Science.gov

Sample records for octadecyl glyceryl ether-alpha

  1. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Glyceryl Laurate, Glyceryl Laurate SE, Glyceryl Laurate/Oleate, Glyceryl Adipate, Glyceryl Alginate, Glyceryl Arachidate, Glyceryl Arachidonate, Glyceryl Behenate, Glyceryl Caprate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Glyceryl Caprylate/Caprate, Glyceryl Citrate/Lactate/Linoleate/Oleate, Glyceryl Cocoate, Glyceryl Collagenate, Glyceryl Erucate, Glyceryl Hydrogenated Rosinate, Glyceryl Hydrogenated Soyate, Glyceryl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Isopalmitate, Glyceryl Isostearate, Glyceryl Isostearate/Myristate, Glyceryl Isostearates, Glyceryl Lanolate, Glyceryl Linoleate, Glyceryl Linolenate, Glyceryl Montanate, Glyceryl Myristate, Glyceryl Isotridecanoate/Stearate/Adipate, Glyceryl Oleate SE, Glyceryl Oleate/Elaidate, Glyceryl Palmitate, Glyceryl Palmitate/Stearate, Glyceryl Palmitoleate, Glyceryl Pentadecanoate, Glyceryl Polyacrylate, Glyceryl Rosinate, Glyceryl Sesquioleate, Glyceryl/Sorbitol Oleate/Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Stearate/Acetate, Glyceryl Stearate/Maleate, Glyceryl Tallowate, Glyceryl Thiopropionate, and Glyceryl Undecylenate.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The safety of 43 glyceryl monoesters listed as cosmetic ingredients was reviewed in a safety assessment completed in 2000. Additional safety test data pertaining to Glyceryl Rosinate and Glyceryl Hydrogenated Rosinate were received and served as the basis for this amended report. Glyceryl monoesters are used mostly as skin-conditioning agents--emollients and/or surfactant--emulsifying agents in cosmetics. The following 20 glyceryl monoesters are currently reported to be used in cosmetics: Glyceryl Laurate, Glyceryl Alginate, Glyceryl Arachidonate, Glyceryl Behenate, Glyceryl Caprylate, Glyceryl Caprylate/Caprate, Glyceryl Cocoate, Glyceryl Erucate, Glyceryl Hydroxystearate, Glyceryl Isostearate, Glyceryl Lanolate, Glyceryl Linoleate, Glyceryl Linolenate, Glyceryl Myristate, Glyceryl Oleate/Elaidate, Glyceryl Palmitate, Glyceryl Polyacrylate, Glyceryl Rosinate, Glyceryl Stearate/Acetate, and Glyceryl Undecylenate. Concentration of use data received from the cosmetics industry in 1999 indicate that Glyceryl Monoesters are used at concentrations up to 12% in cosmetic products. Glyceryl Monoesters are not pure monoesters, but are mostly mixtures with mono-, di-, and tri-esters. The purity of commercial and conventional Monoglyceride (Glyceryl Monoester) is a minimum of 90%. Glyceryl Monoesters (monoglycerides) are metabolized to free fatty acids and glycerol, both of which are available for the resynthesis of triglycerides. Glyceryl Laurate enhanced the penetration of drugs through cadaverous skin and hairless rat skin in vitro and has been described as having a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. A low-grade irritant response was observed following inhalation of an aerosol containing 10% Glyceryl Laurate by test animals. Glyceryl monoesters have little acute or short-term toxicity in animals, and no toxicity was noted following chronic administration of a mixture consisting mostly of glyceryl di- and mono- esters. Glyceryl Laurate did have strong hemolytic

  2. Amended final report on the safety assessment of glyceryl dilaurate, glyceryl diarachidate, glyceryl dibehenate, glyceryl dierucate, glyceryl dihydroxystearate, glyceryl diisopalmitate, glyceryl diisostearate, glyceryl dilinoleate, glyceryl dimyristate, glyceryl dioleate, glyceryl diricinoleate, glyceryl dipalmitate, glyceryl dipalmitoleate, glyceryl distearate, glyceryl palmitate lactate, glyceryl stearate citrate, glyceryl stearate lactate, and glyceryl stearate succinate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Glyceryl Dilaurate, Glyceryl Diarachidate, Glyceryl Dibehenate, Glyceryl Dierucate, Glyceryl Dihydroxystearate, Glyceryl Diisopalmitate, Glyceryl Diisostearate, Glyceryl Dilinoleate, Glyceryl Dimyristate, Glyceryl Dioleate, Glyceryl Diricinoleate, Glyceryl Dipalmitate, Glyceryl Dipalmitoleate, Glyceryl Distearate, Glyceryl Palmitate Lactate, Glyceryl Stearate Citrate, Glyceryl Stearate Lactate, and Glyceryl Stearate Succinate are diacylglycerols (also known as diglycerides or glyceryl diesters) that function as skin conditioning agents - emollients in cosmetics. Only Glyceryl Dilaurate (up to 5%), Glyceryl Diisostearate (up to 43%), Glyceryl Dioleate (up to 2%), Glyceryl Distearate (up to 7%), and Glyceryl Stearate Lactate (up to 5%) are reported to be in current use. Production proceeds from fully refined vegetable oils, which are further processed using hydrogenation and fractionation techniques, and the end products are produced by reacting selected mixtures of the partly hydrogenated, partly fractionated oils and fats with vegetable-derived glycerine to yield partial glycerides. In the final stage of the production process, the products are purified by deodorization, which effectively removes pesticide residues and lower boiling residues such as residues of halogenated solvents and aromatic solvents. Diglycerides have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as indirect food additives. Nominally, these ingredients are 1,3-diglycerides, but are easily isomerized to the 1,2-diglycerides form. The 1,3-diglyceride isomer is not a significant toxicant in acute, short-term, subchronic, or chronic animal tests. Glyceryl Dilaurate was a mild primary irritant in albino rabbits, but not a skin sensitizer in guinea pig maximization tests. Diacylglycerol Oil was not genotoxic in the Ames test, in mammalian Chinese hamster lung cells, or in a rodent bone marrow micronucleus assay. An eye shadow containing 1.5% Glyceryl Dilaurate did not induce skin

  3. 21 CFR 582.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1324 Glyceryl monostearate. (a) Product. Glyceryl monostearate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding...

  4. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octadecyl ferulate, a lipophilic derivative of ferulic acid having antioxidant properties, is found throughout the plant and fungi kingdoms. Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using supercritical fluid chromatograph and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning...

  5. Octadecyl ferulate behavior in 1,2-Dioleoylphosphocholine liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kervin O.; Compton, David L.; Whitman, Nathan A.; Laszlo, Joseph A.; Appell, Michael; Vermillion, Karl E.; Kim, Sanghoon

    2016-01-01

    Octadecyl ferulate was prepared using solid acid catalyst, monitored using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and purified to a 42% yield. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements determined octadecyl ferulate to have melting/solidification phase transitions at 67 and 39 °C, respectively. AFM imaging shows that 5-mol% present in a lipid bilayer induced domains to form. Phase behavior measurements confirmed that octadecyl ferulate increased transition temperature of phospholipids. Fluorescence measurements demonstrated that octadecyl ferulate stabilized liposomes against leakage, maintained antioxidant capacity within liposomes, and oriented such that the feruloyl moiety remained in the hydrophilic region of the bilayer. Molecular modeling calculation indicated that antioxidant activity was mostly influenced by interactions within the bilayer.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prepared by esterification of commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862 of this chapter. It contains glyceryl monooleate (C21H40O4, CAS Reg. No. 25496-72-4) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b...

  7. 21 CFR 172.811 - Glyceryl tristearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.811 Glyceryl tristearate. The food additive glyceryl tristearate may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive (CAS Reg....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. Glyceryl monostearate is prepared by..., of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. Glyceryl monostearate is prepared by..., of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... esterification of commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids.... No. 25496-72-4) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids meeting the...) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b) The ingredient must be of...

  12. Monolithic stationary phases with incorporated fumed silica nanoparticles. Part II. Polymethacrylate-based monolithic column with "covalently" incorporated modified octadecyl fumed silica nanoparticles for reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Cemil; El Rassi, Ziad

    2016-05-06

    This study is concerned with the incorporation of surface modified fumed silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) into polymethacrylate based monolithic columns for use in reversed phase chromatography (RPC) of small solutes and proteins. First, FSNPs were modified with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) to yield the "hybrid" methacryloyl fumed silica nanoparticle (MFSNP) monomer. The resulting MFSNP was then mixed with glyceryl monomethacrylate (GMM) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in a binary porogenic solvent composed of cyclohexanol and dodecanol, and the in situ copolymerization of MFSNP, GMM and EDMA was performed in a stainless steel column of 4.6 mm i.d. The silanol groups of the hybrid monolith thus obtained were grafted with octadecyl ligands by perfusing the hybrid monolithic column with a solution of 4% w/v of dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DODCS) in toluene while the column was maintained at 110°C for 6h (in a heated HPLC oven). One of the originalities of this study was to demonstrate MFSNP as a novel derivatized "hybrid monomer" in making RPC monolithic columns with surface bound octadecyl ligands. In this respect, the RPC behavior of the monolithic column with "covalently" incorporated FNSPs having surface grafted octadecyl ligands was evaluated with alkylbenzenes, aniline derivatives and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the hybrid poly(GMA-EDMA-MFSNP) having surface bound octadecyl ligands exhibited hydrophobic interactions under reversed phase elution conditions. Furthermore, six standard proteins were baseline separated on the column using a 10min linear gradient elution at increasing ACN concentration in the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min using a 10 cm×4.6mm i.d. column. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the retention times of the tested solutes were lower than 2.1% and 2.4% under isocratic elution and gradient elution conditions, respectively.

  13. Topical glyceryl trinitrate for rotator cuff disease.

    PubMed

    Cumpston, Miranda; Johnston, Renea V; Wengier, Lainie; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2009-07-08

    Rotator cuff disease is a common cause of shoulder pain. Topical glyceryl trinitrate is a possible new treatment. To determine the effectiveness and safety of topical glyceryl trinitrate for rotator cuff disease. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, the Australian Clinical Trials Registry, Current Controlled Trials (to October 2007) and the references and citations of included studies. We included randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of people with rotator cuff disease who received topical glyceryl trinitrate, alone or in combination, compared to placebo or active therapy. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Three small studies, one at moderate risk of bias and two at high risk of bias, were included. Meta-analysis was precluded due to different interventions and outcome measures. Study participants also had differing durations of symptoms and data for pain and function could only be extracted from one study. One placebo-controlled trial (20 participants) tested 5 mg glyceryl trinitrate patches, used daily for three days, among participants with 'acute supraspinatus tendinitis' of less than seven days duration. Treatment resulted in reduced pain intensity (adjusted MD -3.50, 95% CI -3.96 to -3.04). Function was not measured. One trial (53 participants) compared one quarter of a 5 mg glyceryl trinitrate patch used daily for up to 24 weeks combined with rehabilitation to placebo patches and rehabilitation among participants with 'supraspinatus tendinopathy' for longer than six months. A third trial (48 participants) tested 5 mg glyceryl trinitrate patches, used daily for three days, compared to corticosteroid injection among participants with 'rotator cuff tendinitis' of less than six-weeks duration. Fifteen out of 24 participants in the glyceryl trinitrate treatment reported headache (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.96). There is some

  14. 21 CFR 184.1328 - Glyceryl behenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... not more than 2.5 percent free fatty acids. (2) Behenic acid. Between 80 and 90 percent of the total fatty acid content. (3) Acid value. Not more than 4. (4) Saponification value. Between 145 and 165. (5... glyceryl esters of behenic acid made from glycerin and behenic acid (a saturated C22 fatty acid). The...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1328 - Glyceryl behenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... not more than 2.5 percent free fatty acids. (2) Behenic acid. Between 80 and 90 percent of the total fatty acid content. (3) Acid value. Not more than 4. (4) Saponification value. Between 145 and 165. (5... glyceryl esters of behenic acid made from glycerin and behenic acid (a saturated C22 fatty acid). The...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1328 - Glyceryl behenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... not more than 2.5 percent free fatty acids. (2) Behenic acid. Between 80 and 90 percent of the total fatty acid content. (3) Acid value. Not more than 4. (4) Saponification value. Between 145 and 165. (5... glyceryl esters of behenic acid made from glycerin and behenic acid (a saturated C22 fatty acid). The...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1329 - Glyceryl palmitostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic acid and stearic acid. (2) Heavy metals (as lead): Not more than... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl palmitostearate. 184.1329 Section 184.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1329 - Glyceryl palmitostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... substance is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic acid and stearic acid. (2) Heavy metals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl palmitostearate. 184.1329 Section 184.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1329 - Glyceryl palmitostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... substance is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic acid and stearic acid. (2) Heavy metals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl palmitostearate. 184.1329 Section 184.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1329 - Glyceryl palmitostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... substance is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic acid and stearic acid. (2) Heavy metals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl palmitostearate. 184.1329 Section 184.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1329 - Glyceryl palmitostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... substance is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic acid and stearic acid. (2) Heavy metals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl palmitostearate. 184.1329 Section 184.1329 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1328 - Glyceryl behenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl behenate. 184.1328 Section 184.1328 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  3. Topical glyceryl trinitrate as adjunctive treatment in Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed

    Franks, A G

    1982-01-09

    The effects of topical glyceryl trinitrate in Raynaud's disease were compared with those of placebo in a double-blind, crossover trial in 17 patients with bilateral Raynaud's disease and an associated collagen disease, who were receiving oral sympatholytic agents at the maximum levels they could tolerate. 1% glyceryl trinitrate ointment or a placebo of lanolin was applied to one hand only for 6 weeks, then patients changed to the other preparation for 6 weeks. The results were evaluated every 2 weeks. The frequency of attacks, severity of attacks, and size of ulcers in the treated hand were significantly lower when the patients were using glyceryl trinitrate ointment than when they were using placebo. The treatment of Raynaud's disease may be improved by using topical glyceryl trinitrate ointment as an adjunct to a basic regimen of oral sympatholytic agents. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment may obviate the need for more aggressive treatment, such as intraarterial reserpine, in selected patients.

  4. Facile Preparation of Octadecyl Monoliths with Incorporated Carbon Nanotubes and Neutral Monoliths with Coated Carbon Nanotubes Stationary Phases for HPLC of Small and Large Molecules by Hydrophobic and π-π Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mayadunne, Erandi; Rassi, Ziad El

    2014-01-01

    Two approaches for incorporating carbon nanotubes into monolithic columns for HPLC are described in this report. They pertain to the investigation of carbon nanotubes either (i) as entities to modulate solute retention on monolithic columns bearing well defined retentive ligands or (ii) as entities that constitute the stationary phase responsible for solute retention and separation. Approach (i) involved the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into octadecyl monolithic columns while approach (ii) concerns the preparation and evaluation of an ideal monolithic support and coating it with carbon nanotubes to yield a real “carbon nanotube stationary phase” for the HPLC separation of a wide range of solutes. First, an octadecyl monolithic column based on the in situ polymerization of octadecyl acrylate and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate was optimized for use in HPLC separations of small and large solutes (e.g., proteins). To further modulate the retention and separation of proteins, small amounts of carbon nanotubes were incorporated into the octadecyl monolith column. In approach (ii), an inert, relatively polar monolith based on the in situ polymerization of glyceryl monomethacrylate (GMM) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) proved to be the most suitable support for the preparation of “carbon nanotube stationary phase”. This carbon nanotube “coated” monolith proved useful in the HPLC separation of a wide range of small solutes including enantiomers. In approach (ii), a more homogeneous incorporation of carbon nanotubes into the diol monolithic columns (i.e., GMM/EDMA) was achieved when hydroxyl functionalized carbon nanotubes were incorporated into the GMM/EDMA monolithic support. In addition, high power sonication for a short time enhanced further the homogeneity of the monolith incorporated with nanotubes. In all cases, nonpolar and π interactions were responsible for solute retention on the monolith incorporated carbon nanotubes. PMID:25127634

  5. 21 CFR 178.3505 - Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate). 178.3505... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3505 Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate). Glyceryl tri... calcium carbonate/glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxystearate) mixture is used as an adjuvant in polymers in contact...

  6. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  7. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  8. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  9. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food...

  10. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  11. Biodegradation of glyceryl trinitrate by Penicillium corylophilum Dierckx.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y Z; Sundaram, S T; Sharma, A; Brodman, B W

    1997-01-01

    Penicillium corylophilum Dierckx, isolated from a contaminated water wet, double-base propellant, was able to completely degrade glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in a buffered medium (pH 7.0) containing glucose and ammonium nitrate. In the presence of 12 mg of initial fungal inoculum, GTN (48.5 to 61.6 mumol) was quantitatively transformed in a stepwise process to glyceryl dinitrate (GDN) and glyceryl mononitrate (GMN) within 48 h followed by a decrease in the GDN content with a concomitant increase in the GMN level. GDN was totally transformed to GMN within 168 h, and the complete degradation of GMN was achieved within 336 h. The presence of glucose and ammonium nitrate in the growth medium was essential for completion of the degradation of GTN and its metabolites. Complete degradation of GTN by a fungal culture has not been previously reported in the literature. PMID:9143106

  12. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking.

    PubMed

    Kenar, James A; Compton, David L; Little, Jeanette A; Peterson, Steve C

    2016-04-20

    Amylose-ligand inclusion complexes represent an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose from high amylose maize starch. To overcome this problem a lipophilic ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, was prepared and complexed with amylose via excess steam jet cooking. Jet-cooking octadecyl ferulate and high amylose starch gave an amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complex in 51.0% isolated yield. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that a 61 V-type inclusion complex was formed. Amylose and extraction assays showed the complex to be enriched in amylose (91.9±4.3%) and contain 70.6±5.6mgg(-1) octadecyl ferulate, although, minor hydrolysis (∼4%) of the octadecyl ferulate was observed under the excess steam jet-cooking conditions utilized. This study demonstrates that steam jet cooking is a rapid and scalable process in which to prepare amylose-octadecyl ferulate inclusion complexes.

  13. Selectivity comparisons of monolithic silica capillary columns modified with poly(octadecyl methacrylate) and octadecyl moieties for halogenated compounds in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Soonthorntantikul, Wasura; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Ikegami, Tohru; Tanaka, Nobuo; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2009-07-31

    Stationary phase selectivities for halogenated compounds in reversed-phase HPLC were compared using C18 monolithic silica capillary columns modified with poly(octadecyl methacrylate) (ODM) and octadecyl moieties (ODS). The preferential retention of halogenated benzenes on ODM was observed in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water mobile phases. In selectivity comparison of selected analytes on ODM and ODS, greater selectivities for halogenated compounds were obtained with respect to alkylbenzenes on an ODM column, while similar selectivities were observed with a homologous series of alkylbenzenes on ODM and ODS columns. These data can be explained by greater dispersive interactions by more densely packed octadecyl groups on the ODM polymer coated column together with the contribution of carbonyl groups in ODM side chains. For the positional isomeric separation of dihalogenated benzenes (ortho-, meta-, para-), the ODM column also provided better separation of these isomers for the adjacently eluted isomers that cannot be completely separated on an ODS column in the same mobile phase. These results imply that the ODM column can be used as a better alternative to the ODS column for the separation of other halogenated compounds.

  14. Formation of the NO donors glyceryl mononitrate and glyceryl mononitrite from the reaction of peroxynitrite with glycerol.

    PubMed

    White, C R; Moellering, D; Patel, R P; Kirk, M; Barnes, S; Darley-Usmar, V M

    1997-12-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-), formed from the rapid reaction of superoxide (O2-.) with NO, is known to generate stable compounds capable of donating NO on reaction with thiols and molecules containing hydroxy groups. Using glycerol as a model compound for the reactions of ONOO- with biomolecules containing hydroxy groups, we separated the products and identified them by HPLC/MS. It was shown that both glyceryl mononitrate and glyceryl mononitrite were formed and released NO on incubation with copper and l-cysteine. The compounds were stable over a period of 4h when shielded from light and kept on ice. Slow spontaneous decomposition occurred in the buffer used for the bioassay, but this was not sufficient to explain the vasorelaxing properties of these NO donors. It is concluded that the stable organic nitrate and nitrite have the capacity to be metabolized by vascular tissues, resulting in vasorelaxation.

  15. Formation of inclusion complexes between high amylose starch and octadecyl ferulate via steam jet cooking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with guest molecules and represents an interesting approach to deliver bioactive molecules. However, ferulic acid has been shown not to form single helical inclusion complexes with amylose. To overcome this problem a ferulic acid ester, octadecyl ferulate, posses...

  16. Superheated water as chromatographic eluent for parabens separation on octadecyl coated zirconia stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Paola; Buonasera, Katia; Crupi, Maria Lucia; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Mondello, Luigi

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the use of pure water at superheated temperatures, between 100 and 200 degrees C, as a mobile phase for RP separation is explored. Instrumental parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, preheating and cooling, have shown significant effects on the quality of the chromatographic peaks. The properties of superheated water as an eluent were investigated by observing the chromatographic behaviour of four parabens on a carbon-clad zirconia (ZR) phase with covalently bonded octadecyl groups. Results were compared with those obtained at 30 degrees C on a silica-based phase with octadecyl groups, using water and ACN as mobile phase. The optimized method was finally applied to analyse parabens in a commercial body cream.

  17. Glyceryl ether monooxygenase resembles aromatic amino acid hydroxylases in metal ion and tetrahydrobiopterin dependence.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Keller, Markus A; Hermetter, Albin; Golderer, Georg; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Werner, Ernst R

    2009-01-01

    Glyceryl ether monooxygenase is a tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent membrane-bound enzyme which catalyses the cleavage of lipid ethers into glycerol and the corresponding aldehyde. Despite many different characterisation and purification attempts, so far no gene and primary sequence have been assigned to this enzyme. The seven other tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes can be divided in the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases - comprising phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and the two tryptophan hydroxylases - and into the three nitric oxide synthases. We tested the influences of different metal ions and metal ion chelators on glyceryl ether monooxygenase, phenylalanine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase activity to elucidate the relationship of glyceryl ether monooxygenase to these two families. 1,10-Phenanthroline, an inhibitor of non-heme iron-dependent enzymes, was able to potently block glyceryl ether monooxygenase as well as phenylalanine hydroxylase, but had no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Two tetrahydrobiopterin analogues, N(5)-methyltetrahydrobiopterin and 4-aminotetrahydrobiopterin, had a similar impact on glyceryl ether monooxygenase activity, as has already been shown for phenylalanine hydroxylase. These observations point to a close analogy of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in glyceryl ether monooxygenase and in aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and suggest that glyceryl ether monooxygenase may require a non-heme iron for catalysis.

  18. Sublingual glyceryl trinitrate during colonoscopy and terminal ileal intubation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hill, Patsy-Anne; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; McKay, Graham; Watson, Carol; Prach, Andre; Macdonald, Angus

    2017-02-01

    Background and aims Sublingual glyceryl trinitrate has been used as an aid to cannulate the Sphincter of Oddi during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Its role in terminal ileal intubation during colonoscopy is unknown. This study examines the role of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate in terminal ileal intubation during colonoscopy. Methods A triple-blind randomized controlled trial comparing sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (800 µg) vs. placebo (saline) in relation to terminal ileal intubation during colonoscopy was performed. Following caecal intubation, participants received sublingual glyceryl trinitrate/placebo followed by a 2-min observation period before intubation was attempted. Data on time to intubate the terminal ileum and intubation rate were collected. Results A total of 110 patients (age: 58 years (18-75)) were recruited and randomised as per protocol: 54 received sublingual glyceryl trinitrate. Terminal ileal intubation was successful in all patients receiving sublingual glyceryl trinitrate and in 53 (94.6%) of those receiving saline ( p = 0.243: Fischer's exact). The median time taken for ileal intubation after application of spray was 72.5 (7-900) s in the glyceryl trinitrate group compared with 125 (5-900) s in the placebo group ( p = 0.150: Mann-Whitney). There were no major adverse events reported in either group. Conclusions Terminal ileal intubation rates and timing were very good in both groups. Routine sublingual glyceryl trinitrate was not proven to be beneficial in improving terminal ileal intubation or intubation success rates in the hands of experienced colonoscopists. However, trends in this small study might suggest that glyceryl trinitrate could be useful in the hands of less experienced colonoscopists or in difficult terminal ileal intubation cases.

  19. Compressibility of tableting materials and properties of tablets with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Muchová, Sandra; Komersová, Alena; Lochař, Václav

    2015-03-01

    The paper studies the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials with dry binders, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, and glyceryl dibehenate at various concentrations. Compressibility was evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression and tensile strength of tablets. Release rate of the active ingredient, salicylic acid, from the tablets was also examined. In the case of microcrystalline cellulose, a higher concentration of glyceryl dibehenate increased the strength of tablets, while this did not occur in the case of spray-dried lactose. Increasing concentration of glyceryl dibehenate prolonged the release of salicylic acid; however, no statistically significant difference was found compared to the type of the dry binder used.

  20. 21 CFR 178.3505 - Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... provisions of this section. (a) The additive is applied to the surface of calcium carbonate at a level not to exceed 1 weight-percent of the total mixture. (b) The calcium carbonate/glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxystearate...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3505 - Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... surface of calcium carbonate at a level not to exceed 1 weight-percent of the total mixture. (b) The calcium carbonate/glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxystearate) mixture is used as an adjuvant in polymers in contact...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3505 - Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... surface of calcium carbonate at a level not to exceed 1 weight-percent of the total mixture. (b) The calcium carbonate/glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxystearate) mixture is used as an adjuvant in polymers in contact...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3505 - Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... surface of calcium carbonate at a level not to exceed 1 weight-percent of the total mixture. (b) The calcium carbonate/glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxystearate) mixture is used as an adjuvant in polymers in contact...

  4. Binary blend of glyceryl monooleate and glyceryl monostearate for magnetically induced thermo-responsive local drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, Abebe E; Wydra, Robert J; Hilt, J Zach; Bummer, Paul M

    2013-12-01

    To develop a novel monoglycerides-based thermal-sensitive drug delivery system, specifically for local intracavitary chemotherapy. Lipid matrices containing mixtures of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) were evaluated for their potential application as magnetically induced thermo-responsive local drug delivery systems using a poorly water-soluble model drug, nifedipine (NF). Oleic acid-modified iron oxide (OA-Fe3O4) nanoparticles were embedded into the GMO-GMS matrix for remote activation of the drug release using an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The crystallization behavior of binary blends of GMO and GMS as characterized by DSC did show temperature dependent phase transition. GMO-GMS (75:25 wt%) blend showed a melting (T m ) and crystallization (T c ) points at 42°C and 37°C, respectively indicating the potential of the matrix to act as an 'on-demand' drug release. The matrix released only 35% of the loaded drug slowly in 10 days at 37°C whereas 96% release was obtained at 42°C. A concentration of 0.5% OA-Fe3O4 heated the matrix to 42.3 and 45.5°C within 5 min and 10 min of AMF exposure, respectively. The in vitro NF release profiles form the monoglycerides matrix containing 0.5% OA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles after AMF activation confirmed the thermo-responsive nature of the matrix that could provide pulsatile drug release 'on-demand'.

  5. 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment: new drug. Not useful for anal fissures.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    (1) Anal fissures are very painful but often heal spontaneously. After eliminating other diagnoses, various treatments can be tried while waiting for fissures to heal: warm seat baths, local anaesthetics, and adequate fibre and fluid intake. (2) Clinical evaluation of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment, a nitrate derivative, is mainly based on a double-blind trial versus excipient in 193 adults with "chronic" fissures. This trial failed to show a clinically relevant analgesic effect of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4%, with only a 3-mm difference versus the excipient on a 100-mm pain rating scale. In another trial including 229 patients, neither 0.2% nor 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate was more effective on pain than placebo. (3) Another placebo-controlled trial including 304 adults treated for 8 weeks showed no efficacy of various doses of glyceryl trinitrate, versus the excipient, on the healing of anal fissures. (4) The most frequent adverse effect, as expected with a nitrate derivative, is headache, which affects about two-thirds of patients and is severe in 20% of cases. Abrupt-onset hypotension is a risk during concomitant use of other vasodilatory drugs. (5) There are no data on pregnant women exposed to glyceryl trinitrate. (6) In summary, glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment does not reduce the pain linked to chronic anal fissures, but it does carry a risk of sometimes severe headache. It is best to continue using simple, non-aggressive treatments.

  6. Blood levels of the metabolites of glyceryl trinitrate and pentaerythritol tetranitrate after administration of a two-step preparation.

    PubMed

    Neurath, G B; Dünger, M

    1977-02-01

    Blood levels and urinary excretion rates of glyceryl trinitrate- pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and their less nitrate containing metabolites have been determined in ten human volunteers after a single dose of a two- step preparation containing glyceryl trinitrate and pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Blood levels accounted for peak levels of about 40% of the glyceryl trinitrate and 0.4% of the pentaerythritol tetranitrate metabolites, respectively. Within the first 24 h post administration 22% of the glyceryl trinitrate and 19% of the pentaerythritol tetranitrate were excreted as nitrate metabolites, chiefly in form of conjugates. The determinations were obtained by gas chromatography on extremely inactive columns and electron capture detection by means of derivatives.

  7. The effect of octadecyl chain immobilization on the hemocompatibility of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marion; Baptista, Catarina P; Gonçalves, Inês C; Ratner, Buddy D; Sperling, Claudia; Werner, Carsten; Martins, Cristina L; Barbosa, Mário A

    2012-11-01

    Albumin-scavenging surfaces decorated with n-alkyl chains represent an established strategy for blood-contacting applications. To evaluate this concept, a set of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) films modified with different amounts of octadecyl isocyanate (C18) was investigated in an in vitro hemocompatibility assay using freshly drawn human whole blood. In addition, the hydrogel materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to changes in wettability and elasticity, which accompanied the gradual chemical modification of pHEMA. An increase of the surface C18 content induced enhanced hydrophobicity and stiffness. Immobilization of C18 chains was found to substantially reduce the coagulation activation and the complement activation by the pHEMA films. Platelet adhesion and degranulation (PF4 release) were similar on the modified and the unmodified pHEMA. Platelet adhesion to pHEMA hydrogels was lower than the polytetrafluoroethylene reference. We conclude that the immobilization of octadecyl chains improved the hemocompatibility of pHEMA materials under conditions that might be encountered in low shear blood flow.

  8. Preparation and optimization of glyceryl behenate-based highly porous pellets containing cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Byun, Woojin; Cho, Cheol-Hee; Park, Eun-Seok

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this study was to prepare a highly porous multiparticulate dosage form containing cilostazol for gastroretentive drug delivery. The floating pellets were prepared with glyceryl behenate as a matrix former and camphor as a sublimating agent by extrusion/spheronization and sublimation under vacuum. Granules prepared with sublimation at 60 °C displayed a slower dissolution rate and smoother surface morphology than those prepared at lower temperatures. This was unexpected as the reported melting point of glyceryl behenate is higher than 69 °C. The DSC study revealed that melting began at a lower temperature owing to the multicomponent property of glyceryl behenate, which led to a sintering effect. The prepared pellets were spherical with unimodal size distribution. They also had porous structures with increased porosity, which led to immediate buoyancy. As cilostazol is a hydrophobic drug that has an erosion-based release mechanism, drug release profile was highly correlated with the percentage of disintegrated pellets. Various excipients were added to the glyceryl behenate-based formulation to increase the floating duration. When hydroxyethyl cellulose was added to the glyceryl behenate-based pellets, acceptable dissolution rate and buoyancy were acquired. This system could potentially be used for gastroretentive delivery of various hydrophobic drugs, which was generally considered difficult.

  9. Glyceryl trinitrate is a novel inhibitor of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hisham A; Shaldam, Moutaz A

    2016-12-01

    Targeting quorum sensing is an alternative approach to antibiotics.Targeting quorum sensing-regulated virulence will disarm the pathogen without exerting pressure on its growth. As a result, emergence of resistance is avoided and the immune system can easily eradicate bacteria. Investigation of the possible inhibition of quorum sensing-regulated virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by glyceryltrinitrate. The quorum sensing inhibiting activity of glyceryl trinitrate was assessed by inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472. Its ability to inhibit pyocyanin, protease, biofilm and tolerance to oxidative stress was evaluated. Docking study was performed to study the interference of glyceryl trinitrate with the binding of autoinducers with LasR and rhlR receptors. Glyceryl trinitrate exerted a significant biofilm inhibiting and eradicating activities. It decreased the production of quorum-sensing dependent violacein production. It significantly inhibited the production of pyocyanin and protease and diminished the tolerance against oxidative stress. Molecular docking study showed that glyceryl trinitrate interferes with the binding of autoinducers to their receptors. It could bind to Las Rand rhlr receptors with binding energy of -93.47 and -77.23, respectively. Glyceryl trinitrate can be an antivirulence agent in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topical infections such as burn infections.

  10. STUDY OF DUAL MATRIX TABLETS CONTAINING HYPROMELLOSE OF DIFFERENT VISCOSITY DEGREE AND GLYCERYL DIBEHENATE.

    PubMed

    Mužíková, Jitka; Holubová, Katerina; Komersová, Alena; Lochar, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Studies are described on the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials containing two viscosity types of hypromellose in two concentrations and tableting materials containing additional glyceryl dibehenate, also in two concentrations. Compressibility is evaluated by means of the energy profile of the compression process and determination of tensile strength of tablets. Dissolution test examines the rate of release of the active ingredient from matrix tablets, which is subsequently evaluated mathematically. Increased concentrations of both hypromelloses and an addition of glyceryl dibehenate into tablets with both types of hypromellose improved compressibility. The rate of drug release was decreased with increasing viscosity degree of hypromellose and its increasing concentration. An addition of glyceryl dibehenate exerted the same influence on release as increased concentrations of the pertinent hypromellose.

  11. Neutral octadecyl monolith for reversed phase capillary electrochromatography of a wide range of solutes.

    PubMed

    Karenga, Samuel; El Rassi, Ziad

    2008-08-01

    A neutral octadecyl monolithic (ODM) column for RP capillary electrochromatography (RP-CEC) has been developed. The ODM column was prepared by the in situ polymerization of octadecyl acrylate (ODA) as the monomer and trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker, in a ternary porogenic solvent containing cyclohexanol, ethylene glycol, and water. The ODM column exhibited cathodal EOF over a wide range of pH and ACN concentration in the mobile phase despite the fact that it was devoid of any fixed charges. It is believed that the EOF is due to the adsorption of ions from the mobile phase onto the surface of the monolith thus imparting to the neutral ODM column the zeta potential necessary to support the EOF required for mass transport across the monolithic column. Furthermore, the adsorption of mobile phase ions to the neutral monolith modulated solute retention and affected the separation selectivity. The wide applications of the neutral ODM column were demonstrated by its ability to separate a wide range of small and large solutes, both neutral and charged. While the separation of the neutral solutes was based on RP retention mechanism, the charged solutes were separated on the basis of their electrophoretic mobility and hydrophobic interaction with the C18 ligands of the stationary phase. As a typical result, the neutral monolithic column was able to separate peptides quite rapidly with a separation efficiency of nearly 200,000 plates/m, and this efficiency was exploited in tryptic peptide mapping of standard proteins, e. g., lysozyme and cytochrome C, by isocratic elution.

  12. Diltiazem heals glyceryl trinitrate-resistant chronic anal fissures: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Marion; Speake, William; Scholefield, John H

    2002-08-01

    Both topical diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, and glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, lower anal pressure and heal two-thirds of chronic anal fissures. This study evaluated the efficacy of diltiazem for fissures that failed to heal with glyceryl trinitrate. Consecutive patients with persistent chronic fissures despite treatment with 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate ointment underwent anal manometry before and for 1 hour after application of 700 mg of 2 percent diltiazem gel to the distal anal canal. Patients applied diltiazem twice daily for eight weeks or until the fissure had healed. At fortnightly review, fissure healing was assessed, and side effects were noted. Patients scored symptoms of pain, bleeding, and irritation using linear visual analog scales at the initial and follow-up visits. In 39 patients (13 males; median age, 42 (range, 20- 80) years), topical 2 percent diltiazem gel lowered anal resting pressure by 20 percent from a median of 93 to 74 cm H2O (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon), and fissures healed in 19 (49 percent) within 8 weeks. Before diltiazem, 27 patients (69 percent) had used a complete course of glyceryl trinitrate (0.5 g twice daily for 8 weeks), and 12 (44 percent) of these healed with diltiazem. The remaining 12 patients had discontinued glyceryl trinitrate prematurely or used less because of headaches; 7 (58 percent) of these healed with diltiazem, and 5 (42 percent) did not. Side effects occurred in four patients (10 percent): three reported perianal itching but continued with treatment, and one developed headaches, drowsiness, and mood swings six weeks into treatment and stopped diltiazem at that time. Topical 2 percent diltiazem is effective treatment for glyceryl trinitrate-resistant chronic anal fissures. Side effects, mainly perianal itching, may occur in 10 percent of patients but are generally tolerated.

  13. Effect of intracoronary glyceryl trinitrate on perfusion distribution in the collateralised human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Wald, R W; Sternberg, L; Feiglin, D H; Morch, J E

    1980-08-01

    The effect on myocardial perfusion distribution of intracoronary glyceryl trinitrate in a dose (60 micrograms) insufficient to cause alterations in systemic blood pressure or heart rate was studied in eight patients with angiographically demonstrated collaterals from the left coronary system to the distal right coronary artery. Double isotope imaging using technetium-99m and iodine-131 labelled albumin macroaggregates allowed each patient to serve as his own control. The reproducibility of the imaging and data handling techniques was shown in 12 control patients. Glyceryl trinitrate caused a significant diminution in the collateral-mediated fractional perfusion while increasing that of the native coronary bed.

  14. Effect of intracoronary glyceryl trinitrate on perfusion distribution in the collateralised human myocardium.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, R W; Sternberg, L; Feiglin, D H; Morch, J E

    1980-01-01

    The effect on myocardial perfusion distribution of intracoronary glyceryl trinitrate in a dose (60 micrograms) insufficient to cause alterations in systemic blood pressure or heart rate was studied in eight patients with angiographically demonstrated collaterals from the left coronary system to the distal right coronary artery. Double isotope imaging using technetium-99m and iodine-131 labelled albumin macroaggregates allowed each patient to serve as his own control. The reproducibility of the imaging and data handling techniques was shown in 12 control patients. Glyceryl trinitrate caused a significant diminution in the collateral-mediated fractional perfusion while increasing that of the native coronary bed. PMID:6775646

  15. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a new topical glyceryl trinitrate patch for chronic lateral epicondylosis.

    PubMed

    Paoloni, J A; Murrell, G A C; Burch, R M; Ang, R Y

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a new glyceryl trinitrate patch preparation is effective in treating chronic lateral epicondylosis. Randomised double-blind controlled clinical trial. Private practice 154 adult patients with chronic lateral epicondylosis were recruited, with 136 patients completing the trial. 8 weeks of glyceryl trinitrate patch application (dosages of 72 mg/24 h, 1.44 mg/24 h, and 3.6 mg/24 h), or placebo patch application. Subjective global assessment of change in elbow symptoms, patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation, visual analogue pain at rest, visual analogue pain with activity, visual analogue pain intensity, grip strength, and strength testing using the Orthopaedic Research Institute-Tennis Elbow Testing System. At 8 weeks there was a significant decrease in elbow pain with activity in the glyceryl trinitrate 0.72 mg/24 h group compared with placebo (p = 0.04). There were no other significant differences. Continuous 1.25 mg/24 h topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment, when combined with daily exercise rehabilitation, has previously demonstrated efficacy in treating chronic lateral epicondylosis. There was significantly decreased elbow pain with activity at 8 weeks in the glyceryl trinitrate 0.72 mg/24 h group (p = 0.04). This short-term dose-ranging study did not demonstrate a treatment effect of a new topical glyceryl trinitrate patch in dosages of 1.44 mg/24 h or 3.6 mg/24 h, which conflicts with previous studies on topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment. NCT00447928.

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of trilaurin, triarachidin, tribehenin, tricaprin, tricaprylin, trierucin, triheptanoin, triheptylundecanoin, triisononanoin, triisopalmitin, triisostearin, trilinolein, trimyristin, trioctanoin, triolein, tripalmitin, tripalmitolein, triricinolein, tristearin, triundecanoin, glyceryl triacetyl hydroxystearate, glyceryl triacetyl ricinoleate, and glyceryl stearate diacetate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W

    2001-01-01

    Triesters of glycerin and aliphatic acids, known generically as glyceryl triesters and specifically as Trilaurin, etc., are used in cosmetic products as occlusive skin-conditioning agents and/or nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agents. Hundreds of glyceryl triesters are used in a wide variety of cosmetic products at concentrations ranging from a few tenths of a percent to 46%. Glyceryl triesters are also known as triglycerides; ingested triglycerides are metabolized to monoglycerides, free fatty acids, and glycerol, all of which are absorbed in the intestinal mucosa and undergo further metabolism. Dermal absorption of Triolein in mice was nil; the oil remained at the application site. Only slight absorption was seen in guinea pig skin. Tricaprylin and other glyceryl triesters have been shown to increase the skin penetration of drugs. Little or no acute, subchronic, or chronic oral toxicity was seen in animal studies unless levels approached a significant percentage of caloric intake. Subcutaneous injections of Tricaprylin in rats over a period of 5 weeks caused a granulomatous reaction characterized by oil deposits surrounded by macrophages. Dermal application was not associated with significant irritation in rabbit skin. Ocular exposures were, at most, mildly irritating to rabbit eyes. No evidence of sensitization or photosensitization was seen in a guinea pig maximization test. Most of the genotoxicity test systems were negative. Tricaprylin, Trioctanoin, and Triolein have historically been used as vehicles in carcinogenicity testing of other chemicals. In one study, subcutaneous injection of Tricaprylin in newborn mice produced more tumors in lymphoid tissue than were seen in untreated animals, whereas neither subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection in 4- to 6-week-old female mice produced any tumors in another study. Trioctanoin injected subcutaneously in hamsters produced no tumors. Trioctanoin injected intraperitoneally in pregnant rats was associated with

  17. Water quantitatively induces the mucoadhesion of liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Young, S A; Kellaway, I W

    2001-05-01

    The possible role of water in the mucoadhesion phenomenon exhibited by the liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate was investigated using an in-vitro tensile strength technique. The mucoadhesion of the liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate was found to occur following uptake of water. The mucoadhesive force of the cubic phase was consistent since it is not capable of taking up additional water. An increase in pre-load period greatly facilitated the mucoadhesion of glyceryl monooleate (0% w/w initial water content), suggesting that the mucoadhesion is dependent upon the extent of the dehydration of the substrate. A good linear relationship between initial water content of the liquid crystalline phases and mucoadhesive force led to the conclusion that the mucoadhesive force increased with decreasing initial water concentration. Rheological properties of the liquid crystalline phases were also studied to allow a correlation between physical changes and mucoadhesion of the liquid crystalline phases, revealing that higher water concentrations in the liquid crystalline phases led to a more ordered structure that showed less mucoadhesion. The results of this study indicated that the mucoadhesive force of the liquid crystalline phases of glyceryl monooleate is determined by the capability to take up water from a water-rich environment. It may, therefore, be advantageous to use the lamellar phase as a buccal drug carrier as opposed to the relatively less mucoadhesive cubic phase.

  18. Fabrication of an octadecylated silica monolith inside a glass microchip for protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Eman; Welham, Kevin

    2012-10-21

    Silica-based monolithic materials have shown great promise for use as sorbent materials due to their large surface area and bimodal pore size distribution. In this paper, a new process for the fabrication of a silica-based monolith inside a glass microchip and its modification with octadecylsilyl ligands was successfully developed for use in the microchip-based solid phase extraction of proteins. Monolithic porous silica without cracks was prepared by a sol-gel process, followed by placement of the monolithic silica disk inside the extraction chamber in the base plate of the microchip. The two plates of the glass microchip were then thermally bonded at 575 °C for 3 hours. The silica-based monolith was not affected by the thermal bonding of the two plates of the microchip. This process completely avoids the problem of shrinkage in the silica skeleton during preparation. The monolithic silica disk inside the glass microchip was subsequently modified with octadecylsilyl (C(18)) moieties for increased protein binding capacity. The performance of the microchip was evaluated using the extraction of six proteins varying in molecular weight and isoelectric point, namely insulin, cytochrome C, lysozyme, myoglobin, β-lactoglobulin, and hemoglobin at a concentration of 60 μM. The standard protein was mixed with a double concentration of the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). The results show that the octadecylated silica monolith was permeable, has the ability to remove impurities, and achieved a high extraction recovery of the proteins (94.8-99.7%) compared with conventional octadecylated silica particles (48.3-91.3%). The chip-to-chip reproducibility was assessed by calculating the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the six proteins during extraction. The intra-batch and inter-batch RSDs were in the range of 2.0-4.5% and 2.9-6.4%, respectively. This new microfluidic device for protein extraction may find an application in

  19. Targeted therapy of colorectal neoplasia with rapamycin in peptide-labeled pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles.

    PubMed

    Khondee, Supang; Rabinsky, Emily F; Owens, Scott R; Joshi, Bishnu P; Qiu, Zhen; Duan, Xiyu; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Thomas D

    2015-02-10

    Many powerful drugs have limited clinical utility because of poor water solubility and high systemic toxicity. Here, we formulated a targeted nanomedicine, rapamycin encapsulated in pegylated octadecyl lithocholate micelles labeled with a new ligand for colorectal neoplasia, LTTHYKL peptide. CPC;Apc mice that spontaneously develop colonic adenomas were treated with free rapamycin, plain rapamycin micelles, and peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles via intraperitoneal injection for 35days. Endoscopy was performed to monitor adenoma regression in vivo. We observed complete adenoma regression at the end of therapy. The mean regression rate for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles was significantly greater than that for plain rapamycin micelles, P<0.01. On immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant reduction in phospho-S6 but not β-catenin expression and reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting greater inhibition of downstream mTOR signaling. We observed significantly reduced renal toxicity for peptide-labeled rapamycin micelles compared to that of free drug, and no other toxicities were found on chemistries. Together, this unique targeted micelle represents a potential therapeutic for colorectal neoplasia with comparable therapeutic efficacy to rapamycin free drug and significantly less systemic toxicity.

  20. Separation and preconcentration of cadmium ions using octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by methyltrioctylammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Motavaselian, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2009-02-15

    A simple and selective method for the determination of cadmium in water samples by FAAS after solid phase extraction has been developed. The method is based on the sorption of cadmium as CdI(4)(2-) on octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by cationic surfactant of methyltrioctylammonium chloride in the pH range of 1-8. The sorbed cadmium is then eluted with 10ml of 1moll(-1) nitric acid in ethanol and is measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of flow rates of eluent and sample solution, iodide concentration and amount of surfactant in retention and elution of cadmium from disks was also investigated. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved by passing 1000ml of sample through the membrane disk. The limit of detection (LOD) of cadmium was found to be 0.014ngml(-1). Precision at 2.5mugl(-1) was 1.2% (n=8). The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in some natural water samples. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiment, independent analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and analysis of certified reference waters.

  1. Kinetic Studies and Product Characterization during the Basic Hydrolysis of Glyceryl Nitrate Esters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    spectra of several available nitrate esters within this category, e.g., allyl nitrate, butyl nitrate, diethylene glycol dinitrate, and triethylene ...which on drying in a vacuum desiccator , yielded a weight for Viscous Fraction (VR). Synthesis of MNG’s and DNG’s The procedures used for the... glycol dinitrate, did not match the spectra of the unknown. 29 A review of the chemistry of the basic hydrolysis of glyceryl nitrate esters suggested

  2. The use of 0.2% glyceryl trinirate oinment for anal fissures.

    PubMed

    El Tinay, Omer El Farouq; Guraya, Salman Yousuf

    2005-01-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the management of acute and chronic anal fissures. A prospective clinical study conducted on consecutive patients presented to the surgical clinic of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh with acute and chronic anal fissures, from January to December 2003. These patients were treated with topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate paste in soft white paraffin three times a day. Patients were examined at regular intervals to evaluate the fissure status, adverse reactions, symptomatic control and recurrence. This study comprised 121 patients, six of them were lost to follow-up and 109 (94.7%) of the remaining 115 patients were cured. Of those cured, 13 patients (11.3%) presented with acute and 102 (88.7%) with chronic fissures. There were 98 male and 17 female patients with median age of 41 years (range, 14-70 years). Complete symptomatic relief was achieved in all patients within one month of therapy. Two patients, with chronic anal fissures presented with recurrent symptoms within one month of the completion of therapy both of them were successfully treated with repeat glyceryl trinitrate course. Treatment had to be terminated in six (5.2%) patients: five (4.3%) experienced intolerable adverse effects and one (0.8%) patient failed to respond. All these patients were successfully treated with lateral internal sphincterotomy. No patient complained of change in continence. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment produces adequate symptomatic control and healing of the anal fissures and can be considered as one of the recommended treatment options.

  3. Biocompatible microemulsions for fabrication of glyceryl monostearate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kumar A; Joshi, Medha D; Patravale, Vandana B

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to fabricate glyceryl monostearate SLN by employing a biocompatible microemulsion as a template. Biocompatible excipients such as Tween 20 (as a surfactant) and Transcutol P (a cosourfactant) (at different K(m) ratios) were selected for the fabrication of microemulsions. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the area of the microemulsion existence. Glyceryl monostearate SLN were fabricated by dispersing the microemulsion (maintained at 65 degrees C) into cold water (maintained at 2-3 degrees C). The particle size of the SLN was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Tretinoin, a lipophilic anti-acne agent was incorporated into SLN as a model drug. The encapsulation efficiency of tretinoin in the SLN was determined by using Nanosep ultrafilteration device at different lipid loads viz. 1%, 1.5% and 2%. Glyceryl monostearate SLN fabricated from biocompatible microemulsion template exhibited average particle size of 175 nm and polydispersity index of 0.833. Tretinoin could be successfully incorporated into SLN and the encapsulation efficiency ranged from 37-48% at different lipid loads.

  4. Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Cathy; Allum, Allison J.; Aizawa, Yasushi; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-08-05

    Glyceryl glucoside (GG, α-D-glucosyglycerol) is a natural glycerol derivative found in alcoholic drinks. Recently GG has been used as an alternative for glycerol in cosmetic products. However, the safety of using GG is still unclear. Currently, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol are wildly used in cryopreservation. Despite GG being a derivative of glycerol, the ability of GG in cryopreservation is still unknown. By using a system of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), A549 cells and AG1522 cells, the study examined the cryoprotective effects of DMSO, glycerol and GG. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by the three chemicals were also investigated with CHO to determine the safety of GG for cosmetic products. Our data suggests that GG has great cryopresearvation ability in the concentration of 30%–40% (v/v). For cytotoxic studies, DMSO showed the highest cytotoxicity above 3% (v/v) in cell doubling time delay among three chemicals. For the acute cytotoxicity with trypan blue dye exclusion assay, GG showed stronger cell killing effect within 24 h above 4% (v/v). For the continuous cytotoxicity with colony formation assay for 7 days, DMSO showed significantly reduced clonogenic ability above 2%. In genotoxicity studies, CHO treated with glycerol at 2% concentration induced three times higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) than background levels. GG did not induce significant amounts of SCE compared to background. Micronuclei formation was equally observed in the 2% and above concentrations of glycerol and GG. Our data showed that GG has significant effects on cryopreservation compared to DMSO. Glycerol and GG have similar cytotoxicity effects to CHO, but glycerol induced genotoxic responses in the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that GG may be a safer alternative compound to glycerol in cosmetic products and safer alternative to DMSO in cryopreservation. -- Highlights: •Glyceryl Glucoside is low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity

  5. Codelivery of paclitaxel and small interfering RNA by octadecyl quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan-modified cationic liposome for combined cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Shi-Bin; Chen, Ai-Zheng; Chen, Wei-Guang; Liu, Yuan-Gang; Wu, Wen-Guo; Kang, Yong-Qiang; Ye, Shi-Fu

    2015-09-01

    Conventional therapeutic approaches for cancer are limited by cancer cell resistance, which has impeded their clinical applications. The main goal of this work was to investigate the combined antitumor effect of paclitaxel with small interfering RNA modified by cationic liposome formed from modified octadecyl quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The cationic liposome was composed of 3β-[N-(N', N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]-cholesterol, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, and octadecyl quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The cationic liposome properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and gel retardation assay. The cationic liposome exhibited good properties, such as a small particle size, a narrow particle size distribution, a good spherical shape, a smooth surface, and a good binding ability with small interfering RNA. Most importantly, when combined with paclitaxel and small interfering RNA, the composite cationic liposome induced a great enhancement in the antitumor activity, which showed a significantly higher in vitro cytotoxicity in Bcap-37 cells than liposomal paclitaxel or small interfering RNA alone. In conclusion, the results indicate that cationic liposome could be further developed as a codelivery system for chemotherapy drugs and therapeutic small interfering RNAs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Preparation and chromatographic evaluation of new branch-type diamide-embedded octadecyl stationary phase with enhanced shape selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingliang; Chen, Jia; Mallik, Abul K; Qiu, Hongdeng; Jiang, Shengxiang; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2014-06-23

    A novel branch-type diamide-embedded octadecyl stationary phase was prepared by facile amidation. The preparation of this new phase involves the synthesis of new bifunctional silane ligand and surface modification of spherical silica via anchoring of silane coupling agent. The obtained diamide-embedded octadecyl stationary phase demonstrated excellent hydrophobic selectivity, as well as enhanced shape and planarity selectivity in comparison to commercial polymeric and monomeric C18 phases, respectively, as revealed by the systematic investigation into its liquid chromatographic retention of isomeric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The applicability of this new stationary phase was further testified by the effective separation of isomeric compounds belong to different chemical classes, including chain isomers of alkylbenzenes, and positional isomers of substituted aromatics. An in-depth analysis of the separation mechanisms other than molecular shape recognition involved in the new stationary phase was performed using a linear solvation energy relationships model and compared with its monoamide and pure C18 counterparts correspondingly. The performance of the new stationary phase in quantitative analysis of phenols from real-world samples was also evaluated.

  7. Stable, hydroxyl functional polycarbonates with glycerol side chains synthesized from CO(2) and isopropylidene(glyceryl glycidyl ether).

    PubMed

    Geschwind, Jeannette; Frey, Holger

    2013-01-25

    A series of functional polycarbonates, poly((isopropylidene glyceryl glycidyl ether)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((IGG-co-GME) C)) random copolymers with different fractions of 1,2-isopropylidene glyceryl glycidyl ether (IGG) units, is synthesized. After acidic hydrolysis of the acetal protecting groups, a new type of functional polycarbonate prepared directly from CO(2) and glycerol is obtained, namely poly((glyceryl glycerol)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((GG-co-GME) C)). All hydroxyl functional samples exhibit monomodal molecular weight distributions with PDIs between 2.5 and 3.3 and M(n) between 12 000 and 25 000 g mol(-1) . Thermal properties reflect the amorphous structure of the polymers. The materials are stable in bulk and solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment (0.25%) and anal cryothermal dilators in the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Schiano di Visconte, Michele; Munegato, Gabriele

    2009-07-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common benign disorder; for this condition, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the "gold standard" of treatment. Alternative medical treatments have not proven to be as effective as left lateral internal sphincterotomy. This randomized trial was designed to compare the use of 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators with the use of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. Between 1 June 2006 and 31 December 2007, 60 consecutive patients who were suffering from chronic anal fissures were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A (n = 30) were treated with 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators twice daily, and those in group B (n = 30) were treated with 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone twice daily. The treatment was administered to the patients in each group for 6 weeks, and all patients were examined 7 weeks after the start of the trial. Prior to treatment, the symptoms and the measurements of anal pressure were similar in both groups. At 7 weeks, the maximum resting pressure was significantly lower in group A (P < 0.05), in which 86.6% of the patients were asymptomatic in comparison with 73.3% of the patients in group B. After 1 year of follow-up, 25 patients (83.3%) in group A and 18 patients (60%) in group B presented no recurrence of symptoms (P < 0.05) Treatment of chronic anal fissures with 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators was more effective than the administration of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone.

  9. Application of the Flory-Huggins theory to the solubility of solids in glyceryl trioleate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, Cary T.; Manes, Milton

    1986-01-01

    The conventional thermodynamic deviation for ideal solid–liquid solubilities is modified by substituting the Flory–Huggins model for Raoult's law. A comparison of published data for eleven solides in glyceryl trioleate with the predictions of the conventional and modified equations shows that the significantly higher athermal solubilities from the modified equation are in much better agreement with the experimental data. This suggests that discrepancies between the data and the predictions of the conventional model for ideal systems result from the inappropriate use of Raoult's law for systems with significant solute–solvent size disparity rather than from specific interactions.

  10. [Effect of octadecyl amine (ODA) on the complex titration of magnesium and calcium ions studied with UV-visible spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Qing, Bin-Ju; Liu, Hai-Ning; Ye, Xiu-Shen; Li, Quan; Guo, Min; Liu, Teng-Yun; Wu, Zhi-Jian

    2009-10-01

    The effect of flotation agent octadecyl amine (ODA) on the complex titration of both magnesium and calcium ions was studied with two groups of comparative experiments: (1) Before titration, the suspension was not filtered. In this case, ODA had a great effect on the complex titration of both magnesium and calcium ions. The titration end-point of magnesium ions was difficult to be determined. Although the titration end-point of calcium ions could be determined, there was an obvious experimental error compared with the blank solution without ODA. These results were confirmed by the UV-Visible spectrum analyses of the related solutions. (2) Before titration, the suspension was filtered. In this case, the influence of ODA on the complex titration of both magnesium and calcium ions could be removed. UV-Visible spectrum studies showed that, in this case, both the spectra and time scanning curves of the tested solutions were similar to those of the blank solutions.

  11. Enhanced pseudocapacitive performance of electroactive p-type conductive polymer in the presence of 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, A; Kowsari, E; Dashti Najafi, M; Safari, R; Mohammad Shiri, H

    2017-10-01

    In present work, for improving the electrochemical performance of conductive polymer, POAP/1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide ([OMD]Br) composite films have been fabricated by POAP electropolymerization in the presence of [OMD]Br as active electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been applied to study the system performance. Analyses of DFT results show that the atomic-scale electronic properties are generally depend on the bonding and electronic molecular structures (and thus their variation with the external bias in real nano-electrochemical circuits). The supercapacity behavior of the composite film was attributed to the (i) high active surface area of the composite, (ii) charge transfer along the polymer chain due to the conjugation form of the polymer and finally (iii) synergism effect between conductive polymer and [OMD]Br. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of glyceryl trinitrate ointment versus surgical management of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Leo Francis; Shindhe, Vittal V; Aithala, P Sathyamoorthy; Martis, John J S; Shenoy, H Divakar

    2011-08-01

    Chronic Anal Fissure (CAF) is common perineal condition and well-known painful entity. Standard surgical treatment even though available, may require long hospital stay and sometimes have worrying complications like anal incontinence. So non-surgical treatment, Glyceryl Trinitrate has been shown to be an effective for chronic anal fissure. It decreases anal tone and ultimately heals the anal fissure. The present study is the attempt to know the efficacy of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure and to compare the effectiveness of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment (GTN) versus fissurectomy with lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) and fissurectomy with posterior internal sphincterotomy (PIS) in the management of chronic anal fissure. This is a prospective comparative study of management of chronic anal fissure done in our hospital during the period of one and half year from October 2005 to March 2007. Thirty patients treated with 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment and 30 patients treated with fissurectomy and lateral internal sphincterotomy and 30 patients treated with posterior internal sphincterotomy, for chronic anal fissure were selected for study. A single brand of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment (Nitrogesic) used for trial arm. Dose of administration was 1.5 cm to 2 cm in the anal canal with device provided by manufacturers of the proprietary preparation and applied twice a daily for 12 weeks. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks and thereafter evaluated for relief of symptoms in all three groups. Observations were recorded at 2 weeks; 6 weeks and 12 weeks of follow up period, regarding symptoms like pain and bleeding during defecation, healing of CAF and also for side effects like headache in GTN group and flatus, fecal incontinence in surgical groups. Data collected in proforma and analyzed. Study revealed CAF was more in male 59 patients (66%) than the female 31 patients (34%), the ratio being 1: 0.52. The

  13. Antitumor efficacy, tumor distribution and blood pharmacokinetics of chitosan/glyceryl-monooleate nanostructures containing paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Trickler, William J; Munt, Daniel J; Jain, Neha; Joshi, Shantaram S; Dash, Alekha K

    2011-04-01

    This investigation compared the tumor distribution, efficacy, blood pharmacokinetic parameters and hematological alterations following treatment with chitosan/glyceryl-monooleate (GMO) nanostructures containing paclitaxel (PTX) to a conventional formulation of PTX (Taxol(®)) in BALB/c female mice. The tumor and blood concentrations of PTX were evaluated by HPLC and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined through noncompartmental methods. Tumor development was evaluated by histopathological methods and hematological composition was monitored through differential white blood cells counts. Lower localized or intravenous doses of PTX-chitosan/GMO nanostructures significantly increased the antitumor activity of paclitaxel. The tumor distribution studies showed effective concentrations in the tumors with the chitosan/GMO formulation while systemic blood levels remained lower than after administration of the conventional formulation. Delivery systems consisting of chitosan/GMO and PTX are safe and effective administered locally (intratumorally) or intravenously.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of glyceryl monooleate-coated hollow-bioadhesive microspheres for gastroretentive drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanfen; Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Yuan; Zhu, Jiabi

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to produce hollow and bioadhesive microspheres to lengthen drug retention time in the stomach. In these microspheres, ethylcellulose was used as the matrix, Eudragit EPO was employed to modulate the release rate, and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was the bioadhesive polymer in situ. The morphological characteristics of the microspheres were defined using scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro release test showed that the release rate of drug from the microspheres was pH-dependent, and was not influenced by the GMO coating film. The prepared microspheres demonstrated strong mucoadhesive properties with good buoyancy both in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the elimination half-life time of the hollow-bioadhesive microspheres was prolonged, and that the elimination rate was decreased. In conclusion, the hollow-bioadhesive synergic drug delivery system may be advantageous in the treatment of stomach diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parasite impairment by targeting Plasmodium-infected RBCs using glyceryl-dilaurate nanostructured lipid carriers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Soniya A; Basu, Himanish; Prabhu, Priyanka S; Soni, Umangi; Joshi, Medha D; Mathur, Deepak; Patravale, Vandana B; Pathak, Sulabha; Sharma, Shobhona

    2014-08-01

    Antimalarial therapy is a major contributor to declining malaria morbidity and mortality. However, the high toxicity and low bioavailability of current antimalarials and emerging drug resistance necessitates drug-delivery research. We have previously developed glyceryl-dilaurate nanolipid carriers (GDL-NLCs) for antimalarial drug delivery. Here, we show evidence that GDL-NLCs themselves selectively target Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), and cause severe parasite impairment. The glyceryl-dilaurate lipid-moiety was important in the targeting. GDL-NLCs localized to the parasite mitochondrion and uptake led to mitochondrial-membrane polarization and Ca(2+) ion accumulation, ROS release, and stage-specific iRBC lysis. GDL-NLC treatment also resulted in externalization of iRBC-membrane phosphatidylserine and enhanced iRBC clearance by macrophages. GDL-NLC uptake disrupted the parasite-induced tubulovesicular network, which is vital for nutrient import by the parasite. Laser optical trap studies revealed that GDL-NLCs also restored iRBC flexibility. Such restoration of iRBC flexibility may help mitigate the vasculature clogging that can lead to cerebral malaria. We demonstrate the suitability of GDL-NLCs for intravenous delivery of antimalarial combinations artemether-clindamycin and artemether-lumefantrine in the murine model. Complete parasite clearance was achieved at 5-20% of the therapeutic dose of these combinations. Thus, this nanostructured lipid formulation can solubilize lipophilic drugs, selectively target and impair the parasite-infected red cell, and therefore constitutes a potent delivery vehicle for antimalarials.

  16. Effect of topical glyceryl trinitrate on anodermal blood flow in patients with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Kua, K B; Kocher, H M; Kelkar, A; Patel, A G

    2001-09-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of increased internal anal sphincter pressure and decreased anodermal blood flow in the pathogenesis of chronic anal fissures. The duration of the effect of topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment on anodermal blood flow in fissure and normal areas was investigated in patients with chronic anal fissures. Six patients with chronic anal fissures in the posterior midline participated in the study. Blood flow measurements were performed on the anoderm using laser Doppler flowmetry before and immediately after the topical application of 0.2% GTN ointment and subsequent readings were taken at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min in all four quadrants. The mean anodermal blood flow in the fissure region is significantly lower than the mean blood flow of the rest of the anoderm before 0.2% GTN ointment is applied (228.7 +/- 61.8 flux units vs 439.3 +/- 25.5 flux units, respectively; P < 0.05). Immediately after the application of local 0.2% GTN ointment there is a significant increase in anodermal blood flow over the anal fissure region (457.8 +/- 56.5 flux units; P < 0.05) compared to the rest of the anoderm (457.4 +/- 30.8 flux units). This increase is most marked at 5 min post-GTN ointment application in the fissure area (474.6 +/- 41.1 flux units) and the blood flow in the fissure region is consistently above the rest of the anoderm for most of the 60 min. There is clearly reduced blood flow to the chronic anal fissure region compared to the rest of the anoderm. Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate ointment seems to significantly improve the blood flow to the fissured area in the first hour. This may therefore help in the healing of chronic anal fissures.

  17. Octadecyl maleamic acid salt as a microreactor for its copolymerization reaction with butyl acrylate in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Milton Gaspar, L J; Baskar, Geetha

    2006-03-14

    The hydrogelator, octadecyl maleamic acid salt (ODMAS), has been shown to perform as a microreactor in copolymerization reaction with butyl acrylate in aqueous medium thereby providing functionalized latex. The evidence for occurrence of controlled polymerization reaction inside the microreactor is drawn from the composition and the polydispersity index of the copolymers. The copolymers generated under microreactor conditions or in other words, from emulsion phase provided by the hydrogelator exhibit significant incorporation of ODMAS with narrow polydispersity index. For example, a copolymer with ODMAS as high as 0.62 m and polydispersity index at 1.39 could be achieved. On the contrary, the solution copolymerization reactions in THF resulted in low yield of polymers with molecular weight at 10(3) order and polydispersity index in range of 2.53-2.91. The particle size distribution of the latexes remains almost invariant at 74 +/- 4 nm, over the concentration range of 0.12-0.62m with standard deviation (sigma) of 0.12-0.22. The surface area/molecule of ODMAS on the latex particle has been estimated to be 0.21 nm(2)/molecule. The polymerized latexes exhibit zeta potential at 64 +/- 3 mV and surface tension in range of 42.8-47.9 mN m(-)(1) respectively. This is indicative of coverage of latex with ODMAS.

