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Sample records for octameric assembly state

  1. The structure of CrgA from Neisseria meningitidis reveals a new octameric assembly state for LysR transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Sarah; Lane, Laura A.; Ren, Jingshan; Gilbert, Robert J.; Saunders, Nigel J.; Robinson, Carol V.; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) form the largest family of bacterial regulators acting as both auto-repressors and activators of target promoters, controlling operons involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. The LTTR, CrgA, from the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, is upregulated during bacterial–host cell contact. Here, we report the crystal structures of both regulatory domain and full-length CrgA, the first of a novel subclass of LTTRs that form octameric rings. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry analysis and analytical ultracentrifugation established that the octameric form of CrgA is the predominant species in solution in both the presence and absence of an oligonucleotide encompassing the CrgA-binding sequence. Furthermore, analysis of the isolated CrgA–DNA complex by mass spectrometry showed stabilization of a double octamer species upon DNA binding. Based on the observed structure and the mass spectrometry findings, a model is proposed in which a hexadecameric array of two CrgA oligomers binds to its DNA target site. PMID:19474343

  2. Structure of the 'Escherichia Coli' Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein Lrp Reveals a Novel Octameric Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    de los Rios, S.; Perona, J.J.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-07-09

    The structure of Escherichia coli leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) cocrystallized with a short duplex oligodeoxynucleotide reveals a novel quaternary assembly in which the protein octamer forms an open, linear array of four dimers. In contrast, structures of the Lrp homologs LrpA, LrpC and AsnC crystallized in the absence of DNA show that these proteins instead form highly symmetrical octamers in which the four dimers form a closed ring. Although the DNA is disordered within the Lrp crystal, comparative analyses suggest that the observed differences in quaternary state may arise from DNA interactions during crystallization. Interconversion of these conformations, possibly in response to DNA or leucine binding, provides an underlying mechanism to alter the relative spatial orientation of the DNA-binding domains. Breaking of the closed octamer symmetry may be a common essential step in the formation of active DNA complexes by all members of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  3. Crystal structure of a two-subunit TrkA octameric gating ring assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc -André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.; Ye, Sheng

    2015-03-31

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K⁺ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K⁺ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K⁺ ions across the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies.

  4. Crystal structure of a two-subunit TrkA octameric gating ring assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; ...

    2015-03-31

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K⁺ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K⁺ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K⁺ ions acrossmore » the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K⁺ gating ring assemblies.« less

  5. Crystal Structure of a Two-Subunit TrkA Octameric Gating Ring Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Deller, Marc C.; Johnson, Hope A.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Spraggon, Glen; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Lesley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The TM1088 locus of T. maritima codes for two proteins designated TM1088A and TM1088B, which combine to form the cytosolic portion of a putative Trk K+ transporter. We report the crystal structure of this assembly to a resolution of 3.45 Å. The high resolution crystal structures of the components of the assembly, TM1088A and TM1088B, were also determined independently to 1.50 Å and 1.55 Å, respectively. The TM1088 proteins are structurally homologous to each other and to other K+ transporter proteins, such as TrkA. These proteins form a cytosolic gating ring assembly that controls the flow of K+ ions across the membrane. TM1088 represents the first structure of a two-subunit Trk assembly. Despite the atypical genetics and chain organization of the TM1088 assembly, it shares significant structural homology and an overall quaternary organization with other single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. This structure provides the first structural insights into what may be an evolutionary ancestor of more modern single-subunit K+ gating ring assemblies. PMID:25826626

  6. Structure of an octameric form of the minichromosome maintenance protein from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi

    PubMed Central

    Cannone, Giuseppe; Visentin, Silvia; Palud, Adeline; Henneke, Ghislaine; Spagnolo, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Cell division is a complex process that requires precise duplication of genetic material. Duplication is concerted by replisomes. The Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase is a crucial component of replisomes. Eukaryotic and archaeal MCM proteins are highly conserved. In fact, archaeal MCMs are powerful tools for elucidating essential features of MCM function. However, while eukaryotic MCM2-7 is a heterocomplex made of different polypeptide chains, the MCM complexes of many Archaea form homohexamers from a single gene product. Moreover, some archaeal MCMs are polymorphic, and both hexameric and heptameric architectures have been reported for the same polypeptide. Here, we present the structure of the archaeal MCM helicase from Pyrococcus abyssi in its single octameric ring assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a full-length octameric MCM helicase. PMID:28176822

  7. Octameric structure of Staphylococcus aureus enolase in complex with phosphoenolpyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yunfei; Wang, Chengliang; Lin, Shenglong; Wu, Minhao; Han, Lu; Tian, Changlin; Zhang, Xuan; Zang, Jianye

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium with strong pathogenicity that causes a wide range of infections and diseases. Enolase is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that plays a key role in energy production through glycolysis. Additionally, enolase is located on the surface of S. aureus and is involved in processes leading to infection. Here, crystal structures of Sa_enolase with and without bound phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) are presented at 1.6 and 2.45 Å resolution, respectively. The structure reveals an octameric arrangement; however, both dimeric and octameric conformations were observed in solution. Furthermore, enzyme-activity assays show that only the octameric variant is catalytically active. Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the octameric form of Sa_enolase is enzymatically active in vitro and likely also in vivo, while the dimeric form is catalytically inactive and may be involved in other biological processes. PMID:26627653

  8. Self-Assembled Multi-Component Catenanes: Structural Insights into an Adaptable Class of Molecular Receptors and [2]-Catenanes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-11

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Under acidic conditions (50 equiv TFA), combinations of hydrazide A-B monomers self assemble into octameric [2...conditions (50 equiv TFA), combinations of hydrazide A-B monomers self assemble into octameric [2] -catenanes with high selectivity for [132]2, where 1...Under acidic conditions (50 equiv of TFA), combinations of hydrazide A-B monomers self-assemble into octameric [2]-catenanes with high selectivity

  9. From pico to nano: biofunctionalization of cube-octameric silsesquioxanes by peptides and miniproteins.

    PubMed

    Fabritz, Sebastian; Hörner, Sebastian; Könning, Doreen; Empting, Martin; Reinwarth, Michael; Dietz, Christian; Glotzbach, Bernhard; Frauendorf, Holm; Kolmar, Harald; Avrutina, Olga

    2012-08-21

    Polyhedral silsesquioxanes are considered valuable conjugation scaffolds. Nevertheless, only a few examples of silsesquioxane-assembled peptide oligomers have been reported to date. We developed a new bioorthogonal cube-octameric silsesquioxane (COSS) scaffold bearing eight aminooxy coupling sites allowing for the conjugation of diverse peptides via oxime ligation. We found that the coupling efficacy depends on the ligand in view of steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion. For the first time scaffold-based conjugation of cystine-knot miniproteins having a backbone of about thirty amino acids was successfully accomplished without loss of bioactivity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provided further knowledge on the size of COSS verifying them as picoscaffolds growing upon bioconjugation to nano-dimension.

  10. Interaction of recombinant octameric hemoglobin with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Caroline; Domingues-Hamdi, Élisa; Prin-Mathieu, Christine; Menu, Patrick; Baudin-Creuza, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) may generate oxidative stress, vasoconstriction and inflammation. To reduce these undesirable vasoactive properties, we increased hemoglobin (Hb) molecular size by genetic engineering with octameric Hb, recombinant (r) HbβG83C. We investigate the potential side effects of rHbβG83C on endothelial cells. The rHbβG83C has no impact on cell viability, and induces a huge repression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transcription, a marker of vasomotion. No induction of Intermolecular-Adhesion Molecule 1 and E-selectin (inflammatory markers) transcription was seen. In the presence of rHbβG83C, the transcription of heme oxygenase-1 (oxidative stress marker) is weakly increased compared to the two other HBOCs (references) or Voluven (control). This genetically engineered octameric Hb, based on a human Hb βG83C mutant, leads to little impact at the level of endothelial cell inflammatory response and thus appears as an interesting molecule for HBOC development.

  11. Cse4 is Part of an Octameric Nucleosome in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Camahort, Raymond; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Mattingly, Mark; Li, Bing; Nakanishi, Shima; Zhu, Dongxiao; Shilatifard, Ali; Workman, Jerry L.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The budding yeast CenH3 histone variant Cse4 localizes to centromeric nucleosomes and is required for kinetochore assembly and chromosome segregation. The exact composition of centromeric Cse4–containing nucleosomes is a subject of debate. ChIP-chip experiments and high resolution quantitative PCR confirm that there is a single Cse4 nucleosome at each centromere, and additional regions of the genome contain Cse4 nucleosomes at low levels. Using unbiased biochemical, cell biological, and genetic approaches we have tested the composition of Cse4-containing nucleosomes. Using micrococcal nuclease-treated chromatin, we find that Cse4 is associated with the histones H2A, H2B, and H4, but not H3 or the non-histone protein Scm3. Overexpression of Cse4 rescues the lethality of a scm3 deletion, indicating Scm3 is not essential for the formation of functional centromeric chromatin. Additionally, octameric Cse4 nucleosomes can be reconstituted in vitro. The Cse4-Cse4 interaction domain appears to be essential and interaction occurs in vivo in the centromeric nucleosome. Taken together, our experimental evidence supports the model that the Cse4-nucleosome is an octamer, containing two copies each of Cse4, H2A, H2B, and H4. PMID:19782029

  12. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    DOEpatents

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  13. Shearing of the CENP-A dimerization interface mediates plasticity in the octameric centromeric nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Winogradoff, David; Zhao, Haiqing; Dalal, Yamini; Papoian, Garegin A

    2015-11-25

    The centromeric nucleosome is a key epigenetic determinant of centromere identity and function. Consequently, deciphering how CENP-A containing nucleosomes contribute structurally to centromere function is a fundamental question in chromosome biology. Here, we performed microsecond timescale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CENP-A and H3 nucleosomes, and report that the octameric CENP-A core particles and nucleosomes display different dynamics from their canonical H3-containing counterparts. The most significant motion observed is within key interactions at the heart of the CENP-A octameric core, wherein shearing of contacts within the CENP-A:CENP-A' dimerization interface results in a weaker four helix bundle, and an extrusion of 10-30 bp of DNA near the pseudo-dyad. Coupled to other local and global fluctuations, the CENP-A nucleosome occupies a more rugged free energy landscape than the canonical H3 nucleosome. Taken together, our data suggest that CENP-A encodes enhanced distortability to the octameric nucleosome, which may allow for enhanced flexing of the histone core in vivo.

  14. Shearing of the CENP-A dimerization interface mediates plasticity in the octameric centromeric nucleosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winogradoff, David; Zhao, Haiqing; Dalal, Yamini; Papoian, Garegin A.

    2015-11-01

    The centromeric nucleosome is a key epigenetic determinant of centromere identity and function. Consequently, deciphering how CENP-A containing nucleosomes contribute structurally to centromere function is a fundamental question in chromosome biology. Here, we performed microsecond timescale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CENP-A and H3 nucleosomes, and report that the octameric CENP-A core particles and nucleosomes display different dynamics from their canonical H3-containing counterparts. The most significant motion observed is within key interactions at the heart of the CENP-A octameric core, wherein shearing of contacts within the CENP-A:CENP-A’ dimerization interface results in a weaker four helix bundle, and an extrusion of 10-30 bp of DNA near the pseudo-dyad. Coupled to other local and global fluctuations, the CENP-A nucleosome occupies a more rugged free energy landscape than the canonical H3 nucleosome. Taken together, our data suggest that CENP-A encodes enhanced distortability to the octameric nucleosome, which may allow for enhanced flexing of the histone core in vivo.

  15. Shearing of the CENP-A dimerization interface mediates plasticity in the octameric centromeric nucleosome

    PubMed Central

    Winogradoff, David; Zhao, Haiqing; Dalal, Yamini; Papoian, Garegin A.

    2015-01-01

    The centromeric nucleosome is a key epigenetic determinant of centromere identity and function. Consequently, deciphering how CENP-A containing nucleosomes contribute structurally to centromere function is a fundamental question in chromosome biology. Here, we performed microsecond timescale all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CENP-A and H3 nucleosomes, and report that the octameric CENP-A core particles and nucleosomes display different dynamics from their canonical H3-containing counterparts. The most significant motion observed is within key interactions at the heart of the CENP-A octameric core, wherein shearing of contacts within the CENP-A:CENP-A’ dimerization interface results in a weaker four helix bundle, and an extrusion of 10–30 bp of DNA near the pseudo-dyad. Coupled to other local and global fluctuations, the CENP-A nucleosome occupies a more rugged free energy landscape than the canonical H3 nucleosome. Taken together, our data suggest that CENP-A encodes enhanced distortability to the octameric nucleosome, which may allow for enhanced flexing of the histone core in vivo. PMID:26602160

  16. Stability of the Octameric Structure Affects Plasminogen-Binding Capacity of Streptococcal Enolase

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ruby H. P.; Casey, Lachlan W.; Valkov, Eugene; Bertozzi, Carlo; Stamp, Anna; Jovcevski, Blagojce; Aquilina, J. Andrew; Whisstock, James C.; Walker, Mark J.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human pathogen that has the potential to cause invasive disease by binding and activating human plasmin(ogen). Streptococcal surface enolase (SEN) is an octameric α-enolase that is localized at the GAS cell surface. In addition to its glycolytic role inside the cell, SEN functions as a receptor for plasmin(ogen) on the bacterial surface, but the understanding of the molecular basis of plasmin(ogen) binding is limited. In this study, we determined the crystal and solution structures of GAS SEN and characterized the increased plasminogen binding by two SEN mutants. The plasminogen binding ability of SENK312A and SENK362A is ~2- and ~3.4-fold greater than for the wild-type protein. A combination of thermal stability assays, native mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography approaches shows that increased plasminogen binding ability correlates with decreased stability of the octamer. We propose that decreased stability of the octameric structure facilitates the access of plasmin(ogen) to its binding sites, leading to more efficient plasmin(ogen) binding and activation. PMID:25807546

  17. Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for β-retroviral intasome function

    PubMed Central

    Ballandras-Colas, Allison; Brown, Monica; Cook, Nicola J.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Demeler, Borries; Cherepanov, Peter; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Engelman, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of viral DNA (vDNA) into host target (tDNA), which is an essential step in the lifecycle of all retroviruses1. Prior structural characterization of IN-vDNA complexes, or intasomes, from the spumavirus prototype foamy virus (PFV) revealed a functional IN tetramer2–5, and it is generally believed that intasomes derived from other retroviral genera will employ tetrameric IN6–9. However, the intasomes of orthoretroviruses, which include all known pathogenic species, have not been characterized structurally. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystallography, we determine here an unexpected octameric IN architecture for the β-retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) intasome. The structure is composed of two core IN dimers, which interact with the vDNA ends and structurally mimic the PFV IN tetramer, and two flanking IN dimers that engage the core structure via their IN C-terminal domains (CTDs). Contrary to the belief that tetrameric IN components are sufficient to catalyze integration, the flanking IN dimers were necessary for MMTV IN activity. The IN octamer solves a conundrum for the β- as well as α-retroviruses by providing critical CTDs to the intasome core that cannot be provided in cis due to evolutionarily restrictive catalytic core domain (CCD)-CTD linker regions. The octameric architecture of the MMTV intasome provides a new paradigm for the structural basis of retroviral DNA integration. PMID:26887496

  18. Using Markov state models to study self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perkett, Matthew R.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) have been demonstrated to be a powerful method for computationally studying intramolecular processes such as protein folding and macromolecular conformational changes. In this article, we present a new approach to construct MSMs that is applicable to modeling a broad class of multi-molecular assembly reactions. Distinct structures formed during assembly are distinguished by their undirected graphs, which are defined by strong subunit interactions. Spatial inhomogeneities of free subunits are accounted for using a recently developed Gaussian-based signature. Simplifications to this state identification are also investigated. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated on two different coarse-grained models for virus self-assembly. We find good agreement between the dynamics predicted by the MSMs and long, unbiased simulations, and that the MSMs can reduce overall simulation time by orders of magnitude. PMID:24907984

  19. Equation of State for Phospholipid Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid self-assembly is the basis of biomembrane stability. The entropy of transfer from water to self-assembled micelles of lysophosphatidylcholines and diacyl phosphatidylcholines with different chain lengths converges to a common value at a temperature of 44°C. The corresponding enthalpies of transfer converge at ∼−18°C. An equation of state for the free energy of self-assembly formulated from this thermodynamic data depends on the heat capacity of transfer as the sole parameter needed to specify a particular lipid. For lipids lacking calorimetric data, measurement of the critical micelle concentration at a single temperature suffices to define an effective heat capacity according to the model. Agreement with the experimental temperature dependence of the critical micelle concentration is then good. The predictive powers should extend also to amphiphile partitioning and the kinetics of lipid-monomer transfer. PMID:26745421

  20. Equation of State for Phospholipid Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-05

    Phospholipid self-assembly is the basis of biomembrane stability. The entropy of transfer from water to self-assembled micelles of lysophosphatidylcholines and diacyl phosphatidylcholines with different chain lengths converges to a common value at a temperature of 44°C. The corresponding enthalpies of transfer converge at ∼-18°C. An equation of state for the free energy of self-assembly formulated from this thermodynamic data depends on the heat capacity of transfer as the sole parameter needed to specify a particular lipid. For lipids lacking calorimetric data, measurement of the critical micelle concentration at a single temperature suffices to define an effective heat capacity according to the model. Agreement with the experimental temperature dependence of the critical micelle concentration is then good. The predictive powers should extend also to amphiphile partitioning and the kinetics of lipid-monomer transfer.

  1. Conformational States of macromolecular assemblies explored by integrative structure calculation.

    PubMed

    Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Pandurangan, Arun Prasad; Xu, Min; Alber, Frank; Topf, Maya

    2013-09-03

    A detailed description of macromolecular assemblies in multiple conformational states can be very valuable for understanding cellular processes. At present, structural determination of most assemblies in different biologically relevant conformations cannot be achieved by a single technique and thus requires an integrative approach that combines information from multiple sources. Different techniques require different computational methods to allow efficient and accurate data processing and analysis. Here, we summarize the latest advances and future challenges in computational methods that help the interpretation of data from two techniques-mass spectrometry and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (with focus on alignment and classification of heterogeneous subtomograms from cryo-electron tomography). We evaluate how new developments in these two broad fields will lead to further integration with atomic structures to broaden our picture of the dynamic behavior of assemblies in their native environment.

  2. Octamerization is essential for enzymatic function of human UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Führing, Jana; Damerow, Sebastian; Fedorov, Roman; Schneider, Julia; Münster-Kühnel, Anja-Katharina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita

    2013-04-01

    Uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) occupies a central position in carbohydrate metabolism in all kingdoms of life, since its product uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-glucose) is essential in a number of anabolic and catabolic pathways and is a precursor for other sugar nucleotides. Its significance as a virulence factor in protists and bacteria has given momentum to the search for species-specific inhibitors. These attempts are, however, hampered by high structural conservation of the active site architecture. A feature that discriminates UGPs of different species is the quaternary organization. While UGPs in protists are monomers, di- and tetrameric forms exist in bacteria, and crystal structures obtained for the enzyme from yeast and human identified octameric UGPs. These octamers are formed by contacts between highly conserved amino acids in the C-terminal β-helix. Still under debate is the question whether octamerization is required for the functionality of the human enzyme. Here, we used single amino acid replacements in the C-terminal β-helix to interrogate the impact of highly conserved residues on octamer formation and functional activity of human UGP (hUGP). Replacements were guided by the sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana UGP, known to be active as a monomer. Correlating the data obtained in blue native PAGE, size exclusion chromatography and enzymatic activity testing, we prove that the octamer is the active enzyme form. This new insight into structure-function relationships in hUGP does not only improve the understanding of the catalysis of this important enzyme, but in addition broadens the basis for studies aimed at designing drugs that selectively inhibit UGPs from pathogens.

  3. Design of a miniaturized solid state laser for automated assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Max C.; Dolkemeyer, Jan; Morasch, Valentin; Loosen, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A miniaturized solid state laser for marking applications has been developed featuring novel assembly strategies to reduce size, cost and assembly effort. Design and setup have been laid out with future automation of the assembly in mind. Using a high precision robot the optical components composing the laser system are directly placed on a planar substrate providing accurate positioning and alignment within a few microns. No adjustable mounts for mirrors and lenses are necessary, greatly simplifying the setup. Consisting of either a ND:YAG or a Nd:YVO4 crystal pumped with a fiber coupled diode laser, a q-switch for pulse generation and a beam expander the entire assembly is confined in a 100ml space and delivers 4 W of continuous output power at 1.064 μm with an efficiency greater than 40%. Pulse lengths of 10-20 ns and repetition rates of up to 150 kHz have been obtained with an acousto-optic modulator. In addition, a custom designed electro-optic modulator with integrated high voltage switch has been realized. A supply unit for the entire system, including scanner and water cooling, is integrated in a 19" industrial chassis and can be operated via a graphical user interface on a standard personal computer.

  4. Snapshot of sequential SNARE assembling states between membranes shows that N-terminal transient assembly initializes fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong Jian; Li, Feng; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Lafosse, Xavier; Gourier, Christine; Perez, Eric; Pincet, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Many prominent biological processes are driven by protein assembling between membranes. Understanding the mechanisms then entails determining the assembling pathway of the involved proteins. Because the intermediates are by nature transient and located in the intermembrane space, this determination is generally a very difficult, not to say intractable, problem. Here, by designing a setup with sphere/plane geometry, we have been able to freeze one transient state in which the N-terminal domains of SNARE proteins are assembled. A single camera frame is sufficient to obtain the complete probability of this state with the transmembrane distance. We show that it forms when membranes are 20 nm apart and stabilizes by further assembling of the SNAREs at 8 nm. This setup that fixes the intermembrane distance, and thereby the transient states, while optically probing the level of molecular assembly by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can be used to characterize any other transient transmembrane complexes. PMID:26979957

  5. RNA Silencing Suppressor p21 of Beet Yellows Virus Forms an RNA binding Octameric Ring Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ye,K.; Patel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Many plant viruses encode proteins that suppress the antiviral RNA silencing response mounted by the host. The suppressors p19 from tombusvirus and p21 from Beet yellows virus appear to block silencing by directly binding siRNA, a critical mediator in the process. Here, we report the crystal structure of p21, which reveals an octameric ring architecture with a large central cavity of {approx}90 Angstrom diameter. The all {alpha}-helical p21 monomer consists of N- and C-terminal domains that associate with their neighboring counterparts through symmetric head-to-head and tail-to-tail interactions. A putative RNA binding surface is identified in the conserved, positive-charged inner surface of the ring. In contrast to the specific p19-siRNA duplex interaction, p21 is a general nucleic acid binding protein, interacting with 21 nt or longer single- and double-stranded RNAs in vitro. This study reveals an RNA binding structure adopted by the p21 silencing suppressor.

  6. Influence of the Phase State of Self-Assembling Redox Mediators on their Electrochemical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Muller, John P. E.; Aytar, Burcu S.; Kondo, Yukishige; Lynn, David M.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembling redox mediators have the potential to be broadly useful in a range of interfacial electrochemical contexts because the oxidation state and state of assembly of the mediator are closely coupled. In this paper, we report an investigation of the self-assembly of single- and double-tailed ferrocenyl amphiphiles (FTMA and BFDMA, respectively) at the surfaces of Pt electrodes and the impact of the dynamic assembled state of the amphiphiles on their rate of oxidation. We conclude that frozen aggregates of BFDMA adsorb to the surfaces of the Pt electrodes, and that slow dynamics of reorganization BFDMA within these aggregates limits the rate of electrooxidation of BFDMA. In contrast, FTMA, while forming assemblies on the surfaces of Pt electrodes, is characterized by fast reorganization dynamics and a corresponding rate of oxidation that is an order of magnitude greater than BFDMA. PMID:24882870

  7. The X-ray Structures of Six Octameric RNA Duplexes in the Presence of Different Di- and Trivalent Cations

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Michelle F.; Peng, Guanya; Spingler, Bernhard; Schnabl, Joachim; Wang, Meitian; Olieric, Vincent; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the polyanionic nature of RNA, the principles of charge neutralization and electrostatic condensation require that cations help to overcome the repulsive forces in order for RNA to adopt a three-dimensional structure. A precise structural knowledge of RNA-metal ion interactions is crucial to understand the mechanism of metal ions in the catalytic or regulatory activity of RNA. We solved the crystal structure of an octameric RNA duplex in the presence of the di- and trivalent metal ions Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Sr2+, and Tb3+. The detailed investigation reveals a unique innersphere interaction to uracil and extends the knowledge of the influence of metal ions for conformational changes in RNA structure. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that an accurate localization of the metal ions in the X-ray structures require the consideration of several crystallographic and geometrical parameters as well as the anomalous difference map. PMID:27355942

  8. Co-existence of Distinct Supramolecular Assemblies in Solution and in the Solid State.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G N Manjunatha; Huqi, Aida; Iuga, Dinu; Sakurai, Satoshi; Marsh, Andrew; Davis, Jeffery T; Masiero, Stefano; Brown, Steven P

    2017-02-16

    The formation of distinct supramolecular assemblies, including a metastable species, is revealed for a lipophilic guanosine (G) derivative in solution and in the solid state. Structurally different G-quartet-based assemblies are formed in chloroform depending on the nature of the cation, anion and the salt concentration, as characterized by circular dichroism and time course diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy data. Intriguingly, even the presence of potassium ions that stabilize G-quartets in chloroform was insufficient to exclusively retain such assemblies in the solid state, leading to the formation of mixed quartet and ribbon-like assemblies as revealed by fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Distinct N-H⋅⋅⋅N and N-H⋅⋅⋅O intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions drive quartet and ribbon-like self-assembly resulting in markedly different 2D (1) H solid-state NMR spectra, thus facilitating a direct identification of mixed assemblies. A dissolution NMR experiment confirmed that the quartet and ribbon interconversion is reversible-further demonstrating the changes that occur in the self-assembly process of a lipophilic nucleoside upon a solid-state to solution-state transition and vice versa. A systematic study for complexation with different cations (K(+) , Sr(2+) ) and anions (picrate, ethanoate and iodide) emphasizes that the existence of a stable solution or solid-state structure may not reflect the stability of the same supramolecular entity in another phase.

  9. Structure and Scm3-mediated assembly of budding yeast centromeric nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Wyns, Katharina; Li, Ming; Hall, Michael A; Wang, Michelle D; Luger, Karolin

    2011-01-01

    Much controversy exists regarding the structural organization of the yeast centromeric nucleosome and the role of the nonhistone protein, Scm3, in its assembly and architecture. Here we show that the substitution of H3 with its centromeric variant Cse4 results in octameric nucleosomes that organize DNA in a left-handed superhelix. We demonstrate by single-molecule approaches, micrococcal nuclease digestion and small-angle X-ray scattering that Cse4-nucleosomes exhibit an open conformation with weakly bound terminal DNA segments. The Cse4-octamer does not preferentially form nucleosomes on its cognate centromeric DNA. We show that Scm3 functions as a Cse4-specific nucleosome assembly factor, and that the resulting octameric nucleosomes do not contain Scm3 as a stably bound component. Taken together, our data provide insights into the assembly and structural features of the budding yeast centromeric nucleosome.

  10. Solid-State NMR Studies of HIV-1 Capsid Protein Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yun; Ahn, Jinwoo; Concel, Jason; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Yang, Jun; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2010-02-17

    In mature HIV-1 virions, the 26.6 kDa CA protein is assembled into a characteristic cone-shaped core (capsid) that encloses the RNA viral genome. The assembled capsid structure is best described by a fullerene cone model that is made up from a hexameric lattice containing a variable number of CA pentamers, thus allowing for closure of tubular or conical structures. In this paper, we present a solid-state NMR analysis of the wild-type HIV-1 CA protein, prepared as conical and spherical assemblies that are stable and are not affected by magic angle spinning of the samples at frequencies between 10 and 25 kHz. Multidimensional homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra of CA assemblies of uniformly 13C,15Nlabeled CA exhibit narrow lines, indicative of the conformational homogeneity of the protein in these assemblies. For the conical assemblies, partial residue-specific resonance assignments were obtained. Analysis of the NMR spectra recorded for the conical and spherical assemblies indicates that the CA protein structure is not significantly different in the different morphologies. The present results demonstrate that the assemblies of CA protein are amenable to detailed structural analysis by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Perspectives of a State Legislature. The Connecticut General Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Clyde D., Jr., Ed.

    The major goal of this book is to improve the public's understanding of the legislative branch of the state government in Connecticut. It is divided into seven sections: (1) the political tradition and environment of the state legislature; (2) the state legislature as a nonpartisan institution; (3) the substance of the legislature; (4) the…

  12. From Brittle to Pliant Viscoelastic Materials with Solid State Linear Polyphosphonium - Carboxylate Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, Guilhem; Navailles, Laurence; Nallet, Frédéric; Lin, Xinrong; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    A polystyrenylphosphonium polymer was synthesized and complexed with various carboxylic acid derivatives to form new solid-state polyelectrolyte-surfactant assemblies. The properties of these ionic materials were highly dependent on the nature of the anion and included a brittle material, a rubbery ball that bounces, or a sticky fiber. The values for the equilibrium modulus, storage modulus, and loss modulus were dependent on the composition of the carboxylic acid and the number of electrostatic interactions. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies on the supramolecular assemblies confirmed a bilayer structure for two of the assemblies. PMID:24511156

  13. 77 FR 31290 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States AGENCY: Administrative Conference of the United States. ACTION: Notice of... hereby given of a meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States...

  14. Strain-Induced Localized States Within the Matrix Continuum of Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, V.; Bester, G.; Zunger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Quantum dot-based infrared detectors often involve transitions from confined states of the dot to states above the minimum of the conduction band continuum of the matrix. We discuss the existence of two types of resonant states within this continuum in self-assembled dots: (i) virtual bound states, which characterize square wells even without strain and (ii) strain-induced localized states. The latter emerge due to the appearance of 'potential wings' near the dot, related to the curvature of the dots. While states (i) do couple to the continuum, states (ii) are sheltered by the wings, giving rise to sharp absorption peaks.

  15. In vivo microtubule dynamics during experimentally induced conversions between tubulin assembly states in Allogromia laticollaris.

    PubMed

    Welnhofer, E A; Travis, J L

    1996-01-01

    A distinctive property of foraminiferan tubulin is that, in addition to microtubules (MTs), it exists in an alternate assembly state, helical filaments. Here, we have examined in vivo MT dynamics during experimentally induced conversions between these two assembly states in the reticulopods of the marine foraminiferan Allogromia laticollaris. Exposure to high extracellular concentrations of Mg2+ (165 mM) resulted in a complete conversion of MTs into helical filaments. However, Mg2+ treatment also induced a retrograde movement of organelles and cytoplasm, and it was necessary to inhibit this response in order to assess the effects of assembly state changes on individual MTs. This was accomplished by simultaneous treatment with high extracellular Mg2+ and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). The resulting loss in MTs was detected by video enhanced DIC (VEC-DIC) microscopy as either an endwise MT shortening (at an average rate of 474 microns/min) or transformation into one or more irregularly shaped fibrils, which we termed residual fibrils. Correlative immunofluorescence and video microscopy showed residual fibrils to be composed of helical filaments. Removal of extracellular Mg2+/DNP initiated a reversal in assembly state, from helical filaments into MTs, which was completed within 5 min. VEC-DIC microscopy showed that MTs reformed by an endwise lengthening at an average rate of 216 microns/min. These results suggest that conversion between alternate tubulin assembly states provides a more rapid means to build and dismantle MTs than conventional subunit-driven pathways.

  16. Assembly of Drosophila centromeric nucleosomes requires CID dimerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguo; Colmenares, Serafin U; Karpen, Gary H

    2012-01-27

    Centromeres are essential chromosomal regions required for kinetochore assembly and chromosome segregation. The composition and organization of centromeric nucleosomes containing the essential histone H3 variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a fundamental, unresolved issue. Using immunoprecipitation of CID mononucleosomes and cysteine crosslinking, we demonstrate that centromeric nucleosomes contain CID dimers in vivo. Furthermore, CID dimerization and centromeric targeting require a residue implicated in formation of the four-helix bundle, which mediates intranucleosomal H3 dimerization and nucleosome integrity. Taken together, our findings suggest that CID nucleosomes are octameric in vivo and that CID dimerization is essential for correct centromere assembly.

  17. Assembly of Drosophila Centromeric Nucleosomes Requires CID Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiguo; Colmenares, Serafin U.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Centromeres are essential chromosomal regions required for kinetochore assembly and chromosome segregation. The composition and organization of centromeric nucleosomes containing the essential histone H3 variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a fundamental, unresolved issue. Using immunoprecipitation of CID mononucleosomes and cysteine crosslinking, we demonstrate that centromeric nucleosomes contain CID dimers in vivo. Furthermore, CID dimerization and centromeric targeting require a residue implicated in formation of the four helix bundle, which mediates intra-nucleosomal H3 dimerization and nucleosome integrity. Taken together, our findings suggest that CID nucleosomes are octameric in vivo and that CID dimerization is essential for correct centromere assembly. PMID:22209075

  18. Self-assembly solid-state enhanced red emission of quinolinemalononitrile: optical waveguides and stimuli response.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chuanxing; Guo, Zhiqian; Yan, Yongli; Zhu, Shiqin; Xie, Yongshu; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Zhu, Weihong; Tian, He

    2013-01-01

    The fluorescence of luminescent emitters is often quenched in the solid state, because of the typical aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect, which is a thorny obstacle to high-performance organic optoelectronic materials. The exploration of solid-state enhanced long wavelength, red-emitting chromophores, especially possessing one-dimensional (1D) assembly features, is of great importance. Interestingly, an excellent solid-state enhanced red emission system (denoted as ED) based on quinolinemalononitrile has been developed via the delicate modification of the conventional ACQ dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative (denoted as BD) through crystal engineering. ED exhibits extraordinary self-assembly property in a variety of solvents, even realizing the "waving ribbons" with a length of 6 mm and a diameter of 10 μm. Crystal analysis shows that the CH···π and CH···N supramolecular interactions of ED contribute to the twisted self-assembly solid-state enhanced emission phenomenon. However, for BD, strong face-to-face stacking leads to fluorescence quenching in the solid state. Because of such easy assembly and strong solid-state emission properties, application for optical waveguides of ED is realized with a low optical loss. Stimuli-responsive behavior is also elaborated with color change between orange and red by grinding/fuming or pressing/heating.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa porphobilinogen synthase assembly state regulators: hit discovery and initial SAR studies

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Allen B.; Ramirez, Ursula D.; Stith, Linda; Du, Yanming; Smith, Garry R.; Jaffe, Eileen K.

