures in NAFLD. PMID:27761216

  18. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-05-06

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops.

  19. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:27150014

  20. Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Roy, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the immune functions and immune responses in nicotine-induced (10 mM) macrophages and concurrently establish the immunomodulatory role of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Ae-Og) and ascorbic acid. In this study, nitrite generations and some phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. Beside that, release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. Ae-Og, at a dose of 10 μg/mL, significantly reduced the nicotine-induced NO generation and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed with supplementation of ascorbic acid (0.01 mM). The administration of Ae-Og and ascorbic acid increased the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine-treated macrophages. Ae-Og and ascorbic acid were found to protect the murine peritoneal macrophages through downregulation of Th1 cytokines in nicotine-treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions and provide additional rationale for application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by O. gratissimum and ascorbic acid for different inflammatory disease prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity. PMID:22220218

  1. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Alves, Sydney H.; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL−1) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL−1) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  2. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  3. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum γ-Glutamyl transferase (γGT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  4. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  5. Potential of Ocimum basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N

    2016-08-29

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

  6. Chemical composition and antibiofilm activity of Petroselinum crispum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils against Vibrio spp. strains.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Mejdi; Dehmani, Ameni; Noumi, Emira; Flamini, Guido; Papetti, Adele

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of parsley and basilic essential oils tested against Vibrio strains and their abilities to inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm using the XTT assay. Petroselinum crispum essential oil was characterized by 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (24.2%), β-phellandrene (22.8%), apiol (13.2%), myristicin (12.6%) and terpinolene (10.3%) as a major constituents. While, in the basilic oil, linalool (42.1%), (E)-methylcinnamate (16.9%) and 1-8 cineole (7.6%) were the main ones. These two essential oils exhibit high anti-Vibrio spp. activity with varying magnitudes. All microorganisms were strongly affected indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of basilic with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 8.67 to 23.33 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from (0.023-0.047 mg/ml) and (>3->24 mg/ml), respectively. The two essential oils can inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm formed on polystyrene surface even at low concentrations, with high magnitude for Ocimum basilicum essential oil. This study gives a better insight into the anti-Vibrio activity of parsley and basilc oils and the possibility of their use to prevent and eradicate contamination of sea products by these strains.

  7. Quantification of character-impacting compounds in Ocimum basilicum and 'Pesto alla Genovese' with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amadei, Gianluca; Ross, Brian M

    2012-02-15

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an important flavourant plant which constitutes the major ingredient of the pasta sauce 'Pesto alla Genovese'. The characteristic smell of basil stems mainly from a handful of terpenoids (methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol, linalool and estragole), the concentration of which varies according to basil cultivars. The simple and rapid analysis of the terpenoid constituents of basil would be useful as a means to optimise harvesting times and to act as a quality control process for basil-containing foodstuffs. Classical analytical techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are, however, slow, technically demanding and therefore less suitable for routine analysis. A new chemical ionisation technique which allows real-time quantification of traces gases, Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS), was therefore utilised to determine its usefulness for the assay of terpenoid concentrations in basil and pesto sauce headspace. Trace gas analysis was performed using the NO(+) precursor ion which minimised interference from other compounds. Character-impacting compound concentration was measured in basil headspace with good reproducibility and statistically significant differences were observed between cultivars. Quantification of linalool in pesto sauce headspace proved more difficult due to the presence of interfering compounds. This was resolved by careful selection of reaction product ions which allowed us to detect differences between various commercial brands of pesto. We conclude that SIFT-MS may be a valid tool for the fast and reproducible analysis of flavourant terpenoids in basil and basil-derived foodstuffs.

  8. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  9. Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Loughrin, J H; Kasperbauer, M J

    2001-03-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb the leaves of which are used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. It was hypothesized that the size and chemical composition of sun-grown basil leaves could be influenced by the color of light reflected from the soil surface and by the action of the reflected light through the natural growth regulatory system within the growing plants. Leaf morphology, aroma compounds, and soluble phenolics were compared in basil that had been grown over six colors of polyethylene row covers. Altering the ratios of blue, red, and far-red light reflected to growing plants influenced both leaf morphology and chemistry. Leaves developing over red surfaces had greater area, moisture percentage (succulence), and fresh weight than those developing over black surfaces. Basil grown over yellow and green surfaces produced significantly higher concentrations of aroma compounds than did basil grown over white and blue covers. Leaves grown over yellow and green mulches also contained significantly higher concentrations of phenolics than those grown over the other colors. Clearly, the wavelengths (color) of light reflected to growing basil plants affected leaf size, aroma, and concentrations of soluble phenolics, some of which are antioxidants.

  10. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (−)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-04-28

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  12. α-Linalool - a marker compound of forged/synthetic sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is known to occur as several chemotypes or cultivars that differ in their essential oil composition. The surprising discovery of 3,7-dimethylocta-1,7-dien-3-ol, the rare α isomer of the well-known monoterpene alcohol β-linalool (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol), in samples of Serbian basil oil provoked an investigation of the origin of α-linalool in these samples. Three scenarios were considered, namely (a) the existence of a new natural chemotype, (b) an artefactual formation during the isolation procedure and (c) the case of a synthetic/forged oil. Noteworthy amounts (15.1-16.9%) of pure α-linalool were isolated from a commercial sample of basil oil, and detailed spectral analyses (MS, IR, (1) H and (13) C NMR) unequivocally confirmed its identity. The analysis by GC and GC/MS of an additional 20 samples of different O. basilicum oils commercially available on the Serbian market or isolated from plant material cultivated in Serbia resulted in the identification of 149 compounds. The obtained compositional data were compared using multivariate statistical analysis to reveal the possible existence of a new basil chemotype. The results of the chemical and statistical analyses give more pro arguments for the synthetic/forged oil hypothesis and suggest that α-linalool could be used as a marker compound of such O. basilicum oils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. UV‐B is Required for Normal Development of Oil Glands in Ocimum basilicum L. (Sweet Basil)

    PubMed Central

    IOANNIDIS, DAPHNE; BONNER, LYNDA; JOHNSON, CHRISTOPHER B.

    2002-01-01

    Plants of Ocimum basilicum L. grown under glass were exposed to short treatments with supplementary UV‐B. The effect of UV‐B on volatile essential oil content was analysed and compared with morphological effects on the peltate and capitate glandular trichomes. In the absence of UV‐B, both peltate and capitate glands were incompletely developed in both mature and developing leaves, the oil sacs being wrinkled and only partially filled. UV‐B was found to have two main effects on the glandular trichomes. During the first 4 d of treatment, both peltate and capitate glands filled and their morphology reflected their ‘normal’ mature development as reported in the literature. During the following days there was a large increase in the number of broken oil sacs among the peltate glands as the mature glands broke open, releasing volatiles. Neither the number of glands nor the qualitative or quantitative composition of the volatiles was affected by UV‐B. There seems to be a requirement for UV‐B for the filling of the glandular trichomes of basil. PMID:12324268

  14. The effects of different UV-B radiation intensities on morphological and biochemical characteristics in Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    Sakalauskaitė, Jurga; Viskelis, Pranas; Dambrauskienė, Edita; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Urbonavičienė, Dalia

    2013-04-01

    The effects of short-term ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Cinnamon) plants at the 3-4 leaf pair and flowering stages were examined in controlled environment growth chambers. Plants were exposed to 0 (reference), 2 and 4 kJ UV-B m(-2) day(-1) over 7 days. Exposure of basil plants to supplementary UV-B light resulted in increased assimilating leaf area, fresh biomass and dry biomass. Stimulation of physiological functions in young basil plants under either applied UV-B dose resulted in increased total chlorophyll content but no marked variation in carotenoid content. At the flowering stage the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of basil were affected by supplementary UV-B radiation, decreasing with enhanced UV-B exposure. Both total antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay) and total phenolic compound content were increased by UV-B light supplementation. Young and mature basil plants differed in their ascorbic acid content, which was dependent on UV-B dose and plant age. UV-B radiation resulted in decreased nitrate content in young basil plants (3-4 leaf pair stage). These results indicate that the application of short-exposure UV-B radiation beneficially influenced both growth parameters and biochemical constituents in young and mature basil plants. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum (Lamiacea).