  18. Ambulance-delivered transdermal glyceryl trinitrate versus sham for ultra-acute stroke: Rationale, design and protocol for the Rapid Intervention with Glyceryl trinitrate in Hypertensive stroke Trial-2 (RIGHT-2) trial (ISRCTN26986053).

    PubMed

    Appleton, Jason P; Scutt, Polly; Dixon, Mark; Howard, Harriet; Haywood, Lee; Havard, Diane; Hepburn, Trish; England, Tim; Sprigg, Nikola; Woodhouse, Lisa J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Montgomery, Alan A; Pocock, Stuart; Bath, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Vascular nitric oxide levels are low in acute stroke and donors such as glyceryl trinitrate have shown promise when administered very early after stroke. Potential mechanisms of action include augmentation of cerebral reperfusion, thrombolysis and thrombectomy, lowering blood pressure, and cytoprotection. Aim To test the safety and efficacy of four days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg/day) versus sham in patients with ultra-acute presumed stroke who are recruited by paramedics prior to hospital presentation. Sample size estimates The sample size of 850 patients will allow a shift in the modified Rankin Scale with odds ratio 0.70 (glyceryl trinitrate versus sham, ordinal logistic regression) to be detected with 90% power at 5% significance (two-sided). Design The Rapid Intervention with Glyceryl trinitrate in Hypertensive stroke Trial-2 (RIGHT-2) is a multicentre UK prospective randomized sham-controlled outcome-blinded parallel-group trial in 850 patients with ultra-acute (≤4 h of onset) FAST-positive presumed stroke and systolic blood pressure ≥120 mmHg who present to the ambulance service following a 999 emergency call. Data collection is performed via a secure internet site with real-time data validation. Study outcomes The primary outcome is the modified Rankin Scale measured centrally by telephone at 90 days and masked to treatment. Secondary outcomes include: blood pressure, impairment, recurrence, dysphagia, neuroimaging markers of the acute lesion including vessel patency, discharge disposition, length of stay, death, cognition, quality of life, and mood. Neuroimaging and serious adverse events are adjudicated blinded to treatment. Discussion RIGHT-2 has recruited more than 500 participants from seven UK ambulance services. Status Trial is ongoing. Funding British Heart Foundation. Registration ISRCTN26986053.

  19. A new sunscreen of the cinnamate class: synthesis and enzymatic hydrolysis evaluation of glyceryl esters of p-methoxycinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Zaida Maria Faria; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; da Rocha, João Ferreira; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela Maria; Gonçalves, José Carlos Saraiva

    2005-05-01

    Glyceryl esters of p-methoxycinnamic acid, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-p-methoxycinnamoyl-1,2,3-propanetriol and 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-p-methoxycinnamoyl-1,2,3-propanetriol were synthesised in an attempt to increase substantivity and decrease eventual undesirable effects of sunscreens of this class. To assess if the glyceryl esters could present a higher stability towards hydrolysis by lipases in the stratum corneum, hydrolysis rates were determined in vitro using a commercial fungal lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Results presented herein show that the glyceryl esters have similar lambda(max) and epsilon values to sunscreens of the cinnamate class. The ester 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-p-methoxycinnamoyl-1,2,3-propanetriol presented a 2.8 times lower hydrolysis rate by lipase, in vitro, than the commercial sunscreen 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (alkyl ester). This finding suggests that this triacylglycerol can possibly have a longer retention time in the skin and consequently promote a more intense and effective antisolar action than the commercial sunscreen.

  20. Percutaneous Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation vs Perianal Application of Glyceryl Trinitrate Ointment in the Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Llavero, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Current therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of chronic anal fissure establish a medical approach as the first step. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment is the most popular of the available topical treatments in Spain but it is associated with the appearance of headache. The purpose of this study was to compare the compliance rate among patients receiving glyceryl trinitrate treatment for chronic anal fissure with that among patients receiving percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation. This was a prospective randomized study. The study was conducted at Garcilaso Clinic (Madrid, Spain). Subjects with persistent anal fissure despite hygiene and dietary measures applied over at least a 6-week period were included. Study interventions were perianal application of glyceryl trinitrate ointment (twice daily for 8 weeks) and percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation (30-minute session 2 days per week for 8 weeks). Compliance with the treatment and healing rate of chronic anal fissure in patients receiving glyceryl trinitrate ointment or undergoing percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation were evaluated. Forty patients were included in each group. In the glyceryl trinitrate ointment group, 15% of the patients discontinued treatment because of disabling headaches. There were no adverse effects or treatment withdrawals in the percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group (p = 0.033). After 8 weeks of treatment, the healing rate in the percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group was 87.5% vs 65.0% in the glyceryl trinitrate ointment group (p = 0.018). Because the patients were not blinded to the treatment, we cannot rule out a placebo effect derived from the needle insertion in the percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation group. Percutaneous posterior tibial nerve stimulation is a safe and effective alternative that is in some ways superior to glyceryl trinitrate ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

  1. Computational and biological evaluation of N-octadecyl-N'-propylsulfamide, a selective PPARα agonist structurally related to N-acylethanolamines.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Santos, Inmaculada; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Serrano, Antonia; Cano, Carolina; Suardíaz, Margarita; Decara, Juan; Suarez, Juan; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Macías-González, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    To further understand the pharmacological properties of N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), a naturally occurring lipid that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), we designed sulfamoyl analogs based on its structure. Among the compounds tested, N-octadecyl-N'-propylsulfamide (CC7) was selected for functional comparison with OEA. The performed studies include the following computational and biological approaches: 1) molecular docking analyses; 2) molecular biology studies with PPARα; 3) pharmacological studies on feeding behavior and visceral analgesia. For the docking studies, we compared OEA and CC7 data with crystallization data obtained with the reference PPARα agonist GW409544. OEA and CC7 interacted with the ligand-binding domain of PPARα in a similar manner to GW409544. Both compounds produced similar transcriptional activation by in vitro assays, including the GST pull-down assay and reporter gene analysis. In addition, CC7 and OEA induced the mRNA expression of CPT1a in HpeG2 cells through PPARα and the induction was avoided with PPARα-specific siRNA. In vivo studies in rats showed that OEA and CC7 had anorectic and antiobesity activity and induced both lipopenia and decreases in hepatic fat content. However, different effects were observed when measuring visceral pain; OEA produced visceral analgesia whereas CC7 showed no effects. These results suggest that OEA activity on the PPARα receptor (e.g., lipid metabolism and feeding behavior) may be dissociated from other actions at alternative targets (e.g., pain) because other non cannabimimetic ligands that interact with PPARα, such as CC7, do not reproduce the full spectrum of the pharmacological activity of OEA. These results provide new opportunities for the development of specific PPARα-activating drugs focused on sulfamide derivatives with a long alkyl chain for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction.

  2. Computational and Biological Evaluation of N-octadecyl-N′-propylsulfamide, a Selective PPARα Agonist Structurally Related to N-acylethanolamines

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Antonia; Cano, Carolina; Suardíaz, Margarita; Decara, Juan; Suarez, Juan; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Macías-González, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    To further understand the pharmacological properties of N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), a naturally occurring lipid that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), we designed sulfamoyl analogs based on its structure. Among the compounds tested, N-octadecyl-N′-propylsulfamide (CC7) was selected for functional comparison with OEA. The performed studies include the following computational and biological approaches: 1) molecular docking analyses; 2) molecular biology studies with PPARα; 3) pharmacological studies on feeding behavior and visceral analgesia. For the docking studies, we compared OEA and CC7 data with crystallization data obtained with the reference PPARα agonist GW409544. OEA and CC7 interacted with the ligand-binding domain of PPARα in a similar manner to GW409544. Both compounds produced similar transcriptional activation by in vitro assays, including the GST pull-down assay and reporter gene analysis. In addition, CC7 and OEA induced the mRNA expression of CPT1a in HpeG2 cells through PPARα and the induction was avoided with PPARα-specific siRNA. In vivo studies in rats showed that OEA and CC7 had anorectic and antiobesity activity and induced both lipopenia and decreases in hepatic fat content. However, different effects were observed when measuring visceral pain; OEA produced visceral analgesia whereas CC7 showed no effects. These results suggest that OEA activity on the PPARα receptor (e.g., lipid metabolism and feeding behavior) may be dissociated from other actions at alternative targets (e.g., pain) because other non cannabimimetic ligands that interact with PPARα, such as CC7, do not reproduce the full spectrum of the pharmacological activity of OEA. These results provide new opportunities for the development of specific PPARα-activating drugs focused on sulfamide derivatives with a long alkyl chain for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction. PMID:24651609

  3. Steady-state maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the preterm sheep.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Mark A; Farley, Anne E; Bennett, Brian M; Smith, Graeme N

    2003-09-01

    The administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) is increasing during preterm pregnancies, yet its disposition and, importantly, the extent of fetal exposure remain to be elucidated. When used as a tocolytic (pharmacological agent that stops uterine contractions), it is administered transdermally (24-48 h). Here, we quantified the maternal and fetal steady-state plasma concentrations of maternal intravenous GTN in preterm sheep and continuously monitored maternal and fetal vascular parameters to observe possible dose-dependent vascular effects. Preterm (120 days gestation) pregnant sheep (n = 6) were instrumented with maternal femoral arterial (MA) and venous (MV) and fetal femoral arterial (FA) and umbilical venous (UV) polyethylene blood-sampling catheters. During maternal GTN infusion (3.0 micro g.kg-1.min-1, 60-min duration) the steady-state GTN concentrations ([GTN]) were as follows: MA, 98.6 +/- 9.0 nM; UV, 17.4 +/- 7.6 nM; and FA, <5 nM. There were no changes in maternal and fetal mean arterial pressure and heart rate or in uterine activity. Overall, the steady-state [GTN] was established by 5 min, and the UV/MA ratio of [GTN] was 0.18. The FA [GTN] (<5 nM) indicates that the fetus cleared essentially all GTN in the UV, and the maternal and fetal heart rate and mean arterial pressure appear to be independent of maternal GTN infusion.

  4. Preparation of multiparticulate vaginal tablet using glyceryl monooleate for sustained progesterone delivery.

    PubMed

    Biradar, Shailesh V; Dhumal, Ravindra S; Shah, Manish H; Paradkar, Anant R; Yamamura, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    Most of the sustained release vaginal formulations are in the form of bioadhesive gels and tablets. Though proved efficient, their presence in the vagina for a longer time as a bulk produces discomfort and interference with body functioning including sexual activities. Hence, they lack complete patient compliance. In this study, multiparticulate vaginal tablets were prepared by utilizing progesterone (PRO) loaded dry powder precursor of cubic phase (DPPCP) of glyceryl monooleate (GMO). DPPCP were obtained by spray drying GMO with magnesium trisilicate (MTS) and have presented PRO sustained release in simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) for 14 hours. The effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic tableting excipients on compression, phase, bioadhesion and drug release properties of prepared tablets was evaluated. The effervescent hydrophilic tablet (EHT) prepared with hydrophilic excipients showed rapid disintegration but, diminished sustaining ability owing to transformation into lamellar phase whereas the multiparticulate hydrophobic tablet (MHT) obtained from hydrophobic excipients presented both rapid disintegration and sustained release in SVF by virtue of cubic phase retention. During bioadhesivity testing, fast disintegration of MHT with formation of uniform and viscous bioadhesive layer on cow mucosa was observed even with a small volume of SVF. As MHT may not produce discomfort and interference, it will be preferred over bioadhesive gel or tablet.

  5. A novel method for the synthesis of glyceryl monocaffeate by the enzymatic transesterification and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shangde; Hu, Bingxue

    2017-01-01

    A novel enzymatic method for glyceryl monocaffeate (GMC) preparation by the transesterification of ethyl caffeate (EC) was investigated. The effects of reaction variables (reaction pressure, temperature, reaction time, enzyme load, and substrate ratio) on the enzymatic transesterification were studied and optimized using response surface methodology. HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV were used to monitor the transesterification. Thermodynamics, kinetic analyses and reaction mechanism were also evaluated. Results showed that, GMC can be successfully prepared by the enzymatic transesterification of EC with glycerol. Under the optimal conditions (enzyme load 22.54%, EC:glycerol=1:12.75 (mol/mol), 72.5°C, and 10.5h), EC conversion and GMC yield were 97.9±0.7% and 95.8±1.0%, respectively. The activation energies (Ea) for EC conversion and GMC formation were 44.23 and 46.51kJ/mol, respectively. The kinetic values for Vmax, Km(') and KIA were 2.18×10(-3)mol/(Lmin), 0.086mol/L, and 0.52mol/L, respectively. The transesterification mechanism with EC inhibition was also proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Liquid crystalline phases and their dispersions in aqueous mixtures of glycerol monooleate and glyceryl monooleyl ether.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Georgeta; Barauskas, Justas; Nylander, Tommy; Tiberg, Fredrik

    2007-01-16

    The aqueous phase behavior of mixtures of 1-glycerol monooleate (GMO) and its ether analogue, 1-glyceryl monooleyl ether (GME) has been investigated by a combination of polarized microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and NMR techniques. Three phase diagrams of the ternary GMO/GME/water system have been constructed at 25, 40, and 55 degrees C. The results demonstrate that the increasing amount of GME favors the formation of the reversed phases, evidenced by the transformation of the lamellar and bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phases of the binary GMO/water system into reversed micellar or reversed hexagonal phases. For a particular liquid crystalline phase, increasing the GME content has no effect on the structural characteristics and hydration properties, thus suggesting ideal mixing with GMO. Investigations of dispersed nanoparticle samples using shear and a polymeric stabilizer, Pluronic F127, show the possibility of forming two different kinds of bicontinuous cubic phase nanoparticles by simply changing the GMO/GME ratio. Also NMR self-diffusion measurements confirm that the block copolymer, Pluronic F127, used to facilitate dispersion formation, is associated with nanoparticles and provides steric stabilization.

  7. Genetic control of macrophage functions. I. Polygenic regulation of phagocytosis stimulation produced by Glyceryl Trioleate.

    PubMed

    Mouton, D; Bouthillier, Y; Feingold, N; Feingold, J; Decreusefond, C; Stiffel, C; Biozzi, G

    1975-02-01

    The phagocytic index K, established from the rate of blood clearance of colloidal carbon, measures the phagocytic activity of RE macrophages in contact with the circulating blood. The intravenous injection of glyceryl trioleate (triolein) produces a marked stimulation of the phagocytic activity of RE macrophages. This response is higher in the female than in the male mice. The phenotypic character "responsiveness of macrophage to triolein" presents large individual variants in population of random bred albinos mice. This character is submitted to polygenic regulation. Starting from a foundation population of 25 males and 25 females random bred albinos, mice, two lines were separated by selective breeding for the character "responsiveness to triolein": a "high" responder line, KTH, and a "low" responder line, KTL. After 26 consecutive generations of selective breeding, KTH mice present a very high response to triolein while KTL mice are almost irresponsive. The heritability of this character (h2) calculated from the interline divergence is of 12% plus or minus 1. This value of h2 indicates that the character investigated is determined by the cumulative effect of a group of about 27 independently segregating loci. The distribution of the character in (KTH plus KTL)F1 and their backcrosses with parental lines suggests that low responsiveness is dominant over high responsiveness. The genetic regulation of responsiveness to triolein is independent from the dose administered. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of genetic factors controlling macrophage functions involved in lipid metabolism and in the specific mechanisms of immunity.

  8. Genetic control of macrophage functions. I. Polygenic regulation of phagocytosis stimulation produced by Glyceryl Trioleate

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The phagocytic index K, established from the rate of blood clearance of colloidal carbon, measures the phagocytic activity of RE macrophages in contact with the circulating blood. The intravenous injection of glyceryl trioleate (triolein) produces a marked stimulation of the phagocytic activity of RE macrophages. This response is higher in the female than in the male mice. The phenotypic character "responsiveness of macrophage to triolein" presents large individual variants in population of random bred albinos mice. This character is submitted to polygenic regulation. Starting from a foundation population of 25 males and 25 females random bred albinos, mice, two lines were separated by selective breeding for the character "responsiveness to triolein": a "high" responder line, KTH, and a "low" responder line, KTL. After 26 consecutive generations of selective breeding, KTH mice present a very high response to triolein while KTL mice are almost irresponsive. The heritability of this character (h2) calculated from the interline divergence is of 12% plus or minus 1. This value of h2 indicates that the character investigated is determined by the cumulative effect of a group of about 27 independently segregating loci. The distribution of the character in (KTH plus KTL)F1 and their backcrosses with parental lines suggests that low responsiveness is dominant over high responsiveness. The genetic regulation of responsiveness to triolein is independent from the dose administered. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of genetic factors controlling macrophage functions involved in lipid metabolism and in the specific mechanisms of immunity. PMID:1113063

  9. Silymarin glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 liquid crystalline matrices: physical characterization and enhanced oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ruyue; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Tan, Yanan; Niu, Mengmeng; Guan, Peipei; Hu, Fuqiang; Wu, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the seeds of milk thistle, is used clinically as a hepatoprotector to treat liver injuries and chronic hepatitis. However, its therapeutic effect is compromised by its poor oral bioavailability due to the poor solubility and low permeability across intestinal epithelia. The main purpose of this study was to prepare silymarin glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 liquid crystalline matrices (GMO/P407 LCM) to improve the oral bioavailability of silymarin. GMO/P407 LCMs were prepared by a melting/congealing method. The isotropic phenomenon observed under polarized light microscope confirmed the liquid crystalline structure at the junction of LCM and water. Both differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed disappearance of silymarin crystallinity after incorporation into the LCMs. In vitro release of silymarin from LCMs was limited, whereas LCMs were readily degraded by lipase and released silymarin quickly and completely. Pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed significantly increased peak concentration for silymarin GMO/P407 LCM, and, most importantly, a 3.46-fold increase in oral bioavailability as compared with Legalon®, a commercial silymarin formulation.

  10. Formulation of a modified-release pregabalin tablet using hot-melt coating with glyceryl behenate.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyu Ho; Woo, Hye Seung; Kim, Chae Jin; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Jeon, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Young; Kang, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-11-10

    A modified-release (MR) tablet of the anti-anxiety drug pregabalin (PRE) was prepared by hot-melt coating PRE with glyceryl behenate (GB) as a release retardant and compressing to form a matrix with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a hydrophilic diluent. GB-coated PRE had a size in the range of 177-290 μm with good to acceptable flowability. Tablet hardness decreased slightly as GB content increased. PRE release from the tablet matrices was successfully modified by altering the ratio of MCC and GB, and it was found that dissolution- or diffusion-controlled release depended on the amount of GB used. Drug release was pH-independent. An accelerated stability test on the most promising MR tablet at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for 6 months showed no significant changes in PRE content, and the occurrence of total impurities--including PRE-lactam--was within acceptable limits. After oral administration of the selected MR tablet or a commercial IR capsule (Lyrica) to healthy human volunteers, pharmacokinetic parameters including Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-24, and T1/2 were compared. The confidence interval of AUC0-24 was within the adequate range, but that of Cmax was inadequate. This study demonstrated the potential use of GB for PRE-containing MR formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved preservation of the rat heart with celsior solution supplemented with cariporide plus glyceryl trinitrate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Hicks, Mark; MacDonald, Peter S

    2005-08-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the addition of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a source of nitric oxide, and/or cariporide, a Na/H exchange inhibitor, to a commercial preservation solution (Celsior) improved and extended cardiac preservation. After baseline indices of cardiac function (aortic flow, coronary flow, heart rate, cardiac output) were measured in an isolated working rat heart model, hearts were arrested and stored at 2-3 degrees C for 6 or 10 h in Celsior solution alone, Celsior supplemented with either 0.1 mg/mL GTN or 10 microM cariporide or both. After storage, functional measurements were repeated and recovery of each parameter was expressed as a percentage of its pre-storage baseline. After 6 h storage, recovery of cardiac function was significantly better in hearts stored in GTN- or cariporide-supplemented Celsior solution compared with Celsior solution alone. The beneficial effect of GTN was significantly abrogated in hearts perfused with glibenclamide prior to storage. Significant recovery of cardiac function after 10 h storage was only observed in hearts stored in Celsior solution supplemented with both GTN and cariporide. Combined supplementation with GTN and cariporide extends the safe period of storage of the rat heart and may be a useful approach to enhancing preservation of the donor heart.

  12. RNA Sequencing of Trigeminal Ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus after Glyceryl Trinitrate Infusion with Relevance to Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Hougaard Pedersen, Sara; Maretty, Lasse; Ramachandran, Roshni; Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas; Yakimov, Victor; Elgaard-Christensen, Rikke; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Krogh, Anders; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide, induces immediate headache in humans that in migraineurs is followed by a delayed migraine attack. In order to achieve increased knowledge of mechanisms activated during GTN-infusion this present study aims to investigate transcriptional responses to GTN-infusion in the rat trigeminal ganglia. Methods Rats were infused with GTN or vehicle and trigeminal ganglia were isolated either 30 or 90 minutes post infusion. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic changes in response to the treatment. Furthermore, we developed a novel method for Gene Set Analysis Of Variance (GSANOVA) to identify gene sets associated with transcriptional changes across time. Results 15 genes displayed significant changes in transcription levels in response to GTN-infusion. Ten of these genes showed either sustained up- or down-regulation in the 90-minute period after infusion. The GSANOVA analysis demonstrate enrichment of pathways pointing towards an increase in immune response, signal transduction, and neuroplasticity in response to GTN-infusion. Future functional in-depth studies of these mechanisms are expected to increase our understanding of migraine pathogenesis. PMID:27213950

  13. Cubic liquid crystalline glyceryl monooleate matrices for oral delivery of enzyme.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish H; Paradkar, Anant

    2005-04-27

    In situ cubic phase transforming system of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) has been prepared which offers protection to the metaloenzyme, seratiopeptidase (STP), in gastric environment and provides delayed and controlled release with no initial burst after oral administration. Effect of magnesium trisilicate (MTS) on floating, proteolytic activity and drug release was studied. Gelucire 43/01 was incorporated in the system to provide prolonged lag time. The drug-loaded matrices required 100 mg of MTS to overcome floatability of GMO matrix. Plain GMO matrices showed 85.3% loss of proteolytic activity in acidic medium, whereas matrices containing MTS showed retention of activity (111.6%). The hydrophobic nature of MTS induced formation of cubic phase at faster rate and the existence of cubic phase was confirmed by polarizing light microscopy. Furthermore, MTS provided alkaline microenvironment, which prevented acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and protein unfolding. The magnesium ions restored the activity of STP. The release of STP was decreased with increasing amount of MTS in the matrix. Gelucire did not affect proteolytic activity. The water uptake of matrices with gelucire was decelerated due to formation of hexagonal phase. However, the rate of STP release from these matrices was very slow due to incorporation of gelucire into lipid bilayers, which provided resistance to movement of STP. Thus, microenvironment-controlled in situ cubic phase transforming GMO matrices provided protection to STP and controlled release.

  14. Development and evaluation of liquid embolic agents based on liquid crystalline material of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Du, Ling-Ran; Lu, Xiao-Jing; Guan, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yong-Jie; Gu, Meng-Jie; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Lv, Tian-Shi; Yan, Zi-Guang; Song, Li; Zou, Ying-Hua; Fu, Nai-Qi; Qi, Xian-Rong; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2014-08-25

    New type of liquid embolic agents based on a liquid crystalline material of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was developed and evaluated in this study. Ternary phase diagram of GMO, water and ethanol was constructed and three isotropic liquids (ILs, GMO:ethanol:water=49:21:30, 60:20:20 and 72:18:10 (w/w/w)) were selected as potential liquid embolic agents, which could spontaneously form viscous gel cast when contacting with water or physiological fluid. The ILs exhibited excellent microcatheter deliverability due to low viscosity, and were proved to successfully block the saline flow when performed in a device to simulate embolization in vitro. The ILs also showed good cytocompatibility on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. The embolization of ILs to rabbit kidneys was performed successfully under monitoring of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and embolic degree was affected by the initial formulation composition and used volume. At 5th week after embolization, DSA and computed tomography (CT) confirmed the renal arteries embolized with IL did not recanalize in follow-up period, and an obvious atrophy of the embolized kidney was observed. Therefore, the GMO-based liquid embolic agents showed feasible and effective to embolize, and potential use in clinical interventional embolization therapy.

  15. Glyceryl Trinitrate Ointment Did Not Reduce Pain After Stapled Hemorrhoidectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Trent; Bartlett, Lynne; Mushaya, Chrispen; Ashour, Mohamed; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Medications, including topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), can reduce anal spasm and pain after excisional hemorrhoidectomy. GTN after stapled hemorrhoidopexy was compared with routine postoperative management. Patients with symptomatic grade 3/4 hemorrhoids were recruited. After stapled hemorrhoidopexy, residual perianal skin tags were excised as appropriate. Those requiring double purse-string mucosectomy were excluded. Postoperative pain, pain duration, and complications were assessed. One hundred ten patients (74 men; mean age 50.6 years) were enrolled in the control group and 100 patients (57 men; mean age 49.8 years) in the GTN group. Maximum pain was higher in the GTN group (P  =  0.015). There were no differences between the two groups in residual perianal skin tags requiring excision, postoperative complications, recurrence rates, follow-up period, average pain, duration of pain, or satisfaction scores. Sixteen GTN patients were noncompliant due to side effects. None had persistent perianal skin tags. GTN did not reduce postoperative pain after stapled hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:23102076

  16. Systemic glyceryl trinitrate reduces anal sphincter tone: is there a therapeutic indication?

    PubMed

    Connolly, C; Tierney, S; Grace, P

    2017-09-13

    Nitric oxide (NO) has diverse roles as a biological messenger. [1] Topically applied nitrate donors cause relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and facilitate healing of anal fissures [2,3]. Systemic nitrates are commonly used for the treatment of ischaemic heart disease, yet the effects of systemically administered nitrates on the smooth muscle of the IAS are unknown. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that systemically administered nitrates at a normal dose, cause inhibition of anal sphincter activity. With fully informed consent, anal manometry was performed on nine volunteers. Maximum and mean anal resting pressure (representing the IAS), maximum squeeze pressure (representing the external anal sphincter), heart rate and blood pressure were measured, before and after administration of a normal 400 μg dose of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate spray. Data are expressed as mean (± standard error of the mean (SEM)). In four females and five males ranging from 19 to 50 years of age, administration of GTN resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 138 ± 5 to 127 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.01. Mean resting pressure, over 5 min, was significantly reduced from 70 ± 10 to 62 ± 10 mmHg P < 0.05. The maximum resting pressure was also significantly reduced from 109 ± 12 to 86 ± 10 mmHg P = 0.04. Maximum squeeze pressure, heart rate and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly reduced. Systemic nitrates significantly inhibit internal anal sphincter function.

  17. Spray dried glyceryl monooleate-magnesium trisilicate dry powder as cubic phase precursor.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish H; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R

    2006-10-12

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO) is a polar amphiphilic lipid, which forms different sequential lyotropic liquid crystals upon hydration. GMO has been utilized for various delivery systems and routes of administrations. Owing to sticky and waxy nature of GMO, preparation of oral solid dosage form utilizing GMO is still a challenge for pharmaceutical researchers. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to fabricate dry powder precursors using GMO, which upon hydration in situ forms cubic phase and can be wisely used for fabrication of oral solid dosage forms. In addition to this, dry powder precursor was evaluated for drug loading, in vitro release behavior and in vivo performance of model drug diclofenac sodium (DiNa). The dry powder precursor was obtained by spray-drying GMO with DiNa using magnesium trisilicate (MTS) as adsorbent. The percent drug entrapment of various batches of powder precursor was in the range of 84-93% indicating high content uniformity. SEM and image analysis showed that as the amount of MTS in powder precursor was increased, the particle size decreased. Furthermore, the viscosity of powder precursor was function of amount of MTS. The rate of water uptake of powder precursor was higher due to uniform layer of GMO on the MTS surface, which led to faster transformation of lamellar phase into cubic phase. The polarizing light microscopy confirmed that cubic phase was formed upon hydration of powder precursor. The drug released from powder precursor was initially governed by the cubic phase formed and in later stage it depends upon dynamic swelling behavior of hexagonally packed cylindrical aggregates. The drug loaded powder precursor was found to have more effective and prolonged anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity as compared to pure drug. Thus the dry powder precursor of cubic phase was prepared in which drug release was entirely governed by the mesophases formed.

  18. Chitosan and glyceryl monooleate nanostructures containing gemcitabine: potential delivery system for pancreatic cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Trickler, William J; Khurana, Jatin; Nagvekar, Ankita A; Dash, Alekha K

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to enhance cellular accumulation of gemcitabine with chitosan/glyceryl monooleate (GMO) nanostructures, and to provide significant increase in cell death of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The delivery system was prepared by a multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method. The nanostructure topography, size, and surface charge were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and a zetameter. The cellular accumulation, cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of the nanostructures were evaluated by HPLC, confocal microscopy, or MTT assay in Mia PaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells. The average particle diameter for 2% and 4% (w/w) drug loaded delivery system were 382.3 +/- 28.6 nm, and 385.2 +/- 16.1 nm, respectively with a surface charge of +21.94 +/- 4.37 and +21.23 +/- 1.46 mV. The MTT cytotoxicity dose-response studies revealed the placebo at/or below 1 mg/ml has no effect on MIA PaCa-2 or BxPC-3 cells. The delivery system demonstrated a significant decrease in the IC50 (3 to 4 log unit shift) in cell survival for gemcitabine nanostructures at 72 and 96 h post-treatment when compared with a solution of gemcitabine alone. The nanostructure reported here can be resuspended in an aqueous medium that demonstrate increased effective treatment compared with gemcitabine treatment alone in an in vitro model of human pancreatic cancer. The drug delivery system demonstrates capability to entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds to potentially provide an effective treatment option in human pancreatic cancer.

  19. Time-dependent interactions of the hypotensive effects of sildenafil citrate and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James J; Kerr, Debra M; Webb, David J

    2009-01-01

    AIM To investigate the time course of the hypotensive interaction between sildenafil and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). METHODS Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover studies were performed. Subjects were challenged with sublingual GTN 400 µg at different times after oral sildenafil 100 mg. After each GTN challenge frequent measures of blood pressure (BP) were made. In the first study GTN was given 1–48 h after sildenafil/placebo to 33 healthy men. In the second study GTN was given 1–8 h after sildenafil/placebo to 20 men with stable angina. RESULTS In healthy men there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN only at 1 h. In angina patients, there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN for up to 8 h. The mean (95% confidence interval) differences in maximum systolic BP reduction (mmHg) at 1, 4, 6 and 8 h were −16 (−12, −21), −12 (−4, −20), −6 (1, −12) and −9 (−3, −15), all P < 0.05 except at 6 h (NS). At 6 and 8 h the interaction was not more than additive, and hypotensive symptoms did not occur. CONCLUSIONS In men with angina there is an interaction on BP reduction between sildenafil and GTN for ≥ 8 h after sildenafil administration, but this is no more than additive from 6 h. These data may be helpful to clinicians who are considering the use of GTN in patients presenting with angina who have received sildenafil within 24 h. PMID:19371313

  20. Effects of glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Bochenek, Maciej; Samuelsson, Anne-Cathrine; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A completely randomised design study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to observe effects of an emulsifier (glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate (GPR)) on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were used to determine the influence of GPR (without addition or added at 0.04% of diet) and two levels of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) (according to standard requirements (Diets SE) or energy reduced by 0.4 MJ/kg diet (Diets LE)) on birds' performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). ATTD of ether extract (EE) and AMEN were measured on d 14 and 35, and ATTD of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was measured on d 35. All diets were based on wheat-maize-soybean meal with rapeseed oil and lard (blend of 50:50) as fat sources. During the grower period and the whole trial, birds fed Diets supplemented with GPR were characterised by higher body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to chicken receiving diets without GPR (p < 0.05). At the end of experiment, birds fed Diet LE without GPR were characterised by lower BWG and higher FCR (p < 0.05). Supplementation with GPR caused a higher ATTD of EE for diets SE and LE at d 14 and 35 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GPR addition to Diet LE improved ATTD of NDF at d 35 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings suggest that GPR effects the digestion of a blend of animal fat/rapeseed oil positively, even in a practical maize-wheat-based broiler diet with decreased AMEN level.

  1. Role of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment after haemorrhoidectomy: results of a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Franceschilli, Luana; D'Ugo, Stefano; de Luca, Elisabetta; Cadeddu, Federica; Milito, Giovanni; di Lorenzo, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille L; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2013-03-01

    Conventional haemorrhoidectomy (CH) is well known to cause significant post-operative pain and delayed return to daily activities. Both surgical wounds and sphincterial apparatus spasms are likely responsible for the pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of glyceryl trinitrate ointment (GTN) in reducing post-operative pain, ameliorating wound healing and recovery after CH. Between 01/08 and 12/11, 203 patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids were enrolled in the study and received (103 patients) or not (100 patients) 0.4 % GTN ointment for 6 weeks after surgery. Pain was assessed using a 10-cm linear visual analogue scale (VAS). Data on post-operative pain, wound secretion and bleeding, return to normal activities and complications were recorded. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney tests. GTN-treated group experienced significantly less pain during the first week after surgery (p < 0.0001). This difference was more evident starting from post-operative day 4 (p < 0.0001). A significant higher percentage of untreated patients experienced severe pain (mean VAS score > 7) (10 % vs 31 %). There were significant differences in terms of secretion time (p = 0.0052) and bleeding time (p = 0.02) in favor of GTN. In addition, the duration of itching was less in the GTN group (p = 0.0145). Patients treated with GTN were able to an early return to daily activities compared to untreated (p < 0.0001). Fifteen GTN-treated patients (14.6 %) discontinued the application because of local discomfort and headache. GTN ointment enhances significantly post-operative recovery, reducing pain in terms of duration and intensity. This effect might be secondary to a faster wound healing expressed by reduced secretion, bleeding and itching time.

  2. Investigation of oxidant stress and vasodepression to glyceryl trinitrate in the obese Zucker rat in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Laight, David W; Kengatharan, K M; Gopaul, Nitin K; Änggård, Erik E; Carrier, Martin J

    1998-01-01

    We examined the relationship between oxidant stress and the vasodepressor activity of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in vivo, including rapid GTN tolerance development, in 13-week old obese and age-matched lean Zucker rats which had been maintained for 4 weeks on either control diet or diets enriched with the lipophilic, chain-breaking antioxidants vitamin E (0.5% w w−1) or probucol (0.5% w w−1) or the superoxide anion scavenger tiron (1% w v−1 in drinking water).The basal plasma level of the isoprostane 8-epi-PGF2α, an in vivo marker of lipid peroxidation, was elevated by approximately 5 fold in the obese Zucker rat and markedly reduced by dietary lipophilic antioxidants and depressed by dietary tiron.Vasodepression to bolus does GTN (0.1–100 μg kg−1 i.v.), but not endothelium-dependent vasodepression to bolus dose acetylcholine (ACh, 0.02–2.0 μg kg−1 i.v.), was impaired in obese animals and completely restored by dietary antioxidants.Nitrate tolerance developed in vivo during a 1 h infusion of GTN (40 μg kg−1 min−1 i.v.) appeared more severe in obese animals. However, rapid nitrate tolerance was not affected by dietary antioxidants in either the obese or lean Zucker rat.We therefore provide evidence that elevated oxidant stress in the obese Zucker rat is associated with an impairment in nitrate vasodepressor activity. However, our data are not consistent with either a role for oxidant stress in rapid nitrate tolerance development in the anaesthetized Zucker rat or the aggravation of this tolerance by pre-existing oxidant stress. PMID:9831930

  3. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic transesterification of methyl benzoate and glycerol to 1-glyceryl benzoate in organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Ceni, Giovana; da Silva, Patrícia Costa; Lerin, Lindomar; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Toniazzo, Geciane; Treichel, Helen; Oestreicher, Enrique Guillermo; de Oliveira, Débora

    2011-02-08

    The aim of this work is to report the enzymatic transesterification production of 1-glyceryl benzoate under ultrasound irradiation, using a commercial immobilized lipase, Novozym 435. Firstly, a preliminary evaluation was carried out at 2, 4 and 6h, at constant temperature of 50 °C, methyl benzoate to glycerol molar ratio of 1:1 and 5.5 wt% of enzyme concentration. After analyzing the results obtained, the experimental design technique was used to evaluate the effects of temperature, substrates molar ratio, enzyme concentration, solvent volume and ultrasonic power on the 1-glyceryl benzoate production. The highest conversion, around 16%, was obtained at 65 °C, 1:1 of methyl benzoate to glycerol molar ratio, 15 wt% of enzyme concentration, 7 mL of solvent and 40% ultrasonic power in 4h of reaction. A preliminary kinetic experiment carried out varying the enzyme concentration (15 and 20 wt%) keeping fixed the temperature at 35 °C, 1:1 of substrates molar ratio, 3 mL of solvent and 40% of maximum ultrasonic power led to lower (around 15% after 12 h of reaction) conversions compared to that achieved in the experimental design. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous twin screw melt granulation of glyceryl behenate: Development of controlled release tramadol hydrochloride tablets for improved safety.

    PubMed

    Keen, Justin M; Foley, Connor J; Hughey, Justin R; Bennett, Ryan C; Jannin, Vincent; Rosiaux, Yvonne; Marchaud, Delphine; McGinity, James W

    2015-06-20

    Interest in granulation processes using twin screw extrusion machines is rapidly growing. The primary objectives of this study were to develop a continuous granulation process for direct production of granules using this technique with glyceryl behenate as a binder, evaluate the properties of the resulting granules and develop controlled release tablets containing tramadol HCl. In addition, the granulation mechanism was probed and the polymorphic form of the lipid and drug release rate were evaluated on stability. Granules were prepared using a Leistritz NANO16 twin screw extruder operated without a constricting die. The solid state of the granules were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Formulated tablets were studied in 0.1N HCl containing 0-40% ethanol to investigate propensity for alcohol induced dose dumping. The extrusion barrel temperature profile and feed rate were determined to be the primary factors influencing the particle size distribution. Granules were formed by a combination immersion/distribution mechanism, did not require subsequent milling, and were observed to contain desirable polymorphic forms of glyceryl behenate. Drug release from tablets was complete and controlled over 16 h and the tablets were determined to be resistant to alcohol induced dose dumping. The drug release rate from the tablets was found to be stable at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for the duration of a 3 month study.

  5. Fluorescent turn-on detection and assay of water based on 4-(2-dimethylaminoethyloxy)-N-octadecyl-1,8-naphthalimide with aggregation-induced emission enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Liang, Xuhua; Wei, Song; Fan, Jun; Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-11-01

    The photophysical properties of 4-(2-dimethylaminoethyloxy)-N-octadecyl-1,8-naphthalimide (DON) consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. Changing from a non-polar to a polar solvent increased the solvent interaction and both the excitation and emission spectra were shifted to longer wavelength and intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and spectral analyses revealed that such fluorophores were capable of sensing protons by intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). Empirical and quantum mechanical calculations showed that the electron donating effect of the dimethylamino group decreased the change in dipole moment on excitation which resulted in a fluorescence quantum yield remarkably enhanced as the solvent polarity increased. In alkaline media the fluorescence of DON was quenched owing to photoinduced electron transfer being disabled in acidic media. The pKa of the 1,8-naphthailimide dye was 6.70, which defines the dye as a highly efficient "off-on" switch. DON exhibited a typical aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) behavior that it is virtually nonemissive in organic solvent but highly luminescent in water, as a result of the restriction of free intramolecular rotation of a C-N bond and the non-planar configuration in the aggregate state. The hydrophobicity of octadecyl group provided DON with a fluorescent response to water based on AIEE and the water-dependent spectral characteristics of DON, and the AIEE of DON caused by the effect of water and formation of J-aggregation states. In the range of 0-79.8% (v/v), the fluorescence intensity of DON in acetone solution increased as a linear function of the water content. The optimum detection limits were of 0.011%, 0.0021%, and 0.0033% of water in acetone, ethanol, and acetonitrile, respectively. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were

  6. Intravitreal toxicology in rabbits of two preparations of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphonoformate, a sustained-delivery anti-CMV drug.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Hostetler, K Y; Gardner, M F; Avila, C P; Bergeron-Lynn, G; Keefe, K S; Wiley, C A; Freeman, W R

    1999-06-01

    To determine intraocular toxicity and efficacy of the lipid prodrug of foscarnet, 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphonoformate (ODG-PFA), as a long-acting, nontoxic intravitreous injectable drug delivery system for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. ODG-PFA was synthesized by coupling the phosphonate residue of PFA to the 3 hydroxyl of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol and formulated as micelles and liposomes at concentrations so that, after injection into the rabbit vitreous, the resultant intravitreal concentrations were 0.2 mM, 0.63 mM, and 2 mM in micellar formulation and 0.02 mM, 0.063 mM, 0.2 mM, and 0.63 mM for liposomal formulation. The compounds were injected, and toxicology evaluations were performed. Intravitreal injections of micellar ODG-PFA resulted in aggregation of the material in vitreous and variable local retinal damage. Intravitreal injections of the liposomal ODG-PFA revealed even dispersion of the compounds and a clear vitreous, using final concentration in the vitreous of 0.2 mM. No intraocular toxicity was found with the 0.632 mM final concentration. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for CMV of ODG-PFA was 0.43+/-0.27 microM, and the therapeutic index of ODG-PFA after intravitreal injection was estimated to be 1470:1. Lipid-derivatized foscarnet liposome formulations may be a useful long-acting delivery system for the therapy of CMV retinitis.

  7. H89 enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to glyceryl trinitrate through a purinergic receptor-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cortier, Marion; Boina-Ali, Rahamata; Racoeur, Cindy; Paul, Catherine; Solary, Eric; Jeannin, Jean-François; Bettaieb, Ali

    2015-01-01

    High doses of the organic nitrate glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, are known to trigger apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we show that such a cytotoxic effect can be obtained with subtoxic concentrations of GTN when combined with H89, N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide.2HCl. This synergistic effect requires the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from H89 and NO from GTN treatment that causes cGMP production and PKG activation. Furthermore, the GTN/H89 synergy was attenuated by inhibition of P2-purinergic receptors with suramin and competition with ATP/UDP. By down-regulating genes with antisense oligonucleotides, P2-purinergic receptors P2X3, P2Y1, and P2Y6 were found to have a role in creating this cytotoxic effect. Thus, H89 likely acts as an ATP mimetic synergizing with GTN to trigger apoptosis in aggressive cancer cells. PMID:25762630

  8. Synthesis of Monoalkyl Glyceryl Ethers by Ring Opening of Glycidol with Alcohols in the Presence of Lewis Acids.

    PubMed

    Cucciniello, Raffaele; Ricciardi, Maria; Vitiello, Rosa; Di Serio, Martino; Proto, Antonio; Capacchione, Carmine

    2016-12-08

    The present work deals with the production of monoalkyl glyceryl ethers (MAGEs) through a new reaction pathway based on the reaction of glycidol and alcohols catalyzed by Lewis acid-based catalysts. Glycidol is quantitatively converted with high selectivity (99 %) into MAGEs under very mild reaction conditions (80 °C and 0.01 mol % catalyst loading) in only 1 h using Al(OTf)3 or Bi(OTf)3 as catalyst. The proposed method enhances the choice of possible green synthetic approaches for the production of value-added products such as MAGEs. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Mobility of molecules and diagram of the state of a glyceryl monooleate-water system according to NMR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakharova, A. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Munavirov, B. V.; Skirda, V. D.

    2011-04-01

    Transverse relaxation and self-diffusion of molecules in a glyceryl monooleate (monoolein)-D2O system was studied using pulsed 1H NMR in a range of water concentrations from 10 to 30 wt % and a range of temperatures from 20 to 90°C. It was noted that self-diffusion is described by one or two self-diffusion coefficients, depending on the temperature and concentration of water, while NMR-relaxation has a complex form. It was determined that with a reduction in the transverse magnetization, a component that has a form similar to Gaussian and relaxation times of 70 to 250 μs is observed at certain temperatures and concentrations of water, confirming the formation of structures in which glyceryl monooleate molecules (GM) are characterized by anisotropic rotational mobility. It was demonstrated that the ranges of the concentrations of water and temperature in which this component is observed correspond to liquid-crystalline phase for lamellar and inverse hexagonal structural organizations of lipids, according to the state diagram obtained by X-ray diffraction. In the state diagram areas corresponding to micellar and cubic structures (characterized by the isotropic rotation of GM molecules in the time scale of NMR), multiexponential decays of magnetization with average relaxation times were noted in the range of 10 to 200 ms. A number of features were discovered with the use of NMR: specimens always contain structures with isotropic rotational mobility in the presence of structures characterized by anisotropic rotational mobility; a change in the fraction of the structures with anisotropic rotational mobility takes place slowly over 5-15 K, not abruptly. Our conclusions regarding the polymorphism of a GM-D2O system in the presence of anisotropic structures was confirmed by an analysis of the transverse NMR relaxation in an egg phosphatidylcholine-D2O system, for which the presence of only lamellar liquid-crystalline structure is confirmed by 31P NMR.

  10. The role of topical diltiazem in the treatment of chronic anal fissures that have failed glyceryl trinitrate therapy.

    PubMed

    Griffin, N; Acheson, A G; Jonas, M; Scholefield, J H

    2002-11-01

    The treatment of anal fissures has evolved over the last 5 years with the development of topical treatments aimed at reducing sphincter hypertonia. This is thought to improve anal mucosal blood flow and promote healing of the fissure. This study reports the use of topical diltiazem in patients with chronic anal fissures that have failed previous treatment with topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Forty-seven patients with chronic anal fissure who had previously failed at least one course of topical GTN were recruited prospectively from a single centre. Patients were instructed to apply 2 cm (approximately 0.7 g) of 2% diltiazem cream to the anal verge twice daily for eight weeks. Symptoms of pain, bleeding and itching were recorded on a linear analogue score prior to starting the cream and then repeated at 2 weekly intervals. Patients were asked to report side-effects throughout the study period. Healing of the fissure was assessed after 8 weeks of treatment. Forty-six patients completed treatment; of these, 22 had healed fissures (48%). Ten of the 24 patients with persistent fissures were symptomatically improved and wished no further treatment. Of the 14 patients who remained symptomatic, one was given a repeat course of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate with subsequent healing of the fissure, 10 were recruited into an ongoing study involving injections of botulinum toxin into the internal anal sphincter and three were referred for surgery. This study shows that topical 2% diltiazem is an effective and safe treatment for chronic anal fissure in patients who have failed topical 0.2% GTN. The need for sphincterotomy can be avoided in up to 70% of cases.

  11. Comparative study of lateral internal sphincterotomy versus local 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Md Ibrahim; Murshed, Khandker Manzoor; Majid, M A

    2008-04-01

    The gold standard surgical treatment of chronic anal fissure is lateral internal sphincterotomy which lowers the resting anal pressure and effectively heals the majority of fissures. Local application of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment has been used as an agent for chemical sphincterotomy, causing temporary alleviation of sphincter spasm and allowing the fissure to heal without compromising the anal continence. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of surgical sphincterotomy with that of local 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Seventy adult patients between the age of 18 and 50 years with chronic anal fissure were randomized in a prospective trial to receive either surgical sphincterotomy or 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment locally. Patients were followed up at 2 weeks' interval for 10 weeks. Symptom relief, fissure healing and continence scores were the outcomes assessed. Six patients were excluded for protocol violations. Surgical sphincterotomy was significantly more effective in providing pain relief and was associated with significantly better fissure healing rates at 6 weeks and 10 weeks (both p < 0.001). There were substantial problems with compliance in ointment group related to slow healing and longer time needed for symptomatic relief. Minor incontinence was 6% in sphincterotomy group and none in ointment group (p > 0.05). Considering early symptomatic relief, rapid fissure healing and better patient compliance surgical sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure.

  12. Synthesis and intravenous infusion into the rat of glyceryl bisacetoacetate, 1-acetoacetamido-2, 3-propane diol, and partially reduced glucosyl pentaacetoacetate.

    PubMed

    Birkhahn, R H; Clemens, R J; Hubbs, J C

    1997-07-01

    The efficacy of parenteral nutrition could be improved by finding a more effective energy source. Esters of short-chain fatty acids have exhibited some promise as alternatives to glucose. The present study reports on two new esters and one amide, each containing acetoacetate as the organic acid. The three compounds: glyceryl bisacetoacetate, N-2',3'-dihydroxypropyl-3-oxo-butanamide (1-acetoacetamido-2,3-propane diol), and partially reduced glucosyl pentaacetoacetate, were synthesized and then continuously infused into rats for 7 d. The infusion rate provided 50% of the rats' estimated metabolic energy requirements, and rats were fed with a reduced-energy oral diet that provided the remaining 50% of energy plus adequate protein. Rat groups for each compound were: (1) experimental-compound-infused and ad libitum-fed, (2) isoenergetic glucose-infused and pairfed, and (3) saline infused and pair-fed. Body-weight changes, N losses and N retention were measured daily. All rats died from partially reduced glucosyl pentaacetoacetate infusion at 100% and 50% of the intended rate. Rats infused with 1-acetoacetamido-2,3-propane diol failed to gain weight and to increase the plasma ketone-body concentration. Glyceryl bisacetoacetate produced hyperketonaemia, and weight gain and N variables that were similar to those for glucose-infused rats. It was concluded that only glyceryl bisacetoacetate would make a satisfactory parenteral nutrient.

  13. Oral 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycero-3-cidofovir targets the lung and is effective against a lethal respiratory challenge with ectromelia virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Karl Y; Beadle, James R; Trahan, Julissa; Aldern, Kathy A; Owens, Gelita; Schriewer, Jill; Melman, Lora; Buller, R Mark

    2007-03-01

    Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV) has been shown to be orally active against lethal infection with orthopoxviruses including, mousepox, cowpox, vaccinia and rabbitpox. The alkoxyalkyl group provides oral absorption and reduces greatly the amount of drug reaching the kidney, the site of CDV's dose limiting toxicity. However, the amount of HDP-CDV detected in lung, an important site of early poxvirus replication, is low and the reduction of viral titers in surviving animals is reduced moderately compared with the liver where poxvirus titers are virtually undetectable. We synthesized a novel glycerol ester of CDV, 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycero-3-CDV (ODBG-CDV), and compared its oral pharmacokinetics with that of HDP-CDV. Surprisingly, ODBG-CDV levels in lung are much higher and liver levels are reduced, suggesting that the compound is transported in small intestinal lymph instead the portal vein. ODBG-CDV has excellent in vitro activity in cells infected with ectromelia virus (ECTV). In mice infected with a lethal aerosol or intranasal challenge of ECTV, HDP-CDV and ODBG-CDV are equally effective in preventing death from disease. Other drugs esterified to 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycerol or 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate may provide lung targeting for treatment of microbial or neoplastic diseases while reducing first pass removal by the liver during oral absorption.

  14. A novel, neutral hydroxylated octadecyl acrylate monolith with fast electroosmotic flow velocity and its application to the separation of various solutes including peptides and proteins in the absence of electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Karenga, Samuel; El Rassi, Ziad

    2010-10-01

    A neutral hydroxylated octadecyl monolith (ODM-OH) for reversed-phase capillary electrochromatography has been developed. The ODM-OH was prepared by the in situ polymerization of octadecyl acrylate and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) in a ternary porogenic solvent. Pentaerythritol triacrylate possesses a hydroxyl functional group, which imparts the monolith with a hydrophilic group, thus the acronym ODM-OH. The ODM-OH column exhibited cathodal EOF over a wide range of pH and ACN concentration in the mobile phase despite the fact that it was devoid of any fixed charges. This ODM-OH monolith exhibited stronger EOF than its counterpart the ODM made from the in situ polymerization of octadecyl acrylate and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate. Similar to ODM, it is believed that the EOF was due to the adsorption of ions from the mobile phase onto the surface of the monolith thus imparting the neutral monolithic column the zeta potential necessary to support the EOF. The higher EOF exhibited by ODM-OH was due to the presence of polar OH groups on its surface, which would favor stronger adsorption of ions from the mobile phase. The wide applications of the neutral ODM-OH column were demonstrated in the separation of a wide range of small and large solutes. As a typical result, the ODM-OH was able to separate proteins quite rapidly yielding 200,000 plates/m.

  15. ORAL 1-O-OCTADECYL-2-O-BENZYL-SN-GLYCERO-3-CIDOFOVIR TARGETS THE LUNG AND IS EFFECTIVE AGAINST A LETHAL RESPIRATORY CHALLENGE WITH ECTROMELIA VIRUS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Karl Y.; Beadle, James R.; Trahan, Julissa; Aldern, Kathy A.; Owens, Gelita; Schriewer, Jill; Melman, Lora; Buller, R. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV) has been shown to be orally active against lethal infection with orthopoxviruses including, mousepox, cowpox, vaccinia and rabbitpox. The alkoxyalkyl group provides oral absorption and reduces greatly the amount of drug reaching the kidney, the site of CDV’s dose limiting toxicity. However, the amount of HDP-CDV detected in lung, an important site of early poxvirus replication, is low and the reduction of viral titers in surviving animals is reduced moderately compared with the liver where poxvirus titers are virtually undetectable. We synthesized a novel glycerol ester of CDV, 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycero-3-CDV (ODBG-CDV), and compared its oral pharmacokinetics with that of HDP-CDV. Surprisingly, ODBG-CDV levels in lung are much higher and liver levels are reduced, suggesting that the compound is transported in small intestinal lymph instead the portal vein. ODBG-CDV has excellent in vitro activity in cells infected with ectromelia virus (ECTV). In mice infected with a lethal aerosol or intranasal challenge of ECTV, HDP-CDV and ODBG-CDV are equally effective in preventing death from disease. Other drugs esterified to 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycerol or 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate may provide lung targeting for treatment of microbial or neoplastic diseases while reducing first pass removal by the liver during oral absorption. PMID:17123638

  16. Investigation of mussel adhesive protein adsorption on polystyrene and poly(octadecyl methacrylate) using angle dependent XPS, ATR-FTIR, and AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, A.M.; Suci, P.A.; Tyler, B.J.; Geesey, G.G.

    1996-02-10

    Despite many years of research effort, the molecular interactions that are responsible for microbial adhesion and fouling of surfaces remain obscure. An understanding of these interactions would contribute to the development of surfaces that resist colonization of microorganisms. The irreversible adsorption of mussel adhesive proteins (MAP) from the marine mussel Mytilus edulis has been investigated on polystyrene (PS) and poly(octadecyl methacrylate) (POMA) surfaces using angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Angle resolved XPS was used to quantify the elemental composition with depth of the upper 90 {angstrom} of the surface, and AFM was used to obtain the surface topography. The adsorption pattern of MAP, revealed by AFM images, is distinctly different on the two polymer surfaces and suggests that the substratum influences protein adhesion. The depth profiles of MAP, obtained from angle resolved XPS, show differences in nitrogen composition with depth for MAP adsorbed to PS and POMA. Infrared spectra of hydrated adsorbed MAP revealed significant differences in the amide III region and in two bands which may originate from residues in the tandemly repeated sequences of MAP. This data demonstrates that the chemistry of the polymer film that is present at the protein-polymer interface can influence protein-protein and protein-surface interactions.

  17. Construction of a novel cationic polymeric liposomes formed from PEGlated octadecyl-quaternized lysine modified chitosan/cholesterol for enhancing storage stability and cellular uptake efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanjie; Zhao, Peiqi; Liang, Xiaofei; Song, Tao; Gong, Xiaoqun; Niu, Ruifang; Chang, Jin

    2010-08-15

    The design and construction of delivery vectors with high stability and effective cellular uptake efficiency is very important. In this study, a novel polymeric liposomes (PLs) formed from PEGlated octadecyl-quaternized lysine modified chitosan (OQLCS) and cholesterol with higher size stability and cellular uptake efficiency has been synthesized successfully. Compared to conventional liposomes (CLs; phosphatidyl choline/cholesterol), the calcein-loaded PLs exhibited a multi-lamellar structure with homogenous size diameter (200 nm) and high calcein encapsulation efficiency (about 92%). PLs could be stored at different temperature (25, 4, and -20 degrees C) and different medium (deionized water, phosphate-buffered saline, and human plasma solution) for up to 4 weeks without significant size change. The spectrophotometer fluorometry analysis and the flow cytometry analysis indicated that in comparison with CL, PLs with positive zeta potential facilitates the uptake of calcein by MCF-7 tumor cells. The data suggests that PLs may provide a new method to overcome the stability and enhance the uptake efficiency of CLs.

  18. Glyceryl trinitrate and caprylic acid for the mitigation of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on C1018 carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, P; Cai, W; Rosenblatt, J S; Raad, I I; Xu, D; Gu, T

    2016-02-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), also known as biocorrosion, is caused by corrosive biofilms. MIC is a growing problem, especially in the oil and gas industry. Among various corrosive microbes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are often the leading culprit. Biofilm mitigation is the key to MIC mitigation. Biocide applications against biofilms promote resistance over time. Thus, it is imperative to develop new biodegradable and cost-effective biocides for large-scale field applications. Using the corrosive Desulfovibrio vulgaris (an SRB) biofilm as a model biofilm, this work demonstrated that a cocktail of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and caprylic acid (CA) was very effective for biofilm prevention and mitigation of established biofilms on C1018 carbon steel coupons. The most probable number sessile cell count data and confocal laser scanning microscope biofilm images proved that the biocide cocktail of 25 ppm (w/w) GTN + 0.1% (w/w) CA successfully prevented the D. vulgaris biofilm establishment on C1018 carbon steel coupons while 100 ppm GTN + 0.1% CA effectively mitigated pre-established D. vulgaris biofilms on C1018 carbon steel coupons. In both cases, the cocktails were able to reduce the sessile cell count from 10(6) cells/cm(2) to an undetectable level.

  19. Assessment of skin absorption and irritation potential of arachidonic acid and glyceryl arachidonate using in vitro diffusion cell techniques.

    PubMed

    Eppler, A R; Kraeling, M E K; Wickett, R R; Bronaugh, R L

    2007-11-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA), a precursor of pro-inflammatory mediators, and its glycerin ester, glyceryl arachidonate (GA), are reportedly used in cosmetic products. In vitro skin penetration of AA and GA and GA's ester hydrolysis was determined in flow-through diffusion cells. AA penetration with human and rat skin was 19.5% and 52.3% of the applied dose respectively, a substantial amount of which remained in the skin at 24h. Similar penetration results were obtained with GA in human skin. However, GA penetration through cultured skin (EpiDerm) was 51% of the applied dose, almost all of which appeared in the receptor fluid. At least 27.8% of GA penetrating skin was hydrolyzed to AA. In vitro methods were used to assess skin irritation in diffusion cells. Skin irritation of AA, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and Tween 80 was determined by changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiaxol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, MTT, formation), and cytokine release (IL-1alpha). SLS irritation was much less pronounced in an emulsion versus an aqueous vehicle. No significant irritation was observed in vitro from AA in an emulsion. This work predicts that AA would penetrate human skin in vivo and that it could be formed in skin from topically applied GA.

  20. Nanoassemblies containing a fluorouracil/zidovudine glyceryl prodrug with phospholipase A2-triggered drug release for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yiguang; Yang, Fang; Du, Lina

    2013-12-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), which is overexpressed in many tumors, cleaves ester bonds at the sn-2 position of phospholipids. A PLA2-sensitive amphiphilic prodrug, 1-O-octadecyl-2-(5-fluorouracil)-N-acetyl-3-zidovudine-phosphorylglycerol (OFZG), was synthesized and used to prepare nanoassemblies through the injection of a mixture of OFZG/cholesterol/Tween 80 (2:1:0.1, mol:mol:mol) into water. Cholesterol and Tween 80 was incorporated into the OFZG monolayers at the air/water interface to yield nanoassemblies. The resulting nanoassemblies exhibited a narrow size distribution with a mean size of 77.8nm and were stable due to their high surface charges. The in vitro experiments showed that PLA2 degraded OFZG. The nanoassemblies exhibited higher anticancer activity than the parent drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in COLO205, HT-28, and HCT-116 cells. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of the nanoassemblies into mice resulted in the rapid elimination of OFZG from the circulation and its distribution mainly in the liver, lung, spleen, and kidney. After their injection into tumor-bearing mice, the nanoassemblies exhibited anticancer efficiency comparable to that of 5-FU, even though the nanoassemblies contained concentrations of only 1/10 of the molar amount of 5-FU. The lessons learned from the study and methods for the design of PLA2-sensitive amphiphilic prodrugs are also discussed. Enzyme-sensitive amphiphilic combinatorial prodrugs and prodrug-loaded nanoassemblies may represent a new strategy for anticancer drug design. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Octadecyl Chains Immobilized onto Hyaluronic Acid Coatings by Thiol-ene "Click Chemistry" Increase the Surface Antimicrobial Properties and Prevent Platelet Adhesion and Activation to Polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Felgueiras, Helena P; Wang, L M; Ren, K F; Querido, M M; Jin, Q; Barbosa, M A; Ji, J; Martins, M C L

    2017-03-08

    Infection and thrombus formation are still the biggest challenges for the success of blood contact medical devices. This work aims the development of an antimicrobial and hemocompatible biomaterial coating through which selective binding of albumin (passivant protein) from the bloodstream is promoted and, thus, adsorption of other proteins responsible for bacterial adhesion and thrombus formation can be prevented. Polyurethane (PU) films were coated with hyaluronic acid, an antifouling agent, that was previously modified with thiol groups (HA-SH), using polydopamine as the binding agent. Octadecyl acrylate (C18) was used to attract albumin since it resembles the circulating free fatty acids and albumin is a fatty acid transporter. Thiol-ene "click chemistry" was explored for C18 immobilization on HA-SH through a covalent bond between the thiol groups from the HA and the alkene groups from the C18 chains. Surfaces were prepared with different C18 concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 20%) and successful immobilization was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle determinations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The ability of surfaces to bind albumin selectively was determined by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Albumin adsorption increased in response to the hydrophobic nature of the surfaces, which augmented with C18 saturation. HA-SH coating reduced albumin adsorption to PU. C18 immobilized onto HA-SH at 5% promoted selective binding of albumin, decreased Staphylococcus aureus adhesion and prevented platelet adhesion and activation to PU in the presence of human plasma. C18/HA-SH coating was established as an innovative and promising strategy to improve the antimicrobial properties and hemocompatibility of any blood contact medical device.

  2. Fusion between Newcastle disease virus and erythrocyte ghosts using octadecyl Rhodamine B fluorescence assay produces dequenching curves that fit the sum of two exponentials.

    PubMed Central

    Cobaleda, C; García-Sastre, A; Villar, E

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of fusion between Newcastle disease virus and erythrocyte ghosts has been investigated with the octadecyl Rhodamine B chloride assay [Hoekstra, De Boer, Klappe, and Wilschut (1984) Biochemistry 23, 5675-5681], and the data from the dequenching curves were fitted by non-linear regression to currently used kinetic models. We used direct computer-assisted fitting of the dequenching curves to the mathematical equations. Discrimination between models was performed by statistical analysis of different fits. The experimental data fit the exponential model previously published [Nir, Klappe, and Hoekstra (1986) Biochemistry 25, 2155-2161] but we describe for the first time that the best fit was achieved for the sum of two exponential terms: A1[1-exp(-k1t)]+A2[1-exp(-k2t)]. The first exponential term represents a fast reaction and the second a slow dequenching reaction. These findings reveal the existence of two independent, but simultaneous, processes during the fusion assay. In order to challenge the model and to understand the meaning of both equation, fusion experiments were carried out under different conditions well known to affect viral fusion (changes in pH, temperature and ghost concentration, and the presence of disulphide-reducing agents or inhibitors of viral neuraminidase activity), and the same computer fitting scheme was followed. The first exponential equation represents the viral protein-dependent fusion process itself, because it is affected by the assay conditions. The second exponential equation accounts for a nonspecific reaction, because it is completely independent of the assay conditions and hence of the viral proteins. An interpretation of this second process is discussed in terms of probe transfer between vesicles. PMID:8002938

  3. Programmable flow-based dynamic sorptive microextraction exploiting an octadecyl chemically modified rotating disk extraction system for the determination of acidic drugs in urine.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Valentina; Miró, Manuel; Richter, Pablo

    2014-11-14

    A novel automatic sorptive microextraction approach combining sequential injection-based programmable flow with rotating disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) is proposed for the clean-up and concentration of low polarity organic species in urine samples. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), namely, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen, were selected as model analytes in a proof-of-concept design, and they were further determined by liquid chromatographic (LC) assays. The extracting phase consisted of octadecyl (C18) chemically bonded silica embedded in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate. The thin film was immobilized onto the surface of an in-house prepared rotating PTFE disk in a dedicated flow-through chamber. The programmable flow-based microextraction method operates under kinetic principles and features software-controlled sample loading and dynamic sorptive unidirectional-flow microextraction for as little as 10 min, followed by matrix clean-up and in-line elution with methanol. The hydrophobic thin-film extracting phase was demonstrated to be reusable for at least 15 consecutive extractions in urine without removing or changing the disk. The relative recoveries of the NSAIDs in urine ranged from 101 to 106% using a matrix-matched calibration curve, with extraction efficiencies of 30-38% using a dynamic regime, an enrichment factor of approximately 17 for 10 mL sample and relative standard deviations (RSD) between 3 and 6%. The detection limits (3 × S/N ratio) of the in-line sample preparation method coupled to LC-UV detection ranged from 0.022 to 0.044 mg L(-1). Using NSAID monitored in urine from individuals who received oral administration of ibuprofen and diclofenac, the automatic sample handling method was proven to be efficient for urine clean-up and the determination of acidic drugs at biologically relevant levels.