    2010-01-01

    Porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of the essential heme, chlorophyll and vitamin B12 heme pigments. PBGS activity is regulated by assembly state, with certain oligomers exhibiting biological activity and others either partially or completely inactive, affording an innovative means of allosteric drug action. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBGS is functionally active as an octamer, and inactive as a dimer. We have identified a series of compounds that stabilize the inactive P. aeruginosa dimer by a computational prescreen followed by native PAGE gel mobility shift analysis. From those results, we have prepared related thiadiazoles and evaluated their ability to regulate P. aeruginosa PBGS assembly state. PMID:21643541

  20. Disassembly of the self-assembled, double-ring structure of proteasome α7 homo-tetradecamer by α6.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kentaro; Noda, Masanori; Yagi, Hirokazu; Thammaporn, Ratsupa; Seetaha, Supaporn; Satoh, Tadashi; Kato, Koichi; Uchiyama, Susumu

    2015-12-14

    The 20S core particle of the eukaryotic proteasome is composed of two α- and two β-rings, each of which is a hetero-heptamer composed of seven homologous but distinct subunits. Although formation of the eukaryotic proteasome is a highly ordered process assisted by assembly chaperones, α7, an α-ring component, has the unique property of self-assembling into a homo-tetradecamer. We used biophysical methods to characterize the oligomeric states of this proteasome subunit and its interaction with α6, which makes direct contacts with α7 in the proteasome α-ring. We determined a crystal structure of the α7 tetradecamer, which has a double-ring structure. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and mass spectrometric analysis under non-denaturing conditions revealed that α7 exclusively exists as homo-tetradecamer in solution and that its double-ring structure is disassembled upon the addition of α6, resulting in a 1:7 hetero-octameric α6-α7 complex. Our findings suggest that proteasome formation involves the disassembly of non-native oligomers, which are assembly intermediates.

  1. Compensated Crystal Assemblies for Type-II Entangled Photon Generation in Quantum Cluster States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    multi-crystal sources, such as cluster states, entanglement swapping, and teleportation . 15. SUBJECT TERMS quantum , entangled photons, joint...entanglement swapping, and teleportation . Key Words: quantum , entangled photons, joint spectral function, spontaneous parametric downconversion 2...DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2009 – SEP 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPENSATED CRYSTAL ASSEMBLIES FOR TYPE-II ENTANGLED PHOTO GENERATION IN QUANTUM

  2. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. 10.25 Section 10.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  3. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. 10.25 Section 10.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  4. Subunit connectivity, assembly determinants, and architecture of the yeast exocyst complex

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Margaret R.; Gu, Mingyu; Duffy, Caroline M.; Mirza, Anne M.; Marcotte, Laura L.; Walls, Alexandra C.; Farrall, Nicholas; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Field, Mark C.; Rout, Michael P.; Frost, Adam; Munson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The exocyst is a hetero-octameric complex proposed to serve as the tethering complex for exocytosis, although it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, we purified endogenous exocyst from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and show that the purified complexes are stable and consist of all eight subunits with equal stoichiometry. Using a combination of biochemical and auxin-induced degradation experiments in yeast, we mapped the subunit connectivity, identified two stable four-subunit modules within the octamer, and demonstrated that several known exocyst binding partners are not necessary for exocyst assembly and stability. Furthermore, we visualized the structure of the yeast complex using negative stain electron microscopy; our results indicate that exocyst exists predominantly as a stable, octameric complex with an elongated architecture that suggests the subunits are contiguous helical bundles packed together into a bundle of long rods. PMID:26656853

  5. Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Höfling, Sven; Gather, Malte C.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ≅ 25 nm).

  6. Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Christof P. Höfling, Sven; Gather, Malte C.

    2014-12-08

    We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ≅ 25 nm)

  7. Donor/Acceptor Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers for Realising a Multi-Redox-State Surface.

    PubMed

    Casado-Montenegro, Javier; Marchante, Elena; Crivillers, Núria; Rovira, Concepció; Mas-Torrent, Marta

    2016-06-17

    Mixed molecular self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold, based on two types of electroactive molecules, that is, electron-donor (ferrocene) and electron-acceptor (anthraquinone) molecules, are prepared as an approach to realise surfaces exhibiting multiple accessible redox states. The SAMs are investigated in different electrolyte media. The nature of these media has a strong impact on the types of redox processes that take place and on the redox potentials. Under optimised conditions, surfaces with three redox states are achieved. Such states are accessible in a relatively narrow potential window in which the SAMs on gold are stable. This communication elucidates the key challenges in fabricating bicomponent SAMs as electrochemical switches.

  8. Solution-state polymer assemblies influence BCS class II drug dissolution and supersaturation maintenance.

    PubMed

    Dalsin, Molly C; Tale, Swapnil; Reineke, Theresa M

    2014-02-10

    Spray dried dispersions (SDDs), solid dispersions of polymer excipients and active pharmaceuticals, are important to the field of oral drug delivery for improving active stability, bioavailability, and efficacy. Herein, we examine the influence of solution-state polymer assemblies on amorphous spray-dried dispersion (SDD) performance with two BCS II model drugs, phenytoin and probucol. These drugs were spray dried with 4 model polymer excipients consisting of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PEP), N,N,-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), or 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose (MAG): amphiphilic diblock ter- and copolymers, PEP-P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PEP-PDMA, and their respective hydrophilic analogues, P(DMA-grad-MAG) and PDMA. Selective and nonselective solvents for the hydrophilic block of the diblock ter- and copolymers were used to induce or repress solution-state assemblies prior to spray drying. Prespray dried solution-state assemblies of these four polymers were probed with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and showed differences in solution assembly size and structure (free polymer versus aggregates versus micelles). Solid-state structures of spray dried dispersions (SDDs) showed a single glass transition event implying a homogeneous mixture of drug/polymer. Crystallization temperatures and enthalpies indicated that the drugs interact mostly with the DMA-containing portions of the polymers. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine SDD particle size and morphology for the various polymer-drug pairings. In vitro dissolution tests showed excellent performance for one system, spray-dried PEP-PDMA micelles with probucol. Dissolution structures were investigated through DLS to determine drug-polymer aggregates that lead to enhanced SDD performance. Forced aggregation of the polymer into regular micelle structures was found to be a critical factor to increase the dissolution rate and supersaturation maintenance of SDDs, and may be an attractive platform to exploit in excipient

  9. Multimeric assembly and biochemical characterization of the Trax-translin endonuclease complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yuan; Simanshu, Dhirendra K; Ascano, Manuel; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Park, Ah Young; Juranek, Stefan A; Rice, William J; Yin, Qian; Robinson, Carol V; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2011-09-16

    Trax-Translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

  10. Multimeric Assembly and Biochemical Characterization of the Trax-translin Endonuclease complex

    SciTech Connect

    Y Tian; D Simanshu; M Ascano; R Diaz-Avalos; A Park; S Juranek; W Rice; Q Yin; C Robinson; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Trax-translin heteromers, also known as C3PO, have been proposed to activate the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) by facilitating endonucleolytic cleavage of the siRNA passenger strand. We report on the crystal structure of hexameric Drosophila C3PO formed by truncated translin and Trax, along with electron microscopic and mass spectrometric studies on octameric C3PO formed by full-length translin and Trax. Our studies establish that Trax adopts the translin fold, possesses catalytic centers essential for C3PO's endoRNase activity and interacts extensively with translin to form an octameric assembly. The catalytic pockets of Trax subunits are located within the interior chamber of the octameric scaffold. Truncated C3PO, like full-length C3PO, shows endoRNase activity that leaves 3'-hydroxyl-cleaved ends. We have measured the catalytic activity of C3PO and shown it to cleave almost stoichiometric amounts of substrate per second.

  11. Fusing Swarm Intelligence and Self-Assembly for Optimizing Echo State Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Charles E.; Reggia, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing a neural network's topology is a difficult problem for at least two reasons: the topology space is discrete, and the quality of any given topology must be assessed by assigning many different sets of weights to its connections. These two characteristics tend to cause very “rough.” objective functions. Here we demonstrate how self-assembly (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) can be integrated to provide a novel and effective means of concurrently optimizing a neural network's weights and topology. Combining SA and PSO addresses two key challenges. First, it creates a more integrated representation of neural network weights and topology so that we have just a single, continuous search domain that permits “smoother” objective functions. Second, it extends the traditional focus of self-assembly, from the growth of predefined target structures, to functional self-assembly, in which growth is driven by optimality criteria defined in terms of the performance of emerging structures on predefined computational problems. Our model incorporates a new way of viewing PSO that involves a population of growing, interacting networks, as opposed to particles. The effectiveness of our method for optimizing echo state network weights and topologies is demonstrated through its performance on a number of challenging benchmark problems. PMID:26346488

  12. A Quaternary Mechanism Enables the Complex Biological Functions of Octameric Human UDP-glucose Pyrophosphorylase, a Key Enzyme in Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Führing, Jana Indra; Cramer, Johannes Thomas; Schneider, Julia; Baruch, Petra; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Fedorov, Roman

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) is the only enzyme capable of activating glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P) to UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc), a metabolite located at the intersection of virtually all metabolic pathways in the mammalian cell. Despite the essential role of its product, the molecular basis of UGP function is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of human UGP in complex with its product UDP-Glc. Beyond providing first insight into the active site architecture, we describe the substrate binding mode and intermolecular interactions in the octameric enzyme that are crucial to its activity. Importantly, the quaternary mechanism identified for human UGP in this study may be common for oligomeric sugar-activating nucleotidyltransferases. Elucidating such mechanisms is essential for understanding nucleotide sugar metabolism and opens the perspective for the development of drugs that specifically inhibit simpler organized nucleotidyltransferases in pathogens. PMID:25860585

  13. Self-assembled nanowire array capacitors: capacitance and interface state profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiliang; Xiong, Hao D.; Liang, Xuelei; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Diefeng; Ioannou, Dimitris E.; Baumgart, Helmut; Richter, Curt A.

    2014-04-01

    Direct characterization of the capacitance and interface states is very important for understanding the electronic properties of a nanowire transistor. However, the capacitance of a single nanowire is too small to precisely measure. In this work we have fabricated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors based on a large array of self-assembled Si nanowires. The capacitance and conductance of the nanowire array capacitors are directly measured and the interface state profile is determined by using the conductance method. We demonstrate that the nanowire array capacitor is an effective platform for studying the electronic properties of nanoscale interfaces. This approach provides a useful and efficient metrology for the study of the physics and device properties of nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor structures.

  14. Self-assembled nanowire array capacitors: capacitance and interface state profile.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiliang; Xiong, Hao D; Liang, Xuelei; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Diefeng; Ioannou, Dimitris E; Baumgart, Helmut; Richter, Curt A

    2014-04-04

    Direct characterization of the capacitance and interface states is very important for understanding the electronic properties of a nanowire transistor. However, the capacitance of a single nanowire is too small to precisely measure. In this work we have fabricated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors based on a large array of self-assembled Si nanowires. The capacitance and conductance of the nanowire array capacitors are directly measured and the interface state profile is determined by using the conductance method. We demonstrate that the nanowire array capacitor is an effective platform for studying the electronic properties of nanoscale interfaces. This approach provides a useful and efficient metrology for the study of the physics and device properties of nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor structures.

  15. Non-centrosymmetric tetrameric assemblies of tetramethylammonium halides with uranyl salophen complexes in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Cametti, Massimo; Ilander, Laura; Valkonen, Arto; Nieger, Martin; Nissinen, Maija; Nauha, Elisa; Rissanen, Kari

    2010-12-20

    Ditopic salophen-UO(2) receptors 1-4 and 7 co-crystallize with tetramethylammonium (TMA) chloride and fluoride salts producing good quality crystals amenable for X-ray diffraction characterization. The arrangement of the receptor and salt units in the crystal lattice is such that tetrameric ball-shaped assemblies are formed, where an inner cluster of four TMA cations are surrounded by an outer shell of four UO(2)-bound anions. These elaborate architectures, which occur in all cases, regardless of a certain degree of structural modification on the receptors, lead to lattices that belong to non-centrosymmetric (NCS) space groups. Interestingly, the tetragonal symmetry of the tetrameric ball-shaped assemblies is either retained (I4̅) or lost (R3c and I4̅3d) at the lattice level, without compromising the NCS nature of the crystal lattices. The principal X-ray investigation on TMAX (X = Cl/F) co-crystals, that is, 1-(TMA)Cl, 2-(TMA)Cl, 3-(TMA)Cl, 4-(TMA)Cl, 7-(TMA)Cl, and 7-(TMA)F, is accompanied by NMR and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry studies to gather additional insight on the modality of formation of the solid state structures observed. The important role of cation-π interactions in the receptor-salt recognition process is renewed and strengthened by comparison with NMR titration data with a novel reference compound, the salophen-UO(2) complex 8. Given the importance of NCS and polar crystalline solids in the development of functional materials, this study shows that this property can be introduced into elaborate host-guest systems, as those which assemble in the architectures described here, thus expanding its field of applicability.

  16. Hierarchical Structure from the Self-Assembly of Giant Gemini Surfactants in Condensed State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hao; Wang, Zhao; Li, Yiwen; Cheng, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    In the past a few years, a new class of amphiphiles with both asymmetrical shapes and interactions named ``shape amphiphiles'' has been significantly intensified. Recently, a new kind of shape amphiphiles called ``Giant Gemini Surfactants'' consisting of two hydrophilic carboxylic acid-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (APOSS) heads and two hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) tails covalently linked via rigid spacers (p-phenylene versus biphenylene) has been successful behavior of giant gemini surfactants. We currently continue to investigate the spacer effects on the self-assembly behaviors of giant gemini surfactants in condensed state by utilizing DCS, SAXS and TEM. Preliminary results showed that giant gemini surfactants with different spacers have diverse phase behaviors. As we use the same 3.2k PS chains, the giant gemini surfactant with p-phenylene spacer showed double gyroid morphology, while the one with biphenylene spacer revealed cylindrical morphology. This study expands the scope of giant gemini surfactants and contributes a lot to the basic physical principles in self-assembly behavior.

  17. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kui; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Li, Ruipeng; Hu, Hanlin; Amassian, Aram

    2016-08-03

    We demonstrate that local and long-range orders of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) semicrystalline films can be synergistically improved by combining chemical functionalization of the substrate with solution-state disentanglement and preaggregation of P3HT in a θ solvent, leading to a very significant enhancement of the field effect carrier mobility. The preaggregation and surface functionalization effects combine to enhance the carrier mobility nearly 100-fold as compared with standard film preparation by spin-coating, and nearly 10-fold increase over the benefits of preaggregation alone. In situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) experiments reveal enhanced deposition of preaggregates on surfaces modified with an alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in comparison to unaggregated polymer chains in the same conditions. Additional measurements reveal the combined preaggregation and surface functionalization significantly enhances local order of the conjugated polymer through planarization and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining complementary routes, such as well-known preaggregation with substrate chemical functionalization, to enhance the polymer self-assembly and improve its interfacial order with benefits for transport properties.

  18. Photogenerated triplet states in supramolecular porphyrin ladder assemblies: an EPR study.

    PubMed

    Richert, Sabine; Peeks, Martin D; Tait, Claudia E; Anderson, Harry L; Timmel, Christiane R

    2016-09-21

    Introducing bridging ligands such as DABCO to solutions of linear zinc porphyrin oligomers has previously been shown to lead to the formation of ladder-type assemblies in which the single porphyrin units in each strand adopt a predominantly co-planar conformation. Here, we employ transient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) to study photogenerated triplet states of these complexes in frozen solution with a particular focus on the extent of spin delocalisation. We make use of two different techniques: (i) the zero-field splitting parameters D and E are determined using transient continuous wave (cw) EPR spectroscopy and (ii) the hyperfine coupling constants, which directly reveal the extent of spin delocalisation, are quantified by orientation-selective proton Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. It is found that ladder formation does not encourage triplet state delocalisation either across the bridging ligand DABCO or along the individual porphyrin strands despite their co-planar conformation, which was previously shown to allow increased electronic delocalisation.

  19. 77 FR 69434 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... McGibbon, General Counsel (Designated Federal Officer), Administrative Conference of the United... States regarding the improvement of Federal administrative procedures (5 U.S.C. 594). The membership of the Conference, when meeting in plenary session, constitutes the Assembly of the Conference (5...

  20. Affordability of Higher Education: California and Other States. Presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee. Report 11-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2011-01-01

    This is a summary of a presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee on college fee and total cost comparisons of California public universities with comparator universities in other states. This summary also includes grant award estimates and net cost of college by family income.

  1. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. 10.25 Section 10.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  2. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. 10.25 Section 10.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  3. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. 10.25 Section 10.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions...

  4. Nanostructure formation by self-assembled monolayers: influence of the isomerization state of azobenzene ligands on monolayer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Florian; Bretthauer, Frauke; Siemeling, Ulrich; Träger, Frank

    2011-03-01

    The monolayer formation of photoswitchable self-assembled monolayers of azobenzene-functionalized molecules was studied in situ and in real time by optical second-harmonic generation. Especially the influence of the isomerization state during the adsorption process was measured in our experiments. As will be shown, the isomerization state has a significant influence on the adsorption process of the investigated molecules. Based on the results of the second-harmonic generation experiments the kinetics of the adsorption process was determined.

  5. Development of a Solid-State Resistance Weld for Joining Dual-Burst Disk Assemblies to Vessel Bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; McKinney, G.J.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a solid-state resistance plug weld for installation of dual-burst disk assemblies in a set of tritium storage vessels. This is a cooperative effort with the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos designed the vessels and also designed a supplied ten pairs of tests parts for development. Following development of the weld, a set of about eight vessels will be fabricated for tritium storage tests. These tests will demonstrate functioning of the dual-burst disk assembly in addition to demonstrating long-term compatibility of the plug weld for tritium service.

  6. Kinetic modeling of the assembly, dynamic steady state, and contraction of the FtsZ ring in prokaryotic cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Surovtsev, Ivan V; Morgan, Jeffrey J; Lindahl, Paul A

    2008-07-04

    Cytokinesis in prokaryotes involves the assembly of a polymeric ring composed of FtsZ protein monomeric units. The Z ring forms at the division plane and is attached to the membrane. After assembly, it maintains a stable yet dynamic steady state. Once induced, the ring contracts and the membrane constricts. In this work, we present a computational deterministic biochemical model exhibiting this behavior. The model is based on biochemical features of FtsZ known from in vitro studies, and it quantitatively reproduces relevant in vitro data. An essential part of the model is a consideration of interfacial reactions involving the cytosol volume, where monomeric FtsZ is dispersed, and the membrane surface in the cell's mid-zone where the ring is assembled. This approach allows the same chemical model to simulate either in vitro or in vivo conditions by adjusting only two geometrical parameters. The model includes minimal reactions, components, and assumptions, yet is able to reproduce sought-after in vivo behavior, including the rapid assembly of the ring via FtsZ-polymerization, the formation of a dynamic steady state in which GTP hydrolysis leads to the exchange of monomeric subunits between cytoplasm and the ring, and finally the induced contraction of the ring. The model gives a quantitative estimate for coupling between the rate of GTP hydrolysis and of FtsZ subunit turnover between the assembled ring and the cytoplasmic pool as observed. Membrane constriction is chemically driven by the strong tendency of GTP-bound FtsZ to self-assembly. The model suggests a possible mechanism of membrane contraction without a motor protein. The portion of the free energy of GTP hydrolysis released in cyclization is indirectly used in this energetically unfavorable process. The model provides a limit to the mechanistic complexity required to mimic ring behavior, and it highlights the importance of parallel in vitro and in vivo modeling.

  7. Design strategies for self-assembly of discrete targets

    SciTech Connect

    Madge, Jim; Miller, Mark A.

    2015-07-28

    Both biological and artificial self-assembly processes can take place by a range of different schemes, from the successive addition of identical building blocks to hierarchical sequences of intermediates, all the way to the fully addressable limit in which each component is unique. In this paper, we introduce an idealized model of cubic particles with patterned faces that allows self-assembly strategies to be compared and tested. We consider a simple octameric target, starting with the minimal requirements for successful self-assembly and comparing the benefits and limitations of more sophisticated hierarchical and addressable schemes. Simulations are performed using a hybrid dynamical Monte Carlo protocol that allows self-assembling clusters to rearrange internally while still providing Stokes-Einstein-like diffusion of aggregates of different sizes. Our simulations explicitly capture the thermodynamic, dynamic, and steric challenges typically faced by self-assembly processes, including competition between multiple partially completed structures. Self-assembly pathways are extracted from the simulation trajectories by a fully extendable scheme for identifying structural fragments, which are then assembled into history diagrams for successfully completed target structures. For the simple target, a one-component assembly scheme is most efficient and robust overall, but hierarchical and addressable strategies can have an advantage under some conditions if high yield is a priority.

  8. Design of Self-Assembling Peptide Nanotubes with Delocalized Electronic States[**

    PubMed Central

    Ashkenasy, Nurit; Horne, W. Seth; Reza Ghadiri, M.

    2007-01-01

    Electronically active biomaterials via directed peptide self-assembly Redox-promoted self-assembly of an eight-residue cyclic D,L-α-peptide bearing four 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NDI) side chains results in the formation of electronically delocalized peptide nanotubes hundreds of nm in length. The supramolecular approach described provides a rational basis for the design and fabrication of 1-D materials with potential utility in optical and electronic devices. PMID:17193563

  9. Encapsulated discrete octameric water cluster, 1D water tape, and 3D water aggregate network in diverse MOFs based on bisimidazolium ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ruo-Bing; Pi, Min; Jiang, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Chuan-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Four new metal-organic frameworks, [Zn(2-mBIM)2(SO3CF3)2·(H2O)4] (1), [Zn(BMIE)(1,4-BDC)]·(H2O)3 (2), [Cd(BIM)2(OH)(H2O)2(PF6)]·(H2O)4 (3), and [Cd(PA-BIM)2 (ClO4)2]·11.33H2O (4) (2-mBIM = bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methane, BMIE = 1,2-bis[1-(2-methylimidazole)-diethoxy]ethane, BIM = bis(imidazol-1-yl)methane, and PA-BIM = 1,1-bis [(2-phenylazo)imidazol-1-yl]methane) have been prepared and structurally characterized. Complex 1 exhibits an infinite 1D cationic beaded-chain structure, which encapsulated discrete octameric water clusters that are comprised of a chair-like hexameric water cluster with two extra water molecules dangling on two diagonal vertices of the chair. Complex 2 forms a 1D infinite zigzag metal-organic chain structure with a 1D T4(0)A(4) water tape. Complexes 3 show a 2D grid-like sheet structure with the 1D water tape T4(0)A(0)2(0) motif. Complex 4 is a porous 3D MOF with tetrahedron-coordinated Cd(II) centers and trans-conformation PA-BIM ligands. These holes are occupied by a fascinating three-dimensional water clathrate network, which consists of cage-shaped structural tetradecameric water cluster (H2O)14 units and six independent bridged water molecules. The results suggest that the bisimidazolium ligands and anions play crucial roles in the formation of the different host structures and different guest water aggregations. Additionally, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence spectra of the complexes have been discussed.

  10. Structure of the Dimerization Interface in the Mature HIV-1 Capsid Protein Lattice from Solid State NMR of Tubular Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Bayro, Marvin J; Tycko, Robert

    2016-07-13

    The HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) forms the capsid shell that encloses RNA within a mature HIV-1 virion. Previous studies by electron microscopy have shown that the capsid shell is primarily a triangular lattice of CA hexamers, with variable curvature that destroys the ideal symmetry of a planar lattice. The mature CA lattice depends on CA dimerization, which occurs through interactions between helix 9 segments of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA. Several high-resolution structures of the CTD-CTD dimerization interface have been reported, based on X-ray crystallography and multidimensional solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with significant differences in amino acid side chain conformations and helix 9-helix 9 orientations. In a structural model for tubular CA assemblies based on cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) [Zhao et al. Nature, 2013, 497, 643-646], the dimerization interface is substantially disordered. The dimerization interface structure in noncrystalline CA assemblies and the extent to which this interface is structurally ordered within a curved lattice have therefore been unclear. Here we describe solid state NMR measurements on the dimerization interface in tubular CA assemblies, which contain the curved triangular lattice of a mature virion, including quantitative measurements of intermolecular and intramolecular distances using dipolar recoupling techniques, solid state NMR chemical shifts, and long-range side chain-side chain contacts. When combined with restraints on the distance and orientation between helix 9 segments from the cryoEM study, the solid state NMR data lead to a unique high-resolution structure for the dimerization interface in the noncrystalline lattice of CA tubes. These results demonstrate that CA lattice curvature is not dependent on disorder or variability in the dimerization interface. This work also demonstrates the feasibility of local structure determination within large noncrystalline assemblies formed by high

  11. Coding a coordination-driven self-assembly via a hydrogen bond-directed solid-state synthesis: an unexpected chiral tetrahedral capsule.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tamara D; Bucar, Dejan-Kresimir; MacGillivray, Leonard R

    2007-04-28

    An achiral ligand, synthesized in the solid state via a coded hydrogen bond-directed organic synthesis, self-assembles with Cu(II) ions to form a chiral tetrahedral capsule that hosts an anion as a guest.

  12. Enhanced carrier collection efficiency and reduced quantum state absorption by electron doping in self-assembled quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian; Lu, Haofeng; Fu, Lan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Dagenais, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Reduced quantum dot (QD) absorption due to state filling effects and enhanced electron transport in doped QDs are demonstrated to play a key role in solar energy conversion. Reduced QD state absorption with increased n-doping is observed in the self-assembled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs QDs from high resolution below-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement, which is a direct consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. We also show that besides partial filling of the quantum states, electron-doping produces negatively charged QDs that exert a repulsive Coulomb force on the mobile electrons, thus altering the electron trajectory and reducing the probability of electron capture, leading to an improved collection efficiency of photo-generated carriers, as indicated by an absolute above-bandgap EQE measurement. The resulting redistribution of the mobile electron in the planar direction is further validated by the observed photoluminescence intensity dependence on doping.

  13. Self-assembly and aggregate-induced enhanced emission of amphiphilic fluorescence dyes in water and in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takashi; Higashiguchi, Kenji; Matsuda, Kenji

    2011-04-04

    1-Cyano-1,2-bis(biphenyl)ethene (CNBE) derivatives with a hexa(ethylene glycol) group as an amphiphilic side chain were synthesized and the self-assembling character and fluorescence behavior were investigated. The amphiphilic derivatives showed aggregate-induced enhanced emission (AIEE) in water and in the solid state. The fluorescence quantum yield increased as the rigidity of the aggregates increased (i.e., in ethyl acetatestate). As determined from measurements of fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes, a key factor for the enhanced emission is suppression of the nonradiative decay process arising from restricted molecular motion. Additionally, the difference in the emission rate constant is not negligible and can be used to interpret the difference in fluorescence quantum yield in water and in the solid state.

  14. Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions.

    PubMed

    Gerla, Daan J; Mooij, Wolf M

    2014-09-01

    Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly.

  15. In-Plane Intermolecular Interaction Assisted Assembly and Modified Electronic States of Metallofullerene Gd@C₈₂.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Qin, Zhihui; Pan, Jinbo; Huang, Min; Du, Shixuan; Cao, Gengyu

    2015-10-27

    Orientational configuration and electronic states of Gd@C82 bonding to Cu(111) have been thoroughly investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (LT-STM/S) and differential conductance mapping complemented by first-principles calculations. We clarify that individual Gd@C82 energetically adopts tilting adsorption configuration with the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) states readily assigned to the C82 cage/Cu(111) hybrid states and the Gd/cage hybrid states, respectively. Moreover, upon assembling and sufficient thermal activation, Gd@C82 fullerenes are inclined to restore the energetically favored tilting orientational configuration similar to an individual one. This suggests the feasibility of high-level integration of single-Gd@C82 based moletronic device with the performances almost unchanged by two-dimensional arrangement. Furthermore, by rationalizing the inter-Gd@C82 interaction induced slight energy offset of the electronic states, we qualitatively confirm the shown electronic hybrid states as Cu(111)-, C82 cage- and Gd-dominant hybrid states, respectively.

  16. Assembly states of FliM and FliG within the flagellar switch complex.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P; Lynch, Michael J; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S; Halkides, Christopher J; Freed, Jack H; Crane, Brian R

    2015-02-27

    At the base of the bacterial flagella, a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, we have investigated interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima with X-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled components fit a self-consistent model that agree well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. These data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions.

  17. Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

  18. Structure and excited state relaxation dynamics in nanoscale self-assembled arrays: multiporphyrin complexes, porphyrin-quantum dot composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, E. I.; von Borczyskowski, C.

    2005-06-01

    Self-assembled nanoscale arrays of controllable geometry and composition (up to 8 tetrapyrroles) have been formed via non-covalent binding interactions of the meso-phenyl bridged Zn-octaethylporphyrin chemical dimers or trimers with di- /tetrapyridyl substituted porphyrin extra-ligands. In these complexes using steady-state and time-resolved (ps fluorescence and fs pump-probe) measurements pathways and efficiencies of the energy transfer photoinduced charge separation as well as exchange d-π effects have been studied in solutions of variable polarity at 77-293 K. The same principles of aggregation via the key-hole scheme "Zn-pyridyl" have been used also for the surface passivation of pyridylsubstituted tetrapyrroles on the coreshell semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QD) showing quantum confinement effects. Picosecond time-resolved and steady-state data reveal that CdSe/ZnS QD emission is multiexponential and the efficiency of its quenching by attached porphyrins (due to energy transfer and photoinduced charge separation) depends strongly on the number of anchoring groups their arrangement in the porphyrin molecule as well as on QD size and number of ZnS monolayers. The analysis of spectroscopic and kinetic findings reveals that on average only ~l/5 porphyrin molecules are assembled on the QD and a limited number of "vacancies" accessible for porphyrin attachment is available on the QD surface.

  19. Theory of fine structure of correlated exciton states in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojnar, Anna H.; Kadantsev, Eugene S.; Korkusiński, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2011-12-01

    A theory of the fine structure of correlated exciton states in self-assembled parabolic semiconductor quantum dots in a magnetic field perpendicular to the quantum dot plane is presented. The correlated exciton wave function is expanded in configurations consisting of products of electron and heavy-hole 2D harmonic oscillator states (HO) in a magnetic field and the electron spin Sz=±1/2 and a heavy-hole spin τz=±3/2 states. Analytical expressions for the short- and long-range electron-hole exchange Coulomb interaction matrix elements are derived in the HO and spin basis for arbitrary magnetic field. This allows the incorporation of short- and long-range electron-hole exchange, direct electron-hole interaction, and quantum dot anisotropy in the exact diagonalization of the exciton Hamiltonian. The fine structure of ground and excited correlated exciton states as a function of a number of confined shells, quantum dot anisotropy, and magnetic field is obtained using exact diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian. The effects of correlations are shown to significantly affect the energy splitting of the two bright exciton states.

  20. A signal sequence suppressor mutant that stabilizes an assembled state of the twin arginine translocase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Alcock, Felicity; Kneuper, Holger; Deme, Justin C.; Rollauer, Sarah E.; Berks, Ben C.

    2017-01-01

    The twin-arginine protein translocation (Tat) system mediates transport of folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. The Tat system of Escherichia coli is made up of TatA, TatB, and TatC components. TatBC comprise the substrate receptor complex, and active Tat translocases are formed by the substrate-induced association of TatA oligomers with this receptor. Proteins are targeted to TatBC by signal peptides containing an essential pair of arginine residues. We isolated substitutions, locating to the transmembrane helix of TatB that restored transport activity to Tat signal peptides with inactivating twin arginine substitutions. A subset of these variants also suppressed inactivating substitutions in the signal peptide binding site on TatC. The suppressors did not function by restoring detectable signal peptide binding to the TatBC complex. Instead, site-specific cross-linking experiments indicate that the suppressor substitutions induce conformational change in the complex and movement of the TatB subunit. The TatB F13Y substitution was associated with the strongest suppressing activity, even allowing transport of a Tat substrate lacking a signal peptide. In vivo analysis using a TatA–YFP fusion showed that the TatB F13Y substitution resulted in signal peptide-independent assembly of the Tat translocase. We conclude that Tat signal peptides play roles in substrate targeting and in triggering assembly of the active translocase. PMID:28223511

  1. Seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  2. Noncovalent functionalization of solid-state nanopores via self-assembly of amphipols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mitta, Gonzalo; Burr, Loïc; Tuninetti, Jimena S.; Trautmann, Christina; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of new methods for conferring functional features to nanopore-based fluidic devices. In this work, we describe for the first time the noncovalent integration of amphoteric-amphipathic polymers, also known as ``amphipols'', into single conical nanopores in order to obtain signal-responsive chemical nanodevices. Highly-tapered conical nanopores were fabricated by single-sided chemical etching of polycarbonate foils. After etching, the surface of the conical nanopores was chemically modified, by first metallizing the surface via gold sputtering and then by amphiphilic self-assembly of the amphipol. The net charge of adsorbed amphipols was regulated via pH changes under the environmental conditions. The pH-dependent chemical equilibrium of the weak acidic and basic monomers facilitates the regulation of the ionic transport through the nanopore by adjusting the pH of the electrolyte solution. Our results demonstrate that functional amphipathic polymers are powerful building blocks for the surface modification of nanopores and might ultimately pave the way to a new means of integrating functional and/or responsive units within nanofluidic structures.In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of new methods for conferring functional features to nanopore-based fluidic devices. In this work, we describe for the first time the noncovalent integration of amphoteric-amphipathic polymers, also known as ``amphipols'', into single conical nanopores in order to obtain signal-responsive chemical nanodevices. Highly-tapered conical nanopores were fabricated by single-sided chemical etching of polycarbonate foils. After etching, the surface of the conical nanopores was chemically modified, by first metallizing the surface via gold sputtering and then by amphiphilic self-assembly of the amphipol. The net charge of adsorbed amphipols was regulated via pH changes under the environmental

  3. Shape-persistent macrocyclic aromatic tetrasulfonamides: Molecules with nanosized cavities and their nanotubular assemblies in solid state

    PubMed Central

    He, Lan; An, Yu; Yuan, Lihua; Feng, Wen; Li, Minfeng; Zhang, Dechun; Yamato, Kazuhiro; Zheng, Chong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gong, Bing

    2006-01-01

    Alkoxy side-chain-flanked diarylsulfonamide serves as a reliable structural motif for constructing macrocyclic aromatic tetrasulfonamides. This 90° structural motif is persistent both in solution and in the solid state, which allows the one-step formation of tetrasulfonamide macrocycles. These macrocycles adopt a cone-shaped conformation in solution and in the solid state. For each molecule, an interior cavity surrounded by the aromatic residues is formed. The cavity sizes of the macrocycles can be tuned by incorporating aromatic residues of proper sizes. Guest (solvent) molecules are found in the cavities and bound by side chains. In solution, 1H NMR shows that the cone conformations undergo rapid interconversion at room temperature. The alkoxy side chains are found to be indispensable for maintaining the cone conformation. In addition, these porous molecules self-assemble into hollow tubular structures in the solid state. A variety of host molecules and building blocks for constructing nanoporous solid-state structures can be expected from these molecules. PMID:16832059

  4. Two equations of state assembled for basic analysis of multiphase CO 2 flow and in deep sedimentary basin conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Brian J. O. L.; Han, Weon Shik; Cole, Barret S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this manuscript is to describe and make available two equation-of-state (EOS) algorithms assembled for multiphase flow and transport of carbon dioxide (CO2). The algorithms presented here calculate solubility, compressibility factor, density, viscosity, fugacity, and enthalpy of CO2 in gaseous and supercritical phases, and mixtures or solutions of CO2 in water, as functions of pressure and temperature. Several features distinguish the two algorithms, but the primary distinction concerns treatment of supercritical/gas-phase CO2: one EOS we assembled is based on Redlich and Kwong's original algorithm developed in 1949, and the other is based on an algorithm developed by Span and Wagner in 1996. Both were modified for application to sedimentary basin studies of multiphase CO2 flow processes, including carbon sequestration applications. We present a brief comparison of these two EOS algorithms. Source codes for both algorithms are provided, including "stand-alone" Matlab © scripts for the interactive calculation of fluid properties at specified P-T conditions and FORTRAN subroutines for inclusion in existing FORTRAN multiphase fluid simulation packages. These routines are intended for fundamental analyses of CO2 sequestration and the like; more advanced studies, such as brine processes and reactive transport, require more advanced EOS algorithms.