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Kafeel; Khalil, Ali Talha; Khan, Jangrez; Khan, Yusra Ali; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Umar, Muhamad Naveed; Ahmad, Hilal

    2015-06-01

    To collect and screen for ethnopharmacological properties (antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine lethality assays) of medicinal plan Ocimum basilicum from Peshawar region (34.008 latitude and 71.57 altitudes). In the present study a general antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica strair was carried out. The antibacterial potential of the plant was performed against 06 gram positiv and 06 gram negative bacteria. Brine shrimp cyto- toxicity assay at different concentrations were investigated. The anti-promastigotes profile of the plant showed good antileishmanial activity exhibited LC50 value 21.67 µg/mL. The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O. basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from 20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86 ± 0.80 for Clostridium perfringens type C and Bacillus subtitilis, respectively, as compared to the gentamycin (27.36 ± 0.55 and 21.80 ± 0.72, respectively). For gram negative bacteria good activity was observed. A highest zone of inhibition was recorded for Pseudomonas aeroginosa (28.83 ± 0.28) at the highest concentration (10 mg/ mL). The LC50 value obtained for brine shrimp lethality assay was 91.56 µg/mL. The herb basil possesses effective cidal activities which make this plant a good candidate for the isolation of antiprotozoal and antibacterial compounds which may lead to the development of novel drug.

  16. Efficiency of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogum flexuosus in the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia juveniles.

    PubMed

    Netto, José D Limma; Oliveira, Rebeca S M; Copatti, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-08-31

    This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum) (EOOB) and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus) (EOCF) in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively) and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both), 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively.

  17. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  18. Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ruchi; Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjit

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the nootropic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves in rats. The raw material of Capparis zeylanica leaves was successively extracted with petroleum ether and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and macerated to form an aqueous extract. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze task. Three doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg; p.o.) of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica were administered for 7 successive days to separate groups of animals. Results showed that both the extracts significantly enhanced memory, as shown by decrease in escape latency time. Furthermore, methanolic and aqueous extracts in all doses tested significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial, indicating retention of spatial memory of the location of a previously placed platform in the target quadrant. These findings indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves have potent nootropic activity. The anti-oxidant property of Capparis zeylanica may contribute favorably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action.

  19. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  20. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

  1. An investigation of antimicrobial and wound healing potential of Allium ascalonicum Linn.

    PubMed

    Saenthaweesuk, Suphaket; Jitvaropas, Rungrat; Somparn, Nuntiya; Thuppia, Amornnat

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacological properties of Allium ascalonicum Linn., commonly called shallot, have been reported as including those that are antibacterial and antioxidant. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and wound-healing activity ofthe ethanolic extracts of Allium ascalonicum Linn. (AAE). The antimicrobial activity of AAE was tested in vitro against using the disc diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution technique to determine the minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC). Wound-healing activity of the extract was performed on rat test subjects. The AAE showed potential antimicrobial activity by inhibiting gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. MIC and MMC varied from 25-50 mg/ml and 25-200 mg/ml, respectively. After surgery 14 days, wound contractions oftreated groups and standard group were 78.61 +/- 1.20%, 78.55 +/- 1.93% and 100%, respectively; but, in the control group, wound contraction was 64.90 +/- 3.55%. Histological studies showed the complete epidermis and found the collagen fibers and fibroblasts as similar appearance as standard group in dermis. The results of histological evaluation have confirmed remarkable wound-healing activities of AAE. Taken together the present study provides evidence that AAE extract processes antimicrobial and wound-healing activities.

  2. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 μg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 μg/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  3. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  4. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

    2010-04-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity.

  5. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  6. In vitro and in vivo Antiinflammatory Activity of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeenu; Bindhu, A. R.; Aleykutty, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acid, sterols, and glycosides. This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of various extracts of fresh leaves of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn experimentally by in vitro (human red blood cell membrane stabilization method) and in vivo methods (0.1 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model). Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts were screened for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts which showed, best in vitro antiinflammatory activity was screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent significant (P<0.001) reduction in paw edema when compared to the control, at all the time intervals and comparable to indomethacin (reference standard) treated group. The results of the present study demonstrate that petroleum ether and chloroform extracts possess significant (P<0.001) antiinflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves as an antiinflammatory drug. PMID:24082358

  7. Growth inhibition of Struvite crystals in the presence of juice of Citrus medica Linn.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, C K; Joshi, M J

    2008-10-01

    Struvite, one of the components of urinary stone grows rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", is a painful urological disorder. It is necessary to study the growth-inhibition of Struvite crystals. This in vitro study has been carried out in the presence of the juice of Citrus medica Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, supernatant solutions comprising of pure 1.0 M Magnesium acetate (control solution) as well as mixed with the different concentrations of the juice were gently poured on the set gels. From the study of growth-inhibition behavior of Struvite crystals, it was found that Citrus medica Linn. inhibits the growth of the crystals. This study may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of Struvite.

  8. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing. PMID:23569806

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

    2013-04-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil and its main compound estragole: In vivo mouse models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Anita; Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; Ferreira E Castro, Fyama; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; Martins Fernandes, Maria Neyze; Fernandes da Silva, Bruno Anderson; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Barbosa, Roseli; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose

    2016-09-25

    The genus Ocimum are used in cooking, however, their essential oils are utilized in traditional medicine as aromatherapy. The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition and systemic anti-inflammatory activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EOOB) and its major component estragole, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The Ocimum basilicum essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory action was verified using acute and chronic in vivo tests as paw edema, peritonitis, and vascular permeability and granulomatous inflammation model. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was analyzed by the participation of histamine and arachidonic acid pathways. The chemical profile analysis identified fourteen components present in the essential oil, within them: estragole (60.96%). The in vivo test results show that treatment with EOOB (100 and 50 mg/kg) and estragole (60 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran. The smallest doses of EOOB (50 mg/kg) and estragole (30 mg/kg) showed efficacy in the reduction of paw edema induced by histamine and arachidonic acid, vascular permeability inhibition and leukocyte emigration in the peritoneal fluid. Theses doses were capable of reducing the chronic inflammatory process. The results observed between the EOOB and estragole demonstrate efficacy in anti-inflammatory activity, however, the essential oil is more efficacious in the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory action. This study confirms the therapeutic potential of this plant and reinforces the validity of its use in popular medicine.

  11. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P < 0.05). OB was a little more effective than OG, despite the lower content of chicoric acid in OB. This result strongly suggests that components other than chicoric acid contribute to the hypoglycemic activity of the two extracts. Despite the abundance of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in OB, their hypoglycemic activity observed at 8.3 μmol/kg was low. This is the first chemical profile of crude extracts from Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine.