  4. A novel 4-(tetrahydro-2-furanmethoxy)-N-octadecyl-1,8-naphthalimide based blue emitiing probe: solvent effect on the photophysical properties and protein detection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Song; Sun, Yang; Guo, Ping; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A novel 4-(tetrahydro-2-furanmethoxy)-N-octadecyl-1,8-naphthalimide (4-TN1) blue emitting fluorophore was synthesized for solvent polarity probing and protein detection. The effect of various solvents on absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-TNI was investigated. By comparison with other derivatives with heterocyclic electron-donating groups, 4-TNI had the advantage of higher fluorescence quantum yield. The bathochromic shift observed in absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-TNI with increasing solvent polarity indicates that the transitions involved are pi --> pi*. The normalized transition energy value E(T)N showed some scattering when plotted versus deltav. According to the quantum mechanics second order perturbation method, the ground and excited state dipole moments of 4-TNI were calculated as 3.91 and 7.12 D, respectively. Density functional calculations were also used to obtain the ground and excited state dipole moments. The result was consistent with the experimental values. Binding of TNI with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied. Fluorescence data revealed that quenching of HSA fluorescence by 4-TNI was due to the formation of a 4-TNI-HSA complex. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are the driving force of complex formation. 4-TNI fluorescence was found to be very sensitive to quenching by HSA. Therefore, a new spectrofluorimetric method for detection of HSA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.4) was developed. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0.1-14.2 x 10(-6) M for HSA, with a detection limit (3sigma) of 1.37 x 10(-10) M. The method was applied to determination of total protein in clinical samples of human serum and the results were in good agreement with the data obtained by using Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 colorimetry.

  5. Capillary electrochromatography using continuous-bed columns of sol-gel bonded silica particles with mixed-mode octadecyl and propylsulfonic acid functional groups.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Lee, M L

    2000-07-28

    Continuous-bed columns containing sol-gel bonded 3 microm silica particles with mixed-mode octadecyl and propylsulfonic acid functional groups (ODS/SCX) were prepared by first packing the ODS/SCX particles into a fused-silica capillary, then filling the packed capillary with a siliceous sol-gel, curing the sol-gel, and finally drying the column with supercritical carbon dioxide. The performance of the sol-gel bonded ODS/SCX columns was evaluated for capillary electrochromatography using acetonitrile aqueous mobile phase containing phosphate buffer. The columns were mechanically strong and permeable. Both EOF velocity and current increased linearly with elevation of the applied electric field strength. The EOF velocity was high at low pH and nearly constant over a range of pH 2-9. Higher buffer concentration resulted in higher current and lower EOF velocity. The acetonitrile content had no significant effect on the EOF. Without thermosetting the column, no bubble formation was noticed with currents up to 2.5 microA. The minimum plate height of a 25/34 cm x 75 microm I.D. sol-gel bonded 3 microm ODS/SCX column was 5.7 microm (1.75 x 10(5) plates per meter) at an optimum EOF velocity of 0.92 mm s(-1). Mixtures of test aromatic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbon homologues gave symmetrical peaks when using a low pH mobile phase. The retention and elution order of aromatic compounds represented a typical reversed-phase separation mechanism similar to conventional ODS columns. The run-to-run and column-to-column retention factor reproducibility was better than 2.5% and 8.0% RSD, respectively.

  6. Novel RAFT amphiphilic brush copolymer steric stabilisers for cubosomes: poly(octadecyl acrylate)-block-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate).

    PubMed

    Chong, Josephine Y T; Mulet, Xavier; Postma, Almar; Keddie, Daniel J; Waddington, Lynne J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2014-09-21

    Copolymers, particularly Pluronics®, are typically used to sterically stabilise colloidal nanostructured particles composed of a lyotropic liquid crystalline bicontinuous cubic phase (cubosomes). There is a need to design and assess new functionalisable stabilisers for these colloidal drug delivery systems. Six amphiphilic brush copolymers, poly(octadecyl acrylate)-block-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate) (P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe)), synthesised by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), were assessed as novel steric stabilisers for cubosomes. It was found that increasing the density of PEG on the nanostructured particle surface by incorporating a PEG brush design (i.e., brush copolymer), provided comparable and/or increased stabilisation effectiveness compared to a linear PEG structure, Pluronic® F127, which is extensively used for steric stabilisation of cubosomes. Assessment was conducted both prior to and following the removal of the dodecyl trithiocarbonate end-group, by free radical-induced reduction. The reduced (P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe) copolymers were more effective steric stabilisers for phytantriol and monoolein colloidal particle dispersions than their non-reduced analogues. High throughput characterisation methodologies, including an accelerated stability assay (ASA) and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), were implemented in this study for the rapid assessment of steric stabiliser effectiveness and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase identification. Phytantriol cubosomes stabilised with P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe) copolymers exhibited a double diamond cubic phase (Q(2)(D)), whilst monoolein cubosomes exhibited a primitive cubic phase (Q(2)(P)), analogous to those formed using Pluronic® F127.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and enhanced oral bioavailability in beagle dogs of cyclosporine A encapsulated in glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jie; Lu, Yi; Yin, Zongning; Hu, Fuqiang; Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to improve the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CyA) remains a challenge in the field of drug delivery. In this study, glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles were evaluated as potential vehicles to improve the oral bioavailability of CyA. Cubic nanoparticles were prepared via the fragmentation of a bulk GMO/poloxamer 407 cubic phase gel by sonication and homogenization. The cubic inner structure formed was verified using Cryo-TEM. The mean diameters of the nanoparticles were about 180 nm, and the entrapment efficiency of these particles for CyA was over 85%. The in vitro release of CyA from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12 h. The results of a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of CyA from cubic nanoparticles as compared to microemulsion-based Neoral®; higher Cmax (1371.18 ± 37.34 vs 969.68 ± 176.3 ng mL−1), higher AUC0–t (7757.21 ± 1093.64 vs 4739.52 ± 806.30 ng h mL−1) and AUC0–∞ (9004.77 ± 1090.38 vs 5462.31 ± 930.76 ng h mL−1). The relative oral bioavailability of CyA cubic nanoparticles calculated on the basis of AUC0–∞ was about 178% as compared to Neoral®. The enhanced bioavailability of CyA is likely due to facilitated absorption by cubic nanoparticles rather than improved release. PMID:20161984

  8. Haemodynamic effects of glyceryl trinitrate following repeated application of a transdermal delivery system with a phasic release profile.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Bonn, R; Wagner, F; Trenk, D; Jähnchen, E

    1991-01-01

    The haemodynamic effects and plasma concentrations of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and its dinitrate metabolites were investigated in 8 healthy male volunteers during 5 days of application of a new transdermal delivery system (TDS) with time-dependent release characteristics, which were considered to prevent or to diminish development of nitrate tolerance. On the first and fifth day of administration the following haemodynamic parameters were determined: digital pulse ratio of height of systolic peak to height of dicrotic wave (i.e. a/b-ratio), heart rate and systolic blood pressure under orthostatic conditions. Peak plasma concentrations of GTN were 139 and 155 pg.ml-1 on the first and fifth day of treatment, and the corresponding trough concentrations (i.e. 24 h after administration) were 52.5 and 36.6 pg.ml-1, respectively. Compared to placebo, the area under the effect curve of the a/b-ratio of the digital pulse was increased on the first (25.6%) and fifth day (13%). A significant increase of heart rate and a decrease of systolic blood pressure were seen only on the first day of treatment. The haemodynamic effects of sublingual GTN 0.8 mg were reduced by 69% (a/b-ratio) and 52% (standing heart rate) on the fifth day compared to the pretreatment values. Thus, the phasic release of GTN from the new TDS can be demonstrated by the time course of the plasma concentrations of GTN and its metabolites. Nevertheless, following repeated administration the hemodynamic effects are blunted.

  9. Rectogesic (glyceryl trinitrate 0.2%) ointment relieves symptoms of haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures.

    PubMed

    Tjandra, J J; Tan, J J Y; Lim, J F; Murray-Green, C; Kennedy, M L; Lubowski, D Z

    2007-06-01

    Some haemorrhoids are associated with high resting anal canal pressures. The aim of this study was to assess if Rectogesic, a topical glyceryl trinitrate 0.2% ointment was effective in relieving symptoms of early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures. This was a prospective, two-centre, open label study of 58 patients with persistent haemorrhoidal symptoms. Patients with first or second degree haemorrhoids and a maximum resting anal canal pressure > 70 mmHg were included. Rectogesic was applied three times a day for 14 days. Anorectal manometry was performed 30 min after the first application of Rectogesic. A 28-day diary was completed during 14 days of therapy and for 14 days after cessation of treatment. This recorded the incidence of rectal bleeding, and visual analogue scales for anal pain, throbbing, pruritus, irritation and difficulty in bowel movement. Maximum resting anal canal pressures were reduced after application of Rectogesic (115.0 +/- 40.4 mmHg vs 94.7 +/- 34.1 mmHg, P < 0.001). In the study period and at 14 days after cessation of Rectogesic, there was significant reduction in rectal bleeding (P = 0.0002), and significant improvement of anal pain (P = 0.0024), throbbing (P = 0.0355), pruritus (P = 0.0043), irritation (P = 0.0000) and difficulty in bowel movement (P = 0.001). The main adverse event was headache in 43.1% of patients. Rectogesic is a safe and feasible treatment for patients with early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and enhanced oral bioavailability in beagle dogs of cyclosporine A encapsulated in glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jie; Lu, Yi; Yin, Zongning; Hu, Fuqiang; Wu, Wei

    2010-02-02

    Efforts to improve the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CyA) remains a challenge in the field of drug delivery. In this study, glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles were evaluated as potential vehicles to improve the oral bioavailability of CyA. Cubic nanoparticles were prepared via the fragmentation of a bulk GMO/poloxamer 407 cubic phase gel by sonication and homogenization. The cubic inner structure formed was verified using Cryo-TEM. The mean diameters of the nanoparticles were about 180 nm, and the entrapment efficiency of these particles for CyA was over 85%. The in vitro release of CyA from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12 h. The results of a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of CyA from cubic nanoparticles as compared to microemulsion-based Neoral((R)); higher C(max) (1371.18 +/- 37.34 vs 969.68 +/- 176.3 ng mL(-1)), higher AUC(0-t) (7757.21 +/- 1093.64 vs 4739.52 +/- 806.30 ng h mL(-1)) and AUC(0-infinity) (9004.77 +/- 1090.38 vs 5462.31 +/- 930.76 ng h mL(-1)). The relative oral bioavailability of CyA cubic nanoparticles calculated on the basis of AUC(0-infinity) was about 178% as compared to Neoral((R)). The enhanced bioavailability of CyA is likely due to facilitated absorption by cubic nanoparticles rather than improved release.

  11. Ictal lack of binding to brain parenchyma suggests integrity of the blood-brain barrier for 11C-dihydroergotamine during glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine.

    PubMed

    Schankin, Christoph J; Maniyar, Farooq H; Seo, Youngho; Kori, Shashidar; Eller, Michael; Chou, Denise E; Blecha, Joseph; Murphy, Stephanie T; Hawkins, Randall A; Sprenger, Till; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    SEE DREIER DOI 101093/AWW112 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: For many decades a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier has been postulated to occur in migraine. Hypothetically this would facilitate access of medications, such as dihydroergotamine or triptans, to the brain despite physical properties otherwise restricting their entry. We studied the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in six migraineurs and six control subjects at rest and during acute glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks using positron emission tomography with the novel radioligand (11)C-dihydroergotamine, which is chemically identical to pharmacologically active dihydroergotamine. The influx rate constant Ki, average dynamic image and time activity curve were assessed using arterial blood sampling and served as measures for receptor binding and thus blood-brain barrier penetration. At rest, there was binding of (11)C-dihydroergotamine in the choroid plexus, pituitary gland, and venous sinuses as expected from the pharmacology of dihydroergotamine. However, there was no binding to the brain parenchyma, including the hippocampus, the area with the highest density of the highest-affinity dihydroergotamine receptors, and the raphe nuclei, a postulated brainstem site of action during migraine, suggesting that dihydroergotamine is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This binding pattern was identical in migraineurs during glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks as well as in matched control subjects. We conclude that (11)C-dihydroergotamine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier interictally or ictally demonstrating that the blood-brain barrier remains tight for dihydroergotamine during acute glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.

  12. Solid-phase extraction of ultratrace uranium(VI) in natural waters using octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and its spectrophotometric determination with dibenzoylmethane.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, M; Ghiasvand, A R; Yamini, Y

    1999-11-01

    A simple and reliable method for rapid extraction and determination of uranium in natural waters using octadecyl-bonded silica membrane disks modified with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and spectrophotometry with dibenzoylmethane is presented. Extraction efficiency and the influence of sample matrix, type, and optimum amount of extractant, flow rates, and type and minimum amount of organic eluent were evaluated. The maximal capacity of the membrane disks modified by 50 mg of TOPO was found to be 4033 micrograms of uranium. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 100 ng/1000 mL. The method was applied to the extraction and determination of uranium in natural waters.

  13. Improved preservation of saphenous vein grafts by the use of glyceryl trinitrate-verapamil solution during harvesting.

    PubMed

    Roubos, N; Rosenfeldt, F L; Richards, S M; Conyers, R A; Davis, B B

    1995-11-01

    High-pressure distension during harvesting damages the saphenous vein (SV) and may contribute to subsequent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) occlusion. Application of vasodilator agents to the SV during harvesting may reduce the need for high-pressure distension and improve graft quality. We tested the effects of a vasodilator solution containing glyceryl trinitrate and verapamil (GV) or the conventional agent papaverine (Pap) on the pressure necessary to overcome SV spasm and on the structure and biochemistry of the SV graft. Thirty-six patients undergoing CABG were randomly allocated to receive an application of either topical and intraluminal GV solution, topical Pap, or topical and intraluminal Ringer's solution (untreated) to the SV during harvesting. The peak and mean pressures required to distend the vein were recorded. Samples of SV were taken for microscopy and biochemical analysis just before we performed the anastomosis. The percentage of endothelial coverage was calculated by area measurements of stained en face preparations of the vein intima. The results for peak pressures (mmHg) were: untreated, 479.2 +/- 27.5; Pap, 384.8 +/- 29.0; and GV, 309.5 +/- 28.3 (P < .001, GV plus Pap versus untreated); and the results for mean pressures (mm Hg) were untreated, 136.2 +/- 9.6; Pap, 102.2 +/- 10.8; and GV, 98.0 +/- 8.3 (P < .01, GV plus Pap versus untreated). The results for endothelial cover (%) were: untreated, 43.7 +/- 7.0; Pap, 44.1 +/- 9.2; and GV, 68.7 +/- 7.0 (P < .05, GV versus Pap); and the results for ATP (nmol/g wet wt) were: untreated, 67.3 +/- 12.7; Pap, 112.0 +/- 19.4; and GV, 132.5 +/- 22.7 (P < .05, GV plus Pap versus untreated). First, pharmacological treatment of SV during harvesting, especially with GV solution, allows the use of a lower distension pressure and reduces the breakdown of high-energy phosphates in the vein wall. Second, topical and intraluminal use of GV solution during vein harvesting improves endothelial coverage compared

  14. Randomised controlled trial shows that glyceryl trinitrate heals anal fissures, higher doses are not more effective, and there is a high recurrence rate

    PubMed Central

    Carapeti, E; Kamm, M; McDonald, P; Chadwick, S; Melville, D; Phillips, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment heals chronic anal fissures, providing an alternative to the traditional first line treatment of surgical sphincterotomy. 
AIMS—To determine the most effective dose of topical GTN for treatment of chronic anal fissures and to assess long term results. 
METHODS—Seventy consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure, were randomly allocated to eight weeks treatment with placebo, 0.2% GTN three times daily, or GTN starting at 0.2% with weekly 0.1% increments to a maximum of 0.6%, in a double blind study. 
RESULTS—After eight weeks fissure had healed in 67% of patients treated with GTN compared with 32% with placebo (p=0.008). No significant difference was seen between the two active treatments. Headaches were reported by 72% of patients on GTN compared with 27% on placebo (p<0.001). Maximum anal sphincter pressure reduced significantly from baseline by GTN treatment (p=0.02), but not placebo (p=0.8). Mean pain scores were lower after treatment with GTN compared with placebo (NS). Of fissures healed with placebo 43% recurred, compared with 33% of those healed with 0.2% GTN and 25% healed with escalating dose GTN (p=0.7). 
CONCLUSIONS—GTN is a good first line treatment for two thirds of patients with anal fissure. An escalating dose of GTN does not result in earlier healing. Significant recurrence of symptomatic fissures and a high incidence of headaches are limitations of the treatment. 

 Keywords: glyceryl trinitrate; anal fissures PMID:10205213

  15. Solid phase extraction and determination of lead in soil and water samples using octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by bis[1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2-methyl]sulfide and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, M; Raoufi, F; Sharghi, H

    2000-07-31

    A simple, reliable and relatively fast method has been developed to selectively separate and concentrate trace amounts of lead from aqueous samples for the measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. By the passage of aqueous samples through an octadecyl-bonded silica membrane disk modified by a recently synthesized bis(anthraquinone)sulfide, Pb(2+) ions adsorb quantitatively and almost all matrix elements will pass through the disk to drain. The retained lead ions are then stripped from the disk by minimal amount of acetic acid as eluent. The proposed method permitted large enrichment factors of about 300 and higher. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 50 ng Pb(2+) per 1000 ml. The effects of various cationic interferences on the recovery of lead in binary mixtures were studied. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead in soil and water samples.

  16. Solid phase extraction and determination of ultra trace amounts of copper(II) using octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by 11-hydroxynaphthacene-5,12-quinone and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, M; Avanes, A; Rofouei, M K; Sharghi, H; Aghapour, G

    2001-06-21

    A simple and selective method for rapid extraction and determination of trace amounts of copper(II) ions using octadecyl-bonded silica membrane disks modified with 11-hydroxynaphthacene-5,12-quinone and flame atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Extraction efficiency and the influence of pH, flow rates, amount of ligand and type and least amount of stripping acid were evaluated. Maximum capacity of the membrane disks modified by 5 mg of the ligand was found to be 360 mug of Cu(2+) ion. The break through volume is larger than 2000 ml. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 0.2 ng ml(-1). The effects of various cationic interferences on the percent recovery of copper in binary mixtures were studied. The method was applied to the recovery of Cu(2+) ions from four different water samples and a synthetic sample.

  17. Comparative studies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and octadecyl (C18) as sorbents in passive sampling devices for biomimetic uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Shibin; Anderson, Todd A; Maul, Jonathan D; Shrestha, Babina; Green, Micah J; Cañas-Carrell, Jaclyn E

    2013-09-01

    To avoid overestimating the risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), research is needed to evaluate the bioavailable portion of PAHs in the environment. However, limited PSDs were developed for a terrestrial soil system. In this study, two sorbents, octadecyl (C18) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), were individually evaluated as sorbents in passive sampling devices (PSDs) as biomimetic samplers to assess the uptake of PAHs from soil. C18-PSDs were an excellent biomimetic tool for PAHs with a low molecular weight in complex exposure conditions with different soil types, types of PAHs, aging periods, and initial PAH concentrations in soil. The utility of MWNT-PSDs was limited by extraction efficiencies of PAHs from MWNTs. However, when compared to C18-PSDs, they had higher adsorption capacities and were less expensive. This study provides data regarding useful techniques that can be used in risk assessment to assess the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  18. Capillary electrochromatography with monolithic silica column: I. Preparation of silica monoliths having surface-bound octadecyl moieties and their chromatographic characterization and applications to the separation of neutral and charged species.

    PubMed

    Allen, Darin; El Rassi, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic silica columns with surface-bound octadecyl (C18) moieties have been prepared by a sol-gel process in 100 microm ID fused-silica capillaries for reversed-phase capillary electrochromatography of neutral and charged species. The reaction conditions for the preparation of the C18-silica monoliths were optimized for maximum surface coverage with octadecyl moieties in order to maximize retention and selectivity toward neutral and charged solutes with a sufficiently strong electroosmotic flow (> 2 mm/s) to yield rapid analysis time. Furthermore, the effect of the pore-tailoring process on the silica monoliths was performed over a wide range of treatment time with 0.010 M ammonium hydroxide solution in order to determine the optimum time and conditions that yield mesopores of narrow pore size distribution that result in high separation efficiency. Under optimum column fabrication conditions and optimum mobile phase composition and flow velocity, the average separation efficiency reached 160 000 plates/m, a value comparable to that obtained on columns packed with 3 microm C18-silica particles with the advantages of high permeability and virtually no bubble formation. The optimized monolithic C18-silica columns were evaluated for their retention properties toward neutral and charged analytes over a wide range of mobile phase compositions. A series of dimensionless retention parameters were evaluated and correlated to solute polarity and electromigration property. A dimensionless mobility modulus was introduced to describe charged solute migration and interaction behavior with the monolithic C18-silica in a counterflow regime during capillary electrochromatography (CEC )separations. The mobility moduli correlated well with the solute hydrophobic character and its charge-to-mass ratio.

  19. Phytantriol and glyceryl monooleate cubic liquid crystalline phases as sustained-release oral drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs I. Phase behaviour in physiologically-relevant media.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Hanley, Tracey; Porter, Christopher J H; Larson, Ian; Boyd, Ben J

    2010-07-01

    The potential utility of liquid crystalline lipid-based formulations in oral drug delivery is expected to depend critically on their structure formation and stability in gastrointestinal fluids. The phase behaviour of lipid-based liquid crystals formed by phytantriol and glyceryl monooleate, known to form a bicontinuous cubic phase in excess water, was therefore assessed in physiologically-relevant simulated gastrointestinal media. Fixed composition phase studies, crossed polarised light microscopy (CPLM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to determine the phase structures formed in phosphate-buffered saline, simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in the presence of model poorly water soluble drugs cinnarizine, diazepam and vitamin E acetate. The phase behaviour of phytantriol in phosphate-buffered saline was very similar to that in water. Increasing concentrations of bile components (bile salts and phospholipids) caused an increase in the lattice parameter of the cubic phase structure for both lipids. Incorporation of cinnarizine and diazepam did not influence the phase behaviour of the phytantriol- or glyceryl monooleate-based systems at physiological temperatures; however, an inverse hexagonal phase formed on incorporation of vitamin E acetate. Phytantriol and glyceryl monooleate have the potential to form stable cubic phase liquid crystalline delivery systems in the gastrointestinal tract. In-vivo studies to assess their sustained-release behaviour are warranted.

  20. The Effects of Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) and a PAF Antagonist (CV-3988) on Smoke Inhalation Injury in an Ovine Model,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    decyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3- phosphorylcholine ) has following PAF injection. In models of endotoxin shock, been reported to be one of the principal...instillation of 1-0-octadecyl-2- 25. Traber DL, Herndon DN, Stein MD, et al: The pulmonary lesion acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3- phosphorylcholine or of native platelet-ac...glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine infusion in the change (abstr). Proceedings of the American Burn Association rabbit. Am Rev Respir Dis 124:416, 1981 22nd

  1. Analysis of curing of a sustained release coating formulation by application of NIR spectroscopy to monitor changes associated with glyceryl monostearate.

    PubMed

    Howland, Harris; Fahmy, Raafat; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    For controlled release, latex or pseudolatex coatings to function as designed, it must be cured at temperatures at or slightly above the polymer's glass transition temperature. The focus of this study is to develop an understanding of the curing process and to develop near infrared spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring curing. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were used to determine how the thermal properties of glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and its polymorphic forms relate to the extent of Eudragit® polymer coat curing at different curing temperatures. The different GMS melting endotherms were used to monitor the extent of curing and as references for model development. The calculated melting peak areas for the GMS were plotted versus time and found to be dependent on time and temperature used for curing. Principal component analysis and parallel factor analysis were used to investigate the effect of curing on the films and showed that spectral changes could be could be directly related to the changes associated with the GMS during curing. Partial least square models developed could predict the extent of curing and the final state of GMS post curing.

  2. Opposite Reactivity of Meningeal versus Cortical Microvessels to the Nitric Oxide Donor Glyceryl Trinitrate Evaluated In Vivo with Two-Photon Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Kislin, Mikhail; Tibeykina, Marina; Toptunov, Dmytro; Ptukha, Anna; Shatillo, Artem; Gröhn, Olli; Giniatullin, Rashid; Khiroug, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Vascular changes underlying headache in migraine patients induced by Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) were previously studied with various imaging techniques. Despite the long history of medical and experimental use of GTN, its effects on the brain vasculature are still poorly understood presumably due to low spatial resolution of the imaging modalities used so far. We took advantage of the micrometer-scale vertical resolution of two-photon microscopy to differentiate between the vasodynamic effects of GTN on meningeal versus cortical vessels imaged simultaneously in anesthetized rats through either thinned skull or glass-sealed cranial window. Intermediate and small calibre vessels were visualized in vivo by imaging intravascular fluorescent dextran, and detection of blood flow direction allowed identification of individual arterioles and venules. We found that i.p.-injected GTN induced a transient constriction of meningeal arterioles, while their cortical counterparts were, in contrast, dilated. These opposing effects of GTN were restricted to arterioles, whereas the effects on venules were insignificant. Interestingly, the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME did not affect the diameter of meningeal vessels but induced a constriction of cortical vessels. The different cellular environment in cortex versus meninges as well as distinct vessel wall anatomical features probably play crucial role in the observed phenomena. These findings highlight differential region- and vessel-type-specific effects of GTN on cranial vessels, and may implicate new vascular mechanisms of NO-mediated primary headaches. PMID:24586970

  3. Glyceryl trinitrate metabolism in the quail embryo by the glutathione S-transferases leads to a perturbation in redox status and embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bardai, Ghalib K; Hales, Barbara F; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of stage 9 quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) induces malformations that were associated in previous studies with an increase in protein nitration. Increased nitration suggests metabolism of GTN by the embryo. The goals of this study were to characterize the enzymes and co-factors required for GTN metabolism by quail embryos, and to determine the effects of in ovo treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione (GSH), on GTN embryotoxicity. GTN treatment of quail embryos resulted in an increase in nitrite, a decrease in total GSH, and an increase in the ratio of NADP(+)/NADPH, indicating that redox balance may be compromised in exposed embryos. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) purified from the whole embryo (K(m) 0.84 mM; V(max) 36 μM/min) and the embryonic eye (K(m) 0.20 mM; V(max) 30 μM/min) had GTN-metabolizing activity (1436 and 34 nmol/min/mg, respectively); the addition of ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of GST activity, decreased GTN metabolism. Peptide sequencing of the GST isozymes indicated that alpha- or mu-type GSTs in the embryo and embryonic eye had GTN metabolizing activity. NAC co-treatment partially protected against the effects of GTN exposure. Thus, GTN denitration by quail embryo GSTs may represent a key initial step in the developmental toxicity of GTN.

  4. Ocular delivery of cyclosporine A based on glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 liquid crystalline nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, in vitro corneal penetration and ocular irritation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Lu, Yi; Zhong, Yanqiang; Wang, Qingping; Wu, Wei; Gao, Shen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an ophthalmic drug delivery system for cyclosporine A (CsA) based on glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 liquid crystalline nanoparticles with reduced ocular irritancy and improved corneal penetration. CsA-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles were prepared via fragmentation of a bulk GMO/poloxamer 407 cubic phase gel by high-pressure homogenization and characterized. Corneal permeation and retention was evaluated using modified Franz diffusing cells. Intra-corneal transportation was investigated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled liquid crystalline nanoparticles. Ocular irritation was then evaluated using the Draize method. The mean particle size of liquid crystalline nanoparticles was 193.5 nm and the entrapment efficiency was 95.11 ± 0.67%. A bicontinuous cubic phase of cubic P-type was determined using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observation and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) analysis. A 1.52-fold increase in J(s) and a 2.2-fold increase in corneal retention was achieved by liquid crystalline nanoparticles compared with oil solution. In vitro corneal permeation investigated with FITC-labeled liquid crystalline nanoparticles revealed that CsA penetrated across the cornea under the transportation of liquid crystalline nanoparticles. Liquid crystalline nanoparticles exhibited excellent ocular tolerance in the ocular irritation test. This low-irritant vehicle based on liquid crystalline nanoparticles might be a promising system for effective ocular CsA delivery.

  5. Glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles as oral drug delivery systems: I. In vitro evaluation and enhanced oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug simvastatin.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jie; Chen, Jianming; Lu, Yi; Sun, Jing; Hu, Fuqiang; Yin, Zongning; Wu, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles were investigated as potential oral drug delivery systems to enhance the bioavailability of the water-insoluble model drug simvastatin. The simvastatin-loaded cubic nanoparticles were prepared through fragmentation of the GMO/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic-phase gel using high-pressure homogenization. The internal structure of the cubic nanoparticles was identified by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The mean diameter of the cubic nanoparticles varied within the range of 100-150 nm, and both GMO/poloxamer 407 ratio and theoretical drug loading had no significant effect on particle size and distribution. Almost complete entrapment with efficiency over 98% was achieved due to the high affinity of simvastatin to the hydrophobic regions of the cubic phase. Release of simvastatin from the cubic nanoparticles was limited both in 0.1 M hydrochloride solution containing 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate and fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid with a total release of <3.0% at 10 h. Pharmacokinetic profiles in beagle dogs showed sustained plasma levels of simvastatin for cubic nanoparticles over 12 h. The relative oral bioavailability of simvastatin cubic nanoparticles calculated on the basis of area under the curve was 241% compared to simvastatin crystal powder. The enhancement of simvastatin bioavailability was possibly attributable to facilitated absorption by lipids in the formulation rather than improved release.

  6. Glyceryl Tribenzoate: A Flavoring Ingredient, Inhibits the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis via TGF-β: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Dasarathi, Sridevi; Pahan, Kalipada

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we have explored a novel use of glyceryl tribenzoate (GTB), a flavoring ingredient, in ameliorating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, via TGF-β. Oral feeding of GTB suppressed clinical symptoms of adoptively-transferred relapsing-remitting (RR) EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice. GTB also attenuated clinical symptoms of RR-EAE in PLP-TCR transgenic mice and chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, GTB also suppressed perivascular cuffing, preserved the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, inhibited inflammation, and stopped demyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. Interestingly, GTB treatment upregulated TGF-β and enriched regulatory T cells (Tregs) in splenocytes as well as in vivo in EAE mice. Blocking TGF-β by neutralizing antibodies abrogated GTB-mediated enrichment of Tregs and protection of EAE. These results suggest that oral GTB may be considered as a possible therapy for MS patients. PMID:28367355

  7. Optimisation of octadecyl (C18) sorbent amount in QuEChERS analytical method for the accurate organophosphorus pesticide residues determination in low-fatty baby foods with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Panagiotis; Zachari, Rodanthi; Mataragas, Marios; Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosinos, Eleftherios H; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2011-09-15

    Three low-fatty baby food matrices were fortified with 0.01-0.2mg/kg of phorate, diazinon, chlorpyrifos and methidathion. A "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" - like method (QuEChERS) was used. Quantities of octadecyl (C18) sorbent differed with fortification level and matrix fat, based on central composite experimental design. Quantification was performed by Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detector gas chromatography, using matrix-matched standards. The highest (p<0.05) recoveries were observed for methidathion, the lowest fortification levels for a specific C18 amount and the lowest C18 amounts. In meals containing vegetables (1.9% fat) and lamb (3.0% fat), 180-210mg C18 gave recoveries from 67.0% to 105.0% and absence of co-extracts. Yogurt dessert (4.5% fat) required 200-230mg C18 for similar results. Recoveries could also be predicted with <20% error by a polynomial model. The results suggest that modified QuEChERS could be effectively used in the low-fatty baby meals residue analysis.

  8. Safety assessment for octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3) from use in food contact applications.

    PubMed

    Neal-Kluever, April P; Bailey, Allan B; Hatwell, Karen R

    2015-12-01

    Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3), currently marketed as Irganox 1076 (I-76), is a sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant used in a variety of organic substrates, including those used in the manufacture of food contact articles. In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), Office of Food Additive Safety (OFAS), initiated a post-market re-evaluation of the food contact applications of I-76. This project aimed to ensure that current dietary exposures from the use of I-76 in food contact articles are accurately captured and the safety assessment considered all relevant and available toxicological information. To accomplish these aims, the USFDA reviewed the available toxicological studies and chemistry information on food contact applications of I-76. Based on this in-depth analysis, a NOAEL of 64 mg/kg-bw/d (female rats) from a chronic rat study and a cumulative estimated dietary intake (CEDI) of 4.5 mg/p/d, was used to calculate a margin of exposure (MOE) of ∼850. We concluded that the previous and current exposure levels provide an adequate margin of safety (MOS) and remain protective of human health for the regulated uses.

  9. Solid phase extraction of ultra traces mercury (II) using octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by 1,3-bis(2-ethoxyphenyl)triazene (EPT) ligand and determination by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rofouei, Mohammad Kazem; Sabouri, Alireza; Ahmadalinezhad, Asieh; Ferdowsi, Hadis

    2011-09-15

    A facile and highly efficient method was developed for the preconcentration of the ultra trace amounts of mercury (II) ions. Octadecyl silica membrane disk was modified by the recently synthesized triazene ligand, 1,3-bis(2-ethoxyphenyl)triazene (EPT), and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the resultant preconcentrated Hg(II) ions. Solution studies with EPT and a series of metal ions were done in advance, and the results showed a strong affinity of EPT to the mercury ions. To perform solid phase extraction, various parameters such as pH of the sample, flow rates and the amount of the ligand were optimized. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.02-1.90 μg L(-1) with r(2) = 0.9990 (n = 8), and the limit of detection (LOD) based on three times the standard deviation of the blank was 10.6 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of 0.1 μg L(-1) Hg(II) found to be 2.9% while a RSD value of 1.1% was obtained for the determination of 1.0 μg L(-1) Hg(II) (n = 8). The preconcentration and improvement factors were 380 and 74, respectively. The newly developed method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury ions in real water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enrichment of trace amounts of copper(II) ions in water samples using octadecyl silica disks modified by a Schiff base ionophore prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Fathi, S A M; Yaftian, M R

    2009-05-15

    Bis(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde)-1,2-propanediimine is synthesized by the reaction of 5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 1,2-diaminopropane in ethanol. This ligand is used as a modifier of octadecyl silica disks for preconcentration of trace amounts of copper(II) ions, followed by nitric acid elution and flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determination. The effect of parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, i.e. pH of the sample solutions, amount of the Schiff base, type and volume of stripping reagent, sample and eluent flow rates were evaluated. Under optimum experimental conditions, the capacity of the membrane disks modified by 4mg of the ligand was found to be 247.7 (+/-2.1)mug of copper. The detection limit and the concentration factor of the presented method are 2.4ng/l and greater than 400, respectively. The method was applied to the extraction, recovery and detection of copper in different synthetic and water samples.

  11. Protective effects of riboflavin and selenium on brain microsomal Ca2+-ATPase and oxidative damage caused by glyceryl trinitrate in a rat headache model.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Bütün, Ayşe

    2015-03-01

    Migraine headaches are considered to be associated with increased mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is also important in migraine headache pathophysiology although riboflavin and selenium (Se) induced a modulator role on mitochondrial oxidative stress in the brain. The current study aimed to determine the effects of Se with/without riboflavin on the microsomal membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (MMCA), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, and electroencephalography (EEG) values in glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced brain injury rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was used as the control, and the second group was the GTN group. Se and Se plus oral riboflavin were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 10 days prior to GTN administration. The second, third, and fourth groups received GTN to induce headache. Ten hours after the administration of GTN, the EEG records and brain cortex samples were obtained for all groups. Brain cortex microsomes were obtained from the brain samples. The brain and microsomal lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the GTN group compared to the control group, whereas they were decreased by selenium and selenium + riboflavin treatments. Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations of the brain and MMCA, GSH and glutathione peroxidase values of microsomes were decreased by the GTN administration, although the values and β-carotene concentrations were increased by Se and Se + riboflavin treatments. There was no significant change in EEG records of the four groups. In conclusion, Se with/without riboflavin administration protected against GTN-induced brain oxidative toxicity by inhibiting free radicals and the modulation of MMCA activity and supporting the antioxidant redox system.

  12. Selective anti-platelet aggregation synergism between a prostacyclin-mimetic, RS93427 and the nitrodilators sodium nitroprusside and glyceryl trinitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, A. L.; Smith, D. L.; Loveday, M.; Fulks, J.; Lee, C. H.; Hedley, L.; VanAntwerp, D.

    1989-01-01

    1. Citrated platelet-rich plasma from human donors was used to examine turbidometrically the platelet aggregation response to collagen (2.5 micrograms ml-1) and ADP (1.6 microgram ml-1). 2. With collagen as an aggregating agent, the limited (35% maximal inhibition) inhibitory effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, 0.78-50 micrograms ml-1) were markedly potentiated by threshold (3.3-10 ng ml-1) concentrations of RS93427, an orally active prostacyclin-mimetic. Almost complete inhibition of aggregation could then be produced. 3. A threshold concentration of RS93427 (3.3 ng ml-1) similarly potentiated the ability of sodium nitroprusside (NaNp, 0.78-10 micrograms ml-1) to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation. There was an 8 fold reduction in the IC25 concentration of NaNp. 4. Threshold concentrations of the nitrodilators were also able to potentiate the anti-aggregatory effects of RS93427 (0.03-30 ng ml-1) on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. With threshold concentrations of either GTN (6.3-25 micrograms ml-1) or NaNp (0.3-1.3 microgram ml-1), the mean IC50 concentration of RS93427 was reduced 4 or 6 fold, respectively, while the IC25 concentration was reduced 6 or 10 fold, respectively. 5. No similar synergistic interactions were seen between RS93427 and the nitrodilators when ADP was used as an aggregating agent. 6. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, the dose-response for the hypotensive response to bolus doses of RS93427 was not altered by concomitant steady state infusion of a threshold dose (1 micrograms kg-1 min-1) of GTN. 7. Possible therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2514949

  13. Selective anti-platelet aggregation synergism between a prostacyclin-mimetic, RS93427 and the nitrodilators sodium nitroprusside and glyceryl trinitrate.

    PubMed

    Willis, A L; Smith, D L; Loveday, M; Fulks, J; Lee, C H; Hedley, L; VanAntwerp, D

    1989-12-01

    1. Citrated platelet-rich plasma from human donors was used to examine turbidometrically the platelet aggregation response to collagen (2.5 micrograms ml-1) and ADP (1.6 microgram ml-1). 2. With collagen as an aggregating agent, the limited (35% maximal inhibition) inhibitory effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, 0.78-50 micrograms ml-1) were markedly potentiated by threshold (3.3-10 ng ml-1) concentrations of RS93427, an orally active prostacyclin-mimetic. Almost complete inhibition of aggregation could then be produced. 3. A threshold concentration of RS93427 (3.3 ng ml-1) similarly potentiated the ability of sodium nitroprusside (NaNp, 0.78-10 micrograms ml-1) to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation. There was an 8 fold reduction in the IC25 concentration of NaNp. 4. Threshold concentrations of the nitrodilators were also able to potentiate the anti-aggregatory effects of RS93427 (0.03-30 ng ml-1) on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. With threshold concentrations of either GTN (6.3-25 micrograms ml-1) or NaNp (0.3-1.3 microgram ml-1), the mean IC50 concentration of RS93427 was reduced 4 or 6 fold, respectively, while the IC25 concentration was reduced 6 or 10 fold, respectively. 5. No similar synergistic interactions were seen between RS93427 and the nitrodilators when ADP was used as an aggregating agent. 6. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, the dose-response for the hypotensive response to bolus doses of RS93427 was not altered by concomitant steady state infusion of a threshold dose (1 micrograms kg-1 min-1) of GTN. 7. Possible therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Oral nitric-oxide donor glyceryl-trinitrate induces sensitization in spinal cord pain processing in migraineurs: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Armando; Serrao, Mariano; Tassorelli, Cristina; Arce-Leal, Natalia; Guaschino, Elena; Sances, Grazia; Rossi, Paolo; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Nitric-oxide donor glyceryl-trinitrate (GTN) modulates cerebral and spinal regions that are involved in migraine and pain processing. We hypothesized that in migraineurs, the susceptibility to develop a migraine attack after GTN administration should parallel with an high sensitivity to GTN-induced change in the pain processing at spinal level. We used the temporal summation threshold (TST) of the lower limb nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and the related pain sensation to study in parallel the time-course of the effect of the GTN administration on the pain processing at spinal level in migraine and healthy subjects. Twenty-eight (21 F; 7M; mean age 34.2 ± 8.2) migraine and 15 (11 F; 4M; mean age 35.9 ± 8.9) healthy subjects were recruited in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Neurophysiological examinations were carried out before (baseline) and 30', 60', 120', 180' and 240' after GTN (0.9 mg sublingual) or placebo administration during two different sessions. In migraineurs, GTN administration was associated to a significant facilitation in temporal summation of pain (reduced TST and increased painful sensation) 60', 120' and 180' after drug intake when compared to baseline, to placebo condition and to controls after GTN intake. Furthermore, in migraineurs who developed migraine after GTN, a significant facilitation in temporal summation of pain was detected 60', 120' and 180' after drug intake when compared to patients without clinical response. In migraineurs the susceptibility to develop migraine attack after GTN administration seems to be a specific trait of a subgroup of patients linked to a supersensitivity of the pain system to GTN. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glyceryl triacetate for Canavan disease: a low-dose trial in infants and evaluation of a higher dose for toxicity in the tremor rat model.

    PubMed

    Madhavarao, C N; Arun, P; Anikster, Y; Mog, S R; Staretz-Chacham, O; Moffett, J R; Grunberg, N E; Gahl, W A; Namboodiri, A M A

    2009-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal dysmyelinating genetic disorder associated with aspartoacylase deficiency, resulting in decreased brain acetate levels and reduced myelin lipid synthesis in the developing brain. Here we tested tolerability of a potent acetate precursor, glyceryl triacetate (GTA), at low doses in two infants diagnosed with CD, aged 8 and 13 months. Much higher doses of GTA were evaluated for toxicity in the tremor rat model of CD. GTA was given orally to the infants for up to 4.5 and 6 months, starting at 25 mg/kg twice daily, doubling the dose weekly until a maximum of 250 mg/kg reached. Wild-type and tremor rat pups were given GTA orally twice daily, initially at a dose of 4.2 g/kg from postnatal days 7 through 14, and at 5.8 g/kg from day 15 through 23, and thereafter in food (7.5%) and water (5%). At the end of the trial (approximately 90 to 120 days) sera and tissues from rats were analysed for changes in blood chemistry and histopathology. GTA treatment caused no detectable toxicity and the patients showed no deterioration in clinical status. In the high-dose animal studies, no significant differences in the mean blood chemistry values occurred between treated and untreated groups, and no lesions indicating toxicity were detectable in any of the tissues examined. Lack of GTA toxicity in two CD patients in low-dose trials, as well as in high-dose animal studies, suggests that higher, effective dose studies in human CD patients are warranted.

  16. Progress toward acetate supplementation therapy for Canavan disease: glyceryl triacetate administration increases acetate, but not N-acetylaspartate, levels in brain.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Raji; Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, M A Aryan

    2005-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the gene for aspartoacylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartate (NAA) into L-aspartate and acetate. Because aspartoacylase is localized in oligodendrocytes, and NAA-derived acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, we hypothesize that an acetate deficiency in oligodendrocytes is responsible for the pathology in CD, and we propose acetate supplementation as a possible therapy. In our preclinical efforts toward this goal, we studied the effectiveness of orally administered glyceryl triacetate (GTA) and calcium acetate for increasing acetate levels in the murine brain. The concentrations of brain acetate and NAA were determined simultaneously after intragastric administration of GTA. We found that the acetate levels in brain were increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with a 17-fold increase observed at 1 to 2 h in 20- to 21-day-old mice at a dose of 5.8 g/kg GTA. NAA levels in the brain were not significantly increased under these conditions. Studies using mice at varying stages of development showed that the dose of GTA required to maintain similarly elevated acetate levels in the brain increased with age. Also, GTA was significantly more effective as an acetate source than calcium acetate. Chronic administration of GTA up to 25 days of age did not result in any overt pathology in the mice. Based on these results and the current Food and Drug Administration-approved use of GTA as a food additive, we propose that it is a potential candidate for use in acetate supplementation therapy for CD.

  17. Controlling retention, selectivity and magnitude of EOF by segmented monolithic columns consisting of octadecyl and naphthyl monolithic segments--applications to RP-CEC of both neutral and charged solutes.

    PubMed

    Karenga, Samuel; El Rassi, Ziad

    2011-04-01

    Monolithic capillaries made of two adjoining segments each filled with a different monolith were introduced for the control and manipulation of the electroosmotic flow (EOF), retention and selectivity in reversed phase-capillary electrochromatography (RP-CEC). These columns were called segmented monolithic columns (SMCs) where one segment was filled with a naphthyl methacrylate monolith (NMM) to provide hydrophobic and π-interactions, while the other segment was filled with an octadecyl acrylate monolith (ODM) to provide solely hydrophobic interaction. The ODM segment not only provided hydrophobic interactions but also functioned as the EOF accelerator segment. The average EOF of the SMC increased linearly with increasing the fractional length of the ODM segment. The neutral SMC provided a convenient way for tuning EOF, selectivity and retention in the absence of annoying electrostatic interactions and irreversible solute adsorption. The SMCs allowed the separation of a wide range of neutral solutes including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are difficult to separate using conventional alkyl-bonded stationary phases. In all cases, the k' of a given solute was a linear function of the fractional length of the ODM or NMM segment in the SMCs, thus facilitating the tailoring of a given SMC to solve a given separation problem. At some ODM fractional length, the fabricated SMC allowed the separation of charged solutes such as peptides and proteins that could not otherwise be achieved on a monolithic column made from NMM as an isotropic stationary phase due to the lower EOF exhibited by this monolith. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Postpolymerization modification of a hydroxy monolith precursor. Part I. Epoxy alkane and octadecyl isocyanate modified poly (hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-pentaerythritol triacrylate) monolithic capillary columns for reversed-phase capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Shantipriya; El Rassi, Ziad

    2016-12-01

    A novel precursor monolithic capillary column referred to as "hydroxy monolith" or OHM was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) with pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) yielding the neutral poly(HEMA-co-PETA) monolith. The neutral precursor OHM capillary thus obtained was subjected to postpolymerization modifications of the hydroxyl functional groups present on its surface with 1,2-epoxyalkanes catalyzed by boron trifluoride (BF3 ) ultimately providing Epoxy OHM C-m capillary column at varying alkyl chain lengths where m = 8, 12, 14, and 16 for RP-CEC. Also, the same precursor OHM was grafted with octadecyl isocyanate yielding Isocyanato OHM C-18 column to provide an insight into the effect of the nature of the linkage to the surface hydroxyl groups of the OHM precursor. While the epoxide reaction leaves on the surface of the OHM precursor hydroxy-ether linkages, the isocyanato reaction leaves carbamate linkages on the same surface of the OHM precursor. This study revealed that changing the alkyl chain length resulted in changing the column phase ratio (ϕ) and also the solute distribution constant (K). While increasing the surface alkyl chain length increased steeply the solute hydrophobic selectivity, i.e. methylene group selectivity, the nature of the ligand linkage produced different retention for the same solutes and affected the selectivity of slightly polar solutes. The various monoliths proved very useful for RP-CEC of different small solutes at varying polarity over a wide range of mobile phase composition. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The inhibitory effect of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on relaxation induced by hydroxylamine and sodium azide but not hydrogen peroxide or glyceryl trinitrate in rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Mian, K. B.; Martin, W.

    1995-01-01

    1. In this study we investigated the role of catalase in relaxation induced by hydroxylamine, sodium azide, glyceryl trinitrate and hydrogen peroxide in isolated rings of rat aorta. 2. Hydrogen peroxide (1 microM-1 mM)-induced concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (PE)-induced tone in endothelium-containing rings. In endothelium-denuded rings, however, higher concentrations (30 microM-1 mM) of hydrogen peroxide were required to produce relaxation. The endothelium-dependent component of hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation was abolished following pretreatment with N(O)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM). L-NAME (30 microM) had no effect, however, on hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings. 3. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with catalase (1000 u ml-1) blocked relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM). The ability of catalase to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation was partially blocked following incubation with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole (AT, 50 mM) for 30 min and completely blocked at 90 min. 4. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with methylene blue (MeB, 30 microM) inhibited relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM), sodium azide (1-300 nM), hydroxylamine (1-300 nM) and glyceryl trinitrate (1-100 nM) suggesting that each acted by stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase. 5. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with AT (1-50 mM, 90 min) to inhibit endogenous catalase blocked relaxation induced by sodium azide (1-300 nM) and hydroxylamine (1-300 nM) but had no effect on relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM) or glyceryl trinitrate (1-100 nM). 6. In a cell-free system, incubation of sodium azide (10 microM-3 mM) and hydroxylamine (10 microM-30 mM) but not glyceryl trinitrate (10 microM-1 mM) with catalase (1000 u ml-1) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM) led to production of nitrite, a major breakdown product of nitric oxide. AT (1

  20. A dose finding study with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in patients with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, J H; Bock, J U; Marla, B; Richter, H J; Athanasiadis, S; Pröls, M; Herold, A

    2003-02-01

    Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. The majority of acute fissures heal spontaneously. However, some of these acute fissures do not resolve but become chronic. Chronic anal fissures were traditionally treated by anal dilation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these surgical treatments may cause a degree of incontinence in up to 30% of patients. Several recent trials have shown that nitric oxide donors such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) can reduce sphincter pressure and heal up to 70% of chronic fissures. This study addressed the dose-response to three different concentrations of GTN ointment compared with placebo in a double blind randomised controlled trial. A double blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial was set up to compare placebo ointment against three active treatment arms (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% GTN ointment applied at a dose of 220 mg twice daily) in chronic anal fissures. The primary end point was complete healing of the fissure. Two hundred patients were recruited over an eight month period from 18 centres. After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate in the placebo group was 37.5% compared with 46.9% for 0.1%, 40.4% for 0.2%, and 54.1% for 0.4% GTN. None was significantly better than the placebo response. A secondary analysis excluded fissures without secondary criteria for chronicity. Healing rates were then found to be 24% in the placebo group compared with 50% in the 0.1% GTN group, 36% in the 0.2% group, and 57% in the 0.4% GTN group. These values were statistically significantly different for the placebo group compared with 0.1% GTN, 0.4% GTN, and for the GTN treated group as a whole. The results of this study have demonstrated the significant benefit of topical GTN when applied to patients suffering from chronic anal fissures but acute fissures showed a tendency to resolve spontaneously. The high proportion of fissures which healed in the placebo group suggests that the definition of

  1. A dose finding study with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in patients with chronic anal fissures

    PubMed Central

    Scholefield, J H; Bock, J U; Marla, B; Richter, H J; Athanasiadis, S; Pröls, M; Herold, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. The majority of acute fissures heal spontaneously. However, some of these acute fissures do not resolve but become chronic. Chronic anal fissures were traditionally treated by anal dilation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these surgical treatments may cause a degree of incontinence in up to 30% of patients. Several recent trials have shown that nitric oxide donors such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) can reduce sphincter pressure and heal up to 70% of chronic fissures. Aim: This study addressed the dose-response to three different concentrations of GTN ointment compared with placebo in a double blind randomised controlled trial. Method: A double blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial was set up to compare placebo ointment against three active treatment arms (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% GTN ointment applied at a dose of 220 mg twice daily) in chronic anal fissures. The primary end point was complete healing of the fissure. Results: Two hundred patients were recruited over an eight month period from 18 centres. After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate in the placebo group was 37.5% compared with 46.9% for 0.1%, 40.4% for 0.2%, and 54.1% for 0.4% GTN. None was significantly better than the placebo response. A secondary analysis excluded fissures without secondary criteria for chronicity. Healing rates were then found to be 24% in the placebo group compared with 50% in the 0.1% GTN group, 36% in the 0.2% group, and 57% in the 0.4% GTN group. These values were statistically significantly different for the placebo group compared with 0.1% GTN, 0.4% GTN, and for the GTN treated group as a whole. Conclusions: The results of this study have demonstrated the significant benefit of topical GTN when applied to patients suffering from chronic anal fissures but acute fissures showed a tendency to resolve spontaneously. The high proportion of fissures which healed in the placebo

  2. Final amended report on the safety assessment of Ammonium Thioglycolate, Butyl Thioglycolate, Calcium Thioglycolate, Ethanolamine Thioglycolate, Ethyl Thioglycolate, Glyceryl Thioglycolate, Isooctyl Thioglycolate, Isopropyl Thioglycolate, Magnesium Thioglycolate, Methyl Thioglycolate, Potassium Thioglycolate, Sodium Thioglycolate, and Thioglycolic Acid.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2009-01-01

    This safety assessment includes Ammonium and Glyceryl Thioglycolate and Thioglycolic Acid Butyl, Calcium, Ethanolamine, Ethyl, Isooctyl, Isopropyl, Magnesium, Methyl, Potassium, and Sodium Thioglycolate, as used in cosmetics. Thioglycolates penetrate skin and distribute to the kidneys, lungs, small intestine, and spleen; excretion is primarily in urine. Thioglycolates were slightly toxic in rat acute oral toxicity studies. Thioglycolates are minimal to severe ocular irritants. Thioglycolates can be skin irritants in animal and in vitro tests, and can be sensitizers. A no-observable-adverse-effect level for reproductive and developmental toxicity of 100 mg/kg per day was determined using rats. Thioglycolates were not mutagenic, and there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. Thioglycolates were skin irritants in some clinical tests. Clinically significant adverse reactions to these ingredients used in depilatories are not commonly seen, suggesting current products are formulated to be practically nonirritating under conditions of recommended use. Formulators should take steps necessary to assure that current practices are followed.

  3. Perianal versus endoanal application of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: results of a randomized controlled trial. Is this the solution to the headaches?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Legaz, Juan; Arroyo, Antonio; Moya, Pedro; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Frangi, Andres; Candela, Fernando; Oliver, Miguel I; Calpena, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    Application of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate) ointment with perianal administration is a widely used treatment for chronic anal fissure. However, headache occurs after application in 20% to 70% patients and leads to withdrawal in 10% of patients. The aim of the study was to investigate whether endoanal application of the ointment may lower the frequency of headaches without sacrificing effectiveness. compare the effects of perianal versus endoanal administration of nitroglycerin ointment on frequency of headache and rate of healing in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This was a prospective randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT01132391). Study participants were consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic anal fissure treated at a university teaching hospital in Elche, Alicante, Spain. Patients were randomly assigned to receive perianal (n = 26) or endoanal (n = 26) administration of 0.4% nitroglycerin ointment (375 mg of ointment containing 1.5 mg of glyceryl trinitrate), applied every 12 hours over an 8-week period. The primary endpoint of the study was the number of patients with headache within 3 hours after application of the ointment, analyzed with the intention-to-treat principle. Intensity of headache pain was rated on a 10-point visual analog scale. Secondary endpoints included frequencies of fissure healing, anorectal pain, rectal bleeding, pruritus, and incontinence. Headaches were reported in 14 (54%) patients with perianal treatment and in 6 patients (23%) with anorectal treatment (p = 0.003). The median headache pain score was 6 (range, 0-10) in the perianal group and 4.5 (range, 0-10) in the endoanal group (p = 0.03). Disabling headaches led to crossover from perianal to endoanal treatment in 4 patients (15%), and from endoanal to perianal treatment in 1 patient (4%) (p = 0.004). Of the 4 patients who switched from perianal to endoanal treatment, 2 reported improvement in headaches and 2 stopped treatment. The patient who

  4. Effect of Treatment Delay, Stroke Type, and Thrombolysis on the Effect of Glyceryl Trinitrate, a Nitric Oxide Donor, on Outcome after Acute Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient from Randomised Trials

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Philip M.; Woodhouse, Lisa; Krishnan, Kailash; Anderson, Craig; Berge, Eivind; Ford, Gary A.; Robinson, Thompson G.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; in Acute Stroke Collaboration (BASC), Blood pressure

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nitric oxide (NO) donors are a candidate treatment for acute stroke and two trials have suggested that they might improve outcome if administered within 4–6 hours of stroke onset. We assessed the safety and efficacy of NO donors using individual patient data (IPD) from completed trials. Methods. Randomised controlled trials of NO donors in patients with acute or subacute stroke were identified and IPD sought from the trialists. The effect of NO donor versus control on functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and death, by time to randomisation. Secondary outcomes included measures of disability, mood, and quality of life. Results. Five trials (4,197 participants) were identified, all involving glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Compared with control, GTN lowered blood pressure by 7.4/3.3 mmHg. At day 90, GTN did not alter any clinical measures. However, in 312 patients randomised within 6 hours of stroke onset, GTN was associated with beneficial shifts in the mRS (odds ratio (OR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34–0.78) and reduced death (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.78). Conclusions. NO donors do not alter outcome in patients with recent stroke. However, when administered within 6 hours, NO donors might improve outcomes in both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. PMID:27190674

  5. Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The oil derived from the seed of the Ricinus communis plant and its primary constituent, Ricinoleic Acid, along with certain of its salts and esters function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, emulsion stabilizers, and surfactants in cosmetics, although other functions are described. Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil is the naming convention for castor oil used in cosmetics. It is produced by cold pressing the seeds and subsequent clarification of the oil by heat. Castor oil does not contain ricin because ricin does not partition into the oil. Castor oil and Glyceryl Ricinoleate absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, with a maximum absorbance at 270 nm. Castor oil and Hydrogenated Castor Oil reportedly were used in 769 and 202 cosmetic products, respectively, in 2002; fewer uses were reported for the other ingredients in this group. The highest reported use concentration (81%) for castor oil is associated with lipstick. Castor oil is classified by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as generally recognized as safe and effective for use as a stimulant laxative. The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives established an acceptable daily castor oil intake (for man) of 0 to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Castor oil is hydrolyzed in the small intestine by pancreatic enzymes, leading to the release of glycerol and Ricinoleic Acid, although 3,6-epoxyoctanedioic acid, 3,6-epoxydecanedioic acid, and 3,6-epoxydodecanedioic acid also appear to be metabolites. Castor oil and Ricinoleic Acid can enhance the transdermal penetration of other chemicals. Although chemically similar to prostaglandin E(1), Ricinoleic Acid did not have the same physiological properties. These ingredients are not acute toxicants, and a National Toxicology Program (NTP) subchronic oral toxicity study using castor oil at concentrations up to 10% in the diet of rats was not toxic. Other subchronic studies of castor oil produced similar findings

  6. Quantification of ultra-trace amounts of copper by using off-line solid phase extraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination through the octadecyl silica-bonded phase membrane (OSPM) C18 disks impregnated with 2,2'-[ethane-1,2-diylbis(thio)]dianiline.

    PubMed

    Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Soliemani, Esmaeil

    2014-07-01

    This study reports a very selective, easy, and precise method for rapid separation of trace amounts of copper in aqueous samples using octadecyl silica-bonded phase membrane disks modified by 2,2'-[ethane-1,2-diylbis(thio)]dianiline (EDTD) combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. In addition, the synthesis and spectral characterization of EDTD have been described in detail. All the affecting experimental variables such as pH, amount of modifier, eluent type, sample and eluent flow rate, interfering ions, and disk capacity were also investigated. The target analyte (trace copper) was quantitatively retained at pH = 4 and eluted with 6.0 mL of 0.5 M HNO3 at flow rates of 40 and 10 mL min−1 for analyte passage and elution steps, respectively, through the disks modified with 17.0 mg of EDTD. The proposed method also allows an enrichment factor of about 500 and has a detection limit of 0.005 ng mL−1. The method has been successfully applied for isolation and determination of copper in different water samples, peppers, and standard alloys.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(n)(3) of this chapter; chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter; and meat products as...) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(n)(3) of this chapter; chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter; and meat products as...) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1328 - Glyceryl behenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acid made from glycerin and behenic acid (a saturated C22 fatty acid). The mixture contains... monoglyceride, 47 to 59 percent diglyceride, 26 to 38 percent triglyceride, and not more than 2.5 percent free fatty acids. (2) Behenic acid. Between 80 and 90 percent of the total fatty acid content. (3) Acid value...

  10. 21 CFR 172.811 - Glyceryl tristearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glycerol content: Not to exceed 0.5 percent. Unsaponifiable matter: Not to exceed 0.5 percent. Melting point (Class II): 69 °C-73 °C. (c) The additive is used or intended for use as follows when standards of...

  11. 21 CFR 172.811 - Glyceryl tristearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glycerol content: Not to exceed 0.5 percent. Unsaponifiable matter: Not to exceed 0.5 percent. Melting point (Class II): 69 °C-73 °C. (c) The additive is used or intended for use as follows when standards of...

  12. 21 CFR 172.811 - Glyceryl tristearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glycerol content: Not to exceed 0.5 percent. Unsaponifiable matter: Not to exceed 0.5 percent. Melting point (Class II): 69 °C-73 °C. (c) The additive is used or intended for use as follows when standards of...

  13. 21 CFR 172.811 - Glyceryl tristearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reacting stearic acid with glycerol in the presence of a suitable catalyst. (b) The food additive meets the... number: 186-192. Hydroxyl number: Not to exceed 5.0. Free glycerol content: Not to exceed 0.5...

  14. Glyceryl 1,3-Dipalmitate Produced from Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies. paracasei NTU 101 Inhibits Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reperfusion-Induced Oxidative Stress via Upregulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Chun; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2017-09-13

    Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate (GD) purified from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented products has been demonstrated to possess neuroprotective properties. We determined the effect of GD on oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell death. GD ameliorated OGD/R-induced apoptosis by elevating the protein expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thereby attenuating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Pretreatment with GD reduced nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) expression from 1.54 ± 0.27 to 0.84 ± 0.46, thereby attenuating the induction of pro-inflammatory mediators, and increased the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) levels from 0.81 ± 0.02 to 1.08 ± 0.06, thus reducing the levels of cytosolic Ca(2+); this also correlated with reduced cell death. We conclude that GD prevents SH-SY5Y cells from injury after OGD/R insult, possibly by modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory response.

  15. Sustained anti-anginal action of glyceryl trinitrate cream

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David; Davies, Adrian; Davis, Audrey

    1983-01-01

    1 In an acute study, 45 min following topical application of 9.2 mg of nitroglycerin (GTN) cream, exercise time increased by 100s (P < 0.005) and this increase persisted for 270 min. Systolic blood pressure showed a progressive fall. 2 In the second study 1 h following application of 9.2 mg GTN cream, a significant reduction in left ventricular diastolic dimension was seen. 3 In a subsequent chronic randomised double blind study, exercise time increased by 47 s (P < 0.05) at 6 h, following 3 weeks continual use. 4 An increased dose for a further 3 weeks produced no further increase in exercise time; however, a significant decrease in left ventricular end diastolic dimension was seen. 5 No evidence of pharmacological tolerance was seen, as patients continued to show a maximal response to sublingual nitroglycerin during the course of the study. PMID:6405770

  16. Glyceryl trinitrate for the treatment of preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Şafak; Narin, Mehmet Ali; Dede, Faruk Suat; Narin, Raziye; Dede, Hülya; Kandemir, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to compare the tocolytic efficacy of glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) with that of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and to investigate serum nitric oxide metabolites before and after tocolysis. Material and Methods In total, 48 women between 27 and 34 weeks’ gestation with threatened preterm labor and intact membranes were randomly allocated to receive either GTN or MgSO4 tocolysis. Main outcome measures included tocolytic efficacy and maternal side effect(s) of the tocolytic agent. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes as well as pretreatment and posttreatment nitric oxide (NO) metabolites were assessed. Results Forty-one patients were included into the final analysis. Uterine contraction cessation times were 3.66±1.28 and 6.83±3.47 hours for GTN and MgSO4 groups, respectively. Similarly, maternal side effects were significantly lower in the GTN group than in the MgSO4 group, and no serious maternal side effects were recorded. Serum NO metabolite levels before treatment were significantly lower in the treatment groups than in the controls. Serum nitrite levels were significantly increased after tocolytic treatment both in MgSO4 and GTN groups. Conclusion GTN effectively delays preterm delivery and reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality with less maternal side effects and seems to be an effective and safe alternative to MgSO4. PMID:26401112

  17. Elastic properties of unpolymerized and polymerized cadmium octadecyl/fumarate and cadmium octadecyl/maleate Langmuir-Blodgett films determined by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Hillebrands, B.; Stegeman, G. I.; Laxhuber, L. A.; Swalen, J. D.

    1989-08-01

    We have measured the elastic properties of saturated ODF, and of unpolymerized and polymerized regular ODF, ODF/ODM, and ω-ODF Langmuir-Blodgett films by means of Brillouin spectroscopy. Whereas the ODF/ODM films show a slight increase in the elastic constants, the regular ODF and ω-ODF films exhibit elastic constants which are significantly softer in the polymerized films due to the formation of microcracks on polymerization.