  5. Pseudonegative thermal expansion and the state of water in graphene oxide layered assemblies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Andres, Christine M; Xu, Jiadi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Tsotsis, Thomas; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2012-09-25

    Unraveling the complex interplay between thermal properties and hydration is a part of understanding the fundamental properties of many soft materials and very essential for many applications. Here we show that graphene oxide (GO) demonstrates a highly negative thermal expansion (NTE) coefficient owing to unique thermohydration processes related with fast transport of water between the GO sheets, the amphiphilic nature of nanochannels, and close-to-zero intrinsic thermal expansion of GO. The humidity-dependent NTE of GO layered assemblies, or "pseudonegative thermal expansion" (PNTE), differs from that of other hygroscopic materials due to its relatively fast and highly reversible expansion/contraction cycles and occurrence at low humidity levels while bearing similarities to classic NTE. Thermal expansion of polyvinyl alcohol/GO composites is easily tunable with additional intricacy of thermohydration effects. PNTE combined with isotropy, nontoxicity, and mechanical robustness is an asset for applications of actuators, sensors, MEMS devices, and memory materials and crucial for developing methods of thermal/photopatterning of GO devices.

  6. Noncovalent functionalization of solid-state nanopores via self-assembly of amphipols.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mitta, Gonzalo; Burr, Loïc; Tuninetti, Jimena S; Trautmann, Christina; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-01-21

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the development of new methods for conferring functional features to nanopore-based fluidic devices. In this work, we describe for the first time the noncovalent integration of amphoteric-amphipathic polymers, also known as "amphipols", into single conical nanopores in order to obtain signal-responsive chemical nanodevices. Highly-tapered conical nanopores were fabricated by single-sided chemical etching of polycarbonate foils. After etching, the surface of the conical nanopores was chemically modified, by first metallizing the surface via gold sputtering and then by amphiphilic self-assembly of the amphipol. The net charge of adsorbed amphipols was regulated via pH changes under the environmental conditions. The pH-dependent chemical equilibrium of the weak acidic and basic monomers facilitates the regulation of the ionic transport through the nanopore by adjusting the pH of the electrolyte solution. Our results demonstrate that functional amphipathic polymers are powerful building blocks for the surface modification of nanopores and might ultimately pave the way to a new means of integrating functional and/or responsive units within nanofluidic structures.

  7. Extremely thermostable L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima: cloning, characterization, and crystallization of the recombinant enzyme in its tetrameric and octameric state.

    PubMed Central

    Ostendorp, R.; Auerbach, G.; Jaenicke, R.

    1996-01-01

    L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E.C.1.1.1.27) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima has been shown to represent the most stable LDH isolated so far (Wrba A, Jaenicke R, Huber R, Stetter KO, 1990, Eur J Biochem 188:195-201). In order to obtain the enzyme in amounts sufficient for physical characterization, and to analyze the molecular basis of its intrinsic stability, the gene was cloned and expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. Growth of the cells and purification of the enzyme were performed aerobically at 26 degrees C, i.e., ca. 60 degrees below the optimal growth temperature of Thermotoga. Two enzyme species with LDH activity were purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the enzyme obtained at 4 degrees C show satisfactory diffraction suitable for X-ray analysis up to a resolution of 2.8 A. As shown by gel-permeation chromatography, chemical crosslinking, light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and electron microscopy, the two LDH species represent homotetramers and homooctamers (i.e., dimers of tetramers), with a common subunit molecular mass of 35 kDa. The spectroscopic characteristics (UV absorption, fluorescence emission, near- and far-UV CD) of the two species are indistinguishable. The calculated alpha-helix content is 45%, in accordance with the result of homology modeling. Compared to the tetrameric enzyme, the octamer exhibits reduced specific activity, whereas KM is unalatered. The extreme intrinsic stability of the protein is reflected by its unaltered catalytic activity over 4 h at 85 degrees C; irreversible thermal denaturation becomes significant at approximately 95 degrees C. The anomalous resistance toward chemical denaturation using guanidinium chloride and urea confirms this observation. Both the high optimal temperature and the pH optimum of the catalytic activity correspond to the growth conditions of T. maritima in its natural habitat. PMID:8732758

  8. Image Potential States of Electrons Interacting with Roughened Metal Surfaces Coated with Self-Assembled Alkanethiol Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. K.; Standard, J. M.; Gregory, Brian W.

    2000-03-01

    Electrons in image potential states (IPS) [1] have been a topic of great interest at smooth dielectric/metal interfaces [2]. IPSs at roughened dielectric/metal interfaces have recently been reported [3]. The IPS model is extended to the case of a charge interacting with two intersecting metal planes. We discuss the role of the angle between intersecting metal planes (characteristic of roughened surfaces) on the IPS binding energies for electrons interacting with these structures. Our results are applied to roughened gold surfaces coated with self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers. [1] T. Fauster, Applied Phys. A 59, 479, 1994. [2] N.-H. Ge, C. M. Wong, R. L. Lingle, Jr., J. D. McNeill, K. J. Gaffney, and C. B. Harris, Science 279, 202, 1998, for example. [3] B. K. Clark, B. W. Gregory, A. Avila, T. M. Cotton, and J. M. Standard, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8201, 1999.

  9. Subunit Conformations and Assembly States of a DNA Translocating Motor: The Terminase of Bacteriophage P22

    PubMed Central

    Němeček, Daniel; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Kang, Sebyung; Prevelige, Peter E.; Casjens, Sherwood; Thomas, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22, a podovirus infecting strains of Salmonella typhimurium, packages a 42 kbp genome using a headful mechanism. DNA translocation is accomplished by the phage terminase, a powerful molecular motor consisting of large and small subunits. Although many of the structural proteins of the P22 virion have been well characterized, little is known about the terminase subunits and their molecular mechanism of DNA translocation. We report here structural and assembly properties of ectopically expressed and highly purified terminase large and small subunits. The large subunit (gp2), which contains the nuclease and ATPase activities of terminase, exists as a stable monomer with an α/β fold. The small subunit (gp3), which recognizes DNA for packaging and may regulate gp2 activity, exhibits a highly α-helical secondary structure and self-associates to form a stable oligomeric ring in solution. For wildtype gp3, the ring contains nine subunits, as demonstrated by hydrodynamic measurements, electron microscopy and native mass spectrometry. We have also characterized a gp3 mutant (Ala 112 → Thr) that forms a ten subunit ring, despite a subunit fold indistinguishable from wildtype. Both the nonameric and decameric gp3 rings exhibit nonspecific DNA binding activity, and gp2 is able to bind strongly to the DNA/gp3 complex but not to DNA alone. We propose a scheme for the roles of P22 terminase large and small subunits in the recruitment and packaging of viral DNA and discuss the model in relation to proposals for terminase-driven DNA translocation in other phages. PMID:17945256

  10. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  11. Scaling behavior of electronic excitations in assemblies of molecules with degenerate ground states.

    PubMed

    Fan, H-J; Perkins, C; Ortoleva, P J

    2010-02-11

    The behavior of long space-time excitations in many-electron systems with ground state degeneracy is explored via multiscale analysis. The analysis starts with an ansatz for the wave function's dual dependence on the N-electron configuration (i.e., both by direct means and by indirect means via a set of order parameters). It is shown that a Dirac-like equation form of the wave equation emerges in the limit where the ratio epsilon (of the average nearest-neighbor distance to the characteristic length of the long-scale phenomenon of interest) is small. Examples of the long scale are the size of a quantum dot, nanotube, or wavelength of a density disturbance. The velocities in the Dirac-like equation are the transition moments of the single-particle momentum operator connecting degenerate ground states. While detailed band structure and the independent quasi-particle picture could underlie the behavior of some systems (as commonly suggested for graphene), the present scaling law results show it is not necessarily the only explanation. Rather, it can follow from the scaling properties of low-lying, long spatial scale excitations and ground state degeneracy, even in strongly interacting systems. The generality of our findings suggests graphene may be just one of many examples of Dirac-like equation behavior. A preliminary validation of our quantum scaling law for molecular arrays is presented. As our scaling law constitutes a coarse-grained wave equation, path integral or other methods derived from it hold great promise for calibration-free, long-time simulation of many-particle quantum systems.

  12. Chirality control of self-assembled achiral nanofibers using amines in their solid state.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Ho; Jeon, Jiwon; Kim, Hyungjun; Jaworski, Justyn; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2015-10-07

    Although there are numerous examples of helical and spiral conformations in nature, including plant tendrils, snail shells, and even collagen, the occurrence of supramolecular systems that are able to reversibly undergo solid-to-solid helical transformation based on environmental chiral triggers is rare. In this work, we present a supramolecular, non-helical nanofiber which shows a distinct helical rearrangement in the presence of specific diamines and monoamines, such as cyclohexanediamines, alanine, lysine, and phenylalanine, depending on the molecular chirality of the surrounding analytes. A detailed investigation on the structural organization of the nanofibers using SEM and CD spectra analysis confirmed the repeatable and reversible nature of this amplification of chiral information. Further preparation of an electrospun nanofiber film was demonstrated for distinguishing chiral diamines and monoamines in solution by film immersion and CD analysis, which is the first example of amplification of chiral information in the solid-state using electrospun nanofiber films. With this system, we could demonstrate a reusable means for detecting the molecular chirality, which also provided a unique example of reversible control of solid state rearrangement in supramolecular helicity.

  13. Distance dependence of intrahelix Ru(II)* to Os(II) polypyridyl excited-state energy transfer in oligoproline assemblies.

    PubMed

    Brennaman, M Kyle; Fleming, Cavan N; Slate, Cheryl A; Serron, Scafford A; Bettis, Stephanie E; Erickson, Bruce W; Papanikolas, John M; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-05-30

    Energy transfer between the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states of [Pra [M(II)(bpy)2(4-Me-4'(-N(H)CO)bpy)](PF6)2 units ([Pra(M(II)bpy2(mbpy)](2+): M(II) = Ru(II) or Os(II), bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, mbpy = 4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine-4-carboxamido, Pra = 4-M(II)-L-proline) linked covalently to oligoproline assemblies in room temperature acetonitrile occurs on the picosecond-nanosecond time scale and has been time-resolved by transient emission measurements. Three derivatized oligoprolines, [CH3-CO-Pro6-Pra[Os(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro2-Pra[Ru(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro2-Pra[Ru(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro6-Glu-NH2](6+) (ORR-2, Pro = L-proline and Glu = glutamic acid); [CH3-CO-Pro6-Pra[Os(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro3-Pra[Ru(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro3-Pra[Ru(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro6-Glu-NH2](6+) (ORR-3); and CH3-CO-Pro6-Pra[Os(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro5-Pra[Ru(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-Pro5-Pra[Ru(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)Pro6-Glu2-NH2](6+) (ORR-5), were prepared by using solid-phase peptide synthesis. Given the helical nature of the resulting assemblies and the nature of the synthesis, composition, length, and loading pattern are precisely controlled in the assemblies. In acetonitrile, they adopt a proline I helical secondary structure, confirmed by circular dichroism, in which the appended chromophores are ordered in well-defined orientations and internuclear separation distances although helix formation for ORR-2 is incomplete. Quantitative comparison of oligoproline ground-state absorption and steady-state emission spectra to those for the constituents, [Boc-Pra[M(II)(bpy)2(mbpy)](2+)-OH](PF6)2 (Boc = N(α)-(1,1-dimethylethoxycarbonyl), shows that following Ru(II) light absorption, Ru(II)* undergoes facile energy transfer resulting in sensitization of Os(II). Sensitization efficiencies are 93% for ORR-2, 77% for ORR-3, and 73% for ORR-5. Picosecond-resolved emission measurements reveal complex, coupled dynamics that arise from excited-state decay and kinetically

  14. Computer simulation of model cohesive powders: influence of assembling procedure and contact laws on low consolidation states.

    PubMed

    Gilabert, F A; Roux, J-N; Castellanos, A

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the structure and mechanical properties of a simple two-dimensional model of a cohesive granular material. Intergranular forces involve elasticity, Coulomb friction, and a short-range attraction akin to the van der Waals force in powders. The effects of rolling resistance (RR) at intergranular contacts are also studied. The microstructure of the cohesive packing under low pressure is shown to depend sensitively on the assembling procedure which is applied to the initially isolated particles of a granular gas. While a direct compression produces a final equilibrated configuration with a similar density to that of cohesionless systems, the formation of large aggregates prior to the application of an external pressure results in much looser stable packings. A crucial state variable is the ratio P;{*}=PaF_{0} of applied pressure P , acting on grains of diameter a , to maximum tensile contact force F0 . At low P;{*} the force-carrying structure and force distribution are sensitive to the level of velocity fluctuations in the early stages of cluster aggregation. The coordination number of packings with RR approaches 2 in the limit of low initial velocities or large rolling friction. In general the force network is composed of hyperstatic clusters, typically comprising four to a few tens of grains, in which forces reach values of the order of F0 , joined by barely rigid arms, where contact forces are very small. Under growing P;{*} , it quickly rearranges into force chainlike patterns that are more familiar in dense systems. Density correlations are interpreted in terms of a fractal structure, up to a characteristic correlation length xi of the order of ten particle diameters for the studied solid fractions. The fractal dimension in systems with RR coincides, within measurement uncertainties, with the ballistic aggregation result, in spite of a possibly different connectivity, but is apparently higher without RR

  15. Governance within the World Health Assembly: a 13-year analysis of WHO Member States' contribution to global health governance.

    PubMed

    van der Rijt, Tess; Pang Pangestu, Tikki

    2015-03-01

    There is a widespread perception that developed countries in the Western world dictate the shaping and governance of global health. While there are many bodies that engage in global health governance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is the only entity whereby 194 countries are invited to congregate together and engage in global health governance on an equal playing field. This paper examines the diversity of governance within the World Health Assembly (WHA), the supreme decision-making body of the WHO. It explores the degree and balance of policy influence between high, middle and low-income countries and the relevance of the WHO as a platform to exercise global governance. It finds that governance within the WHA is indeed diverse: relative to the number of Member States within the regions, all regions are well represented. While developed countries still dominate WHA governance, Western world countries do not overshadow decision-making, but rather there is evidence of strong engagement from the emerging economies. It is apparent that the WHO is still a relevant platform whereby all Member States can and do participate in the shaping of global health governance.

  16. Self-Assembled Si(111) Surface States: 2D Dirac Material for THz Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Graphene, the first discovered 2D Dirac material, has had a profound impact on science and technology. In the last decade, we have witnessed huge advances in graphene related fundamental and applied research. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a new 2D Dirac band on the Si(111) surface with 1 /3 monolayer halogen coverage. The s p3 dangling bonds form a honeycomb superstructure on the Si(111) surface that results in an anisotropic Dirac band with a group velocity (˜106 m /s ) comparable to that in graphene. Most remarkably, the Si-based surface Dirac band can be used to excite a tunable THz plasmon through electron-hole doping. Our results demonstrate a new way to design Dirac states on a traditional semiconductor surface, so as to make them directly compatible with Si technology. We envision this new type of Dirac material to be generalized to other semiconductor surfaces with broad applications.

  17. Reactivation of hippocampal cell assemblies: effects of behavioral state, experience, and EEG dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kudrimoti, H S; Barnes, C A; McNaughton, B L

    1999-05-15

    During slow wave sleep (SWS), traces of neuronal activity patterns from preceding behavior can be observed in rat hippocampus and neocortex. The spontaneous reactivation of these patterns is manifested as the reinstatement of the distribution of pairwise firing-rate correlations within a population of simultaneously recorded neurons. The effects of behavioral state [quiet wakefulness, SWS, and rapid eye movement (REM)], interactions between two successive spatial experiences, and global modulation during 200 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) "ripples" on pattern reinstatement were studied in CA1 pyramidal cell population recordings. Pairwise firing-rate correlations during often repeated experiences accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in these interactions in subsequent SWS or quiet wakefulness and, to a lesser degree, during SWS before the experience on a given day. The latter effect was absent for novel experiences, suggesting that a persistent memory trace develops with experience. Pattern reinstatement was strongest during sharp wave-ripple oscillations, suggesting that these events may reflect system convergence onto attractor states corresponding to previous experiences. When two different experiences occurred in succession, the statistically independent effects of both were evident in subsequent SWS. Thus, the patterns of neural activity reemerge spontaneously, and in an interleaved manner, and do not necessarily reflect persistence of an active memory (i.e., reverberation). Firing-rate correlations during REM sleep were not related to the preceding familiar experience, possibly as a consequence of trace decay during the intervening SWS. REM episodes also did not detectably influence the correlation structure in subsequent SWS, suggesting a lack of strengthening of memory traces during REM sleep, at least in the case of familiar experiences.

  18. Self-Assembled Si(111) Surface States: 2D Dirac Material for THz Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z F; Liu, Feng

    2015-07-10

    Graphene, the first discovered 2D Dirac material, has had a profound impact on science and technology. In the last decade, we have witnessed huge advances in graphene related fundamental and applied research. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a new 2D Dirac band on the Si(111) surface with 1/3 monolayer halogen coverage. The sp(3) dangling bonds form a honeycomb superstructure on the Si(111) surface that results in an anisotropic Dirac band with a group velocity (∼10(6)  m/s) comparable to that in graphene. Most remarkably, the Si-based surface Dirac band can be used to excite a tunable THz plasmon through electron-hole doping. Our results demonstrate a new way to design Dirac states on a traditional semiconductor surface, so as to make them directly compatible with Si technology. We envision this new type of Dirac material to be generalized to other semiconductor surfaces with broad applications.

  19. Resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy reveals d-d ligand-field states involved in the self-assembly of a square-planar platinum complex.

    PubMed

    Garino, Claudio; Gallo, Erik; Smolentsev, Nikolay; Glatzel, Pieter; Gobetto, Roberto; Lamberti, Carlo; Sadler, Peter J; Salassa, Luca

    2012-11-28

    Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (RXES) is used to characterize the ligand field states of the prototypic self-assembled square-planar complex, [Pt(tpy)Cl]Cl (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine), and determine the effect of weak metal-metal and π-π interactions on their energy.

  20. Characterization of rat brain crude extract microtubule assembly: correlation of cold stability with the phosphorylation state of a microtubule-associated 64K protein.

    PubMed

    Margolis, R L; Rauch, C T

    1981-07-21

    We have conducted preliminary investigations into the control of microtubule assembly in rat brain crude extract supernatants. The rationale for these experiments is that microtubules interact with many proteins and are undoubtedly subject to physiological control mechanisms that are lost during tubulin purification. A more complete understanding of the cellular regulation of microtubules must include the physiology of these proteins. Assembly can be monitored in rat brain crude extract high-speed supernatants by measuring the increase in solution turbidity. We find that assembly is maximal in both rate and extent in the absence of added nucleotide. Increasing concentrations of either adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) inhibit both initiation and elongation of microtubules. GTP appears necessary for assembly and is apparently replenished from an intrinsic energy source during the time course of the assembly reaction. Inhibition of GTP production prevents microtubule assembly, and addition of exogenous GTP will reverse the blockage. Enzymatic removal of GTP at steady state causes a rapid depolymerization to the cold-stable microtubule level. Both GTP production and microtubule assembly display periodic oscillatory maxima. Cold-stable microtubules, which are always present in rat brain crude extract preparations, are rapidly made labile by addition of ATP. Analysis of proteins in cold-stable and cold-labile microtubule fractions shows changes in protein phosphorylation but not in the microtubule-associated protein composition. The tentative conclusion is that the state of phosphorylation of a 64K protein, designated the "switch protein", determines the cold stability or lability, and therefore the dimer association and dissociation rates, of crude extract microtubules.

  1. Synthesis, structures, and solid state self-assemblies of formyl and acetyl substituted triptycenes and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Fei; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2012-10-19

    Starting from triptycene, 2-, (2,6- or 2,7-)di-, and (2,6,14- or 2,7,14-)triformyl or acetyl substituted triptycenes were selectively synthesized. The derivatization of the formyl or acetyl substituted triptycenes was then investigated. Consequently, it was found that the formyl-substituted triptycenes could be transformed into cyano substituted triptycene derivatives by the aldoxime formation and dehydration. Acetoxyl- and acetamino-substituted triptycenes were synthesized by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of acetyl-substituted triptycenes and Beckmann rearrangement of acetyl-oxime triptycenes, respectively. Deacetylation of triacetaminotriptycene provided an alternative way to the synthesis of triaminotriptycene. In addition, 2-ethynyltriptycene could be conveniently synthesized by Corey-Fuchs reaction of 2-formyltriptycene, and 1,3,5-tritriptycenebenzene was obtained in high yield by the dehydration cyclotrimerization of 2-acetyltriptycene. The different functionalized triptycene derivatives and their regioisomers were well characterized by the FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS spectra, and single crystal X-ray analyses. Moreover, it was also found that 2,6,14-triacetaminotriptycene with the three amide groups paralleled to their connected aromatic rings could self-assemble into a 2D layer with porous structure, and further 3D microporous architecture by the hydrogen-bond network in the solid state.

  2. EXTENSION ADMINISTRATION AND STATE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS--A CASE STUDY OF THE 71ST MISSOURI GENERAL ASSEMBLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KYD, STIRLING

    TO GAIN UNDERSTANDING OF MISSOURI'S LEGISLATIVE PROCESS AND AID ADMINISTRATORS OF THE EXTENSION DIVISION, THE AUTHOR INVESTIGATED THE 71ST GENERAL ASSEMBLY. HE READ PUBLICATIONS, INTERVIEWED LOBBYISTS, AND CONDUCTED OPEN ENDED DEPTH INTERVIEWS WITH LEGISLATORS SELECTED TO COMPRISE THE LEADERSHIP OF THE ASSEMBLY. HIS DISSERTATION PRESENTS THE…

  3. Fundamental structural characteristics of planar granular assemblies: Self-organization and scaling away friction and initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Takashi; Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2017-03-01

    The microstructural organization of a granular system is the most important determinant of its macroscopic behavior. Here we identify the fundamental factors that determine the statistics of such microstructures, using numerical experiments to gain a general understanding. The experiments consist of preparing and compacting isotropically two-dimensional granular assemblies of polydisperse frictional disks and analyzing the emergent statistical properties of quadrons—the basic structural elements of granular solids. The focus on quadrons is because the statistics of their volumes have been found to display intriguing universal-like features [T. Matsushima and R. Blumenfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098003 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.098003]. The dependence of the structures and of the packing fraction on the intergranular friction and the initial state is analyzed, and a number of significant results are found. (i) An analytical formula is derived for the mean quadron volume in terms of three macroscopic quantities: the mean coordination number, the packing fraction, and the rattlers fraction. (ii) We derive a unique, initial-state-independent relation between the mean coordination number and the rattler-free packing fraction. The relation is supported numerically for a range of different systems. (iii) We collapse the quadron volume distributions from all systems onto one curve, and we verify that they all have an exponential tail. (iv) The nature of the quadron volume distribution is investigated by decomposition into conditional distributions of volumes given the cell order, and we find that each of these also collapses onto a single curve. (v) We find that the mean quadron volume decreases with increasing intergranular friction coefficients, an effect that is prominent in high-order cells. We argue that this phenomenon is due to an increased probability of stable irregularly shaped cells, and we test this using a herewith developed free cell analytical model

  4. High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaibhav; Sahoo, Rabindra; Jinschek, Joerg R; Montazami, Reza; Yochum, Hank M; Beyer, Fredrick L; Kumar, Anil; Heflin, James R

    2008-08-21

    Electrochromic Ruthenium Purple-polymer nanocomposite films, fabricated by multilayer assembly, were found to exhibit sub-second switching speed and the highest electrochromic contrast reported to date for any inorganic material.

  5. Investigation of the local density of states in self-assembled GeSi/Si(001) nanoislands by combined scanning tunneling and atomic-force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, P. A.; Bukharaev, A. A.; Filatov, D. O. Isakov, M. A.; Shengurov, V. G.; Chalkov, V. Yu.; Denisov, Yu. A.

    2011-03-15

    The local density of states in self-assembled GeSi/Si(001) nanoislands is investigated for the first time by combined tunneling and atomic-force scanning microscopy. Current images and tunneling spectra of individual GeSi/Si(001) islands are obtained. These measurements yield the spatial and energy distributions of the local density of states in GeSi islands, respectively. The tunneling spectroscopy data demonstrate that uncapped Ge{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.7}/Si(001) islands behave as type-I heterostructures.

  6. Controlling Heat Release from a Close-Packed Bisazobenzene-Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Assembly Film for High-Energy Solid-State Photothermal Fuels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoze; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Yang, Weixiang; Si, Qianyu; Feng, Wei

    2017-04-10

    A closed-cycle system for light-harvesting, storage, and heat release is important for utilizing and managing renewable energy. However, combining a high-energy, stable photochromic material with a controllable trigger for solid-state heat release remains a great challenge for developing photothermal fuels (PTFs). This paper presents a uniform PTF film fabricated by the assembly of close-packed bisazobenzene (bisAzo) grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The assembled rGO-bisAzo template exhibited a high energy density of 131 Wh kg(-1) and a long half-life of 37 days owing to inter- or intramolecular H-bonding and steric hindrance. The rGO-bisAzo PTF film released and accumulated heat to realize a maximum temperature difference (DT) of 15 °C and a DT of over 10 °C for 30 min when the temperature difference of the environment was greater than100 °C. Controlling heat release in the solid-state assembly paves the way to develop highly efficient and high-energy PTFs for a multitude of applications.

  7. Silencing and Languaging in the Assembling of the Indian Nation-State: British Public Citizens, the Epistolary Form, and Historiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2009-01-01

    Taking the case of postcolonial India, this paper explores ways in which present temporal junctures permit a probing of historical boundaries to speak of voices largely silenced from Indian historiography, namely those of British (Indian) public citizens who were committed to the assembling of "an India." In particular, the paper…

  8. Photoinduced radical generation and self-assembly of tetrathiafulvalene into the mixed-valence state in the poly(vinyl chloride) film under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Ishiguro, Fumiyasu; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2010-01-19

    The photoinduced self-assembly and the formation of the mixed-valence state of tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in the solid state are reported. The polymer composites containing TTF in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared, and oxidation of TTF by chlorine radical generated by UV irradiation in PVC was investigated. The formation of the mixed-valence state of TTF in the composite films by UV irradiation was observed, and the resulting TTF radical species, including the mixed-valence state after the photopatterning, exhibited extremely high stability in the composite films. Finally, we performed the fabrication of the gradient materials of the radical concentrations on the TTF/PVC composites with the photopatterning.

  9. Epidemiological and Phylogenetic Analysis of Spanish Human Brucella melitensis Strains by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing, Hypervariable Octameric Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting, and rpoB Typing▿

    PubMed Central

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Navarro, Ana; Villalón, Pilar; Carrasco, Gema; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The severe morbidity of human brucellosis is one of the main reasons for using molecular typing in the epidemiological surveillance of this worldwide zoonosis. Multiple-locus variable-number repeat analysis (MLVA-16), hypervariable octameric oligonucleotide fingerprinting (HOOF-print), and the differences in the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (codons 1249 and 1309) of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) were used to type a human Brucella melitensis population (108 strains) collected from throughout Spain over 13 years. Eighty-six MLVA types (discriminatory index, 0.99) were detected, with a wide-ranging genetic similarity coefficient (37.2 to 93.7%). The population clustered into the following groups: American, with genotypes 47 (1 strain), 48 (13 strains), 53 (12 strains), 55 (2 strains), 80 (1 strain), and a new genotype (2 strains), Western Mediterranean, with genotype 51 (9 strains), and Eastern Mediterranean, with genotypes 42 (60 strains), 43 (4 strains), and 63 (4 strains). Two profession-related and two foodborne acquisitions were confirmed. Distributed throughout Spain, Eastern Mediterranean genotype 42 was the most common (55%). The low MLVA-16 allelic polymorphism (genetic similarity range, 75 to 94%) of the genotype 42 strains suggests that they recently evolved from a common ancestor. rpoB typing grouped the strains as rpoB type 1 (1249-ATG/1309-CTG; 28.7%), rpoB type 2 (1249-ATG/1309-CTA; 62.9%), and rpoB type 3 (1249-ATA/1309-CTG; 8.3%). According to the MLVA-16 results, the population clustered by rpoB type. Given the correlation between B. melitensis MLVA groups and rpoB types (American and rpoB type 1, Eastern Mediterranean and rpoB type 2, and Western Mediterranean and rpoB type 3), the rpoB type could be used as an initial marker for the epidemiological surveillance of brucellosis. PMID:20554816

  10. Bacteriophage assembly.

    PubMed

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages have been a model system to study assembly processes for over half a century. Formation of infectious phage particles involves specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, as well as large conformational changes of assembly precursors. The sequence and molecular mechanisms of phage assembly have been elucidated by a variety of methods. Differences and similarities of assembly processes in several different groups of bacteriophages are discussed in this review. The general principles of phage assembly are applicable to many macromolecular complexes.

  11. Effect of Atomic-Scale Differences on the Self-Assembly of Thiophene-based Polycatenars in Liquid Crystalline and Organogel States.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Balaram; Vaisakh, V M; Nair, Geetha G; Rao, D S Shankar; Prasad, S Krishna; Sudhakar, Achalkumar Ammathnadu

    2016-12-05

    Two series of polycatenars are reported that contain a central thiophene moiety connected to two substituted oxadiazole or thiadiazole units. The number, position, and length of the peripheral chains connected to these molecules were varied. The oxadiazole-based polycatenars exhibited columnar phases with rectangular and hexagonal or oblique symmetry, whereas the thiadiazole-based polycatenars exhibited columnar phases with rectangular and/or hexagonal symmetry. All of the compounds exhibited bright emission in the solution and thin-film states. Two oxadiazole-based molecules and one thiadiazole-based molecule exhibited supergelation ability in hydrocarbon solvents, which is mainly supported by attractive π-π interactions. These gels showed aggregation-induced enhanced emission, which is of high technological importance for applications in solid-state emissive displays. X-ray diffraction studies of the xerogel fibers of oxadiazole-based polycatenars revealed a columnar rectangular organization, whereas a hexagonal columnar arrangement was observed for thiadiazole-based polycatenars. Rheological measurements carried out on the samples quantitatively confirmed the formation of gels and showed that these gels are mechanically robust. The impact of an atomic-scale difference (oxygen to sulfur, <2 % of the molecular weight) on the self-assembly and the macroscopic properties of those self-assembled structures are clearly visualized.

  12. Herringbone and helical self-assembly of π-conjugated molecules in the solid state through CH/π hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Goel, Mahima; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2012-09-17

    Self-organization of organic molecules through weak noncovalent forces such as CH/π interactions and creation of large hierarchical supramolecular structures in the solid state are at the very early stage of research. The present study reports direct evidence for CH/π interaction driven hierarchical self-assembly in π-conjugated molecules based on custom-designed oligophenylenevinylenes (OPVs) whose structures differ only in the number of carbon atoms in the tails. Single-crystal X-ray structures were resolved for these OPV synthons and the existence of long-range multiple-arm CH/π interactions was revealed in the crystal lattices. Alignment of these π-conjugated OPVs in the solid state was found to be crucial in producing either right-handed herringbone packing in the crystal or left-handed helices in the liquid-crystalline mesophase. Pitch- and roll-angle displacements of OPV chromophores were determined to trace the effect of the molecular inclination on the ordering of hierarchical structures. Furthermore, circular dichroism studies on the OPVs were carried out in the aligned helical structures to prove the existence of molecular self-assembly. Thus, the present strategy opens up new approaches in supramolecular chemistry based on weak CH/π hydrogen bonding, more specifically in π-conjugated materials.