  12. Anticholangiocarcinoma activity and toxicity of the Kaempferia galanga Linn. Rhizome ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Amuamuta, Asmare; Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2017-04-12

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an important public health problem in several tropical and subtropical parts of the world particularly Thailand. Chemotherapy of CCA is largely ineffective and discovery and development of effective alternative drugs is urgently needed. The objective of the study was to confirm the anti-CCA potential as well as toxicity of the crude extract of Kaempferia galangal Linn. (rhizome) both in vitro and in animal models. The ethanolic extract of K. galanga Linn. rhizome, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against CCA cell line (CL-6) using MTT cell proliferation assay. Acute and subacute toxicity of the extract were evaluated in ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice according to the OECD (International Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline. Anti-CCA activity was evaluated in CCA- xenografted nude mice. Results of cytotoxicity test showed moderate activity of the extract and EPMC with median (95% confidence interval: 95% CI) 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 64.2 (57.76-72.11) and 49.19 (48.16-52.29) μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 of 5-FU was 107.1 (103.53-109.64) μg/ml. The selectivity index (SI) values for the extract, EPMC and 5-FU against human normal cell line (OUMS) and cancer cell line (CL-6) were 2.2, 2.09 and 1.31, respectively. Toxicity testing revealed no overt toxic effect up to the maximum single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight and up to daily dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. The extract at the maximum tolerated dose level of 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days exhibited promising anti-CCA activity in CL6-xenografted nude mice as determined by inhibitory activity on tumor growth (58.41%) and lung metastasis (33.3%), as well as prolongation of survival time (62 days). The K. galangal Linn. rhizome extract and its bioactive compound EPMC exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against human CCA tumor (CL-6) cell line

  13. Efficacy of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn in chemically induced urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ajij; Wadud, Abdul; Jahan, Nasreen; Bilal, Alia; Hajera, Syeda

    2013-03-07

    Adiantum capillus veneris Linn has been recommended in ancient literature of Unani system of medicine as an important ingredient of many formulations for the treatment of urolithiasis. Its decoction has long been used for the same purpose by several Unani physicians. To investigate the antiurolithiasic effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn in male Sprague Dawley rats. The effects of oral administration of hydro alcoholic extract of test drug were studied on calcium oxalate urolithiasis. A total of 48 rats were used for the study. The animals were divided into six groups of eight animals each. Plain control rats were treated with distilled water only, throughout the study period, whereas in other groups nephrolithiasis was induced by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride for 7 days. Thereafter, urine was examined for the presence of crystals. Negative control group A rats were sacrificed after 7 days, whereas negative control group B was left untreated up to the end of study. Test groups were treated with 127.6 mg/kg and 255.2 mg/kg of test drug and standard control with Cystone (750 mg/kg) for 21 days. At the end of experiment, number of crystals in urine and levels of calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine in serum were observed. Histopathological study of the kidney was done by light microscopy. Urine microscopy showed significant reduction (p<0.001 and p<0.01) in the number of crystals in test groups A and B respectively. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, and blood urea were found to be decreased significantly in all the groups. In both the test groups, serum creatinine level was found to be similar as in plain control. The animals treated with test drug showed much improvement in body weight. Histopathology of kidney showed almost normal kidney architecture in treated groups. The above findings indicate the antiurolithic activity of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn, and thus

  14. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn

  15. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Anwar, Firoz; Ahmed, Danish; Verma, Amita; Ahmed, Aftab; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Mishra, Vatsala; Ramteke, Pramod W; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2014-02-25

    The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic

  16. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  17. Studies on the biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by using boiled mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum americanum.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanraj, Levankumar; Gurusamy, Ayyanar; Gobinath, M B; Chandramohan, R

    2009-09-30

    Investigations were carried out to study the chromium removal efficiency of boiled mucilaginous seeds of Ocimum americanum. Batch experiments were conducted to study the biosorption kinetics of chromium removal for the concentrations 10mg/L, 20mg/L and 40 mg/L of chromium(VI) solutions. The biosorbent dosage was 8 g dry seeds/L. The toxic hexavalent chromium was reduced to less toxic chromium(III) in the presence of seeds and the reduced chromium was adsorbed on the mucilage of seeds. Both the chromium(VI) and chromium(III) were present in the aqueous phase. The optimum chromium reduction and adsorption was observed at the pH value 1.5. The biosorption data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm. The biosorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was q=32 mg chromium(III)/g of dry seeds. The continuous column study was also carried out at the flow rate of 27 mL/h for the initial concentration 25mg/L of chromium(VI) feed solution using a packed bed column filled with boiled mucilaginous seeds. The maximum reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III) in the packed bed was 80%. The percentage removal of reduced chromium from the aqueous solution was 56.25%. This value was maintained constant until 0.52 L of chromium(VI) solution was pumped through the packed bed column. Thus the naturally immobilized polysaccharides on the seeds mimic the microbial polysaccharides in terms of their ability to adsorb heavy metals with an added advantage of making the immobilization step unnecessary which is a major cost factor of the metal removal process when microbial exopolysaccharides used. The uniform size and spherical shape of swollen seeds give an additional advantage to use them in a packed bed column for continuous removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  18. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Barrios, Ana C; Armendariz, Raul; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zink, Jeffrey I; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO2 kg(-1) soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively. Compared with control, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO2 significantly reduced seed germination by 41% and 59%, respectively, while unmodified and hydrophobic nano-TiO2 significantly decreased shoot biomass by 31% and 37%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Roots exposed to hydrophobic particles at 750 mg kg(-1) had 87% and 40% more Ti than the pristine and hydrophilic nano-TiO2; however, no differences were found in shoots. The three types of particles affected the homeostasis of essential elements: at 500 mg kg(-)(1), unmodified particles increased Cu (104%) and Fe (90%); hydrophilic increased Fe (90%); while hydrophobic increased Mn (339%) but reduced Ca (71%), Cu (58%), and P (40%). However, only hydrophobic particles significantly reduced root elongation by 53%. Unmodified, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic particles significantly reduced total sugar by 39%, 38%, and 66%, respectively, compared with control. Moreover, unmodified particles significantly decreased reducing sugar (34%), while hydrophobic particles significantly reduced starch (35%). Although the three particles affected basil plants, coated particles impacted the most its nutritional quality, since they altered more essential elements, starch, and reducing sugars.

  19. The Influence of Cultivars and Phenological Phases on the Accumulation of Nevadensin and Salvigenin in Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Botond; Bernáth, Jenő; Gere, Attila; Kókai, Zoltán; Komáromi, Bonifác; Tavaszi-Sárosi, Szilvia; Varga, László; Sipos, László; Szabó, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    According to the earlier literature the optimum harvest time for basil is at the full flowering stage if accumulation of essential oil is taken into account. In this research we have investigated our gene-bank stored basil accessions to determine whether the harvest timing is variety specific or not considering their flavonoid accumulation pattern. In our work we have determined by HPLC the content of two main flavonoid compounds, salvigenin and nevadensin, of eight different gene bank accessions from 2013 of Ocimum basilicum L. Data were analysed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Multiple pairwise comparisons were made using the Conover-Iman procedure where the significance level was 5%. We have observed that the optimum harvest time is at the full flowering stage in the case of accessions 'Genovese' and 'Piros', but this was not verified for the others. The result of our experiment has shown that the maximum salvigenin and nevadensin content was detected both at the full- and early flowering period. Almost in all phenological phases the accession 'M. Grünes' accumulated the highest level of nevadensin, while accession 'Lengyel' produced the lowest results in all phenological phases. Generally it could be observed that compared with nevadensin more salvigenin is accumulated, and it is independent of the phenological phases. In the case of salvigenin, 'M. Grünes' accession produced the largest quantity and accession 'Dark Opal' showed the lowest values. Our analyses demonstrated that harvest at different phenological phases may result in different amounts of active agents according to the cultivar.