  18. Treatment of Xerosis with a Topical Formulation Containing Glyceryl Glucoside, Natural Moisturizing Factors, and Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Kausch, Martina; Rippke, Frank; Schoelermann, Andrea M.; Filbry, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of Light Formulation, an oil-in-water emulsion, and Rich Formulation, a water-in-oil emulsion, for the treatment of xerosis. Design: Two double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials (both formulations); a double-blind, randomized regression study (Rich Formulation); and a single-blind tolerability study (Light Formulation). The two formulations were applied twice daily for two weeks, for five days in the regression study, and twice daily for two weeks in the tolerability study. Setting: Studies were conducted during winter in Hamburg, Germany. Participants: A total of 169 subjects were enrolled and 154 completed the studies. The majority were between 50 and 80 years of age, women, all with very dry skin. One withdrew because of an incompatibility reaction that reoccurred with the subject's own body lotion after sun exposure. Measurements: Skin hydration and skin barrier function with both formulations over two weeks, long-term moisturization effect after discontinuation of Rich Formulation, and symptom improvement and skin tolerability with Light Formulation. Results: Vehicle-controlled studies of Light and Rich Formulations demonstrated significantly improved hydration at Weeks 1 and 2 versus the untreated site and vehicles, and significantly reduced transepidermal water loss versus untreated site and basic vehicle. Both products significantly decreased visible dryness and tactile roughness. In the regression study, Rich Formulation maintained significant moisturization six days after treatment discontinuation. Light Formulation reduced symptoms of itching, burning, tightness, tingling, and feeling of dryness. Conclusion: These formulations represent a new approach for the treatment of xerosis by addressing multiple key deficiencies in skin hydration. PMID:22916312

  19. In-vivo evaluation of clindamycin release from glyceryl monooleate-alginate microspheres by NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amir Ibrahim; Ahmed, Osama A A; Amin, Suzan; Elkadi, Omar Anwar; Kassem, Mohamed A

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectroscopic technique to determine clindamycin plasma concentration after oral administration of clindamycin loaded GMO-alginate microspheres using rabbits as animal models. Lyophilized clindamycin-plasma standard samples at a concentration range of 0.001-10 μg/ml were prepared and analyzed by NIR and HPLC as a reference method. NIR calibration model was developed with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Then, a single dose in-vivo evaluation was carried out and clindamycin-plasma concentration was estimated by NIR. Over 24 h time period, the pharmacokinetic parameters of clindamycin were calculated for the clindamycin loaded GMO-alginate microspheres (F3) and alginate microspheres (F2), and compared with the plain drug (F1). PLS calibration model with 7-principal components (PC), and 8000-9200 cm(-1) spectral range shows a good correlation between HPLC and NIR values with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), and calibration coefficient (R(2)) values of 0.245, 1.164, and 0.9753, respectively, which suggests that NIR transmission technique can be used for drug-plasma analysis without any extraction procedure. F3 microspheres exhibited controlled and prolonged absorption Tmax of 4.0 vs. 1.0 and 0.5 h; Cmax of 2.37±0.3 vs. 3.81±0.8 and 5.43±0.7 μg/ml for F2 and F1, respectively. These results suggest that the combination of GMO and alginate (1:4 w/w) could be successfully employed for once daily clindamycin microspheres formulation which confirmed by low Cmax and high Tmax values.

  20. A safety trial of high dose glyceryl triacetate for Canavan disease.

    PubMed

    Segel, Reeval; Anikster, Yair; Zevin, Shoshana; Steinberg, Avraham; Gahl, William A; Fisher, Drora; Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Zimran, Ari; Altarescu, Gheona

    2011-07-01

    Canavan disease (CD MIM#271900) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder presenting in early infancy. The course of the disease is variable, but it is always fatal. CD is caused by mutations in the ASPA gene, which codes for the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA), which breaks down N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to acetate and aspartic acid. The lack of NAA-degrading enzyme activity leads to excess accumulation of NAA in the brain and deficiency of acetate, which is necessary for myelin lipid synthesis. Glyceryltriacetate (GTA) is a short-chain triglyceride with three acetate moieties on a glycerol backbone and has proven an effective acetate precursor. Intragastric administration of GTA to tremor mice results in greatly increased brain acetate levels, and improved motor functions. GTA given to infants with CD at a low dose (up to 0.25 g/kg/d) resulted in no improvement in their clinical status, but also no detectable toxicity. We present for the first time the safety profile of high dose GTA (4.5 g/kg/d) in 2 patients with CD. We treated 2 infants with CD at ages 8 months and 1 year with high dose GTA, for 4.5 and 6 months respectively. No significant side effects and no toxicity were observed. Although the treatment resulted in no motor improvement, it was well tolerated. The lack of clinical improvement might be explained mainly by the late onset of treatment, when significant brain damage was already present. Further larger studies of CD patients below age 3 months are required in order to test the long-term efficacy of this drug.

  1. Synthesis and antitumor activity of new alkylphospholipids containing modifications of the phosphocholine moiety.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, K; Imamiya, E; Yamamoto, H; Mizuno, K; Tasaka, A; Terashita, Z; Okutani, T; Nomura, H; Kasukabe, T; Hozumi, M

    1989-05-01

    New antitumor alkylglycerophospholipids, in which primarily the phosphocholine moiety of the platelet activating factor (PAF) molecule was modified, were synthesized from 1-alkyl-2-substituted glycerols by introducing polar head phosphoryl groups having methylene bridges of various lengths (from 2 to 14 carbons). They were tested for PAF agonistic activity and antitumor properties. In a series of 1-octadecyl-2-acetoacetylglycerophospholipids (1a-f), an increase in the length of the methylene bridge separating the phosphate and trimethylammonio group in the polar head side chain at position 3 of the glycerol backbone resulted in a progressive decrease in PAF agonistic activity and a characteristic change in antitumor activity against human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). Maximal potency was obtained with the compound having a decamethylene bridge (1e, IC50 value = 1.5 microgram/ml). Thus, alkylphospholipids possessing a decamethylene bridge and a variety of substituents at position 2 (1g-n) were synthesized. They showed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 micrograms/ml, depending on the nature of the 2-substituent in the phospholipid molecule. In in vivo tests of the present series of alkylglycerophospholipids (1a--n), using mice bearing sarcoma 180 and mice with mammary carcinoma MM46 (both cells and compounds were given i.p.), 1-octadecyl-2-acetoacetyl-3-glyceryl omega-trimethylammoniodecyl phosphate (1e) showed the most potent life-prolonging effect. The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  2. The influence of lipid characteristics on the formation, in vitro release, and in vivo absorption of protein-loaded SLN prepared by the double emulsion process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Gao, Renchao; Li, Fang; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2011-02-01

    To study the influence of lipid characteristics on the formation, in vitro release, and in vivo absorption of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) prepared by the double emulsion method. Stearic acid (SA), octadecyl alcohol (OA), cetyl palmitate (CP), glyceryl monostearate (GM), glyceryl palmitostearate (GP), glyceryl tripalmitate (GT), and glyceryl behenate (GB) were selected as the representatives of different kinds of lipids, insulin and thymopentin (TP5) were selected as the model protein drugs. Before preparation, the contact angles between water and lipids were determined to investigate their hydrophobicity. The influence of lipid hydrophobicity or lipid solution viscosity on the preparation of primary emulsion, double emulsion, and SLN were studied by evaluating the particle size, state, and stability of the systems. CP-SLN, GT-SLN, and GP-SLN were selected to be loaded with insulin and TP5 for the in vitro release and in vivo absorption examination. After oral administration to diabetic rats, the pharmacological availability (PA) of insulin-CP-SLN, insulin-GP-SLN, and insulin-GT-SLN were determined. The hydrophobicity order of the lipids was GM

  3. 1-O-alkenyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine may be a novel posttranslational modification used by the placenta.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) secreted by the placenta was previously found to be raised in preeclampsia and most of the symptoms in this disease appeared to be through progressive activation of the three neurokinin receptors. Further characterization of placental NKB revealed that placental NKB eluted in the approximate position of a 13mer and this was confirmed by TOF mass spectrometry which gave a mass of 1580. Although this is consistent with dimethylated NKB-Gly-Lys-Arg, further characterization (immunological and mass spectrometric fragment analysis) suggested a novel posttranslational modification containing phosphocholine (PC) with some evidence for glycerol and a coordinated alkene. The structure that fits all the data is that a form of platelet activating factor is attached to the aspartyl side chain at position 4 of NKB and thus now implicates placental NKB in the platelet pathology seen in preeclampsia. As it has been reported that it is the PC group per se attached to certain proteins secreted by filarial nematodes imparts them with immune inhibitory properties and thus survival in the host over long periods, attaching PC to placental secretory peptide hormones (also be found on the placental precursors of CRF, ACTH, and activin) may result in a similar situation.

  4. Enhanced topical delivery of finasteride using glyceryl monooleate-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles stabilized by cremophor surfactants.

    PubMed

    Madheswaran, Thiagarajan; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Yong, Chul Soon; Yoo, Bong Kyu

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of two surfactants, Cremophor RH 40 (RH) and Cremophor EL (EL), to prepare liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCN) and to study its influence on the topical delivery of finasteride (FNS). FNS-loaded LCN was formulated with the two surfactants and characterized for size distribution, morphology, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and skin permeation/retention. Influence of FNS-loaded LCN on the conformational changes on porcine skin was also studied using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopical image confirmed the formation of LCN. The average particle size of formulations was in the range of 165.1-208.6 and 153.7-243.0 nm, respectively. The formulations prepared with higher surfactant concentrations showed faster release and significantly increased skin permeation. Specifically, LCN prepared with RH 2.5% presented higher permeation flux (0.100 ± 0.005 μgcm(-2)h(-1)) compared with lower concentration (0.029 ± 0.007 μgcm(-2)h(-1)). Typical spectral bands of lipid matrix of porcine skin were shifted to higher wavenumber, indicating increased degree of disorder of the lipid acyl chains which might cause fluidity increase of stratum corneum. Taken together, Cremophor surfactants exhibited a promising potential to stabilize the LCN and significantly augmented the skin permeation of FNS.

  5. Topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment for anal fissures: long-term efficacy in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jonas, M.; Lund, J. N.; Scholefield, J. H.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials have reported fissure healing rates of 60-70% using topical 0.2% GTN ointment, but the effectiveness of this therapy in routine clinical practice, particularly in the long term, is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical GTN for anal fissures in an outpatient setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case note review and postal questionnaire survey were undertaken for patients with a diagnosis of anal fissure dispensed 0.2% GTN ointment from one hospital pharmacy over a two year period (June 1996-May 1998). RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (53 male) applied 0.2% GTN ointment twice daily to the anoderm for anal fissure. They were reviewed on average 8 (2-16), weeks later, by which time 57 (61%) fissures had healed, 33 persisted and 3 patients were lost to follow up. Seventy-two patients (41male), median age 42 (22-83) years, returned completed questionnaires (77% response rate). Forty-nine (68%) had healed with GTN, but 25 had recurrent symptoms after a median of 6 (1-18) months. Sixteen of those patients reporting symptomatic recurrence were prescribed further GTN for a recurrent fissure: 14 (88%) healed, but 2 persisted, and had surgery. In the other nine patients symptoms resolved spontaneously. Thirty-five (49%) experienced headaches, 3 (4%) discontinuing treatment as a result. The median follow up was 25 (13-36) months. CONCLUSION: 0.2% GTN heals 60% of fissures in the outpatient setting but half the patients develop headaches. Up to one third of healed fissures may recur within 18 months but the majority respond to further GTN. Only 4% of patients initially healed with GTN later require sphincterotomy for recurrences.

  6. Effect of ethylcellulose and propylene glycol on the controlled-release performance of glyceryl monooleate-mertronidazole periodontal gel.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Al-Sayed; Hamudi, Firas Falih; Khalil, Enam Ayoub

    2015-03-01

    Controlled-release metronidazole, mucoadhesive gel proposed as a drug-delivery system for periodontal application was developed and characterized. The system was based on a mixture of glycerylmonooleate (GMO) and ethylcellulose (EC). The mechanism of release depends: firstly, on the ability of GMO to form a viscous liquid crystalline mesophases and secondly on the solubilized EC to form a hydrophobic network when the mixture comes into contact with water resulting in sustaining the release of the drug. Ethylcellulose dissolved in GMO had a profound influence on the rate of drug release, reduced the initial drug release and prolonged the sustained release of metronidazole. Propylene glycol (PG) was added to increase the solubility of the drug and water was added with PG to control the viscosity. A controlled release formulation containing w/w, 20% metronidazole, 10% PG, 5% water and 65% GMO that contains 7% EC was found to be mucoadhesive, easily injectable at room temperature, and to follow Fickian diffusion release mechanism. When the drug loading was increased the drug release was accelerated, and the mechanism followed anomalous controlled-release mechanism. Stability studies indicated that the formulation should be stored at 4 °C in a dark place.

  7. Determination of amphetamine and related compounds in urine using on-line derivatization in octadecyl silica columns with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P; Sevillano-Cabeza, A

    1996-04-26

    A method for the determination of amphetamine and related compounds in urine based on on-line derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) and high-performance liquid chromatography is described. Derivatization is performed in a 20 x 2.1 mm I.D. column packed with a Hypersil ODS C18, 30 micron stationary phase, which is also used for sample clean-up and enrichment of the analytes. Next, the derivatized analytes are transferred to a LiChrospher 100 RP-C18 (5 micron, 125 x 4 mm I.D.) analytical column for their separation and quantification, using reversed-phase conditions and fluorescence detection. The described assay was applied to the determination of norephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, amphetamine, phenylpropylamine and methamphetamine at concentrations of 0.5-10.0 micrograms/ml. Analyte conversions were about 55-96% of those obtained by the off-line derivatization mode under similar conditions, resulting in limits of detection in the 5-25 ng/ml range.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of a novel monolithic column containing double octadecyl chains for reverse-phase micro high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qianqian; Liu, Chusheng; Liu, Zhenghua; Zhou, Zhengyin; Chen, Weijia; Wang, Qiqin; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2014-06-06

    A novel reverse-phase monolithic stationary phase containing double long alkyl chains was prepared based on the thermally initiated co-polymerization of 3-methylacryloyl-3-oxapropyl-3-(N,N-dioctadecylcarbamoyl)-propionate (AOD) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol as the selected porogens. The polymerization was carefully optimized and good permeability, stability and column efficiency were observed for the final monolithic columns. The column also showed good long term stability and reproducibility. The methylene selectivity demonstrates typical reversed phase characteristics. The optimized poly (AOD-co-EDMA) monolith exhibited good selectivity for a range of non-polar test analytes such as PAHs, tocopherols and alkylphenones. A good separation of intact proteins was also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre-ocular retention

  10. Activation of the human neutrophil respiratory burst with zymosan-activated serum.

    PubMed

    Smith, R J; Iden, S S; Bowman, B J

    1984-06-15

    Zymosan-activated serum ( ZAS ) stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent generation of superoxide anion (O-2) by human neutrophils. O-2 production was rapid with maximum generation occurring 2 minutes after cell exposure to ZAS . O-2 generation is markedly reduced if cells are not preincubated with cytochalasin B prior to contact with ZAS . The amount of O-2 produced by ZAS stimulated neutrophils was enhanced in the presence of extra-cellular calcium. However, the intracellular calcium antagonist, 8-(N,N-diethylamino)-octyl-(3,4,5-trimethoxy) benzoate hydrochloride (TMB-8), caused a dose-related inhibition of ZAS -elicited O-2 production. Neutrophils pretreated with ZAS were desensitized to the subsequent exposure to this stimulus. The fact that pretreatment of neutrophils with ZAS did not diminish the capacity of these cells to generate O-2 in response to 1-O-hexadecyl/octadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AGEPC),N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or 5(5),12(R)-dihydroxy-6,14-cis-8,10-trans-eicosatetraenoic acid (LTB4), demonstrates the stimulus specific nature of ZAS -induced desensitization. Thus, ZAS , which contains the complement-derived neutrophil activator, C5a, a naturally occurring phlogistic mediator, represents a relevant probe for investigating neutrophil function.

  11. Choline alphoscerate (alpha-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline) an old choline- containing phospholipid with a still interesting profile as cognition enhancing agent.

    PubMed

    Traini, Enea; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Amenta, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Cholinergic precursors have represented the first approach to counter cognitive impairment occurring in adultonset dementia disorders. These compounds were early leaved because their clinical efficacy was not clearly demonstrated. This is probably not true for some choline-containing phospholipids including choline alphoscerate. Choline alphoscerate increases the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampus, facilitates learning and memory in experimental animals, improves brain transduction mechanisms and decreases age-dependent structural changes occurring in rat brain areas involved in learning and memory. The compound exerts neuroprotective effects in models of altered cholinergic neurotransmission and of brain vascular injury. In clinical studies choline alphoscerate improved memory and attention impairment, as well as affective and somatic symptoms in dementia disorders. An ongoing trial indicates that association between the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and choline alphoscerate is accompanied by an improvement in several cognitive tests superior to that induced by donepezil alone. It is suggested that this association may represent a therapeutic option to prolong beneficial effects of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease patients with concomitant ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. In summary, choline alphoscerate has significant effects on cognitive function with a good safety profile and tolerability. Although limited both in terms of size of the samples investigated and of the length of treatment, preclinical and clinical results presented suggest that cognitive enhancing capabilities of choline alphoscerate merit of being further investigated in appropriate trials.

  12. Stable isotope-assisted LC-MS/MS monitoring of glyceryl trinitrate bioactivation in a cell culture model of nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Axton, Elizabeth R; Hardardt, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Jan F

    2016-04-15

    The nitric oxide (NO) metabolites nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) can be quantified as an endpoint of endothelial function. We developed a LC-MS/MS method of measuring nitrite and nitrate isotopologues, which has a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 nM. This method allows for isotopic labeling to differentiate newly formed nitrite and nitrate from nanomolar to micromolar background levels of nitrite and nitrate in biological matrices. This method utilizes 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) derivatization, which reacts with nitrite under acidic conditions to produce 2,3-naphthotriazole (NAT). NAT was chromatographically separated on a Shimadzu LC System with an Agilent Extend-C18 5 μm 2.1 × 150 mm column and detected using a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method on an ABSciex 3200 QTRAP mass spectrometer operated in positive mode. Mass spectrometry allows for the quantification of (14)N-NAT (m/z 170.1) and (15)N-NAT (m/z 171.1). Both nitrite and nitrate demonstrated a linear detector response (1 nM - 10 μM, 1 nM - 100 nM, respectively), and were unaffected by common interferences (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum (FBS), phenol red, and NADPH). This method requires minimal sample preparation, making it ideal for most biological applications. We applied this method to develop a cell culture model to study the development of nitrate tolerance in human endothelial cells (EA.hy926).

  13. Solid-phase extraction of polar pesticides from environmental water samples on graphitized carbon and Empore-activated carbon disks and on-line coupling to octadecyl-bonded silica analytical columns.

    PubMed

    Slobodník, J; Oztezkizan, O; Lingeman, H; Brinkman, U A

    1996-10-25

    The suitability of Empore-activated carbon disks (EACD), Envi-Carb graphitized carbon black (GCB) and CPP-50 graphitized carbon for the trace enrichment of polar pesticides from water samples was studied by means of off-line and on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). In the off-line procedure, 0.5-2 l samples spiked with a test mixture of oxamyl, methomyl and aldicarb sulfoxide were enriched on EnviCarb SPE cartridges or 47 mm diameter EACD and eluted with dichloromethane-methanol. After evaporation, a sample was injected onto a C18-bonded silica column and analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (LC-UV) detection. EACD performed better than EnviCarb cartridges in terms of breakthrough volumes (> 2 l for all test analytes), reproducibility (R.S.D. of recoveries, 4-8%, n = 3) and sampling speed (100 ml/min); detection limits in drinking water were 0.05-0.16 microgram/l. In the on-line experiments, 4.6 mm diameter pieces cut from original EACD and stacked onto each other in a 9 mm long precolumn, and EnviCarb and CPP-50 packed in 10 x 2.0 mm I.D. precolumn, were tested, and 50-200 ml spiked water samples were preconcentrated. Because of the peak broadening caused by the strong sorption of the analytes on carbon, the carbon-packed precolumns were eluted by a separate stream of 0.1 ml/min acetonitrile which was mixed with the gradient LC eluent in front of the C18 analytical column. The final on-line procedure was also applied for the less polar propoxur, carbaryl and methiocarb. EnviCarb could not be used due to its poor pressure resistance. CPP-50 provided less peak broadening than EACD: peak widths were 0.1-0.3 min and R.S.D. of peak heights 4-14% (n = 3). In terms of analyte trapping efficiency on-line SPE-LC-UV with a CPP-50 precolumn also showed better performance than when Bondesil C18/OH or polymeric PLRP-S was used, but chromatographic resolution was similar. With the CPP-50-based system, detection limits of the test compounds were 0.05-1 microgram/l in surface water.

  14. Fabrication and spectroscopic characterization of Langmuir-Blodgett films with luminescent rare earth complexes of long chain double functional ligands mono-L phthalate (L = hexadecyl, octadecyl and eicosyl).

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Xu, Bing

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, some novel long chain amphiphillic monoester molecules were designed to afford double functions: film-formation ability and luminescent sensitization ability. Subsequently organized molecular films of rare earth complexes with these functional ligands formulated as ML2NO3 were fabricated by the Langmuir-Blodgett film (LB) technology, where RE denotes rare earth ions Eu3+, Tb3+ and Dy3+; L denotes the long chain carboxylic ligands monohexadecyl phthalate (16-Phth), monooctadecyl phthalate (18-Phth) and monoeicosyl phthalate (20-Phth). The average molecular area was obtained according to the pi-A isotherms. The layer structure of the LB films was demonstrated by low-angle X-ray diffraction and the average layer spacing was determined from the Bragg equation. UV absorption intensity increases linearly with the number of LB films layers, which indicates that the LB films are homogeneously deposited. The fluorescence spectra of these LB films were quite different from those of their solid complexes. It reveals that the long chain ester ligands are suitable for the excited states of Tb3+ and Dy3+ in the LB films as well as in the solid complexes, but not match with the europium ion in the LB films.

  15. Impact of the post-treatment conditions of parent silica on the silanization of n-octadecyl bonded silica packings in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, F; Ehwald, V; du Fresne von Hohenesche, C; Unger, K K

    2001-03-02

    Native mesoporous silica beads were subjected to a sequence of post-treatment procedure including hydrochloric acid treatment, calcination and subsequent rehydroxylation. The post-treated silica beads were converted into RP-18 silica by silanization with monochloro- and dimethoxy-n-octadecylsilanes, respectively. The influence of post-treatments and silanization conditions on the physico-chemical characteristics and on the chromatographic behaviour of the RP-silicas was studied. Also the changes of the pore structural parameters and the silanol group densities during the post-treatment and silanization were assessed.

  16. Combining poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction and octadecyl phosphonic acid-modified zirconia-coated CEC with field-enhanced sample injection for analysis of antidepressants in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Fan, Jin; Zheng, Ming-Ming; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2010-01-01

    A method based on poly (methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction and octadecylphosphonic acid-modified zirconia-coated CEC followed by field-enhanced sample injection preconcentration technique was proposed for sensitive CE-UV analysis of six antidepressants (doxepin, clozapine, imipramine, paroxetine, fluoxetine and chlorimipramine) in human plasma and urine. A poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolithic capillary column was introduced for the extraction of antidepressants from urine and plasma samples. The hydrophobic main chains and acidic pendant groups of the monolithic column make it a superior material for extraction of basic analytes from aqueous matrix. After extraction, the desorption solvent, which normally provided an excellent medium to ensure direct compatibility for field-enhanced sample injection in CE, was analyzed by CE directly. By the use of alkylphosphonate-modified zirconia-coated CEC for separation of the basic compounds of antidepressants, high separation efficiency and resolution were achieved because that both hydrophobic interaction between analytes and alkylphosphonate-modified zirconia coat and electrophoretic effect work on the separation of antidepressants. The best separation was achieved using a buffer composed of 0.3 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 4.5 with 1 M acetic acid) and 35% ACN v/v, with a temperature and voltage of 20 degrees C and 20 kV, respectively. By applying both preconcentration procedures, LODs of 11.4-51.5 and 3.7-17.0 microg/L were achieved for the six antidepressants in human plasma and urine, respectively. Excellent method of reproducibility was found over a linear range of 50-5000 microg/L in plasma and urine sample.

  17. Coupled-column liquid chromatographic analysis of epirubicin and metabolites in biological material and its application to optimization of liver cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, A; Vielhauer, S; Boos, K S; Seidel, D; Bäthge, I M; Berger, H

    1995-04-01

    A specific, sensitive and fully automated coupled-column LC method for the determination of the anthracycline cytostatic epirubicin and four metabolites in the biological materials human plasma, liver homogenate and liver tumour homogenate has been developed. System-integrated sample processing was achieved using a new restricted access silica precolumn packing. This porous Alkyl-Diol Silica (ADS) was specially designed for the direct and repetitive injection of proteinaceous samples. It consists of a hydrophilic and electroneutral external particle surface (glyceryl-residues) and a hydrophobic reversed-phase internal surface (butyryl-, octanoyl- or octadecyl-residues). These bimodal chromatographic properties allow retention of low molecular analytes by classical RP-chromatography exclusively at the lipophilic pore surface. Macromolecular constituents of the sample matrix (e.g. proteins) are size-excluded by 5 nm pores and quantitatively eliminated in the interstitial void volume. On-line analysis was performed by coupling a C4-Alkyl-Diol precolumn (20 x 4 mm i.d., particle size 25 microns) and LiChrospher RP Select B analytical column (250 x 4 mm i.d., particle size 5 microns) via an electrically driven six-port valve. Separation of the parent compound and its metabolites was achieved with a mobile phase consisting of water (0.1% triethylamine, v/v, pH 2.0 adjusted with trichloroacetic acid)-acetonitrile (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml min-1. The analytes were detected using their natural fluorescence (excitation 445 nm, emission 560 nm). The method described is used for the determination of pharmacokinetics of epirubicin and its metabolites in order to evaluate and optimize treatment regimen of liver cancer chemoembolization therapy.

  18. Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its salts and esters and Glycyrrhizic Acid and its salts and esters are cosmetic ingredients that function as flavoring agents or skin-conditioning agents - miscellaneous or both. These chemicals may be isolated from licorice plants. Glycyrrhetinc Acid is described as at least 98% pure, with 0.6% 24-OH-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, not more than 20 mu g/g of heavy metals and not more than 2 mu g/g of arsenic. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 98% pure and Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 95% pure. Glycyrrhetinic Acid is used in cosmetics at concentrations of up to 2%; Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, up to 1%; Glycyrrhizic Acid, up to 0.1%; Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, up to 5%; Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, up to 1%; and Potassium Glycyrretinate, up to 1%. Although Glycyrrhizic Acid is poorly absorbed by the intestinal tract, it may be hydrolyzed to Glycyrrhetinic Acid by a beta -glucuronidase produced by intestinal bacteria. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid bind to rat and human albumin, but do not absorb well into tissues. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid and metabolites are mostly excreted in the bile, with very little excreted in urine. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate was undetectable in the receptor chamber when tested for transepidermal permeation through pig skin. Glycyrrhizic Acid increased the dermal penetration of diclofenac sodium in rat skin. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate increased the intestinal absorption of calcitonin in rats. In humans, Glycyrrhetinic Acid potentiated the effects of hydrocortisone in the skin. Moderate chronic or high acute exposure to Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, and their metabolites have been demonstrated to cause transient systemic alterations, including increased potassium excretion, sodium and water retention, body weight gain, alkalosis, suppression of the renin-angiotensis-aldosterone system, hypertension, and muscular paralysis; possibly through inhibition of 11beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11beta -OHSD2) in the kidney. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its derivatives block gap junction intracellular communication in a dose-dependent manner in animal and human cells, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, hepatocytes, and astrocytes; at high concentrations, it is cytotoxic. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid protect liver tissue from carbon tetrachloride. Glycyrrhizic Acid has been used to treat chronic hepatitis, inhibiting the penetration of the hepatitis A virus into hepatocytes. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid have anti-inflammatory effects in rats and mice. The acute intraperitoneal LD(50) for Glycyrrhetinic Acid in mice was 308 mg/kg and the oral LD(50) was > 610 mg/kg. The oral LD(50) in rats was reported to be 610 mg/kg. Higher LD(50) values were generally reported for salts. Little short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity was seen in rats given ammonium, dipotassium, or disodium salts of Glycyrrhizic Acid. Glycyrrhetinic Acid was not irritating to shaved rabbit skin, but was considered slightly irritating in an in vitro test. Glycyrrhetinic Acid inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and inhibited tumor initiation and promotion by other agents in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid inhibited tumor initiation by another agent, but did not prevent tumor promotion in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid delayed mortality in mice injected with Erlich ascites tumor cells, but did not reduce the mortality rate. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate was not genotoxic in in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics assays, the dominant lethal assay, an Ames assay, and heritable translocation tests, except for possible increase in dominant lethal mutations in rats given 2000 mg/kg day(-1) in their diet. Disodium Glycyrrhizate was not carcinogenic in mice in a drinking water study at exposure levels up to 12.2 mg/kg day(-1) for 96 weeks. Glycyrrhizate salts produced no reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats, mice, golden hamsters, or Dutch-belted rabbits, except for a dose-dependent increase (at 238.8 and 679.9 mg/kg day(-1)) in sternebral variants in a study using rats. Sedation, hypnosis, hypothermia, and respiratory depression were seen in mice given 1250 mg/kg Glycyrrhetinic Acid intraperitoneally. Rats fed a powdered diet containing up to 4% Ammonium Glycyrrhizate had no treatment related effects in motor function tests, but active avoidance was facilitated at 4%, unaffected at 3%, and depressed at 2%. In a study of 39 healthy volunteers, a no effect level of 2 mg/kg/day was determined for Glycyrrhizic Acid given orally for 8 weeks. Clinical tests in seven normal individuals given oral Ammonium Glycyrrhizate at 6 g/day for 3 days revealed reduced renal and thermal sweat excretion of Na+ and K+, but carbohydrate and protein metabolism were not affected. Glycyrrhetinic Acid at concentrations up to 6% was not a skin irritant or a sensitizer in clinical tests. Neither Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, nor Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate at 5% were phototoxic agents or photosensitizers. Birth weight and maternal blood pressure were unrelated to the level of consumption of Glycyrrhizic Acid in 1049 Finnish women with infants, but babies whose mother consumed > 500 mg/wk were more likely to be born before 38 weeks. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel noted that the ingredients in this safety assessment are not plant extracts, powders, or juices, but rather are specific chemical species that may be isolated from the licorice plant. Because these chemicals may be isolated from plant sources, however, steps should be taken to assure that pesticide and toxic metal residues are below acceptable levels. The Panel advised the industry that total polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)/pesticide contamination should be limited to not more than 40 ppm, with not more than 10 ppm for any specific residue, and that toxic metal levels must not contain more than 3 mg/kg of arsenic (as As), not more than 0.002% heavy metals, and not more than 1 mg/kg of lead (as Pb). Although the Panel noted that Glycyrrhizic Acid is cytotoxic at high doses and ingestion can have physiological effects, there is little acute, short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity and it is expected that these ingredients would be poorly absorbed through the skin. These ingredients are not considered to be irritants, sensitizers, phototoxic agents, or photosensitizers at the current maximum concentration of use. Accordingly, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the current practices of use and concentration. The Panel recognizes that certain ingredients in this group are reportedly used in a given product category, but the concentration of use is not available. For other ingredients in this group, information regarding use concentration for specific product categories is provided, but the number of such products is not known. In still other cases, an ingredient is not in current use, but may be used in the future. Although there are gaps in knowledge about product use, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentration indicate a pattern of use. Within this overall pattern of use, the Expert Panel considers all ingredients in this group to be safe.

  19. 5-HIAA urine test

    MedlinePlus

    HIAA; 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid; Serotonin metabolite ... interfere with the test. Medicines that can increase 5-HIAA measurements include acetaminophen (Tylenol), acetanilide, phenacetin, glyceryl ...

  20. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with... addition to oils and fats whereby the additive does not exceed 200 parts per million of the combined...

  1. Solid lipid extrusion of sustained release dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Claudia; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2007-09-01

    The applicability of the solid lipid extrusion process as preparations method for sustained release dosage forms was investigated in this study. Two lipids with similar melting ranges but of different composition, glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol ATO 5) and glyceryl trimyristate (Dynasan 114), and mixtures of each lipid with 50% or 75% theophylline were extruded at temperatures below their melting ranges. Extrudates were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements and in vitro drug dissolution studies. The possibility of processing lipids by softening instead of complete melting and without subsequent formation of low-melting, metastable polymorphs could be demonstrated. Extrudates based on formulations of glyceryl palmitostearate/theophylline (50:50) and glyceryl trimyristate/theophylline (50:50) showed sustained release properties. An influence of extrusion conditions on the matrix structure was shown for extrudates based on a mixture of glyceryl trimyristate and theophylline (50:50). Glyceryl trimyristate tended to solidify in porous structures after melting. Exceeding a material temperature of 50.5 degrees C led to porous extrudate matrices with a faster drug release. The production of novel, non porous sustained release matrices was possible at a material temperature of 49.5 degrees C. Extrudates based on glyceryl trimyristate/theophylline (50:50) only slight changes in melting enthalpy and stable drug release profiles.

  2. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of octadecyl isocyanate and vinyl alcohol/vinyl acetate copolymer; minimum average molecular weight.... Saturated fatty acid amides manufactured from fatty acids derived from animal, marine, or vegetable fats...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  7. Lipstick dermatitis due to C18 aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Suzuki, M; Arima, Y; Ohkido, Y

    1987-04-01

    An 18-year-old girl developed cheilitis. She had a past history of lip cream dermatitis, but the cause was not found. Patch tests with 2 lipsticks were strongly positive. Tests with the ingredients were positive to 2 aliphatic compounds, glyceryl diisostearate and diisostearyl malate. Impurities in the materials were suspected as the cause. Analysis by gas chromatography detected 3 chemicals in glyceryl diisostearate and 1 in diisostearyl malate as impurities. Patch testing with the impurities and glyceryl monoisostearate 0.01% pet in glyceryl diisostearate and isostearyl alcohol 0.25% pet in diisostearyl malate were strongly positive. The characteristics common to the 2 chemicals were liquidity at room temperature, branched C18 aliphatic compound and primary alcohol. Chemicals lacking any of the above 3 features did not react.

  8. Effect of permeation enhancers on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of pentazocine.

    PubMed

    Furuishi, Takayuki; Oda, Sachiko; Saito, Hiroaki; Fukami, Toshiro; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Tomono, Kazuo

    2007-07-01

    The effect of permeation enhancers on the percutaneous absorption of pentazocine (PTZ) was investigated in excised hairless mice using Franz diffusion cells in vitro. The enhancing effect on the percutaneous absorption of PTZ from the isopropyl myristate (IPM) solution system was improved with glyceryl monocaprylate (GEFA-C(8)), which is a kind of glycerol ester of fatty acid (GEFA). The flux of PTZ through the skin was ca. 4 times higher compared with IPM alone, while a less enhancing effect of glyceryl dicaprylate (GEFA-DiC(8)) and glyceryl tricaprylate (GEFA-TriC(8)) on the skin permeation of PTZ was found. Moreover, maximum enhancement of PTZ flux was observed with glyceryl monocaproate (GEFA-C(6)) among various alkyl chains (C(2)-C(18)) of monoglycerides. These results indicated that the IPM solution system combination with GEFA may be used to develop a transdermal formulation with improved skin permeation of PTZ.

  9. Pharmacology of reflex blinks in the rat: a novel model for headache research.

    PubMed

    Jones, M G; Andreou, A P; McMahon, S B; Spanswick, D

    2016-12-01

    Migraineurs are highly sensitive to the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate which triggers attacks in many sufferers. In animal studies, glyceryl trinitrate increases neuronal activity in the trigeminovascular pathway and elevates neurotransmitter levels in the brainstem. Many migraineurs also display alterations in blink reflexes, known to involve brainstem circuits. We investigated the effect of GTN on evoked blinks in the anaesthetised rat to determine whether such reflexes may prove useful as the basis for a novel animal model to evaluate potential anti-migraine therapeutic agents. In anaesthetised rats the electromyogram associated with the reflex blink evoked by corneal airpuff was recorded. Rats were infused with glyceryl trinitrate, sumatriptan plus glyceryl trinitrate or vehicle control. Changes in the magnitude of the reflex blink-associated electromyogram following these treatments were measured. Glyceryl trinitrate potentiated the evoked reflex blink-associated EMG response from 2 h after infusion. That effect was abolished by simultaneous infusion of sumatriptan with glyceryl trinitrate. These results show that simple skin surface measurements of evoked electromyographic activity in the rat can reliably detect the evoked blink reflex that can be potentiated by nitric oxide donors. This novel model may be an effective tool for evaluating putative anti-migraine therapeutic agents.

  10. Immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase—A Comparison of Stability of Physical Adsorption and Covalent Attachment Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Aline G.; Fernández-Lorente, Gloria; Bevilaqua, Juliana V.; Destain, Jacqueline; Paiva, Lúcia M. C.; Freire, Denise M. G.; Fernández-Lafuente, Roberto; Guisán, Jose M.

    Lipase immobilization offers unique advantages in terms of better process control, enhanced stability, predictable decay rates and improved economics. This work evaluated the immobilization of a highly active Yarrowia lipolytica lipase (YLL) by physical adsorption and covalent attachment. The enzyme was adsorbed on octyl-agarose and octadecyl-sepabeads supports by hydrophobic adsorption at low ionic strength and on MANAE-agarose support by ionic adsorption. CNBr-agarose was used as support for the covalent attachment immobilization. Immobilization yields of 71, 90 and 97% were obtained when Y. lipolytica lipase was immobilized into octyl-agarose, octadecyl-sepabeads and MANAE-agarose, respectively. However, the activity retention was lower (34% for octyl-agarose, 50% for octadecyl-sepabeads and 61% for MANAE-agarose), indicating that the immobilized lipase lost activity during immobilization procedures. Furthermore, immobilization by covalent attachment led to complete enzyme inactivation. Thermal deactivation was studied at a temperature range from 25 to 45°C and pH varying from 5.0 to 9.0 and revealed that the hydrophobic adsorption on octadecyl-sepabeads produced an appreciable stabilization of the biocatalyst. The octadecyl-sepabeads biocatalyst was almost tenfold more stable than free lipase, and its thermal deactivation profile was also modified. On the other hand, the Y. lipolytica lipase immobilized on octyl-agarose and MANAE-agarose supports presented low stability, even less than the free enzyme.

  11. Comparative study of the antioxidant activities of some lipase-catalyzed alkyl dihydrocaffeates synthesized in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Somayeh; Lasekan, Ola; Tan, Chin Ping; Abas, Faridah; Wei, Leong Sze

    2017-06-01

    The solubility limitations of phenolic acids in many lipidic environments are now greatly improved by their enzymatic esterification in ionic liquids (ILs). Herein, four different ILs were tested for the esterification of dihydrocaffeic acid with hexanol and the best IL was selected for the synthesis of four other n-alkyl esters with different chain-lengths. The effect of alkyl chain length on the anti-oxidative properties of the resulted purified esters was investigated using β-carotene bleaching (BCB) and free radical scavenging method DPPH and compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as reference compound. All four esters (methyl, hexyl, dodecyl and octadecyl dihydrocaffeates) exhibited relatively strong radical scavenging abilities. The scavenging activity of the test compounds was in the following order: methyl ester>hexyl ester⩾dodecyl ester>octadecyl ester>BHT while the order for the BCB anti-oxidative activity was; BHT>octadecyl ester>dodecyl ester>hexyl ester>methyl ester.

  12. Dissolution of solid lipid extrudates in biorelevant media.

    PubMed

    Witzleb, R; Müllertz, A; Kanikanti, V-R; Hamann, H-J; Kleinebudde, P

    2012-01-17

    Solid lipid extrudates with the model drug praziquantel were produced with chemically diverse lipids and investigated regarding their dissolution behaviour in different media. The lipids used in this study were glyceryl tripalmitate, glyceryl dibehenate, glyceryl monostearate, cetyl palmitate and solid paraffin. Thermoanalytical and dissolution behaviour was investigated directly after extrusion and after 3 and 6 months open storage at 40°C/75% RH. Dissolution studies were conducted in hydrochloric acid (HCl) pH 1.2 with different levels of polysorbate 20 and with a biorelevant medium containing pancreatic lipase, bile salts and phospholipids. Furthermore, the impact of lipid digestion on drug release was studied using in vitro lipolysis. The release of praziquantel from cetyl palmitate and glyceryl monostearate in the biorelevant medium was much faster than in HCl, whereas there was hardly any difference for the other lipids. It was shown that drug release from glyceryl monostearate matrices is driven by both solubilisation and enzymatic degradation of the lipid, whereas dissolution from cetyl palmitate extrudates is dependent only on solubilisation by surfactants in the medium. Moreover, storage influenced the appearance of the extrudate surface and the dissolution rate for all lipids except solid paraffin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of substituents on the /sup 35/Cl NQR frequencies of atoms in conditions of hyperconjugation

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuzov, B.A.; Andreeva, A.I.; Bredikhin, A.A.; Safin, I.A.; Vereshchagin, A.N.

    1985-12-10

    The authors studied the mechanisms of the change in the NOR spectra in a series of alpha-chloro-substituted dialkyl ethers, organonitrogen compounds, and benzyl and benzylidene chlorides. The NQR spectra were made on a pulsed IS-3 spectrometer at a temperature of 77 degrees K. There are n-o and ..pi..-o interactions which decrease the Cl 35 and Br 79 NQR frequencies in the series of alpha-chloro ethers, alpha-chloroalkylamides, and benzyl halides. The introduction of a geminal halogen atom (dichloromethyl ethers, benzylidene halides) decreases the effect of hyperconjugation.

  14. NO donors. Part 18: Bioactive metabolites of GTN and PETN--synthesis and vasorelaxant properties.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kathrin; Koenig, Andreas; Roegler, Carolin; Seeling, Andreas; Lehmann, Jochen

    2009-06-01

    The vasodilators glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN) are supposed to be degraded in vivo to the lower nitrates PETriN, PEDN, PEMN, 1,2-GDN, 1,3-GDN, 1-GMN, and 2-GMN. We synthesized these bioactive metabolites as reference compounds for pharmacokinetic studies. The use of HPLC-methods for monitoring the stepwise reduction of PETN to lower nitrates and the syntheses of the glyceryl dinitrates proved advantageous. Furthermore, we measured the vasorelaxant properties of all metabolites by performing organ bath experiments with porcine pulmonary arteries. In general, the vasodilator potency increases with the number of nitrate moieties in the compound.

  15. Effect of the physicochemical parameters of benzimidazole molecules on their retention by a nonpolar sorbent from an aqueous acetonitrile solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafigulin, R. V.; Safonova, I. A.; Bulanova, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of the structure of benzimidazoles on their chromatographic retention on octadecyl silica gel from an aqueous acetonitrile eluent was studied. One- and many-parameter correlation equations were obtained by linear regression analysis, and their prognostic potential in determining the retention factors of benzimidazoles under study was analyzed.

  16. Sorption of catechins under conditions of reverse-phase high-efficiency liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafigulin, R. V.; Egorova, K. V.; Bulanova, A. V.

    2010-08-01

    The physico-chemical principles of catechin sorption from various polar solvents onto silica gel modified with octadecyl groups were studied. Thermodynamic characteristics of the sorption were calculated, and the applicability of different models of retention was demonstrated for catechins under the conditions of reverse-phase high-efficiency liquid chromatography.

  17. The capture and stabilization of curcumin using hydrophobically modified polyacrylate aggregates and hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Harada, Takaaki; Pham, Duc-Truc; Lincoln, Stephen F; Kee, Tak W

    2014-08-07

    Hydrophobically modified polyacrylates are shown to suppress the degradation of the medicinal pigment curcumin under physiological conditions. In aqueous solution, the 3% octadecyl randomly substituted polyacrylate, PAAC18, forms micelle-like aggregates at a concentration of <1 wt % and a hydrogel at >1 wt %. Under both conditions, PAAC18 shows a remarkable ability to suppress the degradation of curcumin at pH 7.4 and 37 °C such that its degradation half-life is increased by 1600-2000-fold. The suppression of degradation is attributed to hydrophobic interactions between curcumin and the octadecyl substituents of PAAC18 within the micelle-like aggregates and the hydrogel, as indicated by 2D NOESY (1)H NMR spectroscopy. UV-visible absorption titration results are consistent with the interaction of curcumin with five octadecyl substituents on average, which appears to substantially exclude water and greatly decrease the curcumin degradation rate. Dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements show the average hydrodynamic diameters of the PAAC18 aggregates to be 0.86-1.15 μm with a negative surface charge. In contrast to the octadecyl substitution, the 3% dodecyl randomly substituted polyacrylate, PAAC12, shows a negligible effect on slowing the degradation of curcumin, consistent with the dodecyl substituents being insufficiently long to capture curcumin in a adequately hydrophobic environment. These observations indicate the potential for PAAC18 to act as a model drug delivery system.

  18. Thermal characteristics of oleochemical carbonate binary mixtures for potential latent heat storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study examines the thermal properties of melting and solidification for binary mixtures between dodecyl carbonate (1a), tetradecyl carbonate (1b), hexadecyl carbonate (1c), and octadecyl carbonate (1d) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in order to gain further understanding of t...

  19. Effects of nanoclay type on the physical and antimicrobial properties of PVOH-based nanocomposite films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyvinyl alcohols-based nanocomposite films were fabricated with four types of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay, including 18-amino stearic acid (I.24TL), methyl, bis hydroxyethyl, octadecyl ammonium (I.34TCN), di-methyl, di-hydrogenated tallow ammonium/siloxane (I.44PSS) organically modified MMT, an...

  20. DOPC liposomes doped with octadecylferulate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Octadecyl ferulate, found in limit quantities in plants, is a natural phenolic derivative with the potential as a cosmeceautical, nutriceutical, and/or pharmaceutical ingredient because of its lipophilic and antioxidant properties. The current work demonstrates our ability to chemically synthesize a...

  1. Rifabutin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for inhaled antitubercular therapy: Physicochemical and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Diana P; Faria, Vasco; Gonçalves, Lídia M D; Taboada, Pablo; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Almeida, António J

    2016-01-30

    Systemic administration of antitubercular drugs can be complicated by off-target toxicity to cells and tissues that are not infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Delivery of antitubercular drugs via nanoparticles directly to the infected cells has the potential to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. The present work demonstrates the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as a delivery platform for rifabutin (RFB). Two different RFB-containing SLN formulations were produced using glyceryl dibehenate or glyceryl tristearate as lipid components. Full characterization was performed in terms of particle size, encapsulation and loading efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. Physical stability was evaluated when formulations were stored at 5 ± 3°C and in the freeze-dried form. Formulations were stable throughout lyophilization without significant variations on physicochemical properties and RFB losses. The SLN showed to be able to endure harsh temperature conditions as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Release studies revealed that RFB was almost completely released from SLN. In vitro studies with THP1 cells differentiated in macrophages showing a nanoparticle uptake of 46 ± 3% and 26 ± 9% for glyceryl dibehenate and glyceryl tristearate SLN, respectively. Cell viability studies using relevant lung cell lines (A549 and Calu-3) revealed low cytotoxicity for the SLN, suggesting these could be new potential vehicles for pulmonary delivery of antitubercular drugs.

  2. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid... percent-17 percent. (b) It is used, or intended for use, in antioxidant formulations for addition to...

  3. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.832... manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid under controlled conditions may be safely... use, in antioxidant formulations for addition to oils and fats whereby the additive does not...

  4. Assessing the Toxicity and Bioavailability of 2,4-Dinitroanisole in Acute and Sub-Chronic Exposures Using the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    different methods, 2nd method chosen for final study: ► Coelomocytes collected in 2 ml Guaiacol Glyceryl Ether ( GGE ) solution, centrifuged, decanted...worm to GGE t= 2mins collect coelomocyte solution 1 row per worm/treatment, obtain measurements through spectrophotometer NRRT analysis 1) 2) BUILDING

  5. 21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter. Di-tert-butyl hydroquinone Dimethylpolysiloxane Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium... glycol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid Formaldehyde For use as preservative only. Glyceryl mono-12... prescribed under 21 CFR 178.3740(b) of this chapter. Polyethylene, oxidized (air blown) Polyvinyl acetate...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as 1,2,3,-propanetriol triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid. Triacetin can be prepared by heating glycerin with acetic anhydride alone or in the presence of finely... mixture of allyl acetate and acetic acid using a bromide salt as a catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  7. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  8. Viscous lubricant composition comprising mixed esters and a silicone oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, P.J.

    1981-03-03

    A viscous composition capable of substantially retaining its viscosity within a temperature range of from 5*-30* C. Comprising as its components diisopropyl adipate, a mixture of cetyl and stearyl octanoates, glyceryl tribehenate, silicone oil and a surfactant is described.

  9. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section 175.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose...

  12. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose...

  13. Antihistamine Effect of a Pure Bioactive Compound Isolated from Slug (Diplosolenodes occidentalis) Material

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, AS; Simon, OR; Wheatle, D; Ruddock, P; McCook, K

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Folklore claims of the therapeutic effect of garden slug (Diplosolenodes occidentalis) extract used to relieve bronchoconstriction in asthmatic individuals were never validated scientifically. The aim of this study was to isolate the pure bioactive compound from slug extract causing this effect. Methods: The crude ground material was prepared in ethanol and after filtration, separation by flash column chromatography method was done. The structure was elucidated by data from hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profiles. The bioactive compound was assessed for dose dependent response effects on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle pre-contracted with histamine. Receptor specificity studies were done by using HTMT dimaleate (H1 agonist). The type of antagonism was also identified. Results: The pure component isolated from garden slug material was identified by spectral studies as glyceryl trilinolenate. It caused dose-dependent relaxation in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle strips pre-contracted with histamine, it acted via H1 type receptors and showed non-competitive antagonism. Conclusion: Glyceryl trilinolenate produced dose-dependent relaxation in tracheal smooth muscle strips in the presence of the agonist histamine. Glyceryl trilinolenate displayed non-competitive antagonism at H1 receptors in the trachea. This agent was able to alleviate bronchoconstriction in individuals presenting with atopic asthma in rural agricultural areas in Jamaica (verbal communications). It is possible that glyceryl trilinolenate can be used therapeutically to produce tracheal smooth muscle relaxation in individuals presenting with atopic asthma. PMID:25781274

  14. Formulation of lyotropic liquid crystal containing mulberry stem extract: influences of formulation ingredients on the formation and the nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Yhirayha, C; Soontaranon, S; Wittaya-Areekul, S; Pitaksuteepong, T

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the formulation of lamellar lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) loaded with mulberry stem extract (MSE). The LLC formulation tested used two oils: n-dodecane or tridecyl salicylate, a co-solvent (propylene glycol) and a single (PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate) or mixed surfactant system. The mixed surfactant was PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate/PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil/glyceryl monooleate. The LLC formation and phase behaviour were observed by polarized optical microscopy (POM) before and after MSE loading. Nanostructure determinations on these formulations following MSE loading used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at 25-40°C. Lamellar LLCs are formed more easily with n-dodecane than tridecyl salicylate. Propylene glycol, in the aqueous phase (1 : 1), failed to form LLC due to suboptimal critical packing parameter (CPP) value. A single or mixed surfactant system also influenced the formation of lamellar LLC according to the chemical structure of both oils and especially the surfactants used. The four lamellar LLC formulations selected for MSE loading were PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate/tridecyl salicylate/water; mixed surfactant/tridecyl salicylate/water; PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate/n-dodecane/water and mixed surfactant/n-dodecane/water, named F1, F2, F3 and F4, respectively. MSE in F1 and F3 did not affect the lamellar structure, while MSE in F2 and F4 enlarged the lamellar structure. The SAXS data confirmed that the LLC formulations obtained were lamellar and the structure persisted with MSE. These lamellar formulations should find widespread application for MSE and perhaps other similar herbal cosmetics. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Outcome Of 0.2% Glyceryltrinitrate Cream Versus 2% Diltiazem Cream In The Treatment Of Chronic Anal Fissure.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Siddique; Akbar, Ismail; Zeb, Junaid; Ahmad, Salman; Khan, Ajmal

    2017-01-01

    Anal fissure is a linear tear in the distal anal canal resulting from persistent hypertonia and spasm of the internal sphincter which results in mucosal ischemia. We have conducted a study in order to compare the outcome of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate cream versus 2% diltiazem cream in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out in the Department of Surgical "B" unit, at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan from 15th June 2012 to 15th May 2015. One hundred and eighty-four patients who visited the outpatient department for the treatment of chronic anal fissure were included in the study. They were divided into two groups with 92 patients in each group. Patients in group "A" included those patients receiving topical glyceryl trinitrate and group "B" patients were those receiving topical diltiazem cream. Out of 184 patients 66.3% were males, 33.7% were females. Mean age of the patients was 43.84±7.976 and mean duration of symptoms was 10.55±2.524. Overall outcome in terms of healing was 71.2%, among which 80.4% were from diltiazem group while 62% in glyceryl trinitrate group. Complete relief of pain was observed in 67.9%, 26.1% complained of mild pain and 5.4% complained of moderate pain. Only one patient in glyceryl trinitrate group complained with severe pain with no healing after one month of follow up. No statistical association was found between healing outcome and gender as well as age of the patients (p>0.05) although an association was found between healing outcome and duration of symptoms (p<0.05). This study shows that diltiazem has better outcome in terms of healing of chronic anal fissure and reductions in symptoms, i.e., pain compared with glyceryl trinitrate.

  16. Interactions of non-charged tadalafil stereoisomers with cyclodextrins: capillary electrophoresis and nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

    PubMed

    Fejős, Ida; Kazsoki, Adrienn; Sohajda, Tamás; Márványos, Ede; Volk, Balázs; Szente, Lajos; Béni, Szabolcs

    2014-10-10

    The single isomer drug R,R-tadalafil (Cialis) contains two chiral centers thus four stereoisomers (R,R-, S,S-, S,R- and R,S-tadalafil) exist, however, only the most potent inhibitor, the R,R-tadalafil is in clinical use. In our study, over 20 charged cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives were studied for enantiospecific host-guest type interactions in CD-modified capillary electrophoresis. Tadalafil stereoisomers are non-charged; therefore, their electrophoretic separation poses a challenge. Several candidates of both positively and negatively charged hosts were found to be effective for the enantioseparation. Eight out of the beta derivatives and three of alpha derivatives (including sulfated, sulfoalkylated, carboxyalkylated and amino derivatives) resolved all four stereoisomers partially or completely. Cavity size-dependent absolute enantiomer migration order (EMO) reversals were observed in the case of sulfopropyl-alpha (EMO: R,S; S,R; R,R; S,S) and sulfopropyl-beta (S,S; R,R; S,R; R,S) derivatives, while substituent-dependent partial EMO reversals were detected for sulfobutyl-ether-alpha (R,S; S,R; S,S; R,R) and sulfated-alpha-CD (R,R; S,S; R,S; S,R) selectors. Complexation-induced (1)H NMR chemical shift changes reflected that the benzodioxole moiety plays a major role in cavity size-dependent EMO reversal. Sulfobutyl-ether-alpha-CD was the only selector that provided the desired EMO in which the clinically applied eutomer R,R-tadalafil migrates last. Finally, an electrophoretic method applying a background electrolyte (BGE) containing 75 mM Tris-acetic acid buffer (pH 4.75) and 7 mM sulfobutyl-ether-alpha-CD was developed for the baseline resolution of all isomers at 25 °C and +25 kV applied voltage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced surface segregation of poly(methyl methacrylate) end-capped with 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate by introduction of a second block.

    PubMed

    Ni, Huagang; Gao, Jie; Li, Xuehua; Hu, Yanyan; Yan, Donghuan; Ye, XiuYun; Wang, Xinping

    2012-01-01

    New fluorinated copolymers of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(butyl methacrylate) or poly(n-octadecyl methacrylate) end-capped with 2-perfluorooctylethyl methacrylate (PMMA(x)-b-PBMA(y)-ec-PFMA(z) or PMMA(x)-b-PODMA(y)-ec-PFMA(z)) were synthesized by living atom transfer radical polymerization. Thin films made of PMMA(230)-b-PODMA(y)-ec-PFMA(1) were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These films were found to exhibit robust surface segregation of the end groups. Furthermore, the fluorine enrichment factor at the film surface was found to increase linearly with increasing degree of polymerization of poly(n-octadecyl methacrylate) and its increasing fusion enthalpy in the second block, which enhances the segregation of the fluorinated moieties.

  18. Crystal structure analysis of [Ca(O3SC18H37)2(DMSO)2], a lamellar coordination polymer and its relevance for model studies in biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Volkmer, Dirk; Mayr, Norbert; Fricke, Marc

    2006-11-07

    Single crystals of a one-dimensional Ca coordination polymer of the surfactant octadecyl sulfonate (C(18)H(37)SO(3)(-)) have been grown from hot DMSO solution. The X-ray structure analysis of the compound [Ca(O(3)SC(18)H(37))(2)(DMSO)(2)] (1) shows a lamellar interdigitated arrangement of hydrophobic tails of the amphiphilic ligands. Each Ca ion is coordinated by four different sulfonate groups, and its nearly octahedral coordination environment is completed by two dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) ligands. The octadecyl sulfonate ligand coordinates to Ca ions in a micro(2)-bridging mode, which contrasts to information from literature suggesting a micro(3)-bridging coordination mode. Since the growth of highly oriented calcite single crystals underneath Langmuir monolayers of this particular surfactant is often regarded as textbook example of a heteroepitaxy ("template") mechanism in biomineralization, we present a critical discussion of the crystal structure of the title compound in this context.

  19. Analysis of normal and modified nucleosides in urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with different stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Studzińska, S; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2014-08-01

    The main aim of the present work was to study the retention behavior and quantification of nine nucleosides with the use of octadecyl, alkylamide, cholesterol and alkyl-phosphate stationary phases. The influence of organic solvent and buffer concentration on the separation of these compounds was under investigation. The retention factor had the highest values for the octadecyl and cholesterol packing materials. Complete separation of all the studied nucleosides was achieved in case of cholesterol stationary phase. The optimized separation method was applied for the quantification of nucleosides in the urine samples. Calibration plots showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.999) and the limits of detection were in a range of 0.3-0.5 µg/mL, while the limits of quantitation were >0.9 µg/mL. Accuracy was in the range of 5-11%. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Comparative evaluation of anaerobic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and fatty derivatives currently used as drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Steber, J; Herold, C P; limia, J M

    1995-08-01

    The examination of a number of potential and currently used carrier fluids for invert emulsion drilling fluids in the ECETOC screening test revealed clear differences with respect to their easy anaerobic biodegradability. Fatty acid- and alcohol-based ester oils exhibited excellent anaerobic degradation to the gaseous final end products of the methanogenic degradation pathway, methane and carbon dioxide. Mineral oils, dialkyl ethers, alpha-olefins, polyalphaolefins, linear alkylbenzenes and an acetal-derivative were not or only slowly degraded. Although the poor degradation results obtained in the stringent ECETOC screening test may not be regarded as final proof of anaerobic recalcitrance, nevertheless, these results were found to be in line with the present understanding of the structural requirements for anaerobic biodegradability of chemicals. The validity of the conclusions drawn is corroborated by published results on the anaerobic biodegradation behaviour of ester oils, mineral oils and alkylbenzenes in marine sediments.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes II. Infrared and resonance Raman spectra of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yasuhiko; Katayama, Norihisa; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yasui, Shigeo; Iriyama, Keiji

    1992-11-01

    Infrared (IR) and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of thiatri-, penta- and heptamethine cyanine dyes in the solid state and in solution have been measured. Most of the intense bands observed in the 1600-1100 cm -1 region of the RR spectra may be assigned to totally symmetric stretching modes of the central conjugated system of the cyanines, while most of the strong IR bands in the 1600-1300 cm -1 region are probably due to antisymmetric stretching modes. The intense RR bands do not have their counterparts in the IR spectra and vice versa. A pseudo-mutual exclusion rule seems to be operative for the cyanine vibrational spectra in the 1600-1300 cm -1 region, indicating that the central conjugated systems of the cyanines have nearly symmetrical structure, i.e. the extended all-trans forms of the methine chains and the bond orders of 1.5 of the CC and CN bonds in both the solution and solid states. The IR spectra of 3-ethyl-2-[3-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1-propenyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-76) and 3-ethyl-2-[7-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-126) change little between the solid and solution states while those of 3-octadecyl-2-[3-(3-octadecyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1-propenyl]benzothiazolium iodide (NK-2560) and 3-octadecyl-2-[7-(3-octadecyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]benzothiazolium perchlorate (NK-2861) alter significantly between the two states in the frequencies of bands due to the stretching modes of their central conjugated systems. The results suggest that the electronic states of the central conjugated systems of NK-2560 and NK-2861 undergo appreciable changes on going from the solid to the solution states.

  2. [Chemical constituents from the tubers of Ipomoea batata].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-Qin; Shen, Zhi-Bin; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from the tubers of Ipomoea batata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by solvent extraction together with various chromatographic techniques. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical property and spectral data. 6 compounds were identified from the CHCl3 extract as Batatinoside I (1), citrusin C(2), octadecyl caffeate (3), beta-amyrin acetate (4), caffeic acid (5), scopoletin (6). Compound 1 is isolated from Ipomoea batata for the first time.

  3. Efficacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS): a partial-factorial randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs to lower their blood pressure. Methods In our multicentre, partial-factorial trial, we randomly assigned patients admitted to hospital with an acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke and raised systolic blood pressure (systolic 140–220 mm Hg) to 7 days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg per day), started within 48 h of stroke onset, or to no glyceryl trinitrate (control group). A subset of patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs before their stroke were also randomly assigned to continue or stop taking these drugs. The primary outcome was function, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days by observers masked to treatment assignment. This study is registered, number ISRCTN99414122. Findings Between July 20, 2001, and Oct 14, 2013, we enrolled 4011 patients. Mean blood pressure was 167 (SD 19) mm Hg/90 (13) mm Hg at baseline (median 26 h [16–37] after stroke onset), and was significantly reduced on day 1 in 2000 patients allocated to glyceryl trinitrate compared with 2011 controls (difference −7·0 [95% CI −8·5 to −5·6] mm Hg/–3·5 [–4·4 to −2·6] mm Hg; both p<0·0001), and on day 7 in 1053 patients allocated to continue antihypertensive drugs compared with 1044 patients randomised to stop them (difference −9·5 [95% CI −11·8 to −7·2] mm Hg/–5·0 [–6·4 to −3·7] mm Hg; both p<0·0001). Functional outcome at day 90 did not differ in either treatment comparison—the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with glyceryl trinitrate versus no glyceryl trinitrate was 1·01 (95% CI 0·91–1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90–1·22; p=0·55). Interpretation

  4. The impact of ion-pairing reagents on the selectivity and sensitivity in the analysis of modified oligonucleotides in serum samples by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Studzińska, Sylwia; Rola, Rafał; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2017-05-10

    Present study highlights the usage of various ion-pairing agents and their impact on the process of separation and ionization of oligonucleotides in the fortified human serum samples. What is more, retention studies involved different stationary phases, including: octadecyl, phenyl, pentafluorophenyl groups and ligands with embedded polar groups. It was proved that retention of oligonucleotides strongly depends on the alkyl chain branching in the structure of ion pairing reagent. Furthermore ion-pairing agents build of straight alkyl chain are more easily adsorbed on the stationary phase modified with octadecyl groups, while branching of alkyl chain caused more effective adsorption of studied compounds at phenyl groups compared to octadecyl ones. The lowest limit of quantification values were obtained for 5mMN,N-dimethylbutylamine, while the highest values are characteristic for hexylamine. Moreover it was shown that a 2-fold increase of ion-pairing agent concentration results in higher LOQ. The greatest sensitivity was obtained for 2.5mMN,N-dimethylbutylamine/150mM hexafluoroisopropanol. On the other hand Hypersil GOLD aQ column was the most appropriate in terms of time and separation effectiveness. The developed method was successfully used for the determination of studied oligonucleotides and their metabolites in human serum samples. The compounds were separated in just 3.5min with high sensitivity (0.09-0.16ng). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The control of ice crystal growth and effect on porous structure of konjac glucomannan-based aerogels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xuewen; Ke, Fan; Xiao, Man; Wu, Kao; Kuang, Ying; Corke, Harold; Jiang, Fatang

    2016-11-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM)-based aerogels were prepared using a combination of sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. Preparation conditions were chosen to control ice crystal growth and aerogel structure formation. The ice crystals formed during pre-freezing were observed by low temperature polarizing microscopy, and images of aerogel pores were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The size of ice crystals were calculated and size distribution maps were drawn, and similarly for aerogel pores. Results showed that ice crystal growth and aerogel pore sizes may be controlled by varying pre-freezing temperatures, KGM concentration and glyceryl monostearate concentration. The impact of pre-freezing temperatures on ice crystal growth was explained as combining ice crystal growth rate with nucleation rate, while the impacts of KGM and glyceryl monostearate concentration on ice crystal growth were interpreted based on their influences on sol network structure.

  6. Transesterification of triglycerides using nitrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alberto; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe; Majoulet, Olivier; Su, Dang Sheng; Schlögl, Robert

    2010-02-22

    Nitrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes were synthesized by grafting amino groups to the surface of the nanotubes. The nanotubes exhibited promising results in the base-catalyzed liquid phase transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate with methanol, which is a model reaction for the production of biodiesel. The concentration of the active sites and the reaction parameters, such as temperature and glyceryl tributyrate to methanol ratio, were shown to significantly affect catalytic performance. The grafting technique employed allowed for design and control of the active sites. As a consequence, it was possible to design a nitrogen-functionalized carbon nanotube catalyst with a few strong, basic groups. This might be of interest for carbohydrate conversion reactions where strong basic sites are required but the pH of the solution should remain mild to avoid the degradation of the reactants and/or products.

  7. Scent gland constituents of the Middle American burrowing python, Loxocemus bicolor (Serpentes: Loxocemidae).

    PubMed

    Schulze, Thies; Weldon, Paul J; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-07-14

    Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the scent gland secretions of male and female Middle American burrowing pythons (Loxocemus bicolor) revealed the presence of over 300 components including cholesterol, fatty acids, glyceryl monoalkyl ethers, and alcohols. The fatty acids, over 100 of which were identified, constitute most of the compounds in the secretions and show the greatest structural diversity. They include saturated and unsaturated, unbranched and mono-, di-, and trimethyl-branched compounds ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. The glyceryl monoethers possess saturated or unsaturated, straight or methyl-branched alkyl chains ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. Alcohols, which have not previously been reported from the scent glands, possess straight, chiefly saturated carbon chains ranging in length from 13 to 24. Sex or individual differences in secretion composition were not observed. Compounds in the scent gland secretions of L. bicolor may deter offending arthropods, such as ants.