  13. Role of the Propeptide in Controlling Conformation and Assembly State of Hepatitis B virus e-antigen

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Norman R.; Conway, James F.; Cheng, Naiqian; Stahl, Stephen J.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Wingfield, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus “e-antigen” is thought to be a soluble dimeric protein that is associated with chronic infection. It shares 149 residues with the viral capsid protein “core-antigen”, but has an additional ten-residue, hydrophobic, cysteine-containing amino-terminal propeptide whose presence correlates with physical, serological, and immunological differences between the two proteins. In core-antigen dimers, the subunits pair by forming a four-helix bundle stabilized by an inter-molecular disulfide bond. The structure of e-antigen is probably similar, but instead has two intra-molecular disulfide bonds involving the propeptide. To compare the proteins directly, and thereby clarify the role of the propeptide, mutations and solution conditions were identified that render both proteins as either soluble dimers or assembled capsids. Thermally induced unfolding monitored by circular dichroism, and electrophoresis of oxidized and reduced dimers, showed that the propeptide has a destabilizing effect, and that the intra-molecular disulfide bond forms preferentially and blocks the formation of the inter-molecular disulfide bond that otherwise stabilizes the dimer. The e-antigen capsids are less regular than core-antigen capsids; nevertheless, cryo-EM reconstructions confirm that they are constructed of dimers resembling those of core-antigen capsids. In them, a portion of the propeptide is visible near the dimer interface, suggesting that it intercalates there, consistent with the known formation of a disulfide bond between C(−7) in the propeptide and C61 in the dimer interface. However, this intercalation distorts the dimer into an assembly-reluctant conformation. PMID:21463641

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic excited state properties of a self-assembled peptide amphiphile nanofiber with metalloporphyrin arrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Lee, One-Sun; Schatz, George C

    2014-09-18

    We have employed molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry methods to study the structures and electronic absorption properties of a novel type of photonic nanowire gel constructed by the self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs) and the chromophore-(PPIX)Zn molecules. Using molecular dynamics simulations, structures of the self-assembled fiber were determined with atomistic detail, including the distribution of chromophores along the nanofiber and the relative distances and orientations of pairs of chromophores. In addition, quantum chemistry calculations were used to determine the electronic structure and absorption properties of the chromophores in the fiber, so as to assess the capabilities of the nanofiber for photonics applications. The calculations show that the PA nanofiber provides an effective scaffold for the chromophores in which the chromophores form several clusters in which nearest neighbor chromophores are separated by less than 20 Å. The calculations also indicate that the chromophores can be in both the hydrophilic shell and hydrophobic core portions of the fiber. There are only small spectral shifts to the B-band of the porphyrins arising from the inhomogeneous microelectronic environment provided by the fiber. However, there are much stronger electronic interactions between nearby pairs of chromophores, leading to a more significant red shift of the B-band that is similar to what is found in the experiments and to significant excitonic coupling that is seen in circular dichroism spectra. This electronic interaction between chromophores associated with the PA nanofiber structure is crucial to future applications of these fibers for light-harvesting applications.

  15. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  16. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  17. 78 FR 29318 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... science information; attribution for agency personnel who contributed to scientific analyses; public...., Washington, DC 20581 (Main Conference Room). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shawne McGibbon, General... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Administrative Conference of the United States makes recommendations...

  18. Effects of molecular geometry on the self-assembly of giant polymer-dendron conjugates in condensed state.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue-Hui; Lu, Xiaocun; Ni, Bo; Chen, Ziran; Yue, Kan; Li, Yiwen; Rong, Lixia; Koga, Tadanori; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Newkome, George R; Shi, An-Chang; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Cheng, Stephen Z D

    2014-05-14

    A series of giant polymer-dendron conjugates with a dendron head and a linear polymer tail were synthesized via"click" chemistry between azide-functionalized polystyrene (PS(N), N: degree-of-polymerization) and t-butyl protected, alkyne-functionalized second generation dendron (tD), followed by a deprotection process to generate a dendron termini possessing nine carboxylic acid groups. The molecular structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance, size-exclusion chromatographic analyses, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectra. These well-defined conjugates can serve as a model system to study the effects of the molecular geometries on the self-assembly behaviour, as compared with their linear analogues. Four phase morphologies found in flexible linear diblock copolymer systems, including lamellae, bicontinuous double gyroids, hexagonal packed cylinders, and body-centred cubic packed spheres, were observed in this series of conjugates based on the results of small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. All of the domain sizes in these phase separated structures were around or less than 10 nm. A 'half' phase diagram was constructed based on the experimental results. The geometrical effect was found not only to enhance the immiscibility between the PS(N) tail and dendron head, but also systematically shift all of the phase boundaries towards higher volume fractions of the PS(N) tails, resulting in an asymmetrical phase diagram. This study may provide a pathway to the construction of ordered patterns of sub-10 nm feature size using polymer-dendron conjugates.

  19. Self-assembly of flexible β-strands into immobile amyloid-like β-sheets in membranes as revealed by solid-state 19F NMR.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Parvesh; Strandberg, Erik; Heidenreich, Nico; Bürck, Jochen; Fanghänel, Susanne; Ulrich, Anne S

    2012-04-18

    The cationic peptide [KIGAKI](3) was designed as an amphiphilic β-strand and serves as a model for β-sheet aggregation in membranes. Here, we have characterized its molecular conformation, membrane alignment, and dynamic behavior using solid-state (19)F NMR. A detailed structure analysis of selectively (19)F-labeled peptides was carried out in oriented DMPC bilayers. It showed a concentration-dependent transition from monomeric β-strands to oligomeric β-sheets. In both states, the rigid (19)F-labeled side chains project straight into the lipid bilayer but they experience very different mobilities. At low peptide-to-lipid ratios ≤1:400, monomeric [KIGAKI](3) swims around freely on the membrane surface and undergoes considerable motional averaging, with essentially uncoupled φ/ψ torsion angles. The flexibility of the peptide backbone in this 2D plane is reminiscent of intrinsically unstructured proteins in 3D. At high concentrations, [KIGAKI](3) self-assembles into immobilized β-sheets, which are untwisted and lie flat on the membrane surface as amyloid-like fibrils. This is the first time the transition of monomeric β-strands into oligomeric β-sheets has been characterized by solid-state NMR in lipid bilayers. It promises to be a valuable approach for studying membrane-induced amyloid formation of many other, clinically relevant peptide systems.

  20. Quasi-1D States Confined in a Self-Assembled Organic Super-Lattice of TTF-TCNQ on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seokmin; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby; Cerdá, Jorge Iribas; Maksymovych, Petro; CNMS Team; ICMM-CSIC Team

    2015-03-01

    Organic charge transfer complexes (CTC) have drawn much attention due to their potential applications to conducting or semiconducting organic thin films and contacts in devices. TTF-TCNQ is a historic organic CTC with one of the highest conductivity values among numerous organic conductors. As a two-component molecular material, TTF-TCNQ in a low-dimension form on a surface naturally creates monolayer super-lattices with corrugated electrostatic potential and adsorbate-induced strain. Generally this will lead to strong confinement of the surface states, although the detailed response of the surface electronic structure remains to be understood. We investigated TTF-TCNQ monolayer films grown on Ag(111), Au(111) and Ag(100) surfaces using STM/STS at 4.3 K. Confinement of sp-derived surface states was indeed ubiquitous, including spontaneous formation of quantum dots and quasi-1D bands. The small periodicity of the lattice caused a complete depopulation of the surface states, with up to 1 eV upshift of the band minimum - much stronger effect than normally observed in assemblies. This also allows us to infer the height of the confining potential using 1D Kronig-Penney model and critically assess the long-standing problem of molecule-surface charge transfer. A portion of this research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  1. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  2. High-contrast solid-state electrochromic devices of viologen-bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaibhav; Khiterer, Mariya; Montazami, Reza; Yochum, Hank M; Shea, Kenneth J; Heflin, James R

    2009-01-01

    Water-soluble silsesquioxane nanoparticles (NPs) incorporating viologen groups (PXV; 1,1'-bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-4,4'-bipyridinium iodide) have been synthesized by sol-gel polymerization. The electrochromic properties of the bulk film fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly have been examined, along with their incorporation into solid-state devices. The orange LbL films show high thermal stability and exhibit a maximum UV-vis absorption at 550 nm. Electrochromic switching of the NPs in liquid electrolyte as well as in the solid state was evaluated by a kinetic study via measurement of the change in transmission (% T) at the maximum contrast. Cyclic voltammograms of the PXV NP LbL films exhibit a reversible reduction at -0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl in a 0.1 M NaClO4(aq) solution, revealing good electrochromic stability, with a color change from orange to dark purple-blue at applied potentials ranging from -0.7 to -1.3 V. Cathodically coloring PXV NP solid-state devices exhibit a switching time of a few seconds between the purple-blue reduced state and the orange oxidized state, showing a contrast of 50% at 550 nm and a coloration efficiency of 205 cm2/C. Their solubility and fairly fast electrochromic switching ( approximately 3 s) at low switching voltages (between 0 and 3.0 V), along with their stability under atmospheric conditions, make PXV NPs good candidates for electrochromic displays.

  3. Crew Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your dexterity and hand-eye coordination by assembling a puzzle.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to set goals, practice ...

  4. Cooperativity and tunable excited state deactivation: modular self-assembly of depsipeptide dendrons on a Hamilton receptor modified porphyrin platform.

    PubMed

    Gnichwitz, Jan-Frederik; Wielopolski, Mateusz; Hartnagel, Kristine; Hartnagel, Uwe; Guldi, Dirk M; Hirsch, Andreas

    2008-07-02

    A series of novel supramolecular architectures were built around a tin tetraphenyl porphyrin platform 6--functionalized by a 2-fold 1-ethyl-3-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) promoted condensation reaction--and chiral depsipeptide dendrons of different generations 1-4. Here, implementation of a Hamilton receptor provided the necessary means to keep the constituents together via strong hydrogen bonding. Characterization of all architectures has been performed, including 4 which is the fourth generation, on the basis of NMR and photophysical methods. In particular, several titration experiments were conducted suggesting positive cooperativity, an assessment that is based on association constants that tend to be higher for the second binding step than for the first step. Importantly, molecular modeling calculations reveal a significant deaggregation of the intermolecular network of 6 during the course of the first binding step. As a consequence, an improved accessibility of the second Hamilton receptor unit in 6 emerges and, in turn, facilitates the higher association constants. The features of the equilibrium, that is, the dynamic exchange of depsipeptide dendrons 1-4 with fullerene 5, was tested in photophysical reference experiments. These steady-state and time-resolved measurements showed the tunable excited-state deactivations of these complexes upon photoexcitation.

  5. J-aggregation, its impact on excited state dynamics and unique solvent effects on macroscopic assembly of a core-substituted naphthalenediimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Haridas; Gehrig, Dominik W.; Laquai, Frédéric; Ghosh, Suhrit

    2015-04-01

    Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We also describe unique solvent-effects on the macroscopic structure and morphology. While J-aggregation with similar photophysical characteristics was noticed in all the tested aliphatic hydrocarbons, the morphology strongly depends on the ``structure'' of the solvents. In linear hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane or n-dodecane), formation of an entangled fibrillar network leads to macroscopic gelation while in cyclic hydrocarbons (methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane) although having a similar polarity, the cNDI exhibits nanoscale spherical particles. These unprecedented solvent effects were rationalized by establishing structure-dependent specific interactions of the solvent molecules with the cNDI which may serve as a general guideline for solvent-induced morphology-control of structurally related self-assembled materials.Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We

  6. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  7. Fabrication of ultrathin solid electrolyte membranes of β-Li3PS4 nanoflakes by evaporation-induced self-assembly for all-solid-state batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D.; Xia, Younan; ...

    2016-04-25

    All-solid-state lithium batteries are attractive candidates for next-generation energy storage devices because of their anticipated high energy density and intrinsic safety. Owing to their excellent ionic conductivity and stability with metallic lithium anodes, nanostructured lithium thiophosphate solid electrolytes such as β-Li3PS4 have found use in the fabrication of all-solid lithium batteries for large-scale energy storage systems. However, current methods for preparing air-sensitive solid electrolyte membranes of lithium thiophosphates can only generate thick membranes that compromise the battery's gravimetric/volumetric energy density and thus its rate performance. To overcome this limitation, the solid electrolyte's thickness needs to be effectively decreased to achievemore » ideal energy density and enhanced rate performance. In this paper, we show that the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique produces ultrathin membranes of a lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte with controllable thicknesses between 8 and 50 μm while maintaining the high ionic conductivity of β-Li3PS4 and stability with metallic lithium anodes up to 5 V. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated that this facile EISA approach allows for the preparation of ultrathin lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte membranes for all-solid-state batteries.« less

  8. Single-Molecule Spectroscopy Unmasks the Lowest Exciton State of the B850 Assembly in LH2 from Rps. acidophila

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Ralf; Timpmann, Kõu; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Freiberg, Arvi; Köhler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    We have recorded fluorescence-excitation and emission spectra from single LH2 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) acidophila. Both types of spectra show strong temporal spectral fluctuations that can be visualized as spectral diffusion plots. Comparison of the excitation and emission spectra reveals that for most of the complexes the lowest exciton transition is not observable in the excitation spectra due to the cutoff of the detection filter characteristics. However, from the spectral diffusion plots we have the full spectral and temporal information at hand and can select those complexes for which the excitation spectra are complete. Correlating the red most spectral feature of the excitation spectrum with the blue most spectral feature of the emission spectrum allows an unambiguous assignment of the lowest exciton state. Hence, application of fluorescence-excitation and emission spectroscopy on the same individual LH2 complex allows us to decipher spectral subtleties that are usually hidden in traditional ensemble spectroscopy. PMID:24806933

  9. Very large assemblies: Optimizing for automatic generation of assembly sequences

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-02-01

    Sandia's Archimedes 3.0{copyright} Automated Assembly Analysis System has been applied successfully to several large industrial and weapon assemblies. These have included Sandia assemblies such as portions of the B61 bomb, and assemblies from external customers such as Cummins Engine Inc., Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Missile Systems and Sikorsky Aircraft. While Archimedes 3.0{copyright} represents the state-of-the-art in automated assembly planning software, applications of the software made prior to the technological advancements presented here showed several limitations of the system, and identified the need for extensive modifications to support practical analysis of assemblies with several hundred to a few thousand parts. It was believed that there was substantial potential for enhancing Archimedes 3.0{copyright} to routinely handle much larger models and/or to handle more modestly sized assemblies more efficiently. Such a mature assembly analysis capability was needed to support routine application to industrial assemblies that overstressed the system, such as full nuclear weapon assemblies or full-scale aerospace or military vehicles.

  10. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  11. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, David Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  12. Redox State of Pentraxin 3 as a Novel Biomarker for Resolution of Inflammation and Survival in Sepsis*

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, Friederike; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Mayr, Ursula; Yin, Xiaoke; Marshall, Melanie; Suna, Gonca; Willeit, Peter; Langley, Sarah R.; Jayawardhana, Tamani; Zeller, Tanja; Terblanche, Marius; Shah, Ajay M.; Mayr, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In an endotoxaemic mouse model of sepsis, a tissue-based proteomics approach for biomarker discovery identified long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as the lead candidate for inflamed myocardium. When the redox-sensitive oligomerization state of PTX3 was further investigated, PTX3 accumulated as an octamer as a result of disulfide-bond formation in heart, kidney, and lung—common organ dysfunctions seen in patients with sepsis. Oligomeric moieties of PTX3 were also detectable in circulation. The oligomerization state of PTX3 was quantified over the first 11 days in critically ill adult patients with sepsis. On admission day, there was no difference in the oligomerization state of PTX3 between survivors and non-survivors. From day 2 onward, the conversion of octameric to monomeric PTX3 was consistently associated with a greater survival after 28 days of follow-up. For example, by day 2 post-admission, octameric PTX3 was barely detectable in survivors, but it still constituted more than half of the total PTX3 in non-survivors (p < 0.001). Monomeric PTX3 was inversely associated with cardiac damage markers NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity troponin I and T. Relative to the conventional measurements of total PTX3 or NT-proBNP, the oligomerization of PTX3 was a superior predictor of disease outcome. PMID:24958171

  13. Sabot assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz

    2016-11-08

    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  14. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  15. Nitrogenase assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogenase contains two unique metalloclusters: the P-cluster and the M-cluster. The assembly processes of P- and M-clusters are arguably the most complicated processes in bioinorganic chemistry. There is considerable interest in decoding the biosynthetic mechanisms of the P- and M-clusters, because these clusters are not only biologically important, but also chemically unprecedented. Understanding the assembly mechanisms of these unique metalloclusters is crucial for understanding the structure-function relationship of nitrogenase. Here, we review the recent advances in this research area, with an emphasis on our work that provide important insights into the biosynthetic pathways of these high-nuclearity metal centers. PMID:23232096

  16. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  17. The effects of chain number and state of lipid derivatives of nucleosides on hydrogen bonding and self-assembly through the investigation of Langmuir Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yiguang; Qiao, Yingxin; Hou, Xinpu

    2006-09-01

    The long-chain lipid derivatives of acyclovir—a nucleoside analogue were used to prepare Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, including the single-chained derivative (SGSA) and the double-chained derivative (DASA). The bilayer LB film of DASA or the SGSA/cholesterol (SGSA/Chol) mixture (1:1, mol/mol) on quartz plates was investigated with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, and the blue-shifted absorption with 4 nm (DASA) or 18 nm (SGSA/Chol) wavelength changes was observed in comparison with their solutions in chloroform. The rigid double chains of DASA prevented adjacent molecules from approach, while the flexible single chains of SGSA did not. Then the strength of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the nucleoside moieties of DASA was much more weaker than one of SGSA, and their blue-shifted wavelength in LB films was different. DASA and SGSA/Chol also showed the different bilayer LB films on mica according to the atomic force microscopic observation. The former was prone to tilting on solid supports while the latter would like to stand vertically with the help of cholesterol that could insert into the flexible single chains of SGSA. The chain number (one or two) and state (flexible or rigid) of lipid derivatives of nucleosides strongly impact intermolecular hydrogen bonding and self-assembly behavior.

  18. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  19. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  20. Generation of precedence relations for mechanical assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Planning of assembly sequences is essential to the manufacturing system design process. Several methodologies have been proposed to represent all the feasible assembly sequences. In this thesis, three algorithms are presented to generate three sets of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks, all the infeasible assembly states, and all the feasible assembly sequences, respectively. The equivalence of the resulting sets of precedence relations to the AND/OR graph is established. A new property, the real time property, of a representation of assembly sequences is defined and discussed. A representation of assembly sequences is said to have the real time property, if it is possible to generate the next assembly task by testing locally in the representation, and it will guarantee that the generated assembly task will not lead the assembly sequence to a dead end situation, in which no feasible assembly task can be performed any more. It is shown that the correctness and completeness of one representation can not guarantee the real time property of the representation. It is proven that the directed graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly states have the real time property, while the AND/OR graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks do not have the real time property. Finally in the thesis, the PLEIDEAS system, a PLanning Environment for Integrated DEsign of Assembly Systems, is described and illustrated by an example.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae septins: Supramolecular organization of heterooligomers and the mechanism of filament assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurelie; McMurray, Michael A.; Grob, Patricia; Park, Sang-Shin; Garcia, Galo; Patanwala, Insiyyah; Ng, Ho-leung; Alber, Tom; Thorner, Jeremy; Nogales, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Mitotic yeast cells express five septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, and Shs1/Sep7). Only Shs1 is nonessential. The four essential septins form a complex containing two copies of each, but their arrangement was not known. Single-particle analysis by EM confirmed that the heterooligomer is octameric and revealed that the subunits are arrayed in a linear rod. Identity of each subunit was determined by examining complexes lacking a given septin, by antibody decoration, and by fusion to marker proteins (GFP or maltose binding protein). The rod has the order Cdc11–Cdc12–Cdc3–Cdc10–Cdc10–Cdc3–Cdc12–Cdc11 and, hence, lacks polarity. At low ionic strength, rods assemble end-to-end to form filaments but not when Cdc11 is absent or its N terminus is altered. Filaments invariably pair into long parallel “railroad tracks.” Lateral association seems to be mediated by heterotetrameric coiled coils between the paired C-terminal extensions of Cdc3 and Cdc12 projecting orthogonally from each filament. Shs1 may be able to replace Cdc11 at the end of the rod. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the function and regulation of cellular septin structures. PMID:18550837

  2. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  3. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  4. Structural color-tunable mesoporous bragg stack layers based on graft copolymer self-assembly for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-08-01

    We present a facile fabrication route for structural color-tunable mesoporous Bragg stack (BS) layers based on the self-assembly of a cost-effective graft copolymer. The mesoporous BS layers are prepared through the alternating deposition of organized mesoporous-TiO2 (OM-TiO2) and -SiO2 (OM-SiO2) films on the non-conducting side of the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The OM layers with controlled porosity, pore size, and refractive index are templated with amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM. The morphology and properties of the structural color-tunable mesoporous BS-functionalized electrodes are characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and reflectance spectroscopy. The solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs) based on a structural color-tunable mesoporous BS counter electrode with a single-component solid electrolyte show an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.1%, which is much greater than that of conventional nanocrystalline TiO2-based cells and one of the highest values for N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. The enhancement of η is due to the enhancement of current density (Jsc), attributed to the improved light harvesting properties without considerable decrease in fill factor (FF) or open-circuit voltage (Voc), as confirmed by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  5. Planning Assembly Of Large Truss Structures In Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, Luiz S. Homem; Desai, Rajiv S.

    1992-01-01

    Report dicusses developmental algorithm used in systematic planning of sequences of operations in which large truss structures assembled in outer space. Assembly sequence represented by directed graph called "assembly graph", in which each arc represents joining of two parts or subassemblies. Algorithm generates assembly graph, working backward from state of complete assembly to initial state, in which all parts disassembled. Working backward more efficient than working forward because it avoids intermediate dead ends.

  6. High-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: fast charge extraction through self-assembled 3D fibrous network of crystalline TiO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tétreault, Nicolas; Horváth, Endre; Moehl, Thomas; Brillet, Jérémie; Smajda, Rita; Bungener, Stéphane; Cai, Ning; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Forró, László; Magrez, Arnaud; Grätzel, Michael

    2010-12-28

    Herein, we present a novel morphology for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on the simple and straightforward self-assembly of nanorods into a 3D fibrous network of fused single-crystalline anatase nanowires. This architecture offers a high roughness factor, significant light scattering, and up to several orders of magnitude faster electron transport to reach a near-record-breaking conversion efficiency of 4.9%.

  7. Shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  8. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  9. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  10. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, J.D.

    1984-03-30

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  11. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  12. Swivel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  13. Thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  14. Modeling and design of a new core-moderator assembly and neutron beam ports for the Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucar, Dundar

    This study is for modeling and designing a new reactor core-moderator assembly and new neutron beam ports that aimed to expand utilization of a new beam hall of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The PSBR is a part of the Radiation Science and Engineering Facility (RSEC) and is a TRIGA MARK III type research reactor with a movable core placed in a large pool and is capable to produce 1MW output. This reactor is a pool-type reactor with pulsing capability up to 2000 MW for 10-20 msec. There are seven beam ports currently installed to the reactor. The PSBR's existing core design limits the experimental capability of the facility, as only two of the seven available neutron beam ports are usable. The finalized design features an optimized result in light of the data obtained from neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses as well as geometrical constraints. A new core-moderator assembly was introduced to overcome the limitations of the existing PSBR design, specifically maximizing number of available neutron beam ports and mitigating the hydrogen gamma contamination of the neutron beam channeled in the beam ports. A crescent-shaped moderator is favored in the new PSBR design since it enables simultaneous use of five new neutron beam ports in the facility. Furthermore, the crescent shape sanctions a coupling of the core and moderator, which reduces the hydrogen gamma contamination significantly in the new beam ports. A coupled MURE and MCNP5 code optimization analysis was performed to calculate the optimum design parameters for the new PSBR. Thermal-hydraulics analysis of the new design was achieved using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. In the current form, the PSBR is cooled by natural convection of the pool water. The driving force for the natural circulation of the fluid is the heat generation within the fuel rods. The convective heat data was generated at the reactor's different operating powers by using TRIGSIMS, the fuel management code of the PSBR core. In the CFD

  15. The nucleosomal core histone octamer at 3.1 A resolution: a tripartite protein assembly and a left-handed superhelix.

    PubMed Central

    Arents, G; Burlingame, R W; Wang, B C; Love, W E; Moudrianakis, E N

    1991-01-01

    The structure of the octameric histone core of the nucleosome has been determined by x-ray crystallography to a resolution of 3.1 A. The histone octamer is a tripartite assembly in which a centrally located (H3-H4)2 tetramer is flanked by two H2A-H2B dimers. It has a complex outer surface; depending on the perspective, the structure appears as a wedge or as a flat disk. The disk represents the planar projection of a left-handed proteinaceous superhelix with approximately 28 A pitch. The diameter of the particle is 65 A and the length is 60 A at its maximum and approximately 10 A at its minimum extension; these dimensions are in agreement with those reported earlier by Klug et al. [Klug, A., Rhodes, D., Smith, J., Finch, J. T. & Thomas, J. O. (1980) Nature (London) 287, 509-516]. The folded histone chains are elongated rather than globular and are assembled in a characteristic "handshake" motif. The individual polypeptides share a common central structural element of the helix-loop-helix type, which we name the histone fold. Images PMID:1946434

  16. Electrical Connector Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    hereinafter 5 appear, a feature of the invention is the provision of an 6 electrical connector assembly including a female connector 7 assembly comprising...urging of the male connector assembly 3 into the female connector assembly, a leading edge of ehe 4 retention ring engages the claw fingers forcing...assembly barrel portion to pass through the female connector 3 assembly annular wall central opening, and permitting entry of 9 the pin into the sleeve

  17. "Assembling" the Ideal Learner: The School Assembly as Regulatory Ritual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbert, Patti; Jacklin, Heather

    2015-01-01

    "School assemblies" are rituals that celebrate and mark the school community. They carry messages of allegiance and belonging that are disseminated both verbally and nonverbally. Although verbal messages are explicitly stated, nonverbal messages are conveyed through subjection to habits, rules, and orders (Foucault 1977) and are…

  18. Radiation Chemistry in Organized Assemblies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, J. K.; Chen, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Expands the basic concepts regarding the radiation chemistry of simple aqueous systems to more complex, but well defined, organized assemblies. Discusses the differences in behavior in comparison to simple systems. Reviews these techniques: pulse radiolysis, laser flash, photolysis, and steady state irradiation by gamma rays or light. (CS)

  19. Latching relay switch assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  20. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  1. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  2. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  3. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  4. OSU Team Assembles X-Hab Loft

    NASA Video Gallery

    This time lapse video shows the Oklahoma State University team in the process of assembling and inflating the loft they've built for the first X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge. OSU is one of thr...

  5. Education of Handicapped Jail Inmates: Report of the Virginia State Crime Commission to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. House Document No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Crime Commission, Richmond.

    Presented are the results of a study by and recommendations of the Virginia State Crime Commission to develop a program of appropriate education for jail inmates with disabilities. Four public hearings resulted in seven findings, including the following: federal law requires the states to provide special education to handicapped inmates;…

  6. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  7. Quantum confinement-tunable intersystem crossing and the triplet state lifetime of cationic porphyrin-CdTe quantum dot nano-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ghada H; Aly, Shawkat M; Usman, Anwar; Eita, Mohamed S; Melnikov, Vasily A; Mohammed, Omar F

    2015-05-11

    Here, we report a ground-state interaction between the positively charged cationic porphyrin and the negatively charged carboxylate groups of the thiol ligands on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (QDs), leading to the formation of a stable nanoassembly between the two components. Our time-resolved data clearly demonstrate that we can dramatically tune the intersystem crossing (ISC) and the triplet state lifetime of porphyrin by changing the size of the QDs in the nanoassembly.

  8. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.18 Valuation of assembled articles. As in the case...

  9. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.18 Valuation of assembled articles. As in the case...

  10. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.18 Valuation of assembled articles. As in the case...

  11. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.18 Valuation of assembled articles. As in the case...

  12. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.18 Valuation of assembled articles. As in the case...

  13. Evidence of PPII-like helical conformation and glass transition in a self-assembled solid-state polypeptide-surfactant complex: poly(L-histidine)/docylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Ramasubbu; Hanski, Sirkku; Laiho, Ari; Tuma, Roman; Kilpeläinen, Simo; Tuomisto, Filip; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, Olli

    2008-05-01

    We present lamellar self-assembly of cationic poly(L-histidine) (PLH) stoichiometrically complexed with an anionic surfactant, dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), which allows a stabilized conformation reminiscent of polyproline type II (PPII) left-handed helices. Such a conformation has no intrapeptide hydrogen bonds, and it has previously been found to be one source of flexibility, e.g., in collagen and elastin, as well as an intermediate in silk processing. PLH(DBSA)1.0 complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The PPII-like conformation in PLH(DBSA)1.0 is revealed by characteristic CD and FTIR spectra, where the latter indicates absence of intrachain peptide hydrogen bonds. In addition, a glass transition was directly verified by DSC at ca. 135 degrees C for PLH(DBSA)1.0 and indirectly by SAXS and TEM in comparison to pure PLH at 165 degrees C, thus indicating plasticization. Glass transitions have not been observed before in polypeptide-surfactant complexes. The present results show that surfactant binding can be a simple scheme to provide steric crowding to stabilize PPII conformation to tune the polypeptide properties, plasticization and flexibility.

  14. Surfactant directed self-assembly of size-tunable mesoporous titanium dioxide microspheres and their application in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Yan, Keyou; Yang, Shihe

    This paper provides mechanistic insight into the self-assembly involved in the controlled synthesis of mesoporous TiO 2 microspheres with tunable sizes (200 nm, 400 nm and 600 nm on average). The salient features of these microspheres, when used as building blocks of photoanode films in lieu of traditional small nanoparticles, have been systematically studied for the first time in highly viscous gel-electrolyte-based dye-sensitized solar cells. The light scattering property, electron transport and interface recombination kinetics have been critically compared with respect to the morphology and the size of the building blocks. A >6.78% power conversion efficiency was achieved with the 400 nm microspheres due to the balanced combination of light scattering, electrolyte permeation and charge collection advantages. This accentuates the performance limiting factor of the small nanoparticles and the 600 nm microsphere photoanodes as the difficulty for the quasi-solid electrolyte to fill in their long, narrow mesoscopic pore channels, a scenario supported by their short electron lifetimes as measured by intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS).

  15. Human eIF3b and eIF3a serve as the nucleation core for the assembly of eIF3 into two interconnected modules: the yeast-like core and the octamer

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Susan; Herrmannová, Anna; Šikrová, Darina; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2016-01-01

    The 12-subunit mammalian eIF3 is the largest and most complex translation initiation factor and has been implicated in numerous steps of translation initiation, termination and ribosomal recycling. Imbalanced eIF3 expression levels are observed in various types of cancer and developmental disorders, but the consequences of altered eIF3 subunit expression on its overall structure and composition, and on translation in general, remain unclear. We present the first complete in vivo study monitoring the effects of RNAi knockdown of each subunit of human eIF3 on its function, subunit balance and integrity. We show that the eIF3b and octameric eIF3a subunits serve as the nucleation core around which other subunits assemble in an ordered way into two interconnected modules: the yeast-like core and the octamer, respectively. In the absence of eIF3b neither module forms in vivo, whereas eIF3d knock-down results in severe proliferation defects with no impact on eIF3 integrity. Disrupting the octamer produces an array of subcomplexes with potential roles in translational regulation. This study, outlining the mechanism of eIF3 assembly and illustrating how imbalanced expression of eIF3 subunits impacts the factor's overall expression profile, thus provides a comprehensive guide to the human eIF3 complex and to the relationship between eIF3 misregulation and cancer. PMID:27924037

  16. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  17. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  18. High-performance all-solid-state flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with layer-by-layer assembled MWNT/MnOx nanocomposite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Ko, Yongmin; Cho, Jinhan; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we report on the fabrication of high performance planar-type flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays using Au electrodes coated with a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) film and a layer of MWNT-COOH/MnOx nanoparticle (NP) composite on top. The MWNT thin film was formed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of MWNTs functionalized with amine groups and MWNTs with carboxylic acid groups in water. The hydrothermally synthesized composite of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NPs was coated on top of the MWNT film (LbL-MWNT). The addition of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NP composite as a top layer enhanced the performance of the MSCs dramatically, resulting in a volumetric capacitance of 50 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a coulombic efficiency of ~100%. By contrast, a volumetric capacitance of 3.6 F cm-3 was obtained when using only the LbL-MWNT film. After repetitive operation up to ~104 times, the capacitance remained at ~88.3% of the original value. With a deliberate circuit design consisting of serially connected MSC arrays, various light-emitting diodes operating at different bias voltages could be lit. The MSC circuit fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film showed stable electrochemical properties upon 1000 cycles of bending deformation.In this study, we report on the fabrication of high performance planar-type flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays using Au electrodes coated with a functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) film and a layer of MWNT-COOH/MnOx nanoparticle (NP) composite on top. The MWNT thin film was formed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of MWNTs functionalized with amine groups and MWNTs with carboxylic acid groups in water. The hydrothermally synthesized composite of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NPs was coated on top of the MWNT film (LbL-MWNT). The addition of MWNT-COOH/MnOx NP composite as a top layer enhanced the performance of the MSCs dramatically, resulting in a volumetric capacitance of 50 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10

  19. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  20. Coarse-grained Simulations of Viral Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elrad, Oren M.

    2011-12-01

    The formation of viral capsids is a marvel of natural engineering and design. A large number (from 60 to thousands) of protein subunits assemble into complete, reproducible structures under a variety of conditions while avoiding kinetic and thermodynamic traps. Small single-stranded RNA viruses not only assemble their coat proteins in this fashion but also package their genome during the self-assembly process. Recent experiments have shown that the coat proteins are competent to assemble not merely around their own genomes but heterologous RNA, synthetic polyanions and even functionalized gold nanoparticles. Remarkably these viruses can even assemble around cargo not commensurate with their native state by adopting different morphologies. Understanding the properties that confer such exquisite precision and flexibility to the assembly process could aid biomedical research in the search for novel antiviral remedies, drug-delivery vehicles and contrast agents used in bioimaging. At the same time, viral assembly provides an excellent model system for the development of a statistical mechanical understanding of biological self-assembly, in the hopes of that we will identify some universal principles that underly such processes. This work consists of computational studies using coarse-grained representations of viral coat proteins and their cargoes. We find the relative strength of protein-cargo and protein-protein interactions has a profound effect on the assembly pathway, in some cases leading to assembly mechanisms that are markedly different from those found in previous work on the assembly of empty capsids. In the case of polymeric cargo, we find the first evidence for a previously theorized mechanism in which the polymer actively participates in recruiting free subunits to the assembly process through cooperative polymer-protein motions. We find that successful assembly is non-monotonic in protein-cargo affinity, such affinity can be detrimental to assembly if it

  1. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  2. Ground state and phase transitions in a system of arg-cysteamines self-assembled on a Au(111) crystal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadreev, Almas F.; Sukhunin, Yurii V.; Petoral, Rodrigo M.; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2004-01-01

    The translational and orientation order of arg-cysteamine molecules chemiabsorbed on the Au(111) crystal surface is considered. Couplings between carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms of the n-alkanethiols are approximated by the Lennard-Jones potential. Moreover, hydrogen bonds between oxygen and nitrogen and dipole-dipole interactions of the dipole moments of different atomic groups are taken into account. It is found that molecules are arranged in a 2×2 lattice and have the total symmetry C6×Z2. The critical temperature of the phase transition to the tilted state Tc1, which breaks the symmetry C6, is estimated to be extremely high. The spontaneous breakdown of the remaining symmetry Z2 leads to the twisted state of the molecules and has the critical temperature Tc2=340 K.