  20. Determination of antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Family Lamiaceae) assayed by different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Gülçin, Ilhami; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant properties of plants have been investigated, in the light of recent scientific developments, throughout the world due to their potent pharmacological activities and food viability. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Family Lamiaceae) is used as a kitchen herb and as an ornamental plant in house gardens. In the present study, the possible radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the water (WEB) and ethanol extracts (EEB) of basil was investigated using different antioxidant methodologies: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, scavenging of superoxide anion radical-generated non-enzymatic system, ferric thiocyanate method, reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities. Experiments revealed that WEB and EEB have an antioxidant effects which are concentration-dependent. The total antioxidant activity was performed according to the ferric thiocyanate method. At the 50 microg/mL concentration, the inhibition effects of WEB and EEB on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion were found to be 94.8% and 97.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the percentage inhibition of a 50 microg/mL concentration of BHA, BHT and alpha-tocopherol was found to be 97.1%, 98.5% and 70.4% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, WEB and EEB had effective DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating activities. Additionally, these various antioxidant activities were compared with BHA, BHT and alpha-tocopherol as reference antioxidants. The additional total phenolic content of these basil extracts was determined as the gallic acid equivalent and were found to be equivalent.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, Anti-nociceptive and Total polyphenolic Content of Hydroethanolic Extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, AM; Tanayen, JK; Ezeonwumelu, JOC; Dare, S; Okwanachi, A; Adzu, B; Ademowo, OG

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum has been reported in several ethnopharmacological surveys as a plant readily accessible to the communities and widely used with a lot of therapeutic potentials. In this study, we aimed to experimentally evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of hydro-ethanolic extract in animal models of inflammation and nociception and membrane stabilization assay. O gratissimum leaves hydroethanolic extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and spectrophotometric quantification of polyphenolics. The extract was investigated for anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan –induced paw oedema and cotton pellet - induced granuloma in rats. The antinociceptive effects were investigated in acetic acid –induced writhing in mice and formalin test in rats. Animals were randomly divided into groups; negative control, extract treated (200 -800 mg/kg) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) standard reference groups. In- vitro anti-inflammatory activity was performed by testing for membrane stability in heat/hypotonic solution –induced rat erythrocytes destabilization assay. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and cardenolides. Quantification of the polyphenolic content revealed the presence of appreciable quantities of phenolics and flavonoids. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, cotton-pellet granuloma, acetic acid –induced writhing and formalin induced paw licking tests showed that hydroethanolic extract of O gratissimum possess anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. The extract did not induce gastric lesion formation in stomach of cotton-pellet granuloma rats. The extract was more efficient at reducing membrane destabilization than indomethacin in the membrane stability assay. These results suggest that hydroethanolic extract of O gratissimum leaves exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in the animals. PMID:26689550

  2. Composition and functional properties of the essential oil of amazonian basil, Ocimum micranthum Willd., Labiatae in comparison with commercial essential oils.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Gianni; Medici, Alessandro; Maietti, Silvia; Radice, Matteo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Manfredini, Stefano; Braccioli, Elena; Bruni, Renato

    2004-06-02

    Wild Amazonian basil Ocimum micranthum Willd. (O. campechianum Mill.) Labiatae essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS: 31 compounds were identified. The main components were eugenol (46.55 +/- 5.11%), beta-caryophyllene (11.94 +/- 1.31%), and beta-elemene (9.06 +/- 0.99%), while a small amount of linalool (1.49 +/- 0.16%) was detected. The oil was tested for its in vitro food-related biological activities and compared with common basil Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris commercial essential oils. Radical scavenging activity was evaluated employing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The oil exerted a good capacity to act as a nonspecific donor of hydrogen atoms or electrons when checked in the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay, quenching 76,61 +/- 0.33% of the radical, with values higher than those reported by reference oils. In the beta-carotene bleaching test, the oil provided an antioxidant efficacy comparable with that of O. basilicum and T. vulgaris essential oils. These data were confirmed by photochemiluminescence, where the oil showed a remarkable antioxidant capacity (2.39 +/- 0.1), comparable to that of Trolox and vitamin E, and higher than the other essential oils. Antibacterial activity of O. micranthum essential oil was evaluated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The oil showed a dose-dependent antifungal activity against pathogenic and food spoiling yeasts.

  3. Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Saroj, Arvind; Samad, Abdul; Khaliq, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The composition of hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemovariants), O. tenuiflorum L., O. gratissimum L., and O. kilimandscharicum Guerke were analyzed and compared by using capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phenyl propanoids (upto 87.0%) and monoterpenoids (upto 83.3%) were prevalent constituents distributed in the studied Ocimum taxa. The major constituents of the four distinct chemovariants of O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (86.3%), methyl chavicol (61.5%)/linalool (28.6%), citral (65.9%); and linalool (36.1%)/citral (28.8%). Eugenol (66.5% and 78.0%) was the major constituent of O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum. Eugenol (34.0%), β-bisabolene (15.4%), (E)-α-bisabolene (10.9%), methyl chavicol (10.2%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%) were the major constituents of O. kilimandscharicum. In order to explore the potential for industrial use, the extracted essential oils were assessed for their antifungal potential through poison food technique against two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum, which cause root and wet rot diseases in various crops. O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, and O. kilimandscharicum exhibited complete growth inhibition against R. solani and C. cucurbitarum after 24 and 48 h of treatment. O. basilicum chemotypes showed variable levels of growth inhibition (63.0%-100%) against these two phytopathogens.

  4. PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Samina; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzali, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts.

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Toxicity Studies on the Leaves of Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Capparidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, P.; Latha, S.; Selvamani, P.; Kannan, V. Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Family: Capparidaceae) is a rare indigenous in South India but has widespread distribution in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study intended with various phytochemical screening and toxicity studies were carried out on the leaves of the Capparis sepiaria. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extract of revealed that the presence of reducing sugar, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, gums, resins, amino acids, proteins and anthraquinones. The toxicity studies were performed as acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity determined the LD50 value of 300-5000 mg/kg body weight 4-6 weeks. The results of the various phytochemical tests indicated that the plant to be rich in various biologically active compounds which could serve as potential source of the crude drugs and in addition the plant is not toxic to the experimental model. PMID:25206253

  6. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  7. Minor secondary metabolic products from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. displaying antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kuigoua, Guy Merlin; Kouam, Simeon F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Schulz, Barbara; Green, Ivan R; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Krohn, Karsten

    2010-04-01

    Four new iridoids viz., plumeridoids A, B, and C and epiplumeridoid C were isolated from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. together with twenty-four known compounds viz., 1-( P-hydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one, isoplumericin, plumericin, dihydroplumericin, allamcin, fulvoplumerin, allamandin, plumieride, P- E-coumaric acid, 2,6-dimethoxy- P-benzoquinone, scopoletin, cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol, 2,4,6-trimethoxyaniline, ajunolic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, beta-amyrin acetate, betulinic acid, lupeol and its acetate, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl octacosanoate, glucoside of beta-sitosterol, and a mixture of common sterols (stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol). Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic data including HREIMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and by comparison with published data. All but one of thirteen tested compounds exhibited antifungal, antialgal, and/or antibacterial activities.

  8. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bi-Ling; Zou, Hui-Liang; Qin, Fang-Min; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1) and B (2), and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3), were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 were established to be (2S)-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S)-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R)-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher's method.

  9. Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Narayanan, Raman; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2017-04-01

    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. Justicia adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced A. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of A. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Daswani, Poonam G; Brijesh, S; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2011-05-01

    To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.

  11. Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Daswani, Poonam G.; Brijesh, S.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen. PMID:21713044

  12. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

    2010-03-01

    In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties.