  8. Utilization of ascites plasma very low density lipoprotein triglycerides by Ehrlich cells.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, D E; Spector, A A

    1974-07-01

    Much of the lipid present in the ascites plasma in which Ehrlich cells grow is contained in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Chemical measurements indicated that triglycerides were taken up by the cells during in vitro incubation with ascites VLDL. When tracer amounts of radioactive triolein were incorporated into the ascites VLDL, the percentage uptakes of glyceryl tri[1-(14)C]oleate and triglycerides measured chemically were similar. The cells also took up [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate that was added to VLDL, but the percentage of available (3)H recovered in the cell lipids was 30-40% less than that of (1 4)C from glyceryl tri[1-(1 4)C]oleate. This difference was accounted for by water-soluble (3)H that accumulated in the incubation medium, suggesting that extensive hydrolysis accompanied the uptake of VLDL triglycerides. Radioactive fatty acids derived from the VLDL triglycerides were incorporated into cell phospholipids, glycerides, and free fatty acids, and they also were oxidized to CO(2). Triglyceride utilization increased as the VLDL concentration was raised. These results suggest that one function of the ascites plasma VLDL may be to supply fatty acid to the Ehrlich cells and that the availability of fatty acid to this tumor is determined in part by the ascites plasma VLDL concentration. Although Ehrlich cells incorporate almost no free glycerol into triglycerides, considerable amounts of [2-(3)H]glyceryl trioleate radioactivity were recovered in cell triglycerides. This indicates that at least some VLDL triglycerides were taken up intact. The net uptake of VLDL protein and cholesterol was very small relative to the triglyceride uptake, suggesting that intact triglycerides are transferred from the ascites VLDL to the Ehrlich cells and that hydrolysis occurs after the triglyceride is associated with the cells.

  9. Electrochemical characterization of bilayer lipid membrane-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiao Kang; Baral, S.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-03-08

    Three different systems of glyceryl monooleate (GMO), bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) supported semiconductor particles have been prepared and characterized. A single composition of particulate semiconductor deposited only on one side of the BLM constituted system A, two different compositions of particulate semiconductors sequentially deposited on the same side of the BLM represented system B, and two different compositions of particulate semiconductors deposited on the opposite sides of the BLM made up system C.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Triacetin. 184.1901 Section 184.1901 Food and....1901 Triacetin. (a) Triacetin (C8 H14O6, CAS Reg. No. 102-76-1), also known as 1,2,3,-propanetriol triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid. Triacetin can be prepared by...

  11. Direct Synthesis of ESBO Derivatives-18O Labelled with Dioxirane

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Immacolata; Fusco, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses a new approach developed in our laboratory, consisting in the application of isolated dimethyldioxirane (DDO, 1a) labelled with 18O for synthesis of epoxidized glyceryl linoleate (Gly-LLL, 2). We expect that this work could contribute in improving analytical methods for the determination of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) in complex food matrices by adopting an 18O-labelled-epoxidized triacylglycerol as an internal standard. PMID:24163617

  12. Automated Nitrocellulose Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    is acceptable. (4) As would be expected from the theory of osmosis , a high saline content in the dialysis recipient stream (countersolution) is of...Block 39, II different from Report; IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WOROS (Continue on rereri Analysis Automated analysis Dialysis Glyceryl...Technicon AutoAnalyzer, involves aspiration of a stirred nitrocellulose suspension, dialysis against 9 percent saline, and hydrolysis with 5N sodium

  13. Efficacy of combination of 0.2% GTN and lignocaine ointments in wound healing and pain relief after Milligan Morgan hemorrhoidectomy--a comparison with lignocaine and 0.2% GTN ointments separately.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khizar Ishtiaque; Waqas, Ahmed; Akmal, Muhammad; Mahmood, Shahid; Iqbal, Afaq

    2014-01-01

    To compare the analgesic efficacy and rate of wound healing of combination of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate and 2% lignocaine ointments with 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate and 2% lignocaine ointment separately after Milligan Morgan hemorrhoidectomy. Randomized control trial. Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, Malir and Bannu. November 2007 to August 2011. Patients undergoing Milligan Morgan hemorrhoidectomy were randomized into 3 groups by using computer generated table. Group A received combination of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate and 2% lignocaine ointment, Group B 2% lignocaine and Group C received 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment. These ointments were given on twice daily basis. Pain scores were measured on a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale. Pain scores and quantity of oral analgesics used were compared daily until the 7th post-operative day. The time required for complete healing (in weeks) was also compared. Out of 210 patients, 192 (67 Group A, 64 Group B and 61 Group C) completed the study. Demographic data were comparable in all three groups. There were statistically significant reductions in pain scores and quantity of analgesics used from the first to the fourth post-operative days in Group A. The time required for complete healing was also significantly reduced in the combination group. There were no significant side effects in any group. The combination of 0.2% GTN and 2% lignocaine showed better pain relief resulting in less use of oral analgesics and faster healing of the wound after Milligan Morgan hemorrhoidectomy. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative studies of lamivudine-zidovudine nanoparticles for the selective uptake by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sankar, V; Nareshkumar, Parmar Nilaykumar; Ajitkumar, Gohel Nishit; Penmetsa, Shalini Devi; Hariharan, Sivaram

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigates the specific drug targeting of anti retroviral drugs, such as lamivudine and zidovudine, after intraperitoneal (i.p) injection by incorporation into polymeric nanoparticles (PNs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Our results showed that Glyceryl Monosterate-Poloxamer 188 SLNs (average diameter of 522.466 nm) showed slow drug release rates (63.18% of lamivudine and 62.37% of zidovudine were released in 12 hrs) among all the SLN formulations. For Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-Poloxamer 188 PNs (average diameter of 70.348 nm), there were faster release rates of both lamivudine and zidovudine (97% and 94.06%, respectively, in 12 hrs). Tissue distribution studies were carried out in mice and concentrations of drugs in different organs were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after i.p. administration. Glyceryl Monosterate-Poloxamer 188 SLNs and PLGA-Poloxamer 188 PNs showed increase in the distribution of lamivudine and zidovudine to liver and spleen when compared to the drugs in solution. Also, Glyceryl Monosterate-P 188 SLNs showed higher concentration of drugs in RES organs than PLGA-P 188 PNs.

  15. Characterization of semi-solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of atorvastatin calcium by Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Breitkreitz, Márcia C; Sabin, Guilherme P; Polla, Griselda; Poppi, Ronei J

    2013-01-25

    A methodology based on Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics for homogeneity evaluation of formulations containing atorvastatin calcium in Gelucire(®) 44/14 is presented. In the first part of the work, formulations with high amounts of Gelucire(®) 44/14 (80%) and solvents of different polarities (diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propyleneglycol, propylene glycol monocaprylate and glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate) were prepared for miscibility screening evaluation by classical least squares (CLS). It was observed that Gelucire(®) 44/14 presented higher affinity for the lipophilic solvents glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate and propylene glycol monocaprylate, whose samples were observed to be homogeneous, and lower affinity for the hydrophilic solvents diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and propyleneglycol, whose samples were heterogeneous. In the second part of the work, the ratio of glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate and Gelucire(®) 44/14 was determined based on studies in water and allowed the selection of the proportions of these two excipients in the preconcentrate that provided supersaturation of atorvastatin upon dilution. The preconcentrate was then evaluated for homogeneity by partial least squares (PLS) and an excellent miscibility was observed in this proportion as well. Therefore, it was possible to select a formulation that presented simultaneously homogeneous preconcentrate and solubility enhancement in water by Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics.

  16. Acute Lipotoxicity Regulates Severity of Biliary Acute Pancreatitis without Affecting Its Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Cline, Rachel; Trivedi, Ram N.; DeLany, James P.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Lee, Kenneth; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Navina, Sarah; Murad, Faris; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Obese patients have worse outcomes during acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous animal models of AP have found worse outcomes in obese rodents who may have a baseline proinflammatory state. Our aim was to study the role of acute lipolytic generation of fatty acids on local severity and systemic complications of AP. Human postpancreatitis necrotic collections were analyzed for unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids. A model of biliary AP was designed to replicate the human variables by intraductal injection of the triglyceride glyceryl trilinoleate alone or with the chemically distinct lipase inhibitors orlistat or cetilistat. Parameters of AP etiology and outcomes of local and systemic severity were measured. Patients with postpancreatitis necrotic collections were obese, and 13 of 15 had biliary AP. Postpancreatitis necrotic collections were enriched in UFAs. Intraductal glyceryl trilinoleate with or without the lipase inhibitors resulted in oil red O–positive areas, resembling intrapancreatic fat. Both lipase inhibitors reduced the glyceryl trilinoleate–induced increase in serum lipase, UFAs, pancreatic necrosis, serum inflammatory markers, systemic injury, and mortality but not serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, or amylase. We conclude that UFAs are enriched in human necrotic collections and acute UFA generation via lipolysis worsens pancreatic necrosis, systemic inflammation, and injury associated with severe AP. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces UFA generation and improves these outcomes of AP without interfering with its induction. PMID:24854864

  17. In vitro suppression of drug-induced methaemoglobin formation by Intralipid(®) in whole human blood: observations relevant to the 'lipid sink theory'.

    PubMed

    Samuels, T L; Willers, J W; Uncles, D R; Monteiro, R; Halloran, C; Dai, H

    2012-01-01

    To provide further evidence for the lipid sink theory, we have developed an in vitro model to assess the effect of Intralipid® 20% on methaemoglobin formation by drugs of varying lipid solubility. Progressively increasing Intralipid concentrations from 4 to 24 mg.ml⁻¹ suppressed methaemoglobin formation by the lipid soluble drug glyceryl trinitrate in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). Both dose and timing of administration of Intralipid to blood previously incubated with glyceryl trinitrate for 10 and 40 min resulted in significant suppression of methaemoglobin formation (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Mathematical modelling demonstrated that the entire process of methaemoglobin formation by glyceryl trinitrate was slowed down in the presence of Intralipid. Intralipid did not significantly suppress methaemoglobin formation induced by 2-amino-5-hydroxytoluene (partially lipid soluble) or sodium nitrite (lipid insoluble; both p > 0.5). This work may assist determination of the suitability of drugs taken in overdose for which Intralipid might be deployed.

  18. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by fatty acids and monoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Wang, L L; Johnson, E A

    1992-02-01

    Fatty acids and monoglycerides were evaluated in brain heart infusion broth and in milk for antimicrobial activity against the Scott A strain of Listeria monocytogenes. C12:0, C18:3, and glyceryl monolaurate (monolaurin) had the strongest activity in brain heart infusion broth and were bactericidal at 10 to 20 micrograms/ml, whereas potassium (K)-conjugated linoleic acids and C18:2 were bactericidal at 50 to 200 micrograms/ml. C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, glyceryl monomyristate, and glyceryl monopalmitate were not inhibitory at 200 micrograms/ml. The bactericidal activity in brain heart infusion broth was higher at pH 5 than at pH 6. In whole milk and skim milk, K-conjugated linoleic acid was bacteriostatic and prolonged the lag phase especially at 4 degrees C. Monolaurin inactivated L. monocytogenes in skim milk at 4 degrees C, but was less inhibitory at 23 degrees C. Monolaurin did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in whole milk because of the higher fat content. Other fatty acids tested were not effective in whole or skim milk. Our results suggest that K-conjugated linoleic acids or monolaurin could be used as an inhibitory agent against L. monocytogenes in dairy foods.

  19. Development of novel sustained release matrix pellets of betahistine dihydrochloride: effect of lipophilic surfactants and co-surfactants.

    PubMed

    Shamma, Rehab Nabil; Basalious, Emad B; Shoukri, Raguia

    2012-01-01

    Sustained release matrix pellets of the freely water soluble drug, betahistine dihydrochloride (BH), were prepared using freeze pelletization technique. Different waxes and lipids (cetyl alcohol, beeswax, glyceryl tripalmitate (GTP) and glyceryl tristearate) were evaluated for the preparation of matrix pellets. A D-optimal design was employed for the optimization and to explore the effect of drug loading (X(1)), concentration of lipophilic surfactant (X(2)), concentration of co-surfactant (X(3)) and wax type (X(4)) on the release extent of the drug from matrix pellets. The entrapment efficiency (Y(1)), pellet diameter (Y(2)), and the percentage drug released at given times were selected as dependent variables. Results revealed a significant impact of all independent variables on drug release from the formulated pellets. The lipophilic surfactant significantly increased both the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro drug release and significantly decreased the pellet size. The optimized BH-loaded pellets were composed of 19.95% drug loading, 9.95% Span(®) 80 (surfactant), 0.25% Capmul(®) (co-surfactant) using glyceryl tripalmitate as a matrix former. The release profiles of the drug from hard gelatin capsule containing optimized pellets equivalent to 32 mg BH was similar to that of target release model for once-daily administration based on similarity factor. It could be concluded that a promising once-daily capsule containing sustained release pellets of BH was successfully designed.

  20. Effect of alkyl chain length on the rotational diffusion of nonpolar and ionic solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides.

    PubMed

    Gangamallaiah, V; Dutt, G B

    2013-10-10

    Rotational diffusion of a nonpolar solute 9-phenylanthracene (9-PA) and a cationic solute rhodamine 110 (R110) has been examined in a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides to understand the influence of alkyl chain length on solute rotation. In this study, reorientation times (τr) have been measured as a function of viscosity (η) by varying the temperature (T) of the solvents. These results have been analyzed using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory along with the ones obtained for the same solutes in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and hexyl) bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides (Gangamallaiah and Dutt, J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 12819-12825). It has been noticed that the data for 9-PA and R110 follows the relation τr = A(η/T)(n) with A being the ratio of hydrodynamic volume of the solute to the Boltzmann constant and n = 1 as envisaged by the SED theory. However, upon increasing the alkyl chain length from methyl to octadecyl significant deviations from the SED theory have been observed especially from the octyl derivative onward. From methyl to octadecyl derivatives, the value of A decreases by a factor of 3 for both the solutes and n by a factor of 1.4 and 1.6 for 9-PA and R110, respectively. These observations have been rationalized by taking into consideration the organized structure of the ionic liquids, whose influence appears to be pronounced when the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain attached to the imidazolium cation exceeds eight.

  1. Thermoreversible Gels Composed of Colloidal Silica Rods with Short-Range Attractions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Hong, Kunlun; Wagner, Norman J.

    2016-07-28

    Dynamic arrest transitions of colloidal suspensions containing non-spherical particles are of interest for the design and processing of various particle technologies. To better understand the effects of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on gel and glass formation, we present a colloidal model system of octadecyl-coated silica rods, termed as adhesive hard rods (AHR), which enables control of rod aspect ratio and temperature-dependent interactions. The aspect ratios of silica rods were controlled by varying the initial TEOS concentration following the work of Kuijk et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 2346–2349) and temperature-dependent attractions were introduced by coating the calcined silica rods with an octadecyl-brush and suspending in tetradecane. The rod length and aspect ratio were found to increase with TEOS concentration as expected, while other properties such as the rod diameter, coating coverage, density, and surface roughness were nearly independent of the aspect ratio. Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed temperature-dependent attractions between octadecyl-coated silica rods in tetradecane, as characterized by a low-q upturn in the scattered intensity upon thermal quenching. Lastly, the rheology of a concentrated AHR suspension in tetradecane demonstrated thermoreversible gelation behavior, displaying a nearly 5 orders of magnitude change in the dynamic moduli as the temperature was cycled between 15 and 40 °C. We find the adhesive hard rod model system serves as a tunable platform to explore the combined influence of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on the dynamic arrest transitions in colloidal suspensions with thermoreversible, short-range attractions.

  2. Immobilization of Lipase from Penicillium sp. Section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583) on Different Hydrophobic Supports: Modulation of Functional Properties.

    PubMed

    Turati, Daniela F M; Morais Júnior, Wilson G; Terrasan, César R F; Moreno-Perez, Sonia; Pessela, Benevides C; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria; Guisan, Jose M; Carmona, Eleonora C

    2017-02-22

    Lipases are promising enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol ester bonds at the oil/water interface. Apart from allowing biocatalyst reuse, immobilization can also affect enzyme structure consequently influencing its activity, selectivity, and stability. The lipase from Penicillium sp. section Gracilenta (CBMAI 1583) was successfully immobilized on supports bearing butyl, phenyl, octyl, octadecyl, and divinylbenzyl hydrophobic moieties wherein lipases were adsorbed through the highly hydrophobic opened active site. The highest activity in aqueous medium was observed for the enzyme adsorbed on octyl support, with a 150% hyperactivation regarding the soluble enzyme activity, and the highest adsorption strength was verified with the most hydrophobic support (octadecyl Sepabeads), requiring 5% Triton X-100 to desorb the enzyme from the support. Most of the derivatives presented improved properties such as higher stability to pH, temperature, and organic solvents than the covalently immobilized CNBr derivative (prepared under very mild experimental conditions and thus a reference mimicking free-enzyme behavior). A 30.8- and 46.3-fold thermostabilization was achieved in aqueous medium, respectively, by the octyl Sepharose and Toyopearl butyl derivatives at 60 °C, in relation to the CNBr derivative. The octyl- and phenyl-agarose derivatives retained 50% activity after four and seven cycles of p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolysis, respectively. Different derivatives exhibited different properties regarding their properties for fish oil hydrolysis in aqueous medium and ethanolysis in anhydrous medium. The most active derivative in ethanolysis of fish oil was the enzyme adsorbed on a surface covered by divinylbenzyl moieties and it was 50-fold more active than the enzyme adsorbed on octadecyl support. Despite having identical mechanisms of immobilization, different hydrophobic supports seem to promote different shapes of the adsorbed open active site of the

  3. Thermoreversible Gels Composed of Colloidal Silica Rods with Short-Range Attractions

    DOE PAGES

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Hong, Kunlun; Wagner, Norman J.

    2016-07-28

    Dynamic arrest transitions of colloidal suspensions containing non-spherical particles are of interest for the design and processing of various particle technologies. To better understand the effects of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on gel and glass formation, we present a colloidal model system of octadecyl-coated silica rods, termed as adhesive hard rods (AHR), which enables control of rod aspect ratio and temperature-dependent interactions. The aspect ratios of silica rods were controlled by varying the initial TEOS concentration following the work of Kuijk et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 2346–2349) and temperature-dependent attractions were introduced by coating themore » calcined silica rods with an octadecyl-brush and suspending in tetradecane. The rod length and aspect ratio were found to increase with TEOS concentration as expected, while other properties such as the rod diameter, coating coverage, density, and surface roughness were nearly independent of the aspect ratio. Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed temperature-dependent attractions between octadecyl-coated silica rods in tetradecane, as characterized by a low-q upturn in the scattered intensity upon thermal quenching. Lastly, the rheology of a concentrated AHR suspension in tetradecane demonstrated thermoreversible gelation behavior, displaying a nearly 5 orders of magnitude change in the dynamic moduli as the temperature was cycled between 15 and 40 °C. We find the adhesive hard rod model system serves as a tunable platform to explore the combined influence of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on the dynamic arrest transitions in colloidal suspensions with thermoreversible, short-range attractions.« less

  4. Thermoreversible Gels Composed of Colloidal Silica Rods with Short-Range Attractions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Hong, Kunlun; Wagner, Norman J.

    2016-07-28

    Dynamic arrest transitions of colloidal suspensions containing non-spherical particles are of interest for the design and processing of various particle technologies. To better understand the effects of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on gel and glass formation, we present a colloidal model system of octadecyl-coated silica rods, termed as adhesive hard rods (AHR), which enables control of rod aspect ratio and temperature-dependent interactions. The aspect ratios of silica rods were controlled by varying the initial TEOS concentration following the work of Kuijk et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 2346–2349) and temperature-dependent attractions were introduced by coating the calcined silica rods with an octadecyl-brush and suspending in tetradecane. The rod length and aspect ratio were found to increase with TEOS concentration as expected, while other properties such as the rod diameter, coating coverage, density, and surface roughness were nearly independent of the aspect ratio. Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed temperature-dependent attractions between octadecyl-coated silica rods in tetradecane, as characterized by a low-q upturn in the scattered intensity upon thermal quenching. Lastly, the rheology of a concentrated AHR suspension in tetradecane demonstrated thermoreversible gelation behavior, displaying a nearly 5 orders of magnitude change in the dynamic moduli as the temperature was cycled between 15 and 40 °C. We find the adhesive hard rod model system serves as a tunable platform to explore the combined influence of particle shape anisotropy and attraction strength on the dynamic arrest transitions in colloidal suspensions with thermoreversible, short-range attractions.

  5. In vitro intestinal bioaccessibility of alkylglycerols versus triacylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Martín, Diana; Morán-Valero, María I; Señoráns, Francisco J; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2011-03-01

    Butyric acid has been the subject of much attention last years due to its bioactivity. However, the potential advantages of butyrate are limited by the problem to reach enough plasma concentrations; therefore, pro-drugs have been proposed as an alternative to natural butyrate. A comparative study on in vitro intestinal digestion of 2,3-dibutyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (D-SCAKG) and tributyrin (TB), as potential pro-drugs of butyric acid, was performed. Aliquots were taken at different times of digestion for studying the extent and rate of hydrolysis of both substrates. The micellar phase (MP) and oily phase (OP) formed in the digestion media were separated and their composition in lipid products was analyzed. Initially, it was confirmed that the in vitro model reproduced physiological results by testing against olive oil as a standard lipid. The progress of in vitro intestinal digestion of D-SCAKG was slower than that of TB. TB hydrolyzed completely to butyric acid, whereas D-SCAKG mainly yielded 2-butyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (M-SCAKG), followed by butyric acid and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol (AKG). The MP from both substrates mainly consisted of butyric acid. Minor levels of M-SCAKG and AKG were also found in the MP after hydrolysis of D-SCAKG, the M-SCAKG being mainly distributed in the OP. Therefore, D-SCAKG produced a stable form of esterified butyric acid as M-SCAKG after in vitro intestinal digestion, unlike TB. Additionally, such a product would integrate both bioactive compounds, butyric acid and alkylglycerol, within the same molecule. Free butyric acid and AKG would be also released, which are lipid products of interest as well.

  6. Functional double-shelled silicon nanocrystals for two-photon fluorescence cell imaging: spectral evolution and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sourov; Ghosh, Batu; Beaune, Grégory; Nagarajan, Usharani; Yasui, Takao; Nakamura, Jin; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Baba, Yoshinobu; Shirahata, Naoto; Winnik, Françoise M.

    2016-04-01

    Functional near-IR (NIR) emitting nanoparticles (NPs) adapted for two-photon excitation fluorescence cell imaging were obtained starting from octadecyl-terminated silicon nanocrystals (ncSi-OD) of narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectra having no long emission tails, continuously tunable over the 700-1000 nm window, PL quantum yields exceeding 30%, and PL lifetimes of 300 μs or longer. These NPs, consisting of a Pluronic F127 shell and a core made up of assembled ncSi-OD kept apart by an octadecyl (OD) layer, were readily internalized into the cytosol, but not the nucleus, of NIH3T3 cells and were non-toxic. Asymmetrical field-flow fractionation (AF4) analysis was carried out to determine the size of the NPs in water. HiLyte Fluor 750 amine was linked via an amide link to NPs prepared with Pluronic-F127-COOH, as a first demonstration of functional NIR-emitting water dispersible ncSi-based nanoparticles.Functional near-IR (NIR) emitting nanoparticles (NPs) adapted for two-photon excitation fluorescence cell imaging were obtained starting from octadecyl-terminated silicon nanocrystals (ncSi-OD) of narrow photoluminescence (PL) spectra having no long emission tails, continuously tunable over the 700-1000 nm window, PL quantum yields exceeding 30%, and PL lifetimes of 300 μs or longer. These NPs, consisting of a Pluronic F127 shell and a core made up of assembled ncSi-OD kept apart by an octadecyl (OD) layer, were readily internalized into the cytosol, but not the nucleus, of NIH3T3 cells and were non-toxic. Asymmetrical field-flow fractionation (AF4) analysis was carried out to determine the size of the NPs in water. HiLyte Fluor 750 amine was linked via an amide link to NPs prepared with Pluronic-F127-COOH, as a first demonstration of functional NIR-emitting water dispersible ncSi-based nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01437b

  7. Surfactants and Desensitizing Wax Substitutes for TNT-Based Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Phthalimides with long-chain alkyl groups have been found to be very wax-like. They are made from phthalic anhydride and an alkyl amine. Pure N-octadecyl...Phthalate Half-Esters Phthalic anhydride (5.07 g) and 14.9 grams of Unilin 350 alcohol were charged to a container and heated with stirring for 2 hours at...With The Enthalpy Of ....... 40 Wax Desensitizers 7. DSC Of Ganex WP-660/TNT Mixture ........................ 50 8. DSC Of Solsperse 5000/TNT Mixture

  8. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method.

  9. Alkyl ferulates in wound healing potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Bernards, M A; Lewis, N G

    1992-10-01

    Seven ferulic acid esters of 1-alkanols ranging in carbon length from C16 to C28 were synthesized and an HPLC protocol for their separation developed. Extracts prepared from wound healing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and analysed by HPLC indicated that alkyl ferulate esters begin to accumulate 3-7 days after wound treatment. Of the nine esters identified by EIMS, (including two esters of odd chain length alkanols) hexadecyl and octadecyl ferulates were predominant. Alkyl ferulate esters were restricted to the wound periderm.

  10. High-resolution crystal spectrometer for the 10-60 (angstrom) EUV region

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Goddard, R; Wargelin, B J

    2004-02-20

    A vacuum crystal spectrometer with nominal resolving power approaching 1000 is described for measuring emission lines with wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet region up to 60 Angstroms. The instrument utilizes a flat octadecyl hydrogen maleate (OHM) crystal and a thin-window 1-D position-sensitive gas proportional detector. This detector employs a 1 {micro}m-thick 100 x8 mm{sup 2} aluminized polyimide window and operates at one atmosphere pressure. The spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps. The performance of the instrument is illustrated in measurements of the newly discovered magnetic field-sensitive line in Ar{sup 8+}.

  11. Determination of MDMA, MDEA and MDA in urine by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    da Costa, José Luiz; da Matta Chasin, Alice Aparecida

    2004-11-05

    This paper describes the development and validation of analytical methodology for the determination of the use of MDMA, MDEA and MDA in urine. After a simple liquid extraction, the analyses were carried out on a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an octadecyl column, with fluorescence detection. The mobile phase using a sodium dodecyl sulfate ion-pairing reagent allows good separation and efficiency. The method showed good linearity and precision. Recovery was between 85 and 102% and detection limits were 10, 15 and 20 ng/ml for MDA, MDMA and MDEA, respectively. No interfering substances were detected with fluorescence detection.

  12. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retention of Proteins and Metalloproteins in Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatography with Etched Chemically Modified Columns

    PubMed Central

    Pesek, Joseph J.; Matyska, Maria T.; Salgotra, Vasudha

    2010-01-01

    Etched chemically modified capillaries with two different bonded groups (pentyl and octadecyl) are compared for their migration behavior of several common proteins and metalloproteins as well as metalloproteinases. Migration times, efficiency and peak shape are evaluated over the pH range of 2.1 to 8.1 to determine any effects of the bonded group on the electrochromatographic behavior of these compounds. One goal was to determine if the relative hydrophobicity of the stationary phase has a significant effect on proteins in the open tubular format of capillary electrochromatography as it does in HPLC. Reproducibility of the migration times is also investigated. PMID:18850653

  14. Determination of nadolol in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Yoshida, K; Murano, M; Naruto, S

    1992-01-17

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for a routine assay of nadolol in serum is described. Serum samples spiked with atenolol (internal standard) were extracted with diethyl ether. After centrifugation, the organic layer was evaporated to dryness. The residue was redissolved in the mobile phase and injected onto an octadecyl silica column (150 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.). The mobile phase was 0.05 M ammonium acetate (pH 4.5)-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). Fluorometric detection (excitation 230 nm, emission 300 nm) was used. The minimum detectable level of nadolol in serum was 1 ng/ml.

  15. Determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Takuma; Iles, Alexander; Hasebe, Kiyoshi

    2002-02-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the separation and characterisation of alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs), using a C18 octadecyl silica (ODS) column. APs and each APEO oligomer were separated successfully within a reasonable time without gradient elution. An excellent resolution was obtained, even for mixtures of APs and low EO number APEOs, which are otherwise difficult to separate using conventional normal-phase HPLC methods. This method, combined with solid-phase extraction, was highly applicable for the simultaneous determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in real samples.

  16. Predicting the Conditions for Homeotropic Anchoring of Liquid Crystals at a Soft Surface. 4-n-Pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl on Alkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Roscioni, Otello Maria; Muccioli, Luca; Zannoni, Claudio

    2017-04-05

    We have studied, using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, the alignment of the nematic liquid-crystal 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from octadecyl- and/or hexyltrichlorosilane (OTS and HTS) attached to glassy silica. We find a planar alignment on OTS at full coverage and an intermediate situation at partial OTS coverage because of the penetration of 5CB molecules into the monolayer, which also removes the tilt of the OTS SAM. Binary mixtures of HTS and OTS SAMs instead induce homeotropic (i.e., perpendicular) alignment. A comparison with the existing experimental literature is provided.

  17. Sorption of certain isatins on various sorbents under RP-HPLC conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, A. V.; Shafigulin, R. V.; Il'in, M. M.; Davankov, V. A.; Bulanova, A. V.; Purygin, P. P.

    2013-06-01

    The results from chromatographic analysis of biologically active isatin derivatives on hyper-crosslinked polystyrene (HCLPS) and silica gel modified by octadecyl groups (SilC18) are presented. The constants of distribution of sorbates between a mobile phase and the investigated sorbents ( K x ) and the changes in the standard differential molar Gibbs energies of adsorption (Δ _a bar G^circ ) are calculated, along with the chromatographic retention-physicochemical property of sorbate dependences. It is found that the equations describing these dependences have high forecasting ability with respect to the values of retention factors of the investigated sorbates.

  18. Comparison of solid-phase extraction sorbents for sample clean-up in the analysis of organic explosives.

    PubMed

    Tachon, Romain; Pichon, Valérie; Barbe Le Borgne, Martine; Minet, Jean-Jacques

    2008-03-21

    A solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for the clean-up of forensic samples collected at bombing scenes. Recoveries of common organic explosives from methanolic extracts diluted with water were studied on different hydrophobic sorbents. Polymeric sorbents retained explosive compounds better than octadecyl-bonded silica-based materials. Clean-up efficiency was evaluated with simulated samples prepared from commercial motor oil. Polymeric sorbent with the smallest specific surface area was found to limit the coextraction of matrix components. Performance of the method was confirmed by a reduction of ion suppression in LC/MS analysis.

  19. Copper(II) complexes of lipophilic aminoglycoside derivatives for the amino acid enantiomeric separation by ligand-exchange liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Mustapha; Baussanne, Isabelle; Ravelet, Corinne; Halder, Somnath; Haroun, Mohamed; Fize, Jennifer; Décout, Jean-Luc; Peyrin, Eric

    2008-03-28

    In this paper, a new class of ligand-exchange chiral stationary phase (LE-CSP) based on the copper complexes of lipophilic aminoglycoside derivatives was reported. Different stationary phases were developed by coating reversed-phase liquid chromatography supports with three neamine derivatives carrying a lipophilic octadecyl chain at the 4', 5 and 6 positions, respectively. The enantioselective ability of these LE neamine-based CSPs was evaluated and the 4'-derivative coated column was found to be the most interesting one for the amino acid resolution. The effects of the variation of several chromatographic parameters on the enantioseparation were evaluated in order to identify the analysis optimal conditions.

  20. Theory analysis of mass spectra of long-chain isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongliang; Hao, Ce; Zhang, Hua; Qiao, Weihong; Li, Zongshi; Yu, Guanghui; Yan, Kelu; Guo, Yuliang; Cheng, Lvbo

    2008-07-01

    Electron impact mass spectra of four long-chain isocyanates, lauryl isocyanate, tetradecyl isocyanate, hexadecyl isocyanate and octadecyl isocyanate, were obtained with a GCT high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The four isocyanates studied gave a common base peak of m/z 99, which suggested the formation of a stable six-membered ring structure to decentralize the positive charge. Quantum-mechanical energy calculation justified that the six-membered ring base peak had the lowest energy. The positive charge assigned during the fragmentation of the radical cation, and the relative intensity of the fragment ion peaks, were explained by quantum-mechanical calculations as well.

  1. Alkylated phenol series in lacustrine black shales from the Nördlinger Ries, southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Assem O; Baumgart, Susan; Brocks, Peter; Scholz-Böttcher, Barbara M; Rullkötter, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Several series of alkylated phenols were detected for the first time in the extractable bitumens of organic matter-rich sediments from the Nördlinger Ries (southern Germany). Most abundant and significant constituents comprise those with n-octadecyl, n-eicosanyl, phytanyl, and iso-pentadecyl and anteiso-pentadecyl substituents. The structures of these compounds are suggested from mass spectrometric and retention time data and coinjection with synthetic standards. Diagenetic alteration of phenolic algal lipids is suggested as a possible way to the formation of these compounds in the Nördlinger Ries sediments.

  2. Short-chain flavor ester synthesis in organic media by an E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing a newly characterized heterologous lipase.

    PubMed

    Brault, Guillaume; Shareck, François; Hurtubise, Yves; Lépine, François; Doucet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are small volatile molecules that produce fruity and pleasant aromas and flavors. Most of these esters are artificially produced or extracted from natural sources at high cost. It is, however, possible to 'naturally' produce these molecules using biocatalysts such as lipases and esterases. A gene coding for a newly uncovered lipase was isolated from a previous metagenomic study and cloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for overexpression using the pET16b plasmid. Using this recombinant strain as a whole-cell biocatalyst, short chain esters were efficiently synthesized by transesterification and esterification reactions in organic media. The recombinant lipase (LipIAF5-2) showed good affinity toward glyceryl trioctanoate and the highest conversion yields were obtained for the transesterification of glyceryl triacetate with methanol. Using a simple cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide pretreatment increased the synthetic activity by a six-fold factor and the whole-cell biocatalyst showed the highest activity at 40°C with a relatively high water content of 10% (w/w). The whole-cell biocatalyst showed excellent tolerance to alcohol and short-chain fatty acid denaturation. Substrate affinity was equally effective with all primary alcohols tested as acyl acceptors, with a slight preference for methanol. The best transesterification conversion of 50 mmol glyceryl triacetate into isoamyl acetate (banana fragrance) provided near 100% yield after 24 hours using 10% biocatalyst loading (w/w) in a fluidized bed reactor, allowing recycling of the biocatalyst up to five times. These results show promising potential for an industrial approach aimed at the biosynthesis of short-chain esters, namely for natural flavor and fragrance production in micro-aqueous media.

  3. Short-Chain Flavor Ester Synthesis in Organic Media by an E. coli Whole-Cell Biocatalyst Expressing a Newly Characterized Heterologous Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Guillaume; Shareck, François; Hurtubise, Yves; Lépine, François; Doucet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Short-chain aliphatic esters are small volatile molecules that produce fruity and pleasant aromas and flavors. Most of these esters are artificially produced or extracted from natural sources at high cost. It is, however, possible to ‘naturally’ produce these molecules using biocatalysts such as lipases and esterases. A gene coding for a newly uncovered lipase was isolated from a previous metagenomic study and cloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for overexpression using the pET16b plasmid. Using this recombinant strain as a whole-cell biocatalyst, short chain esters were efficiently synthesized by transesterification and esterification reactions in organic media. The recombinant lipase (LipIAF5-2) showed good affinity toward glyceryl trioctanoate and the highest conversion yields were obtained for the transesterification of glyceryl triacetate with methanol. Using a simple cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide pretreatment increased the synthetic activity by a six-fold factor and the whole-cell biocatalyst showed the highest activity at 40°C with a relatively high water content of 10% (w/w). The whole-cell biocatalyst showed excellent tolerance to alcohol and short-chain fatty acid denaturation. Substrate affinity was equally effective with all primary alcohols tested as acyl acceptors, with a slight preference for methanol. The best transesterification conversion of 50 mmol glyceryl triacetate into isoamyl acetate (banana fragrance) provided near 100% yield after 24 hours using 10% biocatalyst loading (w/w) in a fluidized bed reactor, allowing recycling of the biocatalyst up to five times. These results show promising potential for an industrial approach aimed at the biosynthesis of short-chain esters, namely for natural flavor and fragrance production in micro-aqueous media. PMID:24670408

  4. Aquivion Perfluorosulfonic Superacid as an Efficient Pickering Interfacial Catalyst for the Hydrolysis of Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Fan, Zhaoyu; Hong, Bing; Pera-Titus, Marc

    2017-09-11

    Rational design of the surface properties of heterogeneous catalysts can boost the interfacial activity in biphasic reactions through the generation of Pickering emulsions. This concept, termed Pickering interfacial catalysis (PIC), has shown promising credentials in acid-catalyzed transesterification, ester hydrolysis, acetalization, etherification, and alkylation reactions. PIC has now been applied to the efficient, solvent-free hydrolysis of the triglyceride glyceryl trilaurate to lauric acid, catalyzed by Aquivion perfluorosulfonic superacid at mild conditions (100 °C and ambient pressure). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Holographic interferometry of ultrasmall-pressure-induced curvature changes of bilayer lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, G.; Schneider-Henriquez, J.E.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-01-25

    Two-exposure interferometric holograms have been shown to sensitively report ultrasmall-pressure (10 natm)-induced curvature changes in glyceryl monooleate (GMO) bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The number of concentric fringes observed, and hence the lateral distance between the plane of the Teflon and the BLM, increased linearly with increasing transmembrane pressure and led to a value of 1.1 {plus minus} 0.05 dyn/cm for the surface tension of the BLM. BLMs with appreciable Plateau-Gibbs borders have been shown to undergo nonuniform deformation; the bilayer portion is distorted less than the surrounding Plateau-Gibbs border upon the application of a transmembrane pressure gradient.

  6. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol.

  7. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a potential vehicle for Carvedilol delivery: Application of factorial design approach.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ganesh B; Patil, Nandkishor D; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Patil, Pravin O; Bari, Sanjay B

    2016-01-01

    Present invention relates to design of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) to augment oral bioavailability of Carvedilol (CAR). In this attempt, formulations of CAR-NLCs were prepared with glyceryl-monostearate (GMS) as a lipid, poloxamer 188 as a surfactant and tween 80 as a co-surfactant using high pressure homogenizer by 2(3) factorial design approach. Formed CAR-NLCs were assessed for various performance parameters. Accelerated stability studies demonstrated negligible change in particle size and entrapment efficiency, after storage at specified time up to 3 months. The promising findings in this investigation suggest the practicability of these systems for enhancement of bioavailability of drugs like CAR.

  8. Inhibition of cell adhesion by a synthetic polymer adsorbed to glass shown under defined hydrodynamic stress.

    PubMed

    Owens, N F; Gingell, D; Rutter, P R

    1987-06-01

    A co-polymer with hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments was allowed to adsorb from aqueous solution onto glass previously made hydrophobic by derivatization with octadecyl dimethylchlorosilane. The polymer is thought to adsorb via its hydrophobic segments, leaving the hydrophilic segments free to extend into the water. After allowing cells to settle on the treated surface, the shear stress at the chamber wall required to remove red blood cells, Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and Escherichia coli was determined in a calibrated laminar flow chamber. On octadecyl glass a shear stress of 2-3 Nm-2 evicts 50% of adherent red cells and E. coli. No D. discoideum amoebae could be removed at 5Nm-2. In striking contrast, the lowest experimentally obtainable shear stress of 0.03 Nm-2 removes 97.0-99.5% of cells of all three types from the polymer-treated surface, even after a cell residence time of 1 h without flow in the absence of free polymer. The minimum shear stress of 0.03Nm-2 corresponds to only approximately equal to 20 times the force of gravity on a red cell. The mechanism of action of the polymer and the implications of the results are discussed.

  9. Effect of alkyl properties and head groups of cationic surfactants on retention of cesium by organoclays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Hsieh, Chi-Jung; Lin, Shih-Min; Wu, Ding-Chiang; Li, Ming-Hsu; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2010-07-01

    Cationic surfactants modified clays exhibit high sorptive capability toward anionic radionuclides but retention of cationic radionuclides was concurrently reduced. In this study, organoclays were synthesized by intercalating a variety of primary/quaternary alkylammonium species (NH(2)R/(CH(3))(3)N(+)RBr(-), where R = benzyl, dodecyl, and octadecyl) into bentonite MX-80. The effect of surfactant's properties on enhancing or limiting cationic sorption capability was investigated by performing Cs sorption experiments. Experimental results were analyzed using the MINEQL+ software by considering Cs uptake by structural and edge sorption sites. Bentonites that were intercalated with primary alkylammonium surfactants had a higher sorptive capacity than those intercalated with quaternary alkylammonium surfactants. Samples intercalated with octadecyl-bearing surfactants had the lowest sorption rate. XRD and FTIR analyses revealed that each organoclay had a characteristic arrangement of alkyl chains. The cation retention of organoclays was dominated by the extent of hydrophobic interactions affected by the local distribution and arrangement of surfactants. The intercalated primary alkylammoniun surfactants tended to transform into local clusters with a high packing density, leaving more structural sites available for Cs uptake. In contrast, the NH(3)R(+)-surfactants tended to form a denser monolayer over clay surface, inhibiting the retention of Cs at structural sites.

  10. Bonded-phase extraction column isolation of organic compounds in groundwater at a hazardous waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Ratcliff, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for isolation of hazardous organic compounds from water for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis Is presented and applied to creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater resulting from wood-treatment processes. This simple procedure involved passing a 50-100-mL sample through a bonded-phase extraction column, eluting the trapped organic compounds from the column with 2-4 mL of solvent, and evaporating the sample to 100 ??L with a stream of dry nitrogen, after which the sample was ready for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Representative compounds indicative of creosote contamination were used for recovery and precision studies from the cyclohexyl-bonded phase. Recovery of these compounds from n-octyl-, n-octadecyl-, cyclohexyl-, and phenyl-bonded phases was compared. The bonded phase that exhibited the best recovery and least bias toward acidic or basic cmpounds was the n-octadecyl phase. Detailed compound Identification Is given for compounds Isolated from creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater using the cyclohexyl-bonded phase.

  11. Aging and nonlinear rheology of thermoreversible colloidal gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Norman; Gordon, Melissa; Kloxin, Christopher

    Colloidal dispersions are found in a wide variety of consumer products such as paint, food and pharmaceuticals. We investigate gel formation and aging in a thermoreverible gel consisting of octadecyl-coated silica nanoparticles suspended in n-tetradecane. In this system, the octadecyl brush can undergo a phase change allowing the attractions between particles to be tuned by temperature (1,2). By probing the system with steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear, we have studied the effect of thermal history and shear history on gel formation and gel mechanical properties during aging. Gels were formed by approaching a common temperature from above and below to determine a reference state from which creep tests were conducted. Creep ringing was observed as expected for the viscoelastic gel. The rheological aging is interpreted in terms of the gel microstructure formed with differing thermal and shear histories to determine how processing affects structure. Recently proposed scaling laws for the rheology and structure under flow are explored within the context of gel aging (3). Through rheological and microstructural measurements, we will further the understanding of gel formation and aging in this model system which may be applied to processing conditions in an industrial setting.

  12. Functionalization of hybrid monolithic columns via thiol-ene click reaction for proteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongshan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Hongwei; Ou, Junjie; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2017-05-19

    The vinyl-functionalized hybrid monolithic columns (75 and 150μm i.d.) were prepared via sol-gel chemistry of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS). The content of accessible vinyl groups was further improved after the monolithic column was post-treated with vinyldimethylethoxysilane (VDMES). The surface properties of monolithic columns were tailored via thiol-ene click reaction by using 1-octadecanethiol, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate and 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanethiol/vinylphosphonic acid, respectively. The preparing octadecyl-functionalized monolithic columns were adopted for proteomics analysis in cLC-MS/MS. A 37-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. monolithic column could identify 3918 unique peptides and 1067 unique proteins in the tryptic digest of proteins from HeLa cells. When a 90-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. monolithic column was used, the numbers of unique peptides and proteins were increased by 82% and 32%, respectively. Furthermore, strong cation exchange (SCX) monolithic columns (4cm in length×150μm i.d.) were also prepared and coupled with the 37-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. octadecyl-functionalized monolithic column for two-dimensional SCX-RPLC-MS/MS analysis, which could identify 17114 unique peptides and 3211 unique proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bonded-phase extraction column isolation of organic compounds in groundwater at a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Ratcliff, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    A procedure for isolation of hazardous organic compounds from water for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis is presented and applied to creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater resulting from wood-treatment processes. This simple procedure involved passing a 50-100 mL sample through a bonded-phase extraction column, eluting the trapped organic compounds from the column with 2-4 mL of solvent, and evaporating the sample to 100 micro-L with a stream of dry nitrogen, after which the sample was ready for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Representative compounds indicative of creosote contamination were used for recovery and precision studies from the cyclohexyl-bonded phase. Recovery of these compounds from n-octyl-, n-octadecyl-, cyclohexyl-, and phenyl-bonded phases was compared. The bonded phase that exhibited the best recovery and least bias toward acidic or basic compounds was the n-octadecyl phase. Detailed compound identification is given for compounds isolated from creosote- and pentrachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater using the cyclohexyl-bonded phase. 12 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Sustained release of antibiotic from poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) to prevent blinding infections after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erin M.; Noble, Misty L.; Garty, Shai; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D.; Shen, Tueng T.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2010-01-01

    Intraocular lens implantation after opacified natural lens removal is the primary treatment for cataracts in developed countries. Cataract surgery is generally considered safe, but entails significant risks in countries where sophisticated sterile operating theaters are not widely available. Post-operative infection (endophthalmitis) is a potential blinding complication. Infection often results from bacterial colonization of the new lens implant and subsequent antibiotic-tolerant biofilm formation. To combat this risk, we developed a polymeric hydrogel system that can deliver effective levels of antibiotic over an extended period of time within the globe of the eye. Norfloxacin™ antibiotic was loaded into cross-linked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) gels, which were subsequently surface-modified with octadecyl isocyanate to produce a hydrophobic rate-limiting barrier controlling norfloxacin release. Octadecyl surface modification was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A 15-min modification leads to a uniform surface coating and near zero order release of norfloxacin from the matrix. Norfloxacin released from coated pHEMA kills Staphylococcus epidermidis in suspension and on a simulated medical implant surface. With these data, we demonstrate a new and effective system for sustained drug release from a hydrogel matrix with specific application for intraocular lens surgery. PMID:19631376

  15. Hydrolysis of triacetin catalyzed by immobilized lipases: effect of the immobilization protocol and experimental conditions on diacetin yield.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Karel; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Porcar, Raul; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2011-05-06

    The effect of the immobilization protocol and some experimental conditions (pH value and presence of acetonitrile) on the regioselective hydrolysis of triacetin to diacetin catalyzed by lipases has been studied. Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) and lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) were immobilized on Sepabeads (commercial available macroporous acrylic supports) activated with glutaraldehyde (covalent immobilization) or octadecyl groups (adsorption via interfacial activation). All the biocatalysts accumulated diacetin. Covalently immobilized RML was more active towards rac-methyl mandelate than the adsorbed RML. However, this covalent RML preparation presented the lowest activity towards triacetin. For this reason, this preparation was discarded as biocatalyst for this reaction. At pH 7, acyl migration occurred giving a mixture of 1,2 and 1,3 diacetin, but at pH 5.5, only 1,2 diacetin was produced. Yields were improved at acidic pH values and in the presence of 20% acetonitrile (to over 95%). RML immobilized on octadecyl Sepabeads was proposed as optimal preparation, mainly due to its higher specific activity. Each enzyme preparation presented very different properties. Moreover, changes in the reaction conditions affected the various immobilized enzymes in a different way.

  16. Sustained release of antibiotic from poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) to prevent blinding infections after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erin M; Noble, Misty L; Garty, Shai; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D; Shen, Tueng T; Ratner, Buddy D

    2009-10-01

    Intraocular lens implantation after opacified natural lens removal is the primary treatment for cataracts in developed countries. Cataract surgery is generally considered safe, but entails significant risks in countries where sophisticated sterile operating theaters are not widely available. Post-operative infection (endophthalmitis) is a potential blinding complication. Infection often results from bacterial colonization of the new lens implant and subsequent antibiotic-tolerant biofilm formation. To combat this risk, we developed a polymeric hydrogel system that can deliver effective levels of antibiotic over an extended period of time within the globe of the eye. Norfloxacin antibiotic was loaded into cross-linked poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) gels, which were subsequently surface-modified with octadecyl isocyanate to produce a hydrophobic rate-limiting barrier controlling norfloxacin release. Octadecyl surface modification was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A 15-min modification leads to a uniform surface coating and near zero order release of norfloxacin from the matrix. Norfloxacin released from coated pHEMA kills Staphylococcus epidermidis in suspension and on a simulated medical implant surface. With these data, we demonstrate a new and effective system for sustained drug release from a hydrogel matrix with specific application for intraocular lens surgery.

  17. Tribology of monolayer films: comparison between n-alkanethiols on gold and n-alkyl trichlorosilanes on silicon.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brandon D; Vilt, Steven G; McCabe, Clare; Jennings, G Kane

    2009-09-01

    This Article presents a quantitative comparison of the frictional performance for monolayers derived from n-alkanethiolates on gold and n-alkyl trichlorosilanes on silicon. Monolayers were characterized by pin-on-disk tribometry, contact angle analysis, ellipsometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Pin-on-disk microtribometry provided frictional analysis at applied normal loads from 10 to 1000 mN at a speed of 0.1 mm/s. At low loads (10 mN), methyl-terminated n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) exhibited a 3-fold improvement in coefficient of friction over SAMs with hydroxyl- or carboxylic-acid-terminated surfaces. For monolayers prepared from both n-alkanethiols on gold and n-alkyl trichlorosilanes on silicon, a critical chain length of at least eight carbons is required for beneficial tribological performance at an applied load of 9.8 mN. Evidence for disruption of chemisorbed alkanethiolate SAMs with chain lengths n octadecyl dimethylchlorosilane and n-octadecyl trichlorosilane withstood normal loads at least 30 times larger than those that damaged octadecanethiolate SAMs. Collectively, our results show that the tribological properties of monolayer films are dependent on their internal stabilities, which are influenced by cohesive chain interactions (van der Waals) and the adsorbate-substrate bond.

  18. Preparation of 4-butylaniline-bonded silica gel for the solid-phase extraction of flavone glycosides.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ganghui; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-04-01

    To extract flavone glycosides efficiently, a new extraction material based on 4-butylaniline-bonded silica gel was prepared using a two-step grafting method including a ring-opening reaction and synchronous hydrolysis. Preparation of the silica-based material was easily achieved under mild conditions, and the material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The material was used in solid-phase extraction, and the extraction can be performed in neutral conditions without regard to ionic strength. Selectivity tests of 14 compounds on the extraction cartridge showed that the material has a high affinity to flavone glycosides in contrast to octadecyl silica, and the extraction yields for four flavone glycosides were found to be >93%. Selectivity tests further reveal that the adsorption on its surface is likely attributed to multiple interactions, including hydrophobic interactions, π-π interactions, and hydrogen bonding. To explore the applicability of 4-butylaniline-bonded silica gel, naringin and hesperidin from Simotang oral liquid were extracted, and the extraction yields were >90%, which is distinguished from <28% on octadecyl silica cartridge.

  19. A continuous spectrophotometric assay that distinguishes between phospholipase A1 and A2 activities[S

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Meddy; Soulère, Laurent; Noiriel, Alexandre; Popowycz, Florence; Khatib, Abdallah; Queneau, Yves; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay was developed to measure, continuously and specifically, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) or phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities using synthetic glycerophosphatidylcholines (PCs) containing α-eleostearic acid, either at the sn-1 position [1-α-eleostearoyl-2-octadecyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (EOPC)] or at the sn-2 position [1-octadecyl-2-α-eleostearoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (OEPC)]. The substrates were coated onto the wells of microtiter plates. A nonhydrolyzable ether bond, with a non-UV-absorbing alkyl chain, was introduced at the other sn position to prevent acyl chain migration during lipolysis. Upon enzyme action, α-eleostearic acid is liberated and then solubilized into the micellar phase. The PLA1 or PLA2 activity was measured by the increase in absorbance at 272 nm due to the transition of α-eleostearic acid from the adsorbed to the soluble state. EOPC and OEPC differentiate, with excellent accuracy, between PLA1 and PLA2 activity. Lecitase®, guinea pig pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (known to be a PLA1 enzyme), bee venom PLA2, and porcine pancreatic PLA2 were all used to validate the assay. Compared with current assays used for continuously measuring PLA1 or PLA2 activities and/or their inhibitors, the development of this sensitive enzymatic method, using coated PC substrate analogs to natural lipids and based on the UV spectroscopic properties of α-eleostearic acid, is a significant improvement. PMID:27194811

  20. Enhancement effect of terpenes on silver sulphadiazine permeation through third-degree burn eschar.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Hamid R; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad S; Manafi, Ali

    2009-12-01

    Antimicrobial therapy remains one of the most important methods of wound management. Systemically administered antimicrobials may not achieve therapeutic levels in wound and most agents cannot penetrate burn eschar well enough when applied topically. Therefore, we tested the notion to increase permeability of eschar toward topical agents using terpenes, a well-known class of skin permeation enhancers. Four terpenes, limonene (hydrocarbon), eucalyptol (ether), alpha-pinene oxide (epoxide) and geraniol (alcohol) were chosen and their effects on permeation of silver sulphadiazine (SSD), a widely used topical antimicrobial agent, through human third-degree burn eschar was evaluated using static diffusion cells. Results showed that terpenes increased permeation flux of SSD through eschar significantly (P<0.0001). Limonene provided the highest flux enhancement ratio (9.0 times), followed by geraniol, eucalyptol and alpha-pinene oxide with enhancement ratios of 5.5, 4.7 and 4.3 respectively. The effects of terpenes on permeation lag-time, was less than 20%. Data analysis revealed that terpenes increase permeation of SSD mainly by increasing its partitioning into the eschar. The present results show that permeation of drugs through burn eschar can be increased considerably by terpenes and that burn wound antimicrobial therapy may be improved by terpenes and possibly other penetration enhancers.

  1. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  2. Analysis of olive and hazelnut oil mixtures by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of triacylglycerols and gas-liquid chromatography of non-saponifiable compounds (tocopherols and sterols).

    PubMed

    Parcerisa, J; Casals, I; Boatella, J; Codony, R; Rafecas, M

    2000-06-09

    We analysed the triacylglycerol, tocopherol and sterol composition of hazelnut oil, olive oil and their mixtures (90% olive oil with 10% hazelnut oil, 70% olive with 30% hazelnut oil and 50% olive oil with 50% hazelnut oil). The main triacylglycerols were 1,2,3-trioleylglycerol, 2,3-dioleyl-1-palmitoylglycerol, 2,3-dioleyl-1-linoleylglycerol and 2,3-dioleyl-1-stearoylglycerol. Non-saponfiable compounds (tocopherols and sterols) were derivatised as O-trimethylsilyl ethers. Alpha-tocopherol was the main vitamin E isomer in all samples; however, small amounts of beta-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were also found. Beta-sitosterol and delta5-avenasterol were the principal sterols in all samples; campesterol and stigmasterol were minor sterol compounds in all samples. Obtusifoliol, which was a major sterol in olive oil and oil mixtures, was not found in hazelnut oil. The discriminant analysis showed that hazelnut oil, olive oil and oil mixtures were clearly separated according to their triacylglycerol composition.

  3. Microbial Diversity of Cold-Seep Sediments in Sagami Bay, Japan as Determined by 16S rDNA and Lipid Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Arakawa, S.; Kato, C.; Schouten, S.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial communities in Calyptogena sediment and microbial mats of Sagami Bay, Japan were characterized by using 16S rDNA sequencing and lipid biomarker analysis. Characterization of 16S rDNA isolated from these samples suggested a predominance of bacterial phylotypes related to γ- (57-64%) and δ-subclasses (27-29%) of the Proteobacteria. The ɛ-subclass of the Proteobacteria commonly found in cold seeps and hydrothermal vents were only detected in the microbial mat sample. There are significantly different archaeal phylotypes between Calyptogena sediment and microbial mat; the former contains only Crenarchaeota clones (100% of the total archaeal clones) and the latter exclusively Euryarchaeota clones including the ANME-2a and ANME-2c archaeal groups. Many of these lineages are as yet uncultured and undescribed groups of bacteria and archaea. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis suggests the presence of sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Results of intact glyceryl dialkyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT) lipid analysis indicate the presence of nonthermophilic marine planktonic archaea. These results suggest that the microbial community in the Sagami Bay seep site is distinct from previously characterized cold seep environments.

  4. Graphene as a photothermal actuator for control of lipid mesophase structure.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew D J; Wang, Tao; Du, Joanne D; Boyd, Ben J; Hawley, Adrian; Notley, Shannon M

    2017-01-07

    The optical density of pristine graphene is high and broad in the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum positioning this material as a highly efficient photothermal agent for in vivo applications. In this study, surfactant assisted exfoliated graphene was incorporated within bulk lipid samples of varying lipid types: glyceryl monoether, glyceryl monooleate and phytantriol. The pristine graphene sheets did not disrupt the packing of the liquid crystals while being in sufficiently intimate contact to provide localized heating and induce phase transitions. The phase progressions induced through heating using NIR irradiation of the entrained graphene particles within the bulk liquid crystal were studied using SAXS and confirmed using polarized optical microscopy. Increases in apparent temperature experienced by the matrix of up to 50 °C were observed by establishing a SAXS versus bulk temperature calibration curve allowing in situ measurements. The studies demonstrate the potential for use of graphene as a photothermal actuator across a range of lipid based systems of interest in controlled drug delivery.

  5. Identification of an emulsifier and conditions for preparing stable nanoemulsions containing the antioxidant astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-M; Hyun, S-S; Yun, P; Lee, C-H; Byun, S-Y

    2012-02-01

    In this study, oil-in-water nanoemulsions of astaxanthin were prepared by high-pressure homogenization. The influence of emulsifying conditions including emulsifier type, concentration, passing time, astaxanthin concentration and coantioxidants were optimized. The stabilities of nanoemulsions were measured using zetasizer, FF-SEM, TEM, colorimeter and particle size analyzer. The mean diameter of the dispersed particles containing astaxanthin ranged from 160 to 190 nm. The size distribution was unimodal and extended from 100 to 200 nm. The nanoemulsions prepared with glyceryl citrate/lactate/linoleate/oleate (glyceryl ester) had smaller particle size and narrower size distribution than the emulsion prepared with hydrogenated lecithin. Stable incorporation of astaxanthin in nanoemulsion was performed and checked using HPLC, FF-SEM and TEM. The nanoemulsion was not significantly affected during storage under light and thermal condition for one month indicating that the nanoemulsion had a zeta potential of less than -41 mV, indicating a stable colloid. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Topical nitric oxide application in the treatment of chronic extensor tendinosis at the elbow: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Paoloni, Justin A; Appleyard, Richard C; Nelson, Janis; Murrell, George A C

    2003-01-01

    Extensor tendinosis ("tennis elbow") is a degenerative overuse tendinopathy of the wrist extensors at their attachment to the lateral humeral epicondyle. No treatment has been universally successful. Topical application of nitric oxide has been used effectively to treat fractures and cutaneous wounds in animal models, presumably by stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblasts. To determine whether topical nitric oxide can improve outcome of patients with extensor tendinosis. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Eighty-six patients with extensor tendinosis were randomized into two equal groups; both were instructed to perform a standard tendon rehabilitation program. One group received an active glyceryl trinitrate transdermal patch, and the other group received a placebo patch. Patients in the glyceryl trinitrate group had significantly reduced elbow pain with activity at 2 weeks, reduced epicondylar tenderness at 6 and 12 weeks, and an increase in wrist extensor mean peak force and total work at 24 weeks. At 6 months, 81% of treated patients were asymptomatic during activities of daily living, compared with 60% of patients who had tendon rehabilitation alone. Application of topical nitric oxide improved early pain with activity, late functional measures, and outcomes of patients with extensor tendinosis.

  7. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  8. In vivo study of an instantly formed lipid-water cubic phase formulation for efficient topical delivery of aminolevulinic acid and methyl-aminolevulinate.

    PubMed

    Evenbratt, Hanne; Jonsson, Charlotte; Faergemann, Jan; Engström, Sven; Ericson, Marica B

    2013-08-16

    We demonstrate a rapidly formed cubic liquid crystalline phase, i.e. typically 1g cubic phase in less than 1 min confirmed by X-ray diffraction, consisting of an ether lipid, 1-glyceryl monooleyl ether (GME), an aprotic solvent (propylene glycol or pentane-1,5-diol) and water. The efficacy of the cubic formulation was tested in vivo by administrating formulations containing 3% (w/w) of the HCl salts of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methylaminolevulinate (MAL) to hairless mice. The endogenous formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was monitored spectrophotometrically as a marker for cellular uptake of active compound. As reference, a commercial product containing 16% (w/w) MAL in an oil-in-water emulsion (Metvix(®)), and a cubic phase based on an ester lipid (glyceryl monooleate, GMO), previously shown to facilitate topical delivery of both ALA and MAL, were applied. It was found that in general the cubic phases gave rise to higher fluorescence levels than the mice exposed to the commercial product. The instantly formed cubic formulations based on GME demonstrated the same efficiency as the GMO based formulations. The results imply that instantly formed cubic formulations opens up new opportunities, particularly for transdermal drug delivery of substances subject to stability problems in, e.g. aqueous environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N.; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-01-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics. PMID:26878214

  10. Microbial diversity of cold-seep sediments in Sagami Bay, Japan, as determined by 16S rRNA gene and lipid analyses.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiasong; Shizuka, Arakawa; Kato, Chiaki; Schouten, Stefan

    2006-09-01

    Microbial communities in Calyptogena sediment and microbial mats of Sagami Bay, Japan, were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and lipid biomarker analysis. Characterization of 16S rRNA gene isolated from these samples suggested a predominance of bacterial phylotypes related to Gammaproteobacteria (57-64%) and Deltaproteobacteria (27-29%). The Epsilonproteobacteria commonly found in cold seeps and hydrothermal vents were only detected in the microbial mat sample. Significantly different archaeal phylotypes were found in Calyptogena sediment and microbial mats; the former contained only Crenarchaeota clones (100% of the total archaeal clones) and the latter exclusively Euryarchaeota clones, including the anaerobic oxidation of methane archaeal groups ANME-2a and ANME-2c. Many of these lineages are as yet uncultured and undescribed groups of bacteria and archaea. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis suggested the presence of sulphate-reducing and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. Results of intact glyceryl dialkyl glyceryl tetraether lipid analysis indicated the presence of nonthermophilic marine planktonic archaea. These results suggest that the microbial community in the Sagami Bay seep site is distinct from previously characterized cold-seep environments.

  11. Release of Methane from Bering Sea Sediments During the Last Glacial Period

    SciTech Connect

    Mea Cook; Lloyd Keigwin

    2007-11-30

    Several lines of evidence suggest that during times of elevated methane flux the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) was positioned near the sediment-water interface. We studied two cores (from 700 m and 1457 m water depth) from the Umnak Plateau region. Anomalously low d13C and high d18O in benthic and planktonic foraminifera in these cores are the consequence of diagenetic overgrowths of authigenic carbonates. There are multiple layers of authigenic-carbonate-rich sediment in these cores, and the stable isotope compositions of the carbonates are consistent with those formed during anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The carbonate-rich layers are associated with biomarkers produced by methane-oxidizing archaea, archaeol and glyceryl dibiphytanyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT). The d13C of the archaeol and certain GDGTs are isotopically depleted. These carbonate- and AOM-biomarker-rich layers were emplaced in the SMTZ during episodes when there was a high flux of methane or methane-rich fluids upward in the sediment column. The sediment methane in the Umnak Plateau region appears to have been very dynamic during the glacial period, and interacted with the ocean-atmosphere system at millennial time scales. The upper-most carbonate-rich layers are in radiocarbon-dated sediment deposited during interstitials 2 and 3, 28-20 ka, and may be associated with the climate warming during this time.

  12. Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, P; Adams, M R; Powe, A J; Donald, A E; McCredie, R; Robinson, J; McCarthy, S N; Keech, A; Celermajer, D S; Deanfield, J E

    1996-01-01

    In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, oral L-arginine (the substrate for endothelium derived nitric oxide) attenuates endothelial dysfunction and atheroma formation, but the effect in hypercholesterolemic humans is unknown. Using high resolution external ultrasound, we studied arterial physiology in 27 hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 29+/-5 (19-40) years, with known endothelial dysfunction and LDL-cholesterol levels of 238+/-43 mg/dl. Each subject was studied before and after 4 wk of L-arginine (7 grams x 3/day) or placebo powder, with 4 wk washout, in a randomized double-blind crossover study. Brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, during increased flow (causing endothelium-dependent dilation, EDD) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (causing endothelium-independent dilation). After oral L-arginine, plasma L-arginine levels rose from 115+/-103 to 231+/-125 micromol/liter (P<0.001), and EDD improved from 1.7+/-1.3 to 5.6+/-3.0% (P<0.001). In contrast there was no significant change in response to glyceryl trinitrate. After placebo there were no changes in endothelium-dependent or independent vascular responses. Lipid levels were unchanged after L-arginine and placebo. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine significantly improves EDD in hypercholesterolemic young adults, and this may impact favorably on the atherogenic process. PMID:8621785

  13. Nanosized self-emulsifying lipid vesicles of diacylglycerol-PEG lipid conjugates: Biophysical characterization and inclusion of lipophilic dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Koynova, Rumiana; Tihova, Mariana

    2010-04-12

    Hydrated diacylglycerol-PEG lipid conjugates, glyceryl dioleate-PEG12 (GDO-PEG12) and glyceryl dipalmitate-PEG23 (GDP-PEG23), spontaneously form uni- or oligolamellar liposomes in their liquid crystalline phase, in distinct difference from the PEGylated phospholipids which form micelles. GDP-PEG23 exhibits peculiar hysteretic phase behavior and can arrange into a long-living hexagonal phase at ambient and physiological temperatures. Liposomes of GDO-PEG12 and its mixture with soy lecithin exchange lipids with the membranes much more actively than common lecithin liposomes; such an active lipid exchange might facilitate the discharging of the liposome cargo upon uptake and internalization, and can thus be important in drug delivery applications. Diacylglycerol-PEG lipid liposome formulations can encapsulate up to 20-30 wt.% lipophilic dietary supplements such as fish oil, coenzyme Q10, and vitamins D and E. The encapsulation is feasible by way of dry mixing, avoiding the use of organic solvent.