  3. Telerobotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Philip L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss was telerobotically assembled in order to gain experience with robotic assembly of hardware designed for astronaut extravehicular (EVA) assembly. Tight alignment constraints of the ACCESS hardware made telerobotic assembly difficult. A wider alignment envelope and a compliant end effector would have reduced the problem. The manipulator had no linear motion capability, but many of the assembly operations required straight line motion. The manipulator was attached to a motion table in order to provide the X, Y, and Z translations needed. A programmable robot with linear translation capability would have eliminated the need for the motion table and streamlined the assembly. Poor depth perception was a major problem. Shaded paint schemes and alignment lines were helpful in reducing this problem. The four cameras used worked well for only some operations. It was not possible to identify camera locations that worked well for all assembly steps. More cameras or movable cameras would have simplified some operations. The audio feedback system was useful.

  4. A Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based System Provides Insight into the Ordered Assembly of Yeast Septin Hetero-octamers.

    PubMed

    Booth, Elizabeth A; Vane, Eleanor W; Dovala, Dustin; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-11-20

    Prior studies in both budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in human cells have established that septin protomers assemble into linear hetero-octameric rods with 2-fold rotational symmetry. In mitotically growing yeast cells, five septin subunits are expressed (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, and Shs1) and assemble into two types of rods that differ only in their terminal subunit: Cdc11-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Cdc11 and Shs1-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Shs1. EM analysis has shown that, under low salt conditions, the Cdc11-capped rods polymerize end to end to form long paired filaments, whereas Shs1-capped rods form arcs, spirals, and rings. To develop a facile method to study septin polymerization in vitro, we exploited our previous work in which we generated septin complexes in which all endogenous cysteine (Cys) residues were eliminated by site-directed mutagenesis, except an introduced E294C mutation in Cdc11 in these experiments. Mixing samples of a preparation of such single-Cys containing Cdc11-capped rods that have been separately derivatized with organic dyes that serve as donor and acceptor, respectively, for FRET provided a spectroscopic method to monitor filament assembly mediated by Cdc11-Cdc11 interaction and to measure its affinity under specified conditions. Modifications of this same FRET scheme also allow us to assess whether Shs1-capped rods are capable of end to end association either with themselves or with Cdc11-capped rods. This FRET approach also was used to follow the binding to septin filaments of a septin-interacting protein, the type II myosin-binding protein Bni5.

  5. A Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based System Provides Insight into the Ordered Assembly of Yeast Septin Hetero-octamers*

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth A.; Vane, Eleanor W.; Dovala, Dustin; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies in both budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in human cells have established that septin protomers assemble into linear hetero-octameric rods with 2-fold rotational symmetry. In mitotically growing yeast cells, five septin subunits are expressed (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, and Shs1) and assemble into two types of rods that differ only in their terminal subunit: Cdc11-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Cdc11 and Shs1-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Shs1. EM analysis has shown that, under low salt conditions, the Cdc11-capped rods polymerize end to end to form long paired filaments, whereas Shs1-capped rods form arcs, spirals, and rings. To develop a facile method to study septin polymerization in vitro, we exploited our previous work in which we generated septin complexes in which all endogenous cysteine (Cys) residues were eliminated by site-directed mutagenesis, except an introduced E294C mutation in Cdc11 in these experiments. Mixing samples of a preparation of such single-Cys containing Cdc11-capped rods that have been separately derivatized with organic dyes that serve as donor and acceptor, respectively, for FRET provided a spectroscopic method to monitor filament assembly mediated by Cdc11-Cdc11 interaction and to measure its affinity under specified conditions. Modifications of this same FRET scheme also allow us to assess whether Shs1-capped rods are capable of end to end association either with themselves or with Cdc11-capped rods. This FRET approach also was used to follow the binding to septin filaments of a septin-interacting protein, the type II myosin-binding protein Bni5. PMID:26416886

  6. An Atomistic View of Amyloidogenic Self-assembly: Structure and Dynamics of Heterogeneous Conformational States in the Pre-nucleation Phase

    PubMed Central

    Matthes, Dirk; Gapsys, Vytautas; Brennecke, Julian T.; de Groot, Bert L.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of well-defined filamentous amyloid structures involves a polydisperse collection of oligomeric states for which relatively little is known in terms of structural organization. Here we use extensive, unbiased explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural and dynamical features of oligomeric aggregates formed by a number of highly amyloidogenic peptides at atomistic resolution on the μs time scale. A consensus approach has been adopted to analyse the simulations in multiple force fields, yielding an in-depth characterization of pre-fibrillar oligomers and their global and local structure properties. A collision cross section analysis revealed structurally heterogeneous aggregate ensembles for the individual oligomeric states that lack a single defined quaternary structure during the pre-nucleation phase. To gain insight into the conformational space sampled in early aggregates, we probed their substructure and found emerging β-sheet subunit layers and a multitude of ordered intermolecular β-structure motifs with growing aggregate size. Among those, anti-parallel out-of-register β-strands compatible with toxic β-barrel oligomers were particularly prevalent already in smaller aggregates and formed prior to ordered fibrillar structure elements. Notably, also distinct fibril-like conformations emerged in the oligomeric state and underscore the notion that pre-nucleated oligomers serve as a critical intermediate step on-pathway to fibrils. PMID:27616019

  7. Low-Scaling Quantum Chemistry Approach to Excited-State Properties via an ab Initio Exciton Model: Application to Excitation Energy Transfer in a Self-Assembled Nanotube.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Adrian F; Herbert, John M

    2015-11-05

    We introduce a charge-embedding scheme for an excited-state quantum chemistry method aimed at weakly interacting molecular aggregates. The Hamiltonian matrix for the aggregate is constructed in a basis of direct products of configuration-state functions for the monomers, and diagonalization of this matrix affords excitation energies within ∼0.2 eV of the corresponding supersystem calculation. Both the basis states and the coupling matrix elements can be computed in a distributed way, resulting in an algorithm whose time-to-solution is independent of the number of chromophores, and we report calculations on systems with almost 55 000 basis functions using fewer than 450 processors. In a semiconducting organic nanotube, we find evidence of ultrafast, coherent dynamics followed by energy localization driven by static disorder. Truncation of the model system has a qualitative effect on the energy-transfer dynamics, demonstrating the importance of simulating an extended portion of the nanotube, which is not feasible using traditional quantum chemistry.

  8. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  9. Microscale Self-Assembled Electrical Contacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    scales. 23 References 1. Morris, C. J.; Stauth, S.A.; Parviz , B.A. Self-assembly for micro and nano scale packaging: steps toward self-packaging...IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 2005, 28, 600–611. 2 Stauth, S.; Parviz , B.A. Self-assembled silicon networks on plastic. Proceedings of the 13th Int...Conf. on Solid State Sens. Actuators (Transducers 󈧉), Seoul, Korea, 2005, 964–967. 3. Stauth, S. A;. Parviz , B.A. Self-assembled single

  10. Computing by molecular self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Jonoska, Nataša; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2012-08-06

    The paper reviews two computing models by DNA self-assembly whose proof of principal have recently been experimentally confirmed. The first model incorporates DNA nano-devices and triple crossover DNA molecules to algorithmically arrange non-DNA species. This is achieved by simulating a finite-state automaton with output where golden nanoparticles are assembled to read-out the result. In the second model, a complex DNA molecule representing a graph emerges as a solution of a computational problem. This supports the idea that in molecular self-assembly computing, it may be necessary to develop the notion of shape processing besides the classical approach through symbol processing.

  11. Spindle assembly on immobilized chromatin micropatterns.

    PubMed

    Pugieux, Céline; Dmitrieff, Serge; Tarnawska, Katarzyna; Nédélec, François

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to assemble meiotic spindles on immobilized micropatterns of chromatin built on a first layer of biotinylated BSA deposited by microcontact printing. Such chromatin patterns routinely produce bipolar spindles with a yield of 60%, and offer the possibility to follow spindle assembly dynamics, from the onset of nucleation to the establishment of a quasi steady state. Hundreds of spindles can be recorded in parallel for different experimental conditions. We also describe the semi-automated image analysis pipeline, which is used to analyze the assembly kinetics of spindle arrays, or the final morphological diversity of the spindles.

  12. Precedence relationship representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homendemello, L. S.; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of precedence relationship representations for mechanical assembly sequences are presented: precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between two parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process. Precedence relationship representations have the advantage of being very compact. The problem with these representations was how to guarantee their correctness and completeness. Two theorems are presented each of which leads to the generation of one type of precedence relationship representation guaranteeing its correctness and completeness for a class of assemblies.

  13. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  14. Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

    2014-08-05

    A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

  15. Photovoltaic assemblies and methods for transporting

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Campbell, Matt; Sandler, Reuben; Wares, Brian; Wayman, Elizabeth

    2013-09-17

    A PV assembly including framework, PV laminate(s), and a stiffening device. The framework includes a perimeter frame at least 10 feet in length and at least 5 feet in width. The PV laminate(s) are assembled to the perimeter frame to define a receiving zone having a depth of not more than 8 inches. The stiffening device is associated with the framework and is configured to provide a first state and a second state. In the first state, an entirety of the stiffening device is maintained within the receiving zone. In the second state, at least a portion of the stiffening device projects from the receiving zone. The stiffening device enhances a stiffness of the PV assembly in a plane of the perimeter frame, and can include rods defining truss structures.

  16. Fabrication of ultrathin solid electrolyte membranes of β-Li3PS4 nanoflakes by evaporation-induced self-assembly for all-solid-state batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D.; Xia, Younan; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-04-25

    All-solid-state lithium batteries are attractive candidates for next-generation energy storage devices because of their anticipated high energy density and intrinsic safety. Owing to their excellent ionic conductivity and stability with metallic lithium anodes, nanostructured lithium thiophosphate solid electrolytes such as β-Li3PS4 have found use in the fabrication of all-solid lithium batteries for large-scale energy storage systems. However, current methods for preparing air-sensitive solid electrolyte membranes of lithium thiophosphates can only generate thick membranes that compromise the battery's gravimetric/volumetric energy density and thus its rate performance. To overcome this limitation, the solid electrolyte's thickness needs to be effectively decreased to achieve ideal energy density and enhanced rate performance. In this paper, we show that the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique produces ultrathin membranes of a lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte with controllable thicknesses between 8 and 50 μm while maintaining the high ionic conductivity of β-Li3PS4 and stability with metallic lithium anodes up to 5 V. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated that this facile EISA approach allows for the preparation of ultrathin lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte membranes for all-solid-state batteries.

  17. Landau-level mixing, floating-up extended states, and scaling behavior in a GaAs-based two-dimensional electron system containing self-assembled InAs dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chi-Te; Liu, Chieh-Wen; Liu, Chieh-I.; Kim, Gil-Ho; Huang, C. F.; Hang, Da-Ren; Ritchie, D. A.

    Temperature-driven flow lines corresponding to Landau level filling factor ν = 2 ~ 4 were studied in the σxx -σxy plane in a GaAs-based two-dimensional electron system with self-assembled InAs dots. In the insulator-quantum Hall (I-QH) transition resulting from the floating-up extended states, the flow diagram showed the validity of the scaling and we observed the expected semicircle. On the other hand, the curve σxx (σxy) in the low-field insulator demonstrated the existence of Landau-level mixing. By decreasing the effective disorder, we found that such flow lines can leave the I-QH regime and follow the scaling for the plateau transition between ν = 4 and 2. The semicircle in the observed I-QH transition, in fact, originated from the distortion on the plateau-transition curve due to Landau-level mixing. Our study showed the importance of the level-mixing effects to the scaling and semicircle law as the extended states float up. We thank the MOST, Taiwan (Grant Number: MOST 104-2622-8-002 -003) for financial support.

  18. Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Hubrig; G.H. Biallas

    2005-05-01

    Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.

  19. Excited State N-H Tautomer Selectivity in the Singlet Energy Transfer of a Zinc(II)-Porphyrin-Truxene-Corrole Assembly.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adam; Xu, Hai-Jun; Karsenti, Paul-Ludovic; Gros, Claude P; Harvey, Pierre D

    2017-01-27

    An original corrole-containing polyad for S1 energy transfer, in which one zinc(II)-porphyrin donor is linked to two free-base corrole acceptors by a truxene linker, is reported. This polyad exhibits a rapid zinc(II)-porphyrin*→free-base corrole transfer (4.83×10(10)  s(-1) ; 298 K), even faster than the tautomerization in the excited state processes taking advantage of the good electronic communication provided by the truxene bridge. Importantly, the energy transfer process shows approximately 3-fold selectivity for one corrole N-H tautomer over the other even at low temperature (77 K). This selectivity is due to the difference in the J-integral being effective in both the Förster and Dexter mechanisms. The data are rationalized by DFT computations.

  20. Biologically-Based Self-Assembling Hydrogels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014396 TITLE: Biologically-Based Self-Assembling Hydrogels DISTRIBUTION...Based Self-Assembling Hydrogels Brandon L. Seal and Alyssa Panitch Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-9709, U.S.A...Factor Xllla substrate were synthesized and conjugated to methacroylated dextran or acrylated poly(ethylene glycol). Peptide-conjugated dextran was added

  1. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  2. Self-assembled all-conjugated block copolymer as an effective hole conductor for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chih; Lee, Yi-Huan; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Kau, Kuo-Chang; Lin, Lu-Yin; Dai, Chi-An; Wu, Chun-Guey; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Leeyih

    2014-02-25

    An all-conjugated diblock copolymer, poly(2,5-dihexyloxy-p-phenylene)-b-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PPP-b-P3HT), was synthesized and applied as a hole transport material (HTM) for the fabrication of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs). This copolymer is characterized by an enhanced crystallinity, enabling its P3HT component to self-organize into interpenetrated and long-range-ordered crystalline fibrils upon spin-drying and ultimately endowing itself to have a faster hole mobility than that of the parent P3HT homopolymer. Transient photovoltage measurements indicate that the photovoltaic cell based on PPP-b-P3HT as the HTM has a longer electron lifetime than that of the reference device based on P3HT homopolymer. Moreover, comparing the two ss-DSCs in terms of the electrochemical impedance spectra reveals that the electron density in the TiO2 conduction band is substantially higher in the PPP-b-P3HT device than in the P3HT cell. Above observations suggest that the PPP block facilitates an intimate contact between the copolymer and dye molecules absorbed on the nanoporous TiO2 layer, which significantly enhances the performance of the resulting device. Consequently, the PPP-b-P3HT ss-DSC exhibits a promising power conversion efficiency of 4.65%. This study demonstrates that conjugated block copolymers can function as superior HTMs of highly efficient ss-DSCs.

  3. Laser bottom hole assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  4. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  5. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  6. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  7. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  8. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  9. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  10. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-04

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site.

  11. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  12. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  13. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  14. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  15. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  16. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  17. Assembly reflects evolution of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Emmanuel D; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta; Robinson, Carol V; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2008-06-26

    A homomer is formed by self-interacting copies of a protein unit. This is functionally important, as in allostery, and structurally crucial because mis-assembly of homomers is implicated in disease. Homomers are widespread, with 50-70% of proteins with a known quaternary state assembling into such structures. Despite their prevalence, their role in the evolution of cellular machinery and the potential for their use in the design of new molecular machines, little is known about the mechanisms that drive formation of homomers at the level of evolution and assembly in the cell. Here we present an analysis of over 5,000 unique atomic structures and show that the quaternary structure of homomers is conserved in over 70% of protein pairs sharing as little as 30% sequence identity. Where quaternary structure is not conserved among the members of a protein family, a detailed investigation revealed well-defined evolutionary pathways by which proteins transit between different quaternary structure types. Furthermore, we show by perturbing subunit interfaces within complexes and by mass spectrometry analysis, that the (dis)assembly pathway mimics the evolutionary pathway. These data represent a molecular analogy to Haeckel's evolutionary paradigm of embryonic development, where an intermediate in the assembly of a complex represents a form that appeared in its own evolutionary history. Our model of self-assembly allows reliable prediction of evolution and assembly of a complex solely from its crystal structure.

  18. Single-particle study of protein assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2001-10-01

    A study of protein assembly in solution with single-particle imaging and reconstruction techniques using cryoelectron microscopy is reported. The human glutamine synthetase enzyme, important in brain metabolism, and previously assumed to be assembled into a homogeneous quaternary structure, is found to be heterogeneous, with three oligomeric states that co-exist at room temperature. This result corrects an old structural and kinetic model determined by ensemble averaging techniques that assumed a homogeneous system. Unexpectedly fast protein dissociation kinetics results from a stabilized transition state.

  19. Next-generation sequencing and large genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Joseph; Tischler, German; Ning, Zemin

    2012-01-01

    The next-generation sequencing (NGS) revolution has drastically reduced time and cost requirements for sequencing of large genomes, and also qualitatively changed the problem of assembly. This article reviews the state of the art in de novo genome assembly, paying particular attention to mammalian-sized genomes. The strengths and weaknesses of the main sequencing platforms are highlighted, leading to a discussion of assembly and the new challenges associated with NGS data. Current approaches to assembly are outlined and the various software packages available are introduced and compared. The question of whether quality assemblies can be produced using short-read NGS data alone, or whether it must be combined with more expensive sequencing techniques, is considered. Prospects for future assemblers and tests of assembly performance are also discussed. PMID:22676195

  20. Self-assembled plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Stefan; Cunningham, Alastair; Dintinger, José; Scharf, Toralf; Bürgi, Thomas; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays for the sake of convenience most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by top-down nanofabrication technologies. This offers great degrees of freedom to tailor the geometry with unprecedented precision. However, it often causes disadvantages as well. The structures available are usually planar and periodically arranged. Therefore, bulk plasmonic structures are difficult to fabricate and the periodic arrangement causes undesired effects, e.g., strong spatial dispersion is observed in metamaterials. These limitations can be mitigated by relying on bottom-up nanofabrication technologies. There, self-assembly methods and techniques from the field of colloidal nanochemistry are used to build complex functional unit cells in solution from an ensemble of simple building blocks, i.e., in most cases plasmonic nanoparticles. Achievable structures are characterized by a high degree of nominal order only on a short-range scale. The precise spatial arrangement across larger dimensions is not possible in most cases; leading essentially to amorphous structures. Such self-assembled nanostructures require novel analytical means to describe their properties, innovative designs of functional elements that possess a desired near- and far-field response, and entail genuine nanofabrication and characterization techniques. Eventually, novel applications have to be perceived that are adapted to the specifics of the self-assembled nanostructures. This review shall document recent progress in this field of research. Emphasis is put on bottom-up amorphous metamaterials. We document the state-of-the-art but also critically assess the problems that have to be overcome.

  1. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  2. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  3. Integrated thruster assembly program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

  4. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  5. The proteasome assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Madura, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of the proteasome — the cellular machine that eliminates unwanted proteins — is a carefully choreographed affair, involving a complex sequence of steps overseen by dedicated protein chaperones. PMID:19516331

  6. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  7. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  8. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  9. Supramolecular DNA assembly.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Christopher K; Hamblin, Graham D; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2011-12-01

    The powerful self-assembly features of DNA make it a unique template to finely organize and control matter on the nanometre scale. While DNA alone offers a high degree of fidelity in its self-assembly, a new area of research termed 'supramolecular DNA assembly' has recently emerged. This field combines DNA building blocks with synthetic organic, inorganic and polymeric structures. It thus brings together the toolbox of supramolecular chemistry with the predictable and programmable nature of DNA. The result of this molecular partnership is a variety of hybrid architectures, that expand DNA assembly beyond the boundaries of Watson-Crick base pairing into new structural and functional properties. In this tutorial review we outline this emerging field of study, and describe recent research aiming to synergistically combine the properties inherent to DNA with those of a number of supramolecular scaffolds. This ultimately creates structures with numerous potential applications in materials science, catalysis and medicine.

  10. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  11. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  12. Magnetostrictive valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

  13. Automated Assembly Center (AAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate advanced assembly and assembly support technology under a comprehensive architecture; to implement automated assembly technologies in the production of high-visibility DOD weapon systems; and to document the improved cost, quality, and lead time. This will enhance the production of DOD weapon systems by utilizing the latest commercially available technologies combined into a flexible system that will be able to readily incorporate new technologies as they emerge. Automated assembly encompasses the following areas: product data, process planning, information management policies and framework, three schema architecture, open systems communications, intelligent robots, flexible multi-ability end effectors, knowledge-based/expert systems, intelligent workstations, intelligent sensor systems, and PDES/PDDI data standards.

  14. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2008-08-26

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  15. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  16. Inverse Problem in Self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    2012-02-01

    By decorating colloids and nanoparticles with DNA, one can introduce highly selective key-lock interactions between them. This leads to a new class of systems and problems in soft condensed matter physics. In particular, this opens a possibility to solve inverse problem in self-assembly: how to build an arbitrary desired structure with the bottom-up approach? I will present a theoretical and computational analysis of the hierarchical strategy in attacking this problem. It involves self-assembly of particular building blocks (``octopus particles''), that in turn would assemble into the target structure. On a conceptual level, our approach combines elements of three different brands of programmable self assembly: DNA nanotechnology, nanoparticle-DNA assemblies and patchy colloids. I will discuss the general design principles, theoretical and practical limitations of this approach, and illustrate them with our simulation results. Our crucial result is that not only it is possible to design a system that has a given nanostructure as a ground state, but one can also program and optimize the kinetic pathway for its self-assembly.

  17. Genome assembly from synthetic long read clouds

    PubMed Central

    Kuleshov, Volodymyr; Snyder, Michael P.; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Despite rapid progress in sequencing technology, assembling de novo the genomes of new species as well as reconstructing complex metagenomes remains major technological challenges. New synthetic long read (SLR) technologies promise significant advances towards these goals; however, their applicability is limited by high sequencing requirements and the inability of current assembly paradigms to cope with combinations of short and long reads. Results: Here, we introduce Architect, a new de novo scaffolder aimed at SLR technologies. Unlike previous assembly strategies, Architect does not require a costly subassembly step; instead it assembles genomes directly from the SLR’s underlying short reads, which we refer to as read clouds. This enables a 4- to 20-fold reduction in sequencing requirements and a 5-fold increase in assembly contiguity on both genomic and metagenomic datasets relative to state-of-the-art assembly strategies aimed directly at fully subassembled long reads. Availability and Implementation: Our source code is freely available at https://github.com/kuleshov/architect. Contact: kuleshov@stanford.edu PMID:27307620

  18. Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

    2013-11-14

    TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and η values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest η of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%).

  19. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  20. Optimal Feedback Controlled Assembly of Perfect Crystals.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xun; Rupp, Bradley; Yang, Yuguang; Edwards, Tara D; Grover, Martha A; Bevan, Michael A

    2016-07-26

    Perfectly ordered states are targets in diverse molecular to microscale systems involving, for example, atomic clusters, protein folding, protein crystallization, nanoparticle superlattices, and colloidal crystals. However, there is no obvious approach to control the assembly of perfectly ordered global free energy minimum structures; near-equilibrium assembly is impractically slow, and faster out-of-equilibrium processes generally terminate in defective states. Here, we demonstrate the rapid and robust assembly of perfect crystals by navigating kinetic bottlenecks using closed-loop control of electric field mediated crystallization of colloidal particles. An optimal policy is computed with dynamic programming using a reaction coordinate based dynamic model. By tracking real-time stochastic particle configurations and adjusting applied fields via feedback, the evolution of unassembled particles is guided through polycrystalline states into single domain crystals. This approach to controlling the assembly of a target structure is based on general principles that make it applicable to a broad range of processes from nano- to microscales (where tuning a global thermodynamic variable yields temporal control over thermal sampling of different states via their relative free energies).

  1. Dynamic self-assembly of 'living' polymeric chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Binghui; Shi, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    We report a dynamic self-assembly system of 'living' polymeric chains sustained by chemistry using reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The linear polymeric chains consist of self-assembled nanoparticles connected by metastable linker molecules. As such, the polymeric chains, once assembled, undergo spontaneous dissociation driven by thermodynamics. However, with a continuous supply of linker molecules and the stored chemical energy therein, the polymeric chains can survive and maintain a steady state averaged chain length. These dynamically self-assembled polymeric chains are analogous to biological systems that both are thermodynamically metastable, yet dynamically stable upon continuous influx of matter and energy.

  2. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  3. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  4. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  5. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  6. Assembly Test Article (ATA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Glen A.

    1988-01-01

    The assembly test article (ATA) consisted of two live loaded redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) segments which were assembled and disassembled to simulate the actual flight segment stacking process. The test assembly joint was flight RSRM design, which included the J-joint insulation design and metal capture feature. The ATA test was performed mid-November through 24 December 1987, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The purpose of the test was: certification that vertical RSRM segment mating and separation could be accomplished without any damage; verification and modification of the procedures in the segment stacking/destacking documents; and certification of various GSE to be used for flight assembly and inspection. The RSRM vertical segment assembly/disassembly is possible without any damage to the insulation, metal parts, or seals. The insulation J-joint contact area was very close to the predicted values. Numerous deviations and changes to the planning documents were made to ensure the flight segments are effectively and correctly stacked. Various GSE were also certified for use on flight segments, and are discussed in detail.

  7. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  8. Liaison based assembly design

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  9. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  10. Blade attachment assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  11. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovich, M.; Burkett, J. P.; Sallustio, J.

    1984-12-11

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly.

  12. Flow Cage Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Apparatus, systems and methods for implementing flow cages and flow cage assemblies in association with high pressure fluid flows and fluid valves are provided. Flow cages and flow assemblies are provided to dissipate the energy of a fluid flow, such as by reducing fluid flow pressure and/or fluid flow velocity. In some embodiments the dissipation of the fluid flow energy is adapted to reduce erosion, such as from high-pressure jet flows, to reduce cavitation, such as by controllably increasing the flow area, and/or to reduce valve noise associated with pressure surge.

  13. Low inductance connector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  14. Lightweight reflector assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Jolley, J.; Walker, W. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight reflective assembly member having good optical quality and particularly adaptable to accommodating temperature variations without providing destructive thermal stresses and reflective slope errors is described. The reflective assembly consists of a thin sheet of glass with appropriate reflective coating and a cellular glass block substrate bonded together. The method of fabrication includes abrading the cellular substrate with an abrasive master die to form an appropriate concave surface. An adhesive is applied to the abraded surface and a lamina reflective surface is placed under a uniform pressure to conform the reflective surface onto the desired abraded surface of the substrate.

  15. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  16. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  17. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  18. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  19. 25. BUILDING NO. 271, FUZE ASSEMBLY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. BUILDING NO. 271, FUZE ASSEMBLY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST ELEVATIONS. BUILDING NO. 271-L, FIELD OFFICE, VISIBLE ON RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  1. Critical role of wettability in assembly of zirconia nanoparticles on a self-assembled monolayer-patterned substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mi-Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Moon, Byung Kee; Yoo, Seung Ryul; Hwang, Seongpil; Jang, Jae-Won

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated which factors decisively influence colloidal nanoparticle (NP) assembly on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-patterned substrate. Zirconia (ZrO2) NP assembly on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-stamped SAM-patterned Au substrate was carried out while the size and surface charge state of the NPs and the substrate wettability were altered. ZrO2 particles with diameters of 350 nm, 560 nm, and 1100 nm were employed to examine the effect of NP size on the assembly. Bare ZrO2 NPs with a negatively charged surface and ZrO2 NPs with a positively charged surface through 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane encapsulation were prepared for the NP assembly. Moreover, the substrate wettability effect on the NP assembly was evaluated by comparing the assembly on substrates with the PDMS-patterned SAMs of thiols with polar and non-polar functional groups. From the characterization of the number of NPs in a pattern and the effective area of assembled NPs (Aeff), positively charged ZrO2 NP assembly on negatively charged patterns showed the highest number density of particles in a pattern compared with the other combinations in both 350-nm and 560-nm ZrO2 NPs. This observation can be attributed to negatively charged 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid SAMs having greater polarity (more polar groups) than positively charged 11-amino-1-undecanethiol SAMs within the condition of the colloidal ZrO2 NP assembly.

  2. Microcomponent assembly for efficient contacting of fluid

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Friedrich, Michele; Hanna, William T.; Call, Charles J.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a fundamental method and apparatus of a microcomponent assembly that overcomes the inherent limitations of state of the art chemical separations. The fundamental element enabling miniaturization is the porous contactor contained within a microcomponent assembly for mass transfer of a working compound from a first medium to a second medium. The porous contactor has a thickness, and a plurality of pores extending through the thickness. The pores are of a geometry cooperating with a boundary tension of one or the other or both of the media thereby preventing migration of one, other or both through the microporous contactor while permitting passage of the working compound. In the microcomponent assembly, the porous contactor is placed between a first laminate such that a first space or first microplenum is formed between the microporous contactor and the first laminate. Additionally, a cover sheet provides a second space or second plenum between the porous contactor and the cover sheet.

  3. Advanced DNA assembly technologies in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Tsvetanova, Billyana; Peng, Lansha; Liang, Xiquan; Li, Ke; Hammond, Linda; Peterson, Todd C; Katzen, Federico

    2012-05-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have had a fundamental impact on drug discovery. The continuous emergence of unique gene assembly techniques resulted in the generation of a variety of therapeutic reagents such as vaccines, cancer treatment molecules and regenerative medicine precursors. With the advent of synthetic biology there is a growing need for precise and concerted assembly of multiple DNA fragments of various sizes, including chromosomes. In this article, we summarize the highlights of the recombinant DNA technology since its inception in the early 1970s, emphasizing on the most recent advances, and underscoring their principles, advantages and shortcomings. Current and prior cloning trends are discussed in the context of sequence requirements and scars left behind. Our opinion is that despite the remarkable progress that has enabled the generation and manipulation of very large DNA sequences, a better understanding of the cell's natural circuits is needed in order to fully exploit the current state-of-the-art gene assembly technologies.

  4. Kinetic theory of virus capsid assembly.

    PubMed

    van der Schoot, Paul; Zandi, Roya

    2007-11-26

    A phenomenological theory is presented for the kinetics of the in vitro assembly and disassembly of icosahedral virus capsids in solutions of coat proteins. The focus is on conditions where nucleation-type processes can be ignored. We find that the kinetics of assembly is strongly concentration dependent and that the late-stage relaxation time varies as the inverse of the square of the concentration. These findings are corroborated by experimental observations on a number of viruses. Further, our theory shows that hysteresis observed in some experiments could be a direct effect of the kinetics of a high-order mass action law, not necessarily the result of a free energy barrier between assembled and disassembled states.

  5. Efficient Synergistic Single-Cell Genome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Narjes S; Embree, Mallory; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    As the vast majority of all microbes are unculturable, single-cell sequencing has become a significant method to gain insight into microbial physiology. Single-cell sequencing methods, currently powered by multiple displacement genome amplification (MDA), have passed important milestones such as finishing and closing the genome of a prokaryote. However, the quality and reliability of genome assemblies from single cells are still unsatisfactory due to uneven coverage depth and the absence of scattered chunks of the genome in the final collection of reads caused by MDA bias. In this work, our new algorithm Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) demonstrates the power of coassembly of multiple single-cell genomic data sets through significant improvement of the assembly quality in terms of predicted functional elements and length statistics. Coassemblies contain significantly more base pairs and protein coding genes, cover more subsystems, and consist of longer contigs compared to individual assemblies by the same algorithm as well as state-of-the-art single-cell assemblers SPAdes and IDBA-UD. Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) is also able to avoid chimeric assemblies by detecting and separating shared and exclusive pieces of sequence for input data sets. By replacing one deep single-cell sequencing experiment with a few single-cell sequencing experiments of lower depth, the coassembly method can hedge against the risk of failure and loss of the sample, without significantly increasing sequencing cost. Application of the single-cell coassembler HyDA to the study of three uncultured members of an alkane-degrading methanogenic community validated the usefulness of the coassembly concept. HyDA is open source and publicly available at http://chitsazlab.org/software.html, and the raw reads are available at http://chitsazlab.org/research.html.

  6. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  7. Metaphase Spindle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2017-01-01

    A microtubule-based bipolar spindle is required for error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. In this review I discuss the molecular mechanisms required for the assembly of this dynamic micrometer-scale structure in animal cells. PMID:28165376

  8. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  9. Segmented stator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Quirion, Owen Scott

    2013-04-02

    An electric machine and stator assembly are provided that include a continuous stator portion having stator teeth, and a tooth tip portion including tooth tips corresponding to the stator teeth of the continuous stator portion, respectively. The tooth tip portion is mounted onto the continuous stator portion.

  10. Walking boot assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; Chambers, A. B.; Stjohn, R. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A walking boot assembly particularly suited for use with a positively pressurized spacesuit is presented. A bootie adapted to be secured to the foot of a wearer, an hermetically sealed boot for receiving the bootie having a walking sole, an inner sole, and an upper portion adapted to be attached to an ankle joint of a spacesuit, are also described.

  11. Beyond the Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

    1985-01-01

    Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

  12. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  13. Dump valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR BURIAL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-05-01

    A burial assembly is shown whereby an entire reactor core may be encased with lead shielding, withdrawn from the reactor site and buried. This is made possible by a five-piece interlocking arrangement that may be easily put together by remote control with no aligning of bolt holes or other such close adjustments being necessary.

  15. Fibrillin Assembly Requires Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Sabatier, Laetitia; Chen, Daliang; Fagotto-Kaufmann, Christine; Hubmacher, Dirk; McKee, Marc D.; Annis, Douglas S.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrillins constitute the major backbone of multifunctional microfibrils in elastic and nonelastic extracellular matrices. Proper assembly mechanisms are central to the formation and function of these microfibrils, and their properties are often compromised in pathological circumstances such as in Marfan syndrome and in other fibrillinopathies. Here, we have used human dermal fibroblasts to analyze the assembly of fibrillin-1 in dependence of other matrix-forming proteins. siRNA knockdown experiments demonstrated that the assembly of fibrillin-1 is strictly dependent on the presence of extracellular fibronectin fibrils. Immunolabeling performed at the light and electron microscopic level showed colocalization of fibrillin-1 with fibronectin fibrils at the early stages of the assembly process. Protein-binding assays demonstrated interactions of fibronectin with a C-terminal region of fibrillin-1, -2, and -3 and with an N-terminal region of fibrillin-1. The C-terminal half of fibrillin-2 and -3 had propensities to multimerize, as has been previously shown for fibrillin-1. The C-terminal of all three fibrillins interacted strongly with fibronectin as multimers, but not as monomers. Mapping studies revealed that the major binding interaction between fibrillins and fibronectin involves the collagen/gelatin-binding region between domains FNI6 and FNI9. PMID:19037100

  16. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  17. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  18. Turbomachine blade assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  19. Lageos assembly operation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  20. Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

    2012-03-30

    Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 μN in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates.

  1. 75 FR 71412 - Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference AGENCY: Administrative Conference of the United States (the Conference). ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY... the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States to consider...