  13. The Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Psoralea corylifolia Linn.: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuenong; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Ying; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (P. corylifolia) is an important medicinal plant with thousands of years of clinical application. It has been widely used in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for the treatment of various diseases such as leucoderma and other skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, nephritis, osteoporosis, and cancer. Phytochemical studies indicated that coumarins, flavonoids, and meroterpenes are the main components of P. corylifolia, and most of these components are present in the seeds or fruits. The extracts and active components of P. corylifolia demonstrated multiple biological activities, including estrogenic, antitumor, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, osteoblastic, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper systematically summarized literatures on the chemical constituents and biological activities of P. corylifolia, which provided useful information for the further research and development toward this potent medicinal plant.

  14. Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn. seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Vetrichelvan, Thangarasu; Jegadeesan, Maniappan; Devi, Bangaru Adigalar Uma

    2002-04-01

    Celosia argentea Linn. commonly known as "Cocks Comb" and its seeds are widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds (ACAS) on blood glucose and body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ACAS was found to reduce the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (27.8% at 250 mg/kg and 38.8% at 500 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of ACAS significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for two weeks. Also the extract prevented a decrease in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the ACAS possesses anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  15. Relationship between Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Composition of Abutilon Indicum Linn.

    PubMed

    Srividya, A R; Dhanabal, S P; Jeevitha, S; Varthan, V J Vishnu; Kumar, R Rajesh

    2012-03-01

    Aim of this paper is to find out the relationship between antioxidant activity of Abutilon indicum Linn and their phytochemical composition especially phenols and flavonols. Successive extractions were carried out for the Abutilon indicum plant with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water. All these extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were correlated with their total phenol and flavonol content present in the plant. Ethyl acetate showed maximum free radical scavenging activity. IC(50) value for various antioxidant methods for all extract showed no significance with total antioxidant capacity except IC(50) value of LPO (r(2) = 0.7273). Correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was not significant with r(2) = 0.2554, P<0.3065. Total antioxidant capacity and total flavonol content showed similar correlation with r(2) = 0.2554, P<0.0962.

  16. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data.

  17. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  18. A new antioxidant xanthone from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Jin-Ping; Lu, Dan; Li, Ping-Ya; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2010-10-01

    The air-dried fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana Linn. were extracted with 85% ethanol. Furthermore, a new xanthone, 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,5-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-6',6'-dimethyl-4',5'-dihydropyrano[2',3':7,8]xanthone, along with five known xanthones related to their antioxidant activity was purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capability. An activity-guided isolation and purification process were used to identify the components, showing the strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity of G. mangostana.

  19. Hyperascyrones A-H, polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum ascyron Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hucheng; Chen, Chunmei; Liu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wei, Guangzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jinwen; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-07-01

    Eight polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives (PSAPs), hyperascyrones A-H, were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron Linn., together with six known analogs. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism calculations (ECD, Gaussian 09). Structures of previously reported tomoeones C, D, G, and H were revised. Hyperascyrones A-H were evaluated for their cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 activities, with hyperascyrones C and G exhibiting significant cytotoxicities against HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 4.22 and 8.36 μM, respectively. In addition, the chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds was also discussed.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  1. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  2. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  3. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.

  4. Antibacterial alkaloids from chelidonium majus linn (papaveraceae) against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Guo Ying; Meng, Fan Yan; Hao, Xiao Yan; Zhang, Yun Ling; Wang, Gen Chun; Xu, Gui Li

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the antibacterial effect of extracts and compounds isolated from the aerial part of Chelidonium majus Linn. (Papaveraceae) acting against clinical strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The activities were evaluated by using the macrobroth dilution method and reported as the MICs/MBCs. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the most active extract from the aerial parts (EtOAc) led to the isolation of benzo[c]phenanthridine-type alkaloids 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine (hhS), 8-hydroxydihydrochelerythrine (hhC), which were potently active against MRSA strains. The selective antibacterial activity reported in this paper for 8-hydroxylated benzo[c]phenanthridine-type alkaloids isolated from C.majus opens the possibility that they could be helpful for the developing of new antibacterial agents for treating the infection of MRSA which has created nosocomial problem worldwide.

  5. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

    2013-01-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  6. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar.

  7. A comparative analytical study of Prasarani [Merremia tridentata Hallier. f. and Paederia foetida Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Vasanth, P.; Kumar, D. Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    Prasarani is one of the drugs used in Vata Rogas such as Amavata, Avabahuka, etc. Among the different source plants of Prasarani, the plant Merremia tridentata Haller.f. is mostly used in South India and the plant Paderia foetida Linn. in North India, hence taken in the present work for comparative analytical study. It was observed that there is a common constituent (having 350 mm absorbance maxima) present in both the drug samples indicating that both works on a similar disease. It was also found that the whole plant powder sample of P. foetida has more number of constituents than that of M. tridentata which indicates P. foetida may have a better efficacy than M. tridentata. PMID:23723657

  8. A comparative analytical study of Prasarani [Merremia tridentata Hallier. f. and Paederia foetida Linn].

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Vasanth, P; Kumar, D Vijaya

    2012-07-01

    Prasarani is one of the drugs used in Vata Rogas such as Amavata, Avabahuka, etc. Among the different source plants of Prasarani, the plant Merremia tridentata Haller.f. is mostly used in South India and the plant Paderia foetida Linn. in North India, hence taken in the present work for comparative analytical study. It was observed that there is a common constituent (having 350 mm absorbance maxima) present in both the drug samples indicating that both works on a similar disease. It was also found that the whole plant powder sample of P. foetida has more number of constituents than that of M. tridentata which indicates P. foetida may have a better efficacy than M. tridentata.

  9. Amelioration of asthmatic inflammation by an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Park, Chul-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Si-Oh; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2010-03-01

    Inflammation of the respiratory tract is a crucial process in immune diseases, including asthma, and atopic rhinitis. To establish whether an aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea Linn (SoL) has a beneficial influence in terms of anti-asthmatic activity, we examined its effects on an ovalbumin-induced asthmatic model. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin were orally administered the SoL extract, and their lungs examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining to determine IL-4/13 cytokine expression. The SoL extract exerted strong anti-asthmatic effects by inducing a decrease in the CD4+ cell number, IL-4/13, and other molecular markers in the lung. Our results collectively indicate that the aqueous SoL extract ameliorates asthmatic symptoms effectively in a mouse ovalbumin-challenge model.

  10. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21808558

  11. Protection of swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, R M; Goyal, P K; Kumar, Ashok

    2004-07-01

    The radioprotective effects of Mentha oil (Mentha piperita Linn.) against radiation induced haematological alterations in peripheral blood and the survival of Swiss albino mice were studied. Mentha oil 40 micro L/animal/day for 3 consecutive days when fed orally prior to whole-body gamma irradiation (8 Gy) showed protection of the animals in terms of the survival percentage and haematological parameters in mice. Fifty per cent of the animals died within 20 days and 100% mortality was observed up to 30 days post-irradiation in the control irradiated group. Whereas only 17% of the mice died within 30 days in the experimental group (Mentha oil pretreated irradiated). The total RBC count decreased maximally at 24 h (3.45 +/- 0.20 x 10(12)/L, p < 0.001), similar observations were obtained for the WBC count, haemoglobin content and haematocrit percentage in the irradiated control animals. However, in irradiated animals pretreated with Mentha oil, although the initial values of haematological components were lower they later showed a remarkable recovery reaching normal at 30 days post-irradiation compared with the irradiated control animals. In general, the recovery of the blood cell number in irradiated animals depends on the survival of stem cells and their derivatives. The results from the present study suggest that the oil of Mentha piperita (Linn.) has a radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the haematopoietic system. Hence, enhanced survival and an increase in the haematological constituents of peripheral blood of mice against lethal gamma radiation was observed.