  14. Effects of buccal nitrate on left ventricular haemodynamics and volume at rest and during exercise-induced angina.

    PubMed Central

    Silke, B; Verma, S P; Frais, M A; Hafizullah, M; Taylor, S H

    1985-01-01

    A novel approach has been employed to characterize the effects of a cardioactive drug on left ventricular haemodynamics and volume by simultaneously determining cardiac stroke volume (thermodilution) and left ventricular ejection fraction (nuclear probe). The effects of glyceryl trinitrate were evaluated in 12 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease at rest and 3, 7, 15 and 30 min following 10 mg buccal nitroglycerin (Suscard) administration. The impact of the drug on left ventricular haemodynamics and volume during exercise-induced angina was determined by repeating exercise 30 min following drug administration, at the workload that reliably induced angina during control exercise. At rest buccal nitroglycerin reduced systemic arterial pressure, cardiac and stroke volume indices, and increased heart rate. The left ventricular ejection fraction (E.F.) increased; its filling pressure together with end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were significantly reduced. Compared with control supine-bicycle exercise, the drug reduced mean systemic arterial pressure and left ventricular filling pressure without change in cardiac and stroke volume indices. There was a smaller increase in left ventricular volume during exercise, and the fall in E.F. was attenuated. These data demonstrated differential actions of glyceryl trinitrate on left ventricular function related to the physiological state in obstructive coronary artery disease. These techniques appear to hold promise in the evaluation of the effects of other therapies on left ventricular volume in coronary artery disease. PMID:3935147

  15. Microencapsulated SLN: An innovative strategy for pulmonary protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Diana P; Serra, Carmen; Lino, Paulo R; Gonçalves, Lídia; Taboada, Pablo; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Almeida, António J

    2017-01-10

    Associating protein with nanoparticles is an interesting strategy to improve their bioavailability and biological activity. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been sought as carriers for therapeutic proteins transport to the lung epithelium. Nevertheless, because of their low inertia, nanoparticles intended for pulmonary application usually escape from lung deposition. To overcome this problem, the production of spray-dried powders containing nanoparticles has been recently reported. Herein we developed new hybrid microencapsulated SLN for pulmonary administration, containing a model protein (papain, PAP). PAP was adsorbed onto glyceryl dibehenate and glyceryl tristearate SLN. Physical characterization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the interaction between PAP and SLN corroborating that the protein was efficiently adsorbed at SLN's surface. PAP adsorption onto SLN (PAP-SLN) slightly increased particle size, while decreasing the SLN negative surface charge. The adsorption process followed a Freundlich type of adsorption isotherm. Nanoformulations were then spray-dried, originating spherical microparticles with suitable aerodynamic characteristics. Full characterization of microparticles was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). PAP was released from dry powders in a higher extent when compared with non spray-dried SLN. Nevertheless, protein stability was kept throughout microsphere production, as assessed by SDS-PAGE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modern Perspectives in the Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissures

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, R; Parker, MC

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. Simple measures are often effective for early fissures. Glyceryl trinitrate is well established as a first-line pharmacological therapy. The roles of diltiazem and botulinum, particularly as rescue therapy, are not well understood. Surgery has a defined role and should not be discounted completely. METHODS Data were obtained from Medline publications citing ‘anal fissure’. Manual cross-referencing of salient articles was conducted. We have sought to highlight various controversies in the management of anal fissures. FINDINGS Acute fissures may heal spontaneously, although simple conservative measures are sufficient. Idiopathic chronic anal fissures need careful evaluation to decide what therapy is suitable. Pharmacological agents such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), diltiazem and botulinum toxin have been subjected to most scrutiny. Though practices in the UK vary, GTN or diltiazem would be suitable as first-line therapy with botulinum toxin used as rescue treatment. Sphincterotomy is indicated for unhealed fissures; fissurectomy has been revisited and advancement flaps have a role in patients in whom sphincter division is not suitable. PMID:17688717

  17. Modern perspectives in the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R; Parker, M C

    2007-07-01

    Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. Simple measures are often effective for early fissures. Glyceryl trinitrate is well established as a first-line pharmacological therapy. The roles of diltiazem and botulinum, particularly as rescue therapy, are not well understood. Surgery has a defined role and should not be discounted completely. Data were obtained from Medline publications citing 'anal fissure'. Manual cross-referencing of salient articles was conducted. We have sought to highlight various controversies in the management of anal fissures. Acute fissures may heal spontaneously, although simple conservative measures are sufficient. Idiopathic chronic anal fissures need careful evaluation to decide what therapy is suitable. Pharmacological agents such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), diltiazem and botulinum toxin have been subjected to most scrutiny. Though practices in the UK vary, GTN or diltiazem would be suitable as first-line therapy with botulinum toxin used as rescue treatment. Sphincterotomy is indicated for unhealed fissures; fissurectomy has been revisited and advancement flaps have a role in patients in whom sphincter division is not suitable.

  18. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-07

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA.

  19. Formation of mannitol core microparticles for sustained release with lipid coating in a mini fluid bed system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-09-08

    The goal of this study was to prepare sustained release microparticles for methyl blue and aspartame as sparingly and freely water-soluble model drugs by lipid film coating in a Mini-Glatt fluid bed, and to assess the effect of coating load of two of lipids, hard fat and glyceryl stearate, on the release rates. 30g drug-loaded mannitol carrier microparticles with average diameter of 500 or 300μm were coated with 5g, 10g, 20g and 30g lipids, respectively. The model drugs were completely released in vitro through pores which mainly resulted from dissolution of the polyol core beads. The release of methyl blue from microparticles based on 500μm carrier beads extended up to 25days, while aspartame release from microparticles formed from 300μm carrier beads was extended to 7days. Although glyceryl stearate exhibits higher wettability, burst and release rates were similar for the two lipid materials. Polymorphic transformation of the hart fat was observed upon release. The lipid-coated microparticles produced with 500μm carrier beads showed slightly lower burst release compared to the microparticles produced with 300μm carrier beads as they carried relatively thicker lipid layer based on an equivalent lipid to mannitol ratio. Aspartame microparticles showed a much faster release than methyl blue due to the higher water-solubility of aspartame. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Two new aliphatic lactones from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present paper describes the isolation and characterization of two new aliphatic δ-lactones along with three glycerides and n-nonadecanyl cetoleate from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae). The structures of all the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Results Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits resulted in the isolation of two new aliphatic δ-lactones characterized as 2α-n-heptatriacont-(Z)-3-en-1,5-olide (1) (coriander lactone) and 2α-n-tetracont-(Z,Z)-3,26-dien-18α-ol-1,5-olide (2) (hydroxy coriander lactone) together with glyceryl-1,2-dioctadec-9,12-dienoate-3-octadec-9-enoate (3); glyceryl-1,2,3-trioctadecanoate (4); n-nonadecanyl-n-docos-11-enoate (5) and oleiyl glucoside (6). Conclusions Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum gave coriander lactone and hydroxy coriander lactone as the new phytoconstituents. PMID:22800677

  1. In vitro controlled release of colon targeted mesalamine from compritol ATO 888 based matrix tablets using factorial design.

    PubMed

    Patel, J K; Patel, N V; Shah, S H

    2009-07-01

    A controlled release matrix formulation for mesalamine was designed and developed to achieve a 24 h release profile. Using compritol 888 ATO (glyceryl behenate) as an inert matrix-forming agent to control the release of mesalamine, formulation granules containing the solid dispersions were investigated. Pectin, a polysaccharide, was used as bacterial dependent polymer for colon targeting. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in vitro release tests were carried out. A 3(2) full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the amounts of glyceryl behenate (X(1)) and pectin (X(2)) as independent variables and percentage drug released at 2 (Q(2)), 16 (Q(16)) and 24 (Q(24)) h as dependent variables. Drug release from the matrix tablets formulations lasted for over 24 h. Images of the tablet surface and cross-section were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to show the formed pores and channels in the matrices. These may provide the release pathway for the inner embedded drugs. The co-mixing of polysaccharide pectin, into the waxy matrices played a meaningful role in targeting the tablets to colon. The drug release from the novel formulation may be attributed to the diffusion-controlled mechanism. The results of the full factorial design indicated that an optimum amount of compritol ATO 888 and a high amount of pectin favors the colon targeting and controlled release of mesalamine from dosage form.

  2. Self-Assembled Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles for Transdermal Delivery of Paeonol.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Chun; Zhu, Na; Zhu, Jin-Xiu; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Hong-Min; Wang, Qing-Qing; Wu, Xiao-Xiang; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jin; Hao, Ji-Fu

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation method for self-assembled glyceryl monoolein-based cubosomes containing paeonol and to characterize the properties of this transdermal delivery system to improve the drug penetration ability in the skin. In this study, the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles loaded with paeonol were prepared by fragmentation of glyceryl monoolein (GMO)/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic gel by high-pressure homogenization. We evaluated the Zeta potential of these promising skin-targeting drug-delivery systems using the Malvern Zeta sizer examination, and various microscopies and differential scanning calorimetry were also used for property investigation. Stimulating studies were evaluated based on the skin irritation reaction score standard and the skin stimulus intensity evaluation standard for paeonol cubosomes when compared with commercial paeonol ointment. In vitro tests were performed on excised rat skins in an improved Franz diffusion apparatus. The amount of paeonol over time in the in vitro penetration and retention experiments both was determined quantitatively by HPLC. Stimulating studies were compared with the commercial ointment which indicated that the paeonol cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles could reduce the irritation in the skin stimulating test. Thus, based on the attractive characteristics of the cubic crystal system of paeonol, we will further exploit the cosmetic features in the future studies. The transdermal delivery system of paeonol with low-irritation based on the self-assembled cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles prepared in this study might be a promising system of good tropical preparation for skin application.

  3. An evaluation of acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning in rats through serum metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiling; Deng, Mingjie; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianqin

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the second leading cause of toxin-related deaths in the operational site. Its main target organs of toxic effects are the central nervous system and respiratory system. In this study, we developed a serum metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to evaluate the effect of acute poisoning by hydrogen sulfide on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), revealed that acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared to the control group, the level of urea, glucose, glyceryl stearate in rat serum of the poisoning group increased after two hours, and the level of glucose, docosahexaenoic acid, glyceryl stearate and arachidonic acid in rat serum of the poisoning group increased after 48 h, while the L-valine, galactose, L-tyrosine levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC/MS may be useful to elucidate acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning through the exploration of biomarkers.

  4. Potential use of nanostructured lipid carriers for topical delivery of flurbiprofen.

    PubMed

    González-Mira, E; Nikolić, S; García, M L; Egea, M A; Souto, E B; Calpena, A C

    2011-01-01

    The potential use of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) composed of a fatty acid [stearic acid (SA)] or a triglyceride (glyceryl behenate) as solid lipids, and a mixture of medium chain triglycerides and castor oil as liquid lipids, for skin administration of flurbiprofen (FB), has been explored. Two different optimized NLC formulations (FB-SANLC based on SA vs. FB-C888NLC based on glyceryl behenate), with respect to the morphometrical properties (particle size and polydispersity index) and the entrapment efficiency, were used in this study. The ex vivo permeation profiles of FB-C888NLC, FB-SANLC and conventional FB solution were evaluated using human skin. An improved FB permeation was observed when the drug was delivered by skin application of FB-C888NLC, attributed to the particle size and matrix crystallinity. The differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies suggested major polymorphic transitions in the lipid matrix of FB-C888NLC. A good correlation between polymorphic transitions and increased drug permeation was observed. However, both NLC dispersions showed a penetration-enhancing ratio (ER) higher than conventional FB solution. The in vitro and in vivo irritancy and local tolerability were assessed by running, respectively, the SKINTEX™ and Draize test. Both FB-C888NLC and FB-SANLC were classified as nonirritant. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  5. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level.

  6. Determination of selected azaarenes in water by bonded-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Ondrus, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the rapid and simple quantitative determination of quinoline, isoquinoline, and five selected three-ring azaarenes in water has been developed. The azaarene fraction is separated from its carbon analogues on n-octadecyl packing material by edition with acidified water/acetonitrile. Concentration as great as 1000-fold is achieved readily. Instrumental analysis involves high-speed liquid chromatography on flexible-walled, wide-bore columns with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection at several wavelengths employing filter photometers in series. Method-validation data is provided as azaarene recovery efficiency from fortified samples. Distilled water, river water, contaminated ground water, and secondary-treatment effluent have been tested. Recoveries at part-per-billion levels are nearly quantitative for the three-ring compounds, but they decrease for quinoline and isoquinoline. ?? 1986 American Chemical Society.

  7. Study of hydration process on silica hydride surfaces by microcalorimetry and water adsorption.

    PubMed

    Bocian, Szymon; Rychlicki, Gerhard; Matyska, Maria; Pesek, Joseph; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2014-02-15

    A series of hydrosilated stationary phases were compared with respect to their hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties. The stationary phases were also compared to the bare silica gel used for this synthesis. The investigations were done using microcalorimetric measurements of methanol and acetonitrile heats of immersion. Because these stationary phases are used in both the reversed-phase and aqueous normal phase modes of liquid chromatography, the excess isotherm of water from acetonitrile solution was measured. From the materials tested the highest polarity was exhibited by the silica hydride and the bare silica. The Diamond Hydride is less polar. The highest hydrophobicity is exhibited by the hydrosilated stationary phase which contains bonded octadecyl ligands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Capillary liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography using silica hydride stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Sukul, Dipti

    2008-05-16

    A hydride-based octadecyl stationary phase on both 4.0 and 1.8 microm silica particles is tested in both the capillary LC and the pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) modes. These two materials are compared to standard C18 stationary phase made by organosilanization and to the hydride material packed into a convention 4.6mm I.D. column. The performance of the capillary columns is evaluated in terms of analysis times for various mixtures as well as efficiency. Of particular interest are the differences between the LC mode where only laminar flow is present and pCEC operation where a flat electrodriven flow profile is superimposed on the parabolic pressurized flow. Differences in performance between columns packed with 4.0 and 1.8 microm particle silica are also evaluated.

  9. Simultaneous enantioselective quantification of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human milk by direct sample injection using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvim-Jr, Joel; Lopes, Bianca Rebelo; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2016-06-17

    A two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (2D LC-MS/MS) was employed for the simultaneously quantification of fluoxetine (FLX) and norfluoxetine (NFLX) enantiomers in human milk by direct injection of samples. A restricted access media of bovine serum albumin octadecyl column (RAM-BSAC18) was used in the first dimension for the milk proteins depletion, while an antibiotic-based chiral column was used in the second dimension. The results herein described show good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with limits of quantification in the order of 7.5ngmL(-1)for the FLX enantiomers and 10.0ngmL(-1) for NFLX enantiomers. Furthermore, it represents a practical tool in terms of sustainability for the sample preparation of such a difficult matrix.

  10. Comparison of the performance of different silica hydride particles for the solid-phase extraction of non-volatile analytes from dark chocolate with analysis by gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nolvachai, Yada; Kulsing, Chadin; Boysen, Reinhard I; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Marriott, Philip J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-05-01

    The extraction capabilities of a Diamond Hydride™ phase, as well as silica hydride phases modified with bidentate octadecyl (BDC(18)), phenyl or cholesteryl groups, were evaluated for the analysis of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars and sterols in a dark chocolate extract. These batch adsorption performances were investigated using either methanol or aqueous methanol as the solvent. The compositions of the extracted fractions were assessed by gas chromatography interfaced with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). The batch binding propensities of the various compound classes with silica hydride particles modified with immobilised phenyl groups or larger ligands followed trends predicted from linear solvation energy relationships. Both prediction and experiment revealed that better extraction results could be obtained with the phenyl, BDC(18) and cholesteryl hydride particles for the major chocolate components. Based on these results, separations in micro-pipette tip format with these three types of stationary phase particles have been undertaken.

  11. Antioxidant and antiatherogenic activity of cis-Hinokiresinol from Trapa pseudoincisa.

    PubMed

    Song, Myoung-Chong; Yang, Hye-Joung; Bang, Myun-Ho; Kim, Dae-Keun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kim, Jong-Pyung; Baek, Nam-In

    2007-11-01

    cis-Hinokiresinol, also known as (+)-nyasol, was isolated for the first time from an aquatic herbaceous plant, Trapa pseudoincisa NAKAI, via silica gel and octadecyl silica gel column chromatographies. The chemical structure was determined via analyses of the spectroscopic data, including NMR, MS and IR. cis-Hinokiresinol was also found to exhibit antioxidant and antiatherogenic activities. The ICso values for the scavenging activities of cis-hinokiresinol on ABTS cation and superoxide anion radicals were 45.6 and 40.5 microM, respectively. The IC50 values for the inhibitory effects on Lp-PLA2, hACAT1, hACAT2 and LDL-oxidation were 284.7, 280.6, 398.9 and 5.6 microM, respectively.

  12. Study on medicinal chemistry of K203 in wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kalász, H; Szegi, P; Jánoki, G; Balogh, L; Pöstényi, Z; Musilek, K; Petroianu, G A; Siddiq, A; Tekes, K

    2013-01-01

    K203 is an experimental bis-pyridinium mono-aldoxime type cholinesterase reactivator of potential use in organophosphate/ organophosphonate poisoning. Pharmacokinetics of K203 were examined in Wistar rats and beagle dogs using ion-pair HPLC. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of K203 were determined using ion-pair reversedphase chromatography on octadecyl silica column. HPLC with ultraviolet detection was used for determination of serum concentration of K203 higher than 0.1 μg/mL while its low concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid required electrochemical detection (0.015 through 4 μg/mL range). In rats the serum levels of K203 followed zero order pharmacokinetics from 15 to 120 minutes post administration. Zero order pharmacokinetics was also observed in beagle dogs after low dose (15 μmol/kg) of K203 administration. High dose administration (250 μmol/kg) led to subsequent hindered elimination from both cerebrospinal fluid and serum.

  13. Two-dimensional phase separation of block copolymer and homopolymer blend studied by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, H.; Kunai, Y.; Ito, S.; Yamada, H.; Matsushige, K.

    2002-03-01

    The phase separation of dye-labeled poly(isobutyl methacrylate) (PiBMA) and poly(octadecyl methacrylate) (PODMA) in two-dimensional monolayers was investigated by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). The energy transfer (ET) efficiency between dyes introduced to the polymers was mapped with SNOM for a PiBMA/PODMA homopolymer blend monolayer. The ET fluorescence images revealed that the phase boundary had a width of a few hundred nanometers, which was considerably larger than that expected in a three-dimensional bulk state. The micro-phase separation of a diblock copolymer PiBMA- block-PODMA was also discussed. Ribbon-like lamellar structures with a width of ca. 300 nm were observed, and the block polymer chain took a highly elongated conformation in two dimensions.

  14. Thermal and mechanical properties of bio-nanocomposites reinforced by Luffa cylindrica cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Gilberto; Bras, Julien; Follain, Nadège; Belbekhouche, Sabrina; Marais, Stéphane; Dufresne, Alain

    2013-01-16

    Cellulose nanocrystals have been prepared by acid hydrolysis of Luffa cylindrica fibers. The acid-resistant residue consisted of rod-like nanoparticles with an average length an diameter around 242 and 5.2nm, respectively (aspect ratio around 46). These cellulose nanocrystals have been used as a reinforcing phase for the processing of bio-nanocomposites using polycaprolactone (PCL) as matrix. To promote interfacial filler/matrix interactions the surface of cellulose nanocrystals was chemically modified with n-octadecyl isocyanate (C(18)H(37)NCO). Evidence of the grafting was supported by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to confirm the integrity of cellulose nanocrystals after chemical modification. Both unmodified and chemically modified nanocrystals were used to prepare nanocomposites. The thermal properties of these materials were determined from differential scanning calorimetry and their mechanical behavior was evaluated in both the linear and non-linear range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using a new ligand for solid phase extraction of mercury.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Majid; Mahmodi, Mohamad Saleh; Morsali, Ali; Khani, Azam; Afshar, Majid Ghahraman

    2011-05-15

    The octadecyl silica cartridge as a sorbent and 4-bp db (1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene) as a ligand is a simple, rapid and reliable method for extracting and preconcentrating of Hg(II) in real samples prior to cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample solutions were passed through a column at pH 4.5 then retained mercury ions on the column were eluted with minimal amount of 0.01 M nitric acid with 3 mL min(-1) flow rate. The effect of pH, type of buffer, flow rate of sample and eluent, type and volume of the eluent were investigated and optimized. At optimum effective parameters, concentration factor and detection limit were achieved 128 and 1.87 ng L(-1), respectively.

  16. Synthesis of paf-acether from exogenous precursors by the prokaryote Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Denizot, Y; Dassa, E; Kim, H Y; Bossant, M J; Salem, N; Thomas, Y; Benveniste, J

    1989-01-16

    Paf-acether (paf) is a potent mediator of inflammatory diseases and septic shock. Using normal-phase HPLC, a paf-like activity was found in culture supernatants from E. coli. Prokaryotic paf exhibited the same biological and physico-chemical properties as eukaryotic cells and synthetic paf. Further, reverse-phase HPLC indicates that paf generated by bacteria is predominantly of the hexadecyl and octadecyl species. When cultures were supplemented with lyso-paf, a dramatic increase in paf production was observed. The purity and molecular structure of bacterial paf were further characterized by mass spectral analysis. These results could be of importance considering the pathogenetic role of enterobacteria. Further, it appears that the competence to form and release paf is an early phylogenetic development.

  17. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of rac 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Vijeeta, Tadla; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Lakshmi Karuna, Mallampalli Sri; Surya Koppeswara Rao, Bhamidipati Venkata; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of rac 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines (6a-c), blood platelet activating ether lipid analogues has been achieved in a four-step sequence from epichlorohydrin (1). Etherification of epichlorohydrin with different alcohols namely tetradecyl (2a), hexadecyl (2b) and octadecyl (2c) alcohols gave glycidyl ethers (3a-c) with 78-80% yields. The second step involved opening of the epoxide by acetic anhydride to give acetylated products (4a-c, 76-78% yield), which were subsequently hydrolyzed selectively, a key step of the method employing a 1,3 specific lipase to obtain rac 1-O-alkyl-2- acetylglycerol (5a-c) with 45-50% yields. The hydrolyzed products (5a-c) were phosphorylated to obtain rac 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines (6a-c) in 80-85% yields.

  18. Extraction of amphetamines and methylenedioxyamphetamines from urine using a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Namera, Akira; Nakamoto, Akihiro; Nishida, Manami; Saito, Takeshi; Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota; Yahata, Midori; Yashiki, Mikio; Nagao, Masataka

    2008-10-24

    To overcome the limitations of solid-phase extraction, we developed a device comprising a spin column packed with octadecyl silane-bonded monolithic silica for extracting amphetamines and methylenedioxyamphetamines from urine. Urine (0.5mL), buffer (0.4mL), and methoxyphenamine (internal standard) were directly put into the preactivated column. The column was centrifuged (3000rpm, 5min) for sample loading and washed. The adsorbed analytes were eluted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, without evaporation. The results were as follows: linear curves (drug concentrations of 0.2-20microg/mL); correlation coefficients >0.99; detection limit, 0.1microg/mL. The proposed method is not only useful for drugs from biological materials but also highly reproducible for the analysis of these drugs in urine.

  19. Lipophilicity Assessment of Ruthenium(II)-Arene Complexes by the Means of Reversed-Phase Thin-Layer Chromatography and DFT Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Shweshein, Khalil Salem A. M.; Andrić, Filip; Radoičić, Aleksandra; Gruden-Pavlović, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2014-01-01

    The lipophilicity of ten ruthenium(II)-arene complexes was assessed by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) on octadecyl silica stationary phase. The binary solvent systems composed of water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase in order to determine chromatographic descriptors for lipophilicity estimation. Octanol-water partition coefficient, logKOW, of tested complexes was experimentally determined using twenty-eight standard solutes which were analyzed under the same chromatographic conditions as target substances. In addition, ab initio density functional theory (DFT) computational approach was employed to calculate logKOW values from the differences in Gibbs' free solvation energies of the solute transfer from n-octanol to water. A good overall agreement between DFT calculated and experimentally determined logKOW values was established (R2 = 0.8024–0.9658). PMID:24587761

  20. Determination of benzo(a)pyrene in the total particulate matter of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Risner, C.H.

    1988-03-01

    A procedure for the isolation and determination of benzo(a)pyrene in the total particulate matter of cigarette smoke is described. Two high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) techniques are employed: a normal-phase, mu Bondapak-NH2, amino column is used for isolation of the benzo(a)pyrene fraction and a reversed-phase, Vydac 201TP54, polymeric octadecyl silane column is used for quantitation. Fluorescence detection is used in both modes of chromatography. The wavelengths of excitation and emission are evaluated for analytical detection. Extraction media and various isolation techniques are compared for their extraction efficiency and isolation from interferences, respectively. The procedure is efficient, reproducible, sensitive (3 pg), and gives results that compare favorably with other techniques reported in the literature for the B(a)P content of reference cigarettes, 1R1 and 1R4F.

  1. A Bilayered Structure Comprised of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Desalination by Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Madhuleena; Roy, Sagar; Mitra, Somenath

    2016-08-03

    The development of a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) immobilized membrane comprised of a double-layer structure is presented for water desalination by membrane distillation. The bilayered structure is comprised of CNTs functionalized with a hydrophobic octadecyl amine group on the feed side and carboxylated CNTs on the permeate side. The latter is more hydrophilic. The hydrophobic CNTs provide higher water vapor permeation, while the hydrophilic CNTs facilitate the condensation of water vapor. Together, these led to superior performance, and flux in a direct contact membrane distillation mode was found to be as high as 121 kg/m(2)h at 80 °C. The bilayered membrane represented an enhancement of 70% over the unmodified membrane and 37% over a membrane which had a monolayered structure where only the feed side was CNT-modified.

  2. Preparation of 1,8-di-O-alkylaloe-emodins and 15-amino-, 15-thiocyano-, and 15-selenocyanochrysophanol derivatives from aloe-emodin and studying their cytotoxic effects.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xing-Ri; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Shimamura, Takeshi; Koyanagi, Jyunichi; Komada, Fusao; Saito, Setsuo

    2008-04-01

    1,8-di-O-alkylaloe-emodin derivatives (namely, methyl-, propyl-, hexyl-, dodecyl-, and octadecyl) were synthesized from naturally occurring aloe-emodin. Further, derivatives having various substituents such as diethylamino, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, methylpiperazinyl, imidazolyl, thiocyano and selenocyano groups at the 15 position of chrysophanol and 1,8-di-O-hexylchrysophanol from aloe-emodin were synthesized. The cytotoxic effects of these derivatives on less P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-expressing HCT 116 cells and stably P-gp-expressing Hep G2 cells were evaluated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Among these products, several of them exhibited markedly higher potent cytotoxic effects not only on HCT116 cells but also Hep G2 cancer cells as compared to aloe-emodin.

  3. Studies on Mixed Monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Schiff-Base Complex Cu(SBC(18))(2) and Calix

    PubMed

    Pang, Shufeng; Ye, Zhifeng; Li, Chun; Liang, Yingqiu

    2001-08-15

    Mixed monolayers of Schiff-base complex Cu(SBC(18))(2) with an octadecyl hydrocarbon chain and Calix[4]arene without a long alkyl chain at an air/water interface were studied in ultrapure water at different temperatures. Interface behavior and thermodynamic estimation of the mixed monolayer indicate that a strong intermolecular interaction exists between the mixed components (Cu(SBC(18))(2) and calix[4]arene) and the two-dimensional miscibility decreases with the molar fraction of Cu(SBC(18))(2). It is noticeable that the calix[4]arene monolayer can be transferred successfully onto solid substrates due to the introduction of Cu(SBC(18))(2). FTIR transmission and UV-Vis absorption spectra of mixed LB films provide further evidence of molecular interaction between the headgroups. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Quasi-homogeneous hydrogenation with platinum and palladium nanoparticles stabilized by dendritic core-multishell architectures.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Michael; Keilitz, Juliane; Nowag, Sabrina; Parapat, Riny Y; Haag, Rainer; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2011-05-17

    Platinum and palladium nanoparticles, supported and stabilized by polymeric core-shell architectures, proved to be active catalysts for hydrogenation reactions. Here, two different reactions were used as probes to investigate the influence of the polymeric support: the hydrogenation of α-methyl styrene (AMS) to cumene and the partial hydrogenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD). We found that the stability of the nanoparticles and the rate of reaction are higher in the presence of a hydrophobic octadecyl shell within a three-shell polymer system. The kinetic study of AMS hydrogenation showed much higher activities for palladium nanoparticles than for platinum nanoparticles, and the obtained results (e.g., 35 kJ/mol for the activation energy) are of the same order of magnitude as reported earlier for palladium supported on alumina. A methanol/n-heptane biphasic mixture was tested for catalyst recycling and allowed for highly efficient catalyst separation with very low metal leaching.

  5. Determination of the 1'S and 1'R diastereomers of metolachlor and S-metolachlor in water by chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Kabler, A Kent; Chen, Sunmao

    2006-08-23

    An enantioselective method for the separation and quantification of the diastereomer pairs of metolachlor and S-metolachlor in surface and ground waters is presented. Samples are purified and concentrated using a C18 (octadecyl silica) solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed by chiral column liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) interfaced with either atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. The overall mean percent procedural recoveries (percent relative standard deviations) are 89% (10.6%) for surface water and 80% (9.1%) for ground water. The method limit of quantitation (LOQ) is 0.10 ppb. The method validation was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160.

  6. Development and application of a new 25,27-bis(L-phenylalaninemethylester-N-carbonylmethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxy-para-tert-butylcalix[4]arene stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Zhang, Yanhao; Liu, Junwei; Chen, Kangkang; Zhao, Wenjie; Zhu, Weixia; Song, Zhichao; Ye, Baoxian; Zhang, Shusheng

    2013-02-01

    A 25,27-bis(L-phenylalaninemethylester-N-carbonylmethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxy- para-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-bonded silica gel stationary phase was synthesized, structurally characterized and used for LC. Its separation mechanism was studied and compared with octadecyl-bonded stationary phase, as well as our previously prepared para-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-4 stationary phase. Meanwhile, the chromatographic behaviors were investigated by using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, monosubstituted benzenes, anilines, phenols, Tanaka tests solutes, fluoroquinolones, and flavonoids as probes. Mechanisms involved in the chromatographic separation included hydrophobic, π-π and π-electron transfer, hydrogen bonding, and inclusion interactions. Moreover, the column was successfully employed for the analysis of the illegal additive of melamine in milk product.

  7. Determination of growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Choi, S J; Lee, H Y; Kim, S B; Kim, J H; Lee, S S; Yoo, S D; Lee, K C; Lee, H S

    2001-04-25

    A novel HPLC method with electrochemical detection is described for the determination of a growth-hormone-releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6). HPLC conditions, such as the column, mobile phase, and oxidation potential, were optimized for sensitivity and selectivity of analysis. GHRP-6 was separated on a reversed-phase CN column with 37% acetonitrile in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The optimum electrochemical oxidation signal was obtained at 0.85 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a glassy carbon working electrode due to two electroactive tryptophans and a histidine residue. Solid-phase extraction using octadecyl cartridges was optimized for sample cleanup of GHRP-6 from serum samples and the method was successfully applied over the concentration range of 5 to 100 ng/ml of analyte. reserved.

  8. Decoration of silicon nanostructures with copper particles for simultaneous selective capture and mass spectrometry detection of His-tagged model peptide.

    PubMed

    Coffinier, Yannick; Kurylo, Ievgen; Drobecq, Hervé; Szunerits, Sabine; Melnyk, Oleg; Zaitsev, Vladimir N; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2014-10-21

    We present in this work a simple and fast preparation method of a new affinity surface-assisted laser/desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) substrate based on silicon nanostructures decorated with copper particles. The silicon nanostructures were fabricated by the metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) method. Then, superhydrophilic areas surrounded by superhydrophobic regions were formed through hydrosilylation reaction of 1-octadecene, followed by local degradation of the octadecyl layer. After that, copper particles were deposited in the hydrophilic areas by using the electroless method. We have demonstrated that these surfaces were able to perform high selective capture of model His-tag peptide even in a complex mixture such as serum solution. Then, the captured peptide was detected by mass spectrometry at a femtomolar level without the need of organic matrix.

  9. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for clobetasol propionate in human serum from patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sparidans, Rolf W; van Velsen, Sara G A; de Roos, Marlise P; Schellens, Jan H M; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2010-08-01

    A bioanalytical assay for the topical corticosteroid clobetasol propionate was developed and validated. For the quantitative assay 0.5 ml human serum samples, supplemented with clobetasone butyrate as internal standard, were extracted with hexane-ether. Evaporated and reconstituted extracts were injected on a polar embedded octadecyl silica column with isocratic elution using formic acid in water-methanol as mobile phase. The eluate was led into the electrospray interface with positive ionization and the analyte was detected and quantified using the selective reaction monitoring mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The assay was validated in the range 0.04-10 ng/ml, the lowest level of this range being the lower limit of quantification. Precisions were 5-10% and accuracies were between 102 and 109%. The drug was stable under all relevant conditions. Finally, the assay was successfully applied on patients suffering from severe atopic dermatitis treated topically with clobetasol propionate.

  10. Resonance energy transfer in a model system of membranes: application to gel and liquid crystalline phases.

    PubMed Central

    Loura, L M; Fedorov, A; Prieto, M

    1996-01-01

    Resonance energy transfer between octadecyl rhodamine B (donor) and 1,1',3,3,3',3'-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine (acceptor) was studied in a model system of membranes (large unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine), using both steady-state and time-resolved techniques. In the fluid phase (temperature = 50 degrees C) the decay law and the steady-state theoretical curve for energy transfer in two dimensions are verified. In the gel phase (temperature = 25 degrees C) an apparent reduction of dimensionality is observed, which is explained on the basis of probe segregation to the defect lines (grain boundaries). An estimation of the domain size from the model recovered linear probe concentrations is approximately 1750-2000 lipid molecules. In both phases, the existence of a fractal geometry was ruled out. PMID:8889159

  11. Determination of steroidal glycosides in Yucca gloriosa flowers by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Montoro, Paola; Skhirtladze, Alexandre; Perrone, Angela; Benidze, Mariam; Kemertelidze, Ether; Piacente, Sonia

    2010-09-05

    An high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method, was developed for the quantitative analysis of the steroidal glycosides occurring in Yucca gloriosa flowers. The HPLC experiments were performed by means of an octadecyl-modified reversed-phase C-18 column and a binary mobile phase system under gradient elution conditions. The fragmentation patterns of steroidal saponins were analyzed by ESI-MS(n) in positive ion mode and a specific multiple reaction monitoring MS/MS detection was developed for their quantitative determination. The described method provides high sensitivity and specificity for quantitative determination of the steroidal glycosides in Y. gloriosa flowers. Quantification was performed against an external calibration line obtained using each pure steroidal glycoside. Short- and long-term repeatabilities of the methods were better than 3 and 6%, respectively. The method was validated according to EMEA guidelines and applied to real samples.

  12. Purification and characterization of prolixin S (nitrophorin 2), the salivary anticoagulant of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, J M; Schneider, M; Guimarães, J A

    1995-01-01

    The salivary anticoagulant of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus was purified to homogeneity using a protocol consisting of weak cation-exchange, DEAE, hydrophobic-interaction and octadecyl reverse-phase chromatography, yielding a protein with the same N-terminal sequence as nitrophorin 2, one of the four NO haem protein carriers present in the salivary glands of Rhodnius with a molecular mass of 19689 Da [D. Champagne, R.H. Nussenzveig and J.M.C. Ribeiro, (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, in the press]. To exclude the possibility of the nitrophorin being a contaminant, another chromatographic protocol was performed, consisting of chromatofocusing followed by strong-cation-exchange chromatography. Again the anticoagulant was eluted with nitrophorin 2. Nitrophorin 2 inhibits coagulation Factor VIII-mediated activation of Factor X and accounts for all the anti-clotting activity observed in Rhodnius salivary glands. PMID:7755571

  13. Comprehensive hydrophilic interaction and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography for analysis of di- to deca-oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Lynen, Frédéric; Wang, Jian; Li, Hanlin; Xu, Guowang; Sandra, Pat

    2012-09-14

    A comprehensive two-dimensional HPLC approach with a high degree of orthogonality was developed for analysis of di- to deca-oligonucleotides (ONs). Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was used in the first dimension, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) was employed in the second dimension. The two dimensions were connected via a ten-port valve interface equipped with octadecyl silica (ODS) traps to immobilize and focus the ONs eluting from the first dimension prior to IP-RPLC separation. An aqueous make-up flow was used for effective trapping. The comprehensive two-dimensional HPLC system was optimized with a mixture consisting of 27 oligonucleotide standards. An overall chromatographic peak capacity of 500 was obtained. The use of the volatile buffer triethylamine acetate in the second dimension allowed straightforward coupling to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and detection of each ON in the negative ionization mode.

  14. Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography of tryptic bovine albumin digest using normal- and reverse-phase systems with silanized silica stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Gwarda, Radosław Łukasz; Dzido, Tadeusz Henryk

    2013-10-18

    Among many advantages of planar techniques, two-dimensional (2D) separation seems to be the most important for analysis of complex samples. Here we present quick, simple and efficient two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D HPTLC) of bovine albumin digest using commercial HPTLC RP-18W plates (silica based stationary phase with chemically bonded octadecyl ligands of coverage density 0.5μmol/m(2) from Merck, Darmstadt). We show, that at low or high concentration of water in the mobile phase comprised methanol and some additives the chromatographic systems with the plates mentioned demonstrate normal- or reversed-phase liquid chromatography properties, respectively, for separation of peptides obtained. These two systems show quite different separation selectivity and their combination into 2D HPTLC process provides excellent separation of peptides of the bovine albumin digest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Degradation of thiram in water, soil and plants: a study by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bina; Rani, Manviri; Kumar, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the persistence of thiram in water and soil under controlled conditions and on two plants, namely tomato and radish, in field conditions. In order to follow the decay of the pesticide, an HPLC procedure was developed employing an octadecyl endcapped RP-C18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase and an ultraviolet detector. Studies conducted in water at different temperature, pH and organic content revealed that the persistence of the pesticide decreases with the increase in all the three variables. In the three different types of soils studied, the effect of pH was more or less apparent on a similar line. On average a slower decay was observed in the case of plants than in water and soil.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of phosphonic acid-aluminum oxide self-organization and their evolution into ordered monolayers.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, H; Schmaltz, T; Halik, M; Zahn, D

    2017-02-15

    We outline an unprejudiced molecular dynamics simulation approach to study the mechanisms of self-organization encompassing the evolution of surfactant-surface interactions to the growth of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Therein, the time-length scale problem is tackled by combining an efficient docking-type procedure for implementing surfactant-by-surfactant association with detailed molecular simulations to explore structural relaxation. For this, nanosecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations unravel ordering processes during the gradual assembly of the monolayer. Along this line, different packing motifs of octadecyl phosphonic acid (ODPA) on the (0001) surface of α-alumina and implications for the final density and ordering of the resulting monolayers are elucidated. Moreover, the role of the solvent is discriminated by comparing SAM formation in 2-propanol, hexane and in a vacuum.

  17. One-Pot Synthesis of Organic-Sulfur-Zinc Hybrid Materials via Polycondensation of a Zinc Salt and Thiols Generated in Situ from Cyclic Dithiocarbonates.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Bungo; Konta, Hirohisa

    2015-08-17

    Soluble organic-sulfur-zinc hybrid polymers were prepared via a one-pot reaction consisting of ring-opening addition and subsequent polycondensation. The first reaction is the nucleophilic ring-opening addition of 2-ethylhexylamine to multifunctional cyclic dithiocarbonates giving multiple thiols in situ. The sequential polycondensation of the in situ generated thiols with Zn(OAc)2 gave the target hybrid polymers. This one-pot method enabled the use of a shorter amine than the previous polycondensation of Zn(OAc)2 and purified thiols, which required octadecylamine to obtain a soluble product. The obtained hybrid polymers may be cast as composite films with polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate). Owing to the shorter alkyl chain, the calculated nD values of the products (1.60 or 1.61) are higher than that of the previous product bearing octadecyl chains (1.53).

  18. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic characterization of some organic substituted hybrid silicas.

    PubMed

    Capeletti, Larissa B; Baibich, Ione M; Butler, Ian S; dos Santos, João H Z

    2014-12-10

    Nine hybrid silicas bearing the organic substituent groups methyl, octyl, octadecyl, vinyl, phenyl, mercaptopropyl, isocyanatopropyl, chloropropyl and glycidoxypropyl were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed, hydrolytic sol-gel process. The resulting solid materials were characterized by their absorbance and attenuated total reflection (ATR) IR and Raman spectra. The latter technique proved to be particularly useful in the identification of the organic moieties in the hybrid silicas. The effect of the presence of the organic groups on the silica networks was also investigated - there were increases observed in both the SiOSi bond angles and bond lengths. Moreover, deconvolution of the IR-active antisymmetric SiOSi stretching bands permitted detection of the four- and six-membered siloxane rings present in the silicas. There proved to be a greater number of four-membered rings on the surfaces of the particles. Both IR and Raman spectroscopy proved to be invaluable in the characterization of these hybrid materials.

  19. van der Waals force-induced loading of proangiogenic nanoparticles on microbubbles for enhanced neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinrong; Lee, Min Kyung; Qin, Ellen; Misra, Sanjay; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles emerged as carriers of promising diagnostic and therapeutic molecules due to their unique size, injectability, and potential to sustainably release molecular cargos. However, with local injection of particles into target tissue, the significant particle loss caused by external biomechanical forces is a great challenge yet to be resolved to date. We hypothesized that nanoparticles associated with tissue-adherent microbubbles in the form of core-shell particles due to van der Waals attractive forces would stably remain on an implanted site and significantly increase therapeutic efficacy of drug cargos. To examine this hypothesis, we used 100 nm diameter nanoparticles made of poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as a model nanoparticle and 50 μm diameter microbubbles made of poly(2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide) (PHEA) grafted with octadecyl chains, PHEA-g-C18, as a model microbubble. Simple mixing of PLGA nanoparticles and PHEA-g-C18 microbubbles resulted in the core-shell particles. Following implantation, the PHEA-g-C18 microbubbles acted as glue to minimize the displacement of PLGA nanoparticles, because of the association between the octadecyl chains on PHEA-g-C18 and the epithelium of the tissue. As a consequence, the core-shell particles prepared with Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles significantly promoted vascularization in the implanted tissue. Overall, the results of this study provide a simple but advanced strategy for improving therapeutic efficacy of drug-carrying nanoparticles without altering their surface chemistry and potential.Nanoparticles emerged as carriers of promising diagnostic and therapeutic molecules due to their unique size, injectability, and potential to sustainably release molecular cargos. However, with local injection of particles into target tissue, the significant particle loss caused by external biomechanical forces is a great challenge yet to be resolved to date. We hypothesized that nanoparticles

  20. Detection of O6-monoacetylmorphine in urine samples by GC/MS as evidence for heroin use.

    PubMed

    Fehn, J; Megges, G

    1985-01-01

    A method for qualitative and quantitative detection of nanogram amounts of O6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) in urine samples of heroin abusers is presented. The detection of MAM is based on the alkaline solid phase extraction of the urine samples using an octadecyl column and transformation into the pentafluoropropionyl (PFP) derivatives. PFP-MAM is separated by capillary GC and identified mass spectrometrically by selected ion monitoring (SIM). The determination of the MAM levels was carried out by quantitative GC/SIM using nalorphine as the internal standard. A positive identification of MAM allows one to distinguish between a previous intake of heroin (or theoretically MAM) on the one hand, and an ingestion of morphine, codeine, opium, or poppy seed on the other.

  1. Bacteria-mimicking nanoparticle surface functionalization with targeting motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Hsiu; Clay, Nicholas E.; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, surface modification of nanocarriers with targeting motifs has been explored to modulate delivery of various diagnostic, sensing and therapeutic molecular cargo to desired sites of interest in in vitro bioengineering platforms and in vivo pathologic tissue. However, most surface functionalization approaches are often plagued by complex chemical modifications and effortful purifications. To resolve such challenges, this study demonstrates a unique method to immobilize antibodies that can act as targeting motifs on the surfaces of nanocarriers, inspired by a process that bacteria use for immobilization of the host's antibodies. We hypothesized that alkylated Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) would self-assemble with micelles and subsequently induce stable coupling of antibodies to the micelles. We examined this hypothesis by using poly(2-hydroxyethyl-co-octadecyl aspartamide) (PHEA-g-C18) as a model polymer to form micelles. The self-assembly between the micelles and alkylated SpA became more thermodynamically favorable by increasing the degree of substitution of octadecyl chains to PHEA-g-C18, due to a positive entropy change. Lastly, the mixing of SpA-PA-coupled micelles with antibodies resulted in the coating of micelles with antibodies, as confirmed with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The micelles coated with antibodies to VCAM-1 or integrin αv displayed a higher binding affinity to substrates coated with VCAM-1 and integrin αvβ3, respectively, than other controls, as evaluated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and a circulation-simulating flow chamber. We envisage that this bacteria-inspired protein immobilization approach will be useful to improve the quality of targeted delivery of nanoparticles, and can be extended to modify the surface of a wide array of nanocarriers.In recent years, surface modification of nanocarriers with targeting motifs has been explored to modulate delivery of various

  2. Polyaspartamide Vesicle induced by Metallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hyun; Cha, Chaenyung; Kaczmarowski, Amy; Haan, John; Oh, Soonnam; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-09

    Polymer vesicles are being extensively studied to emulate self-assembly in biological systems and also use them in a variety of biological and industrial applications. This study demonstrates a novel strategy to prepare polymer vesicles in a pure aqueous medium by driving the micelle-to-vesicle transition with metallic nanoparticles. We synthesized poly(2-amino-2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide) (PAHA) substituted with octadecyl chains, which could form micelle-like self-aggregates in the aqueous medium and chemically bind with platinum precursors. Then, in situ polymerization of Pt nanoparticles within the PAHA self-aggregates generated polymer vesicles that possess nanoparticles within bilayers, because of the increase of the hydrophilic mass ratio to total mass of PAHA, f (w). This new strategy to prepare polymer vesicles would greatly serve to facilitate the control of self-assembly and ultimately improve the functionality of a wide array of polymer vesicles.

  3. Polyelectrolyte gels comprising a lipophilic, cost-effective aluminate as fluorine-free absorbents for chlorinated hydrocarbons and diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Wrede, Michael; Ganza, Viktoria; Bucher, Janina; Straub, Bernd F

    2012-07-25

    Superabsorbent polymers comprising a lipophilic, halogen-free, and cost-effective aluminate ("altebate") anion have been synthesized. The polyelectrolytes are based on octadecyl acrylate monomers, 0.8-1 mol % ethylene dimethacrylate cross-linker, and 5 mol % N-3-acroyloxypropyl trialkylammonium altebate. At 30 °C, swelling degrees of 70 (chlorobenzene), 102 (CHCl3), 130 (THF), 163 (ClCH2CH2Cl), 171 (dichlorobenzene), and 208 (CH2Cl2) have been determined. The polyelectrolyte absorbs reversibly diesel fuel with a swelling degree of 34, even in the presence of water. Swelling times and critical swelling temperatures have also been determined. The challenges for the development of oil absorbents are discussed.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and physicochemical properties of oleic acid ether derivatives as biolubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Salimon, Jumat; Salih, Nadia; Yousif, Emad

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems. Therefore petroleum needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources; the use of oleochemicals as biobased lubricants is of significant interest. This article presents a series of chemical modification on oleic acid to yield synthetic biolubricant basestocks. Measuring of density, volatility, cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), onset temperature (OT) and signal maximum temperature (SMT) was carried out for each compound. Furthermore, the friction and wear properties were measured using high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The results showed that octadecyl 9-octadecyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the most favorable low-temperature performance (CP %ndash;26°C, PP %ndash;28°C) and the lowest ball wear scan diameter (42 µm) while propyl 9-propyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the higher oxidation stability (OT 156°C).

  5. Cationic schiff base amphiphiles and their metal complexes: Surface and biocidal activities against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Negm, N A; Zaki, M F; Salem, M A I

    2010-05-01

    A series of cationic surfactants containing schiff base groups was synthesized by condensation of four fatty amines namely: dodecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl and octadecyl amine and 4-diethyl aminobenzaldehyde (1-4), as well as their metal complexes with divalent transition metal ions including Co, Cu and Mn (5-16). The surface activities of the synthesized surfactants were influenced by their chemical structures and the type of the transition metals. The biological activity measurements of the parent cationic schiff bases showed high efficacy against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains and fungi. While on complexation, the biocidal activity was increased remarkably. The biocidal activity of the tested compounds against sulfur reducing bacteria showed promising results in the field of biocide applications. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood coagulation evaluation of N-alkylated chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zihao; Yao, Xinpei; Liu, Lu; Guan, Jing; Liu, Mengyuan; Li, Zhihong; Yang, Jian; Huang, Shujie; Wu, Jimin; Tian, Feng; Jing, Miaolei

    2017-10-01

    N-Alkylated chitosan (NACS) may improve the haemostatic efficiency of chitosan (CS). To study its coagulation capability and function, a series of NACS with various carbon chain lengths and substitution degrees (SD) of alkyl groups were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, and elemental analysis. Haemolysis and toxicity assays revealed that NACS showed good biocompatibility. In vitro blood clotting tests indicated that NACS had better haemostatic activity than CS, of which N-octadecyl CS with 3.85% SD showed the best results. Blood plasma coagulation tests showed that NACS was not favourable for activating coagulation factors. Platelet adhesion, intracellular Ca(2+), and CD62p measurements demonstrated that the coagulation properties of NACS were not related to platelet activation. Erythrocyte adhesion examination indicated that blood coagulation of NACS may be attributable to its effects on erythrocytes. This study suggests that NACS is an ideal candidate for clotting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamics of exosome internalization and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Zhu, Yan-Liang; Hu, Fei-Hu; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Ning-Ping; Xiao, Zhong-Dang

    2013-07-01

    Cells release exosomes into extracellular medium. Although the important roles of exosomes in many physiological and pathological processes are being revealed, the mechanism of exosome-cell interaction remains unclear. In this article, employing real-time fluorescence microscopy, the motion of exosomes on the plasma membrane or in the cytoplasm of recipient PC12 cells was observed directly. In addition, several motion modes of exosomes were revealed by single particle tracking (SPT). The changes between motion modes were also detected, presenting the dynamic courses of exosome attachment onto plasma membrane and exosome uptake. Octadecyl rhodamine B chloride (R18) was found to be useful to distinguish endocytosis from fusion during exosome uptake. Colocalization with organelle markers showed exosomes were sorted to acidic vesicles after internalization. The results provide new sight into the exosome-cell interaction mode and the intercellular trafficking of exosomes. This study will help to understand the roles of exosomes at cell level.

  8. [Determination of histamine in fish and fish products by tandem solid-phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Awazu, Kaoru; Nomura, Chie; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Obana, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    A simple and practical method was developed for the determination of histamine in fish and fish products by solid-phase extraction and fluorescence derivatization. Histamine was extracted with trichloroacetic acid. The extract was neutralized and diluted with phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), and cleaned up with a tandem-connected octadecyl silica (ODS) and strong cation exchange silica (SCX) cartridge. After removal of the solvent, histamine was derivatized with fluorescamine and analyzed by ion-paired reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Recovery tests of histamine from six kinds of fish and fish products showed acceptable recovery (83-92%) with low relative standard deviation (less than 5%). This method could be useful for determination of histamine in fish.

  9. Thermodynamics of sorption of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,2,4,5-tetrazines according to reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifutdinov, B. R.; Kurbatova, S. V.; Emel'Yanova, N. S.

    2010-04-01

    The thermodynamics of sorption of several 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,2,4,5-tetrazines on octadecyl silica gel from aqueous acetonitrile solutions of different compositions has been studied. The thermodynamic characteristics of the chromatographic systems under study were calculated. The dependences of the standard molar change in the entropy term of the dependence ln k-1/ T and the enthalpy after the transfer of the sorbate from bulk solution to the surface layer on the content of the organic component in the eluent were analyzed for the compounds. It was shown that the structure of sorbate molecules affected the thermodynamic characteristics of their quasichemical sorption and solvation. Tendencies of compensation were found for sorption and solvation of the heterocyclic compounds under study.

  10. Chromatographic behavior of small organic compounds in low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography using liquid carbon dioxide as the mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Motono, Tomohiro; Nagai, Takashi; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    Low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography, in which a loop injector, column, and detection cell were refrigerated at -35ºC, using liquid carbon dioxide as the mobile phase was developed. Small organic compounds (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, and quinones) were separated by low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography at temperatures from -35 to -5ºC. The combination of liquid carbon dioxide mobile phase with an octadecyl-silica (C18 ) column provided reversed phase mode separation, and a bare silica-gel column resulted in normal phase mode separation. In both the cases, nonlinear behavior at approximately -15ºC was found in the relationship between the temperature and the retention factors of the analytes (van't Hoff plots). In contrast to general trends in high-performance liquid chromatography, the decrease in temperature enhanced the separation efficiency of both the columns.

  11. Highly oriented, self-assembled alkanephosphate monolayers on tantalum(V) oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brovelli, D.; Haehner, G.; Ruiz, L.

    1999-06-22

    Octadecyl phosphoric acid ester has been found to produce oriented, well-ordered monolayers on a flat tantalum(V) oxide surface, via self-assembly from a heptane/propan-2-ol solution. By means of contact angle, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXASFS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, it has been shown that these layers closely resemble those formed by the corresponding thiol-gold system, with respect to packing density, inclination, and order. The system shows promise as an approach to functionalizing oxide surfaces with well-ordered organic monolayers, with potential applications in the fields of biochemical analysis and sensors.

  12. Evaluation of adsorption and desorption steps in the solid-phase extraction of explosives using carbon/silica gel nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Waldemar; Gun'ko, Vladimir M

    2015-07-01

    New series of carbon/silica gel nanocomposites, carbosils, prepared by the carbonization of starch bound to silica gel, and carbosils additionally silylated with octadecyldimethylchlorosilane were synthesized. These materials were applied as adsorbents in the solid-phase extraction of explosive nitrate esters and nitroaromatics from aqueous solutions. The adsorption and desorption steps were evaluated separately. It was found that both the molecular properties of explosives (dipole moments, orbital energies, solvation effects) and textural properties influenced by carbon deposits or octadecyl moieties have a large impact on the recovery rates. It was shown that the composites with moderate content of carbon deposits or with the highest amounts of carbon deposits and additionally silylated can be used as materials tailored for extraction of explosives from the aqueous solutions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. J-aggregates of thiacyanine dye organized in LB films: Effect of irradiation of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Syed Arshad; Dey, Dibyendu; Chakraborty, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2011-08-01

    In the present communication we report the preparation and characterizations of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of a thiacyanine dye-dioctadecyl thiacyanine perchlorate (NK) mixed with Octadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (OTAB). The relationship between the molar ratio of OTAB and NK and the orientation of molecules at the air-water interface was investigated using surface pressure - area per molecule ({\\pi}-A) isotherm. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic investigations reveal that prominent J-aggregation of NK molecule was observed in the LB films lifted at higher surface pressure. This J-aggregation can be controlled by diluting the NK molecules with OTAB. It was observed that the J-aggregates of NK decayed to monomer and H-aggregates when the NK-LB film was exposed to a monochromatic light of wavelength 460 nm (Lambda max of J - aggregates).

  14. Composition and method for encapsulating photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Pern, Fu-Jann

    2000-01-01

    A composition and method for encapsulating a photovoltaic device which minimizes discoloration of the encapsulant. The composition includes an ethylene-vinyl acetate encapsulant, a curing agent, an optional ultraviolet light stabilizer, and/or an optional antioxidant. The curing agent is preferably 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane; the ultraviolet light stabilizer is bis-(N-octyloxy-tetramethyl) piperidinyl sebacate and the antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of tris (2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl) phosphite, tetrakis methylene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate) methane, octadecyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate, and 2,2'-ethylidene bis(4,6-di-t-butylphenyl) fluorophosponite. The composition is applied to a solar cell then cured. The cured product contains a minimal concentration of curing-generated chromophores and resists UV-induced degradation.

  15. Antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid in fish oil enriched mayonnaise and milk.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Guardiola, Francesc; Durand, Erwann; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2015-01-15

    The antioxidative effect of lipophilized caffeic acid was assessed in two different fish oil enriched food products: mayonnaise and milk. In both emulsion systems, caffeic acid esterified with fatty alcohols of different chain lengths (C1-C20) were better antioxidants than the original phenolic compound. The optimal chain length with respect to protection against oxidation was, however, different for the two food systems. Fish oil enriched mayonnaise with caffeates of medium alkyl chain length (butyl, octyl and dodecyl) added resulted in a better oxidative stability than caffeates with shorter (methyl) or longer (octadecyl) alkyl chains. Whereas in fish oil enriched milk emulsions the most effective caffeates were those with shorter alkyl chains (methyl and butyl) rather than the ones with medium and long chains (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl and eicosyl). These results demonstrate that there might be an optimum alkyl chain length for each phenolipid in each type of emulsion systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Can matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) be more simplified? Application of solventless MSPD sample preparation method for GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of plant essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes and shows the analytical capabilities of a new variant of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) with the solventless blending step in the chromatographic analysis of plant volatiles. The obtained results prove that the use of a solvent is redundant as the sorption ability of the octadecyl brush is sufficient for quantitative retention of volatiles from 9 plants differing in their essential oil composition. The extraction efficiency of the proposed simplified MSPD method is equivalent to the efficiency of the commonly applied variant of MSPD with the organic dispersing liquid and pressurized liquid extraction, which is a much more complex, technically advanced and highly efficient technique of plant extraction. The equivalency of these methods is confirmed by the variance analysis. The proposed solventless MSPD method is precise, accurate, and reproducible. The recovery of essential oil components estimated by the MSPD method exceeds 98%, which is satisfactory for analytical purposes.

  17. Modeling the Geometric Electronic and Redox Properties of Iron(lll)-Containing Amphiphiles with Asymmetric [NNO] Headgroups

    SciTech Connect

    R Shakya; M Allard; M Johann; M Heeg; E Rentschler; J Shearer; B McGarvey; C Verani

    2011-12-31

    Two iron(III)-containing amphiphiles 1 and 2 have been synthesized with the [NN'O] ligands HL{sup tBu-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and HL{sup I-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-diiodophenol), respectively. Compound 1 is monometallic, whereas EXAFS data suggest that 2 is a mixture of mono- and bimetallic species. The archetypical [Fe{sup III}(L{sup NN'O}){sub 2}]{sup +} complexes 3-9 have been isolated and characterized in order to understand the geometric, electronic, and redox properties of the amphiphiles. Preference for a monometallic or bimetallic nuclearity is dependent on (i) the nature of the solvent used for synthesis and (ii) the type of the substituent in the phenol moiety. In methanol, the tert-butyl-, methoxy-, and chloro-substituted 3, 4, and 5 are monometallic species, whereas the bromo- and iodo-substituted 6 and 7 form bimetallic complexes taking advantage of stabilizing methoxo bridges generated by solvent deprotonation. In dichloromethane, the bromo- and iodo-substituted 8 and 9 are monometallic species; however, these species favor meridional coordination in opposition to the facial coordination observed for the tert-butyl- and methoxy-substituted compounds. Molecular structures for species 5, 7, 8, and 9 have been solved by X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the electronic spectrum of the amphiphile 1 was expected to be similar to those of facial/cis archetypes with similar substituents, but close resemblance was observed with the profile for those meridional/cis species, suggesting a similar coordination mode. This trend is discussed based on DFT calculations, where preference for the meridional/cis coordination mode appears related to the presence of tertiary amine nitrogen on the ligand, as when a long alkyl chain is attached to the [NN'O] headgroup.

  18. Synthesis and antitumor activity of new amphiphilic alkylglycerolipids substituted with a polar head group, 2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy)ethyl or a congeneric oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl group.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, K; Imamiya, E; Yamamoto, H; Aono, T; Kozai, Y; Okutani, T; Nomura, H; Honma, Y; Hozumi, M; Kudo, I

    1989-12-01

    A new series of amphiphilic 1-octadecyl glycerolipids (eleven compounds, 1a-k) were designed and synthesized, in which the 3-phosphocholine portion of platelet-activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF) was replaced by the 2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy)ethyl group and congeneric groups having oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl bridges of various lengths at position 3, together with modification at position 2 (lower alkyl, acetonyl, acetoacetyl, carboxymethyl and pyrimidin-2-yl groups). These ether lipids, characterized by a nonphosphorus lysoglycerolipid structure, showed potent antitumor activity in vitro (human promyelocytic leukemia cells, HL-60, and human epidermoid carcinoma cells, KB) and in vivo (mouse sarcoma S180 and mouse mammary carcinoma MM46). Maximal in vitro potency was obtained with 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-(2-pyrimidinyl)-3-O-[2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy )ethyl] glycerol (1g; IC50 values for both HL-60 and KB were 0.32 microgram/ml, indicating a higher activity than alkyl-lysophospholipid, ET18-OMe). Several appropriately 2-substituted 1-octadecylglycerolipids with the 3-[2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy)ethyl] group (e.g., methyl, 1b; butyl, 1f; 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, 1j; and acetonyl, 1k) showed a potent life-span-prolonging effect on mice with ascites sarcoma S180 and on those with mammary carcinoma MM46, when administered intraperitoneally at 16.5 and 12.5 mg/kg/d, respectively. Compounds 1b and 1k showed definite tumor growth inhibition against solid sarcoma S180 in mice, whether given p.o. or i.v. at 16.5 mg/kg/d. Studies on the structure-activity relationships indicate that the metabolic stability to phospholipase C or related enzymes is at least partly responsible for the potent antitumor activity of this series of ether lipids.

  19. Determination of selectivity differences for basic compounds in gradient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography under high pH conditions by partial least squares modelling.

    PubMed

    Fornal, Emilia; Borman, Phil; Luscombe, Christopher

    2006-06-16

    The retention behaviour of compounds in a chromatographic system is believed to be multivariate by nature, i.e. many physico-chemical properties of an analyte can influence its retention. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) can therefore be particularly useful tools for visualising, exploring and modelling the complex interactions between solutes and the mobile and stationary phase. PCA allows the relationships between compounds (the observations) and their retention parameters (the variables) to be visualised in usually just two or three dimensions. PLS can be used to model quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) and may lead to better understanding of retention and selectivity changes in chromatographic systems. The objective of the study was to investigate the chromatographic behaviour of basic compounds under optimised gradient conditions using octadecyl high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns designed for high pH separations. Three pharmaceutical mixtures were analysed by linear gradient reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) at high pH using ammonia as a pH modifier, and methanol and/or acetonitrile as the organic modifier. The separations were carried out on three octadecyl columns: Waters XTerra MS C18, Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 and Thermo Hypersil-Keystone BetaBasic-18. Multivariate PCA and PLS modelling were employed to explore and explain the differences in selectivity between the chromatographic systems studied when the basic compounds were analysed under the high pH conditions. The interactions between the analytes and the mobile-stationary phases were described by relating the compound molecular descriptors with the selectivity of each chromatographic system. The selectivity differences between the chromatographic systems were identified.

  20. Characterization of platelet-activating factor synthesized by normal and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-primed human eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Triggiani, M; Schleimer, R P; Tomioka, K; Hubbard, W C; Chilton, F H

    1992-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine) is a mediator involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases associated with tissue eosinophil infiltration. Previous studies utilizing bioassay or assaying enzymes associated with PAF biosynthesis have suggested that human eosinophils produce PAF. The present study has extended these initial studies by identifying and quantifying the different PAF molecular species and analogues synthesized by human eosinophils in response to A23187 and f-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis indicated that A23187-stimulated eosinophils produce at least three molecular species of PAF. The predominant species is 1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-GPC (16:0) followed by 1-octadecyl-2-acetyl-GPC (18:0) and 1-octadecyl-2-acetyl-GPC (18:1). Eosinophils stimulated with FMLP produce approximately 100-fold smaller quantities of PAF relative to those produced in response to A23187 and only the 16:0 molecular species could be measured. A small percentage (comprising between 2 and 5%) of the 2-acetylated phospholipids produced by eosinophils was the 1-acyl analogue of PAF. Long-term (72 hr) incubation with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) resulted in a three- to fourfold increase in PAF synthesis from eosinophils stimulated with FMLP, without changes in the profile of PAF molecular species or in the percentage of the 1-acyl analogue of PAF. These data indicate that human eosinophils can produce various molecular species of PAF and that this process can be quantitatively enhanced by GM-CSF. PMID:1493922

  1. α-Eleostearic acid-containing triglycerides for a continuous assay to determine lipase sn-1 and sn-3 regio-preference.

    PubMed

    El Alaoui, Meddy; Soulère, Laurent; Noiriel, Alexandre; Queneau, Yves; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2017-08-01

    Lipases are essentially described as sn-1 and sn-3 regio-selective. Actually few methods are available to measure this lipase regio-selectivity, moreover they require chiral chromatography analysis or specific derivations which are discontinuous and time consuming. In this study we describe a new, convenient, sensitive and continuous spectrophotometric method to screen lipases regio-selectivity using synthetic triglycerides (TG) containing α-eleostearic acid (9Z, 11E, 13E-octadecatrienoic acid) either at the sn-1 position [1-α-eleostearoyl-2,3-octadecyl-sn-glycerol (sn-EOO)] or at the sn-3 position [1,2-octadecyl-3-α-eleostearoyl-sn-glycerol (sn-OOE)] and coated onto the wells of microtiter plates. A non-hydrolysable ether bond, with a non UV-absorbing alkyl chain, was introduced at the other sn positions to prevent acyl chain migration during TG synthesis or lipolysis. The synthesis of TG containing α-eleostearic acid was performed from S-glycidol in six steps to obtain sn-EOO and in five steps to sn-OOE. The α-eleostearic acid conjugated triene constitutes an intrinsic chromophore and, consequently, confers the strong UV absorption properties of this free fatty acid as well as of the TG harboring it. The lipase activity on coated sn-EOO or sn-OOE was measured by the increase in the absorbance at 272nm due to the transition of α-eleostearic acid from the adsorbed to the soluble state. Human and porcine pancreatic lipases, guinea pig pancreatic lipase related protein 2, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, Candida antarctica lipase A and Candida antarctica lipase B were all used to validate the assay. This continuous high-throughput screening method could determine directly without any processes after lipolysis the regio-selectivity of various lipases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic retention and membrane activity relationships of local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hironori; Mizogami, Maki; Takakura, Ko

    2005-05-06

    The chromatographic retention and membrane activity relationships of local anesthetics were studied to address the possible mechanisms for structure specificity and inflammation-associated decrease of their effects. Five representative drugs (3 mM for each) were reacted with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes in 25 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 5.9-7.9, containing 100 mM NaCl and 0.1 mM EDTA) for 10 min at 37 degrees C and the membrane fluidity changes were analyzed by measuring fluorescence polarization with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Their capacity factors were determined on octadecyl-, octyl- and phenyl-bonded silica columns with a mobile phase consisting of 25 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 5.9-7.9, containing 100 mM NaCl and 0.1 mM EDTA)-methanol (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and at a column temperature of 37 degrees C and diode-array detection. Mepivacaine, prilocaine, lidocaine, ropivacaine and bupivacaine fluidized membranes in increasing order of intensity, which agreed with their clinical potency. The relative degree of membrane fluidization correlated with that of retention on an octadecyl stationary phase more significantly than the other phases. Both membrane-fluidizing effects and capacity factors decreased by lowering the reaction and mobile phase pH, being consistent with the hypothesis that anesthetic potency is reduced in inflammation because of tissue acidity. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography appears to be useful for estimating the structure-specific and pH-dependent membrane-fluidizing effects of local anesthetics.