  2. Space assembly fixtures and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

  3. Commutating Feed Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AD-AOBS 567 ITT GILFILLAN VAN NUYS CA F/6 17/9 CONF4UTATING FEED ASSEMBLY. 1W DEC 79 R WOL.FSON F19628-79-C-OOSS UNCLASSIFIED RADC -TR79303 NI. 1i.ll...INTRODUCTION 9 2 COMMUTATING FEED ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS 10 . 3 TECHNICAL PROBLEMS 11 1: 3.1 System Design 12 3.1.1 Radius of Circular Array 12 3.1.2 Design...Support Structure 16 3.3 Annular Rotary Coupler 16 3.4 Stripline Feed Network 17 w V.3.4.1 Range of Coupling Values vs. Percent Power into Load 17 3.4.2

  4. Molten core retention assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1976-06-22

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical, imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods.

  5. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  6. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  7. Vacuum breaker valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Jeffrey L.; Upton, Hubert Allen

    1999-04-27

    Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening.

  8. Turbine seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  9. Low inductance busbar assembly

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann

    2010-09-21

    A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

  10. Desmosome assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nekrasova, Oxana; Green, Kathleen J

    2013-11-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that anchor intermediate filaments (IFs) to the plasma membrane, forming a supracellular scaffold that provides mechanical resilience to tissues. This anchoring function is accomplished by specialized members of the cadherin family and associated cytoskeletal linking proteins, which together form a highly organized membrane core flanked by mirror-image cytoplasmic plaques. Due to the biochemical insolubility of desmosomes, the mechanisms that govern assembly of these components into a functional organelle remained elusive. Recently developed molecular reporters and live cell imaging approaches have provided powerful new tools to monitor this finely tuned process in real time. Here we discuss studies that are beginning to decipher the machinery and regulation governing desmosome assembly and homeostasis in situ and how these mechanisms are affected during disease pathogenesis.

  11. Fuel nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  12. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Little, David A

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  13. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  14. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) flight article assembly with multilayer insulation, high gain anterna, and solar arrays in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  16. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  17. Infrared floodlight assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wierzbicki, Julian J.; Chakrabarti, Kirti B.

    1987-09-22

    An infrared floodlight assembly (10) including a cast aluminum outer housing (11) defining a central chamber (15) therein. A floodlight (14), having a tungsten halogen lamp as the light source, is spacedly positioned within a heat conducting member (43) within chamber (15) such that the floodlight is securedly positioned in an aligned manner relative to the assembly's filter (35) and lens (12) components. The invention also includes venting means (51) to allow air passage between the interior of the member (43) and the adjacent chamber (15), as well as engagement means (85) for engaging a rear surface of the floodlight (14) to retain it firmly against an internal flange of the member (43). A reflector (61), capable of being compressed to allow insertion or removal, is located within the heat conducting member's interior between the floodlight (14) and filter (35) to reflect infrared radiation toward the filter (35) and spaced lens (12).

  18. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  19. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  20. Uniform Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  1. Printed wiring assembly cleanliness

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This work installed a product cleanliness test capability in a manufacturing environment. A previously purchased testing device was modified extensively and installed in a production department. The device, the testing process, and some soldering and cleaning variables were characterized to establish their relationship to the device output. The characterization provided information which will be required for cleanliness testing to be an adequate process control of printed wiring assembly soldering and cleaning processes.

  2. REACTOR NOZZLE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Capuder, F.C.; Dearwater, J.R.

    1959-02-10

    An improved nozzle assembly useful in a process for the direct reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride by means of dissociated ammonia in a heated reaction vessel is descrlbed. The nozzle design provides for intimate mixing of the two reactants and at the same time furnishes a layer of dissociated ammonia adjacent to the interior wall of the reaction vessel, thus preventing build-up of the reaction product on the vessel wall.

  3. Composite airfoil assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  4. Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

  5. Combustor liner support assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halila, Ely E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A support assembly for a gas turbine engine combustor includes an annular frame having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons, and an annular combustor liner disposed coaxially with the frame and including a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart tenons circumferentially adjoining respective ones of the frame tenons for radially and tangentially supporting the liner to the frame while allowing unrestrained differential thermal radial movement therebetween.

  6. Retractable Visual Indicator Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, George R. (Inventor); Gamboa, Ronald J. (Inventor); Dominquez, Victor (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A retractable indicator assembly may be mounted on a container which transmits air through the container and removes deleterious gases with an activated charcoal medium in the container. The assembly includes: an elongate indicator housing has a chamber therein; a male adaptor with an external threads is used for sealing engagement with the container; a plug located at the upper end of the housing; a housing that includes a transparent wall portion for viewing at least a portion of the chamber; a litmus indicator, moveable by a retractable rod from a retracted position within the container to an extended position within the chamber of the housing; and an outer housing that is secured to the upper end of the rod, and protects the indicator housing while the litmus indicator is in its normally retracted position. The assembly may be manually manipulated between its extended position wherein the litmus indicator may be viewed through the transparent wall of the indicator housing, and a retracted position wherein the outer housing encloses the indicator housing and engages the exterior of the container.

  7. Nuclear core and fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Downs, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    A fast flux nuclear core of a plurality of rodded, open-lattice assemblies having a rod pattern rotated relative to a rod support structure pattern. Elongated fuel rods are oriented on a triangular array and laterally supported by grid structures positioned along the length of the assembly. Initial inter-assembly contact is through strongbacks at the corners of the support pattern and peripheral fuel rods between adjacent assemblies are nested so as to maintain a triangular pitch across a clearance gap between the other portions of adjacent assemblies. The rod pattern is rotated relative to the strongback support pattern by an angle .alpha. equal to sin .sup.-1 (p/2c), where p is the intra-assembly rod pitch and c is the center-to-center spacing among adjacent assemblies.

  8. Improving ancient DNA genome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Nieselt, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Most reconstruction methods for genomes of ancient origin that are used today require a closely related reference. In order to identify genomic rearrangements or the deletion of whole genes, de novo assembly has to be used. However, because of inherent problems with ancient DNA, its de novo assembly is highly complicated. In order to tackle the diversity in the length of the input reads, we propose a two-layer approach, where multiple assemblies are generated in the first layer, which are then combined in the second layer. We used this two-layer assembly to generate assemblies for two different ancient samples and compared the results to current de novo assembly approaches. We are able to improve the assembly with respect to the length of the contigs and can resolve more repetitive regions. PMID:28392981

  9. Engineered Self-Assembly of Plasmonic Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    A critical need in nanotechnology is the development of new tools and methods to organize, connect, and integrate solid-state nanocomponents. Self-assembly - where components spontaneously organize themselves - can be carried out on a massively parallel scale to construct large-scale architectures using solid-state nanocrystal building blocks. I will present our recent work on the synthesis and self-assembly of nanocrystals for plasmonics, where light is propagated, manipulated, and confined by solid-state components that are smaller than the wavelength of light itself. We show the organization of polymer-grafted metal nanocrystals into hierarchical nanojunction arrays that possess intense ``hot spots'' due to electromagnetic field localization. We also show that doped semiconductor nanocrystals can serve as a new class of plasmonic building blocks, where shape and carrier density can be actively tuned to engineer plasmon resonances. These examples demonstrate that nanocrystals possess unique electromagnetic properties that rival top-down structures, and the potential of self-assembly for fabricating designer plasmonic materials.

  10. An all-atom model of the pore-like structure of hexameric VP40 from Ebola: structural insights into the monomer-hexamer transition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam Luong; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Hermone, Ann R; Burnett, James C; Panchal, Rekha G; McGrath, Connor; Zaharevitz, Dan W; Aman, M Javad; Gussio, Rick; Bavari, Sina

    2005-07-01

    The matrix protein VP40 is an indispensable component of viral assembly and budding by the Ebola virus. VP40 is a monomer in solution, but can fold into hexameric and octameric states, two oligomeric conformations that play central roles in the Ebola viral life cycle. While the X-ray structures of monomeric and octameric VP40 have been determined, the structure of hexameric VP40 has only been solved by three-dimensional electron microscopy (EM) to a resolution of approximately 30 A. In this paper, we present the refinement of the EM reconstruction of truncated hexameric VP40 to approximately 20 A and the construction of an all-atom model (residues 44-212) using the EM model at approximately 20 A and the X-ray structure of monomeric VP40 as templates. The hexamer model suggests that the monomer-hexamer transition involves a conformational change in the N-terminal domain that is not evident during octamerization and therefore, may provide the basis for elucidating the biological function of VP40.

  11. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-24

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule-substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging from

  12. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  13. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  14. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

    2014-10-21

    The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play

  15. Divided electrochemical cell assembly

    SciTech Connect

    King, Ch. J. H.

    1985-02-19

    A divided electrochemical cell assembly comprises stacked bipolar substantially square parallel planar electrodes and membranes. The corners and edges of the electrodes with bordering insulative spacers in juxtaposition with the chamber walls define four electrolyte circulation manifolds. Anolyte and catholyte channeling means permit the separate introduction of anolyte and catholyte into two of the manifolds and the withdrawal of anolyte and catholyte separately from at least two other manifolds. The electrodes and membranes are separated from one another by the insulative spacers which are also channeling means disposed to provide electrolyte channels across the interfaces of adjacent electrodes and membranes.

  16. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.

    1994-01-01

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

  17. Seeing Circuits Assemble

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Jeff W.; Smith, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental neurobiology has been greatly invigorated by a recent string of breakthroughs in molecular biology and optical physics that permit direct in vivo observation of neural circuit assembly. The imaging done thus far suggests that as brains are built, a significant amount of unbuilding is also occurring. We offer the view that this tumult is the result of the intersecting behaviors of the many single-celled creatures (i.e., neurons, glia, and progenitors) that inhabit brains. New tools will certainly be needed if we wish to monitor the myriad cooperative and competitive interactions at play in the cellular society that builds brains. PMID:18995818

  18. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  19. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  20. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  1. Spatiotemporal Control of Supramolecular Self-Assembly and Function.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jie; Cai, Yanbin; Ji, Shenglu; He, Shuangshuang; Cao, Yi; Ding, Dan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2017-03-09

    The enzyme-triggered self-assembly of peptides has flourished in controlling the self-assembly kinetics and producing nanostructures that are typically inaccessible by conventional self-assembly pathways. However, the diffusion and nanoscale chemical gradient of self-assembling peptides generated by the enzyme also significantly affect the outcome of self-assembly, which has not been reported yet. In this work, we demonstrated for the first time a spatiotemporal control of enzyme-triggered peptide self-assembly. By simply adjusting the temperature, we could change both the catalytic activity of the enzyme of phosphatase and their aggregation states. The strategy kinetically controls the production rate of self-assembling peptides and spatially controls their distribution in the system, leading to the formation of nanoparticles at 37 °C and nanofibers at 4 °C. The nanofibers showed ∼10 times higher cellular uptake by 3T3 cells than the nanoparticles, thanks to their higher stability and more ordered structures. Using such spatiotemporal control, we could prepare optimized nanoprobes with low background fluorescence, rapid and high cellular uptake, and high sensitivity. We postulate that this strategy would be very useful in general for preparing self-assembled nanomaterials with controllable morphology and function.

  2. Self-assembly from milli- to nanoscales: methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangeli, M; Abbasi, S; Varel, C; Van Hoof, C; Celis, J-P; Böhringer, K F

    2009-01-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices are progressing rapidly. However, due to material and process flow incompatibilities in the fabrication of sensors, actuators and electronic circuitry, a final packaging step is often necessary to integrate all components of a heterogeneous microsystem on a common substrate. Robotic pick-and-place, although accurate and reliable at larger scales, is a serial process that downscales unfavorably due to stiction problems, fragility and sheer number of components. Self-assembly, on the other hand, is parallel and can be used for device sizes ranging from millimeters to nanometers. In this review, the state-of-the-art in methods and applications for self-assembly is reviewed. Methods for assembling three-dimensional (3D) MEMS structures out of two-dimensional (2D) ones are described. The use of capillary forces for folding 2D plates into 3D structures, as well as assembling parts onto a common substrate or aggregating parts to each other into 2D or 3D structures, is discussed. Shape matching and guided assembly by magnetic forces and electric fields are also reviewed. Finally, colloidal self-assembly and DNA-based self-assembly, mainly used at the nanoscale, are surveyed, and aspects of theoretical modeling of stochastic assembly processes are discussed. PMID:20209016

  3. Autonomous Mechanical Assembly on the Space Shuttle: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raibert, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle will be equipped with a pair of 50 ft. manipulators used to handle payloads and to perform mechanical assembly operations. Although current plans call for these manipulators to be operated by a human teleoperator. The possibility of using results from robotics and machine intelligence to automate this shuttle assembly system was investigated. The major components of an autonomous mechanical assembly system are examined, along with the technology base upon which they depend. The state of the art in advanced automation is also assessed.

  4. Two speed axle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, C.F.; Krisher, J.A.; Pifer, R.L.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a two speed axle assembly comprising an input sun gear, an output sun gear, a plant carrier mounted for rotation about the input and output sun gears, at least one compound planetary gear rotatably mounted on the planet carrier and drivingly connected to the input sun gear and the output sun gear, first clutch means for selectively locking the planet carrier relative to the input sun gear for rotation therewith including means normally loading the first clutch means whereby the planet carrier rotates the input sun gear, second clutch means for alternatively locking the planet carrier against rotation whereby the compound planet gear rotates on the planet carrier in response to rotation of the input sun gear, and inflatable bladder means adapted when selectively inflated to load the second clutch means and simultaneously unload the normally loaded first clutch means whereby the planet carrier is unlocked relative to the input sun gear and locked against rotation, including means selectively supplying hydraulic fluid under pressure to the bladder means, means supplying hydraulic fluid comprising accumulator means, pump means remote from the axle assembly for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid and maintaining a supply of the fluid under at least a minimum pressure in the accumulator means, and valve means for selectively admitting the pressurized fluid from the accumulator means to the bladder means to inflate the bladder means and relieving the pressure to deflate the bladder means.

  5. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, W.L.; Contolini, R.J.

    1992-03-24

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watertight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures. 13 figs.

  6. Solar panel mounting assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.E.

    1990-01-02

    This patent describes a mounting assembly for pivotally connecting a solar panel or collector to a base. The mounting assembly comprising: a frame whereupon the solar panel or collector can be mounted; a first plate connected to the frame, the plate having a pivot hole and a plurality of angle displacement holes each being equidistant from the pivot hole; a second plate connected to the base and situated substantially parallel to the first plate. The second plate having a pivot hole and an angle displacement hole being situated substantially the same distance apart from the second plate pivot hole as the distance between the pivot and displacement holes of the first plate; a pivot shaft received through the plate pivot hole and the second plate pivot hole whereby the frame and first plate can pivot with respect to the second plate and the base; an angle displacement shaft selectively received through the second plate angle displacement hole and any one of the first plate angle displacement holes whereby the frame and first plate can be selectively angularly fixed with respect to the second plate and the base; a U-member having two legs, the second plate being connected to the U-member; and, a selectively rotable shaft.

  7. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  8. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  9. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  10. Approach to Dynamic Assembling of Individualized Learning Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubchak, Vladimir; Kupenko, Olena; Kuzikov, Borys

    2012-01-01

    E-learning students are generally heterogeneous and have different capabilities knowledge base and needs. The aim of the Sumy State University (SSU) e-learning system project is to cater to these individual needs by assembling individual learning path. This paper shows current situation with e-learning in Ukraine, state-of-art of development of…

  11. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  12. Installation and assembly device and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    An installation and assembly device for aligning a first member such as a pump impeller with a second member such as an inlet nozzle of an impeller pump. The installation and assembly device includes a sleeve slideable within the inlet nozzle and a vertical positioning assembly which has a contact member that is extendable out away from the sleeve so as to vertically position the sleeve on a shoulder of the inlet nozzle and to present an upper contact surface spaced a certain distance from the shoulder to provide the desired vertical spacing with respect to the impeller contacting the upper contact surface. The vertical positioning assembly is retractable so as to allow for removal of the sleeve through the nozzle when installation and assembly are completed. The alignment device also includes a radial alignment assembly supported by the sleeve and adjustable to an expanded state for contacting and spacing the interior surface of the impeller a certain distance from the sleeve and hence a certain distance from the inlet nozzle. The radial alignment device being adjustable from a retracted removal state to an expanded state and also being adjustable to fine tune the spacing of the impeller from the sleeve. The radial alignment device also preferably includes members that can be used to releasably secure the sleeve to the impeller.

  13. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  14. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1997-06-03

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly are disclosed including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached. 5 figs.

  15. Airfoil nozzle and shroud assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.; Norton, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    An airfoil and nozzle assembly including an outer shroud having a plurality of vane members attached to an inner surface and having a cantilevered end. The assembly further includes a inner shroud being formed by a plurality of segments. Each of the segments having a first end and a second end and having a recess positioned in each of the ends. The cantilevered end of the vane member being positioned in the recess. The airfoil and nozzle assembly being made from a material having a lower rate of thermal expansion than that of the components to which the airfoil and nozzle assembly is attached.

  16. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  17. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  18. Multi-position photovoltaic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-03-18

    The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

  19. Assembly of simple icosahedral viruses.

    PubMed

    Almendral, José M

    2013-01-01

    Icosahedral viruses exhibit elegant pathways of capsid assembly and maturation regulated by symmetry principles. Assembly is a dynamic process driven by consecutive and genetically programmed morphogenetic interactions between protein subunits. The non-symmetric capsid subunits are gathered by hydrophobic contacts and non-covalent interactions in assembly intermediates, which serve as blocks to build a symmetric capsid. In some cases, non-symmetric interactions among intermediates are involved in assembly, highlighting the remarkable capacity of capsid proteins to fold into demanding conformations compatible with a closed protein shell. In this chapter, the morphogenesis of structurally simple icosahedral viruses, including representative members of the parvoviruses, picornaviruses or polyomaviruses as paradigms, is described in some detail. Icosahedral virus assembly may occur in different subcellular compartments and involve a panoplia of cellular and viral factors, chaperones, and protein modifications that, in general, are still poorly characterized. Mechanisms of viral genome encapsidation may imply direct interactions between the genome and the assembly intermediates, or active packaging into a preformed empty capsid. High stability of intermediates and proteolytic cleavages during viral maturation usually contribute to the overall irreversible character of the assembly process. These and other simple icosahedral viruses were pioneer models to understand basic principles of virus assembly, continue to be leading subjects of morphogenetic analyses, and have inspired ongoing studies on the assembly of larger viruses and cellular and synthetic macromolecular complexes.

  20. Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Nanoparticle Amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanat

    2009-03-01

    It is easy to understand the self-assembly of particles having anisotropic shapes or interactions, such as Co nanoparticles or proteins, into highly extended structures. However, there is no experimentally established strategy for creating anisotropic structures from common spherical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that spherical nanoparticles, uniformly grafted with macromolecules, robustly self-assemble into a range of anisotropic superstructures when they are dispersed in the corresponding homopolymer matrix. This phenomenon is driven by the microphase separation between the inorganic nanoparticles and the (organic) polymeric chains grafted to their surfaces in a fashion similar to block copolymers. This microphase separation driven particle self-assembly provides a unique means of controlling the global nanoparticle dispersion state in polymer nanocomposites. The relationship between the state of particle dispersion and nanocomposite properties can thus be critically examined, and in particular we focus on the mechanical reinforcement afforded when particles are added to polymers. Grafted nanoparticles are thus versatile building blocks for creating tunable and functional particle superstructures with significant practical applications. With Pinar Akcora, Hongjun Liu, Yu Li, Brian Benicewicz, Linda Schadler, Thanos Panagiotopoulos, Jack Douglas, P. Thiyagarajan and Ralph Colby.

  1. Supramolecular Assembly of Biohybrid Photoconversion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; Hong, Kunlun; O'Neill, Hugh Michael

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled membrane architectures have great potential for the development of materials for the conversion of solar energy into electricity or fuels. Discovering the design principles that promote self-assembly in natural photosynthetic systems may provide inspiration for the development of synthetic solar conversion systems. We report for the first time that naturally occurring light harvesting antennae can alter the phase behavior of a poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer system from micellar to lamellar structures mimicking their role in maintaining the supramolecular architecture of the photosynthetic membrane. Small-angle neutron scattering shows that PEO{sub 43}-PPO{sub 16}-PEO{sub 43} micelles undergo a phase transition from a micellar state to a lamellar structure with a {approx}60 {angstrom} spatial repetition in the presence of plant light harvesting complex II (LHCII). In addition, spectrophotometric analysis indicates that the protein self-assembles in the synthetic membrane structure. Photodependent hydrogen production mediated by LHCII embedded in the block copolymer had a maximum rate of 6.4 {micro}mol h{sup -1} per mg chlorophyll. The production of H{sub 2} was sustained for greater than 100 hours showing the potential of this approach for the development of self-assembled bioinspired photoconversion systems. Although excited energy transfer is the primary function of LHCII, this work provides evidence that the protein complex can also perform electron transfer, a role not known to occur in vivo. The significance of this work is that it provides a novel approach for developing a new class of membrane-based smart material with a well-controlled architecture that is dependent on the assembly of interacting components, and it could also have important implications in self-repair and control of energy transfer in photoconversion devices.

  2. Method and apparatus for assembling a permanent magnet pole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Carl, Jr., Ralph James; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Dawson, Richard Nils; Qu, Ronghai; Avanesov, Mikhail Avramovich

    2009-08-11

    A pole assembly for a rotor, the pole assembly includes a permanent magnet pole including at least one permanent magnet block, a plurality of laminations including a pole cap mechanically coupled to the pole, and a plurality of laminations including a base plate mechanically coupled to the pole.

  3. Clean then Assemble Versus Assemble then Clean: Several Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Roger W.

    2004-01-01

    Cleanliness of manufactured parts and assemblies is a significant issue in many industries including disk drives, semiconductors, aerospace, and medical devices. Clean manufacturing requires cleanroom floor space and cleaning technology that are both expensive to own and expensive to operate. Strategies to reduce these costs are an important consideration. One strategy shown to be effective at reducing costs is to assemble parts into subassemblies and then clean the subassembly, rather than clean the individual parts first and then assemble them. One advantage is that assembly outside of the cleanroom reduces the amount of cleanroom floor space and its associated operating cost premium. A second advantage is that this strategy reduces the number of individual parts that must be cleaned prior to assembly, reducing the number of cleaning baskets, handling and, possibly, reducing the number of cleaners. The assemble then clean strategy also results in a part that is significantly cleaner because contamination generated during the assembly steps are more effectively removed that normally can be achieved by hand wiping after assembly in the cleanroom.

  4. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  5. Rotatable seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.; Garibaldi, Jack L.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an O-ring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers.

  6. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  7. Solar radiation assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, S.D.

    1987-04-21

    A Solar transmission system is described comprising at least one radiation permeable assembly. A light aperture is adapted to be mounted in the envelope of a building. The light aperture has at least one layer of first glazing forming part of the building envelope. A generally rectangular frame is supported on the building and around an outer side of the aperture. A layer of second glazing comprises an outer facing of the frame. Ventilation means at the top and bottom of the frame, includes means for enabling air flow through the frame, and includes means for inhibiting rain from entering the frame. Support means connectible between the frame and the building, enable the frame to be moved away from the building, whereby the glazing of the light aperture may be made accessible.

  8. Camshaft assembly and method

    SciTech Connect

    Madaffer, A.J.

    1986-07-01

    A method is described of manufacturing a camshaft assembly for internal combustion engines and the like. The method includes the steps of: providing cam and journal elements, the elements each including an axial opening, securing the elements in predetermined fixed orientation and spacing with the openings aligned on a common axis, inserting a hollow tube into the elements, in close fitting relation with openings, and expanding the hollow tube into mechanical interference engagement with all the element openings to secure the elements permanently onto the tube in the predetermined orientation while forming within the tube a uniform smooth sided interior cross-sectional configuration by forcing through the tube an element sufficiently larger than the tube inner diameter to outwardly deform the tube wall in the required degree.

  9. Turbine vane plate assembly

    DOEpatents

    Schiavo Jr., Anthony L.

    2006-01-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes a turbine vane having first and second shrouds with an elongated airfoil extending between. Each end of the airfoil transitions into a shroud at a respective junction. Each of the shrouds has a plurality of cooling passages, and the airfoil has a plurality of cooling passages extending between the first and second shrouds. A substantially flat inner plate and an outer plate are coupled to each of the first and second shrouds so as to form inner and outer plenums. Each inner plenum is defined between at least the junction and the substantially flat inner plate; each outer plenum is defined between at least the substantially flat inner plate and the outer plate. Each inner plenum is in fluid communication with a respective outer plenum through at least one of the cooling passages in the respective shroud.

  10. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  11. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J.; Oltmans, Bret; Allison, John E.; Heater, Thomas J.; Hines, Joy Adair; Tappen, Grant K.; Peiskammer, Dietmar

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  12. Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.

  13. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  14. Stator and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shen, Xiaochun

    2013-06-18

    The present application provides a stator. The stator may include a number of poles and a stator tip and cooling assembly. The stator tip and cooling assembly may include a number of stator tips with a number of cooling tubes adjacent thereto such that the stator tips align with the poles and the cooling tubes cool the poles.

  15. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  16. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  17. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  18. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  19. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  20. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  1. Modulation of RNA polymerase assembly dynamics in transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Stanislaw A.; Snyder, Sara K.; John, Sam; Grummt, Ingrid; Misteli, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of transcription factors with target genes is highly dynamic. Whether the dynamic nature of these interactions is merely an intrinsic property of transcriptions factors or serves a regulatory role is unknown. Here, we have used single cell fluorescence imaging combined with computational modeling and chromatin immunoprecipitation to analyze transcription complex dynamics in gene regulation during the cell cycle in living cells. We demonstrate a link between the dynamics of RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I) assembly and transcriptional output. We show that transcriptional upregulation is accompanied by prolonged retention of RNA pol I components at the promoter, resulting in longer promoter dwell time, and an increase in the steady state population of assembling polymerase. As a consequence, polymerase assembly efficiency, and ultimately, an rate of entry into processive elongation are elevated. Our results show that regulation of rDNA transcription in vivo occurs via modulation of the efficiency of transcription complex subunit capture and assembly. PMID:18498750

  2. AND/OR graph representation of assembly plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1990-01-01

    A compact representation of all possible assembly plans of a product using AND/OR graphs is presented as a basis for efficient planning algorithms that allow an intelligent robot to pick a course of action according to instantaneous conditions. The AND/OR graph is equivalent to a state transition graph but requires fewer nodes and simplifies the search for feasible plans. Three applications are discussed: (1) the preselection of the best assembly plan, (2) the recovery from execution errors, and (3) the opportunistic scheduling of tasks. An example of an assembly with four parts illustrates the use of the AND/OR graph representation in assembly-plan preselection, based on the weighting of operations according to complexity of manipulation and stability of subassemblies. A hypothetical error situation is discussed to show how a bottom-up search of the AND/OR graph leads to an efficient recovery.

  3. Assembly of surface engineered nanoparticles for functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xi

    Nanoparticles are regarded as exciting new building blocks for functional materials due to their fascinating physical properties because of the nano-confinement. Organizing nanoparticles into ordered hierarchical structures are highly desired for constructing novel optical and electrical artificial materials that are different from their isolated state or thermodynamics random ensembles. My research integrates the surface chemistry of nanoparticles, interfacial assembly and lithography techniques to construct nanoparticle based functional structures. We designed and synthesized tailor-made ligands for gold, semiconductor and magnetic nanoparticle, to modulate the assembly process and collective properties of the assembled structures, by controlling the key parameters such as particle-interface interaction, dielectric environments and inter-particle coupling etc. Top-down technologies such as micro contact printing, photolithography and nanoimprint lithography are used to guide the assembly into arbitrarily predesigned structures for potential device applications.

  4. Structure, dynamics, assembly, and evolution of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Joseph A; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of individual proteins into functional complexes is fundamental to nearly all biological processes. In recent decades, many thousands of homomeric and heteromeric protein complex structures have been determined, greatly improving our understanding of the fundamental principles that control symmetric and asymmetric quaternary structure organization. Furthermore, our conception of protein complexes has moved beyond static representations to include dynamic aspects of quaternary structure, including conformational changes upon binding, multistep ordered assembly pathways, and structural fluctuations occurring within fully assembled complexes. Finally, major advances have been made in our understanding of protein complex evolution, both in reconstructing evolutionary histories of specific complexes and in elucidating general mechanisms that explain how quaternary structure tends to evolve. The evolution of quaternary structure occurs via changes in self-assembly state or through the gain or loss of protein subunits, and these processes can be driven by both adaptive and nonadaptive influences.

  5. Conformational Changes in the Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Are Consistent with a Role for Allostery in Virus Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Packianathan, Charles; Katen, Sarah P.; Dann, III, Charles E.; Zlotnick, Adam

    2010-01-12

    In infected cells, virus components must be organized at the right place and time to ensure assembly of infectious virions. From a different perspective, assembly must be prevented until all components are available. Hypothetically, this can be achieved by allosterically controlling assembly. Consistent with this hypothesis, here we show that the structure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein dimer, which can spontaneously self-assemble, is incompatible with capsid assembly. Systematic differences between core protein dimer and capsid conformations demonstrate linkage between the intradimer interface and interdimer contact surface. These structures also provide explanations for the capsid-dimer selectivity of some antibodies and the activities of assembly effectors. Solution studies suggest that the assembly-inactive state is more accurately an ensemble of conformations. Simulations show that allostery supports controlled assembly and results in capsids that are resistant to dissociation. We propose that allostery, as demonstrated in HBV, is common to most self-assembling viruses.

  6. Subsea wellhead assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T. P.

    1984-12-11

    A subsea wellhead assembly for areas subject to iceberg scouring including an upper conductor in a well bore and a lower conductor in the well bore with the upper end of the lower conductor being within the lower end of the upper conductor and connected thereto by a weak connection and the upper end of the lower conductor being below the maximum iceberg scour depth and means for connecting said conductors, said connecting means having sufficient strength to withstand bending loads during drilling and being removable for installation of production equipment. Additionally production equipment in the well bore includes a block valve supported within the second conductor and a production string extending upward from the block valve and having a weak point within the upper end of the second conductor whereby the well control is not lost by deep iceberg scouring since the production control equipment is within the second conductor which is not damaged by the scouring and the production equipment extending thereabove fails without damage to the lower control equipment or loss of the well.

  7. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  8. Gearbox assembly for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, M.; Masumura, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Hosoya, E.

    1987-01-13

    A gearbox assembly is described for a vehicle for transmitting an output of an engine to driving wheels of the vehicle, comprising: a main gearbox receiving the output and having plural forward gear-shift steps; a shift lever; a sub gearbox coupled to an output of the main gearbox having at least two relatively high and low speed gearshift steps (GH,GL) and a reverse transmission system (GR), the two steps and the reverse transmission system being selectively established through switching operation of the shift lever; wherein the sub gearbox further comprises: a rotary member connected to the shift lever for selecting one of the steps and the reverse transmission system according to its rotation; a stopper mechanism engaging the rotary member for preventing the rotary member from rotating to a position where the reverse transmission system is established; and interlinking means between the stopper mechanism and the main gearbox for releasing the stopper mechanism only when the main gearbox is in neutral or in a low speed gear-shift step; wherein the stopper mechanism comprises: a cam rotatable in response to the gear-shift operation of the main gearbox; a stopper lever one end of which faces the periphery of the cam and the other end facing the rotary member, the stopper lever being pivotally supported at its middle portion; and a spring urging the stopper level to abut against the periphery of the cam.

  9. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  10. Flexible Foot Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-27

    A test model of the flexible foot support was constructed early in the design stages to check its reactions to applied loads. The prototype was made of SS 304 and contained four vertical plates as opposed to the fourteen Inconel 718 plates which comprise the actual structure. Due to the fact that the prototype was built before the design of the support was finalized, the plate dimensions are different from those of the actual proposed design (i.e. model plate thickness is approximately one-half that of the actual plates). See DWG. 3740.210-MC-222376 for assembly details of the test model and DWG. 3740.210-MB-222377 for plate dimensions. This stanchion will be required to not only support the load of the inner vessel of the cryostat and its contents, but it must also allow for the movement of the vessel due to thermal contraction. Assuming that each vertical plate acts as a column, then the following formula from the Manual of Steel Construction (American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Eigth edition, 1980) can be applied to determine whether or not such columns undergoing simultaneous axial compression and transverse loading are considered safe for the given loading. The first term is representative of the axially compressive stress, and the second term, the bending stress. If the actual compressive stress is greater than 15% of the allowable compressive stress, then there are additional considerations which must be accounted for in the bending stress term.

  11. Piston and valve assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rolder, G. K.

    1985-10-01

    A downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of either the free or fixed type lifts formation fluid from the bottom of a borehole to the surface of the ground. The downhole pump has a power piston which actuates a production plunger. A valve means is concentrically arranged within the power piston. A stationary, hollow valve control rod extends through the power piston and through the valve means, with a lower marginal end of the control rod terminating within the production plunger. Power fluid flows through the control rod and to the valve means. As the power piston reciprocates within the engine cylinder, means on the control rod actuates the valve means between two alternant positions so that power fluid is applied to the bottom face of the power piston to thereby cause the power piston to reciprocate upward; and thereafter, the control rod causes the valve means to shift to the other position, whereupon spent power fluid is exhausted from the engine cylinder. The spent power fluid is admixed with production fluid and is conducted to the surface of the ground.

  12. Concentric tube support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineers and technicians conduct a fit check of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Solar Array flight article in a clean room of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company. The Solar Array is 40- feet (12.1-meters) long and 8.2-feet (2.5-meters) wide, and provides power to the spacecraft. The HST is the first of NASA's great observatories and the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made. The purpose of the HST is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit by placing the telescope in space, enabling astronomers to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California, produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  14. Gear box assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Harrod, L.R.; Siebern, M.R.

    1989-04-25

    This patent describes a gearbox assembly for a vehicle which includes a driven axle shaft extending transversely of the vehicle having wheels secured thereto: a drive gear concentric with the axle shaft nonrotatably connected to the shaft, the drive gear having an integral hub on each of opposite sides thereof, a pinion gear shiftably mounted above the drive gear having one position engaging the drive gear and shiftable laterally to disengage from the drive gear, a shift lever mounted in a position projecting upwardly from the pinion gear actuatable to shift the pinion gear, an electric motor with output shaft mounted with the output shaft paralleling the axle shaft and having a driving gear mounted thereon, a multiple gear gear train mounted so as to establish a driving connection between the driving gear and the pinion gear, and a transmission housing enclosing the driving gar, gear train, pinion gear and drive gear, the housing including sleeve portions rotatably receiving the hubs of the drive gear and thus rotatably mounting the drive gear and the axle shaft connected to the drive gear.