  12. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-01-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

  13. An in silico study on antidiabetic activity of bioactive compounds in Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Vo, T Hoang; Tran, Ngan; Nguyen, Dat; Le, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have become strongly preferred treatment to reduce the negative impacts of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its severe complications due to lesser side effects and low cost. Recently, strong anti-hyperglycemic effect of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. (E. thymifolia) on mice models has reported but the action mechanism of its bioactive compounds has remained unknown. This study aimed to evaluate molecular interactions existing between various bioactive compounds in E. thymifolia and targeted proteins related to Type 2 DM. This process involved the molecular docking of 3D structures of those substances into 4 targeted proteins: 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin-6. In the next step, LigandScout was applied to evaluate the bonds formed between 20 ligands and the binding sites of each targeted proteins. The results identified seven bioactive compounds with high binding affinity (<-8.0 kcal/mol) to all 4 targeted proteins including β-amyrine, taraxerol, 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, corilagin, cosmosiin, quercetin-3-galactoside and quercitrin. The pharmacophore features were also explained in 2D figures which indicated hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bond acceptors and hydrogen bond donors forming between carbonyl oxygen molecules of those ligands and active site residues of 4 targeted protein.Graphical abstract Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. is a small prostrate herbaceous annual weed that can positively impact on reducing hyperglycemic effect. In order to clearly understand about molecular level of the its bioactive compounds, in silico approach is performed.

  14. [Determination of isorhamnetin in Hippophae rhamnoides Linn from West Sichuan plateau using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ye, Li-Ming; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Chu; Li, Zhang-Wan; Chen, Cong; Wang, Yan-Ping

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for the determination of isorhamnetin in Hippophae rhamnoides Linn from West Sichuan plateau using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Applying the method of mixing with SiO2, the near infrared spectra (NIS) with the range of 12 000-4 000 cm(-1) were recorded for the Hippophae rhamnoides Linn containing isorhamnetin with the content of 0.1%-0.8%. Calibration models were established using the PLS (partial least squares). Different spectra pretreatments methods were compared. The study showed that spectral information can be extracted thoroughly by constant offset elimination (COE) pretreatments method with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.739 8, SEC of 0.107 (standard deviation of the calibration sets) and SEP of 0.073 (standard deviation of the prediction sets). The results indicate that near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is more rapid and convenient than conventional methods.

  15. Anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria bonita: mechanisms of action and synergism with amphotericin B and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nathalia N R; Alviano, Celuta S; Blank, Arie F; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Romanos, Maria Teresa V; Cunha, Marcel M L; da Silva, Antonio Jorge R; Alviano, Daniela S

    2017-12-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, kidney disorders, and intestinal worms. This study evaluates the anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction obtained from O. basilicum var. Maria Bonita leaves. The MIC values for Cryptococcus sp. were obtained according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL. The checkerboard assay evaluated the association of the substances tested (in a range of 0.099-2500 μg/mL) with amphotericin B and O. basilicum essential oil for 48 h. The ethanol extract, hexane fraction and associations in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL were tested for pigmentation inhibition after 7 days of treatment. The inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and reduction of capsule size were evaluated after the treatment with ethanol extract (312 μg/mL), hexane fraction (78 μg/mL) and the combinations of essential oil + ethanol extract (78 μg/mL + 19.5 μg/mL, respectively) and essential oil + hexane fraction (39.36 μg/mL + 10 μg/mL, respectively) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The hexane fraction presented better results than the ethanol extract, with a low MIC (156 μg/mL against C. neoformans T444 and 312 μg/mL against C. neoformans H99 serotype A and C. gattii WM779 serotype C). The combination of the ethanol extract and hexane fraction with amphotericin B and essential oil enhanced their antifungal activity, reducing the concentration of each substance needed to kill 100% of the inoculum. The substances tested were able to reduce the pigmentation, capsule size and ergosterol synthesis, which suggest they have important mechanisms of action. These results provide further support for the use of ethanol extracts of O. basilicum as a potential source of antifungal agents.

  16. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-Long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[β-D-apiose-(1→4)]-β-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants.

  17. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background: The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. Results: The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[β-D-apiose-(1→4)]-β-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. PMID:21472077

  18. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other.

  19. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  20. Comparison of antioxidant activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L., and Vernonia amygdalina L. in type 1 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Umoren, Idorenyin Udo

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be associated with increase of oxidative stress products. The direction of effect of any treatment on these products could therefore be a reliable measure of its efficacy on DM. So the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L. (OG) and Vernonia amygdalina L. (VA) on oxidative stress products. Thirty-six female Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into six groups of six rats each. Thirty rats were induced for type 1 DM (DM1) with a single intraperitoneal administration of 65 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. Group 1 was normal control and was administered distilled water while Group 2 served as DM1 control group; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were diabetic rats treated with 208 mg/kg OG (DM1 + OG), 52 mg/kg VA (DM1 + VA), 208 mg/kg OG + 52 mg/kg VA (DM1 + OG + VA) and 0.16 IU insulin (DM1 + insulin) respectively. Determination of methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin was achieved by the absorption spectrum principle. Red blood cell (RBC) catalase was assayed by continuous spectrophotometric method. The RBC catalase concentration was significantly decreased in the DM1 and DM1 + VA groups when compared with the normal control. DM1 + OG significantly increased RBC-catalase when compared to DM1. The methemoglobin concentration was significantly reduced in the DM1, DM1 + VA, DM1 + OG + VA and DM1 + insulin groups when compared to the normal control group. The sulfhemoglobin concentration was significantly increased in the diabetic control and the diabetic treated groups when compared to the normal control. DM1 + OG reduced the sulfhemoglobin concentration when compared to DM1. The blood glucose concentration of all the diabetic groups was significantly raised compared to normal control. OG, VA and insulin significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration with the efficacy of OG and VA higher than insulin. Adverse alteration of oxidative indices were observed in type 1 DM model

  1. Altered growth and polyamine catabolism following exposure of the chocolate spot pathogen Botrytis fabae to the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Senga K; Svoboda, Katja P; Walters, Dale R

    2005-01-01

    Biomass of the fungal pathogen Botrytis fabae in liquid culture amended with two chemotypes of the essential oil of basil, Ocimum basilicum, was reduced significantly at concentrations of 50 ppm or less. The methyl chavicol chemotype oil increased the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), but polyamine concentrations were not significantly altered. In contrast, the linalol chemotype oil decreased AdoMetDC activity in B. fabae, although again polyamine concentrations were not altered significantly. However activities of the polyamine catabolic enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) were increased significantly in B. fabae grown in the presence of the essential oil of the two chemotypes. It is suggested that the elevated activities of DAO and PAO may be responsible, in part, for the antifungal effects of the basil oil, possibly via the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent triggering of programmed cell death.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. and observation of the inhibition effect on bacterial cells by use of scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ilhan; Yigit, Nazife; Benli, Mehlika

    2008-06-18

    The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, acetone and two different concentrations of methanol extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. were studied. These extracts were tested in vitro against 10 bacteria and 4 yeasts strains by the disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the methanol extracts of O. basilucum exhibited the antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms. While the chloroform and acetone extracts had no effect, the methanol extracts showed inhibition zones against strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and two different strains of Escherichia coli. The cells of microorganisms, which were treated and untreated with plant extracts, were observed by using the scanning electron microscope. It was observed that the treated cells were damaged.

  3. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-09-18

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site.