  3. Development of terbinafine solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Liu, Der-Zen; Liu, Jun-Jen; Chang, Tsung-Wei; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2012-01-01

    To resolve problems of long treatment durations and frequent administration of the antifungal agent terbinafine (TB), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with the ability to load lipophilic drugs and nanosize were developed. The SLNs were manufactured by a microemulsion technique in which glyceryl monostearate (GMS), glyceryl behenate (Compritol® 888; Gattefossé), and glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol® ATO 5; Gattefossé) were used as the solid lipid phases, Tween® and Cremophor® series as the surfactants, and propylene glycol as the cosurfactant to construct ternary phase diagrams. The skin of nude mice was used as a barrier membrane, and penetration levels of TB of the designed formulations and a commercial product, Lamisil® Once™ (Novartis Pharmaceuticals), in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis, and dermis were measured; particle sizes were determined as an indicator of stability. The optimal SLN system contained a <5% lipid phase and >50% water phase. The addition of ethanol or etchants had no significant effect on enhancing the amount of TB that penetrated the skin layers, but it was enhanced by increasing the percentage of the lipid phase. Furthermore, the combination of GMS and Compritol® 888 was able to increase the stable amount of TB that penetrated all skin layers. For the ACP1-GM1 (4% lipid phase; Compritol® 888: GMS of 1:1) formulation, the amount of TB that penetrated the SC was similar to that of Lamisil® Once™, whereas the amount of TB of the dermis was higher than that of Lamisil® Once™ at 12 hours, and it was almost the same as that of Lamisil® Once™ at 24 hours. It was concluded that the application of ACP1-GM1 for 12 hours might have an efficacy comparable to that of Lamisil® Once™ for 24 hours, which would resolve the practical problem of the longer administration period that is necessary for Lamisil® Once™. PMID:22923986

  4. The Japan Flavour and Fragrance Materials Association's (JFFMA) safety assessment of acetal food flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hiroyuki; Abe, Hajime; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Saito, Kenji; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2015-01-01

    Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on five acetal flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan: acetaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal, acetoin dimethyl acetal, hexanal dibutyl acetal, hexanal glyceryl acetal and 4-methyl-2-pentanone propyleneglycol acetal. As no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all five substances had no chemical structural alerts predicting genotoxicity. Using Cramer's classification, acetoin dimethyl acetal and hexanal dibutyl acetal were categorised as class I, and acetaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal, hexanal glyceryl acetal and 4-methyl-2-pentanone propyleneglycol acetal as class III. The estimated daily intakes for all five substances were within the range of 1.45-6.53 µg/person/day using the method of maximised survey-derived intake based on the annual production data in Japan from 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2010, and 156-720 µg/person/day using the single-portion exposure technique (SPET), based on the average use levels in standard portion sizes of flavoured foods. The daily intakes of the two class I substances were below the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) - 1800 μg/person/day. The daily intakes of the three class III substances exceeded the TTC (90 μg/person/day). Two of these, acetaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal and hexanal glyceryl acetal, were expected to be metabolised into endogenous products after ingestion. For 4-methyl-2-pentanone propyleneglycol acetal, one of its metabolites was not expected to be metabolised into endogenous products. However, its daily intake level, based on the estimated intake calculated by the SPET method, was about 1/15 000th of the no observed effect level. It was thus concluded that all five substances raised no safety concerns when used for flavouring foods at the currently estimated intake levels. While no information on in vitro and in vivo toxicity for all five substances was available

  5. Regional distribution and kinetics of [18F]6-flurodopamine as a measure of cardiac sympathetic activity in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, G.; Chirakal, R.; Fallen, E. L.; Firnau, G.; Garnett, E. S.; Kamath, M. V.; Scheffel, A.; Nahmias, C.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine whether an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity produced by exercise or sublingual glyceryl trinitrate causes an increased rate of loss of fluorine-18 from the myocardium after intravenous [18F]6-fluorodopamine ([18F]F-DA) in normal volunteers. In addition, to determine the contribution of non-specific uptake of [18F]F-DA in the myocardium in patients with recent heart transplant. PROTOCOL--[18F]F was prepared by direct electrophilic fluorination of dopamine. Nine healthy volunteers each received 1.85 x 10(8) Bq (168-250 micrograms) [18F]F-DA over a period of 3 min and were scanned for 2 h in an ECAT 953/31 tomograph. Three controls were scanned before and after vigorous cycle exercise and two were scanned before and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate. In addition, two patients (1 and 2 years post-heart transplant) underwent a myocardial perfusion study with ammonia labelled with nitrogen-13 followed by an [18F]F-DA study. RESULTS--There was intense uniform uptake of [18F]F-DA throughout the myocardium in the healthy volunteers. The time course of 18F in the myocardium under resting conditions fitted a biexponential function with mean half-times of 8.0 and 109 min. Vigorous exercise produced a three to fivefold increase in the rate of loss of 18F compared with that when resting. After glyceryl trinitrate, one control had a profound reduction in blood pressure (23%) and twofold increase in the rate of loss of myocardial 18F. The other control had no physiologically significant change in blood pressure, heart rate, or rate of loss of myocardial 18F. Uptake of [18F]F-DA in the two posttransplant patients was confined to a small anterobasal region adjacent to the atrioventricular groove, while blood flow, as measured with [13N] ammonia, was uniformly distributed throughout the myocardium. Partial reinnervation of the myocardium was confirmed by the presence of distinct low frequency spectral peaks of the heart rate power spectrum in both

  6. An overview of drugs and ancillary equipment for the dentist's emergency kit.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P J

    2003-06-01

    The concept of a basic (i.e., essential) medical emergency kit suitable for a general dental practitioner varies somewhat between different authorities. A practitioner's choice is also dependant on the proximity of medical aid and the nature of the dental practice. Over recent years the trend has been to restrict the items to a minimum, in the interest of both common sense and safety, for example, just oxygen, adrenaline 1:1000, an oral carbohydrate source, glyceryl trinitrate and aspirin as first options. Ancillary equipment should include an oxygen therapy facemask, a pocket mask and a set of oral (Guedel) airways. Two further medication options for consideration are an aerosol bronchodilator and, in certain circumstances, an injectable antihypoglycaemic agent. This paper provides a selective overview of the subject. An absolute necessity is for dentists to be competent in Basic Life Support skills, and to maintain a complete and current medical history for all patients.

  7. High-Throughput Quantification of Bioactive Lipids by MALDI Mass Spectrometry: Application to Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Joseph D.; Reyzer, Michelle L.; Latham, Joey C.; Weaver, C. David; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and quantification of analytes in biological systems is a critical component of metabolomic investigations of cell function. The most widely used methods employ chromatographic separation followed by mass spectrometric analysis, which requires significant time for sample preparation and sequential chromatography. We introduce a novel high-throughput, separation-free methodology based on MALDI mass spectrometry that allows for the parallel analysis of targeted metabolomes. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated by analysis of prostaglandins and glyceryl prostaglandins. Derivatization to incorporate a charged moiety into ketone-containing prostaglandins dramatically increases the signal-to-noise ratio relative to underivatized samples. This resulted in an increased dynamic range (15 fmol – 2000 fmol on plate) and improved linearity (r2= 0.99). The method was adapted for high-throughput screening methods for enzymology and drug discovery. Application to cellular metabolomics was also demonstrated. PMID:21770391

  8. Agents that activate protein kinase C reduce acetylcholine sensitivity in cultured myotubes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have examined acetylcholine (ACh)-elicited potentials or currents in current- or voltage-clamped cultured myotubes exposed to 12-O- tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent tumor promoter that activates protein kinase C. Although this agent had little action on either membrane resting potential or electrical resistance, a reversible decrease in ACh sensitivity was induced on 3-4-d-old chick myotubes. Depression of transmitter action by TPA was extended to 7-8-d mouse myotubes only when they were treated with phosphatidylserine. Glyceryl dioleate had effects on myotubes similar to those of TPA but with a reduced efficacy. We conclude that the activation of protein kinase C might be involved with the capacity of ACh receptors to respond to transmitter stimulation. PMID:3156868

  9. Improved Oral Bioavailability, Therapeutic Efficacy, and Reduced Toxicity of Tamoxifen-Loaded Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanyog; Heeralal, B; Swami, Rajan; Swarnakar, Nitin K; Kushwah, Varun

    2017-08-07

    Present investigation deals with formulation and evaluation of tamoxifen (TMX)-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles (TMX-LCNPs) for improving oral bioavailability and safety of the existing treatment. Hexagonal Glyceryl monooleate-based TMX-LCNPs (GLCNPs) and Phytantriol-based TMX-LCNPs (PLCNPs) were prepared by dilution-through-hydrotrope method for oral administration. Oleic acid was incorporated in the lipid matrix to enhance the drug loading in the LCNPs. Optimized LCNPs displayed small particle size with a narrow distribution, sustained drug release and high gastrointestinal stability. TMX-LCNPs were found to be considerably higher cytotoxic to MCF-7 cells as compared to free TMX. Substantial fold enhancement in oral bioavailability (~7- and ~5-folds with TMX-GLCNPs and TMX-PLCNPs, respectively) was evident followed by significant reduction in tumor burden with lesser hepatotoxicity. Out of the two LCNP formulations, PLCNPs were found to be better in convalescing the disease.

  10. Lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of raloxifene: optimization, stability, in vivo evaluation and uptake mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Punna Rao; Aditya, N; Kathuria, Himanshu; Malekar, Srinivas; Vats, Rahul

    2014-05-01

    Raloxifene HCl (RLX) shows low oral bioavailability (<2%) in humans due to poor aqueous solubility and extensive (>90%) metabolism in gut. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with glyceryl tribehenate were designed to enhance drug's oral bioavailability. Box-Bhenken design was used to optimize manufacturing conditions. Optimized SLN had particle size of 167±3nm and high encapsulation efficiency (>92%). Oral bioavailability of RLX from SLN was improved by 3.24 folds compared to free RLX in female Wistar rats. Both clathrin and caveolae mediated endocytosis pathways were involved in the uptake of SLN. Lymphatic transport inhibitor, cycloheximide significantly reduced oral bioavailability of SLN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physico-chemical characterisation, cytotoxic activity, and biocompatibility studies of tamoxifen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification method.

    PubMed

    Lakkadwala, Sushant; Nguyen, Sanko; Lawrence, Joseph; Nauli, Surya M; Nesamony, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can efficiently and efficaciously incorporate anti-cancer agents. To prepare and characterise tamoxifen (TAM)-loaded SLNs. Glyceryl monostearate, Tween-80, and trehalose were used in SLNs. SLNs were tested via dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Characterisation studies revealed SLNs of about 540 nm with a negative surface charge and confirmed the entrapment of TAM in the SLNs. The entrapment efficiency was estimated to be 60%. The in vitro drug release profile demonstrated a gradual increase followed by a release plateau for several days. A drug concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxic activity was observed when the SLNs were evaluated in cell cultures. Biocompatible and stable lyophilised SLNs were successfully prepared and found to possess properties that may be utilised in an anti-cancer drug delivery system.

  12. Optimization of production and downstream processing of the almond beta-glucosidase-mediated glucosylation of glycerol.

    PubMed

    de Roode, M; Peters, S W; Franssen, M C; van der Padt, A D; de Groot, A; Boom, R M

    2001-03-05

    This article describes the synthesis of glyceryl glucoside from glycerol and glucose with almond beta-glucosidase as the catalyst. A yield of 54% (0.45 mmol/g) was obtained. The influence of the enzyme stability, the water concentration, and the water activity on the glucoside yield were determined. A molar fraction-based equilibrium constant of 2.4 +/- 0.6 was found, with which the glucoside yield could be calculated for all possible combinations of initial substrate and water fractions in the reaction mixture. A model was used to optimize the glucoside yield while minimizing one of the substrate concentrations at equilibrium. This straightforward model gives a good prediction of the measured glucoside yield, according to a parity plot.

  13. Guaifenesin in rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Storms, William; Farrar, Judith R

    2009-03-01

    Mucus in the airways is a complex mixture of water, lipids, glycoproteins, sugars, and electrolytes that serves as a lubricant for the epithelium. The efficient flow of respiratory mucus is a first level of immune defense that requires an appropriate viscosity and elasticity for optimal barrier and ciliary functions. Thickening and drying of airway mucus by respiratory tract infections, allergies, and drugs can impair evacuation. Tenacious, bothersome mucus is an annoying and frequent symptom of rhinitis that is difficult to manage. Common remedies include adequate hydration through fluid intake and nasal washes. The use of mucoactive agents is controversial due to limited data and equivocal efficacy in available studies. Nonetheless, some patients benefit. This review examines the use of guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate) on bothersome nasal mucus associated with rhinitis, including the available published data and clinical experience.

  14. Composition of the silk lipids of the spider Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S

    2001-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the lipids of spider silk is given for the first time. Extracts of the silk from the golden orb weaver, Nephila clavipes, were studied by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical derivatizations. The major group of the lipids consisted of methyl-branched 1-methoxyalkanes (methyl ethers) with up to four methyl groups in the chain (chain length between C28 and C34), which are unique to spiders. The position of the methyl branches was determined by conversion into cyanides, which allowed easy location of methyl branches. The second-largest group included alkanes with a wide structural variety; 2-methyl-branched, even-numbered hydrocarbons predominated. A general numerical method for the estimation of retention indices of alkanes and their derivatives is presented. Further components of the web included alkanols and alkanediols, fatty acids, and glyceryl ethers. Some comments on the biosynthesis of these compounds are also given.

  15. Comprehension of direct extraction of hydrophilic antioxidants using vegetable oils by polar paradox theory and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Ruiz, Karine; Rossignol Castera, Anne; Bauduin, Pierre; Diat, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    Since the polar paradox theory rationalised the fact that polar antioxidants are more effective in nonpolar media, extractions of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were inspired and achieved in this study for obtaining oils enriched in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the influence of surfactants on the extractability of phenolic compounds was experimentally studied first, followed by the small angle X-ray scattering analysis for the oil structural observation before and after extraction so as to better understand the dissolving mechanism underpinning the extraction. The results showed a significant difference on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds among oils, which was mainly dependent on their composition instead of the unsaturation of fatty acids. Appropriate surfactant additions could significantly improve extraction yield for refined sunflower oils, which 1% w/w addition of glyceryl oleate was determined as the optimal. Besides, 5% w/w addition of lecithin performed the best in oil enrichments compared with mono- and di-glycerides.

  16. Sphincter of Oddi Function and Risk Factors for Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Elham; Lo, Simon K; Covington, Paul S; Cash, Brooks D; Pandol, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol. Lack of proper recognition and treatment of SOD may be associated with clinical events, including pancreatitis and biliary symptoms with hepatic enzyme elevation. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches are discussed to help recognize, prevent, and treat SOD. Future studies are needed to assess the treatment benefit of agents such as calcium-channel blockers, glyceryl trinitrate, or tricyclic antidepressants in patients with SOD.

  17. Three-dimensional solubility parameters and their use in characterising the permeation of drugs through the skin.

    PubMed

    Groning, R; Braun, F J

    1996-05-01

    The physico-chemical properties of drug substances are major determinants of their transdermal absorption. In the present study the concept of the three-dimensional solubility parameters of Hansen was applied in conjunction with the Bagley projection to describe the permeation of drugs and model substances through the skin. Drug permeation data from the literature were compared with the calculated solubility parameters of the drugs. It was demonstrated that the permeation of drugs can be estimated by their position in the Bagley diagram. There is a linear correlation between the logarithm of the skin permeation of drugs and the exchange cohesive energy for the steroids testosterone, progesterone, hydrocortisone acetate, corticosterone, cortisone, and dexamethasone. A linear correlation can be confirmed for the permeation of glyceryl trinitrate, digitoxin, oestradiol, scopolamine, atropine, diethylcarbamazine, fentanyl, and chlorpheniramine. In the case of morphine, codeine, sufentanil, meperidine and hydromorphone there is a linear relationship, too.

  18. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  19. Effects of double-layer polarization on ion transport.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, A H; Hladky, S B

    1987-01-01

    It has been proposed that changes in ionic strength will alter the shape of current-voltage relations for ion transport across a lipid membrane. To investigate this effect, we measured currents across glyceryl monooleate membranes at applied potentials between 10 and 300 mV using either gramicidin and 1 mM NaCl or valinomycin and 1 mM KCl. A bridge circuit with an integrator as null detector was used to separate the capacitative and ionic components of the current. The changes in the current-voltage relations when ionic strength is varied between 1 and 100 mM are compared with predictions of Gouy-Chapman theory for the effects of these variations on polarization of the electrical diffuse double-layer. Double-layer polarization accounts adequately for the changes observed using membranes made permeable by either gramicidin or valinomycin.

  20. Mycobacteriocins produced by rapidly growing mycobacteria are Tween-hydrolyzing esterases.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Tomioka, H; Watanabe, T; Yoneyama, T

    1983-01-01

    Smegmatocin, a protein produced by Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468, was found to have an esterase activity, hydrolyzing Tween 80, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, added to the assay medium for various "bacteriocins" from mycobacteria. Because M. diernhoferi ATCC 19340 (indicator strain for smegmatocin) is highly susceptible to oleic acid and smegmatocin requires Tween 80 for manifestation of its anti-M. diernhoferi activity, it is likely that smegmatocin-mediated antimicrobial action is caused by oleic acid generated by hydrolysis of Tween 80 by the inherent esterase action of smegmatocin. Other mycobacteriocins from rapidly growing mycobacteria also have inherent esterase activity against Tween 80 and require Tween 80 for expression of antimycobacterial action. Smegmatocin was found to hydrolyze various polyoxyethylene (sorbitan) fatty acyl esters but not sorbitan monooleate and glyceryl esters. Images PMID:6826523

  1. Effects of double-layer polarization on ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Hainsworth, A H; Hladky, S B

    1987-01-01

    It has been proposed that changes in ionic strength will alter the shape of current-voltage relations for ion transport across a lipid membrane. To investigate this effect, we measured currents across glyceryl monooleate membranes at applied potentials between 10 and 300 mV using either gramicidin and 1 mM NaCl or valinomycin and 1 mM KCl. A bridge circuit with an integrator as null detector was used to separate the capacitative and ionic components of the current. The changes in the current-voltage relations when ionic strength is varied between 1 and 100 mM are compared with predictions of Gouy-Chapman theory for the effects of these variations on polarization of the electrical diffuse double-layer. Double-layer polarization accounts adequately for the changes observed using membranes made permeable by either gramicidin or valinomycin. PMID:2432953

  2. Emulsification at the Liquid/Liquid Interface: Effects of Potential, Electrolytes and Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mehrin; Kataky, Ritu

    2016-01-04

    Emulsification of oils at liquid/liquid interfaces is of fundamental importance across a range of applications, including detergency. Adsorption and partitioning of the anionic surface active ions at the interface between two immiscible solutions is known to cause predictable chaos at the transfer potential region of the surfactant. In this work, the phenomenon that leads to the chaotic behaviour shown by sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) at the water/1,2-dichloroethane interface is applied to commercial surfactants and aqueous/glyceryl trioleate interface. Electrochemical methods, electrocapillary curves, optical microscopy and conductivity measurements demonstrated that at 1.5 mm of SDBS, surfactants are adsorbed at the interface and assemble into micelles, leading to interfacial instability. As the concentration of the anionic surfactant was enhanced to 8 and 13.4 mm, the Marangoni effect and the interfacial emulsification became more prominent. The chaotic behaviour was found to be dependent on the surfactant concentration and the electrolytes present.

  3. Assessment of Gasoline Additive Containing Ditert-butoxypropanol

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel Arthur

    2016-04-01

    The Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center completed analysis and testing of the CPS Powershot gasoline additive under the auspices of the Department of Energy’s Technical Assistance for US Small Businesses in Vehicle Technologies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify the makeup of the additive, finding a predominance of 2,3-Ditert-Butoxypropanol, also known as Glyceryl Di-Tert-Butyl Ether (GTBE). Blends of the additive at 2 and 4 volume percent were subjected to a number of standard ASTM tests, including Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, distillation, and vapor pressure. Results show a high boiling range and low vapor pressure for the additive, and a very modest octane boosting effect in gasoline with and without ethanol.

  4. Sphincter of Oddi Function and Risk Factors for Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Afghani, Elham; Lo, Simon K.; Covington, Paul S.; Cash, Brooks D.; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol. Lack of proper recognition and treatment of SOD may be associated with clinical events, including pancreatitis and biliary symptoms with hepatic enzyme elevation. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches are discussed to help recognize, prevent, and treat SOD. Future studies are needed to assess the treatment benefit of agents such as calcium-channel blockers, glyceryl trinitrate, or tricyclic antidepressants in patients with SOD. PMID:28194398

  5. Innovations in chronic anal fissure treatment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Aaron; Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2010-01-01

    A chronic anal fissure is a common perianal condition. This review aims to evaluate both existing and new therapies in the treatment of chronic fissures. Pharmacological therapies such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), Diltiazem ointment and Botulinum toxin provide a relatively non-invasive option, but with higher recurrence rates. Lateral sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment. Anal dilatation has no role in treatment. New therapies include perineal support devices, Gonyautoxin injection, fissurectomy, fissurotomy, sphincterolysis, and flap procedures. Further research is required comparing these new therapies with existing established therapies. This paper recommends initial pharmacological therapy with GTN or Diltiazem ointment with Botulinum toxin as a possible second line pharmacological therapy. Perineal support may offer a new dimension in improving healing rates. Lateral sphincterotomy should be offered if pharmacological therapy fails. New therapies are not suitable as first line treatments, though they can be considered if conventional treatment fails. PMID:21160880

  6. Rivastigmine-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers for nose to brain delivery.

    PubMed

    Wavikar, Preeti R; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2015-01-01

    In the current research work, rivastigmine (RV)-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were developed for nose to brain delivery. NLCs were fabricated by ethanol injection method using glyceryl monosterate, Capmul MCM C8, Lecithin and Tween 80. NLCs showed average particle size of 123.2 ± 2.3 nm with entrapment efficiency of 68.34 ± 3.4%. DSC, XRD and IR studies showed complete amorphization and incorporation of the drug into nanoparticles. NLCs were incorporated into an in situ gelling system using 0.8% gellan gum and 15% Lutrol F 127. RV in situ gel showed excellent elasticity, rheology, mucoadhesion and adhesiveness to facilitate its adhesion to the upper nasal mucosa. NLC-based in situ gel showed a 2-fold increase in nasal permeation of the drug over plain RV solution. In situ gelling NLCs showed a 3-fold increase in enzyme inhibition efficacy.

  7. Biological denitration of propylene glycol dinitrate by Bacillus sp. ATCC 51912.

    PubMed

    Sun, W Q; Meng, M; Kumar, G; Geelhaar, L A; Payne, G F; Speedie, M K; Stacy, J R

    1996-05-01

    In previous studies, bacterial cultures were isolated that had the ability to degrade the nitrate ester glyceryl trinitrate (i.e., nitroglycerin). The goal of the present study was to examine the ability of resting cells and cell-free extracts of the isolate Bacillus sp. ATCC 51912 to degrade the more recalcitrant nitrate ester propylene glycol dinitrate (PGDN). It was observed that the PGDN-denitrating activity was expressed during growth even when cells were cultured in the absence of nitrate esters. This indicates that nitrate esters are not required for expression of denitration activity. Using cell-free extracts, PGDN was observed to be sequentially denitrated to propylene glycol mononitrate (PGMN) and propylene glycol with the second denitration step proceeding more slowly than the first. Also it was observed that dialysis of the cell-free extracts did not affect denitration activity indicating that regenerable cofactors [e.g., NAD(P)H or ATP] are not required for denitration.

  8. Effect of sterilization on the physical stability of brimonidine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers.

    PubMed

    El-Salamouni, Noha S; Farid, Ragwa M; El-Kamel, Amal H; El-Gamal, Safaa S

    2015-12-30

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems have recently been under consideration for topical ophthalmic drug delivery. Brimonidine base-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carrier formulations were prepared using glyceryl monostearate as solid lipid and were evaluated for their physical stability following sterilization by autoclaving at 121°C for 15min. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on the physical appearance, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and particle morphology of the prepared formulations, compared to non-autoclaved ones. Results showed that, autoclaving at 121°C for 15min allowed the production of physically stable formulations in nanometric range, below 500nm suitable for ophthalmic application. Moreover, the autoclaved samples appeared to be superior to non-autoclaved ones, due to their increased zeta potential values, indicating a better physical stability. As well as, increased amount of brimonidine base entrapped in the tested formulations.

  9. Nitric oxide signaling pathway activation inhibits the immune escape of pancreatic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LU, YEBIN; HU, JUANJUAN; SUN, WEIJIA; DUAN, XIAOHUI; CHEN, XIONG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the nitric oxide signaling pathway on immune escape; thus, a tumorigenesis model was established using nude mice. The mice were inoculated with pancreatic carcinoma cells and divided into two groups, a glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and a placebo group. When tumor volumes reached 150 mm3, the mice in the GTN group were treated with GTN transdermal patches (dose, 7.3 μg/h) while the mice in the placebo group were administered untreated patches. Following treatment, the tumor volume was recorded every 3–4 days and after 28 days, the tumors were analyzed. The results indicated that GTN treatment may reduce the levels of soluble major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules, and natural killer group 2 member D, as well as inhibiting tumor growth. PMID:25364398

  10. α-Tocopherol impact on oxy-radical induced free radical decomposition of DMSO: Spin trapping EPR and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Ćwieląg-Piasecka, Irmina; Witwicki, Maciej; Jezierski, Adam

    2011-05-01

    EPR spin trapping and theoretical methods such as density functional theory (DFT) as well as combined DFT and quadratic configuration interaction approach (DFT/QCISD) were used to identify the radicals produced in the reaction of oxy-radicals and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the presence and absence of α-tocopherol. Additionally, the mixtures of α-tocopherol with linolenic acid and glyceryl trilinoleate as well as bioglycerols (glycerol fractions from biodiesel production) were tested. α-Tocopherol inhibited oxidation of the main decomposition product of DMSO, •CH 3 to •OCH 3 but did not prevent the transformation process of N-t-butyl- α-phenylnitrone (PBN) into 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP). Theoretical investigations confirmed the structures of proposed spin adducts and allowed to correlate the EPR parameters observed in the experiment with the spin adducts electronic structure.

  11. Biosynthesis of murein lipoprotein in Escherichia coli: effects of 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, P K; Engel, R; Tropp, B E; Wu, H C

    1979-01-01

    The effects of 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, a four-carbon analog of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, on the biosynthesis of the glyceryl moiety in murein lipoprotein of Escherichia coli were studied. The compound at a concentration of 55 microM strong inhibits in the incorporation of [2-3H]glycerol radioactivity into lipoprotein by virtue of its inhibition of the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol. On the other hand, the incorporation of prelabeled [2-3H]glycerol radioactivity into lipoprotein was only partially inhbited by 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate even at a much higher concentration (1 mM). These data were consistent with the postulated pathway for the biosynthesis of the lipid moiety in lipoportein: cysteine-lipoprotein + phosphatidylglycerol leads to glycerylcystein-lipoprotein + phosphatidic acid. PMID:378946

  12. Hyaluronic Acid Graft Copolymers with Cleavable Arms as Potential Intravitreal Drug Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Borke, Tina; Najberg, Mathie; Ilina, Polina; Bhattacharya, Madhushree; Urtti, Arto; Tenhu, Heikki; Hietala, Sami

    2017-08-23

    Treatment of retinal diseases currently demands frequent intravitreal injections due to rapid clearance of the therapeutics. The use of high molecular weight polymers can extend the residence time in the vitreous and prolong the injection intervals. This study reports a water soluble graft copolymer as a potential vehicle for sustained intravitreal drug delivery. The copolymer features a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) backbone and poly(glyceryl glycerol) (PGG) side chains attached via hydrolysable ester linkers. PGG, a polyether with 1,2-diol groups in every repeating unit available for conjugation, serves as a detachable carrier. The influence of synthesis conditions and incubation in physiological media on the molecular weight of HA is studied. The cleavage of the PGG grafts from the HA backbone is quantified and polymer-from-polymer release kinetics are determined. The biocompatibility of the materials is tested in different cell cultures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cardiovascular properties of yangambin, a lignan isolated from Brazilian plants.

    PubMed

    Tibiriçá, E

    2001-01-01

    Yangambin was initially selected from a number of lignans isolated from Brazilian plants for its ability to antagonize Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl- sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine)-induced biological effects. Subsequently it was shown that, besides its antagonistic properties at PAF receptors, yangambin also prevents the cardiovascular collapse observed during anaphylactic and endotoxic/septic shocks, as well as the vascular and cardiac hyporesponsiveness to catecholamines in endotoxic shock. It is suggested that this naturally occurring compound could be of potential interest in the adjunctive management of the above mentioned pathologies. In the present article, we review the main studies investigating the pharmacological properties of yangambin related to the cardiovascular function.

  14. Design and evaluation of an oral multiparticulate system for dual delivery of amoxicillin and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Govender, Mershen; Choonara, Yahya E; van Vuuren, Sandy; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-09-01

    A delayed-release dual delivery system for amoxicillin and the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was developed and evaluated. Statistical optimization of a cross-linked denatured ovalbumin protective matrix was first synthesized using a Box-Behnken experimental design prior to encapsulation with glyceryl monostereate. The encapsulated ovalbumin matrix was thereafter incorporated with amoxicillin in a gastro-resistant capsule. In vitro characterization and stability analysis of the ovalbumin and encapsulated components were also performed Results: Protection of L. acidophilus probiotic against the bactericidal effects of amoxicillin within the dual formulation was determined. The dual formulation in this study proved effective and provides insight into current microbiome research to identify, classify and use functional healthy bacteria to develop novel probiotic delivery technologies.

  15. Effect of arvanil (N-arachidonoyl-vanillyl-amine), a nonpungent anandamide-capsaicin hybrid, on ion currents in NG108-15 neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yuk-Keung; Chiang, Hung-Ting; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2003-02-15

    The effects of arvanil (N-arachidonoyl-vanillyl-amine), a structural hybrid between capsaicin and anandamide, on ion currents in a mouse neuroblastoma and rat glioma hybrid cell line, NG108-15, were examined with the aid of the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. Arvanil (0.2-50 microM) caused an inhibition of voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Arvanil produced no change in the overall shape of the current-voltage relationship of I(Ca,L). The IC(50) value of arvanil-induced inhibition of I(Ca,L) was 2 microM. Arvanil (5 microM) could shift the steady-state inactivation curve of I(Ca,L) to a more negative potential by approximately -15mV. No effect of arvanil (20 microM) on delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(K(DR))) was observed; however, capsaicin (20 microM), glyceryl nonivamide (20 microM) and capsinolol (20 microM) suppressed it significantly. Arvanil (20 microM) caused a slight reduction in the amplitude of erg (ether-à-go-go-related)-mediated K(+) current (I(K(erg))) without modifying the activation curve of this current, while capsaicin and glyceryl nonivamide were more effective in suppressing I(K(erg)). Under current-clamp configuration, arvanil decreased the firing frequency of action potentials. Arvanil-mediated inhibition of I(Ca,L) appeared to be independent of its binding to either vanilloid or cannabinoid receptors. The channel-blocking properties of arvanil may, at least in part, contribute to the underlying mechanisms by which it affects neuronal or neuroendocrine function.

  16. Self-Assembled Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles for Transdermal Delivery of Paeonol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Chun; Zhu, Na; Zhu, Jin-Xiu; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Hong-Min; Wang, Qing-Qing; Wu, Xiao-Xiang; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jin; Hao, Ji-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation method for self-assembled glyceryl monoolein-based cubosomes containing paeonol and to characterize the properties of this transdermal delivery system to improve the drug penetration ability in the skin. Material/Methods In this study, the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles loaded with paeonol were prepared by fragmentation of glyceryl monoolein (GMO)/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic gel by high-pressure homogenization. We evaluated the Zeta potential of these promising skin-targeting drug-delivery systems using the Malvern Zeta sizer examination, and various microscopies and differential scanning calorimetry were also used for property investigation. Stimulating studies were evaluated based on the skin irritation reaction score standard and the skin stimulus intensity evaluation standard for paeonol cubosomes when compared with commercial paeonol ointment. In vitro tests were performed on excised rat skins in an improved Franz diffusion apparatus. The amount of paeonol over time in the in vitro penetration and retention experiments both was determined quantitatively by HPLC. Results Stimulating studies were compared with the commercial ointment which indicated that the paeonol cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles could reduce the irritation in the skin stimulating test. Thus, based on the attractive characteristics of the cubic crystal system of paeonol, we will further exploit the cosmetic features in the future studies. Conclusions The transdermal delivery system of paeonol with low-irritation based on the self-assembled cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles prepared in this study might be a promising system of good tropical preparation for skin application. PMID:26517086

  17. Controlled release of oral tetrahydrocurcumin from a novel self-emulsifying floating drug delivery system (SEFDDS).

    PubMed

    Setthacheewakul, Saipin; Kedjinda, Wichan; Maneenuan, Duangkhae; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn

    2011-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a novel self-emulsifying floating drug delivery system (SEFDDS) that resulted in improved solubility, dissolution, and controlled release of the poorly water-soluble tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The formulations of liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS; mixtures of Labrasol, Cremophor EL, Capryol 90, Labrafac PG) were optimized by solubility assay and pseudo-ternary phase diagram analysis. The liquid SEDDS was mixed with adsorbent (silicon dioxide), glyceryl behenate, pregelatinized starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose and transformed into pellets by the extrusion/spheronization technique. The resulting pellets with 22% liquid SEDDS had a uniform size and good self-emulsification property. The microemulsions in aqueous media of different self-emulsifying floating pellet formulations were in a particle size range of 25.9-32.5 nm. Use of different weight proportions of glyceryl behenate and sodium starch glycolate in pellet formulations had different effects on the floating abilities and in vitro drug release. The optimum formulation (F2) had a floating efficiency of 93% at 6 h and provided a controlled release of THC over an 8-h period. The release rate and extent of release of THC liquid SEDDS (80% within 2 h) and self-emulsifying floating pellet formulation (80% within 8 h) were significantly higher than that of unformulated THC (only 30% within 8 h). The pellet formulation was stable under intermediate and accelerated storage conditions for up to 6 months. Controlled release from this novel SEFDDS can be a useful alternative for the strategic development of oral solid lipid-based formulations. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Surface Modified Lactose Particles for Improved Performance of Fluticasone Propionate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepak J; Jain, Rajesh R; Soni, P S; Abdul, Samad; Darshana, Hegde; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Menon, Mala D

    2015-08-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are generally formulated by mixing micronized drug particles with coarse lactose carrier particles to assist powder handling during the manufacturing and powder aerosol delivery during patient use. In the present study, surface modified lactose (SML) particles were produced using force control agents, and their in vitro performance on dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of Fluticasone propionate was studied. With a view to reduce surface passivation of high surface free energy sites on the most commonly used DPI carrier, α- lactose monohydrate, effects of various force control agents such as Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, magnesium stearate, and soya lecithin were studied. DPI formulations prepared with SML showed improved flow properties, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed decrease in surface roughness. The DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns of SML showed no change in the crystal structure and thermal behavior under the experimental conditions. The fine particle fraction (FPF) values of lactose modified with Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate were improved, with increase in concentration up to 0.5%. Soya lecithin and PEG 6000 modified lactose showed decrease in FPF value with increase in concentration. Increase in FPF value was observed with increasing concentration of magnesium stearate. Two different DPI devices, Rotahaler(®) and Diskhaler(®), were compared to evaluate the performance of SML formulations. FPF value of all SML formulations were higher using both devices as compared to the same formulations prepared using untreated lactose. One month stability of SML formulations at 40°C/75% RH, in permeable polystyrene tubes did not reveal any significant changes in FPF values. SML particles can help in reducing product development hindrances and improve inhalational properties of DPI.

  19. Formulation Development, Process Optimization, and In Vitro Characterization of Spray-Dried Lansoprazole Enteric Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Chintan; Patadia, Riddhish; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of enteric microparticles of lansoprazole in a single step by employing the spray drying technique and studies the effects of variegated formulation/process variables on entrapment efficiency and in vitro gastric resistance. Preliminary trials were undertaken to optimize the type of Eudragit and its various levels. Further trials included the incorporation of plasticizer triethyl citrate and combinations of other polymers with Eudragit S 100. Finally, various process parameters were varied to investigate their effects on microparticle properties. The results revealed Eudragit S 100 as the paramount polymer giving the highest gastric resistance in comparison to Eudragit L 100-55 and L 100 due to its higher pH threshold and its polymeric backbone. Incorporation of plasticizer not only influenced entrapment efficiency, but diminished gastric resistance severely. On the contrary, polymeric combinations reduced entrapment efficiency for both sodium alginate and glyceryl behenate, but significantly influenced gastric resistance for only sodium alginate and not for glyceryl behenate. The optimized process parameters were comprised of an inlet temperature of 150°C, atomizing air pressure of 2 kg/cm2, feed solution concentration of 6% w/w, feed solution spray rate of 3 ml/min, and aspirator volume of 90%. The SEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape morphologies. The DSC and PXRD study divulged the amorphous nature of the drug. Regarding stability, the product was found to be stable under 3 months of accelerated and long-term stability conditions as per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. Thus, the technique offers a simple means to generate polymeric enteric microparticles that are ready to formulate and can be directly filled into hard gelatin capsules. PMID:27222612

  20. Nitric oxide is negatively correlated to pain during acute inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in modulating pain in the periphery is unclear. We show here, the results of two independent clinical studies (microdialysis and gene expression studies) and a pilot dose finding study (glyceryl trinitrate study), to study the role of NO in the early phase of acute inflammatory pain following oral surgery. The effect of ketorolac on NO production and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene expression was also studied. Results Microdialysis samples showed significantly higher levels of NO at the first 100 min compared to the last 80 minutes in the placebo treated group. In the ketorolac group, on the other hand, NO levels gradually decreased over the first 60 min but were similar to placebo over the later 100-180 min, with no significant change in NO level over time. The levels of NO were negatively correlated to pain intensity scores. Local infusion of the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate at the site of surgery, showed a small analgesic effect that did not reach statistical significance in the sample size used. While the gene expression of iNOS and eNOS were not up-regulated, 3 hours after surgery, nNOS was downregulated in both treatment groups and eNOS gene expression was significantly lower in the ketorolac group compared to the placebo group. Further, there was a positive correlation between the change in gene expression of nNOS and eNOS in the placebo goup but not in the ketorolac group. Conclusion We suggest that at this early stage of inflammatory pain in man, NO is analgesic in the periphery. Further, ketorolac down-regulates eNOS gene expression. PMID:20843331

  1. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase activity: a comparison of pentaerythritol tetranitrate with other organic nitrates.

    PubMed

    Daiber, Andreas; Oelze, Matthias; Coldewey, Meike; Bachschmid, Markus; Wenzel, Philip; Sydow, Karsten; Wendt, Maria; Kleschyov, Andrei L; Stalleicken, Dirk; Ullrich, Volker; Mülsch, Alexander; Münzel, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) was recently identified to be essential for the bioactivation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Here we assessed whether other organic nitrates are bioactivated by a similar mechanism. The ALDH-2 inhibitor benomyl reduced the vasodilator potency, but not the efficacy, of GTN, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and pentaerythritol trinitrate in phenylephrine-constricted rat aorta, whereas vasodilator responses to isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide-5-mononitrate, pentaerythritol dinitrate, pentaerythritol mononitrate, and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine were not affected. Likewise, benomyl decreased GTN- and PETN-elicited phosphorylation of the cGMP-activated protein kinase substrate vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) but not that elicited by other nitrates. The vasodilator potency of organic nitrates correlated with their potency to inhibit ALDH-2 dehydrogenase activity in mitochondria from rat heart and increase mitochondrial superoxide formation, as detected by chemiluminescence. In contrast, mitochondrial ALDH-2 esterase activity was not affected by PETN and its metabolites, whereas it was inhibited by benomyl, GTN applied in vitro and in vivo, and some sulfhydryl oxidants. The bioactivation-related metabolism of GTN to glyceryl-1,2-dinitrate by isolated RAW macrophages was reduced by the ALDH-2 inhibitors benomyl and daidzin, as well as by GTN at concentrations >1 microM. We conclude that mitochondrial ALDH-2, specifically its esterase activity, is required for the bioactivation of the organic nitrates with high vasodilator potency, such as GTN and PETN, but not for the less potent nitrates. It is interesting that ALDH-2 esterase activity was inhibited by GTN only, not by the other nitrates tested. This difference might explain why GTN elicits mitochondrial superoxide formation and nitrate tolerance with the highest potency.

  2. Formulation Development, Process Optimization, and In Vitro Characterization of Spray-Dried Lansoprazole Enteric Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Vora, Chintan; Patadia, Riddhish; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of enteric microparticles of lansoprazole in a single step by employing the spray drying technique and studies the effects of variegated formulation/process variables on entrapment efficiency and in vitro gastric resistance. Preliminary trials were undertaken to optimize the type of Eudragit and its various levels. Further trials included the incorporation of plasticizer triethyl citrate and combinations of other polymers with Eudragit S 100. Finally, various process parameters were varied to investigate their effects on microparticle properties. The results revealed Eudragit S 100 as the paramount polymer giving the highest gastric resistance in comparison to Eudragit L 100-55 and L 100 due to its higher pH threshold and its polymeric backbone. Incorporation of plasticizer not only influenced entrapment efficiency, but diminished gastric resistance severely. On the contrary, polymeric combinations reduced entrapment efficiency for both sodium alginate and glyceryl behenate, but significantly influenced gastric resistance for only sodium alginate and not for glyceryl behenate. The optimized process parameters were comprised of an inlet temperature of 150°C, atomizing air pressure of 2 kg/cm(2), feed solution concentration of 6% w/w, feed solution spray rate of 3 ml/min, and aspirator volume of 90%. The SEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape morphologies. The DSC and PXRD study divulged the amorphous nature of the drug. Regarding stability, the product was found to be stable under 3 months of accelerated and long-term stability conditions as per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. Thus, the technique offers a simple means to generate polymeric enteric microparticles that are ready to formulate and can be directly filled into hard gelatin capsules.

  3. A randomized trial of oral vs. topical diltiazem for chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Jonas, M; Neal, K R; Abercrombie, J F; Scholefield, J H

    2001-08-01

    Chemical sphincterotomy has proved effective in treating chronic anal fissure. Glyceryl trinitrate is the most widely used agent, and topical 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate ointment heals up to two thirds of chronic anal fissures. Unfortunately, however, many patients experience troublesome headaches as a side effect of this treatment. This study assessed the effectiveness of oral and topical diltiazem in healing chronic fissures. Fifty consecutive patients with chronic anal fissures were randomly assigned to receive oral (60 mg) or topical (2 percent gel) diltiazem twice daily for up to eight weeks. Anal manometry was performed before and after the first dose, and blood pressure was recorded at 15-minute intervals. Patients were reviewed fortnightly, pain was expressed with a visual linear analog scale, blood pressure was recorded, fissure healing was assessed, and side effects were noted. Twenty-four patients received oral diltiazem, and 26 received topical diltiazem. Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) maximum resting anal pressures fell by 15 and 23 percent from 95 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 4 and from 102 +/- 5 to 79 +/- 5 cm H2O in the two groups, respectively. There was no significant reduction in blood pressure during the study or at follow-up in either group. Fissure healing was complete in 9 patients (38 percent) receiving oral diltiazem and 15 (65 percent) on topical treatment by eight weeks. Oral diltiazem caused side effects in eight patients (rash, two; headaches, two; nausea or vomiting, three; reduced smell and taste, one), whereas no side effects were seen in those receiving topical therapy (P = 0.001). Oral and topical diltiazem heal chronic anal fissures. Topical diltiazem is more effective, achieving healing rates comparable to those reported with topical nitrates, with significantly fewer side effects.

  4. Efficacy of transdermal nitroglycerine in idiopathic pre-term labour.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shahida; Shaikh, Abdul Hameed; Akhter, Saleem; Isran, Basma

    2012-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of transdermal Nitroglycerine patch in idiopathic pre-term labour and foetomaternal outcome. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Obstetrics Unit-II of Shaikh Zayed Hospital for Women, Chandka Medical College, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University, Larkana, from Jan 1 to June 30, 2010. Sixtyfive pregnant women at 28-34 weeks of gestation were recruited after they met the selection criteria based on non-probability consecutive sampling. Initially, 73 patients were selected, but 65 of them completed the treatment, while 8 patients refused to continue. Patients diagnosed with pre-term labour were given glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 5 mg/12 hours transdermal patch which was applied on the anterior abdominal wall. The second patch of same dose was given after 12 hours. Arrest of labour, prolongation of pregnancy in days or weeks along with side effects of the agent were monitored. Patients were followed till delivery to know the foeto-maternal outcome. Dramatic effects were seen in around 60 (92.3%), of the total patients who had felt relief from premature labour pains within the first hour and only 5 (7.6%) patients could not go beyond 24 hours, as among them 3 (4.61%) had previous uterine scar and 2 (3.07%) developed ruptured membranes after 12 hours of admission and their babies also could not survive. Mean pregnancy prolongation was 15.35 +/- 9.45 days (min: 4 max: 35), so delivery was deferred up to 48 hours, 3 to 7 days and more than 7 days in 4 (6.15%), 6 (9.23%) and 50 (76.92%) respectively. Glyceryl trinitrate, trans dermal patch is effective and safe tocolytic in idiopathic preterm labour. By prolonging pregnancy it improves neonatal outcome.

  5. Regulation of Human Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) Activity by Electrophiles in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Oelze, Matthias; Knorr, Maike; Schell, Richard; Kamuf, Jens; Pautz, Andrea; Art, Julia; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas; Kleinert, Hartmut; Daiber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Recently, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) was reported to reduce ischemic damage in an experimental myocardial infarction model. ALDH-2 activity is redox-sensitive. Therefore, we here compared effects of various electrophiles (organic nitrates, reactive fatty acid metabolites, or oxidants) on the activity of ALDH-2 with special emphasis on organic nitrate-induced inactivation of the enzyme, the biochemical correlate of nitrate tolerance. Recombinant human ALDH-2 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli; activity was determined with an HPLC-based assay, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formation was determined by chemiluminescence, fluorescence, protein tyrosine nitration, and diaminonaphthalene nitrosation. The organic nitrate glyceryl trinitrate caused a severe concentration-dependent decrease in enzyme activity, whereas incubation with pentaerythritol tetranitrate had only minor effects. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an oxidized prostaglandin J2, and 9- or 10-nitrooleate caused a significant inhibition of ALDH-2 activity, which was improved in the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+. Hydrogen peroxide and NO generation caused only minor inhibition of ALDH-2 activity, whereas peroxynitrite generation or bolus additions lead to severe impairment of the enzymatic activity, which was prevented by the thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase (Trx/TrxR) system. In the presence of glyceryl trinitrate and to a lesser extent pentaerythritol tetranitrate, ALDH-2 may be switched to a peroxynitrite synthase. Electrophiles of different nature potently regulate the enzymatic activity of ALDH-2 and thereby may influence the resistance to ischemic damage in response to myocardial infarction. The Trx/TrxR system may play an important role in this process because it not only prevents inhibition of ALDH-2 but is also inhibited by the ALDH-2 substrate 4-hydroxynonenal. PMID:21252222

  6. Spheronization of solid lipid extrudates: A novel approach on controlling critical process parameters.

    PubMed

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Pein, Miriam; Thommes, Markus; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2015-05-01

    Solid lipids are non-toxic excipients, which are known to potentially enhance delivery and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs and moreover to mask unpleasant tasting drugs. Multiple unit matrix dosage forms based on solid lipids, such as lipid pellets, can be obtained by solvent-free cold extrusion and spheronization. This method presents advantages in the processing of sensitive substances, such as low process temperatures, the absence of solvents and a drying step. However, the material temperature during the spheronization showed to be critical so far. The process leads to increased material temperatures, causing particle agglomeration and discontinuity of the spheronization. In the present study, extrudates of 0.5mm in diameter containing metformin hydrochloride, and either semisynthetic hard fat (Witocan® 42/44) or different ternary mixtures based on hard fat, glyceryl trimyristate, and glyceryl distearate, were spheronized. By applying common process parameters, particle agglomeration or material stickiness on equipment walls was observed in preliminary experiments after 2-6min, depending on the lipid composition. Therefore, an innovative instrumental setup to control the spheronization process was developed utilizing an infrared light source, which was positioned over the particle bed. The new approach enabled a spheronization process that reached the desired spheronization temperature after 2-3min and neither particle agglomeration nor material adherence occurred even after longer process times. The different formulations, even those based on high amount of solid lipids, were successfully spheronized over 15min, resulting in small diameter lipid pellets with smooth surface and aspect ratios below 1.3.

  7. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  8. Comparison of metoprolol tartrate multiple-unit lipid matrix systems produced by different technologies.

    PubMed

    Aleksovski, Aleksandar; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Roškar, Robert; Sovány, Tamás; Regdon, Géza; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Dreu, Rok

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and compare extended release mini-matrices based on metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and either glyceryl behenate (GB) or glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS). Mini-matrices were produced by three different techniques: hot melt extrusion, compression of melt granulates and prilling. Hot-melt extrusion and compression of granules obtained from melted material proved to be reliable, robust and reproducible techniques with aim of obtaining extended release matrices. Prilling tended to be susceptible to increased melt viscosity. Direct compression was not applicable for mini-matrix production due to poor powder flow. In general MPT release from all matrices was affected by its loading and the size of the units/particles. Processing of GB-MPT mixtures by different techniques did not lead to different drug release rates and patterns, while in case of GPS differently obtained matrices provided diverse MPT release outcomes. Matrices based on GB tended to have higher porosity compared to ones composed of GPS and thus most of the GB-based formulations showed faster drug delivery. FT-IR analysis revealed no interactions between primary components used for matrix production and Raman mapping outlined uniform MPT distribution throughout the units. DSC and X-ray studies revealed significant changes in the crystallinity of glycerides after storage under room conditions (GPS samples) and at increased temperature (GB and GPS samples), which was correlated to the changes seen in drug release rate and pattern after storage. Media composition in general tended to insignificantly affect GB matrices, while in case of GPS matrices increasing the pH and presence of biorelevant compounds induced faster drug release.

  9. Abiotic Condensation Synthesis of Glyceride Lipids and Wax Esters Under Simulated Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Precursor compounds for abiotic proto cellular membranes are necessary for the origin of life. Amphipathic compounds such as fatty acids and acyl glycerols are important candidates for micelle/bilayer/vesicle formation. Two sets of experiments were conducted to study dehydration reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media to form acyl polyols and wax esters, and to evaluate the stability and reactions of the products at elevated temperatures. In the first set, mixtures of n-nonadecanoic acid and ethylene glycol in water, with and without oxalic acid, were heated at discrete temperatures from 150 ∘C to 300 ∘C for 72 h. The products were typically alkyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl bis-alkanoates and alkanols. The condensation products had maximum yields between 150 ∘C and 250 ∘C, and were detectable and thus stable under hydrothermal conditions to temperatures < 300 ∘C. In the second set of experiments, mixtures of n-heptanoic acid and glycerol were heated using the same experimental conditions, with and without oxalic acid, between 100 ∘C and 250 ∘C. The main condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols at all temperatures, as well as minor amounts of the fatty acid anhydride and methyl ester. The yield of glyceryl monoheptanoates generally increased with increasing temperature and glyceryl diheptanoates decreased noticeably with increasing temperature. The results indicate that condensation reactions and abiotic synthesis of organic lipid compounds under hydrothermal conditions occur easily, provided precursor concentrations are sufficiently high.

  10. Quantitative microleakage of some dentinal bonding restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, T; Retief, D H

    1993-03-01

    The quantitative microleakage of class V cementum (dentin) cavities restored with six dentinal bonding restorative systems was determined in vitro. Ninety extracted human permanent first and second mandibular and maxillary premolars were used in this study. Class V preparations were made in cementum (dentin) at the root facial surfaces. The preparations were restored with 1) a dentin bonding system containing 2% HEMA and BisGMA and a light-cured microfilled composite; 2) the same materials only substituting META/MMA base and TBB catalyst monomers for the BisGMA sealer; 3) a dentin bonding system containing 35% HEMA with META/MMA base and TBB catalyst, and a light-cured hybrid composite; 5) the same dentin bonding system only substituting the 35% glycerylmethacrylate for the 35% HEMA and using the microfilled composite; and 6) the previously described system with a substitution of 0.5 mol EDTA for the 10% citric acid -3% FeCl3. Fifteen teeth were restored with each procedure. The restorations were finished with 12-bladed carbide burs 15 min after placement, the teeth were stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 24 h, finished with Sof-Lex discs and then thermocycled in 2% methylene blue solution 500 times between 50 degrees C and 8 degrees C with a dwell time of 15 s. Quantitative microleakage was determined by a spectrophotometric dye-recovery method and expressed in microgram/dye/restoration. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The quantitative microleakage of the teeth restored with the adhesive systems containing 35% glyceryl methacrylate was significantly reduced. The bonding mechanism of glyceryl methacrylate is not known.

  11. Novel Bacterial Lipoprotein Structures Conserved in Low-GC Content Gram-positive Bacteria Are Recognized by Toll-like Receptor 2*

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Ichikawa, Rie; Masuda, Akiko; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Hanna; Chae, Jun-Ho; Shimizu, Takashi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Koichi; Akira, Shizuo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Bok Luel

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the “N-acetyl” lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis

  12. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yuxia; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  13. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  14. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase soy broth

  15. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  16. Lipids bearing extruded-spheronized pellets for extended release of poorly soluble antiemetic agent-Meclizine HCl.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Faaiza; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Nasiri, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmed, Kamran; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2017-04-12

    Antiemetic agent Meclizine HCl, widely prescribed in vertigo, is available only in immediate release dosage forms. The approved therapeutic dose and shorter elimination half-life make Meclizine HCl a potential candidate to be formulated in extended release dosage form. This study was aimed to develop extended release Meclizine HCl pellets by extrusion spheronization using natural and synthetic lipids. Influence of lipid type, drug/lipid ratio and combinations of different lipids on drug release and sphericity of pellets were evaluated. Thirty two formulations were prepared with four different lipids, Glyceryl monostearate (Geleol(®)), Glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol(®)), Glyceryl behenate (Compritol(®)) and Carnauba wax, utilized either alone or in combinations of drug/lipid ratio of 1:0.5-1:3. Dissolution studies were performed at variable pH and release kinetics were analyzed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was conducted and no drug lipid interaction was found. Sphericity indicated by shape factor (eR) varied with type and concentration of lipids: Geleol(®) (eR = 0.891-0.997), Precirol(®) (eR = 0.611-0.743), Compritol(®) (eR = 0.665-0.729) and Carnauba wax (eR = 0.499-0.551). Highly spherical pellets were obtained with Geleol(®) (Aspect ratio = 1.005-1.052) whereas irregularly shaped pellets were formed using Carnauba wax (Aspect ratio = 1.153-1.309). Drug release was effectively controlled by three different combinations of lipids: (i) Geleol(®) and Compritol(®), (ii) Geleol(®) and Carnauba wax and (iii) Geleol(®), Compritol(®) and Carnauba wax. Scanning electron microscopy of Compritol(®) pellets showed smooth surface with pores, whereas, irregular rough surface with hollow depressions was observed in Carnauba wax pellets. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated elemental composition of lipid matrix pellets. Kinetics of (i) Geleol(®) and Compritol(®) pellets, explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas (R(2) = 0.978-0.993) indicated

  17. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D–phospholipid complex

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jinyang; Bi, Jianping; Tian, Hongli; Jin, Ye; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhonglin; Kou, Junping; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background Akebia saponin D (ASD) exerts various pharmacological activities but with poor oral bioavailability. In this study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on the drug–phospholipid complex technique was developed to improve the oral absorption of ASD. Methods ASD–phospholipid complex (APC) was prepared using a solvent-evaporation method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology observation, and solubility test. Oil and cosurfactant were selected according to their ability to dissolve APC, while surfactant was chosen based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimized APC-SNEDDS formulation, which was characterized by droplet size determination, zeta potential determination, and morphology observation. Robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability of optimized formulation were also evaluated. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ASD, APC, and APC-SNEDDS were investigated in rats. Results The liposolubility significantly increased 11.4-fold after formation of APC, which was verified by the solubility test in n-octanol. Peceol (Glyceryl monooleate [type 40]), Cremophor® EL (Polyoxyl 35 castor oil), and Transcutol HP (Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) were selected as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The optimal formulation was composed of Glyceryl monooleate (type 40), Polyoxyl 35 castor oil, Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and APC (1:4.5:4.5:1.74, w/w/w/w), which showed a particle size of 148.0±2.7 nm and a zeta potential of −13.7±0.92 mV after dilution with distilled water at a ratio of 1:100 (w/w) and good colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that APC-SNEDDS exhibited a significantly greater Cmax1 (733.4±203.8 ng/mL) than ASD (437.2±174.2 ng/mL), and a greater Cmax2 (985.8±366.6 ng/mL) than ASD (180.5±75.1 ng/mL) and APC (549.7±113

  18. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Elrashid Saleh; Noor, Azmin Mohd; Sakeena, Mohamed Hameem; Abdullah, Ghassan Z; Abdulkarim, Muthanna F; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) for skin antiaging. Methods Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs)-based nanoemulsions were loaded with P. urinaria extract using a spontaneous method and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. The release profile of the extract was evaluated using in vitro Franz diffusion cells from an artificial membrane and the antioxidant activity of the extract released was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Results Formulation F12 consisted of wt/wt, 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 0.5% glyceryl monostearate, 12% PKOEs, and 27% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and a 59.5% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4. Formulation F36 was comprised of 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 1% glyceryl monostearate, 14% PKOEs, 28% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and 56% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4 with shear thinning and thixotropy. The droplet size of F12 and F36 was 30.74 nm and 35.71 nm, respectively, and their nanosizes were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images. Thereafter, 51.30% and 51.02% of the loaded extract was released from F12 and F36 through an artificial cellulose membrane, scavenging 29.89% and 30.05% of DPPH radical activity, respectively. Conclusion The P. urinaria extract was successfully incorporated into a PKOEs-based nanoemulsion delivery system. In vitro release of the extract from the formulations showed DPPH radical scavenging activity. These formulations can

  19. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Elrashid Saleh; Noor, Azmin Mohd; Sakeena, Mohamed Hameem; Abdullah, Ghassan Z; Abdulkarim, Muthanna F; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) for skin antiaging. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs)-based nanoemulsions were loaded with P. urinaria extract using a spontaneous method and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. The release profile of the extract was evaluated using in vitro Franz diffusion cells from an artificial membrane and the antioxidant activity of the extract released was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Formulation F12 consisted of wt/wt, 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 0.5% glyceryl monostearate, 12% PKOEs, and 27% Tween 80/Span 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and a 59.5% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4. Formulation F36 was comprised of 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 1% glyceryl monostearate, 14% PKOEs, 28% Tween 80/Span 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and 56% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4 with shear thinning and thixotropy. The droplet size of F12 and F36 was 30.74 nm and 35.71 nm, respectively, and their nanosizes were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images. Thereafter, 51.30% and 51.02% of the loaded extract was released from F12 and F36 through an artificial cellulose membrane, scavenging 29.89% and 30.05% of DPPH radical activity, respectively. The P. urinaria extract was successfully incorporated into a PKOEs-based nanoemulsion delivery system. In vitro release of the extract from the formulations showed DPPH radical scavenging activity. These formulations can neutralize reactive oxygen species and counteract

  20. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D-phospholipid complex.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinyang; Bi, Jianping; Tian, Hongli; Jin, Ye; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhonglin; Kou, Junping; Li, Fei

    Akebia saponin D (ASD) exerts various pharmacological activities but with poor oral bioavailability. In this study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on the drug-phospholipid complex technique was developed to improve the oral absorption of ASD. ASD-phospholipid complex (APC) was prepared using a solvent-evaporation method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology observation, and solubility test. Oil and cosurfactant were selected according to their ability to dissolve APC, while surfactant was chosen based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimized APC-SNEDDS formulation, which was characterized by droplet size determination, zeta potential determination, and morphology observation. Robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability of optimized formulation were also evaluated. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ASD, APC, and APC-SNEDDS were investigated in rats. The liposolubility significantly increased 11.4-fold after formation of APC, which was verified by the solubility test in n-octanol. Peceol (Glyceryl monooleate [type 40]), Cremophor(®) EL (Polyoxyl 35 castor oil), and Transcutol HP (Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) were selected as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The optimal formulation was composed of Glyceryl monooleate (type 40), Polyoxyl 35 castor oil, Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and APC (1:4.5:4.5:1.74, w/w/w/w), which showed a particle size of 148.0±2.7 nm and a zeta potential of -13.7±0.92 mV after dilution with distilled water at a ratio of 1:100 (w/w) and good colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that APC-SNEDDS exhibited a significantly greater Cmax1 (733.4±203.8 ng/mL) than ASD (437.2±174.2 ng/mL), and a greater Cmax2 (985.8±366.6 ng/mL) than ASD (180.5±75.1 ng/mL) and APC (549.7±113.5 ng/mL). Compared with ASD, Tmax

  1. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses of Indus Submarine Fan sediments sampled by IODP Expedition 355: implications for sediment provenance and palaeoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; George, Simon C.; Bendle, James; Liddy, Hannah; Clift, Peter D.; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Tiwari, Manish; Khim, Boo-Keun; Griffith, Elizabeth; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Lee, Jongmin; Newton, Kate; Tripathi, Shubham; Expedition 355 Scientific Party

    2016-04-01

    petrography and heavy mineral analysis, geochemical data, isotope composition, and biomarker analysis. Preliminary organic geochemistry data suggest an increase of terrigenous organic matter input into sediment starting around 10.5 Ma, with a strong decrease in the last 1 Ma. Moreover, the detailed analyses of the glyceryl dialkyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT) and alkenone lipids provide the first sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions in the region. These data indicate decreasing SST from the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum until today. This research provides an exceptional opportunity to apply a multiproxy approach to understand sediment provenance, erosional processes, and palaeoclimate evolution in the eastern Arabian Sea.

  2. A new alternative to cosmetics preservation and the effect of the particle size of the emulsion droplets on preservation efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fang, B; Yu, M; Zhang, W; Wang, F

    2016-10-01

    This study describes a new alternative combination preservative containing caprylyl glycol, phenethyl alcohol and glyceryl caprylate and investigates the effects of the particle size of the emulsion droplet on the anti-microbial activity of the said blend in the formulation. The anti-microbial activity of the ingredients and the blend were determined via MIC, MBC, MFC and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) determination using the broth microdilution method. The blend inhibited the micro-organism contamination of the oil-in-water emulsion, and its performance was affected by the particle size of the emulsion droplet, as shown by the in vitro microbial challenge test. Results show that the MIC/MBC/MFC values of the blend were lower than those of any of the ingredients used alone. Any two of the ingredients presented no antagonistic activities against all the tested micro-organisms, and synergism or additive effects were also observed. The challenge test also showed that the action of the blend against bacteria and yeast was only 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and mould was completely inhibited at 1.4%, meeting the requirements of the PCPC and European Pharmacopoeia. The results showed that anti-microbial activity was gradually enhanced when the particle size of the emulsion droplets increased significantly in the range of 100-900 nm. A positive correlation was found between anti-microbial activity and particle size. The synergistic performance of caprylyl glycol, phenethyl alcohol and glyceryl caprylate and the anti-microbial activity of their blend suggest that their combination is effective and exhibits broad-spectrum anti-microbial activity. Furthermore, the results show a positive correlation between the anti-microbial activity of the preservative and the particle size of the emulsion droplets in the range of 100-900 nm, when the same concentration of the blend is used in the same formulation. The particle size of the emulsion droplets is demonstrated to be

  3. Effect of Moisture on the Thermoresponsive Properties of Binary Mixtures of Monoglycerides for Triggerable Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Stonewall, Hannah D; Kessinger, Haley M; Mengesha, Abebe E

    2017-02-27

    The crystallization behavior and temperature-dependent phase transition of monoglycerides have been utilized to develop thermal-sensitive drug delivery systems. The presence of excess water has been reported to influence the phase transition. The present study investigates the effect of moisture on the thermal behavior of binary blends of monoglycerides. Various compositions (0-100 wt%) of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) were prepared by fusion method, and exposed to varying relative humidity (RH) levels (0-100%). The moisture uptakes, sorption isotherm, and the thermal behavior of GMO-GMS samples were analyzed using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The in vitro nifedipine (NF) release was studied at 37 and 42°C. Samples of GMO-GMS (25:75, 50:50, and 75:25 wt%) stored at 97%RH at 25°C for 3 weeks increased in weight by 14.0, 14.7, and 15.8%, respectively. Despite such high moisture uptake, the GMO-GMS matrices maintained crystalline structure. The melting point (T m) and heat of fusion (ΔH f) of the samples were reduced as the amount of moisture in the matrices increased. However, the heat of fusion calculated on dry basis remained constant at 139.4 ± 1.25, 102.7 ± 1.14, and 46.7 ± 1.16 J/g for GMO-GMS 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25 wt%, respectively. The comparison of the XRD measurements of the dry samples with those containing 30% water confirmed the preserved crystalline arrangement in the matrices. This study indicates that despite the high moisture uptakes, the GMO-GMS matrices retained their crystalline properties and provided temperature-dependent drug release indicating the potential application for thermoresponsive local drug delivery systems.

  4. Formulation and evaluation of a water-in-oil cream containing herbal active ingredients and ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Mirela; Lahmar, Abir; Bogdan, Cătălina; Părăuan, Simona; Tomuţă, Ioan; Crişan, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of the present study were to formulate an anti-age cream based on vegetal ingredients and ferulic acid and to evaluate the physical characteristics and the efficacy of the cream. The active ingredients were Centella asiatica oil, Spilanthes acmella oil, Zingiber officinale extract and ferulic acid. Formulation 1 (F1) was prepared using glyceryl stearate and Ceteareth-25® as emulsifiers and Formulation 2 (F2) using glyceryl stearate and potassium cetyl phosphate, all other ingredients remaining the same. The physical characterization of the creams was performed and the following parameters were analyzed: viscosity, oil droplet size, polydispersity index; also, texture analysis was performed. The anti-aging effect of the F2 was evaluated by assessing the cutaneous density before and after cream application using DUB-cutis® scanner. The mean diameter of oil drops was 10.26±4.72 mm (F1) and 22.72±7.93 mm (F2) and the polydispersity index was 35.4% and 45.7%, respectively. The mean values for consistency were 594.7±10.3 g (F1) and 300.5±14.5 g (F2), the average values for adhesion were 15.61±0.8 mJ (F1) and 22.25±4.3 mJ (F2), for firmness were 51.2±0.8 g (F1) and 30.3±4.3 g (F2) and the spreadability had values between 72.63 mm2 (F1) and 73.3 mm2 (F2). In vivo study revealed that the mean values of the cutaneous density increased from 9.21±1.39 % to 12.50±1.44 % after 8 weeks of cream application. The herbal ingredients incorporated in the O/W cream base for the antioxidant activity and anti-wrinkle effect, induced changes of the cutaneous density, an important parameter which quantifies the regeneration process of the skin. An anti-age cream containing herbal active ingredients and ferulic acid with appropriate physical characteristics was obtained. In vivo study of clinical efficacy revealed a positive effect on skin density, which increased after 8 weeks of cream application.

  5. Pressurized CEC with amperometric detection using mixed-mode monolithic column for rapid analysis of chlorophenols and phenol.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lanxiang; Chen, Yankai; Yu, Xiaowei; Wu, Xiangzong; Tang, Fengxiang; Wu, Xiaoping

    2013-07-01

    A simple analysis of chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol) and phenol was accomplished by coupling a pressurized CEC with amperometric detection (AD). Efficient and reproducible separation of these compounds was achieved within 9 min on a capillary monolithic stationary phase bonded with octadecyl ligands and sulfonate groups, where the selectivity and the retention of analytes can be functionally controlled by optimizing experimental variables, including organic modifier content, mobile phase pH, ionic strength, working electrode potential, separation voltage, and supplementary pressure. A mixed-mode retention mechanism consisting of reverse-phase chromatographic partition, electrostatic repulsion, and electrophoresis is considered to play roles in the separation. The use of ACN-based media seems effectual in preventing the unfavorable irreversible adsorption on both wall and electrode, and offer higher sensitivity and less electrode fouling in AD of phenols. The LODs were in the range from 0.02 to 0.2 μg/mL with a wide linear dynamic range of 5000-fold, while the peak area precision ranged from 3.2 to 7.5%. The feasibility of using this method in real analysis was evaluated by recovery estimates and comparative experiment on spiked tap water samples. Good recoveries of 80-110% were achieved. Additionally, a paired t-test was used to correlate the two methods.

  6. Involvement of lipid rafts in the localization and dysfunction effect of the antitumor ether phospholipid edelfosine in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mollinedo, F; Fernández, M; Hornillos, V; Delgado, J; Amat-Guerri, F; Acuña, A U; Nieto-Miguel, T; Villa-Pulgarín, J A; González-García, C; Ceña, V; Gajate, C

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts and mitochondria are promising targets in cancer therapy. The synthetic antitumor alkyl-lysophospholipid analog edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) has been reported to target lipid rafts. Here, we have found that edelfosine induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, both responses being abrogated by Bcl-xL overexpression. We synthesized a number of new fluorescent edelfosine analogs, which preserved the proapoptotic activity of the parent drug, and colocalized with mitochondria in HeLa cells. Edelfosine induced swelling in isolated mitochondria, indicating an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability. This mitochondrial swelling was independent of reactive oxygen species generation. A structurally related inactive analog was unable to promote mitochondrial swelling, highlighting the importance of edelfosine molecular structure in its effect on mitochondria. Raft disruption inhibited mitochondrial localization of the drug in cells and edelfosine-induced swelling in isolated mitochondria. Edelfosine promoted a redistribution of lipid rafts from the plasma membrane to mitochondria, suggesting a raft-mediated link between plasma membrane and mitochondria. Our data suggest that direct interaction of edelfosine with mitochondria eventually leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. These observations unveil a new framework in cancer chemotherapy that involves a link between lipid rafts and mitochondria in the mechanism of action of an antitumor drug, thus opening new avenues for cancer treatment. PMID:21593790

  7. Dynamic pattern formation of liquid crystals using binary self-assembled monolayers on an ITO surface under DC voltage.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takao; Oyama, Makiko; Terada, Kei-ichi; Haga, Masa-aki

    2014-12-07

    There have been numerous studies of liquid crystal (LC) convection using sandwich-type LC cells under AC voltage. In contrast to previous LC convection studies under AC voltage, we propose the use of a binary self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with a redox-active Ru complex and insulating octadecyl phosphonic acid (C18) molecules on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface as the electrode of sandwich-type LC cells under DC bias voltage. This is because the functionalized molecules immobilized on the ITO surface are expected to control the LC orientation and electrical conduction of LC cells, under an exact DC bias voltage. We successfully achieved LC pattern formation using ITO electrodes with binary SAMs in LC cells. Moreover, we confirmed that the LC pattern size was increased by increasing the coverage of the Ru complex in binary SAMs. We consider that a combination of three factors, electrical conduction change, controlling of LC orientation in the initial stage and redox-activity of the Ru-complex, is the reason for LC convection although we cannot fully explain the distribution of these three factors. We believe that our LC pattern formation is promising for new type devices e.g., artificial compound eyes using the LC device technology.

  8. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  9. Surface modification of polyimide gate insulators for solution-processed 2,7-didecyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C10-BTBT) thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Won Soo; Won, Jong-Myung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Myung, Sung; Ka, Jae-Won; Kim, Jinsoo; Ahn, Taek; Yi, Mi Hye

    2013-01-21

    The surface property of a polyimide gate insulator was successfully modified with an n-octadecyl side-chain. Alkyl chain-grafted poly(amic acid), the polyimide precursor, was synthesized using the diamine comonomer with an alkyl side-chain. By adding a base catalyst to the poly(amic acid) coating solution, the imidization temperature of the spin-coated film could be reduced to 200 °C. The 350 nm-thick polyimide film had a dielectric constant of 3.3 at 10 kHz and a leakage current density of less than 8.7 × 10(-10) A cm(-2), while biased from 0 to 100 V. To investigate the potential of the alkyl chain-grafted polyimide film as a gate insulator for solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (TFTs), we fabricated C(10)-BTBT TFTs. C(10)-BTBT was deposited on the alkyl chain-grafted polyimide gate insulator by spin-coating, forming a well-ordered crystal structure. The field-effect mobility and the on/off current ratio of the TFT device were measured to be 0.20-0.56 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and >10(5), respectively.

  10. Late-emigrating trunk neural crest cells in turtle embryos generate an osteogenic ectomesenchyme in the plastron.

    PubMed

    Cebra-Thomas, Judith A; Terrell, Anne; Branyan, Kayla; Shah, Sonal; Rice, Ritva; Gyi, Lin; Yin, Melinda; Hu, Yusha; Mangat, Gulnar; Simonet, Jacqueline; Betters, Erin; Gilbert, Scott F

    2013-11-01

    The turtle plastron is composed of a keratinized epidermis overlying nine dermal bones. Its developmental origin has been controversial; recent evidence suggests that the plastral bones derive from trunk neural crest cells (NCCs). This study extends the observations that there is a turtle-specific, second wave of trunk NCC delamination and migration, after the original NCCs have reached their destination and differentiated. This second wave was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in whole-mounts and serial sections, by injecting DiI (1,1', di-octadecyl-3,3,3',3',-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate) into the lumen of the neural tube and tracing labeled cells into the plastron, and by isolating neural tubes from older turtle embryos and observing delaminating NCCs. This later migration gives rise to a plastral ectomesenchyme that expresses NCC markers and can be induced to initiate bone formation. The NCCs of this second migration have properties similar to those of the earlier NCCs, but also express markers characteristic of cranial NCCs. The majority of the cells of the plastron mesenchyme express neural crest markers, and have osteogenic differentiation capabilities that are similar or identical to craniofacial ectomesenchyme. Our evidence supports the contention that turtle plastron bones are derived from a late emigrating population of cells derived from the trunk neural crest. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identification of the specific, shutter-like conformational reorientation in a chiroptical switching polycarbodiimide by VCD spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Merten, Christian; Reuther, James F; DeSousa, Joseph D; Novak, Bruce M

    2014-06-21

    The specific conformational states responsible for the unique, reversible temperature- and solvent-driven chiroptical switching process experienced by poly(N-1-naphthyl-N'-octadecyl-carbodiimide) (PNOC) have been identified using VCD spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The distinct VCD spectra of PNOC corresponding to the two specific conformations were obtained for the polymer dissolved in DCM-d2 (state A) and CDCl3 (predominantly state B). To specifically assign the structures of both conformations, two simplified 7mer models were constructed and optimized using DFT calculations. The theoretical spectra associated with these model conformations show a high level of agreement when compared to the experimental VCD spectra. The two states consist of the naphthyl pendant groups aligned directionally opposing the helical rotation (model A) and aligned with the helicity of the backbone (model B). This pendant reorientation causes very large OR and ECD Cotton effect inversions upon modification to the temperature or solvent composition of dilute (+)-PNOC solutions in specific solvents. In addition, the pendant group equilibrium from state A to B causes a contraction of the helical pitch from the more expanded 5/1 pitch to the more contracted 7/2 pitch resulting in increased disorder of the solvation sphere surrounding the polymer chain.

  12. Fast profiling ecotoxicity and skin permeability of benzophenone ultraviolet filters using biopartitioning micellar chromatography based on penetrable silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chen-ru; Ma, Li-yun; Huang, Jian-geng; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-guo

    2013-12-04

    Penetrable silica possesses hierarchical pores, mesopores and penetrable macropores, offering fast mass transfer, satisfactory mechanical strength as well as low column pressure. In the present study, penetrable octadecyl-bonded silica (ODS) was for the first time used as biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) stationary phase to profile ecotoxicity and skin permeability of benzophenone UV-filters. Mobile phase (MP) pH and concentration of polyoxyethylene(23)lauryl ether in the MP were systematically studied. Quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRARs) model was established to correlate retention factors (k) on BMC with bioconcentration factor (BCF) and transdermal rate (TR) of UV-filters. Coefficient of determination (r(2)) of the QRARs model between log BCF and log k were 0.9398-0.9753, while r(2) between TR and log k were 0.7569-0.8434, which demonstrated satisfactory predictive ability of the methodology. It was a powerful tool for fast screening by combining penetrable ODS with BMC, and avoiding column blockage often occurring in BMC.

  13. Solid phase extraction and determination of sub-ppb levels of hazardous Hg2+ ions.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Sharghi, Hashem; Eskandari, Mohammad Mehdi

    2005-01-31

    A simple, rapid and reliable method has been developed to selectively separate and concentrate ultra trace amounts of mercury(II) ions from aqueous samples for its highly sensitive measurement by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). The Hg(2+) ions were adsorbed selectively and quantitatively during the passage of aqueous samples through octadecyl silica membrane disks modified by isopropyl 2-[(isopropoxycarbothiolyl)disulfanyl]ethane thioate (IIDE). The retained Hg(2+) ions were then stripped from the disk with minimal amounts of 0.5 M hydrobromic acid (two 8 ml portions) as eluent, and determined by CV-AAS. The break-through volume of the method is greater than 3000 ml, which results in enrichment factors >150. Maximum capacity of the membrane disks modified with 10mg of the ligand was found to be 350+/-30 microg of mercury(II), and the limit of detection is 0.005 ng ml(-1). The effect of various cationic interferences on the recovery of mercury in binary mixtures was studied. The method was applied to the recovery of Hg(2+) ions from different synthetic and tap water samples, as well as the determination of mercury in human hair samples.

  14. Dynamics of β1-Integrins in Living Fibroblasts—Effect of Substratum Wettability

    PubMed Central

    Zlatanov, I.; Groth, T.; Lendlein, A.; Altankov, G.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of integrin receptors mobility was studied in living human fibroblasts using fluorescence-labeled β1-integrin monoclonal antibodies. Time-lapse image series were obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy when cells were adhering on model hydrophilic (clean glass) and hydrophobic (octadecyl-silanized; i.e., ODS) surfaces coated with fibronectin. Direct measurements showed approximately twice-higher velocity of integrins on glass compared to ODS, and these velocities varied in different zones of the cells. A kinetic model and algorithm for quantification of images was developed, and the analysis identified three receptor populations on glass: immobilized (82.76% of all), slow (4.16%), and fast (13.08%), while, on ODS, only two were identified: immobilized (83.36%) and fast (16.64%). Fast integrins in the peripheral zone of cells have maximal velocities of 0.353 ± 0.02 μm/min (n = 48, four cells) on hydrophilic and 0.218 ± 0.02 μm/min (n = 30, three cells) on hydrophobic substrata. The slow population has a velocity of 0.114 μm/min (n = 48, four cells). Further analyses show that these velocities also differ significantly in the peripheral and middle zones of cells in a substrate-dependent fashion. A well-defined circular motion of receptors around the cell center expressed mainly on hydrophobic substrata was monitored and quantified as well. PMID:16126832

  15. Determination of phenol pollutants in water at trace levels: Extraction by a reversible graphitized carbon black cartridge

    SciTech Connect

    Di Corcia, A.; Marchese, S.; Samperi, R.

    1994-03-01

    A method for determining the 11 phenols designated as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the parts-per-trillion level in water sampled from the environment is described. Drinking (2 L), ground (1.5 L), and river (0.5 L) water samples are preconstructed by passing them through a 1 g graphitized carbon black (GCB) reversible cartridge at a flow rate of approximately 70 mL/min. After the GCB cartridge is washed with 1.5 mL methanol to eliminate water, the cartridge is reversed and then back-flushed with an acidic CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH mixture for eluting phenols. After partial solvent removal, the sample is subjected to reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection by either a conventional or a diode-array detector. Recoveries of phenols added to 2 L of drinking water at levels between 0.05 and 4 {mu}g/L were higher than 90%. Compared with an octadecyl bonded silica (C{sub 18}) cartridge, the GCB cartridge had a far better extraction efficiency for the more highly water-soluble phenols. The extent to which the presence of fulvic acids in water affected the recovery of the phenols considered was investigated. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Insights into the origin of the separation selectivity with silica hydride adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Kulsing, Chadin; Nolvachai, Yada; Marriott, Philip J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-02-19

    In this study, the surface properties of type-B silica have been compared with an unmodified silica hydride phase, a diamond hydride phase and silica hydride phases modified with bidentate anchored octyl (BDC8), bidentate anchored octadecyl (BDC18), phenyl and cholesteryl groups. Atomic distributions of the surface elemental composition of each type of stationary phase were determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. For the type-B silica, unmodified silica hydride, diamond hydride as well as BDC18 and cholesteryl silica hydride phases, the increase in carbon contents correlated with more negative surface ζ potential values (R(2) = 0.92). The origin of these more negative ζ potentials has been evaluated with mobile phases up to 100% (v/v) methanol content, with this property attributed to either an increase in the amount of adsorbed hydroxide ions or a decrease in the amount of adsorbed protons on the surfaces modified silica hydride phases of higher carbon content. This property of chemically modified silica hydride phases is in accordance with the unique propensity for hydroxide ions to be preferentially adsorbed onto hydrophobic surfaces of low permittivity and effects due to the specific accumulated water molecules associated with the electrical interfacial double layer of the adsorbent.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of endcapped C18 stationary phases using a silica hydride intermediate.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Yu, Raymond J

    2002-02-22

    The effect of endcapping on an octdecyl bonded phase synthesized by the silanization/hydrosilation method is investigated. The endcapping reagent is a 1:1 molar ratio of trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS). Two approaches for endcapping are possible for this synthetic method that produces a silica hydride intermediate: bonding of TMCS-HMDS after silanization (on the hydride intermediate) or after hydrosilation (on the C18 product stationary phase). The use of TMCS-HMDS is designed to eliminate the few remaining silanols on the silica hydride intermediate. The endcapping process is characterized spectroscopically by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT), 29Si cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP-MAS-NMR) and 13-C-CP-MAS-NMR. The octadecyl bonded phases are characterized chromatographically by measuring the capacity factors of several hydrophobic and basic test solutes as well as the separation factors among various solute pairs. Finally, long-term stability tests are done on both products at high and low pH.

  18. Signaling events mediating activation of brain ethanolamine plasmalogen hydrolysis by ceramide.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Eduardo; Collado, M Pilar; Fernández, Inmaculada; Aragonés, M Dolores; Catalán, R Edgardo

    2003-01-01

    Ceramide is a lipid second messenger that acts on multiple-target enzymes, some of which are involved in other signal-transduction systems. We have previously demonstrated that endogenous ceramide modifies the metabolism of brain ethanolamine plasmalogens. The mechanism involved was studied. On the basis of measurements of breakdown products, specific inhibitor effects, and previous findings, we suggest that a plasmalogen-selective phospholipase A2 is the ceramide target. Arachidonate-rich pools of the diacylphosphatidylethanolamine subclass were also affected by ceramide, but the most affected were plasmalogens. Concomitantly with production of free arachidonate, increased 1-O-arachidonoyl ceramide formation was observed. Quinacrine (phospholipase A2 inhibitor) and 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (CoA-independent transacylase inhibitor) prevented all of these ceramide-elicited effects. Therefore, phospholipase and transacylase activities are tightly coupled. Okadaic acid (phosphatase 2A inhibitor) and PD 98059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor) modified basal levels of ceramide and sphingomyelinase-induced accumulation of ceramide, respectively. Therefore, they provided no evidence to determine whether there is a sensitive enzyme downstream of ceramide. The evidence shows that there are serine-dependent and thiol-dependent enzymes downstream of ceramide generation. Furthermore, experiments with Ac-DEVD-CMK (caspase-3 specific inhibitor) have led us to conclude that caspase-3 is downstream of ceramide in activating the brain plasmalogen-selective phospholipase A2.

  19. Isolation and identification of urinary metabolites of berberine in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Zhu, Zhiyong; Kang, Ning; Piao, Shujuan; Qin, Gengyao; Yao, Xinsheng

    2008-11-01

    The urinary metabolites of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several Chinese herbal medicines, were investigated in rats and humans. Using macroporous adsorption resin chromatography, open octadecyl silane column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, we isolated seven metabolites (HM1-HM7) from human urine and five metabolites (RM1-RM5) from rat urine after oral administration. Their structures were elucidated by enzymatic deconjugation and analyses of mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy spectra. Besides the three known metabolites demethyleneberberine-2-O-sulfate (HM1 and RM3), jatrorrhizine-3-O-sulfate (HM5), and thalifendine (RM5), six new metabolites were identified, namely, jatrorrhizine-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide (HM2), thalifendine-10-O-beta-D-glucuronide (HM3), berberrubine-9-O-beta-D-glucuronide (HM4 and RM2), 3,10-demethylpalmatine-10-O-sulfate (HM6 and RM4), columbamin-2-O-beta-D-glucuronide (HM7), and demethyleneberberine-2,3-di-O-beta-D-glucuronide (RM1). These findings suggest that berberine undergoes similar biotransformation in rats and humans. Possible metabolic pathways of berberine in rats and humans are proposed.

  20. Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na-Young; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-01-01

    The Acer tegmentosum (3 kg) was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butyl alcohol (n-BuOH), and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24 g), five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1), avicularin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (−)-epicatechin (4), and 6′-O-galloyl salidroside (5). Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds) was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum. PMID:25386382

  1. Concentration of chosen oxycholesterols in plasma of pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bodzek, Piotr; Janoszka, Beata; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Bodzek, Danuta; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2002-02-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was applied for isolation of oxycholesterols from plasma lipid extract from pregnant women with hypertension and from a control group. Separation of oxycholesterols fraction was performed in an SD II horizontal chamber (Chromdes, Poland) using silica gel and octadecyl RPC18 silica gel TLC plates (Merck and Machery Nagel). Visualization was carried out under UV light after Liebermann-Burchard reaction specific for cholesterol and its derivatives. The oxycholesterols (5-cholestene-3beta-ol-7-one, sum of 5-cholestene-3beta, 7beta-diol and 5-cholestene-3beta, 7alpha-diol and sum of 5alpha,6alpha-epoxycholestan-3beta-ol and 5beta, 6beta-epoxycholestan-3beta-ol) were quantified by chromatograms scanning in reflectance and fluorescence mode using a CS 9301 densitometer (Shimadzu). The total concentration of the investigated oxycholesterols in the plasma of pregnant women was up to 5000 ng/mL and was statistically significantly higher in women with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Water-solubilization of alkyloxo(methoxo)porphyrinatoantimony bromides.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jin; Tanimura, Shin-ichiro; Shiragami, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Masahide

    2009-11-14

    In order to develop water-soluble porphyrins, alkyloxo(methoxo)porphyrinatoantimony bromides (alkyl = hexyl (1a), decyl (1b), dodecyl (1c), tetradecyl (1d), octadecyl (1e)) were prepared. 1 had more than 1 mmol dm(-3) of solubility in water. From the dependence of the half-width of the bands in the absorption spectra and surface tension on the concentration of 1, it was estimated that 1b-d were present as aggregates in concentrations higher than 10 micromol dm(-3). From the NMR analysis in D(2)O, it was deduced that the alkyloxo ligands of 1 were arranged alternately in the aggregates. The diameter of the aggregates of 1 in water was determined to be around 100 nm by the dynamic light scattering method. Since the solubilities of di(methoxo)tetraphenylporphyrinatoantimony bromide and 5-(4'-decyloxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrinato(dimethoxo)antimony(v) bromide were low, it was calculated that the long alkyl axial ligands were requisite for the high solubility in water.

  4. SPE coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC with flame ionization detection for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Masoomeh; Yamini, Yadollah; Ebrahimpour, Behnam

    2014-02-01

    SPE combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextration was used for the extraction of ultra-trace amounts of benzodiazepines (BZPs) including, diazepam, midazolam, and alprazolam, from ultra-pure water, tap water, fruit juices, and urine samples. The analytes were adsorbed from large volume samples (60 mL) onto octadecyl silica SPE columns. After the elution of the desired compounds from sorbents with 2.0 mL acetone, 0.5 mL of eluent containing 40.0 μL chloroform was injected rapidly into 4.5 mL pure water. After extraction and centrifugation, 2 μL of the sedimented phase was injected into a GC equipped with a flame ionization detector. Several parameters affecting this process were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, LODs ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L, a linear dynamic range of 0.1-100 μg/L and relative SDs in the range of 4.4-10.7% were attained. Very high preconcentration factors ranging from 3895-7222 were achieved. The applicability of the method for the extraction of BZPs from different types of complicated matrices, such as tap water, fruit juices, and urine samples, was studied. The obtained results reveal that the proposed method is a good technique for the extraction and determination of BZPs in complex matrices.

  5. Controlling Proton Delivery through Catalyst Structural Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Allan Jay P; Ginovska, Bojana; Kumar, Neeraj; Hou, Jianbo; Raugei, Simone; Helm, Monte L; Appel, Aaron M; Bullock, R Morris; O'Hagan, Molly

    2016-10-17

    The fastest synthetic molecular catalysts for H2 production and oxidation emulate components of the active site of hydrogenases. The critical role of controlled structural dynamics is recognized for many enzymes, including hydrogenases, but is largely neglected in designing synthetic catalysts. Our results demonstrate the impact of controlling structural dynamics on H2 production rates for [Ni(P(Ph)2 N(C6H4R)2 )2 ](2+) catalysts (R=n-hexyl, n-decyl, n-tetradecyl, n-octadecyl, phenyl, or cyclohexyl). The turnover frequencies correlate inversely with the rates of chair-boat ring inversion of the ligand, since this dynamic process governs protonation at either catalytically productive or non-productive sites. These results demonstrate that the dynamic processes involved in proton delivery can be controlled through modification of the outer coordination sphere, in a manner similar to the role of the protein architecture in many enzymes. As a design parameter, controlling structural dynamics can increase H2 production rates by three orders of magnitude with a minimal increase in overpotential.

  6. Hydrophobic high surface area zeolites derived from fly ash for oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Tamilselvan; Reid, David L; Goldstein, Ian; Hench, Larry; Seal, Sudipta

    2013-06-04

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct with a predominantly aluminosilicate composition, is modified to develop an inexpensive sorbent for oil spill remediation. The as-produced fly ash is a hydrophilic material with poor sorption capacity. A simple two-step chemical modification process is designed to improve the oil sorption capacity. First, the fly ash was transformed to a zeolitic material via an alkali treatment, which increased the specific surface area up to 404 m(2) g(-1). Then, the material was surface functionalized to form a hydrophobic material with high contact angle up to 147° that floats on the surface of an oil-water mixture. The reported oil sorption capacities of X-type zeolite sorbent with different surface functionalization (propyl-, octyl-, octadecyl-trimethoxysilane and esterification) were estimated to 1.10, 1.02, 0.86, and 1.15 g g(-1), respectively. Oil sorption was about five times higher than the as-received fly ash (0.19 g g(-1)) and also had high buoyancy critical for economic cleanup of oil over water.

  7. Effects of Miltefosine and Other Alkylphosphocholines on Human Intestinal Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Karin; Duchêne, Michael; Wernsdorfer, Walther H.; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Scheiner, Otto; Wiedermann, Gerhard; Hottkowitz, Thomas; Eibl, Hansjörg

    2001-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. It is therefore responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in a number of countries. Infections with E. histolytica are treated with nitroimidazoles, primarily with metronidazole. At this time, there is a lack of useful alternative classes of substances for the treatment of invasive amoebiasis. Alkylphosphocholines (alkyl-PCs) such as hexadecyl-PC (miltefosine) were originally developed as antitumor agents, but recently they have been successfully used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in humans. We examined hexadecyl-PC and several other alkyl-PCs with longer alkyl chains, with and without double bond(s), for their activity against two strains of E. histolytica. The compounds with the highest activity were oleyl-PC, octadecyl-PC, and nonadecenyl-PC, with 50% effective concentrations for 48 h of treatment between 15 and 21 μM for strain SFL-3 and between 73 and 98 μM for strain HM-1:IMSS. We also tested liposomal formulations of these alkyl-PCs and miltefosine. The alkyl-PC liposomes showed slightly lower activity, but are expected to be well tolerated. Liposomal formulations of oleyl-PC or closely related alkyl-PCs could be promising candidates for testing as broad-spectrum antiprotozoal and antitumor agents in humans. PMID:11302818

  8. Synthesis of mesoporous hollow silica nanospheres using polymeric micelles as template and their application as a drug-delivery carrier.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Manickam; Zenibana, Haruna; Nandi, Mahasweta; Bhaumik, Asim; Nakashima, Kenichi

    2013-10-07

    Mesoporous hollow silica nanospheres with uniform particle sizes of 31-33 nm have been successfully synthesized by cocondensation of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and alkyltrimethoxysilanes [RSi(OR)3], where the latter also acts as a porogen. ABC triblock copolymer micelles of poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PVP-PEO) with a core-shell-corona architecture have been employed as a soft template at pH 4. The cationic shell block with 2-vinyl pyridine groups facilitates the condensation of silica precursors under the sol-gel reaction conditions. Phenyltrimethoxysilane, octyltriethoxysilane, and octadecyltriethoxysilanes were used as porogens for generating mesopores in the shell matrix of hollow silica and the octadecyl precursor produced the largest mesopore among the different porogens, of dimension ca. 4.1 nm. The mesoporous hollow particles were thoroughly characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SXRD), thermal (TG/DTA) and nitrogen sorption analyses, infra-red (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-CP MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR) spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mesoporous hollow silica nanospheres have been investigated for drug-delivery application by an in vitro method using ibuprofen as a model drug. The hollow silica nanospheres exhibited higher storage capacity than the well-known mesoporous silica MCM-41. Propylamine functionalized hollow particles show a more sustained release pattern than their unfunctionalized counterparts, suggesting a huge potential of hollow silica nanospheres in the controlled delivery of small drug molecules.

  9. Micron-scale Mineral Heterogeneity as a Controlling Factor for Surfactant Adsorption and Water Imbibition in Fractured Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, B. R.; Das, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents results from a comprehensive analysis of mixed charge surfactants in altering surface properties and water imbibition in fractured shales. Contact angle and surface tension measurements were used to study the change in wettability of Marcellus shale due to interaction with two commonly used surfactants in hydraulic fracturing completion fluids: cationic octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (OTAC) and anionic ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate (ADS). Contact angle measurements of mixed charge surfactant solutions on Marcellus shale samples demonstrate a synergistic interaction of the cationic and anionic surfactants in modifying shale wettability toward a less water-wet state at surfactant concentrations below critical micelle concentration. The role of mineral heterogeneity as a controlling factor for the adsorption mechanism of mixed surfactants in hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs is explored via a combination of atomic and kelvin probe force microscopy. To further explore the impact of mixed surfactant solutions on water uptake in shale gas reservoirs, neutron imaging was used to quantify the rate of water imbibition in fractured shales exposed to a range of surfactant solutions and total surfactant concentrations. Results indicate that mixed charge surfactant solutions can serve to both reduce surface tension and shift shale wettability toward less water-wet conditions due to interaction with positive and negatively charged mineral surfaces in shales. Both of these effects can lead to enhanced natural gas relative permeability and may be associated with observed gas production trends when hydraulic fracturing fluids contain mixed charge surfactant additives.

  10. Stimulation and release from neurons via a dual capillary collection device interfaced to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Lee, Chang Young; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2013-11-07

    Neuropeptides are cell to cell signaling molecules that modulate a wide range of physiological processes. Neuropeptide release has been studied in sample sizes ranging from single cells and neuronal clusters, to defined brain nuclei and large brain regions. We have developed and optimized cell stimulation and collection approaches for the efficient measurement of neuropeptide release from neuronal samples using a dual capillary system. The defining feature is a capillary that contains octadecyl-modified silica nanoparticles on its inner wall to capture and extract releasates. This collection capillary is inserted into another capillary used to deliver solutions that chemically stimulate the cells, with solution flowing up the inner capillary to facilitate peptide collection. The efficiency of peptide collection was evaluated using six peptide standards mixed in physiological saline. The extracted peptides eluted from these capillaries were characterized via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with low femtomole detection limits. Using the capillary collection system in small custom-fabricated culturing chambers, individual cultured neurons and neuronal clusters from the model animal Aplysia californica were stimulated with distinct neuronal secretagogues and the releasates were collected and characterized using MALDI-TOF MS.

  11. Pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide residues on potato leaves and in soil under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Antonious, G F; Snyder, J C; Patel, G A

    2001-05-01

    Residues of pyrethrin-I (Py-I) and pyrethrin-II (Py-II), the major insecticidal components of the pyrethrum daisy (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) as well as residues of piperonyl butoxide (PBO, a pyrethrum synergist) were determined in soil and on potato foliage grown under field conditions. A pyrethrum formulation (Multi-Purpose Insecticide) containing the three active ingredients was sprayed twice at the rate of 6 lbs of formulated product.acre(-1) ( 5.4 and 27.2 g A.I. of pyrethrin and PBO, respectively) on potato foliage during the growing season. In soil, three management practices (yard waste compost, grass filter strips, and a no mulch treatment) were used to study the impact of surface soil characteristics on the amount of pyrethrins (Pys) and PBO retained in soil. Soil samples and potato leaves were collected at different time intervals after spraying. Samples were purified and concentrated using solid-phase extraction columns containing C18-Octadecyl bonded silica. Residues were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a UV detector. The first spray resulted in mean initial deposits of 0.18, 0.40, and 0.99 microg.g(-1) potato leaves for Py-I, Py-II, and PBO, respectively. Residues in soil were higher in compost treatments compared to no mulch treatments.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Superhydrophobic, Self-cleaning NIR-reflective Silica Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriramulu, Deepa; Reed, Ella Louise; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Venkatesan, Thirumalai Venky; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2016-11-01

    Multifunctional coatings offer many advantages towards protecting various surfaces. Here we apply aggregation induced segregation of perylene diimide (PDI) to control the surface morphology and properties of silica nanoparticles. Differentially functionalized PDI was incorporated on the surface of silica nanoparticles through Si-O-Si bonds. The absorption and emission spectra of the resultant functionalised nanoparticles showed monomeric or excimeric peaks based on the amounts of perylene molecules present on the surface of silica nanoparticles. Contact angle measurements on thin films prepared from nanoparticles showed that unfunctionalised nanoparticles were superhydrophilic with a contact angle (CA) of 0°, whereas perylene functionalised silica particles were hydrophobic (CA > 130°) and nanoparticles functionalised with PDI and trimethoxy(octadecyl)silane (TMODS) in an equimolar ratio were superhydrophobic with static CA > 150° and sliding angle (SA) < 10°. In addition, the near infrared (NIR) reflectance properties of PDI incorporated silica nanoparticles can be used to protect various heat sensitive substrates. The concept developed in this paper offers a unique combination of super hydrophobicity, interesting optical properties and NIR reflectance in nanosilica, which could be used for interesting applications such as surface coatings with self-cleaning and NIR reflection properties.

  13. Study of the helium cross-section of unsymmetric disulfide self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Erol; Karabuga, Semistan; Bracco, Gianangelo; Danışman, M. Fatih

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-hydroxyundecyl decyl disulfide (CH3-(CH2)9-S-S-(CH2)11-OH, HDD) and 11-hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide (CH3-(CH2)17-S-S-(CH2)11-OH, HOD) produced by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SMBD). The study has been carried out by means of helium diffraction at very low film coverage. In this regime helium single molecule cross sections have been estimated in a temperature range between 100 K and 450 K. The results show a different behavior above 300 K that has been interpreted as the starting of mobility with the formation of two thiolate moieties either linked by a gold adatom or distant enough to prevent cross section overlapping. Finally, helium diffraction patterns measured at 80 K for the SAMs grown at 200 K are discussed and the results support the proposed hypothesis of molecular dissociation based on the cross section data.

  14. Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oil after solid-phase extraction using a dual-layer sorbent cartridge followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Stenerson, Katherine K; Shimelis, Olga; Halpenny, Michael R; Espenschied, Ken; Ye, Maochun M

    2015-05-27

    A simple and easy direct solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for the analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in olive oil using a dual-layer cartridge containing activated Florisil and a mixture of octadecyl (C18)-bonded and zirconia-coated silicas. Undiluted olive oil was applied directly to the SPE cartridge, and the sample was eluted with acetonitrile solvent. Background in the extract was found to be low enough for either gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) analysis. Average recoveries for 16 different PAHs from spiked olive oil replicates were >75%, with intraday precisions of <20% relative standard deviation (% RSD). Detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 μg/kg and, specifically for the PAHs listed in EC Regulation 835/2011, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene, were from 0.3 to 0.7 μg/kg. The method was then applied to determine the PAH content present in commercial samples of refined versus extra-virgin olive oils.

  15. Emollient, humectant, and fluorescent alpha,beta-unsaturated thiol esters for long-acting skin applications.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carmen; Hartman, Rosemarie F; Rose, Seth D

    2008-12-01

    We describe compounds in which an emollient or a humectant bears an alpha,beta-unsaturated thiol ester capable of reacting with nucleophilic amino acids in stratum corneum proteins. These compounds should serve as long-lasting moisturizers for skin. The emollient derivatized was octadecyl propanoate, and the humectant was poly(ethylene glycol). These hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds, as well as a fluorescent, dansyl-containing thiol ester, were found to react within minutes with the thiol N-acetylcysteamine upon addition of a catalytic amount of an organic base in chloroform. The structures of the products resulting from conjugate addition to the unsaturated thiol esters were determined by NMR spectroscopy. In the case of the alpha,beta,gamma,delta-unsaturated (sorboyl) thiol ester, both the 1,4-addition product and the beta,gamma-unsaturated-1,6-addition product formed, followed by diadduct. An in vivo test of the fluorescent alpha,beta-unsaturated thiol ester showed that this compound persisted on skin for 3 weeks vs. 6 days for the non-bonding control compound.

  16. A Polymeric Fastener can Easily Functionalize Liposome Surfaces with Gadolinium for Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cartney E.; Shkumatov, Artem; Withers, Sarah G.; Glockner, James F.; Misra, Sanjay; Roy, Edward J.; Wong, Chun-Ho; Zimmerman, Steven C.; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Common methods of loading magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents into nanoparticles often suffer from challenges related to particle formation, complex chemical modification/purification steps, and reduced contrast efficiency. This study presents a simple, yet advanced process to address these issues by loading gadolinium, an MRI contrast agent, exclusively on a liposome surface using a polymeric fastener. The fastener, so named for its ability to physically link the two functional components together, consisted of chitosan substituted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to chelate gadolinium, as well as octadecyl chains to stabilize the modified chitosan on the liposome surface. The assembly strategy, mimicking the mechanisms by which viruses and proteins naturally anchor to a cell, provided greater T1 relaxivity than liposomes loaded with gadolinium in both the interior and outer leaflet. Gadolinium-coated liposomes were ultimately evaluated in vivo using murine ischemia models to highlight the diagnostic capability of the system. Taken together, this process decouples particle assembly and functionalization, and therefore has considerable potential to enhance imaging quality while alleviating many of the difficulties associated with multifunctional particle fabrication. PMID:24083377

  17. Multifunctional poly(alkyl methacrylate) films for dental care.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Birthe V; Nevell, Thomas G; Barbu, Eugen; Smith, James R; Rees, Gareth D; Tsibouklis, John

    2011-02-01

    Towards the evaluation of non-permanent dental coatings for their capacity to impart dental-care benefits, thin films of a homologous series of comb-like poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (ethyl to octadecyl) have been deposited, from aqueous latex formulations, onto dentally relevant substrates. AFM studies have shown that the thickness (40-300 nm) and surface roughness (8-12 nm) of coherent polymer films are influenced by the degree of polymerization and by the length of the pendant chain. Of the polymers under consideration, poly(butyl methacrylate) formed a close-packed film that conferred to dental substrates a high degree of inhibition to acid-mediated erosion (about 27%), as evaluated by released-phosphate determinations. The potential utility of the coatings to act as anti-sensitivity barriers has been evaluated by determining the hydraulic conductance of coated bovine-dentine substrates; single treatments of dentine discs with poly(butyl methacrylate) or with poly(ethyl methacrylate) effected mean respective reductions in fluid flow of about 23% with respect to water-treated controls; repeated applications of the poly(butyl methacrylate) latex led to mean reductions in fluid flow of about 80%. Chromometric measurements have shown that pellicle-coated hydroxyapatite discs treated with poly(butyl methacrylate), poly(hexyl methacrylate) or poly(lauryl methacrylate) exhibit significant resistance to staining by food chromogens.

  18. One-pot synthesized functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase sorbent for solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting compounds in milks.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Marina, María Luisa; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-01-08

    A new procedure for the determination of 12 naturally occurring hormones and some related synthetic chemicals in milk, commonly used as growth promoters in cattle, is reported. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a new one-pot synthesized ordered mesoporous silica (of the SBA-15 type) functionalized with octadecyl groups (denoted as SBA-15-C18-CO) as reversed-phase sorbent. The analytes were eluted with methanol and then submitted to HPLC with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, the method quantification limit for the analytes ranged from 0.023 to 1.36μg/mL. The sorbent affored the extraction of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, progesterone, hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, nandrolone, prednisolone and testosterone with mean recoveries ranging from 72% to 105% (except for diethylstilbestrol) with RSD<11%. These results were comparable and, in some cases, even better than those obtained with other extraction methods, therefore SBA-15-C18-CO mesoporous silica possess a high potential as a reversed-phase sorbent for SPE of the 12 mentioned endocrine disrupting compounds in milk samples.

  19. Mechanistic study for immobilization of cysteine-labeled oligopeptides on UV-activated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lian Hao; Ding, Xiaokang; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we report immobilization of cysteine-labeled oligopeptides on UV activated surfaces decorated with N,N-dimethyl-n-octadecyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilyl chloride (DMOAP). Our result shows that cysteine group, regardless of its position in the oligopeptide, is essential for successful immobilization of oligopeptide on the UV-activated surface. A possible reaction mechanism is nucleophilic addition of thiolates to surface aldehyde groups generated during UV activation. By using this technique, we are able to incorporate anchoring points into oligopeptides through cysteine residues. Furthermore, immobilized oligopeptides on the UV-activated surface is very stable even under harsh washing conditions. Finally, we show that an HPQ-containing oligopeptide can be immobilized on the UV-activated surface, but the final surface density and its ability to bind streptavidin are affected by the position of cysteine and HPQ. An oligopeptide with a cysteine at the N-terminus and a HPQ motif at the C-terminus gives the highest binding signal in the streptavidin-binding assay. This result is potentially useful for the development of functional oligopeptide microarrays for detecting target protein molecules.

  20. Non-toxic O-quaternized chitosan materials with better water solubility and antimicrobial function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Wen-Shuai; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Chen, Qin; Cong, Wei; Zhao, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Five water-soluble O-quaternary ammonium salt-chitosans (QAS-CS) bearing N-methyl-N-R-N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R=-benzyl (chloride, BNQAS-CS), -dodecyl (C12QAS-CS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS-CS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS-CS), -octadecyl (C18QAS-CS)) were prepared, respectively. They were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis. Through chemical modification of O-quaternized chitosans, the water solubility of all QAS-CS was improved distinctly. Their antibacterial properties indicate good antibacterial abilities against gram-positive bacteria and bad against gram-negative bacteria, therein, C12QAS-CS and C14QAS-CS are the best. More importantly, their cytotoxicity was markedly lower than the corresponding QAS monomers by evaluating for AT2 cell line using CCK-8 assay. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial chitosan materials with better water solubility, better antimicrobial ability and lower cytotoxicity for primary additive agent of self-owned intellectual band-aids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimized fluorometric determination of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid by using pre-column derivatization, and identification of the derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Okayama, A.; Fujii, S.; Miura, R. )

    1990-08-01

    We previously reported the usefulness of a fluorometric method to determine urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations by using post-column derivatization to monitor the effect of lead exposure. We have further improved the method by introducing pre-column derivatization by using reaction of ALA with acetylacetone and formaldehyde. Response of the hematopoietic system to lead exposure can now be easily detected at blood lead concentrations as low as 162 micrograms/L. The fluorescent ALA derivative, a new aromatic product, 2-methylideneamino-3,5-diacetyl-4,6-dimethylphenylpropionic acid, is separated on octadecyl silica column by high-performance liquid chromatography and the fluorescence intensity is detected with a fluorophotometer. Sample recoveries for 12 urine samples from workers exposed to lead and unexposed controls were 91.9-110.2%. The results obtained by the pre-column derivatization method agreed with those by the post-column derivatization method. The new method increases the sensitivity to a detection limit to 10 micrograms of delta-aminolevulinic acid per milliliter of urine and is simple enough to be used for routine monitoring of the biological effect of exposure to low concentrations of lead.

  2. Tween surfactants: Adsorption, self-organization, and protein resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Guo, Athena; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2011-03-01

    Tween surfactants, each containing hydrophilic ethylene glycol head groups and a hydrophobic alkyl tail, are being actively explored as protein-resistant surface coatings, but little is known about how they adsorb on surfaces. We carry out a comparative study of the adsorption of two Tween molecules (same hydrophilic head group, but a shorter dodecyl tail for Tween 20 and a longer octadecyl tail for Tween 40) on Au and polystyrene surfaces. Despite the similarity between these two molecules, there is a drastic difference in their protein resistance: a monolayer of Tween 20 on a hydrophobic surface is repulsive against protein adsorption but that of Tween 40 is not. The difference in protein resistance can be attributed to two distinctly different adsorption mechanisms. While the adsorption of Tween 40 is described by a simple first-order mechanism, that of Tween 20 consists of a fast adsorption step and a slower reorganization process at a high surface coverage. The latter leads to the formation of a high-density and self-organized monolayer, which is responsible for the enhanced stability and resistance against non-specific protein adsorption.

  3. Asphaltene Adsorption onto Self-Assembled Monolayers of Mixed Aromatic

    SciTech Connect

    Turgman-Cohen, S.; Smith, M; Fischer, D; Kilpatrick, P; Genzer, J

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of asphaltenes onto flat solid surfaces modified with mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of aliphatic and aromatic trichlorosilanes with varying wettabilities, aromaticities, and thicknesses is tested. The mixed SAMs are characterized by means of contact angle to assess hydrophobicity and molecular and chemical uniformity, spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the thickness of the films, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to assess chemical and molecular composition. The molecular characteristics of the adsorbed asphaltene layer and the extent of asphaltene adsorption are determined using NEXAFS and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively. The SAMs are formed by depositing phenyl-, phenethyl-, butyl-, and octadecyl- trichlorosilanes from toluene solutions onto silica-coated substrates; the chemical composition and the wettability of the SAM surface is tuned systematically by varying the trichlorosilane composition in the deposition solutions. The adsorption of asphaltenes on the substrates does not correlate strongly with the SAM chemical composition. Instead, the extent of asphaltene adsorption decreases with increasing SAM thickness. This observation suggests that the leading interaction governing the adsorption of asphaltenes is their interaction with the polar silica substrate and that the chemical composition of the SAM is of secondary importance.

  4. Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of films of silicon nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Yoonjung; Lee, Doh C.; Rhogojina, Elena V.; Jurbergs, David C.; Korgel, Brian A.; Bard, Allen J.

    2006-08-01

    Films of octadecyl-capped Si nanoparticles (NPs) (diameter, 3.4 ± 0.7 nm) prepared by drop-coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) showed electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) for both cathodic and anodic potential sweeps in KOH solutions containing peroxydisulfate. The redox potentials of the Si NPs can be estimated as approximately -0.9 and +0.95 V (versus Ag|AgCl) based on the anodic potential for the onset of ECL minus the ECL peak energy. The ECL exhibits a relatively broad spectrum (FWHM = 160 nm) with a peak wavelength of ~670 nm (1.85 eV), similar to the photoluminescence spectra. In electrochemical studies in KOH solution in the absence of peroxydisulfate, an anodic current peak appears at about -1 V (versus Ag|AgCl) following a scan to negative potentials. A similar peak has been observed during the etching of a bulk single crystal Si electrode in alkaline aqueous solution. Unpassivated surface sites of Si NPs seem to be etched at potentials negative of the anodic oxidation peak.

  5. Determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy or Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after On-line Preconcentration and Solvent Extraction by Flow Injection System

    PubMed

    Bortoli; Gerotto; Marchiori; Mariconti; Palonta; Troncon

    1996-11-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in natural and sea waters are too low to be directly determined with by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Specific sample preparations are requested that make possible the determination of these analytes by preconcentration or extraction. These techniques are affected by severe problems of sample contamination. In this work Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) or by atomic absorption spectrometry, in fresh and seawater samples, after on-line preconcentration and following solvent elution with a flow injection system. Bonded silica with octadecyl functional group C18, packed in a microcolumn of 100-μl capacity, was used to collect diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of the heavy metals in aqueous solutions. The metals are complexed with a chelating agent, adsorbed on the C18 column, and eluted with methanol directly in the flow injection system. The methanolic stream can be addressed to FAAS for direct determination of Cu, Ni, and Zn, or collected in a vial for successive analysis by GFAAS. The eluted samples can be also dried in a vacuum container and restored to a little volume with concentrated HNO3 and Milli-Q water for analysis by ICP-MS or GFAAS.

  6. Bioanalysis of aplidine, a new marine antitumoral depsipeptide, in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with trans-4-hydrazino-2-stilbazole.

    PubMed

    Sparidans, R W; Kettenes-van den Bosch, J J; van Tellingen, O; Nuyen, B; Henrar, R E; Jimeno, J M; Faircloth, G; Floriano, P; Rinehart, K L; Beijnen, J H

    1999-06-11

    A sensitive bio-analytical assay in plasma of the depsipeptide aplidine is reported, based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection of the trans-4'-hydrazino-2-stilbazole (4'H2S) derivative of the analyte. At ambient temperature, two conformations of the depsipeptide are observed in solution due to cis-trans isomerism at the proline-pyruvoyl peptide bond. Aplidine is isolated from the matrix by solid-phase extraction on an octadecyl modified silica stationary phase. After evaporation of the acetone eluate, a derivatization with 4'H2S is performed in a water-acetonitrile mixture at pH 4. The reaction mixture is injected directly into the chromatograph and the analyte is quantified by fluorescence detection at 410 and 560 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. The method has been validated in the 2-100 ng/ml-range, 2 ng/ml being the lower limit of quantification. Precision and accuracy both meet the current requirements for a bioanalytical assay. The identity of the 4'H2S reaction products of aplidine have been confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis. Finally, the method has been employed for a pilot pharmacokinetic study of aplidine in mice which demonstrated its usefulness for pharmacological research.

  7. Liquid chromatographic assay for the cyclic depsipeptide aplidine, a new marine antitumor drug, in whole blood using derivatization with trans-4'-hydrazino-2-stilbazole.

    PubMed

    Sparidans, Rolf W; Schellens, Jan H M; López-Lázaro, Luis; Jimeno, José M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2004-01-01

    A sensitive bio-analytical assay for the depsipeptide aplidine in plasma has been modified and tested for human whole blood samples. The adapted method is based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection of the trans-4'-hydrazino-2-stilbazole derivative of the analyte. Aplidine is isolated from the matrix by solid-phase extraction on an octadecyl modified silica stationary phase. After evaporation of the acetone eluate, the derivatization with the hydrazino reagent is performed in a water-acetonitrile mixture at pH = 4. The reaction mixture is injected directly into the chromatograph and the analyte is quantified by fluorescence detection at 410 and 560 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. The method has been validated in the 2-100 ng/mL range, with 2 ng/mL being the lower limit of quantification. Precision and accuracy both meet the current requirements for a bioanalytical assay. The stability of aplidine in whole blood at ambient temperature and at 37 degrees C is limited; recoveries in the range 60-85% were observed after 7 h. Further, adequate stability of aplidine in plasma at -80 and -20 degrees C for 35 months could now be demonstrated. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Quantification of glycated N-terminal peptide of hemoglobin using derivatization for multiple functional groups of amino acids followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Taichi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2016-02-01

    A novel method of amino acid analysis using derivatization of multiple functional groups (amino, carboxyl, and phenolic hydroxyl groups) was applied to measure glycated amino acids in order to quantify glycated peptides and evaluate the degree of glycation of peptide. Amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids were derivatized with 1-bromobutane so that the hydrophobicities and basicities of the amino acids, including glycated amino acids, were improved. These derivatized amino acids could be detected with high sensitivity using LC-MS/MS. In this study, 1-deoxyfructosyl-VHLTPE and VHLTPE, which are N-terminal peptides of the β-chains of hemoglobin, were selected as target compounds. After reducing the peptide sample solution with sodium borohydride, the obtained peptides were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid. The released amino acids were then derivatized with 1-bromobutane and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. The derivatized amino acids, including glycated amino acids, could be separated using an octadecyl silylated silica column and good sharp peaks were detected. We show a confirmatory experiment that the proposed method can be applied to evaluate the degree of glycation of peptides, using mixtures of glycated and non-glycated peptide.

  9. Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion for the rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Dung-Ying; Chen, Chien-Liang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2014-07-01

    A simple and effective method for the rapid determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish is described. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) prior to their determination by on-line silylation gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized using a Box-Behnken design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing 0.5g of freeze-dried powdered fish with 1.0g of Florisil using a mortar and pestle. This blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge containing 1.0g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18), as the clean-up co-sorbent. The target analytes were then eluted with 7mL of acetonitrile. The extract was derivatized on-line in the GC injection-port by reaction with a trimethylsilylating (TMS) reagent. The TMS-derivatives were then identified and quantitated by GC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 0.1ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Determination of illudin S in Omphalotus guepiniformis and foods that caused food poisoning by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Itou, Takeshi

    2009-08-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of illudin S in fungi (Omphalotus guepiniformis: poisonous mushroom) and a food that caused food poisoning, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Illudin S in fungi and the food that caused food poisoning was extracted with methanol and then cleaned up with an Oasis HLB cartridge. LC separation was performed with an octadecylated silica column (Inertsil ODS-3, 2.1 mm i.d. x 150 mm) and a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (7 : 3) at a flow rate 0.2 mL/min. Mass spectral acquisition was performed in the positive mode and illudin S was targeted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electrospray ionization (ESI). The recoveries of illudin S were 84-94% from edible fungi (Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Panellus serotinus). The detection limits of illudin S in the fungi (L. edodes, P. ostreatus and P. serotinus) were 0.08-0.10 microg/g respectively. Illudin S was detected in the food that caused food poisoning at the level of 2.0 and 15.1 microg/g in the soup and fungi, respectively. The recovery of illudin S from a mushroom soup (cooked at 100 degrees C for 10 min) sample which simulated food poisoning was 74.8%. These results indicate that the developed method is suitable for the determination of illudin S in fungi (O. guepiniformis) and foods that caused food poisoning.

  11. One-Pot Approach to Prepare Organo-silica Hybrid Capillary Monolithic Column with Intact Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle as Building Block

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shengju; Peng, Jiaxi; Liu, Zheyi; Liu, Zhongshan; Zhang, Hongyan; Wu, Ren’an

    2016-01-01

    A facile “one-pot” approach to prepare organo-silica hybrid capillary monolithic column with intact mesoporous silica nanoparticle (IMSN) as crosslinker and building block was described. An IMSN crosslinked octadecyl-silica hybrid capillary monolithic column (IMSN-C18 monolithic column) was successfully prepared, and the effects of fabrication conditions (e.g. concentration of intact mesoporous silica nanoparticle, polycondensation temperature, content of vinyltrimethoxysilane and stearyl methacrylate) on the structures of the IMSN-C18 monolithic column were studied in detail. The IMSN-C18 hybrid monolithic column possessed uniform morphology, good mechanical and pH stability (pH 1.1–11), which was applied to the separations of alkyl benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as proteins. The minimum plate height of 10.5 μm (corresponding to 95000 N m−1) for butylbenzene and high reproducibility were achieved. The analysis of tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was carried out on the IMSN-C18 monolithic column by cLC coupled mass spectrometry (cLC-MS/MS), with the protein sequence coverage of 87.5% for BSA, demonstrating its potential application in proteomics. PMID:27698475

  12. Sensitivity enhancement for the analysis of naproxen in tap water by solid-phase extraction coupled in-line to capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Macià, Alba; Borrull, Francesc; Calull, Marta; Benavente, Fernando; Hernández, Elena; Sanz-Nebot, Victòria; Barbosa, José; Aguilar, Carme

    2008-03-01

    SPE coupled in-line to CE, as the strategy to enhance the concentration sensitivity in CE, has been used to enrich naproxen in tap water samples. In this study, a microcartridge containing an octadecyl silica (C18) sorbent was placed near the inlet within the separation capillary column. The optimum conditions were obtained when naproxen in an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.5) was loaded into the capillary at 930 mbar for 30 min, and 20 mM ammonium acetate in methanol/water (70:30 v/v) was used as both an elution solution and a separation BGE. Under these conditions, the sensitivity was enhanced 1820-fold with respect to normal hydrodynamic injection, and the LOD achieved was 0.2 microg/L. To show the capability of the in-line SPE-CE method, tap water samples were analysed after a pretreatment consisting in an off-line C18-SPE procedure. The recovery of this procedure was higher than 80%. Under these conditions, naproxen could be detected at a concentration of 10 ng/L; so the potential of the procedure for the sensitive analysis of this type of drugs in water samples was demonstrated. Afterwards, these results were compared with those previously obtained for naproxen in water samples using different sample stacking techniques.

  13. Self-assembled monolayer-functionalized half-metallic manganite for molecular spintronics.

    PubMed

    Tatay, Sergio; Barraud, Clément; Galbiati, Marta; Seneor, Pierre; Mattana, Richard; Bouzehouane, Karim; Deranlot, Cyrile; Jacquet, Eric; Forment-Aliaga, Alicia; Jegou, Pascale; Fert, Albert; Petroff, Frédéric

    2012-10-23

    (La,Sr)MnO(3) manganite (LSMO) has emerged as the standard ferromagnetic electrode in organic spintronic devices due to its highly spin-polarized character and air stability. Whereas organic semiconductors and polymers have been mainly envisaged to propagate spin information, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been overlooked and should be considered as promising materials for molecular engineering of spintronic devices. Surprisingly, up to now the first key step of SAM grafting protocols over LSMO surface thin films is still missing. We report the grafting of dodecyl (C12P) and octadecyl (C18P) phosphonic acids over the LSMO half-metallic oxide. Alkylphosphonic acids form ordered self-assembled monolayers, with the phosphonic group coordinated to the surface and alkyl chains tilted from the surface vertical by 43° (C12P) and 27° (C18P). We have electrically characterized these SAMs in nanodevices and found that they act as tunnel barriers, opening the door toward the integration of alkylphosphonic acid//LSMO SAMs into future molecular/organic spintronic devices such as spin OLEDs.

  14. LC method for determination of prasugrel and mass spectrometry detection for thermal and alkaline degradation products.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, C; Barden, A T; Steppe, M

    2015-08-01

    A stability-indicating RP-LC method for the determination of prasugrel in tablets was developed and validated. Stress testing of prasugrel was carried out in accordance with ICH guidelines, where the drug was submitted to acidic and basic hydrolysis, oxidative, thermal and photolytic conditions. Prasugrel was unstable under all the conditions and the degradations products were analyzed by HPLC-UV. Furthermore, two main degradation products found under alkaline and thermal conditions were investigated by LC-MS. Based on the fragmentation patterns, two products resulted from hydrolysis of the acetate ester moiety of prasugrel were observed. Due the chemical equilibrium, tautomerism occurs between the ketone and alcohol functions justifying the similar molecular weight and fragment pattern obtained in degradation products analysis. Successful separation was achieved on a RP-18 octadecyl silane column using acetonitrile and triethylamine 0.5% mixture (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at 25 degrees C. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detector wavelength was 263 nm. The method proposed in this work was successfully applied to quality control of prasugrel and contribute to stability assessment of pharmaceutical products containing this drug.

  15. Synthesis of montmorillonite/Fe3O4-OTAB composite capable of using as anisotropic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Yingjun; Wang, Shanqiang; Zhou, Yuanlin

    2017-04-01

    The high hydrophobic magnetic montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were synthesized in two solvents (deionized water and ethanol) by using octadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) as intercalating agent and Fe3O4 as magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD, EDS, SEM, VSM. When Fe3O4 was loaded before OTAB on MMT, the sample prepared in deionized water exhibited better adsorption than that prepared in ethanol. The order of Fe3O4 and CTAB introduction had great effect on the hydrophobicity, magnetism, and adsorption. Compared with OTAB-MMT-Fe3O4, Fe3O4-MMT-OTAB possessed higher hydrophobicity and higher magnetic response. The contact angle of Fe3O4-MMT-OTAB could reach 84.80° and Fe3O4-MMT-OTAB possessed higher Ms (9.25 emu/g) than OTAB-MMT-Fe3O4 (6.72 emu/g) dose. Fe3O4-MMT-OTAB will become a promising candidate of anisotropic nano-filled powder in polymers by using low magnetic field to obtain the orientation, based on its above excellent properties.

  16. Multiplex Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for Simultaneous Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Ribavirin, Boceprevir, and Telaprevir

    PubMed Central

    Aouri, Manel; Moradpour, Darius; Cavassini, Matthias; Mercier, Thomas; Buclin, Thierry; Csajka, Chantal; Telenti, Amalio; Rauch, Andri

    2013-01-01

    New directly acting antivirals (DAAs) that inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication are increasingly used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. A marked pharmacokinetic variability and a high potential for drug-drug interactions between DAAs and numerous drug classes have been identified. In addition, ribavirin (RBV), commonly associated with hemolytic anemia, often requires dose adjustment, advocating for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in patients under combined antiviral therapy. However, an assay for the simultaneous analysis of RBV and DAAs constitutes an analytical challenge because of the large differences in polarity among these drugs, ranging from hydrophilic (RBV) to highly lipophilic (telaprevir [TVR]). Moreover, TVR is characterized by erratic behavior on standard octadecyl-based reversed-phase column chromatography and must be separated from VRT-127394, its inactive C-21 epimer metabolite. We have developed a convenient assay employing simple plasma protein precipitation, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of levels of RBV, boceprevir, and TVR, as well as its metabolite VRT-127394, in plasma. This new, simple, rapid, and robust HPLC-MS/MS assay offers an efficient method of real-time TDM aimed at maximizing efficacy while minimizing the toxicity of antiviral therapy. PMID:23629707

  17. On-line coupling of solid-phase extraction to high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of estrogens in environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Huang, Wei; Fang, Guozhen; He, Jinxing; Zhang, Yan

    2008-01-14

    A method based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the determination of estrogens has been developed. This method can continuously perform extraction of estrone, estradiol, estriol and diethylstilbestrol from aqueous samples without any other pretreatment, which can then be analyzed by HPLC with a UV detector at 230 nm. A pre-concentration column was adapted with methanol/water for chromatographic separation and two kinds of sorbents were involved, which are octadecyl-bonded silica and cigarette filter. The condition of pH of samples, sample loading flow rate and desorption time were all optimized, and the performances of both two sorbents were satisfactory. The on-line SPE system requires very low maintenance and just involved a switching-valve-filter system and a flow-inject pump, and the operation of the whole SPE-HPLC instrumentation is quite simple. The detection limits for pre-concentrating 50 mL of standard solution using cigarette filter as sorbent ranged from 0.98 to 78.1 ngL(-1). The enhancement factors were in the range of 197-326. The recoveries of estrogens spiked in real water samples ranged from 85 to 112%. The precisions for nine replicate measurements of a standard mixture (5.0 microgL(-1)) were in the range of 1.0-3.4%.

  18. Mixed-mode sorption of hydroxylated atrazine degradation products to sell: A mechanism for bound residue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerch, R.N.; Thurman, E.M.; Kruger, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that sorption of hydroxylated atrazine degradation products (HADPs: hydroxyatrazine, HA; deethylhydroxyatrazine, DEHA; and deisopropylhydroxyatrazine, DIHA) to soils occurs by mixed-mode binding resulting from two simultaneous mechanisms: (1) cation exchange and (2) hydrophobic interaction. The objective was to use liquid chromatography and soil extraction experiments to show that mixed-mode binding is the mechanism controlling HADP sorption to soils and is also a mechanism for bound residue. Overall, HADP binding to solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents occurred in the order: cation exchange >> octadecyl (C18) >> cyanopropyl. Binding to cation exchange SPE and to a high-performance liquid chromatograph octyl (C8) column showed evidence for mixed-mode binding. Comparison of soil extracted by 0.5 M KH2P04, pH 7.5, or 25% aqueous CH3CN showed that, for HA and DIHA, cation exchange was a more important binding mechanism to soils than hydrophobic interaction. Based on differences between several extractants, the extent of HADP mixed-mode binding to soil occurred in the following order: HA > DIHA > DEHA. Mixed-mode extraction recovered 42.8% of bound atrazine residues from aged soil, and 88% of this fraction was identified as HADPs. Thus, a significant portion of bound atrazine residues in soils is sorbed by the mixed-mode binding mechanisms.

  19. Methods of analysis by the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - determination of organonitrogen herbicides in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Schroeder, Michael P.; Zamboni, Jana L.; Foreman, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the isolation of organonitrogen herbicides from natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and analysis by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring is described. Water samples are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then are pumped through disposable solid-phase extraction cartridges containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica to remove the herbicides. The cartridges are dried using carbon dioxide, and adsorbed herbicides are removed from the cartridges by elution with 1.8 milliliters of hexaneisopropanol (3:1). Extracts of the eluants are analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring of at least three characteristic ions. The method detection limits are dependent on sample matrix and each particular herbicide. The method detection limits, based on a 100-milliliter sample size, range from 0.02 to 0.25 microgram per liter. Recoveries averaged 80 to 115 percent for the 23 herbicides and 2 metabolites in 1 reagent-water and 2 natural-water samples fortified at levels of 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter.

  20. The effect of additives on the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions by vacuum evaporation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gemma; Cambiella, Angel; Benito, José M; Pazos, Carmen; Coca, José

    2007-06-18

    A simple batch vacuum evaporation process for the treatment of several oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is reported. The experiments were carried out with waste emulsions from an industrial copper rolling process and with model emulsions prepared in the laboratory. No detailed information on the formulation of the industrial waste O/W emulsions was available. Several model emulsions were formulated using the same base oil (an 85-15% (w/w) mixture of a synthetic poly-alpha-olefin and a trimethylol propane trioleate ester, respectively) and one of the three following surfactants: Brij-76 (polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether, non-ionic), CTAB (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, cationic), and Oleth-10 (glycolic acid ethoxylate oleyl ether, anionic). Experimental results show a strong influence of operating conditions, such as pressure or bath temperature, on the evaporation performance. As a general trend, the higher the values of these parameters, the higher the pollutant content in the obtained aqueous effluent. The presence of surfactants increase the evaporation rate, especially at low operating vacuum pressures, the solubility of oil molecules in water and the evaporation temperature of model O/W emulsions. Furthermore, COD reductions higher than 99.5% for the treated waste O/W emulsions were achieved.