  15. Virus protein assembly in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D.; Paulsen, A.; Johnson, T. C.; Consigli, R. A.

    1993-07-01

    The coat of polyomavirus is composed of three proteins that can self-assemble to form an icosahedral capsid. VP1 represents 75% of the virus capsid protein and the VP1 capsomere subunits are capable of self assembly to form a capsid-like structure. Ground-based and orbiter studies were conducted with VP1 protein cloned in an expression vector and purified to provide ample quantities for capsomere-capsid assembly. Flight studies were conducted on STS-37 on April 5-9, 1991. Assembly initiated when a VP1 protein solution was interfaced with a Ca+2 buffer solution (pH 5.0). After four days a second alignment terminated the assembly process and allowed for glutaraldehyde fixation. Flight and ground-based samples were analyzed by electron microscopy. Ground-based experiments revealed the assembly of VP1 into capsid-like structures and a heterogenous size array of capsomere subunits. Samples reacted in microgravity, however, showed capsomeres of a homogenous size, but lack of capsid-like assembly.

  16. Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.

    PubMed

    Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2014-03-01

    Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  17. Building polyhedra by self-assembly: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ryan; Klobušický, Joseph; Pandey, Shivendra; Gracias, David H; Menon, Govind

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the utility of a mathematical framework based on discrete geometry to model biological and synthetic self-assembly. Our primary biological example is the self-assembly of icosahedral viruses; our synthetic example is surface-tension-driven self-folding polyhedra. In both instances, the process of self-assembly is modeled by decomposing the polyhedron into a set of partially formed intermediate states. The set of all intermediates is called the configuration space, pathways of assembly are modeled as paths in the configuration space, and the kinetics and yield of assembly are modeled by rate equations, Markov chains, or cost functions on the configuration space. We review an interesting interplay between biological function and mathematical structure in viruses in light of this framework. We discuss in particular: (i) tiling theory as a coarse-grained description of all-atom models; (ii) the building game-a growth model for the formation of polyhedra; and (iii) the application of these models to the self-assembly of the bacteriophage MS2. We then use a similar framework to model self-folding polyhedra. We use a discrete folding algorithm to compute a configuration space that idealizes surface-tension-driven self-folding and analyze pathways of assembly and dominant intermediates. These computations are then compared with experimental observations of a self-folding dodecahedron with side 300 μm. In both models, despite a combinatorial explosion in the size of the configuration space, a few pathways and intermediates dominate self-assembly. For self-folding polyhedra, the dominant intermediates have fewer degrees of freedom than comparable intermediates, and are thus more rigid. The concentration of assembly pathways on a few intermediates with distinguished geometric properties is biologically and physically important, and suggests deeper mathematical structure.

  18. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  19. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    DOEpatents

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  20. Assembly line performance and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-03-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  1. PEPC LRU: Ball Support Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, T

    1999-05-14

    The PEPC LRU upper ball support assembly consists of a ball and a pneumatic air cylinder/conical seat latching mechanism to be attached to the optics support frame,and a ball attached to the PEPC LRU. Both components are designed to allow manual positioning in three axes. Upon insertion of the PEPC LRU into the structure, the upper pneumatic cylinder is actuated to latch the two assemblies together through the conical seat device to grab the lower ball to support the LRU weight. To be conservative, the design load for the assembly is 1500 pounds (the prototype PEPC LRU weight was measured to be near 1380 pounds).

  2. Fuel assembly for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Creagan, Robert J.; Frisch, Erling

    1977-01-01

    A new and improved fuel assembly is formed to minimize the amount of parasitic structural material wherein a plurality of hollow tubular members are juxtaposed to the fuel elements of the assembly. The tubular members may serve as guide tubes for control elements and are secured to a number of longitudinally spaced grid members along the fuel assembly. The grid members include means thereon engaging each of the fuel elements to laterally position the fuel elements in a predetermined array. Openings in the bottom of each hollow member serve as a shock absorber to cushion shock transmitted to the structure when the control elements are rapidly inserted in their corresponding tubular members.

  3. Curved conveyor section guide assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Truszczinski, H.

    1981-02-03

    A guide assembly for a curved conveyor section of a scraperchain conveyor guides the scraper assembly from a first straight conveyor portion round the curved conveyor section to a second straight conveyor portion. This guiding is accomplished by a pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels. A further pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels are provided to guide the drive chain of a plough round the curved conveyor section. This enables the plough to be driven to and fro along the first straight conveyor portion by a drive station attached to the second straight conveyor portion adjacent to the guide assembly.

  4. Cooling assembly for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Werth, John

    1990-01-01

    A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet.

  5. Structure, morphology, and assembly behavior of kafirin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Li, Yunqi; Li, Ji; Gonzalez, Alejandro Perez; Xia, Qiuyang; Huang, Qingrong

    2014-12-15

    Prolamins from grains have attracted intensive attention in recent years due to their potential in satisfying the demand for environmentally friendly (biodegradable), abundantly available (sustainable), and cost-effective biomaterials. However, for kafirin, the prolamin from sorghum, its composition, structure, morphology, and self-assembly behaviors have not been fully characterized. In this paper, kafirin was extracted from the whole sorghum grain and found to contain 68, 14, 6, and 12% of α-, β-, and γ-fractions and cross-linked kafirin, respectively. Freeze-dried kafirin contained ~49% α-helix in the solid state. When dissolved in 65% (v/v) isopropanol, 60% (v/v) tert-butanol, and 85% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solvents, the relative α-helix content in kafirin increased with the decrease of solvent polarity. Structural analysis using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicated that kafirin (2 mg/mL) took stretched and extended conformations with dimensions of 118 × 15 × 15 and 100 × 11 × 11 Å in 60% tert-butanol and 65% isopropanol, respectively. More elongated conformation of individual kafirin with high-order assembly was observed in 85% ethanol. Protein aggregation occurred as protein concentration increased in its good solvent. The morphology of kafirin assemblies captured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that kafirin protein took uniform particle morphology at low concentration, and disk-like or rod-like structures resulting from solvent evaporation induced particle interactions emerged at high concentrations. Lastly, these results suggest that both protein concentration and solvent polarity can effectively regulate kafirin assemblies from thick rod-like to slim rod-like structures, a convenient way to tune the fibrillation of prolamin-based biomaterials.

  6. Structure, morphology, and assembly behavior of kafirin

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Jie; Li, Yunqi; Li, Ji; ...

    2014-12-15

    Prolamins from grains have attracted intensive attention in recent years due to their potential in satisfying the demand for environmentally friendly (biodegradable), abundantly available (sustainable), and cost-effective biomaterials. However, for kafirin, the prolamin from sorghum, its composition, structure, morphology, and self-assembly behaviors have not been fully characterized. In this paper, kafirin was extracted from the whole sorghum grain and found to contain 68, 14, 6, and 12% of α-, β-, and γ-fractions and cross-linked kafirin, respectively. Freeze-dried kafirin contained ~49% α-helix in the solid state. When dissolved in 65% (v/v) isopropanol, 60% (v/v) tert-butanol, and 85% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solvents,more » the relative α-helix content in kafirin increased with the decrease of solvent polarity. Structural analysis using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicated that kafirin (2 mg/mL) took stretched and extended conformations with dimensions of 118 × 15 × 15 and 100 × 11 × 11 Å in 60% tert-butanol and 65% isopropanol, respectively. More elongated conformation of individual kafirin with high-order assembly was observed in 85% ethanol. Protein aggregation occurred as protein concentration increased in its good solvent. The morphology of kafirin assemblies captured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that kafirin protein took uniform particle morphology at low concentration, and disk-like or rod-like structures resulting from solvent evaporation induced particle interactions emerged at high concentrations. Lastly, these results suggest that both protein concentration and solvent polarity can effectively regulate kafirin assemblies from thick rod-like to slim rod-like structures, a convenient way to tune the fibrillation of prolamin-based biomaterials.« less

  7. Gravity Probe B Assembled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being assembled at the Sunnyvale, California location of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  8. Heat exchange assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2004-06-08

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  9. Hear Exchange Assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  10. Species assembly in model ecosystems, II: Results of the assembly process.

    PubMed

    Capitán, José A; Cuesta, José A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2011-01-21

    In the companion paper of this set (Capitán and Cuesta, 2010) we have developed a full analytical treatment of the model of species assembly introduced in Capitán et al. (2009). This model is based on the construction of an assembly graph containing all viable configurations of the community, and the definition of a Markov chain whose transitions are the transformations of communities by new species invasions. In the present paper we provide an exhaustive numerical analysis of the model, describing the average time to the recurrent state, the statistics of avalanches, and the dependence of the results on the amount of available resource. Our results are based on the fact that the Markov chain provides an asymptotic probability distribution for the recurrent states, which can be used to obtain averages of observables as well as the time variation of these magnitudes during succession, in an exact manner. Since the absorption times into the recurrent set are found to be comparable to the size of the system, the end state is quickly reached (in units of the invasion time). Thus, the final ecosystem can be regarded as a fluctuating complex system where species are continually replaced by newcomers without ever leaving the set of recurrent patterns. The assembly graph is dominated by pathways in which most invasions are accepted, triggering small extinction avalanches. Through the assembly process, communities become less resilient (e.g., have a higher return time to equilibrium) but become more robust in terms of resistance against new invasions.

  11. The higher excited electronic states and spin-orbit splitting of the valence band in three-dimensional assemblies of close-packed ZnSe and CdSe quantum dots in thin film form

    SciTech Connect

    Pejova, Biljana

    2008-08-15

    Optical properties of as-deposited and annealed thin films composed of three-dimensional arrays of sphalerite-type ZnSe and CdSe quantum dots (QDs), synthesized by chemical deposition, were investigated. Neglecting the S-D mixing of hole states, the lowest 'band to band' transitions in very small nanoclusters and in bulk-like clusters may be assigned as 1S{yields}1S and 1S{sub {delta}}{yields}1S, and are split by spin-orbit (SO) splitting energy of the bulk material-{delta}. The splitting energy between these transitions was found to be insensitive to QD size variations, which could be explained assuming that 1S hole states arising from valence band {gamma}{sub 7} and {gamma}{sub 8} components do not mix with higher angular momentum states and shift together to higher energies coupled via the isotropic hole mass. This implies significant difference between the SO splitting energies in the two semiconductors. Accounting for S-D mixing of hole states, the observed transitions may be attributed to the fundamental ground state-(1S{sub 3/2}, 1S{sub e}) and the ground state-(1S{sub 1/2}, 1S{sub e}) ones. The observed 'splittings' thus do not correspond exactly to SO splitting energy in both semiconductors, but are complex functions of it, as exact position of each hole energy level depends, besides on {delta}, also on other material-characteristic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Accounting for S-D mixing of hole states, the observed optical transitions in very small sphalerite-type ZnSe and CdSe nanoclusters are attributed to the ground state-(1S{sub 3/2}, 1S{sub e}) and the ground state-(1S{sub 1/2}, 1S{sub e}). The 'splittings' do not correspond to SO splitting energy, but are complex functions of it.

  12. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called digital materials. We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  13. Self-assembly via microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Sánchez, Samuel

    2015-12-07

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic building blocks has attracted extensive interest in myriad fields in recent years, due to their great potential in the nanoscale design of functional hybrid materials. Microfluidic techniques provide an intriguing method to control kinetic aspects of the self-assembly of molecular amphiphiles by the facile adjustment of the hydrodynamics of the fluids. Up to now, there have been several reports about one-step direct self-assembly of different building blocks with versatile and multi-shape products without templates, which demonstrated the advantages of microfluidics. These assemblies with different morphologies have great applications in various areas such as cancer therapy, micromotor fabrication, and controlled drug delivery.

  14. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  15. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  16. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  17. Glass-formers vs. Assemblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzer, Sharon

    2015-03-01

    In most instances, the formation of a glass signifies an inability of the constituents of a system to self-organize into a well-defined, thermodynamically preferred ordered structure. Thus good ''assemblers'' may make poor glass-formers, and good glass-formers tend to be poor assemblers. How good or bad a system is in assembling or vitrifying/jamming depends on many features of the constituent building blocks, including shape and interactions. In many cases, building blocks whose shapes make them good glass-formers can, through almost imperceptible perturbations, become good assemblers, and vice versa. We examine these issues through consideration of several model systems, including colloidal ''rocks'' and foldable nets. *with E.R. Chen, P. Damasceno, P. Dodd, M. Engel, A.S. Keys, D. Klotsa, E. Teich, and G. van Anders

  18. Analysis of Illumina Microbial Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Clum, Alicia; Foster, Brian; Froula, Jeff; LaButti, Kurt; Sczyrba, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Woyke, Tanja

    2010-05-28

    Since the emerging of second generation sequencing technologies, the evaluation of different sequencing approaches and their assembly strategies for different types of genomes has become an important undertaken. Next generation sequencing technologies dramatically increase sequence throughput while decreasing cost, making them an attractive tool for whole genome shotgun sequencing. To compare different approaches for de-novo whole genome assembly, appropriate tools and a solid understanding of both quantity and quality of the underlying sequence data are crucial. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of short-read Illumina sequence assembly strategies for bacterial and archaeal genomes. Different types of Illumina libraries as well as different trim parameters and assemblers were evaluated. Results of the comparative analysis and sequencing platforms will be presented. The goal of this analysis is to develop a cost-effective approach for the increased throughput of the generation of high quality microbial genomes.

  19. NEDDylation promotes stress granule assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Aravinth Kumar; Sanchez, Anthony; Park, Ra Young; Yoon, Sang Pil; Kang, Gum-Yong; Baek, Je-Hyun; Anderson, Paul; Kee, Younghoon; Ohn, Takbum

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) harbour translationally stalled messenger ribonucleoproteins and play important roles in regulating gene expression and cell fate. Here we show that neddylation promotes SG assembly in response to arsenite-induced oxidative stress. Inhibition or depletion of key components of the neddylation machinery concomitantly inhibits stress-induced polysome disassembly and SG assembly. Affinity purification and subsequent mass-spectrometric analysis of Nedd8-conjugated proteins from translationally stalled ribosomal fractions identified ribosomal proteins, translation factors and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including SRSF3, a previously known SG regulator. We show that SRSF3 is selectively neddylated at Lys85 in response to arsenite. A non-neddylatable SRSF3 (K85R) mutant do not prevent arsenite-induced polysome disassembly, but fails to support the SG assembly, suggesting that the neddylation pathway plays an important role in SG assembly. PMID:27381497

  20. Optically Evolved Assembly Formation in Laser Trapping of Polystyrene Nanoparticles at Solution Surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Fa; Kudo, Tetsuhiro; Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Sugiyama, Teruki; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2016-11-29

    Assembling dynamics of polystyrene nanoparticles by optical trapping is studied with utilizing transmission/reflection microscopy and reflection microspectroscopy. A single nanoparticle assembly with periodic structure is formed upon the focused laser irradiation at solution surface layer and continuously grows up to a steady state within few minutes. By controlling nanoparticle and salt concentrations in the colloidal solution, the assembling behavior is obviously changed. In the high concentration of nanoparticles, the assembly formation exhibits fast growth, gives large saturation size, and leads to dense packing structure. In the presence of salt, one assembly with the elongated aggregates was generated from the focal spot and 1064 nm trapping light was scattered outwardly with directions, while a small circular assembly and symmetrical expansion of the 1064 nm light were found without salt. The present nanoparticle assembling in optical trapping is driven through multiple scattering in gathered nanoparticles and directional scattering along the elongated aggregates derived from optical association of nanoparticles, which dynamic phenomenon is called optically evolved assembling. Repetitive trapping and release processes of nanoparticles between the assembly and the surrounding solution always proceed, and the steady state at the circular assembly formed by laser trapping is determined under optical and chemical equilibrium.

  1. Wafer scale micromachine assembly method

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.

    2001-01-01

    A method for fusing together, using diffusion bonding, micromachine subassemblies which are separately fabricated is described. A first and second micromachine subassembly are fabricated on a first and second substrate, respectively. The substrates are positioned so that the upper surfaces of the two micromachine subassemblies face each other and are aligned so that the desired assembly results from their fusion. The upper surfaces are then brought into contact, and the assembly is subjected to conditions suited to the desired diffusion bonding.

  2. Fuel cell design and assembly

    DOEpatents

    Myerhoff, Alfred

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel bipolar cooling plate, fuel cell design and method of assembly of fuel cells. The bipolar cooling plate used in the fuel cell design and method of assembly has discrete opposite edge and means carried by the plate defining a plurality of channels extending along the surface of the plate toward the opposite edges. At least one edge of the channels terminates short of the edge of the plate defining a recess for receiving a fastener.

  3. Protein crystal growth tray assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A protein crystal growth tray assembly includes a tray that has a plurality of individual crystal growth chambers. Each chamber has a movable pedestal which carries a protein crystal growth compartment at an upper end. The several pedestals for each tray assembly are ganged together for concurrent movement so that the solutions in the various pedestal growth compartments can be separated from the solutions in the tray's growth chambers until the experiment is to be activated.

  4. The Atlas Genome Assembly System

    PubMed Central

    Havlak, Paul; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Atlas is a suite of programs developed for assembly of genomes by a “combined approach” that uses DNA sequence reads from both BACs and whole-genome shotgun (WGS) libraries. The BAC clones afford advantages of localized assembly with reduced computational load, and provide a robust method for dealing with repeated sequences. Inclusion of WGS sequences facilitates use of different clone insert sizes and reduces data production costs. A core function of Atlas software is recruitment of WGS sequences into appropriate BACs based on sequence overlaps. Because construction of consensus sequences is from local assembly of these reads, only small (<0.1%) units of the genome are assembled at a time. Once assembled, each BAC is used to derive a genomic layout. This “sequence-based” growth of the genome map has greater precision than with non-sequence-based methods. Use of BACs allows correction of artifacts due to repeats at each stage of the process. This is aided by ancillary data such as BAC fingerprint, other genomic maps, and syntenic relations with other genomes. Atlas was used to assemble a draft DNA sequence of the rat genome; its major components including overlapper and split-scaffold are also being used in pure WGS projects. PMID:15060016

  5. Reference-assisted chromosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M; Cai, Qingle; Asan; Zhang, Yongfen; Ge, Ri-Li; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Zhang, Guojie; Lewin, Harris A; Ma, Jian

    2013-01-29

    One of the most difficult problems in modern genomics is the assembly of full-length chromosomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. To address this problem, we developed "reference-assisted chromosome assembly" (RACA), an algorithm to reliably order and orient sequence scaffolds generated by NGS and assemblers into longer chromosomal fragments using comparative genome information and paired-end reads. Evaluation of results using simulated and real genome assemblies indicates that our approach can substantially improve genomes generated by a wide variety of de novo assemblers if a good reference assembly of a closely related species and outgroup genomes are available. We used RACA to reconstruct 60 Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) chromosome fragments from 1,434 SOAPdenovo sequence scaffolds, of which 16 chromosome fragments were homologous to complete cattle chromosomes. Experimental validation by PCR showed that predictions made by RACA are highly accurate. Our results indicate that RACA will significantly facilitate the study of chromosome evolution and genome rearrangements for the large number of genomes being sequenced by NGS that do not have a genetic or physical map.

  6. An Assessment of Teacher Change in Role Perception as the Result of Participation in the Elementary School Evaluation by the Assembly of Elementary Schools, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselmann, Gudrun R.

    A study was conducted to determine whether participation in self-evaluations as part of the accreditation process of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools produced a change in the role perceptions of participant teachers. An experimental group of 30 elementary teachers from Pleasant Valley school and a control group of 30…

  7. Emphasis on the Instruction on the Documents of Virginia and United States History and Government. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. Senate Document No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This document from the Virginia Department of Education reports on a project to enable public schools to meet requirements of two laws. The first law required public schools to emphasize instruction on the documents of Virginia and United States history and government. The second requested that all public schools be urged to display copies of the…

  8. Institutional Reports on Pacific Rim Programs. Submissions by the California Community Colleges, the California State University, and the University of California in Response to Assembly Concurrent Resolution 82 (1986). Commission Report 87-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    Reports from the California State University, the University of California, and the California community colleges consider their roles in the Pacific Rim region. The Pacific Rim includes all lands with at least a portion of their coastlines fronting on the Pacific Ocean. Of concern are: the need for changes in program offerings and exchange…

  9. A Proximity-Based Programmable DNA Nanoscale Assembly Line

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hongzhou; Chao, Jie; Xiao, Shou-Jun; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to synthesize nanometer-scale particles with desired shapes and compositions offers the exciting prospect of generating new functional materials and devices by combining the particles in a controlled fashion into larger structures. Self-assembly can achieve this task efficiently, but may be subject to thermodynamic and kinetic limitations: Reactants, intermediates and products may collide with each other throughout the assembly timecourse to produce non-target instead of target species. An alternative approach to nanoscale assembly uses information-containing molecules such as DNA1 to control interactions and thereby minimize unwanted crosstalk between different components. In principle, this method should allow the stepwise and programmed construction of target products by fastening individually selected nanoscale components – much as an automobile is built on an assembly line. Here, we demonstrate that a nanoscale assembly line can indeed be realized by the judicious combination of three known DNA-based modules: a DNA origami2 tile that provides a framework and track for the assembly process, cassettes containing three distinct two-state DNA machines that serve as programmable cargo-donating devices3,4 and are attached4,5 in series to the tile, and a DNA walker that can move on the track from device to device and collect cargo. As the walker traverses the pathway prescribed by the origami tile track, it encounters sequentially the three DNA devices that can be independently switched between an ‘ON’ state allowing its cargo to be transferred to the walker, and an ‘OFF’ state where no transfer occurs. We use three different types of gold nanoparticles as cargo and show that the experimental system does indeed allow the controlled fabrication of the eight different products that can be obtained with three two-state devices. PMID:20463734

  10. A proximity-based programmable DNA nanoscale assembly line.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongzhou; Chao, Jie; Xiao, Shou-Jun; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2010-05-13

    Our ability to synthesize nanometre-scale chemical species, such as nanoparticles with desired shapes and compositions, offers the exciting prospect of generating new functional materials and devices by combining them in a controlled fashion into larger structures. Self-assembly can achieve this task efficiently, but may be subject to thermodynamic and kinetic limitations: reactants, intermediates and products may collide with each other throughout the assembly time course to produce non-target species instead of target species. An alternative approach to nanoscale assembly uses information-containing molecules such as DNA to control interactions and thereby minimize unwanted cross-talk between different components. In principle, this method should allow the stepwise and programmed construction of target products by linking individually selected nanoscale components-much as an automobile is built on an assembly line. Here we demonstrate that a nanoscale assembly line can be realized by the judicious combination of three known DNA-based modules: a DNA origami tile that provides a framework and track for the assembly process, cassettes containing three independently controlled two-state DNA machines that serve as programmable cargo-donating devices and are attached in series to the tile, and a DNA walker that can move on the track from device to device and collect cargo. As the walker traverses the pathway prescribed by the origami tile track, it sequentially encounters the three DNA devices, each of which can be independently switched between an 'ON' state, allowing its cargo to be transferred to the walker, and an 'OFF' state, in which no transfer occurs. We use three different types of gold nanoparticle species as cargo and show that the experimental system does indeed allow the controlled fabrication of the eight different products that can be obtained with three two-state devices.

  11. Developmental self-assembly of a DNA tetrahedron.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, John P; Calvert, Colby R; Zhang, David Yu; Pierce, Niles A; Yin, Peng

    2014-04-22

    Kinetically controlled isothermal growth is fundamental to biological development, yet it remains challenging to rationally design molecular systems that self-assemble isothermally into complex geometries via prescribed assembly and disassembly pathways. By exploiting the programmable chemistry of base pairing, sophisticated spatial and temporal control have been demonstrated in DNA self-assembly, but largely as separate pursuits. By integrating temporal with spatial control, here we demonstrate the "developmental" self-assembly of a DNA tetrahedron, where a prescriptive molecular program orchestrates the kinetic pathways by which DNA molecules isothermally self-assemble into a well-defined three-dimensional wireframe geometry. In this reaction, nine DNA reactants initially coexist metastably, but upon catalysis by a DNA initiator molecule, navigate 24 individually characterizable intermediate states via prescribed assembly pathways, organized both in series and in parallel, to arrive at the tetrahedral final product. In contrast to previous work on dynamic DNA nanotechnology, this developmental program coordinates growth of ringed substructures into a three-dimensional wireframe superstructure, taking a step toward the goal of kinetically controlled isothermal growth of complex three-dimensional geometries.

  12. An REU Experience with Micro Assembly Workcell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, William; Asiabanpour, Bahram; Jimenez, Jesus; Um, Dugan

    2010-01-01

    Under an NSF REU center grant REU-0755355 entitled "Micro/Nano Assembly Workcell Via Micro Visual Sensing and Haptic Feedback", Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and Texas State University-San Marcos collaboratively hosted two groups of 10 students from different backgrounds for 10 weeks each in Summer 2008 and 2009 respectively.…

  13. Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with scale. Not in use August 1994. Turntable rotated with engine and tender on balance by two persons, one on either side at ground level - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  14. Photocontrol over cooperative porphyrin self-assembly with phenylazopyridine ligands.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takashi; Helmich, Floris; Meijer, E W

    2013-01-02

    The cooperative self-assembly of chiral zinc porphyrins is regulated by a photoresponsive phenylazopyridine ligand. Porphyrin stacks depolymerize into dimers upon axial ligation and the strength of the coordination is regulated by its photoinduced isomerization, which shows more than 95 % conversion ratio for both photostationary states.

  15. Quantum assembly semantics: The fallacious lingo of occupation numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The usual heuristic description of quantum mechanical assemblies features so-called “occupation numbers” interpreted quite literally. This essay critically compares that point of view with a more rigorous understanding of composite systems based upon a principal lesson of Einstein's paradox and Bell's inequality, viz., that it is fallacious to regard a subsystem as possessing or “occupying” any state whatever.

  16. 56. ASSEMBLY OF THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. ASSEMBLY OF THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, July 31, 1947. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 61. SIDE VIEW OF SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY WITH VAL BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. SIDE VIEW OF SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY WITH VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE IN BACKGROUND AT ISLIP CANYON, Date unknown, circa February 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW OF ASSEMBLY ROOM (REAR FACADE), UNTANKING TOWER, SHOWING PREVIOUS MODIFICATIONS (INSTALLATION OF METAL ROLL-UP DOOR, LEFT FOREGROUND). 125-TON LIFTING CRANE (TOP FOREGROUND), AND ORIGINAL FLOOR-TO-CEILING MULTI-PANE, METAL-CASED WINDOWS - Bonneville Power Administration Chehalis Substation, Untanking Tower, State Route 603, West of Interstate 5, Napavine, Lewis County, WA

  19. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  20. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Hu, Jianwei; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; Trellue, Holly; Vo, D.

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  1. Feature-by-Feature – Evaluating De Novo Sequence Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Vezzi, Francesco; Narzisi, Giuseppe; Mishra, Bud

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence assembly (WGSA) problem is among one of the most studied problems in computational biology. Despite the availability of a plethora of tools (i.e., assemblers), all claiming to have solved the WGSA problem, little has been done to systematically compare their accuracy and power. Traditional methods rely on standard metrics and read simulation: while on the one hand, metrics like N50 and number of contigs focus only on size without proportionately emphasizing the information about the correctness of the assembly, comparisons performed on simulated dataset, on the other hand, can be highly biased by the non-realistic assumptions in the underlying read generator. Recently the Feature Response Curve (FRC) method was proposed to assess the overall assembly quality and correctness: FRC transparently captures the trade-offs between contigs' quality against their sizes. Nevertheless, the relationship among the different features and their relative importance remains unknown. In particular, FRC cannot account for the correlation among the different features. We analyzed the correlation among different features in order to better describe their relationships and their importance in gauging assembly quality and correctness. In particular, using multivariate techniques like principal and independent component analysis we were able to estimate the “excess-dimensionality” of the feature space. Moreover, principal component analysis allowed us to show how poorly the acclaimed N50 metric describes the assembly quality. Applying independent component analysis we identified a subset of features that better describe the assemblers performances. We demonstrated that by focusing on a reduced set of highly informative features we can use the FRC curve to better describe and compare the performances of different assemblers. Moreover, as a by-product of our analysis, we discovered how often evaluation based on simulated data, obtained with state of the art

  2. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; ...

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  3. Direct assembly of preformed nanoparticles and graft copolymer for the fabrication of micrometer-thick, organized TiO2 films: high efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Chi, Won Seok; Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan; Roh, Dong Kyu; Kim, Jong Hak

    2012-01-24

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with 7.1% efficiency at 100 mW/cm(2) is reported, one of the highest observed for N719 dye. Excellent performance was achieved via a graft copolymer-templated, organized mesoporous TiO(2) film with a large surface area using spindle-shaped, preformed TiO(2) nanoparticles and solid polymer electrolyte.

  4. Optimal Assembly of Psychological and Educational Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews optimal test-assembly literature and introduces the contributions to this special issue. Discusses four approaches to computerized test assembly: (1) heuristic-based test assembly; (2) 0-1 linear programming; (3) network-flow programming; and (4) an optimal design approach. Contains a bibliography of 90 sources on test assembly.…

  5. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  6. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  7. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  8. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  9. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  10. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  11. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  12. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  13. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  14. Yeast prions assembly and propagation: contributions of the prion and non-prion moieties and the nature of assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kabani, Mehdi; Melki, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Yeast prions are self-perpetuating protein aggregates that are at the origin of heritable and transmissible non-Mendelian phenotypic traits. Among these, [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] are the most well documented prions and arise from the assembly of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p, respectively, into insoluble fibrillar assemblies. Fibril assembly depends on the presence of N- or C-terminal prion domains (PrDs) which are not homologous in sequence but share unusual amino-acid compositions, such as enrichment in polar residues (glutamines and asparagines) or the presence of oligopeptide repeats. Purified PrDs form amyloid fibrils that can convert prion-free cells to the prion state upon transformation. Nonetheless, isolated PrDs and full-length prion proteins have different aggregation, structural and infectious properties. In addition, mutations in the "non-prion" domains (non-PrDs) of Sup35p, Ure2p and Rnq1p were shown to affect their prion properties in vitro and in vivo. Despite these evidences, the implication of the functional non-PrDs in fibril assembly and prion propagation has been mostly overlooked. In this review, we discuss the contribution of non-PrDs to prion assemblies, and the structure-function relationship in prion infectivity in the light of recent findings on Sup35p and Ure2p assembly into infectious fibrils from our laboratory and others.

  15. TOOL ASSEMBLY WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Longhurst, G.E.

    1961-07-11

    A two-direction motion bearing which is incorporated in a refueling nuclear fuel element trsnsfer tool assembly is described. A plurality of bi- directional bearing assembliesare fixed equi-distantly about the circumference of the transfer tool assembly to provide the tool assembly with a bearing surface- for both axial and rotational motion. Each bi-directional bearing assembly contains a plurality of circumferentially bulged rollers mounted in a unique arrangement which will provide a bearing surface for rotational movement of the tool assembly within a bore. The bi-direc tional bearing assembly itself is capable of rational motion and thus provides for longitudinal movement of the tool assembly.

  16. Assembly planning based on subassembly extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Shin, Yeong Gil

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented for the automatic determination of assembly partial orders from a liaison graph representation of an assembly through the extraction of preferred subassemblies. In particular, the authors show how to select a set of tentative subassemblies by decomposing a liaison graph into a set of subgraphs based on feasibility and difficulty of disassembly, how to evaluate each of the tentative subassemblies in terms of assembly cost using the subassembly selection indices, and how to construct a hierarchical partial order graph (HPOG) as an assembly plan. The method provides an approach to assembly planning by identifying spatial parallelism in assembly as a means of constructing temporal relationships among assembly operations and solves the problem of finding a cost-effective assembly plan in a flexible environment. A case study of the assembly planning of a mechanical assembly is presented.

  17. Single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture enable de novo reference assembly of the domestic goat genome.

    PubMed

    Bickhart, Derek M; Rosen, Benjamin D; Koren, Sergey; Sayre, Brian L; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Lee, Joyce; Lam, Ernest T; Liachko, Ivan; Sullivan, Shawn T; Burton, Joshua N; Huson, Heather J; Nystrom, John C; Kelley, Christy M; Hutchison, Jana L; Zhou, Yang; Sun, Jiajie; Crisà, Alessandra; Ponce de León, F Abel; Schwartz, John C; Hammond, John A; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Schroeder, Steven G; Liu, George E; Dunham, Maitreya J; Shendure, Jay; Sonstegard, Tad S; Phillippy, Adam M; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Smith, Timothy P L

    2017-04-01

    The decrease in sequencing cost and increased sophistication of assembly algorithms for short-read platforms has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of species with genome assemblies. However, these assemblies are highly fragmented, with many gaps, ambiguities, and errors, impeding downstream applications. We demonstrate current state of the art for de novo assembly using the domestic goat (Capra hircus) based on long reads for contig formation, short reads for consensus validation, and scaffolding by optical and chromatin interaction mapping. These combined technologies produced what is, to our knowledge, the most continuous de novo mammalian assembly to date, with chromosome-length scaffolds and only 649 gaps. Our assembly represents a ∼400-fold improvement in continuity due to properly assembled gaps, compared to the previously published C. hircus assembly, and better resolves repetitive structures longer than 1 kb, representing the largest repeat family and immune gene complex yet produced for an individual of a ruminant species.