  4. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site. PMID:28927018

  5. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi: activity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium L., Syzygium aromaticum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. on epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giani F; Cardoso, Maria G; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Mendonça, Lidiany Z; Soares, Maurilio J

    2007-07-01

    Trypanocidal activity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) essential oils and some of their constituents (eugenol and linalool) was investigated on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, with chemical analyses performed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC(50) (concentration that inhibits 50% parasite growth) of the oils and constituents upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber. Cell morphology alterations were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with oils and constituents demonstrated that they inhibit parasite growth, with clove essential being the most effective one (IC(50)=99.5 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 57.5 microg/ml for trypomastigotes). Ultrastructural alterations were observed mainly in the nucleus.

  7. Efficacy of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. gratissimum L. applied as an insecticidal fumigant and powder to control Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.)

    PubMed

    Kéita, S M.; Vincent, C; Schmit, J -P.; Arnason, J T.; Bélanger, A

    2001-10-01

    Essential oils from sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, and African basil, O. gratissimum, (Labiatae) grown in Guinea were obtained by steam distillation. Following exposure of newly emerged adult beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus) to 12h of fumigation using pure essential oils at a dose of 25&mgr;l/vial, 80% mortality was recorded for O. basilicum, 70% for O. gratissimum and 0% in the control. A significant difference was observed between the responses of males and females with males exhibiting greater sensitivity. When 1g of aromatized powder was applied to adults, a 50% lethal concentration at 48h was found to be 65&mgr;l/g for O. basilicum and 116&mgr;l/g of O. gratissimum oils. The essential oils from the two plant species exhibited a significant effect both on the egg hatch rate and on the emergence of adults. The egg hatch rate was reduced to 3% with O. basilicum and 15% with O. gratissimum using an essential oil concentration of 30&mgr;l, whereas the egg hatch rate for the control was 95%. When compared with the control (97%), adult emergence dropped to 0% with O. basilicum and to 4% with O. gratissimum. Storage bioassays were run to assess the long-term effect of powders aromatized with essential oils of Ocimum. Complete protection was observed over 3 months starting at a dose of 400&mgr;l in the case of both oils. From a germination test, it was concluded that aromatized powders have no significant effect on the seed germination rate. After 5d, a rate of 88% germination was seen in seeds treated with aromatized powder and protected from insects, compared with 97% for untreated seeds that were not exposed to insects.

  8. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Matlobi, Amin; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Soraya, Hamid; Hammami, Mojtaba; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2012-12-05

    The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil) on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36%) and flavonoids (1.86%). Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  9. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil) on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36%) and flavonoids (1.86%). Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities. PMID:23351503

  10. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to

  11. Antipsychotic-like activity of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2012-10-19

    Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine (5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to identify the active principles responsible for

  12. Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823.

    PubMed

    Dua, Virendra K; Kumar, Arvind; Pandey, Akhilesh C; Kumar, Sandeep

    2013-02-04

    Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.

  13. Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control. PMID:23379981

  14. Rapid and easy identification of Illicium verum Hook. f. and its adulterant Illicium anisatum Linn. by fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vaishali C; Srinivas, Pullela V; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-01-01

    Illicium verum Hook. f. is used as an herbal tea to treat colic pain in infants. Reports suggest that Star anise herbal tea may be adulterated with Illicium anisatum Linn. A short and rapid method using microscopy and gas chromatography (GC) was developed to detect I. anisatum Linn., an adulterant in the powdered mixture of I. verum. Anatomical differences in the epicarp cells of I. verum and I. anisatum fruits were clearly defined as examined under fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A GC method was developed for quick identification of possible I. anisatum adulteration with I. verum.

  15. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E. T.; Kamal, Y. T.; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit. PMID:26681883

  16. Comparative powder microscopy of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe and Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd

    PubMed Central

    Wijayasiriwardena, Chandima; Premakumara, Sirimal

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plant materials are being adulterated in commerce due to many reasons such as similar morphological features, same name as written in classical text, presence of similar active principles in the substituted plant etc., that may badly affect the therapeutic activity of the finished products. Therefore, systematic identification is becoming essential in order to produce standardized finished herbal products. The present study includes two medicinal plant rhizomes; Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Heenaratta) and A. galanga (Linn.) Willd (Aratta) whose microscopical build up was different from each other and was assessed by standard Pharmacognostical methods. Diagnostic identification characters of A. calcarata were compound starch grins, triangular-shaped starch grains, and plenty of simple starch grains in one parenchyma cell compared to that of A. galanga. Diamond-shaped silica crystals were found only on A. galanga rhizome powder. Present study has revealed an easy technique to identify two similar medicinal plant materials microscopically and this method can also be employed to detect the degree of adulteration in powdered raw medicinal plant materials as well. PMID:23723656

  17. Comparative powder microscopy of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe and Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Wijayasiriwardena, Chandima; Premakumara, Sirimal

    2012-07-01

    Medicinal plant materials are being adulterated in commerce due to many reasons such as similar morphological features, same name as written in classical text, presence of similar active principles in the substituted plant etc., that may badly affect the therapeutic activity of the finished products. Therefore, systematic identification is becoming essential in order to produce standardized finished herbal products. The present study includes two medicinal plant rhizomes; Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Heenaratta) and A. galanga (Linn.) Willd (Aratta) whose microscopical build up was different from each other and was assessed by standard Pharmacognostical methods. Diagnostic identification characters of A. calcarata were compound starch grins, triangular-shaped starch grains, and plenty of simple starch grains in one parenchyma cell compared to that of A. galanga. Diamond-shaped silica crystals were found only on A. galanga rhizome powder. Present study has revealed an easy technique to identify two similar medicinal plant materials microscopically and this method can also be employed to detect the degree of adulteration in powdered raw medicinal plant materials as well.

  18. [Analysis of macroelements and microelements in Chinese traditional medicine Plumbago zeylanica Linn by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-xiong; Chen, Zhen-feng; Wang, Heng-shan; Liu, Yan-cheng; Liang, Hong

    2009-04-01

    Twenty macroelements and microelements were analyzed in the leaves, stems and roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn from Guangxi by inductively.coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Four macroelements, Na, K, Ca and Mg, five essential microelements, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr and Co, and eight other elements, Mo, Sb, Bi, Cd, Sr, Pb, Cd and As, were detected in all samples. The contents of the elements are varied in different parts of P. zeylanica. For all the determined elements, the contents in the leaves and roots are relatively higher as compared to those in the stems and it is in concurrence with the active parts of Plumbago zeylanica for the cure of antioxidant and anticancer drugs, as the elements Na, K, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sr, Cu and Co are the highest in leaves, followed by those is in roots. Many anticancer herbs usually show comparatively rich Zn, Mn, Fe, as well as Cr,Sr and Cu. Plumbago zeylanica exists with abundant Zn, Mn and Fe and a certain amount of Cr, Sr and Cu. The results would provide useful data for discussing the relationship between the elements in Chinese traditional medicine and its activities, and could be useful for the exploitation of the Chinese traditional medicinal resources.

  19. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

  1. Radioprotective influence of Mentha piperita (Linn) against gamma irradiation in mice: Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Panwar, Meenakshi; Kumar, Madhu; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the radiomodulatory influence of a leaf extract of Mentha piperita (Linn) on hepatic antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in Swiss albino mice. Animals were given either double distilled water or leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g/kg bwt/day) once a day for three consecutive days. Thirty min after the last treatment mice were exposed to 8 Gy of gamma radiation. Mice were autopsied at 30 min post-irradiation. Biochemical parameters were studied to assess the radioprotective effect of leaf extract of M. piperita. Animals pretreated with leaf extract of M. piperita and exposed to 8.0 Gy gamma radiation showed a significant increase in the activities of reduced glutathione content (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.005), glutathione reductase (p < 0.001), glutathione S-transferase (p < 0.005), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.005), and catalase (p < 0.005). Irradiated group pretreated with leaf extract of M. piperita showed significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in liver. The leaf extract of M. piperita showed strong radical scavenging activity in both the 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH*) and 2, 2 azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS*+) assays. The results of the present investigation suggest the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of leaf extract of M. piperita are the likely mechanism of radiation protection.