  18. Accomplishments in Field Period Assembly for NCSX* This is how we did it

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Viola, J. Edwards, T. Brown, L. Dudek, R. Ellis, P. Heitzenroeder, R. Strykowsky and Michael Cole

    2009-09-14

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was a collaborative effort between ORNL and PPPL. PPPL provided the assembly techniques with guidance from ORNL to meet design criteria. The individual vacuum vessel segments, modular coils, trim coils, and toroidal field coils components were delivered to the Field Period Assembly (FPA) crew who then would complete the component assemblies and then assemble the final three field period assemblies, each consisting of two sets of three modular coils assembled over a 120o vacuum vessel segment with the trim coils and toroidal field coils providing the outer layer. The requirements for positioning the modular coils were found to be most demanding. The assembly tolerances required for accurate positioning of the field coil windings in order to generate sufficiently accurate magnetic fields strained state of the art techniques in metrology and alignment and required constant monitoring of assembly steps with laser trackers, measurement arms, and photogrammetry. The FPA activities were being performed concurrently while engineering challenges were being resolved. For example, it was determined that high friction electrically isolated shims were needed between the modular coil interface joints and low distortion welding was required in the nose region of those joints. This took months of analysis and development yet the assembly was not significantly impacted because other assembly tasks could be performed in parallel with ongoing assembly tasks as well as tasks such as advance tooling setup preparation for the eventual welding tasks. The crew technicians developed unique, accurate time saving techniques and tooling which provided significant cost and schedule savings. Project management displayed extraordinary foresight and every opportunity to gain advanced knowledge and develop techniques was taken advantage of. Despite many risk concerns, the cost and schedule performance index was maintained nearly 1.0 during the

  19. Shape Allophiles Improve Entropic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Eric; Marson, Ryan; Anderson, Joshua; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon

    We investigate a class of ``shape allophiles'' that fit together like puzzle pieces as a method to access and stabilize desired structures by controlling directional entropic forces. Squares are cut into rectangular halves, which are shaped in an allophilic manner with the goal of re-assembling the squares while self-assembling the square lattice. We examine the assembly characteristics of this system via the potential of mean force and torque, and the fraction of particles that entropically bind. We generalize our findings and apply them to self-assemble triangles into a square lattice via allophilic shaping. Through these studies we show how shape allophiles can be useful in assembling and stabilizing desired phases with appropriate allophilic design. NSF Grant # ACI-1053575 (XSEDE Award DMR 140129), U.S. Army Research Office Grant Award # W911NF-10-1-0518, DOD/ASD(R&E) Award # N00244-09-1-0062, NSF DGE 0903629 Open Data IGERT, NSF Division of Materials Research Award # DMR 1409620.

  20. Meta assembler enhancements and generalized linkage editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A meta Assembler for NASA was developed. The initial development of the Meta Assembler for the SUMC was performed. The capabilities included assembly for both main and micro level programs. A period of checkout and utilization to verify the performance of the Meta Assembler was undertaken. Additional enhancements were made to the Meta Assembler which expanded the target computer family to include architectures represented by the PDP-11, MODCOMP 2, and Raytheon 706 computers.

  1. Frame-Guided Assembly of Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanchen; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-12-07

    Frame-guided assembly, a recently discovered strategy for amphiphilic assembly, is discussed as a strategy for constructing vesicle assemblies with programmed geometries and dimensions under identical surrounding conditions. The strategy is inspired by the cytoskeletal-membrane protein-lipid bilayer structure and shows great potential in the understanding and controlling of the amphiphilic assembly process. Both the principles and basic requirements are discussed, along with recently reported examples. The prospects and potential investigations of frame-guided assembly are also proposed.

  2. Synthesis and solid-state study of supramolecular host-guest assemblies: Bis[6-O,6-O'-(1,2:3,4-diisopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)thiophosphoryl] dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Potrzebowski, Marek J; Potrzebowski, Wojciech M; Jeziorna, Agata; Ciesielski, Wlodzimierz; Gajda, Jarosław; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek

    2008-06-20

    A complementary approach for studying structural details of complex solid materials formed by symmetrical and unsymmetrical dichalcogenides, which employs both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state NMR (SS NMR), is presented. The new diagnostic technique allows reversible crystallographic space group change and very subtle distortion of host geometry to be followed during guest migration in the crystal lattice. Bis[6-O,6-O'-(1,2:3,4-diisopropylidene-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)]thiophosphoryl selenenyl sulfide, a representative of wheel-and-axle host (WAAH) molecules, can be synthesized in the solid state by grinding and gentle heating of disulfide 1 and diselenide 2. Full characterization of disulfide 1 in the solid phase has been reported (J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 2549). In the current work, the synthesis and both XRD and SS NMR studies of the isostructural diselenide substrate 2 are presented. A (31)P cross polarization magic angle spinning experiment is employed to follow the progress of synthesis of selenenyl sulfide 3 in the solid state. It is concluded that selenenyl sulfide exists in equilibrium with disulfide and diselenide in a 1:1:1 ratio in both the liquid and the powdered solid. A mixture of isostructural dichalcogenides crystallized from different solvents form three-component host-guest inclusion complexes with columnar architecture. In the host-guest complex of diselenide 2 with toluene (space group C2), columns of host molecules are in parallel orientations along all the axes, whereas in the structures of diselenide 2 with propan-2-ol and propan-1-ol (space group P3 2), the columns of host molecules lay along the 3-fold symmetry axis. Thermal processes effecting structural changes in the host lattice and the kinetics of reversible guest molecule diffusion were investigated using SS NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the Se/S scrambling phenomenon and limitations in the X-ray structure refinement of organic compounds containing selenium and sulfur in chains

  3. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  4. Buckling Instability of Self-Assembled Colloidal Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, James W.; Vasquez, Paula A.; Furst, Eric M.

    2014-09-01

    Suspended, slender self-assembled domains of magnetically responsive colloids are observed to buckle in microgravity. Upon cessation of the magnetic field that drives their assembly, these columns expand axially and buckle laterally. This phenomenon resembles the buckling of long beams due to thermal expansion; however, linear stability analysis predicts that the colloidal columns are inherently susceptible to buckling because they are freely suspended in a Newtonian fluid. The dominant buckling wavelength increases linearly with column thickness and is quantitatively described using an elastohydrodynamic model and the suspension thermodynamic equation of state.

  5. Planning assembly/disassembly operations for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, Arthur C.; Homem De Mello, Luiz

    1987-01-01

    Space telerobotic systems will perform complex tasks of assembly, disassembly, and repair of space-based equipment. Planning such tasks requires reasoning about the functional, physical, and geometrical properties of the equipment, as well as a representation of the characteristics and capabilities of the manipulators and sensors available for the task. The And/Or graph is a useful approach to representation of feasible assembly/disassembly sequences and provides the basis for search among alternative strategies. The paper describes the use of parts entropy measures as evaluation criteria for search in the And/Or graph space. This approach leads to candidate task plans which minimize the complexity of intermediate geometrical states.

  6. Self-assembled magnetocapillary swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Maxime; Lumay, Geoffroy; Weyer, Floriane; Obara, Noriko; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Capillary driven self-assembly consists of suspending small objects at a water-air interface. Due to the effects of wetting, gravity and surface tension, the interface is slightly deformed, inducing a net force between the particles. In the experiments we present, we consider the presence of a vertical magnetic field acting on soft-ferromagnetic particles. Dipole-dipole repulsion competes with capillary attraction such that 2d ordered structures are self-assembling. By adding a secondary horizontal and oscillating magnetic field, periodic deformations of the assembly are induced. Pulsating particle arrangements start to swim, either translating or rotating. The physical mechanisms and geometrical ingredients behind this cooperative locomotion are identified. Furthermore, strategies to control the swimming dynamics are proposed.

  7. Workload analyse of assembling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  8. Nuclear fuel assembly wear sleeve

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, D.J.; Kmonk, S.

    1983-03-08

    An improved control rod guide tube for use in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor. The guide tube extends the complete length of the fuel assembly and has its upper end fastened in a cylindrical housing by swaging the guide tube material into grooves formed in the housing walls. To eliminate wear on the guide tube inner walls caused by hydraulic induced vibratory forces on a control rod adapted to move therein, a thin-walled chrome plated sleeve is threaded into the top end of the guide thimble and extends downwardly a distance sufficient to be engaged by the control rod during reactor operation. The sleeve serves as a highly resistant wear surface between the control rod and walls on the guide tube in the fuel assembly.

  9. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    DOEpatents

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  10. Abrasive swivel assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Hashish, Mohamed; Marvin, Mark

    1990-01-01

    An abrasive swivel assembly for providing a rotating, particle-laden fluid stream and, ultimately, a rotating particle-laden fluid jet is disclosed herein. This assembly includes a tubular arrangement for providing a particle-free stream of fluid, a swivel assembly for rotating a section of the tubular arrangement, and a tubular end section for introducing solid particles into the particle-free fluid stream at a point along the rotating tubular section, whereby to produce a particle-laden fluid stream. This last-mentioned stream can then be used in combination with a cooperating nozzle arrangement for providing a rotating particle-laden fluid jet. In an actual working embodiment, the fluid stream is of sufficiently high pressure so that the abrasive jet can be used as a cutting jet.

  11. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  12. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  13. Mechanisms of Mitotic Spindle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Life depends on cell proliferation and the accurate segregation of chromosomes, which are mediated by the microtubule (MT)-based mitotic spindle and ~200 essential MT-associated proteins. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of how the mitotic spindle is assembled and achieves chromosome segregation is still missing. This is mostly due to the density of MTs in the spindle, which presumably precludes their direct observation. Recent insight has been gained into the molecular building plan of the metaphase spindle using bulk and single-molecule measurements combined with computational modeling. MT nucleation was uncovered as a key principle of spindle assembly, and mechanistic details about MT nucleation pathways and their coordination are starting to be revealed. Lastly, advances in studying spindle assembly can be applied to address the molecular mechanisms of how the spindle segregates chromosomes. PMID:27145846

  14. LDRD final report: Automated planning and programming of assembly of fully 3D mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of assembly planning research under the LDRD. The assembly planning problem is that of finding a sequence of assembly operations, starting from individual parts, that will result in complete assembly of a device specified as a CAD model. The automated assembly programming problem is that of automatically producing a robot program that will carry out a given assembly sequence. Given solutions to both of these problems, it is possible to automatically program a robot to assemble a mechanical device given as a CAD data file. This report describes the current state of our solutions to both of these problems, and a software system called Archimedes 2 we have constructed to automate these solutions. Because Archimedes 2 can input CAD data in several standard formats, we have been able to test it on a number of industrial assembly models more complex than any before attempted by automated assembly planning systems, some having over 100 parts. A complete path from a CAD model to an automatically generated robot program for assembling the device represented by the CAD model has also been demonstrated.

  15. Self-assembling amphiphilic peptides†

    PubMed Central

    Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of several classes of amphiphilic peptides is reviewed, and selected applications are discussed. We discuss recent work on the self-assembly of lipopeptides, surfactant-like peptides and amyloid peptides derived from the amyloid-β peptide. The influence of environmental variables such as pH and temperature on aggregate nanostructure is discussed. Enzyme-induced remodelling due to peptide cleavage and nanostructure control through photocleavage or photo-cross-linking are also considered. Lastly, selected applications of amphiphilic peptides in biomedicine and materials science are outlined. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24729276

  16. Magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocking, G.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly (MSRWA) is the product of a development effort funded by the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) at Wright Patterson AFB. The specific objective of the project was to establish the manufacturing processes for samarium cobalt magnets and demonstrate their use in a space application. The development was successful on both counts. The application portion of the program, which involves the magnetically suspended reaction wheel assembly, is emphasized. The requirements for the reaction wheel were based on the bias wheel requirements of the DSP satellite. The tasks included the design, fabrication, and test of the unit to the DSP program qualification requirements.

  17. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  18. Circuit breaker lock out assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gordy, W.T.

    1983-05-18

    A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly S shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

  19. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  20. Muscle assembly: a titanic achievement?

    PubMed

    Gregorio, C C; Granzier, H; Sorimachi, H; Labeit, S

    1999-02-01

    The formation of perfectly aligned myofibrils in striated muscle represents a dramatic example of supramolecular assembly in eukaryotic cells. Recently, considerable progress has been made in deciphering the roles that titin, the third most abundant protein in muscle, has in this process. An increasing number of sarcomeric proteins (ligands) are being identified that bind to specific titin domains. Titin may serve as a molecular blueprint for sarcomere assembly and turnover by specifying the precise position of its ligands within each half-sarcomere in addition to functioning as a molecular spring that maintains the structural integrity of the contracting myofibrils.

  1. Location Technologies for Apparel Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    LOCATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR - APPAREL ASSEMBLY! *AD-A241 60 𔃿U iI iI ll I / ! II!’I ’II IBy: Wayne C. Tincher Douglas M. Moore Wayne Daley GEORGIA...lassifi cation) Location Technologies for Apparel Assembly 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S( Tincher, Wayne C.; MOore, Douglas M..; Daley, Wzyne 13a TYPE OF...COSATi CODES 18 SIBJECT TERMS (Continue on rev’erse if neceisary and todentify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP 13 08 Apparel , AtmioMachine Vision

  2. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  3. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Ladder Assembly Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzmann, Paul; /Fermilab

    1994-08-17

    This is an abridged version of the assembly sequence described by the DO assembly subgroup of Cooper, Hrycyk, Kowalski, Rapidis, and Ratzmann. This primarily is used to indicate major steps during the sequence and to list fixturing requirements. Assembly - (1) Place support rails in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. The two rails get held under vacuum. (2) Apply adhesive to the region where contact will be made with the beryllium substrates. (3) Place underside beryllium pieces (active and dummy ends) into the (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. These pieces get placed in the fixture against the appropriate pins to mimic final positioning in the bulkhead. Apply vacuum to the beryllium pieces. Allow to cure? (4) Align silicon in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. Reference features on the fixture will be parameterized. Holes in the fixture near the silicon center line will be targeted to set the silicon axis relative to the beryllium slot edge. Z positioning of the detectors will be achieved by shimming between the detectors and butting up the end of the silicon against the fixture. (5) Remove silicon detectors and apply adhesive to the rails and upper surfaces of the beryllium. (6) Replace silicon and check final position of the detectors. (7) Release vacuum on the rails so they cure in a stress-free state. Allow adhesive to cure. (8) Apply adhesive and align HDI to the silicon using (2) 3 Chip HDI Gluing fixture. The HDI will have tabs which are held by the fixture for location relative to the detectors. Allow adhesive to cure. (9) Move ladder to (3) 3 Chip Wirebonding Fixture. Transfer fixture to the wirebonder and bond chip-silicon and silicon-silicon.

  4. The Archimedes 2 mechanical assembly planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, S.G.; Wilson, R.H.; Jones, R.E.; Calton, T.L.; Ames, A.L.

    1996-03-01

    We describe the implementation and performance of Archimedes 2, an integrated mechanical assembly planning system. Archimedes 2 includes two planners, two assembly sequence animation facilities, and an associated robotic workcell. Both planners use full 3 dimensional data. A rudimentary translator from high level assembly plans to control code for the robotic workcell has also been implemented. We can translate data from a commercial CAD system into input data for the system, which has allowed us to plan assembly sequences for many industrial assemblies. Archimedes 2 has been used to plan sequences for assemblies consisting of 5 to 109 parts. We have also successfully taken a CAD model of an assembly, produced an optimized assembly sequence for it, and translated the plan into robot code, which successfully assembles the device specified in the model.

  5. Self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kumar, Raj; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) together with harmless visible light of the appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species that kill unwanted cells. Because many PS are hydrophobic molecules prone to aggregation, numerous drug delivery vehicles have been tested to solubilize these molecules, render them biocompatible and enhance the ease of administration after intravenous injection. The recent rise in nanotechnology has markedly expanded the range of these nanoparticulate delivery vehicles beyond the well-established liposomes and micelles. Self-assembled nanoparticles are formed by judicious choice of monomer building blocks that spontaneously form a well-oriented 3-dimensional structure that incorporates the PS when subjected to the appropriate conditions. This self-assembly process is governed by a subtle interplay of forces on the molecular level. This review will cover the state of the art in the preparation and use of self-assembled liposomal nanoparticles within the context of PDT. PMID:24348377

  6. Self-Assembled Enzyme Nanoparticles for Carbon Dioxide Capture.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, Bhuvana Kamath; Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing; Haritos, Victoria S; He, Lizhong

    2016-05-11

    Enzyme-based processes have shown promise as a sustainable alternative to amine-based processes for carbon dioxide capture. In this work, we have engineered carbonic anhydrase nanoparticles that retain 98% of hydratase activity in comparison to their free counterparts. Carbonic anhydrase was fused with a self-assembling peptide that facilitates the noncovalent assembly of the particle and together were recombinantly expressed from a single gene construct in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes, when subjected to a reduced pH, form 50-200 nm nanoparticles. The CO2 capture capability of enzyme nanoparticles was demonstrated at ambient (22 ± 2 °C) and higher (50 °C) temperatures, under which the nanoparticles maintain their assembled state. The carrier-free enzymatic nanoparticles demonstrated here offer a new approach to stabilize and reuse enzymes in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  7. Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

  8. Gel-to-fluid phase transformations in solid-supported phospholipid bilayers assembled by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique: effect of the Langmuir monolayer phase state and molecular density.

    PubMed

    Ramkaran, Mohini; Badia, Antonella

    2014-08-14

    Planar-supported phospholipid bilayers are increasingly used as synthetic membranes for scientific and practical applications. The thermotropic phase properties of supported bilayers are important for recreating biologically relevant situations. Unlike free-standing lipid membranes that undergo one gel-to-fluid or main phase transition, mica-supported single bilayers have been found to undergo two separate leaflet transitions. Although the distinctive nature of the main transition in mica-supported bilayers has been attributed to different effects, determining their relevance has been problematic because vesicle fusion, the technique most widely used to prepare solid-supported bilayer membranes, does not allow one to readily control the lipid surface coverage and molecular density. To circumvent the limitations of the vesicle fusion method and systematically investigate the effects on the individual leaflet transitions of the lipid phase state and molecular density before deposition on the substrate, mica-supported single bilayers of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) were prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The gel-to-fluid transitions of the bilayer leaflets were tracked by controlled-temperature atomic force microscopy to determine the relative fractions of the gel and fluid phases as a function of temperature. The fraction of solid versus temperature data was fit to the van't Hoff equation to determine the leaflet melting temperatures and transition enthalpies. The phase state and molecular density of the Langmuir monolayer precursor at the transfer pressure of 35 mN m(-1) was found to have a greater effect on the main transition temperature and width of the distal (upper) leaflet than that of the proximal (lower) one. The contributions of substrate-mediated condensation, asymmetric lipid densities, and surface area available for thermal expansion of the bilayer are addressed

  9. Anisotropic Self-Assembly of Hairy Inorganic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenglin; Zhang, Shaoyi; Webb, Kyle Thomas; Nie, Zhihong

    2017-01-17

    Current interest in functional assemblies of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) stems from their collective properties and diverse applications ranging from nanomedicines to optically active metamaterials. Coating the surface of NPs with polymers allows for tailoring of the interactions between NPs to assemble them into hybrid nanocomposites with targeted architectures. This class of building blocks is termed "hairy" inorganic NPs (HINPs). Regiospecific attachment of polymers has been used to achieve directional interactions for HINP assembly. However, to date anisotropic surface functionalization of NPs still remains a challenge. This Account provides a review of the recent progress in the self-assembly of isotropically functionalized HINPs in both the condensed state and aqueous solution as well as the applications of assembled structures in such areas as biomedical imaging and therapy. It aims to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the correlation between structural characteristics and self-assembly behaviors of HINPs, with an emphasis on HINPs made from NPs grafted with linear block copolymer (BCP) brushes. The key to the anisotropic self-assembly of these HINPs is the generation of directional interactions between HINPs by designing the surrounding medium (e.g., polymer matrix) or engineering the surface chemistry of the HINPs. First, HINPs can self-assemble into a variety of 1D, 2D, or 3D nanostructures with a nonisotropic local arrangement of NPs in films. Although a template is not always required, a polymer matrix (BCPs or supramolecules) can be used to assist the assembly of HINPs to form hybrid architectures. The interactions between brushes of neighboring HINPs or between HINPs and the polymer matrix can be modulated by varying the grafting density and length of one or multiple types of polymers on the surface of the NPs. Second, the rational design of deformable brushes of BCP or mixed homopolymer tethers on HINPs enables the anisotropic assembly

  10. Initial condition of stochastic self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jason K.; Sindi, Suzanne S.

    2016-02-01

    The formation of a stable protein aggregate is regarded as the rate limiting step in the establishment of prion diseases. In these systems, once aggregates reach a critical size the growth process accelerates and thus the waiting time until the appearance of the first critically sized aggregate is a key determinant of disease onset. In addition to prion diseases, aggregation and nucleation is a central step of many physical, chemical, and biological process. Previous studies have examined the first-arrival time at a critical nucleus size during homogeneous self-assembly under the assumption that at time t =0 the system was in the all-monomer state. However, in order to compare to in vivo biological experiments where protein constituents inherited by a newly born cell likely contain intermediate aggregates, other possibilities must be considered. We consider one such possibility by conditioning the unique ergodic size distribution on subcritical aggregate sizes; this least-informed distribution is then used as an initial condition. We make the claim that this initial condition carries fewer assumptions than an all-monomer one and verify that it can yield significantly different averaged waiting times relative to the all-monomer condition under various models of assembly.

  11. Channel selective tunnelling through a nanographene assembly.

    PubMed

    Wong, H S; Feng, X; Müllen, K; Chandrasekhar, N; Durkan, C

    2012-03-09

    We report selective tunnelling through a nanographene intermolecular tunnel junction achieved via scanning tunnelling microscope tip functionalization with hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) molecules. This leads to an offset in the alignment between the energy levels of the tip and the molecular assembly, resulting in the imaging of a variety of distinct charge density patterns in the HBC assembly, not attainable using a bare metallic tip. Different tunnelling channels can be selected by the application of an electric field in the tunnelling junction, which changes the condition of the HBC on the tip. Density functional theory-based calculations relate the imaged HBC patterns to the calculated molecular orbitals at certain energy levels. These patterns bear a close resemblance to the π-orbital states of the HBC molecule calculated at the relevant energy levels, mainly below the Fermi energy of HBC. This correlation demonstrates the ability of an HBC functionalized tip as regards accessing an energy range that is restricted to the usual operating bias range around the Fermi energy with a normal metallic tip at room temperature. Apart from relating to molecular orbitals, some patterns could also be described in association with the Clar aromatic sextet formula. Our observations may help pave the way towards the possibility of controlling charge transport between organic interfaces.

  12. Self-assembling holographic biosensors and biocomputers.

    SciTech Connect

    Light, Yooli Kim; Bachand, George David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Trent, Amanda M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-01

    We present concepts for self-assembly of diffractive optics with potential uses in biosensors and biocomputers. The simplest such optics, diffraction gratings, can potentially be made from chemically-stabilized microtubules migrating on nanopatterned tracks of the motor protein kinesin. We discuss the fabrication challenges involved in patterning sub-micron-scale structures with proteins that must be maintained in aqueous buffers to preserve their activity. A novel strategy is presented that employs dry contact printing onto glass-supported amino-silane monolayers of heterobifunctional crosslinkers, followed by solid-state reactions of these cross-linkers, to graft patterns of reactive groups onto the surface. Successive solution-phase addition of cysteine-mutant proteins and amine-reactive polyethylene glycol allows assembly of features onto the printed patterns. We present data from initial experiments showing successful micro- and nanopatterning of lines of single-cysteine mutants of kinesin interleaved with lines of polyethylene, indicating that this strategy can be employed to arrays of features with resolutions suitable for gratings.

  13. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  14. In vitro assembly of catalase.

    PubMed

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-10-10

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process.

  15. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  16. Radial blanket assembly orificing arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, J.F.

    1975-07-01

    A nuclear reactor core for a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor is described in which means are provided for increasing the coolant flow through the reactor fuel assemblies as the reactor ages by varying the coolant flow rate with the changing coolant requirements during the core operating lifetime. (auth)

  17. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  18. Synapse Assembly and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Washbourne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In this review we examine the current understanding of how genetic deficits associated with neurodevelopmental disorders may impact synapse assembly. We then go on to discuss how the critical periods for these genetic deficits will shape the nature of future clinical interventions. PMID:24990427

  19. Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Grier, David G.; Roichman, Yael; Man, Weining; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    2011-07-19

    A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

  20. Assembly of quasicrystalline photonic heterostructures

    DOEpatents

    Grier, David G.; Roichman, Yael; Man, Weining; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Steinhardt, Paul Joseph

    2013-03-12

    A method and system for assembling a quasicrystalline heterostructure. A plurality of particles is provided with desirable predetermined character. The particles are suspended in a medium, and holographic optical traps are used to position the particles in a way to achieve an arrangement which provides a desired property.

  1. Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    The 2007 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Acapulco, Mexico. A formal ceremony was held on 25 May 2007, where President Tim Killeen introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by an honors fiesta at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees.

  2. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  3. Automated Solar-Array Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffa, A.; Bycer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Large arrays are rapidly assembled from individual solar cells by automated production line developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Apparatus positions cells within array, attaches interconnection tabs, applies solder flux, and solders interconnections. Cells are placed in either straight or staggered configurations and may be connected either in series or in parallel. Are attached at rate of one every 5 seconds.

  4. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  5. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel having the configuration of an assembly having a combustion chamber portion connected to a nozzle portion through a throat portion is wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The width of the tape is positioned at an angle of 30 to 50 deg. to the axis of the mandrel such that one edge of the tape contacts the mandrel while the other edge is spaced from the mandrel. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined to provide a frusto-conical surface extending at an angle of 15 to 30 deg. with respect to the axis of the mandrel for starting a second wrap on the mandrel to cover the throat portion. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape having its width positioned at a angle of 5 to 20 deg. from the axis of the mandrel. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined to provide a smooth outer surface. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  6. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  7. Flanged major modular assembly jig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilman, M. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Weldless methods and means are described for securing flanges to the projecting ends of an unmachined box beam framework in such a manner that the flanged structure may be reused without modification. And one framework may be readily assembled to another by simply matching the flanges together and passing connecting members between performed holes in the structures.

  8. Rapid Assembly Module for Traypacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    quantities to fulfill the order. Lot numbers of all incoming materials should be documented to provide traceability of finished goods should there be a...recall. Each production day will represents an assembled lot. Associated component lot numbers should be cross-referenced to the day’s production run

  9. Assembling solar-cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, J. T.; Hanger, R. T.; Nichols, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Modified 70 mm movie film editor automatically attaches solar cells to flexible film substrate. Machine can rapidly and inexpensively assemble cells for solar panels at rate of 250 cells per minute. Further development is expected to boost production rate to 1000 cells per minute.

  10. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distributed assembly processes. From a physical perspective, these phenomena provide insight into delay dynamics and inventory distributions in large-scale manufacturing systems.

  11. Next Generation Sequence Assembly with AMOS

    PubMed Central

    Treangen, Todd J; Sommer, Dan D; Angly, Florent E; Koren, Sergey; Pop, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    A Modular Open-Source Assembler (AMOS) was designed to offer a modular approach to genome assembly. AMOS includes a wide range of tools for assembly, including lightweight de novo assemblers Minimus and Minimo, and Bambus 2, a robust scaffolder able to handle metagenomic and polymorphic data. This protocol describes how to configure and use AMOS for the assembly of Next Generation sequence data. Additionally, we provide three tutorial examples that include bacterial, viral, and metagenomic datasets with specific tips for improving assembly quality. PMID:21400694

  12. Two criteria for the selection of assembly plans - Maximizing the flexibility of sequencing the assembly tasks and minimizing the assembly time through parallel execution of assembly tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors introduce two criteria for the evaluation and selection of assembly plans. The first criterion is to maximize the number of different sequences in which the assembly tasks can be executed. The second criterion is to minimize the total assembly time through simultaneous execution of assembly tasks. An algorithm that performs a heuristic search for the best assembly plan over the AND/OR graph representation of assembly plans is discussed. Admissible heuristics for each of the two criteria introduced are presented. Some implementation issues that affect the computational efficiency are addressed.

  13. The challenge of assembling a space station in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of a space station in orbit is a challenging and complicated task. If mankind is to exploit the knowledge already gained from space flight and continue to advance the frontiers of space exploration, then space stations in orbit must be part of the overall space infrastructure. Space stations, like the Freedom, having relatively large mass which greatly exceeds the lifting capability of their transportation system, are candidates for on-orbit assembly. However, when a large wide-body booster is available, there are significant advantages to having a deployable space station assembled on Earth and transported into orbit intact or in a few large pieces. The United States will build the Space Station Freedom by the assembly method. Freedom's assembly is feasible, but a significant challenge, and it will absorb much of NASA's effort in the next 8 years. The Space Station Freedom is an international program which will be the centerpiece of the free world's space activities in the late 1990's. Scientific information and products from the Space Station Freedom and its use as a transportation depot will advance technology and facilitate the anticipated manned space exploration surge to the Moon and Mars early in the 21st century.

  14. Tuning of peptide assembly through force balance adjustment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meiwen; Cao, Changhai; Zhang, Lijuan; Xia, Daohong; Xu, Hai

    2013-10-01

    Controlled self-assembly of amphiphilic tripeptides into distinct nanostructures is achieved via a controlled design of the molecular architecture. The tripeptide Ac-Phe-Phe-Lys-CONH2 (FFK), hardly soluble in water, forms long amyloid-like tubular structures with the aid of β-sheet hydrogen bonding and aromatic π-π stacking. Substitution of phenylalanine (F) with tyrosine (Y), that is, only a subtle structural variation in adding a hydroxyl group to the phenyl ring, results in great change in molecular self-assembly behavior. When one F is substituted with Y, the resulting molecules of FYK and YFK self-assemble into long thinner fibrils with high propensity for lateral association. When both Fs are substituted with Y, the resulting YYK molecule forms spherical aggregates. Introduction of hydroxyl groups into the molecule modifies aromatic interactions and introduces hydrogen bonding. Moreover, since the driving forces for peptide self-assembly including hydrogen bonding, electrostatic repulsion, and π-π stacking have high interdependence with each other, changes in aromatic interaction induce a Domino effect and cause a shift of force balance to a new state. This leads to significant variations in self-assembly behavior.

  15. β-Barrel membrane protein assembly by the Bam complex.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Christine L; Silhavy, Thomas J; Kahne, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    β-barrel membrane proteins perform important functions in the outer membranes (OMs) of Gram-negative bacteria and of the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes. The protein complexes that assemble these proteins in their respective membranes have been identified and shown to contain a component that has been conserved from bacteria to humans. β-barrel proteins are handled differently from α-helical membrane proteins in the cell in order to efficiently transport them to their final locations in unfolded but folding-competent states. The mechanism by which the assembly complex then binds, folds, and inserts β-barrels into the membrane is not well understood, but recent structural, biochemical, and genetic studies have begun to elucidate elements of how the complex provides a facilitated pathway for β-barrel assembly. Ultimately, studies of the mechanism of β-barrel assembly and comparison to the better-understood process of α-helical membrane protein assembly will reveal whether there are general principles that guide the folding and insertion of all membrane proteins.

  16. Assembly of flexible CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O and Fe2O3 electrodes for solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Leipeng; Liu, Xusong; Zhang, Xiang; Tian, Yanlong; Liu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O core-shell heterostructure electrode is directly grown on carbon fabric (CF) via a feasible hydrothermal procedure with CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs) as the core and NiMoO4 nanosheets (NSs) as the shell. This core-shell heterostructure could provide fast ion and electron transfer, a large number of active sites, and good strain accommodation. As a result, the CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O electrode yields high-capacitance performance with a high specific capacitance of 1582 F g−1, good cycling stability with the capacitance retention of 97.1% after 3000 cycles and good rate capability. The electrode also shows excellent mechanical flexibility. Also, a flexible Fe2O3 nanorods/CF electrode with enhanced electrochemical performance was prepared. A solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device is successfully fabricated by using flexible CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O as the positive electrode and Fe2O3 as the negative electrode. The asymmetric supercapacitor with a maximum voltage of 1.6 V demonstrates high specific energy (41.8 Wh kg−1 at 700 W kg−1), high power density (12000 W kg−1 at 26.7 Wh kg−1), and excellent cycle ability with the capacitance retention of 89.3% after 5000 cycles (at the current density of 3A g−1). PMID:28106170

  17. pH-specific hydrothermal assembly of binary and ternary Pb(II)-(O,N-carboxylic acid) metal organic framework compounds: correlation of aqueous solution speciation with variable dimensionality solid-state lattice architecture and spectroscopic signatures.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, C; Perikli, M; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Psycharis, V; Mateescu, C; Jakusch, T; Kiss, T; Bertmer, M; Salifoglou, A

    2012-09-03

    Hydrothermal pH-specific reactivity in the binary/ternary systems of Pb(II) with the carboxylic acids N-hydroxyethyl-iminodiacetic acid (Heida), 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (Dpot), and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) afforded the new well-defined crystalline compounds [Pb(Heida)](n)·nH(2)O(1), [Pb(Phen)(Heida)]·4H(2)O(2), and [Pb(3)(NO(3))(Dpot)](n)(3). All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solution or/and solid-state NMR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures in 1-2 reveal the presence of a Pb(II) center coordinated to one Heida ligand, with 1 exhibiting a two-dimensional (2D) lattice extending to a three-dimensional (3D) one through H-bonding interactions. The concurrent aqueous speciation study of the binary Pb(II)-Heida system projects species complementing the synthetic efforts, thereby lending credence to a global structural speciation strategy in investigating binary/ternary Pb(II)-Heida/Phen systems. The involvement of Phen in 2 projects the significance of nature and reactivity potential of N-aromatic chelators, disrupting the binary lattice in 1 and influencing the nature of the ultimately arising ternary 3D lattice. 3 is a ternary coordination polymer, where Pb(II)-Dpot coordination leads to a 2D metal-organic-framework material with unique architecture. The collective physicochemical properties of 1-3 formulate the salient features of variable dimensionality metal-organic-framework lattices in binary/ternary Pb(II)-(hydroxy-carboxylate) structures, based on which new Pb(II) materials with distinct architecture and spectroscopic signature can be rationally designed and pursued synthetically.

  18. Assembly of flexible CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O and Fe2O3 electrodes for solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Leipeng; Liu, Xusong; Zhang, Xiang; Tian, Yanlong; Liu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O core-shell heterostructure electrode is directly grown on carbon fabric (CF) via a feasible hydrothermal procedure with CoMoO4 nanowires (NWs) as the core and NiMoO4 nanosheets (NSs) as the shell. This core-shell heterostructure could provide fast ion and electron transfer, a large number of active sites, and good strain accommodation. As a result, the CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O electrode yields high-capacitance performance with a high specific capacitance of 1582 F g‑1, good cycling stability with the capacitance retention of 97.1% after 3000 cycles and good rate capability. The electrode also shows excellent mechanical flexibility. Also, a flexible Fe2O3 nanorods/CF electrode with enhanced electrochemical performance was prepared. A solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device is successfully fabricated by using flexible CoMoO4@NiMoO4·xH2O as the positive electrode and Fe2O3 as the negative electrode. The asymmetric supercapacitor with a maximum voltage of 1.6 V demonstrates high specific energy (41.8 Wh kg‑1 at 700 W kg‑1), high power density (12000 W kg‑1 at 26.7 Wh kg‑1), and excellent cycle ability with the capacitance retention of 89.3% after 5000 cycles (at the current density of 3A g‑1).

  19. 75 FR 47523 - Assembly of the Administrative Conference; Filing of Advisory Committee Charter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...; ] ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES Assembly of the Administrative Conference; Filing of Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY: Administrative Conference of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Administrative Conference of the United States will file an advisory...

  20. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.