  2. Antispasmodic effect of Acorus calamus Linn. is mediated through calcium channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Anwar Ul Hassan; Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Shaheen, Farzana

    2006-12-01

    Acorus calamus Linn. (Araceae) is a native of Central Asia and Eastern Europe and has widespread use in the traditional system of medicine for gastrointestinal disorders such as colic pain and diarrhoea. This study was aimed at providing a possible pharmacological basis to the use of this plant as an antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal. In the isolated rabbit jejunum preparation the crude extract (Ac.Cr), which tested positive for the presence of alkaloid, saponins and tannins, caused inhibition of spontaneous and high K(+) (80 mm)-induced contractions, with respective EC(50) values of 0.42 +/- 0.06 and 0.13 +/- 0.04 mg/mL (mean +/- SEM; n = 6-8), thus showing spasmolytic activity, mediated possibly through calcium channel blockade (CCB). The CCB activity was confirmed when pre-treatment of the tissue with Ac.Cr (0.3-1.0 mg/mL) caused a rightward shift in the Ca(++) dose-response curves similar to that caused by verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the CCB activity was concentrated in the n-hexane fraction while the ethylacetate fraction was less potent. These results suggest that the spasmolytic effect of the plant extract is mediated through the presence of CCB-like constituent(s) which is concentrated in the n-hexane fraction and this study provides a strong mechanistic base for its traditional use in gastrointestinal disorders such as colic pain and diarrhoea.

  3. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    PubMed

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  4. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  5. Structural elucidation of the lignins from stems and foliage of Arundo donax Linn.

    PubMed

    You, Ting-Ting; Mao, Jian-Zhen; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Wen, Jia-Long; Xu, Feng

    2013-06-05

    As one of the potential energy crops, Arundo donax Linn. is a renewable source for the production of biofuels and bioproducts. In the present study, milled wood lignin (MWL) and alkaline lignin (AL) from stems and foliage of A. donax were isolated and characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, GPC, ³¹P NMR, 2D HSQC NMR, and DFRC. The results indicated that both stem and foliage lignins were HGS type lignins. The semiquantitative HSQC spectra analysis demonstrated a predominance of β-O-4' aryl ether linkages (71-82%), followed by β-β', β-5', β-1', and α,β-diaryl ethers linkages in the lignins. Compared to stem lignins, foliage lignins had less β-O-4' alkyl-aryl ethers, lower weight-average molecular weight, less phenolic OH, more H units, and lower S/G ratio. Moreover, tricin was found to incorporate into the foliage lignins (higher content of condensed G units) in significant amounts and might be alkaline-stable.

  6. Assessment of cytotoxicity of Portulaca oleracea Linn. against human colon adenocarcinoma and vero cell line.

    PubMed

    Mali, Prashant Y

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Portulacaceae) is commonly known as purslane in English. In traditional system it is used to cure diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, asthma, and piles, reduce small tumors and inflammations. To assess cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-15) and normal (Vero) cell line. Characterization of chloroform extract of P. oleracea by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed. Cytotoxicity (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used for assessment of cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of P. oleracea. The concentrations of 1000-0.05 μg/ml were used in the experiment. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. FTIR spectrum showed the peak at 1019.52 and 1396.21 center. The 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) of chloroform extract of P. oleracea and doxorubicin was 1132.02 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml against human colon adenocarcinoma and 767.60 μg/ml and 2392.71 μg/ml against Vero cell line, respectively. Chloroform extract of P. oleracea whole plant was less efficient or does not have cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. It was not safe to normal Vero cell line. But, there is a need to isolate, identify, and confirm the phytoconstituents present in extract by sophisticated analytical techniques.

  7. Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2013-01-01

    Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1 g/L) together with TL 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

  8. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

    2011-04-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001) and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001) associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001) and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05) as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

  9. Structure and Antioxidant Activities of Proanthocyanidins from Elephant Apple (Dillenia indica Linn.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Caili; Yang, Dongying; Peh, Wan Yi Elaine; Lai, Shaojuan; Feng, Xiao; Yang, Hongshun

    2015-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated and purified from fruits of elephant apple (Dillenia indica Linn.) and their structural and bioactive properties were examined. Bate-Smith alcoholysis, FTIR, and (13) C NMR spectra revealed that elephant apple proanthocyanidins (EAPs) contained a dominant amount of B-type procyanidins (PC) with a minor amount of B-type prodelphinidins (PD) but no A-type interflavan linkage. (13) C NMR spectrum indicated that the cis isomer was dominant in EAPs. The electron spray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectra of EAPs showed the clear ion peaks corresponding to B-type PC dimer to B-type PD with degree of polymerization of 11. EAPs had strong antioxidant activity, which was evidenced by the high oxygen radical scavenging capacity at 1.06 × 10(4) μmol TE/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power of 2320 μmol Fe(II)/g. The results suggest that EAPs could be extracted to be used as promising functional food materials. In this study, the elephant apple proanthocyanidins (EAPs) with a yield of 0.23% were identified for the first time as dominant B-type poly(catechin/epicatechin) but no A-type interflavan linkage. EAPs had higher ORAC and FRAP values compared to commercial grape seed proanthocyanidins, suggesting that EAPs may be used as promising functional food materials. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    PubMed

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p < 0.001) against carrageenan and 22% (p < 0.01) inhibition against egg albumin induced paw edema in mice at the end of 3 h. Ether extract produced prominent analgesic effect 77% (p < 0.001) inhibition in acetic acid induced abdominal writhing and 59% inhibition in formalin induced paw licking model in mice, respectively. Ether extract also demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) antipyretic activity against yeast induced pyrexia. The plant showed no sign of toxicity up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg in mice. This study supports the use of Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  11. Adverse reaction of Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn): Two case study reports

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, K.; Joshi, Abhishek J.; Vyas, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an unpleasant reaction related to the use of medicine at its therapeutic dose. Ayurveda is well aware of such adverse reactions. Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn.) is an Ayurvedic drug effectively used in many psychological disorders, if not used judiciously it causes adverse reactions. In present study two cases of ADR on the usage of Parasika Yavani are reported. Churna in capsule form given in different dosage forms (500 mg once a day, 250 mg twice a day, 250 mg once a day) in Chittodwega (generalised anxiety disorder). 500mg capsule was given to many patients in the study, but no adverse reactions were noticed except in above given two cases. So, in these two cases, the dose was tapered down to 250 mg twice a day, and then to 250 mg once a day to avert the adverse reactions and to fix the therapeutic dose in such individuals (250 mg once a day). On analysis, these two individuals were found to be of Pitta Prakriti. Parasika Yavani is found to increase Pitta and triggers the establishment of ADRs. So, while administering therapeutic dosage, a physician should be vigilant. In the current study, it is observed that 500 mg of Parasika Yavani powder in Pitta Prakriti individuals triggered ADRs while 250 mg once a day was safe. It was also observed that Kapha and Vata Prakriti, patients did not develop any adverse reactions. PMID:27011719

  12. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J

    2013-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study.

  13. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

  14. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  15. Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

    2014-07-01

    In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter.

  16. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  17. Medico-historical review of Nyagrŏdha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Nyagrŏdha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacre